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Sample records for thermoplastic puncture-healing polymers

  1. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, K. L.; Working, D. C.; Wise, K. E.; Bogert, P. B.; Britton, S. M.; Topping, C.C.; Smith, J. Y.; Siochi, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing materials provide a route for enhanced damage tolerance in materials for aerospace applications. In particular, puncture-healing upon impact has the potential to mitigate significant damage caused by high velocity micrometeoroid impacts. This type of material also has the potential to improve damage tolerance in load bearing structures to enhance vehicle health and aircraft durability. The materials being studied are those capable of instantaneous puncture healing, providing a mechanism for mechanical property retention in lightweight structures. These systems have demonstrated healing capability following penetration of fast moving projectiles -- velocities that range from 9 mm bullets shot from a gun (approx.330 m/sec) to close to micrometeoroid debris velocities of 4800 m/sec. In this presentation, we report on a suite of polymeric materials possessing this characteristic. Figure 1 illustrates the puncture healing concept. Puncture healing in these materials is dependent upon how the combination of a polymer's viscoelastic properties responds to the energy input resulting from the puncture event. Projectile penetration increases the temperature in the vicinity of the impact. Self-healing behavior occurs following puncture, whereby energy must be transferred to the material during impact both elastically and inelastically, thus establishing two requirements for puncture healing to occur: a.) The need for the puncture event to produce a local melt state in the polymer material and b.) The molten material has to have sufficient melt elasticity to snap back and close the hole. 1,2 Previous ballistic testing studies revealed that Surlyn materials warmed up to a temperature approx.98 C during projectile puncture (3 C higher than it s melting temperature). 1,2 The temperature increase produces a localized flow state and the melt elasticity to snap back thus sealing the hole. Table 1 lists the commercially polymers studied here, together with their physical

  2. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Working, Dennis C.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Topping, Crystal C.; Britton, Sean M.; Bagby, Paul R.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this work is to develop self-healing polymeric materials to enable damage tolerant systems, and to tailor puncture healing for use temperatures and applications. This will be a benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible, or where damage may not be detected.

  3. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  4. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  5. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  6. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  7. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  8. Toughening Thermoplastics with Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiff, Donald

    1997-03-01

    Blends of thermotropic liquid crystalline and thermoplastic polymers have improvements in mechanical properties when high elongational flow provides LC needle shaped domains. This means the test sample must be a filament. Without elongational flow the LC domains are globular in shape and provide little or no mechanical property enhancement. One solution to this problem is to make the LC domains small enough so that their size approaches that of microvoids in the thermoplastic polymer system. Such an approach can potentially provide a pseudo-compatible blend. Thus if the thermoplastic matrix polymer is transparent, the nano size LC domains can provide reinforcement, modified optical properties, and still leave the bulk material transparent. This investigation focusses on the process and improvement in mechanical and fracture resistant properties.

  9. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  10. Dynamically cured thermoplastic olefin polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, D.R.; Puydak, R.C.; Booth, D.A.

    1986-08-19

    A thermoplastic composition is described comprising a polyolefin resin, a first rubber component selected from the group consisting of polyisobutylene, and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) and EPDM and a second rubber component selected from the group consisting of halogenated butyl rubber and polychoroprene, the second rubber component being cured utilizing a curative other than a peroxide, which is a vulcanizing agent for the second rubber but not for the first rubber, the second rubber being cured to a fully vulcanized state by dynamic vulcanization in the presence of the polyolefin resin and first rubber compound.

  11. Thermoplastic polymers for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic and oxidative environments, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers that were evaluated included: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonatepoly (dimethyl siloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative ranking of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented.

  12. Nanoembossing of thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, V.; Pépin, A.; Chen, Y.

    2002-05-01

    We present a method for the fabrication of plastic microfluidic devices based on nanoembossing and thermal bonding. By nanoembossing of thermoplastic polymer pellets, both microfluidic deep channels and high resolution features can be formed using a silicon mold fabricated by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By thermal bonding with another plastic sheet, the fabricated microfluidic devices can be sealed without clogging. Observation of pressure driven and electrokinetic flows through high density pillar arrays indicates the feasibility of nanofluidic analysis using plastic devices.

  13. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the

  14. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Svec, Frantisek; Rohr, Thomas

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  15. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckele, M.; Schomburg, W. K.

    2004-03-01

    Molding of micro components from thermoplastic polymers has become a routinely used industrial production process. This paper describes both the more than 30-year-old history and the present state of development and applications. Hot embossing, injection molding, reaction injection molding, injection compression molding, thermoforming, and various types of tool fabrication are introduced and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. In addition, design considerations, process limitations, and commercially available micro molding machines are presented.

  17. Process for preparing tapes from thermoplastic polymers and carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Furst, Howard (Inventor); Gurion, Zev (Inventor); McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Orwoll, Richard D. (Inventor); Palangio, Daniel (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process for use in preparing tapes or rovings, which are formed from a thermoplastic material used to impregnate longitudinally extended bundles of carbon fibers. The process involves the steps of (a) gas spreading a tow of carbon fibers; (b) feeding the spread tow into a crosshead die; (c) impregnating the tow in the die with a thermoplastic polymer; (d) withdrawing the impregnated tow from the die; and (e) gas cooling the impregnated tow with a jet of air. The crosshead die useful in the instant invention includes a horizontally extended, carbon fiber bundle inlet channel, means for providing melted polymer under pressure to the die, means for dividing the polymeric material flowing into the die into an upper flow channel and a lower flow channel disposed above and below the moving carbon fiber bundle, means for applying the thermoplastic material from both the upper and lower channels to the fiber bundle, and means for withdrawing the resulting tape from the die.

  18. Thermochemical characterization of some thermally stable thermoplastic and thermoset polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated include polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated include epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic, and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass-reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented, and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  19. Puncture-Healing Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Filled Ionomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Ionomers are polymers that contain ionic groups in relatively low concentrations along the polymer backbone. These ionic groups, in the presence of oppositely charged ions, form aggregates that lead to novel physical properties of the polymer. React-A-Seal(trademark) and Surlyn(trademark) are poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) ionomer-based materials and Nucrel(trademark) is the EMAA acid copolymer neutralized to produce Surlyn(trademark). React-A-Seal(trademark), Surlyn(trademark), and Nucrel(trademark) recover into their original shapes following a high impact puncture at velocities ranging from 300 to 1200 ft/s ('self-healing'). This self-healing process may be of great benefit in space applications where structures are exposed to matter impacts. A thermal IR camera indicated a temperature increase to 98 C for Nucrel(trademark) 925, Surlyn(trademark) 8940, React-A-Seal(trademark), and Surlyn(trademark) 8920 after initial penetration. To understand and generalize the observed phenomena, questions concerning the mechanism of the puncture resealing must be answered. One suggestion is that the elastic character of the melt created by the puncture drives the self-healing. This inference is based on the observed temperature rise of approx. 3 C above the melting temperature of the samples (approx. 95 C) during the impact. With the expectation of gaining additional insight into the self-healing phenomenon, a thermodynamic and viscoelastic investigation was conducted using primarily DSC and DMA. Surlyn(trademark) and React-A-Seal(trademark) showed the characteristic order-disorder transition at approx. 52 C that has been reported in literature. Master curves were constructed from the creep isotherms for the four EMAA samples. An aging study was performed to investigate the irreproducibility and "tailing effect" observed in the creep data. The aging study indicated that, with increased aging time and temperature, changes in the polyethylene matrix lead to

  20. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  1. Analysis of ageing of amorphous thermoplastic polymers by PVT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Gennaro, Riccardo; Rizzo, Michele

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of ageing phenomenon occurring in amorphous thermoplastic polymers below their glass transition temperature by pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. The ageing behavior of different polymers as a function of the heating and cooling rates has been widespread studied. Also, different works in literature are aimed to study the effect of the applied pressure on the glass transition behavior. Another relevant aspect related to the glass transition behavior is related to the ageing effects, which can also be influenced by the applied pressure. This is a very relevant issue, since most of the polymers, during ageing, are subjected to mechanical loading. PVT analysis was used to study the ageing of amorphous PET copolymer (PETg) at different pressure levels. Specific volume-temperature curves measured during the cooling and the heating steps were used for calculating the relaxed specific volume, showing that ageing effects increase with increasing applied pressure. The evolution of the fictive temperature as a function of time was calculated from experimental data.

  2. Damage healing ability of a shape-memory-polymer-based particulate composite with small thermoplastic contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nji, Jones; Li, Guoqiang

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of a shape-memory-polymer (SMP)-based particulate composite to heal structural-length scale damage with small thermoplastic additive contents through a close-then-heal (CTH) self-healing scheme that was introduced in a previous study (Li and Uppu 2010 Comput. Sci. Technol. 70 1419-27). The idea is to achieve reasonable healing efficiencies with minimal sacrifice in structural load capacity. By first closing cracks, the gap between two crack surfaces is narrowed and a lesser amount of thermoplastic particles is required to achieve healing. The particulate composite was fabricated by dispersing copolyester thermoplastic particles in a shape memory polymer matrix. It is found that, for small thermoplastic contents of less than 10%, the CTH scheme followed in this study heals structural-length scale damage in the SMP particulate composite to a meaningful extent and with less sacrifice of structural capacity.

  3. Biodegradable polymer blends based on corn starch and thermoplastic chitosan processed by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, J F; Paschoalin, R T; Carmona, V B; Sena Neto, Alfredo R; Marques, A C P; Marconcini, J M; Mattoso, L H C; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E

    2016-02-10

    Blends of thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and chitosan (TPC) were obtained by melt extrusion. The effect of TPC incorporation in TPS matrix and polymer interaction on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the starch molecules and thermoplastic chitosan were assessed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a homogeneous fracture surface without the presence of starch granules or chitosan aggregates. Although the incorporation of thermoplastic chitosan caused a decrease in both tensile strength and stiffness, films with better extensibility and thermal stability were produced.

  4. Analysis of thermoplastic polyimide + polymer liquid crystal blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalanarayanan, Bhaskar

    Thermoplastic polyimides (TPIs) exhibit high glass transition temperatures (Tsbgs), which make them useful in high performance applications. Amorphous and semicrystalline TPIs show sub-Tsbg relaxations, which can aid in improving strength characteristics through energy absorption. The alpha relaxation of both types of TPIs indicates a cooperative nature. The semicrystalline TPI shows thermo-irreversible cold crystallization phenomenon. The polymer liquid crystal (PLC) used in the blends is thermotropic and with longitudinal molecular structure. The small heat capacity change (Delta Csb{p}) associated with the glass transition indicates the PLC to be rigid rod in nature. The PLC shows a small endotherm associated with the melting. The addition of PLC to the semicrystalline TPI does not significantly affect the Tsbg or the melting point (Tsbm). The cold crystallization temperature (Tsbc) increases with the addition of the PLC, indicating channeling phenomenon. The addition of PLC also causes a negative deviation of the Delta Csb{p}, which is another evidence for channeling. The TPI, PLC and their blends show high thermal stability. The semicrystalline TPI absorbs moisture; this effect decreases with the addition of the PLC. The absorbed moisture does not show any effect on the degradation. The addition of PLC beyond 30 wt.% does not result in an improvement of properties. The amorphous TPI + PLC blends also show the negative deviation of Delta Csb{p} from linearity with composition. The addition of PLC causes a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the transverse direction to the PLC orientation. The thermomechanical analysis indicates isotropic expansivity for the amorphous TPI and a small anisotropy for the semicrystalline TPI. The PLC shows large anisotropy in expansivity. Even 5 wt.% concentration of PLC in the blend induces considerable anisotropy in the expansivity. Thus, blends show controllable expansivity through PLC concentration. Amorphous TPI + PLC

  5. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on a thermoplastic elastomer, using radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Bhavna D.; Burford, Robert P.

    2001-07-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers can be transformed into Interpenetrating polymer networks using γ-radiation crosslinking. Trimethylol propanetriacrylate was used as the radiation crosslinker for styrene. The study shows that the hardness of the sample increased with radiation dose while the tensile strength remained constant.

  6. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes.

  7. Intrinsically Conductive Polymer Fibers from Thermoplastic trans-1,4-Polyisoprene.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-05-17

    Herein, we report a new strategy to prepare conductive polymer fibers to overcome the insurmountable weakness of current conductive polymer fibers. First, special thermoplastic polymers are processed into polymer fibers using a conventional melt-spinning process, and then the nonconductive polymer fibers are converted into intrinsically conductive polymer fibers. Using this new strategy, intrinsically conductive polymer fibers have been prepared by melt spinning low-cost thermoplastic trans-1,4-polyisoprene and doping with iodine, which can be as fine as 0.01 mm, and the resistivity can be as low as 10(-2) Ω m. Moreover, it has been found that drawing can improve the orientation of trans-1,4-polyisoprene crystals in the fibers and, thus, the conductivity of the conductive polymer fibers. Therefore, conductive fibers with excellent conductivities can be prepared by large drawing ratios before doping. Such conductive polymer fibers with low cost could be used in textile, clothing, packing, and other fields, which would benefit both industry and daily life. The newly developed method also allows one to produce conductive polymers of any shape besides fibers for antistatic or conductive applications.

  8. Friction and wear performance of some thermoplastic polymers and polymer composites against unsaturated polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H.; Mimaroglu, A.; Arda, T.

    2006-09-01

    Wear experiments have been carried out with a range of unfilled and filled engineering thermoplastic polymers sliding against a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester polymer under 20, 40 and 60 N loads and 0.5 m/s sliding speed. Pin materials used in this experimental investigation are polyamide 66 (PA 66), poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and aliphatic polyketone (APK), glass fibre reinforced polyamide 46 (PA 46 + 30% GFR), glass fibre reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 17% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK + 20% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-phylene-sulfide (PPS + 30% GFR), polytetrafluoroethylene filled polyamide 66 (PA 66 + 10% PTFE) and bronze filled pofytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 25% bronze) engineering polymers. The disc material is a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester thermoset polymer produced by Bulk Moulding Compound (BMC). Sliding wear tests were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus under 0.5 m/s sliding speed and load values of 20, 40 and 60 N. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for PPS + 30% GFR with a value of 1 × 10 -11 m 2/N and the lowest wear rate is for PTFE + 17% GFR with a value of 9.41 × 10 -15 m 2/N. For the materials and test conditions of this investigation, apart from polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers, the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates are not significantly affected by the change in load value. For polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates vary linearly with the variation in load values.

  9. Noncontact Microembossing Technology for Fabricating Thermoplastic Optical Polymer Microlens Array Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaohong; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PS (polyStyrene), and PC (polycarbonate) from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs. PMID:25162063

  10. Cold Spray Coating Deposition Mechanism on the Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymer Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Amirthan; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Cold spraying is a successful and promising coating technique for many engineering applications due to its high-rate and high-dense coating development abilities. Nevertheless, their practical use in polymer substrate is still in the fledgling phase. There are very few articles about the cold spray coating on polymers; however, the interaction of metallic particle with the polymer substrate is poorly understood, and thus a thick coating has not successfully been developed on the polymer substrate. In order to rationalize as full as possible the entire behavior of the high velocity particle with the polymer substrate, we used thermoplastic and thermosetting polymer materials as substrates. The particle behaviors with the substrate were observed under various gas pressure and temperature, and with various particles feed rate. The result showed that the particle behaviors were unique with respect to the substrate. Also it was clearly understood that the metal particles not experienced any plastic deformation due to the soft nature of the polymer substrates. The particles attached to the thermoplastic substrate either through adhesive bonding and/or mechanical inter locking, whereas only pure localized fracture observed on the thermosetting substrate and thus no particles attached firmly on the substrate.

  11. Thermoplastic and thermoset main chain liquid crystal polymers prepared from biphenyl mesogen

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.F.A.

    1993-12-31

    Main chain liquid crystal thermoplastic polyesters and thermosetting epoxy resins were prepared using biphenyl mesogen. The melting point of polyesters was effectively decreased by incorporating flexible methylene spacers into the polymer main chain. The liquid crystal epoxy resins exhibit high glass transition temperature, low thermal expansion coefficient, high dielectric strength and low dielectric loss. They are suitable for the preparation of self-reinforcing molecular composites.

  12. Thermodynamics of water sorption in high performance glassy thermoplastic polymers

    PubMed Central

    Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging from 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different “populations” of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these “populations” in the case of PEI. The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non-equilibrium nature of glassy polymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data. PMID:24860802

  13. Shape-Controlled Metal-Metal and Metal-Polymer Janus Structures by Thermoplastic Embossing.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Molla; Kahler, Niloofar; Kumar, Golden

    2016-05-04

    We report the fabrication of metal-metal and metal-polymer Janus structures by embossing of thermoplastic metallic glasses and polymers. Hybrid structures with controllable shapes and interfaces are synthesized by template-assisted embossing. Different manufacturing strategies such as co-embossing and additive embossing are demonstrated for joining the materials with diverse compositions and functionalities. Structures with distinct combinations of properties such as hydrophobic-hydrophilic, opaque-transparent, insulator-conductor, and nonmagnetic-ferromagnetic are produced using this approach. These anisotropic properties are further utilized for selective functionalization of Janus structures.

  14. Thermodynamics of Water Sorption in High Performance Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino

    2014-05-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging fro 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different’populations’ of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these ‘populations’ in the case of PEI.The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non equilibrium nature of glassy poymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data.

  15. Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Rebecca H; Hunt, Marcus A; Pickel, Deanna L; Pickel, Joseph M; Messman, Jamie M; Baker, Frederick S; Keller, Martin; Naskar, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

  16. Ex Situ Integration of Multifunctional Porous Polymer Monoliths into Thermoplastic Microfluidic Chips

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Eric L.; Wienhold, Erik; Rahmanian, Omid D.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    A unique method for incorporating functional porous polymer monolith elements into thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. Monolith elements are formed in a microfabricated mold, rather than within the microchannels, and chemically functionalized off chip before insertion into solvent-softened thermoplastic microchannels during chip assembly. Because monoliths may be trimmed prior to final placement, control of their size, shape, and uniformity is greatly improved over in-situ photopolymerization methods. A characteristic trapezoidal profile facilitates rapid insertion and enables complete mechanical anchoring of the monolith periphery, eliminating the need for chemical attachment to the microchannel walls. Off-chip processing allows the parallel preparation of monoliths of differing compositions and surface chemistries in large batches. Multifunctional flow-through arrays of multiple monolith elements are demonstrated using this approach through the creation of a fluorescent immunosensor with integrated controls, and a microfluidic bubble separator comprising a combination of integrated hydrophobic and hydrophilic monolith elements. PMID:25018587

  17. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES & MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOUR PERFLUORINATED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Shields, A L

    2009-02-24

    Dynamic viscosity measurements and molecular weight estimates have been made on four commercial, amorphous fluoropolymers with glass transitions (Tg) above 100 C: Teflon AF 1600, Hyflon AD 60, Cytop A and Cytop M. These polymers are of interest as binders for the insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) because of their high density and Tg above ambient, but within a suitable processing range of TATB. As part of this effort, the rheological properties and molecular weight distributions of these polymers were evaluated.

  18. Adhesion between thermoplastic polymer particles and carbon and glass fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    High performance composites consist of polymer matrices reinforced with continuous fibers. Polymer powders can be coated and fused onto the fibers by various techniques to produce these composites. One such technique consists of spreading the fibers with an air banding jet, and then running the fibers through a fluidized bed of the powder. The fluidizing air is typically charged, imparting a charge to the powder particles. The fibers are grounded which leads to an attraction between the particles and the fibers. The particle-coated fibers then go through a tunnel oven, sintering the particles onto the fibers, leaving a flexible {open_quotes}tow-preg{close_quotes} which can then be processed into a preform for manufacture into a final part. To develop an initial understanding of the powder coating process, the adhesion of uncharged particles and fibers was studied. Contact mechanics predicts that the adhesion force between uncharged particles depends on the mutual (or equivalent) radius of curvature between the contacting objects, as well as their surface energies. For the materials of interest, the Derjaguin approximation is appropriate and is applied. PEEK (poly ether ether ketone) and PET (poly ethylene terephthalate) particles, cryogenically ground to nominal diameters of 10 to 100 {mu}m were brought into contact with themselves, with E-glass fibers (nominal diameter of 20 {mu}m), carbon fibers (nominal diameter of 8 {mu}m), and glass microscope slides using an AFM. Adhesion forces were measured and compared to predictions using Derjaguin`s approximation. SEM micrographs were used to determine the scale of the radii of curvature of contacting sites.

  19. Selecting and designing with the right thermoplastic polymer for your microfluidic chip: a close look into cyclo-olefin polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevitt, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Engineers who are developing microfluidic devices and bioMEMs for life science applications have many aspects to consider when selecting the proper base materials for constructing a device. While glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are the staple materials for proof-of-concept and prototype chip fabrication, they are not a feasible solution for commercial production due to their slow, labor-intensive production rate. Alternatively, a molded or extruded thermoplastic solution can deliver the precision, consistency, and high volume capability required for commercial scale production. Traditional thermoplastics, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), and polystyrene (PS), are well known by development engineers in the bioscience community; however, cyclo-olefin polymer (COP), a relative newcomer in the world of plastics, is gaining increasing attention for use in microfluidic devices due to its unique balance of key properties compared to conventional thermoplastics. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive look at the properties which make COP an excellent candidate for providing the flow cell support and reagent storage functions in microfluidic assays. We also explore the processing attributes and capabilities of COP resin and film which are crucial for manufacturing high-performance microfluidic devices.

  20. Universal hydrophilic coating of thermoplastic polymers currently used in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Caterina; Sola, Laura; Damin, Francesco; Faggioni, Lucia; Chiari, Marcella

    2014-02-01

    A number of materials used to fabricate disposable microfluidic devices are hydrophobic in nature with water contact angles on their surface ranging from 80° to over 100°. This characteristic makes them unsuitable for a number of microfluidic applications. Both the wettability and analyte adsorption parameters are highly dependent on the surface hydrophobicity. In this article, we propose a general method to coat the surface of five materials: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This fast and robust process, which is easily implementable in any laboratory including microfabrication clean room facilities, was devised by combining gas-phase and wet chemical modification processes. Two different coatings that improve the surface hydrophilicity were prepared via the "dip and rinse" approach by immersing the plasma oxidized materials into an aqueous solution of two different poly(dimethylacrylamide) copolymers incorporating a silane moiety and functionalized with either N-acryloyloxysuccinimide (NAS) (poly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) (poly(DMA-GMA-MAPS). The coating formation was confirmed by contact angle (CA) analysis comparing the variation of CAs of uncoated and coated surfaces subjected to different aging treatments. The antifouling character of the polymer was demonstrated by fluorescence and interferometric detection of proteins adsorbed on the surafce. This method is of great interest in microfluidics due to its broad applicability to a number of materials with varying chemical compositions.

  1. Study of double-side ultrasonic embossing for fabrication of microstructures on thermoplastic polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Yan, Xu; Qi, Na; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Liangjiang

    2013-01-01

    Double-side replication of polymer substrates is beneficial to the design and the fabrication of 3-demensional devices. The ultrasonic embossing method is a promising, high efficiency and low cost replication method for thermoplastic substrates. It is convenient to apply silicon molds in ultrasonic embossing, because microstructures can be easily fabricated on silicon wafers with etching techniques. To reduce the risk of damaging to silicon molds and to improve the replication uniformity on both sides of the polymer substrates, thermal assisted ultrasonic embossing method was proposed and tested. The processing parameters for the replication of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), including ultrasonic amplitude, ultrasonic force, ultrasonic time, and thermal assisted temperature were studied using orthogonal array experiments. The influences of the substrate thickness, pattern style and density were also investigated. The experiment results show that the principal parameters for the upper and lower surface replication are ultrasonic amplitude and thermal assisted temperature, respectively. As to the replication uniformity on both sides, the ultrasonic force has the maximal influence. Using the optimized parameters, the replication rate reached 97.5% on both sides of the PMMA substrate, and the cycle time was less than 50 s.

  2. Study of Double-Side Ultrasonic Embossing for Fabrication of Microstructures on Thermoplastic Polymer Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi; Yan, Xu; Qi, Na; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Liangjiang

    2013-01-01

    Double-side replication of polymer substrates is beneficial to the design and the fabrication of 3-demensional devices. The ultrasonic embossing method is a promising, high efficiency and low cost replication method for thermoplastic substrates. It is convenient to apply silicon molds in ultrasonic embossing, because microstructures can be easily fabricated on silicon wafers with etching techniques. To reduce the risk of damaging to silicon molds and to improve the replication uniformity on both sides of the polymer substrates, thermal assisted ultrasonic embossing method was proposed and tested. The processing parameters for the replication of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), including ultrasonic amplitude, ultrasonic force, ultrasonic time, and thermal assisted temperature were studied using orthogonal array experiments. The influences of the substrate thickness, pattern style and density were also investigated. The experiment results show that the principal parameters for the upper and lower surface replication are ultrasonic amplitude and thermal assisted temperature, respectively. As to the replication uniformity on both sides, the ultrasonic force has the maximal influence. Using the optimized parameters, the replication rate reached 97.5% on both sides of the PMMA substrate, and the cycle time was less than 50 s. PMID:23630605

  3. Membrane consisting of polyquaternary amine ion exchange polymer network interpenetrating the chains of thermoplastic matrix polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Wallace, C. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An ion exchange membrane was formed from a solution containing dissolved matrix polymer and a set of monomers which are capable of reacting to form a polyquaternary ion exchange material; for example vinyl pyride and a dihalo hydrocarbon. After casting solution and evaporation of the volatile component's, a relatively strong ion exchange membrane was obtained which is capable of removing anions, such as nitrate or chromate from water. The ion exchange polymer forms an interpenetrating network with the chains of the matrix polymer.

  4. Thermoplastic biodegradable elastomers based on ε-caprolactone and L-lactide block co-polymers: a new synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Lipik, Vitali T; Kong, Jen Fong; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Widjaja, Leonardus K; Liow, Sing S; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Abadie, Marc J M

    2010-11-01

    Although biodegradable polymers have found extensive application in medical devices, there are very few commercially available elastomeric biodegradable polymers. In this work, starting with the well-known monomers L-lactide and ε-caprolactone, we developed elastomers using a multiblock co-polymer approach. This ensures that the degradation products of such elastomers are also acceptable from a cytotoxicity standpoint. A series of polymers with various structures was synthesized utilizing a design of experiment approach. The basic structure is that of a diblock, with each block being modified by the addition of co-monomer. The synthesized polymers exhibited a range of mechanical properties from a typical thermoplastic polymer to that approaching a good thermoplastic elastomer. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, size exclusion chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry measurements have been utilized to relate the observed range of mechanical properties to the structure. In addition, the elastomeric nature has been established with the use of creep and recovery measurements. Such elastomers may find a variety of biomedical applications, ranging from stent coatings to atrial septal defect occluders.

  5. High Power Laser Cutting of Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymers with cw- and Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F.; Wolf, N.; Petring, D.

    Glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers with thermoplastic matrix enable high volume production with short cycle times. Cutting and trimming operations in these production chains require the use of high average laser power for an efficient cutting speed, but employment of high laser power runs the risk to induce a wide heat affected zone (HAZ). This paper deals with investigations with cw and ns-pulsed CO2-laser radiation in the kilowatt range in single-pass and multiple-pass processes. Using multi-pass processing at high processing speeds of 100 m/min and above a reduced heat affected zone in the range of 100 μm to 200 μm could be achieved by the ns-pulsed radiation. With cw radiation at the same average power of 1 kW however, the HAZ was 300-400 μm. Also employing ns-pulses in the kW-range average power leads to heat accumulation in the material. Small HAZ were obtained with sufficient break times between subsequent passes.

  6. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors.

  7. Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2014-06-10

    The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

  8. Engineering Polymer Blends for Impact Damage Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Smith, Russell W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structures containing polymers such as DuPont's Surlyn® 8940, demonstrate puncture healing when impacted by a 9 millimeter projectile traveling from speeds near 300 meters per second (1,100 feet per second) to hypervelocity impacts in the micrometeoroid velocity range of 5 kilometers per second (16,000 feet per second). Surlyn® 8940 puncture heals over a temperature range of minus 30 degrees Centigrade to plus 70 degrees Centigrade and shows potential for use in pressurized vessels subject to impact damage. However, such polymers are difficult to process and limited in applicability due to their low thermal stability, poor chemical resistance and overall poor mechanical properties. In this work, several puncture healing engineered melt formulations were developed. Moldings of melt blend formulations were impacted with a 5.56 millimeter projectile with a nominal velocity of 945 meters per second (3,100 feet per second) at about 25 degrees Centigrade, 50 degrees Centigrade and 100 degrees Centigrade, depending upon the specific blend being investigated. Self-healing tendencies were determined using surface vacuum pressure tests and tensile tests after penetration using tensile dog-bone specimens (ASTM D 638-10). For the characterization of tensile properties both pristine and impacted specimens were tested to obtain tensile modulus, yield stress and tensile strength, where possible. Experimental results demonstrate a range of new puncture healing blends which mitigate damage in the ballistic velocity regime.

  9. Novel polymer electrolytes based on thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/propylene carbonate salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavall, R. L.; Ferrari, S.; Tomasi, C.; Marzantowicz, M.; Quartarone, E.; Magistris, A.; Mustarelli, P.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from thermoplastic polyurethane with addition of mixture of ionic liquid N-ethyl(methylether)-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonimmide (PYRA 12O1TFSI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfoneimide) salt and propylene carbonate. The electrolytes characterization was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties were investigated in detail by impedance spectroscopy with the aid of equivalent circuit fitting of the impedance spectra. A model describing temperature evolution of ionic conductivity and the properties of electrolyte/blocking electrode interface was developed. The electrochemical stability of the electrolytes was studied by linear voltammetry. Our results indicate that the studied electrolytes have good self-standing characteristics, and also a sufficient level of thermal stability and a fairly good electrochemical window. The ionic conductivity increases with increasing amount of mixture, and the character of temperature dependence of conductivity indicates decoupling of ion transport from polymer matrix. For studied system, the highest value of ionic conductivity measured at room temperature was 10 -4 S cm -1.

  10. A Process for Semi-Solid Moulding of High Viscosity Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Achim; Rochman, Arif; Martin, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A new moulding process for manufacturing micro parts made from high viscosity polymers has been developed as a result of a feasibility study. The process basically involves compression moulding of a polymeric preform by heating it up to its semi-solid state, i.e. between its glass transition temperature and melting temperature. The apparatus is made up of three main parts: a forming device, a single cavity micro mould and an induction heating system. The processing technique was successfully tested in the manufacturing of 10 mm round discs with a flange and inner bore using high viscosity polymers such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In a further miniaturization study, U-shaped micro seals with an outer diameter up to 2.5 mm were also successfully manufactured from non-injection mouldable PTFE. Thus, the new process is a realistic alternative technique to the existing micro moulding processes with respect to its capability to process a huge variety of polymers, even ultra high viscosity materials and the possibility to create micro parts with non-uniform wall thickness distributions.

  11. The role of water on the structure and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic natural block co-polymer from squid sucker ring teeth.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Clément; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Salinas-Zavala, Cesar Ca; Weaver, James C; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2016-09-02

    Hard biological polymers exhibiting a truly thermoplastic behavior that can maintain their structural properties after processing are extremely rare and highly desirable for use in advanced technological applications such as 3D-printing, biodegradable plastics and robust composites. One exception are the thermoplastic proteins that comprise the sucker ring teeth (SRT) of the Humboldt jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). In this work, we explore the mechanical properties of reconstituted SRT proteins and demonstrate that the material can be re-shaped by simple processing in water and at relatively low temperature (below 100 °C). The post-processed material maintains a high modulus in the GPa range, both in the dry and the wet states. When transitioning from low to high humidity, the material properties change from brittle to ductile with an increase in plastic deformation, where water acts as a plasticizer. Using synchrotron x-ray scattering tools, we found that water mostly influences nano scale structure, whereas at the molecular level, the protein structure remains largely unaffected. Furthermore, through simultaneous in situ x-ray scattering and mechanical tests, we show that the supramolecular network of the reconstituted SRT material exhibits a progressive alignment along the strain direction, which is attributed to chain alignment of the amorphous domains of SRT proteins. The high modulus in both dry and wet states, combined with their efficient thermal processing characteristics, make the SRT proteins promising substitutes for applications traditionally reserved for petroleum-based thermoplastics.

  12. In situ ceramic fillers of electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane/poly(vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Na; Cao, Qi; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Sheng; Li, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huayang

    Gel polymer electrolyte films based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) with and without in situ ceramic fillers (SiO 2 and TiO 2) are prepared by electrospinning 9 wt% polymer solution at room temperature. The electrospun TPU-PVdF blending membrane with 3% in situ TiO 2 shows a highest ionic conductivity of 4.8 × 10 -3 S cm -1 with electrochemical stability up to 5.4 V versus Li +/Li at room temperature and has a high tensile strength (8.7 ± 0.3 MPa) and % elongation at break (110.3 ± 0.2). With the superior electrochemical and mechanical performance, it is very suitable for application in polymer lithium ion batteries.

  13. An overview of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Bockstedt, R.J.; Skarlupka, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRTP) are a class of injection molding materials that extend the physical property envelope of thermoplastics polymers. These materials are manufactured by pulling continuous fiber tows through a thermoplastic polymer melt in a specialized processing die. The strands are subsequently cooled and chopped into pellets of equal length. LFRTP materials are available in virtually every common thermoplastic resin with glass, aramid, stainless steel, or carbon fiber reinforcement at levels up to 60% by weight. Unlike short fiber reinforced thermoplastics manufactured by conventional screw compounding processes, LFRTP exhibit simultaneous improvements in both flexural modulus and impact resistance. Improvements in load transfer, creep resistance at elevated temperatures, and dimensional stability can also be attributed to the long fiber network formed in the molded part. This unique combination of properties makes LFRTP the material of choice for replacement of metal structural assemblies in many automotive, industrial, consumer and recreational applications.

  14. Study of a novel porous gel polymer electrolyte based on thermoplastic polyurethane/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) by electrospinning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cao, Qi; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xianyou; Tang, Xiaoli; Wu, Na

    2014-10-01

    A novel electrospun gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) consisting of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) is prepared and investigated. Its characteristics are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA). The GPE shows a maximum ionic conductivity of 4.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 with electrochemical stability up to 5.5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature. In addition, it shows a first charge-discharge capacity of 168.8 mAh g-1 when the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) is evaluated in a Li/PE/LiFePO4 cell under 0.1 C-rate at the first cycle. What's more, there is microscale attenuation (1%) in the 30 cycles of charge and discharge tests. The TPU/PVDF-HFP membrane has a high tensile strength (8.4 ± 0.3 MPa) and elongation at break (118.7 ± 0.2)%. With the outstanding electrochemical and mechanical performance, it is very suitable for application in polymer lithium ion batteries.

  15. Investigations of the surface activation of thermoplastic polymers by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with a stationary plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Nordmeyer, Timo; Leister, Christian; Schmidt, Martin Andreas; Grishin, Artur; Knospe, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The production of high-quality thermoplastic parts often requires an additional process step after the injection molding stage. This may be a coating, bonding process or a 2K-injection moulding process. A commonly used process to improve the bond strength is atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. A variety of applications are realized with the aid of CNC systems. Although they ensure excellent reproducibility, they make it difficult to implement inline applications. This paper therefore examines the possibility of surface treatment using a stationary plasma jet. However, before it is possible to integrate this technology into a production process, preliminary trials need to be carried out to establish which factors influence the process. Experimental tests were performed using a special test set-up, enabling geometric, plasma-specific parameters to be identified. These results can help with the practical integration of this technology into existing production processes.

  16. A wide characterization of paraffin-based fuels mixed with styrene-based thermoplastic polymers for hybrid propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiocchi, M.; Milova, P.; Galfetti, L.; Di Landro, L.; Golovko, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of a long-term research activity focused on the development of high-performance solid fuels for hybrid rockets, paraffin-based fuels were investigated and characterized using two different pure paraffinic waxes and a styrene-based thermoplastic elastomer as strengthening material. The fuels were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis / differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA). The viscosity of the melt layer, responsible for the entrainment effect, was investigated using a Couette viscosimeter. The storage modulus (G') was analyzed using a parallel-plate rheometer. The chemical composition of the pure paraffinic materials was studied using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while mechanical properties were investigated through uniaxial tensile tests.

  17. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  18. Surface characterization in composite and titanium bonding: Carbon fiber surface treatments for improved adhesion to thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devilbiss, T. A.; Wightman, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of anodization in NaOH, H2SO4, and amine salts on the surface chemistry of carbon fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surfaces of carbon fibers after anodization in NaOH and H2SO4 were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), angular dependent XPS, UV absorption spectroscopy of the anodization bath, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and polar/dispersive surface energy analysis. Hercules AS-4, Dexter Hysol XAS, and Union Carbide T-300 fibers were examined by STEM, angular dependent XPS, and breaking strength measurement before and after commercial surface treatment. Oxygen and nitrogen were added to the fiber surfaces by anodization in amine salts. Analysis of the plasmon peak in the carbon 1s signal indicated that H2SO4 anodization affected the morphological structure of the carbon fiber surface. The work of adhesion of carbon fibers to thermoplastic resins was calculated using the geometric mean relationship. A correlation was observed between the dispersive component of the work of adhesion and the interfacial adhesion.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a foamed polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) shape memory polymer (SMP) blend for biomedical and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Kowalski, Jennifer; Naguib, Hani E.

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials that are able to respond to external stimulus such as heat by altering their shape. Bio-compatible SMPs have a number of advantages over static materials and are being studied extensively for biomedical and clinical applications (such as tissue stents and scaffolds). A previous study has demonstrated that the bio-compatible polymer blend of polylactic acid (PLA)/ thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) (50/50 and 70/30) exhibit good shape memory properties. In this study, the mechanical and thermo-mechanical (shape memory) properties of TPU/PLA SMP blends were characterized; the compositions studied were 80/20, 65/35, and 50/50 TPU/PLA. In addition, porous TPU/PLA SMP blends were fabricated with a gas-foaming technique; and the morphology of the porous structure of these SMPs foams were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TPU/PLA bio-compatible SMP blend was fabricated with melt-blending and compression molding. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP blends was determined with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mechanical properties studied were the stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, and elastic modulus; and the thermomechanical (or shape memory) properties studied were the shape fixity rate (Rf), shape recovery rate (Rr), response time, and the effect of recovery temperature on Rr. The porous 80/20 PLA/TPU SMP blend was found to have the highest tensile strength, toughness and percentage extension, as well as the lowest density and uniform pore structure in the micron and submicron scale. The porous 80/20 TPU/PLA SMP blend may be further developed for specific biomedical and clinical applications where a combination of tensile strength, toughness, and low density are required.

  20. Electrostatic prepregging of thermoplastic matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzy, John D.; Varughese, Babu; Thammongkol, Vivan; Tincher, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    Thermoplastic towpregs of PEEK/AS-4, PEEK/S-2 glass and LaRC-TPI/AS-4, produced by electrostatic deposition of charged and fluidized polymer powders on spread continuous fiber tows, are described. Processing parameters for combining PEEK 150 powder with unsized 3k AS-4 carbon fiber are presented. The experimental results for PEEK 150/AS-4 reveal that electrostatic fluidized bed coating may be an economically attractive process for producing towpreg.

  1. Thermoplastic-carbon fiber hybrid yarn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketterer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts were directed to develop processing methods to make carbon fiber/thermoplastic fiber preforms that are easy to handle and drapeable, and to consolidate them into low void content laminates. The objectives were attained with the development of the hybrid yarn concept; whereby, thermoplastic fiber can be intimately intermixed with carbon fiber into a hybrid yarn. This was demonstrated with the intermixing of Celion 3000 with a Celanese liquid crystal polymer fiber, polybutylene terepthalate fiber, or polyetheretherketone fiber. The intermixing of the thermoplastic matrix fiber and the reinforcing carbon fiber gives a preform that can be easily fabricated into laminates with low void content. Mechanical properties of the laminates were not optimized; however, initial results indicated properties typical of a thermoplastic/carbon fiber composites prepared by more conventional methods.

  2. Developing Customized Dental Miniscrew Surgical Template from Thermoplastic Polymer Material Using Image Superimposition, CAD System, and 3D Printing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Lo, Lun-Jou; Hsu, Pin-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    This study integrates cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)/laser scan image superposition, computer-aided design (CAD), and 3D printing (3DP) to develop a technology for producing customized dental (orthodontic) miniscrew surgical templates using polymer material. Maxillary bone solid models with the bone and teeth reconstructed using CBCT images and teeth and mucosa outer profile acquired using laser scanning were superimposed to allow miniscrew visual insertion planning and permit surgical template fabrication. The customized surgical template CAD model was fabricated offset based on the teeth/mucosa/bracket contour profiles in the superimposition model and exported to duplicate the plastic template using the 3DP technique and polymer material. An anterior retraction and intrusion clinical test for the maxillary canines/incisors showed that two miniscrews were placed safely and did not produce inflammation or other discomfort symptoms one week after surgery. The fitness between the mucosa and template indicated that the average gap sizes were found smaller than 0.5 mm and confirmed that the surgical template presented good holding power and well-fitting adaption. This study addressed integrating CBCT and laser scan image superposition; CAD and 3DP techniques can be applied to fabricate an accurate customized surgical template for dental orthodontic miniscrews. PMID:28280726

  3. Nanocellular thermoplastic foam and process for making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lingbo; Costeux, Stephane; Patankar, Kshitish A.; Moore, Jonathan D.

    2015-09-29

    Prepare a thermoplastic polymer foam having a porosity of 70% or more and at least one of: (i) an average cell size of 200 nanometers or less; and (ii) a nucleation density of at least 1.times.1015 effective nucleation sites per cubic centimeter of foamable polymer composition not including blowing agent using a foamable polymer composition containing a thermoplastic polymer selected from styrenic polymer and (meth)acrylic polymers, a blowing agent comprising at least 20 mole-percent carbon dioxide based on moles of blowing agent and an additive having a Total Hansen Solubility Parameter that differs from that of carbon dioxide by less than 2 and that is present at a concentration of 0.01 to 1.5 weight parts per hundred weight parts thermoplastic polymer.

  4. Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

  5. Processing carbon nanotube/thermoplastic composites for enhanced mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kern

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/thermoplastic composites have many potential applications. However, processing CNT/thermoplastic composites has been extremely challenging due to the inherently strong affinity of CNT to themselves. Two major issues in processing CNT/thermoplastic composites for enhanced mechanical properties are achieving uniform dispersion and producing alignment of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. This study used a combination of surfactant-aided mixing, extrusion, and various drawing processing techniques to successfully obtain significant improvement of nanotube dispersion and alignment in a semi-crystalline polymer matrix.

  6. Effect of surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of auto-polymerized resin to thermoplastic denture base polymer

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polyamide polymers do not provide sufficient bond strength to auto-polymerized resins for repairing fractured denture or replacing dislodged denture teeth. Limited treatment methods have been developed to improve the bond strength between auto-polymerized reline resins and polyamide denture base materials. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface modification by acetic acid on surface characteristics and bond strength of reline resin to polyamide denture base. MATERIALS AND METHODS 84 polyamide specimens were divided into three surface treatment groups (n=28): control (N), silica-coated (S), and acid-treated (A). Two different auto-polymerized reline resins GC and Triplex resins were bonded to the samples (subgroups T and G, respectively, n=14). The specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test after they were stored in distilled water for 1 week and thermo-cycled for 5000 cycles. Data were analyzed with independent t-test, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS The bond strength values of A and S were significantly higher than those of N (P<.001 for both). However, statistically significant difference was not observed between group A and group S. According to the independent Student's t-test, the shear bond strength values of AT were significantly higher than those of AG (P<.001). CONCLUSION The surface treatment of polyamide denture base materials with acetic acid may be an efficient and cost-effective method for increasing the shear bond strength to auto-polymerized reline resin. PMID:28018569

  7. Thermoforming of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Brian E.

    Although originally devised for forming unreinfored thermoplastics in sheet form, thermoforming it has been successfully adapted to continuous reinforced thermoplastic composite materials. The conversion rate of this technique is limited only by how fast heat can be added to the thermoplastic matrix to bring it to the processing temperature and the rate at which heat can be removed from the material after the forming process has been completed. Load-to-load cycle times of four minutes have been demonstrated. Processing procedures, equipment, tooling, design consideration and applications are presented to demonstrate that thermoplastic composites can be successfully thermoformed into practical shapes.

  8. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous powder coating system was developed for coating carbon fiber with LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center-Thermoplastic Polyimide), a high-temperature thermoplastic polymide invented by NASA-Langley. The coating line developed used a pneumatic fiber spreader to separate the individual fibers. The polymer was applied within a recirculating powder coating chamber then melted using a combination of direct electrical resistance and convective heating to make it adhere to the fiber tow. The tension and speed of the line were controlled with a dancer arm and an electrically driven fiber wind-up and wind-off. The effects of heating during the coating process on the flexibility of the prepreg produced were investigated. The uniformity with which the fiber tow could be coated with polymer also was examined. Composite specimens were fabricated from the prepreg and tested to determine optimum process conditions. The study showed that a very uniform and flexible prepeg with up to 50 percent by volume polymer could be produced with this powder coating system. The coating line minimized powder loss and produced prepeg in lengths of up to 300 m. The fiber spreading was found to have a major effect on the coating uniformity and flexibility. Though test results showed low composite tensile strengths, analysis of fracture surfaces under scanning electron microscope indicated that fiber/matrix adhesion was adequate.

  9. Thermoplastic coated carbon fibers for textile preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. E.; Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A continuous process for producing prepreg from carbon fiber and thermoplastic matrix is described. After the tow has been spread using a pneumatic device, the process utilizes a fluidized bed to apply thermoplastic powder to the bundle. Finally, direct electrical heating of the coated fiber tow melts the polymer on the individual fibers, creating a uniform and extremely flexible prepreg. The efficiency of the process was evaluated during initial trials in which a thermoplastic polyimide, LaRC-TPI, was applied to T-300, 3K (3000 filament) carbon fiber tow. The physical properties of unidirectional composite specimens fabricated from this prepreg were measured, and the matrix uniformity and void content of the samples was determined. The results of these evaluations are detailed and discussed.

  10. Recent Developments on Thermoplastic Elastomers by Dynamic Vulcanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, R. Rajesh; Naskar, Kinsuk

    A comprehensive overview is given of the recent developments of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) with special reference to the technological advancements. TPVs combine the high volume molding capability of thermoplastics with the elastomeric properties of thermoset rubber. Therefore, they lend themselves to a broad range of applications in various fields. TPVs represent the second largest group of soft thermoplastic elastomers, after styrenic-based block copolymers. TPVs have undergone evolutionary changes in terms of the selection of polymers, design of crosslinking, compounding techniques, and methods of production, and have achieved better elastic recovery, easy processability and low hardness etc.

  11. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  12. Methods for Preparing Nanoparticle-Containing Thermoplastic Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    High quality thermoplastic composites and composite laminates containing nanoparticles and/or nanofibers, and methods of producing such composites and laminates are disclosed. The composites comprise a thermoplastic polymer and a plurality of nanoparticles, and may include a fibrous structural reinforcement. The composite laminates are formed from a plurality of nanoparticle-containing composite layers and may be fused to one another via an automated process.

  13. Antimicrobial thermoplastic materials for biomedical applications prepared by melt processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; Ceraulo, M.; Gallo, G.

    2014-05-01

    In this work thermoplastic polymers with antimicrobial properties were prepared by incorporating an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX), by melt processing. Two different polymers were used as matrices, i.e., polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactid acid) (PLA) and different concentrations of CFX have been incorporated. The antimicrobial properties, the release kinetic and the mechanical performances of the prepared materials were evaluated.

  14. The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

  15. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  16. Thermoforming of thermoplastic matrix composites. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, R.C.

    1992-03-01

    Long-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites find widespread use in a variety of commercial applications requiring properties that cannot be provided by unreinforced plastics or other common materials of construction. However, thermosetting matrix resins have long been plagued by production processes that are slow and difficult to automate. This has limited the use of long-fiber-reinforced composites to relatively low productivity applications in which higher production costs can be justified. Unreinforced thermoplastics, by their very nature, can easily be made into sheet form and processed into a variety of formed shapes by various pressure assisted thermoforming means. It is possible to incorporate various types of fiber reinforcement to suit the end use of the thermoformed shape. Recently developed thermoplastic resins can also sometimes correct physical property deficiencies in a thermoset matrix composite. Many forms of thermoplastic composite material now exist that meet all the requirements of present day automotive and aerospace parts. Some of these are presently in production, while others are still in the development stage. This opens the possibility that long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics might break the barrier that has long limited the applications for fiber-reinforced composites. 37 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A nanostructured carbon-reinforced polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomer.

    PubMed

    Puskas, Judit E; Foreman-Orlowski, Elizabeth A; Lim, Goy Teck; Porosky, Sara E; Evancho-Chapman, Michelle M; Schmidt, Steven P; El Fray, Mirosława; Piatek, Marta; Prowans, Piotr; Lovejoy, Krystal

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based nanostructured carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer. This thermoplastic elastomer is based on a self-assembling block copolymer having a branched PIB core carrying -OH functional groups at each branch point, flanked by blocks of poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene). The block copolymer has thermolabile physical crosslinks and can be processed as a plastic, yet retains its rubbery properties at room temperature. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had more than twice the tensile strength of the neat polymer, exceeding the strength of medical grade silicone rubber, while remaining significantly softer. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer displayed a high T(g) of 126 degrees C, rendering the material steam-sterilizable. The carbon also acted as a free radical trap, increasing the onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the neat polymer from 256.6 degrees C to 327.7 degrees C. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had the lowest water contact angle at 82 degrees and surface nano-topography. After 180 days of implantation into rabbit soft tissues, the carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had the thinnest tissue capsule around the microdumbbell specimens, with no eosinophiles present. The material also showed excellent integration into bones.

  18. Pen microfluidics: rapid desktop manufacturing of sealed thermoplastic microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Rahmanian, Omid

    2013-01-01

    A unique technique for the rapid fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. The method enables the realization of fully-sealed microchannels in around one hour while requiring only minimal infrastructure by taking advantage of a solvent swelling mechanism that allows raised features to be patterned on the surface of homogeneous thermoplastic materials. Patterning is achieved without photolithography by simply drawing the desired microchannel pattern onto the polymer surface using a suitable ink as a masking layer, either manually or under robotic control, followed by timed exposure to solvent vapor to yield a desired depth for the masked channel features. The channels are then permanently sealed through solvent bonding of the microchannel chip to a mating thermoplastic substrate. The process is demonstrated using cyclic olefin copolymer as a thermoplastic material, with fully operational microfluidic devices fabricated following a true desktop manufacturing model suitable for rapid prototyping. PMID:23344819

  19. Pultrusion process development of a graphite reinforced polyetherimide thermoplastic composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Buckley, John D.; Dickerson, George E.; Johnson, Gary S.; Taylor, Edward C.; Covington, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    High performance thermoplastic polymers do not contain reactants and solvents able to react with a pultrusion die to yield polymerization; consolidation is therefore performed with a rigid or a boardy prepreg, and consolidation must occur with polymers whose viscosities are of the order of 1 million centipoises or more. Die temperatures are typically above 400 C, by comparison with the 150-200 C encountered in thermosets. A methodical approach is presented here for the development of a pultrusion process suitable for polyetherimide and other engineering thermoplastics, employing SEM, DSC, TGA, and ultrasonic C-scanning.

  20. Hierarchically UVO patterned elastomeric and thermoplastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Kulkarni, Manish; Marshall, Allan; Karim, Alamgir

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple yet versatile method to fabricate tunable hierarchical micro-nanostructures on flexible Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer and thermoplastic polymer surface by a two-step process. Nanoscale patterned PDMS was obtained by imprinting compact disc (CD)/digital video disc (DVD) patterns. The second micro pattern was superposed by selective densification of PDMS by exposing to ultraviolet-ozone radiation (UVO) through micro-patterned TEM grid as a mask. The nanoscale patterns are preserved through UVO exposure step leading to formation of deep hierarchical patterns, so that for a 19 um square mesh, the micro pattern has a depth of 600nm with 6h PDMS UVO exposure time. This simple method can be promoted to fabricate hierarchical structures of thermoplastic materials (such as polystyrene), from which the mechanism of capillary imprinting and thermal stability of hierarchical patterns are investigated. This study is potentially important to various applications ranging from biomimetic scaffolds to solar cell.

  1. Morphological, mechanical properties and biodegradability of biocomposite thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone reinforced with sisal fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of fibers as reinforcements in polymer composites has increased due to their renewability, low cost and biodegradability. In this study, sisal fibers were added to a polymer matrix of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone, both biodegradable polymers. Sisal fibers (5% and 10%) ...

  2. Thermoplastic composite matrices with improved solvent resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to improve solvent resistance of aromatic thermoplastic polymers, ethynyl-terminated aromatic sulfone polymers (ETS), sulfone/ester polymers (SEPE) containing pendent ethynyl groups, and phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups are synthesized. Cured polysulfones and phenoxy resins containing ethynyl groups on the ends or pendent on the molecules exhibited systematic behavior in solvent resistance, film flexibility, and toughness as a function of crosslink density. The film and composite properties of a cured solvent-resistant ETS were better than those of a commercially available solvent sensitive polysulfone. The study was part of a NASA program to better understand the trade-offs between solvent resistance, processability and mechanical properties which may be useful in designing composite structures for aerospace vehicles.

  3. A 69 cent look at thermoplastic softening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasupa, Linda S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to demonstrate the change in mechanical properties of a thermoplastic polymer when the polymer is heated above the glass transition temperature. The instructor or student can perform this demonstration. In preparation for the demonstration, fill the flask or beaker 3/4 full with water and bring the water to a boil. First observe the initial stiffness of the toothbrush by slightly flexing it. Note that it is fairly stiff and retains its initial shape when the forces are removed. If you were to apply enough force, the toothbrush would break in a somewhat brittle fashion. Now place the toothbrush in the boiling water for 2 minutes. After the 2 minutes are up, remove the toothbrush from the boiling water with the washcloth. At this time, you will be able to bend the toothbrush easily. When it cools it will retain this bent shape. You've just demonstrated heating the polymer above the glass transition temperature, demonstrating thermoplastic softening. Instructor notes are provided.

  4. Applications of azidosilane coupling agents in reinforced thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpak, F.J.

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of mica, glass microspheres, milled glass fibers and commercial chopped fiberglass with azidosilane coupling agents is shown to significantly improve the mechanical properties of these fillers/reinforcements in polyolefins relative to untreated controls. The unique chemistry of the azido groups allows for coupling with a wide variety of thermoplastic polymers. Surface characterization of native and modified fillers has proven to be a valuable adjunct to composite testing in optimizing the performance of acidosilanes coupling agents in filled or reinforced thermoplastics. 9 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Adsorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  6. Absorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  7. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products Thermoplastic product/Subcategory Organic... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Known Organic HAP Emitted From...

  9. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Known Organic HAP Emitted From the...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products Thermoplastic product/Subcategory...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Known Organic HAP Emitted From the...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products Thermoplastic product/Subcategory...

  11. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  12. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russek, Ulrich A.; Palmen, A.; Staub, H.; Poehler, J.; Wenzlau, C.; Otto, G.; Poggel, M.; Koeppe, A.; Kind, H.

    2003-07-01

    Current product development showing an ever shrinking physical volume is asking for new, reliable joining technologies. Laser beam technologies conceal innovative solutions to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies. Laser beam welding of thermoplastics offers several process technical advantages. The joining energy is fed contact-less into the joining area, avoiding mechanical stress and thermal load to the joining partners. The energy is supplied spatially (seam width on the order of 100 μm) and timely (interaction time on the order of ms) very well defined. Different process strategies are possible leading to flexibility, product adapted irradiation, short process times and high quality weld seams as well as to high integration abilities and automation potentials. During the joining process no vibration, no thermal stress, no particle release takes place. Therefore, destruction of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive components, such as microelectronics, is avoided. The work place pollution is neglectable compared to other joining technologies, such as gluing (fume) or ultrasonic welding (noise, pieces of fluff). Not only micro-components can be welded in a reproducible way but also macro-components while obtaining a hermetic sealing with good optical appearance. In this publication firstly, an overview concerning process technical basis, aspects and challenges is given. Next, results concerning laser penetration welding of polymers using high power diode lasers are presented, while comparing contour and simultaneous welding by experimental results and the on-line process monitoring.

  13. THERMOPLASTIC WAVES IN MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Levin, Yuri E-mail: yuri.levin@monash.edu.au

    2014-10-20

    Magnetar activity is generated by shear motions of the neutron star surface, which relieve internal magnetic stresses. An analogy with earthquakes and faults is problematic, as the crust is permeated by strong magnetic fields which greatly constrain crustal displacements. We describe a new deformation mechanism that is specific to strongly magnetized neutron stars. The magnetically stressed crust begins to move because of a thermoplastic instability, which launches a wave that shears the crust and burns its magnetic energy. The propagating wave front resembles the deflagration front in combustion physics. We describe the conditions for the instability, the front structure, and velocity, and discuss implications for observed magnetar activity.

  14. The crystallization of tough thermoplastic resins in the presence of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theil, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of the thermoplastic resins poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) in the presence and in the abscence of carbon fibers was studied. How carbon fiber surfaces in composites affect the crystallization of tough thermoplastic polymers that may serve as matrix resins were determined. The crystallization kinetics of such substances can provide useful information about the crystallization mechanisms and, thus, indicate if the presence of carbon fibers cause any changes in such mechanisms.

  15. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  16. Injection molding of thermoplastic elastomers for microstructured substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkar, Smita

    Amorphous and semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers have been widely investigated for injection molding of parts with microstructured surfaces. Microstructured surfaces injection molded from thermoplastic elastomers have emerging applications as superhydrobic surfaces and patterned adhesives, but there is a limited understanding of the factors affecting replication with these materials. This research was a continued investigation of block copolymer thermoplastic elastomers as well as the first in-depth examination of thermoplastic vulcanizates for injection molding microfeatures. The first focus of this research was the interactions between tooling aspect ratio and feature orientation (negative and positive tooling) and thermoplastic elastomer hard segment content on microfeature replication. Electroformed nickel tooling having positive and negative features with different geometries and aspect ratios of 0.02:1 to 2:1 were molded from three copolyester thermoplastic elastomers with similar chemistry and different hardness values. The tooling and part features were characterized for feature depth and height as well as feature definition using scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Results were correlated with elastomer properties. In the second parts of this research, the effects of microfeature spacing on the replication of thermoplastic elastomer features was investigated using micropillars with two diameters (10 and 20 mum) and three spacing ratios (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1). The tooling and part features were characterized for feature depth and height as well as feature definition using scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Feature spacing significantly affected the replication of micropillars using a thermoplastic elastomer. This replication was competition between cooling and pressurization of the melt. Wider spacing between smaller features allowed cooling in the tooling lands to dominate the feature filling. Higher pressures did

  17. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  18. Laminated thermoplastic composite material from recycled high density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a materials-science, educational experiment is presented. The student should understand the fundamentals of polymer processing and mechanical property testing of materials. The ability to use American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is also necessary for designing material test specimens and testing procedures. The objectives of the experiment are (1) to understand the concept of laminated composite materials, processing, testing, and quality assurance of thermoplastic composites and (2) to observe an application example of recycled plastics.

  19. Review of methods for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Benatar, A.; Gutowski, T.G.

    1987-02-01

    Bonding of thermoplastic composites is a critical step in the manufacture of aerospace structures. The objective of this project is to investigate different methods for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites quickly, with a good bond strength, and without warping and deconsolidation. This is best accomplished by heating and melting the thermoplastic on the bond surface only, and then pressing the parts together for a fusion bond. For this purpose, a variety of surface heating techniques were examined for bonding of PEEK and J Polymer composites. These included: resistance heating, infrared heating, induction heating, dielectric/microwave heating, and ultrasonic welding. In resistance heating, a single prepreg ply was placed between the composites and heated by passing electric current through the graphite fibers. With induction heating, a single ply of nickel coated graphite fibers was placed between the composites and heated. Ultrasonic welding was done by molding thermoplastic-only energy directors into the composites; the ultrasonic vibration melted these energy directors thereby fusion bonding the parts. 20 references.

  20. A review of recent developments in joining high-performance thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, K. C.

    1991-06-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of thermoplastic polymers as matrices in fiber reinforced composites for high performance applications, such as those encountered in the aerospace industry. These materials include polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), polyetherimide (PEI), polyamideimide (PAI), polyamides, polyimides, and polysulphones. A literature review is provided on the different ways of joining high performance thermoplastic composites by adhesive and fusion bonding. The discussion on adhesive bonding includes examination of the performance of specific adhesive/thermoplastic combinations and of techniques for the preparation of composite surfaces: abrasion, etching, flame, and plasma treatments. Thermoplastic composite welding techniques discussed in depth include the following: heated press welding, resistance welding, induction welding, and ultrasonic welding. Works which examine or compare applications for these bonding techniques are also reviewed.

  1. Thermoplastic Ribbon-Ply Bonding Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Messier, Bernadette C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify key variables in rapid weldbonding of thermoplastic tow (ribbon) and their relationship to matrix polymer properties and to ribbon microstructure. Theoretical models for viscosity, establishment of ply-ply contact, instantaneous (Velcro) bonding, molecular interdiffusion (healing), void growth suppression, and gap filling were reviewed and synthesized. Consideration of the theoretical bonding mechanisms and length scales and of the experimental weld/peel data allow the prediction of such quantities as the time and pressure required to achieve good contact between a ribbon and a flat substrate, the time dependence of bond strength, pressures needed to prevent void growth from dissolved moisture and conditions for filling gaps and smoothing overlaps.

  2. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, V.W.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

  3. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Vincent W.

    1994-01-01

    A device for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite.

  4. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  5. A Compendium of Thermoplastic Polymer Pyrograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    butene, 1-hexene or 1- octene , are copolymerised with ethylene . Chain branching is reflected in the pyrogram of the sample1. That is, chain...3 Poly( ethylene ...5 Poly( Ethylene /Propylene) Blend (30% ethylene ) ..........................................................6

  6. Polymers Are Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history of the human understanding of polymers from alchemy to modern times. Discusses renaissance chemistry, polymers in the nineteenth century, synthetic elastomers, thermoplastic elastomers, fibers, coatings, adhesives, derivatives of natural rubber, thermosets, step-reaction, and chain polymerization. (CW)

  7. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

  8. Structure and thermoplasticity of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T.

    2004-07-01

    Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

  9. Process for Preparing a Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing a tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimide is provided. The process comprises the steps of (a) providing 4.4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride to 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride at a mole ratio ranging from about 25 mole percent to 75 mole percent to 75 mole percent to about 25 mole percent; (b) adding 3,4'-oxydianiline to form a mixture; (c) adding a polar aprotic or polar protic solvent to the mixture to form a solution having a percentage of solids capable of maintaining polymer solubility; (d) stirring the solution to allow it to react; (e) adding an azeotropic solvent to the solution and heating to remove water; (f) cooling the solution of step (e) to room temperature and recovering the tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimide.

  10. Interlaminar interaction in paper thermoplastic laminate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prambauer, M.; Paulik, C.; Burgstaller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Bio-based composites are a research topic since several decades, which aims for sustainable and durable materials. In the scope of this research, many different sources for biobased reinforcements have been investigated. Typical issues associated with the use of such are property variations due to cultivation area and climate, besides the influences of the type, pretreatment and fibre geometry. Another issue can be the availability of such natural fibres. Due to these reasons, we started using paper sheets as reinforcements in laminate composites with thermoplastic materials. In preliminary studies with polypropylene composites, we found good mechanical properties, even higher than could be expected by estimating the composite properties from the constituents by applying simple rule of mixtures type models. We suspect, besides some effect of paper compaction, interlaminar effects to be the reason for this. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the effects of the interfacial interaction on the different paper laminate properties due to different matrix polymers. For this work, we used polypropylene, polyamide 6 and 12 as well as polystyrene. Composites were produced via compression moulding and samples for mechanical testing and density evaluation were cut from the moulded plates. The results from mechanical tests show, that there is a reinforcing effect, regardless of matrix polymer used. Simple rule of mixtures evaluations show, that the different matrices exhibit different degrees of interaction, based on their chemical structure. In addition, also influences due to processing were found.

  11. Nanoscale pattern fidelity and transfer of hierarchically patterned thermoplastics films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Kulkarni, Manish; Marshall, Allan; Douglas, Jack; Karim, Alamgir; the university of akron Team

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a versatile and inexpensive method for controlling the surface relief structure of both flexible elastomeric and glassy polymer films over large areas through a two-step imprinting process. First, nanoscale patterns were formed by nanoimprinting polymer films with a pattern on a DVD disk, obtained originally by nanoimprinting from a lithographically etched master pattern on a silicon wafer; micron-scale patterns were then superimposed on the nanoimprinted films by exposing them to ultraviolet radiation in oxygen (UVO) through a TEM grid mask having variable micron-scale patterning. This simple two-stage imprinting method allows for facile fabrication of hierarchically structured elastomer and thermoplastic polymer films. Besides, the thermodynamic properties of dewetting phenomenon of polystyrene film under the confinement of hierarchically patterned PDMS is studied.

  12. Multiphase design of autonomic self-healing thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yulin; Kushner, Aaron M.; Williams, Gregory A.; Guan, Zhibin

    2012-06-01

    The development of polymers that can spontaneously repair themselves after mechanical damage would significantly improve the safety, lifetime, energy efficiency and environmental impact of man-made materials. Most approaches to self-healing materials require the input of external energy, healing agents, solvent or plasticizer. Despite intense research in this area, the synthesis of a stiff material with intrinsic self-healing ability remains a key challenge. Here, we show a design of multiphase supramolecular thermoplastic elastomers that combine high modulus and toughness with spontaneous healing capability. The designed hydrogen-bonding brush polymers self-assemble into a hard-soft microphase-separated system, combining the enhanced stiffness and toughness of nanocomposites with the self-healing capability of dynamic supramolecular assemblies. In contrast to previous self-healing polymers, this new system spontaneously self-heals as a single-component solid material at ambient conditions, without the need for any external stimulus, healing agent, plasticizer or solvent.

  13. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  14. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2016-12-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  15. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2017-02-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  16. Thermoplastic adhesives based on 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; Stclair, Terry L.; Pratt, J. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Thermoplastic polyimides were prepared and evaluated as adhesives. These materials are based on 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphathalic anhydride (IDAP) and either metaphenylene diamine (MPD) or 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone (DBAP). Both polymers exhibit excellent adhesive properties; however, the IDPA-MPD is the more attractive system because of a combination of high mechanical and physical properties as well as being made from commercially attractive monomers. The IDPA-MPD is an isomeric form of the commercially available adhesive and matrix resin, LARC-TPI and both systems have the same glass transition temperature and exhibit similar adhesive properties.

  17. Final Report: Interphase Analysis and Control in Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jon J. Kellar; William M. Cross; Lidvin Kjerengtroen

    2009-03-14

    This research program builds upon a multi-disciplinary effort in interphase analysis and control in thermoplastic matrix polymer matrix composites (PMC). The research investigates model systems deemed of interest by members of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) as well as samples at the forefront of PMC process development (DRIFT and P4 technologies). Finally, the research investigates, based upon the fundamental understanding of the interphases created during the fabrication of thermoplastic PMCs, the role the interphase play in key bulk properties of interest to the automotive industry.

  18. Determination of adhesion between thermoplastic and liquid silicone rubbers in hard-soft-combinations via mechanical peeling test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühr, C.; Spörrer, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The production of hard-soft-combinations via multi injection molding gained more and more importance in the last years. This is attributed to different factors. One principle reason is that the use of two-component injection molding technique has many advantages such as cancelling subsequent and complex steps and shortening the process chain. Furthermore this technique allows the combination of the properties of the single components like the high stiffness of the hard component and the elastic properties of the soft component. Because of the incompatibility of some polymers the adhesion on the interface has to be determined. Thereby adhesion is not only influenced by the applied polymers, but also by the injection molding parameters and the characteristics of the mold. Besides already known combinations of thermoplastics with thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), there consists the possibility to apply liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as soft component. A thermoplastic/LSR combination gains in importance due to the specific advantages of LSR to TPE. The faintly adhesion between LSR and thermoplastics is currently one of the key challenges when dealing with those combinations. So it is coercively necessary to improve adhesion between the two components by adding an adhesion promoter. To determine the promoters influence, it is necessary to develop a suitable testing method to investigate e.g. the peel resistance. The current German standard "VDI Richtlinie 2019', which is actually only employed for thermoplastic/TPE combinations, can serve as a model to determine the adhesion of thermoplastic/LSR combinations.

  19. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  20. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    SciTech Connect

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel thermoplastic elastomers incorporating tailored temperature switching hard blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bitler, S.P.; Kamp. D.A.; Yoon V.Y.

    1993-12-31

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of a novel class of thermoplastics elastomers (TPEs) that exhibit a unique temperature switching property that is variable over a broad temperature range due to the choice of hard block components. The hard blocks are crystalline polymers or oligomers from a family known as side chain crystalline (SCC) polymers, referred as the Intelimers{sup R} at Landec Corporation when thermal transitions are accurately controlled over the technique range of 0 to 100-{degrees}c. Attachment of these SCC polymer or oligomers to soft or low Tg noncrystalline blocks results in thermoplastic elastomers where the macroscopic viscous flow property can be accurately switched from a rubbery two phase solid to a viscous fluid at a controlled specific temperature. Rheological evaluations show a dramatic complex modulus decrease within 10{degrees}C of the DSC endotherm peak. Physical and mechanical properties of the TPEs were evaluated with calcium carbonate filler.

  2. Study on the Functionality of Nano-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate as Filler in Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilia, Blessie A.; Panganiban, Marian Elaine G.; Collado, Archilles Allen V. C.; Pesigan, Michael Oliver D.; de Yro, Persia Ada

    This research aims to investigate the functionality of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC) as filler in thermoplastic resins based on property enhancement. Three types of thermoplastics were used: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The resins were evaluated by determining the effect of different NPCC loading on the chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties of thermoplastics. Results showed that there was an interfacial bonding with the NPCC surface and the thermoplastics. Change in absorption peak and area were predominant in the PVC filled composite. There was a decreased in crystallinity of the PE and PP with the addition of filler. Tremendous increase on the tensile and impact strength was exhibited by the NPCC filled PVC composites while PE and PP composites maintained a slight increase in their mechanical properties. Nano-sized filler was proven to improve the mechanical properties of thermoplastics compared with micron-sized filler because nano-sized filler has larger interfacial area between the filler and the polymer matrix.

  3. Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latza, Victoria; Guerette, Paul A.; Ding, Dawei; Amini, Shahrouz; Kumar, Akshita; Schmidt, Ingo; Keating, Steven; Oxman, Neri; Weaver, James C.; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2015-09-01

    Although thermoplastic materials are mostly derived from petro-chemicals, it would be highly desirable, from a sustainability perspective, to produce them instead from renewable biopolymers. Unfortunately, biopolymers exhibiting thermoplastic behaviour and which preserve their mechanical properties post processing are essentially non-existent. The robust sucker ring teeth (SRT) from squid and cuttlefish are one notable exception of thermoplastic biopolymers. Here we describe thermoplastic processing of squid SRT via hot extrusion of fibres, demonstrating the potential suitability of these materials for large-scale thermal forming. Using high-resolution in situ X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular and nanoscale features responsible for this behaviour and show that SRT consist of semi-crystalline polymers, whereby heat-resistant, nanocrystalline β-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix are organized into a hexagonally packed nanofibrillar lattice. This study provides key insights for the molecular design of biomimetic protein- and peptide-based thermoplastic structural biopolymers with potential biomedical and 3D printing applications.

  4. Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material

    PubMed Central

    Latza, Victoria; Guerette, Paul A.; Ding, Dawei; Amini, Shahrouz; Kumar, Akshita; Schmidt, Ingo; Keating, Steven; Oxman, Neri; Weaver, James C.; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2015-01-01

    Although thermoplastic materials are mostly derived from petro-chemicals, it would be highly desirable, from a sustainability perspective, to produce them instead from renewable biopolymers. Unfortunately, biopolymers exhibiting thermoplastic behaviour and which preserve their mechanical properties post processing are essentially non-existent. The robust sucker ring teeth (SRT) from squid and cuttlefish are one notable exception of thermoplastic biopolymers. Here we describe thermoplastic processing of squid SRT via hot extrusion of fibres, demonstrating the potential suitability of these materials for large-scale thermal forming. Using high-resolution in situ X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular and nanoscale features responsible for this behaviour and show that SRT consist of semi-crystalline polymers, whereby heat-resistant, nanocrystalline β-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix are organized into a hexagonally packed nanofibrillar lattice. This study provides key insights for the molecular design of biomimetic protein- and peptide-based thermoplastic structural biopolymers with potential biomedical and 3D printing applications. PMID:26387704

  5. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  6. Thermoplastic polymides and composites therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A new class polyimide and polyimide precursors based on diaryl oxyalkylene diamines, such as 1,3-bis[4-aminophenoxy]-2,2-dimethyl propane, a process for their preparation and their use as the continuous phase for the manufacture of composites and composite laminates reinforced by reinforcing agents such as carbon fibers, Kevlar.TM., and other similar high strength reinforcing agents. The polyimides and molecular composites obtained from the diamines according to the invention show thermoplastic properties, excellent flex fatigue and fracture resistance, and excellent thermal and oxidative stability.

  7. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  8. Improved Thermoplastic/Iron-Particle Transformer Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Bryant, Robert G.; Namkung, Min

    2004-01-01

    A method of fabricating improved transformer cores from composites of thermoplastic matrices and iron-particles has been invented. Relative to commercially available laminated-iron-alloy transformer cores, the cores fabricated by this method weigh less and are less expensive. Relative to prior polymer-matrix/ iron-particle composite-material transformer cores, the cores fabricated by this method can be made mechanically stronger and more magnetically permeable. In addition, whereas some prior cores have exhibited significant eddy-current losses, the cores fabricated by this method exhibit very small eddy-current losses. The cores made by this method can be expected to be attractive for use in diverse applications, including high-signal-to-noise transformers, stepping motors, and high-frequency ignition coils. The present method is a product of an experimental study of the relationships among fabrication conditions, final densities of iron particles, and mechanical and electromagnetic properties of fabricated cores. Among the fabrication conditions investigated were molding pressures (83, 104, and 131 MPa), and molding temperatures (250, 300, and 350 C). Each block of core material was made by uniaxial-compression molding, at the applicable pressure/temperature combination, of a mixture of 2 weight percent of LaRC (or equivalent high-temperature soluble thermoplastic adhesive) with 98 weight percent of approximately spherical iron particles having diameters in the micron range. Each molded block was cut into square cross-section rods that were used as core specimens in mechanical and electromagnetic tests. Some of the core specimens were annealed at 900 C and cooled slowly before testing. For comparison, a low-carbon-steel core was also tested. The results of the tests showed that density, hardness, and rupture strength generally increased with molding pressure and temperature, though the correlation was rather weak. The weakness of the correlation was attributed to

  9. Multiple-length-scale deformation analysis in a thermoplastic polyurethane

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Tan; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Prisacariu, Cristina; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers enjoy an exceptionally wide range of applications due to their remarkable versatility. These block co-polymers are used here as an example of a structurally inhomogeneous composite containing nano-scale gradients, whose internal strain differs depending on the length scale of consideration. Here we present a combined experimental and modelling approach to the hierarchical characterization of block co-polymer deformation. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and radiography are used for strain evaluation across the scales. Transmission electron microscopy image-based finite element modelling and fast Fourier transform analysis are used to develop a multi-phase numerical model that achieves agreement with the combined experimental data using a minimal number of adjustable structural parameters. The results highlight the importance of fuzzy interfaces, that is, regions of nanometre-scale structure and property gradients, in determining the mechanical properties of hierarchical composites across the scales. PMID:25758945

  10. Thermoplastic film prevents proppant flowback

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A.; King, D.G.

    1996-02-05

    Thermoplastic film added to proppants is effective and economical for preventing proppant flowback after an hydraulic fracturing treatment. Most other methods, such as resin-coated proppant and fiber, for controlling proppant flowback have drawbacks that added to treatment costs by requiring long downtime, costly additives, or frequent equipment replacement. Thermoplastic film does not react chemically with fracturing fluids. After the proppant is placed in the fracture, the film strips intertwine with the proppant grains or at higher temperatures, the strips become adhesive and shrink forming consolidated clusters that hold open the newly created fractures and prevent proppant from flowing back. The low cost of the film means that the strips can be used throughout the fracturing job or in selected stages. The strips are compatible with fracturing fluid chemistry, including breakers and crosslinkers, and can be used in wells with a wide range of bottom hole temperatures. The end result is a well that can be brought back on-line in a short time with little proppant flowback. This paper reviews the cost benefits and performance of these proppants.

  11. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  12. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermomechanical properties, flammability, oxygen index, relative toxicity of pyrolysis effluents, and char yields were studied for 12 advanced polymers which are candidates for use in aircraft interiors as decorative films, compression- and injection-molded parts and thermoplastic parts. Polymers sampled included polyphenylene sulfide, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenol) fluorene polycarbonate-poly (dimethylsiloxane), polyether sulfone, polyvinyl fluoride and polyvinylidene fluoride. Availability of these samples, whether in commercial form or in test quantities, is specified. An estimate of relative fire resistance for the materials was obtained; the five polymers listed above were found to be the most fire resistant of the 12 sampled.

  13. Rapid, controllable and environmentally benign fabrication of thermoplastic nanofibers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong

    In situ fibrillar and lamellar hybrid morphology was found in various immiscible polymer blends prepared by melt ram extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/Thermoplastics at a weight ratio of 80 to 20. The formation process was analyzed and proposed. The presence of the elongational flow field determines the formation of the fibrils, and the improvement of the mixing efficiency can significantly reduce the dimensions of formed fibrils into the submicro- or nano-scale. With above results, continuous and uniform yarns of thermoplastic nanofibers were prepared via direct melt twin-screw extrusion, providing better mixing efficiency of immiscible blends of thermoplastic polymers with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), and subsequent extraction removal of CAB matrix. The thermoplastics which can be made into nanofibers include polyesters, polyolefins, thermoplastic polyurethane and functional copolymers, such as PE-co-GMA (Poly(Ethylene-co-Glycidyl Methacrylate)), PVA-co-PE (Poly(Vinyl Alcohol-co-Ethylene)). Ratios of thermoplastics to sacrificial CAB matrix, melt viscosity, and interfacial tensions affect formation of the nanofibers. Moreover, the crystal structures of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) nanofiber prepared were characterized with DSC and WAXD. To further demonstrate the size and shape controllability of the thermoplastic nanomaterials, polyethylene materials were selected and prepared into micro- or submicrospheres or nanofibers with different diameters and shapes by varying the composition ratio and modifying the interface properties via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE melt blends and subsequent removal of the CAB. The surface structures of the LDPE micro- or submicrospheres and nanofibers were analyzed using SEM, FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, DSC and torque rheometer. The biotechnological applications of the thermoplastic nanofibers are also exploited. Poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) nanofibers with

  14. Consolidation modelling for thermoplastic composites forming simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, H.; Rusanov, A.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.

    2016-10-01

    Pre-impregnated thermoplastic composites are widely used in the aerospace industry for their excellent mechanical properties, Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process, the automotive industry has shown increasing interest in this manufacturing processes, in which the reconsolidation is an essential stage. The model of intimate contact is investigated as the consolidation model, compression experiments have been launched to identify the material parameters, several numerical tests show the influents of the temperature and pressure applied during processing. Finally, a new solid-shell prismatic element has been presented for the simulation of consolidation step in the thermoplastic composites forming process.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites Using Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Meghan

    Advanced composite materials have great potential for facilitating energy efficient product design and their manufacture if improvements are made to current composite manufacturing processes. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel manufacturing process for thermoplastic composite structures entitled Laser-Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing ('LUAM'), which is intended to combine the benefits of laser processing technology, developed by Automated Dynamics Inc., with ultrasonic bonding technology that is used commercially for unreinforced polymers. These technologies used together have the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption and void content of thermoplastic composites made using Automated Fiber Placement (AFP). To develop LUAM in a methodical manner with minimal risk, a staged approach was devised whereby coupon-level mechanical testing and prototyping utilizing existing equipment was accomplished. Four key tasks have been identified for this effort: Benchmarking, Ultrasonic Compaction, Laser Assisted Ultrasonic Compaction, and Demonstration and Characterization of LUAM. This thesis specifically addresses Tasks 1 and 2, i.e. Benchmarking and Ultrasonic Compaction, respectively. Task 1, fabricating test specimens using two traditional processes (autoclave and thermal press) and testing structural performance and dimensional accuracy, provide results of a benchmarking study by which the performance of all future phases will be gauged. Task 2, fabricating test specimens using a non-traditional process (ultrasonic conpaction) and evaluating in a similar fashion, explores the the role of ultrasonic processing parameters using three different thermoplastic composite materials. Further development of LUAM, although beyond the scope of this thesis, will combine laser and ultrasonic technology and eventually demonstrate a working system.

  16. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  17. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  18. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  19. Formation of aromatic thermoplastic and carbon-fiber prepreg by electrochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hong.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique was developed and demonstrated for combining carbon fibers with aromatic thermoplastic matrices to form a high-quality towpreg. The developed technique utilizes an in-situ electrochemical process (Electrochemical polymerization - ECP) to create the entire polymer matrix surrounding the fiber array by direct polymerization of monomer. Poly-paraxylylene (PPX) and derivatives are successfully polymerized in-situ on carbon fiber surfaces through ECP. A PPX/carbon-fiber towpreg with 40 vol % of matrix is achieved in a fairly short reaction time with a high polymer-coating efficiency. Vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) was also studied. PPX and carbon-fiber towpreg were made successfully by this process. A comparison between ECP and VDP was conducted. A study on electrochemical oxidation (ECO) of carbon fibers was also performed. The ECO treatment may be suitable for carbon fibers incorporated in composites with high-temperature curing resins and thermoplastic matrices.

  20. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  1. Emerging polyheterocyclic films, coatings and resins - Thermoplastic polyquinolines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Neil H.; Marrocco, Matthew L.; Garver, Lee C.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Proctor, Mason; Soane, David S.; Monk, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The processing and performance characteristics of a soluble, thermoplastic polyquinoline suggest its utility in a variety of high performance applications. The polymer is characterized by excellent thermal and oxidative stability, very low moisture absorption, good mechanical properties, very low dielectric constant, and an unusually low thermal expansion coefficient. This polymer, designated PQ-100 (TM), can be cast into strong, transparent, free standing films from common solvents. Coatings of variable thickness can be spin-coated on to silicon and other surfaces. After processing into films, PQ-100 (TM) can be rendered insoluble in a wide range of solvents using a proprietary process. The low CTE contributes to very low residual stress when the polymer is spin-coated onto silicon wafers. PQ-100 (TM) is currently under evaluation for use as an interlayer dielectric substrate in high-density interconnect applications, including multichip modules. Many of the characteristics of the polymer also suggest its utility as a high-performance film and as a matrix resin for specialty composite applications.

  2. Computational modelling of a thermoforming process for thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegda, D.; Song, J.; Warby, M. K.; Whiteman, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    Plastic packaging waste currently forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and as such is causing increasing environmental concerns. Such packaging is largely non-biodegradable and is particularly difficult to recycle or to reuse due to its complex composition. Apart from limited recycling of some easily identifiable packaging wastes, such as bottles, most packaging waste ends up in landfill sites. In recent years, in an attempt to address this problem in the case of plastic packaging, the development of packaging materials from renewable plant resources has received increasing attention and a wide range of bioplastic materials based on starch are now available. Environmentally these bioplastic materials also reduce reliance on oil resources and have the advantage that they are biodegradable and can be composted upon disposal to reduce the environmental impact. Many food packaging containers are produced by thermoforming processes in which thin sheets are inflated under pressure into moulds to produce the required thin wall structures. Hitherto these thin sheets have almost exclusively been made of oil-based polymers and it is for these that computational models of thermoforming processes have been developed. Recently, in the context of bioplastics, commercial thermoplastic starch sheet materials have been developed. The behaviour of such materials is influenced both by temperature and, because of the inherent hydrophilic characteristics of the materials, by moisture content. Both of these aspects affect the behaviour of bioplastic sheets during the thermoforming process. This paper describes experimental work and work on the computational modelling of thermoforming processes for thermoplastic starch sheets in an attempt to address the combined effects of temperature and moisture content. After a discussion of the background of packaging and biomaterials, a mathematical model for the deformation of a membrane into a mould is presented, together with its

  3. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  4. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-01-10

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  5. Aminosilane layers on the plasma activated thermoplastics: influence of solvent on its structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    The chemistry and the structure of aminosilane layer on the plasma activated thermoplastic substrates, e.g., polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) were investigated at the molecular level. The nature of the surface functional groups of the silane layers prepared by solution phase deposition in aqueous and anhydrous solvents were studied using various techniques including ellipsometry, goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The XPS analyses revealed the presence of various oxygen functionalities on the plasma activated thermoplastics. Considerable differences were observed for the structure of aminosilane depending on the solvent used for the reaction. Deposition from aqueous solution resulted in relatively flat and smooth surfaces with consistent thickness compared to the anhydrous solution deposition. In the former case, 33% of the total nitrogen accounted for protonated amine and 16% for the free amino groups. In the latter, only 6% accounted for the protonated amine. The point of zero charge (pzc), on the aminosilane modified PC was found to be around 7, indicated that the surface is positively charged below pH 7 and negatively charged above pH 7. The surface analysis data suggested that various interactions are possible between the plasma activated thermoplastic surface and the aminosilane. In general, they are bound to the surface through covalent bond formation between the oxygen functionalities on the thermoplastic surface and the amino or the silanol groups of the aminosilane.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites for Solid Rocket Motor Internal Insulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    a modeling framework for simulating the insulative behavior of thermoplastic Polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites (TPUNs) for solid rocket motors...Nanophase, Thermoplastic Elastomer, EPDM Rubber, Surface Modified MMT Clay, Carbon Nanofibers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT U...Third Year Program Tasks 7 4. Description of Polymer Nanocomposites 7 4.1 Thermoplastic Elastomer 7 4.2 Montmorilonite Nanoclays 7 4.3 Carbon

  7. Experimental analysis on the coupled effect between thermo-optical properties and microstructure of semi-crystalline thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boztepe, Sinan; Thiam, Abdoulahad; de Almeida, Olivier; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice

    2016-10-01

    Radiation heat transfer is the most common method used in thermoforming processes of thermoplastic polymers due to their poor thermal conductivity. Considering the fact that the thermo-optical characteristics of polymers play a major role in the efficiency of radiative heat transfer in bulk polymers, microstructure of semi-crystalline thermoplastics is one of the key factors to understand this heat transfer phenomenon in depth. In this study, a relation between the microcrystalline structure of polyolefin (PO) and its effect on the thermo-optical properties was experimentally analyzed. Information on the microcrystalline structure of the samples was obtained by determining the degree of crystallinity (Xc) thanks to Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and integrating sphere, optical characteristics of the PO samples were analyzed considering two spectrums that are in near-infrared (NIR) and middle-infrared (MIR) spectral regions respectively. The analyses showed that the degree of crystallinity has a great effect on the thermo-optical characteristics of the PO - particularly considering transmission - in NIR range. Such a coupled effect can be functionalized and adopted to develop an advanced radiative heat transfer model that may be used for addressing various problems on infrared (IR) heating of heterogeneous materials, particularly semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In the last part of the paper, a theoretical approach for consideration of the heterogeneity of semi-crystalline thermoplastics in a radiative heat transfer model was highlighted.

  8. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Jackson, Daniel C; Trammell, Neil E; Hunt, Marcus A; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  9. Process for crosslinking and extending conjugated diene-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process using a Diels-Alder reaction which increases the molecular weight and/or crosslinks polymers by reacting the polymers with bisunsaturated dienophiles is developed. The polymer comprises at least 75% by weight based on the reaction product, has a molecular weight of at least 5000 and a plurality of conjugated 1,3-diene systems incorporated into the molecular structure. A dienophile reaction with the conjugated 1,3-diene of the polymer is at least 1% by weight based on the reaction product. Examples of the polymer include polyesters, polyamides, polyethers, polysulfones and copolymers. The bisunsaturated dienophiles may include bis-maleimides, bis maleic and bis tumaric esters and amides. This method for expanding the molecular weight chains of the polymers, preferable thermoplastics, is advantageous for processing or fabricating thermoplastics. A low molecular weight thermoplastic is converted to a high molecular weight plastic having improved strength and toughness for use in the completed end use article.

  10. Environmentally degradable, high-performance thermoplastics from phenolic phytomonomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo; Thi, Tran Hang; Shi, Dong Jian; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(lactic acid), which degrade by hydrolysis, from naturally occurring molecules form the main components of biodegradable plastics. However, these polyesters have become substitutes for only a small percentage of the currently used plastic materials because of their poor thermal and mechanical properties. Polymers that degrade into natural molecules and have a performance closer to that of engineering plastics would be highly desirable. Although the use of a high-strength filler such as a bacterial cellulose or modified lignin greatly increases the plastic properties, it is the matrix polymer that determines the intrinsic properties of the composite. The introduction of an aromatic component into the thermoplastic polymer backbone is an efficient method to intrinsically improve the material performance. Here, we report the preparation of environmentally degradable, liquid crystalline, wholly aromatic polyesters. The polyesters were derived from polymerizable plant-derived chemicals-in other words, `phytomonomers' that are widely present as lignin biosynthetic precursors. The mechanical performance of these materials surpasses that of current biodegradable plastics, with a mechanical strength, σ, of 63MPa, a Young's modulus, E, of 16GPa, and a maximum softening temperature of 169∘C. On light irradiation, their mechanical properties improved further and the rate of hydrolysis accelerated.

  11. Polyurethane thermoplastic elastomers with inherent radiopacity for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiran, S; James, Nirmala R; Jayakrishnan, A; Joseph, Roy

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis and characterization of three different radiopaque thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers are reported. Radiopacity was introduced to the polyurethanes by incorporating an iodinated chain extender, namely, 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA), into the polymer chain during polyurethane synthesis. Radiopaque polyurethanes (RPUs) were synthesized by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), IBPA, and three different diols. The polyols used for the synthesis were polypropylene glycol, polycaprolactone diol, and poly(hexamethylene carbonate) diol. RPUs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that all RPUs prepared using IBPA as the chain extender are highly radiopaque compared with an Aluminum wedge of equivalent thickness. Elemental analysis revealed that the polyurethanes contained 18-19% iodine in the polymer matrix. The RPUs developed have radiopacity equivalent to that of a polymer filled with 20 wt % barium sulfate. Results revealed that RPUs of wide range of properties may be produced by incorporating different diols as the soft chain segment. Cell culture cytotoxicity studies conducted using L929 cells by direct contact test and MTT assay proved that these RPUs are noncytotoxic in nature.

  12. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  13. Biopolymer-based thermoplastic mixture for producing solid biodegradable shaped bodies and its photo degradation stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulong, Nurulsaidatulsyida; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, biopolymers with controllable lifetimes have become increasingly important for many applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedical implants and drug release, forestry, wild life conservation and waste management. Natural oils are considered to be the most important class of renewable sources. They can be obtained from naturally occurring plants, such as sunflower, cotton, linseed and palm oil. In Malaysia, palm oil is an inexpensive and commodity material. Biopolymer produced from palm oil (Bio-VOP) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and readily available from agriculture. For packaging use however, Bio-VOP is not thermoplastic and its granular form is unsuitable for most uses in the plastics industry, mainly due to processing difficulties during extrusion or injection moulding. Thus, research workers have developed several methods to blend Bio-VOP appropriately for industrial uses. In particular, injections moulding processes, graft copolymerisation, and preparation of blends with thermoplastic polymers have been studied to produce solid biodegradable shaped bodies. HDPE was chosen as commercial thermoplastic materials and was added with 10% Bio-VOP for the preparation of solid biodegradable shaped bodies named as HD-VOP. The UV light exposure of HD-VOP at 12 minutes upon gives the highest strength of this material that is 17.6 MPa. The morphological structure of HD-VOP shows dwi structure surface fracture which is brittle and ductile properties.

  14. Design and manufacturing concepts for thermoplastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.

    1991-01-01

    Results to date on the application of two manufacturing techniques, fiber placement and single diaphragm/coconsolidation, to produce cost-effective, thermoplastic composite (TPC), primary fuselage structure are presented. Applications relative to fuselage upper cover structure indicate potential cost savings relative to conventional approaches. Progress is also presented on efforts concerned with other design details which take advantage of thermoplastic composites such as fastener less stiffener/frame attachments. In addition, results are presented on the development and verification testing of a composite lug analysis program which incorporates through-the-thickness effects.

  15. Selecting thermoplastics for engineering applications. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    MacDermott, C.P.; Shenoy, A.V.

    1997-12-31

    The difficult problem of selecting the best thermoplastic resin is made easier by the guidelines presented in this book. Included are methods of ranking the thermoplastics by their properties, price, and processability, along with quick-reference tables of rankings. Example programs for computerized ranking are also included. The problems of matching part design and molding conditions are also addressed. Contents include: (1) the selection process; (2) physical properties; (3) rheological properties; (4) injection molding; (5) prototype parts; (6) estimating part costs; (7) ranking of resins; (8) computerized approach to selection; (9) expert system SELECTHER; (10) resin suppliers; and (11) nomenclature and glossary.

  16. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  17. Characterization of flammability properties of some thermoplastic and thermoset resins. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability properties of some thermally stable polymers considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied include: (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature; (2) dynamic thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic environment; (3) flammability properties such as oxygen index, flame spread, and smoke evolution; and (4) selected physical properties. The thermoplastic polymers evaluated included polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) and polyether sulfone. The thermoset polymers evaluated included epoxy, bismaleimide, a modified phenolic and polyaromatic melamine resin. These resins were primarily used in the fabrication of glass reinforced prepregs for the construction of experimental panels. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability parameters are presented and the relationship of the molecular structure, char yield, and flammability properties of these polymers are discussed.

  18. Thermoplastic pultrusion development and characterization of residual in pultruded composites with modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamiyanaa, Khongor

    Pultrusion processing is a technique to make highly aligned fiber reinforced polymer composites. Thermoset pultrusion is a mature process and well established, while thermoplastic pultrusion in still in its infancy. Thermoplastic pultrusion has not been well established because thermoplastic resins are difficult to process due to their high viscosity. However, thermoplastic resins offer distinct advantages that make thermoplastic pultrusion worth exploring. The present work centers on developing a method to design and validate a die for a thermoplastic pultrusion system. Analytical models and various software tools were used to design a pultrusion die. Experimental measurements have been made to validate the models. One-dimensional transient heat transfer analysis was used to calculate the time required for pre-impregnated E-Glass/Polypropylene tapes to melt and consolidate into profiled shapes. Creo Element/Pro 1.0 was used to design the die, while ANSYS Work Bench 14.0 was used to conduct heat transfer analysis to understand the temperature profile of the pultrusion apparatus. Additionally Star-CCM+ was used to create a three-dimensional fluid flow model to capture the molten polymer flow inside the pultrusion die. The fluid model was used to understand the temperature of the flow and the force required to pull the material at any given temperature and line speed. A complete pultrusion apparatus including the die, heating unit, cooling unit, and the frame has been designed and manufactured as guided by the models, and pultruded profiles have been successfully produced. The results show that the analytical model and the fluid model show excellent correlation. The predicted and measured pulling forces are in agreement and show that the pull force increases as the pull speed increases. Furthermore, process induced residual stress and its influence on dimensional instability, such as bending or bowing, on pultruded composites was analyzed. The study indicated that

  19. Thermoplastic starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol/forsterite nanocomposite as a candidate material for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mahdieh, Zahra; Bagheri, Reza; Eslami, Masoud; Amiri, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Mehrjoo, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    Recently, biodegradable polymers such as starch based blends have been well renowned in the biomedical field. Studies have considered them suitable for bone scaffolds, bone cements, tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery systems and hydrogels. The aim of this study was to synthesize nanocomposite biomaterial consisting a blend of thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol as the polymer matrix, and nano-structured forsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, vitamin E was applied as a thermal stabilizer during melt compounding. Extrusion and injection molding were incorporated for melt blending and shaping of samples, respectively. With blending thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol, some properties of thermoplastic starch such as degradation rate and water absorption were modified. In addition, using nanoforsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase resulted in the improvement of mechanical and biological traits. The addition of nanoforsterite decreased the weight loss of the thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol blend in simulated body fluid. Moreover, this addition modified the pH in the MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay and stimulated the cell proliferation. Cell adhesion assays indicated a favorable interaction between cells and the biomaterial. The proposed nanocomposite has appropriate biocompatibility, as well as mechanical properties in order to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  20. Biodegradation Of thermoplastic polyurethanes from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoplastic urethanes based on polyricinoleic acid soft segments and MDI/BD hard segments with varied soft segment concentration were prepared. Soft segment concentration was varied fro, 40 to 70 wt %. Biodegradation was studied by respirometry. Segmented polyurethanes with soft segments based ...

  1. Modeling of a thermoplastic pultrusion process

    SciTech Connect

    Astroem, B.T. ); Pipes, R.B. )

    1991-07-01

    To obtain a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing parameters and die geometry in a pultrusion process, a mathematical model is essential in order to minimize the number of trial-and-error experiments. Previous investigators have suggested a variety of more or less complete models for thermoset pultrusion, while little effort seems to have been spent modeling its less well-understood thermoplastic equivalent. Hence, a set of intricately related models to describe the temperature and pressure distributions, as well as the matrix flow, in a thermoplastic composite as it travels through the pultrusion die is presented. An approach to calculate the accumulated pulling force is also explored, and the individual mechanisms contributing to the pulling force are discussed. The pressure model incorporates a matrix viscosity that varies with shear rate, temperature, and pressure. Comparisons are made between shear-rate-dependent and Newtonian viscosity representations, indicating the necessity of including non-Newtonian fluid behavior when modeling thermoplastic pultrusion. The governing equations of the models are stated in general terms, and simplifications are implemented in order to obtain solutions without extensive numerical efforts. Pressure, temperature, cooling rate, and pulling force distributions are presented for carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone. Pulling force predictions are compared to data obtained from preliminary experiments conducted with a model pultrusion line that was built solely for the pultrusion of thermoplastic matrix composites, and the correlation is found to be qualitatively satisfactory.

  2. Ultrasonic Welding of Graphite/Thermoplastic Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. S.; Page, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding of graphite/thermoplastic composite materials eliminates need for fasteners (which require drilling or punching, add weight, and degrade stiffness) and can be totally automated in beam fabrication and assembly jigs. Feasibility of technique has been demonstrated in laboratory tests which show that neither angular orientation nor vacuum affect weld quality.

  3. Apparatus for thermoforming thermoplastic sheet materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, L.W.; Kovacs, F.; Vlahek, J.

    1985-02-19

    The present invention relates to an improved plug or tool for use in the production of shaped articles from thermoplastic sheet materials. An important feature of the present invention is that the tool or plug comprises a body portion which incorporates one or more inserts which possess a thermal conductivity different from the thermal conductivity of the body portion.

  4. Deformational characteristics of thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indukuri, Kishore K.

    This thesis focuses primarily on the structure-property relationships of poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer TPEs. First evidence for strain-induced crystallization occurring in certain SEBS block copolymers has been established using unique techniques like deformation calorimetry, combined in-situ small angle X-ray and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Also the ramifications of such strain-induced crystallization on the mechanical properties like cyclic hysteresis, stress relaxation/creep retention of these SEBS systems have been studied. In addition, the structural changes in the morphology of these systems on deformation have been investigated using combined SAXD/WAXD setup. Small angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at the nano-scale of polystyrene (PS) cylinders, while wide angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at molecular length scales of the amorphous/crystalline domains of the elastomeric mid-block in these systems. New structural features at both these length scales have been observed and incorporated into the overall deformation mechanisms of the material. Continuous processing techniques like extrusion have been used to obtain ultra long-range order and orientation in these SEBS systems. Thus well ordered crystal like hexagonal packing of cylinders, where in each element in this hexagonal lattice can be individually addressed without any grain boundaries can be realized using these robust techniques. The effect of long-range order/orientation on the mechanical properties has been studied. In addition, these well ordered systems serve as model systems for evaluating deformation mechanisms of these SEBS systems, where the relative contributions of each of the phases can be estimated. EPDM/i-PP thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have micron size scale phase separated morphologies of EPDM rubber dispersed in a semicrystalline i-PP matrix as a result of the dynamic vulcanization process. Confocal microscopy studies

  5. Imprint Molding of a Microfluidic Optical Cell on Thermoplastics with Reduced Surface Roughness for the Detection of Copper Ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Here, we introduce a simple and facile technique for fabricating microfluidic optical cells by utilizing a micropatterned polymer mold, followed by imprinting on thermoplastic substrates. This process has reduced the surface roughness of the microchannel, making it suitable for microscale optical measurements. The micropatterned polymer mold was fabricated by first micromilling on a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) substrate, and then transferring the micropattern onto an ultraviolet (UV)-curable optical adhesive. After an anti-adhesion treatment of the polymer mold fabricated using the UV-curable optical adhesive, the polymer mold was used repeatedly for imprinting onto various thermoplastics, such as PMMA, polycarbonate (PC), and poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET). The roughness values for the PMMA, PC, and PET microchannels were approximately 11.3, 20.3, and 14.2 nm, respectively, as compared to those obtained by micromilling alone, which were 15.9, 76.8, and 207.5 nm, respectively. Using the imprint-molded thermoplastic optical cell, rhodamine B and copper ions were successfully quantified. The reduced roughness of the microchannel surface resulted in improved sensitivity and reduced noise, paving the way for integration of the detection module so as to realize totally integrated microdevices.

  6. Thermoplastic Elastomers as LOVA Binders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    latent acid . A significant weight loss was observed around the decomposition temperature of ethyl naphthalene sulphonate . For the protonic acid as p...Equation for the Steady Shear Viscosity of Filled Polymer Melts", T.S. Stephens and H.H. Winter, in preparation, 1987. "Structure-Property Relationships...very minor weight loss was observed around 2701C with significant weight loss beginning at 4000C. In the presence of ethyl naphthalene sulphonate as

  7. Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saralegi, Ainara; Foster, E. Johan; Weder, Christoph; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles

    2014-02-01

    A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure-property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80-100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-09

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites.

  9. Novel compostable materials based upon thermoplastic polyurethanes and native starch and the production of films thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Seidenstuecker, T.; Fritz, H.G.

    1996-12-31

    Certain types of thermoplastic poly(urethanes) (TPU) are biodegradable. The biodegradability depends upon the structure of the polymer chains. Effective chain scission can only be catalysed by enzymes, which occur abundantly in compost environments, if functional groups are present in the backbone that are highly prone to hydrolysis. Especially certain thermoplastic polyesters were found to be biodegradable. In terms of TPUs the proneness to hydrolysis can be achieved be synthesizing thermoplastic poly(ester-urethanes) that contain as many aster-bonds as possible alongside the backbone. We have investigated the degradability of different types of TPUs in various environments. The incorporation of native starch not only increases the rate of degradation but alters the material properties. This alternation of properties depends upon the filler content and type of starch incorporated. For instance, the higher the starch content is the stiffer the compound becomes. Here it was possible to incorporate up to 70 wt. % of starch. Also, using these components it could be confirmed that special types of starch with small medium particle diameters (< 10 {mu}m) have higher tensile properties and are stiffer compared to native starch with particle diameters above 10 {mu}m. The production of films with various compounds is possible and important film properties as well as applications will be introduced.

  10. Thermoplastic elastomers for microfluidics: towards a high-throughput fabrication method of multilayered microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Roy, Emmanuel; Galas, Jean-Christophe; Veres, Teodor

    2011-09-21

    Multilayer soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a well-known method for the fabrication of complex fluidic functions. With advantages and drawbacks, this technique allows fabrication of valves, pumps and micro-mixers. However, the process is inadequate for industrial applications. Here, we report a rapid prototyping technique for the fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices, using a different and promising class of polymers. Using styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), we demonstrate a rapid technique for the fabrication and assembly of pneumatically driven valves in a multilayer microfluidic device made completely from thermoplastics. This material solution is transparent, biocompatible and as flexible as PDMS, and has high throughput thermoforming processing characteristics. We established a proof of principle for valving and mixing with three different grades of TPE using an SU-8 master mold. Specific viscoelastic properties of each grade allow us to report enhanced bonding capabilities from room temperature bonding to free pressure thermally assisted bonding. In terms of microfabrication, beyond classically embossing means, we demonstrate a high-throughput thermoforming method, where TPE molding experiments have been carried out without applied pressure and vacuum assistance within an overall cycle time of 180 s. The quality of the obtained thermoplastic systems show robust behavior and an opening/closing frequency of 5 Hz.

  11. Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiyuan; Tu, Ran; Wang, Nan; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Xi

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively investigate the dripping-burning and flowing fire of thermoplastics. A new experimental setup is developed with a heating vessel and a T-trough. Hot thermoplastic liquids are generated in the vessel by electric heating. N2 gas is continuously injected into the vessel to avoid a sudden ignition of fuel in it. The detailed flowing burning behaviors of pool fire in the T-trough are analyzed through the measurements of the mass, heat flux and temperatures etc. The experimental results suggest that a continuous dripping of melted thermoplastic liquids in a nearly constant mass rate can be successfully made in the new setup. It also shows that the mass dripping rate of melted PS liquid is smaller than PP and PE since its large viscosity. In addition, the flame spread velocities of hot liquids of PS in the T-trough are also smaller than that of PP and PE because of its large viscosity. The mass burning rate of the PP and PE pool fire in T-trough are smaller than PS. Finally, considering the heating, melting, dripping and flowing burning behaviors of these polymers, it is suggested that the fire hazard of PE and PP are obviously higher than PS for their faster flowing burning.

  12. A dual plate thermoplastic recording device for holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umstatter, Holly L.; Craig, James E.; Trolinger, James D.; Lee, George

    1986-01-01

    The development of a dual plate holographic interferometer using thermoplastic recording devices is described. The operational characteristics of the thermoplastic devices are investigated and optimized for fringe contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The dual plate device was demonstrated in a transonic wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The interferograms derived from the thermoplastic device are compared with those derived from conventional photographic emulsions. The fringe contrast achieved with the optimized thermoplastic device is equivalent to the contrast achieved with conventional techniques.

  13. Precision synthesis of bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomer by RAFT polymerization of itaconic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kotaro; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Nagai, Kanji; Kamigaito, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based polymer materials from renewable resources have recently become a growing research focus. Herein, a novel thermoplastic elastomer is developed via controlled/living radical polymerization of plant-derived itaconic acid derivatives, which are some of the most abundant renewable acrylic monomers obtained via the fermentation of starch. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerizations of itaconic acid imides, such as N-phenylitaconimide and N-(p-tolyl)itaconimide, and itaconic acid esters, such as di-n-butyl itaconate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) itaconate, are examined using a series of RAFT agents to afford well-defined polymers. The number-average molecular weights of these polymers increase with the monomer conversion while retaining relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. Based on the successful controlled/living polymerization, sequential block copolymerization is subsequently investigated using mono- and di-functional RAFT agents to produce block copolymers with soft poly(itaconate) and hard poly(itaconimide) segments. The properties of the obtained triblock copolymer are evaluated as bio-based acrylic thermoplastic elastomers.

  14. Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free “Click Chemistry” Thermoplastic Polytriazoles

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Michael C.; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

    2014-01-01

    Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

  15. Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCool, Raurí; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang, Zhenyu; Price, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available

  16. Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, Rauri; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang Zhenyu; Price, Mark

    2011-05-04

    The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available

  17. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry of Thermoplastic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    polyethylene (HiFax ), polymethylmethacrylate TM TM TM (PlexiGlas ), polyphenylene ether (Prevex ), polyacetal (Delrin ), * polyamide (Nylon 6,6 TM...including elastomers , plastics, and paints because it allows the analysis of non-volatile high molecular weight compounds with no sample pretreatment; e.g...34 ,’Nylo 6 TM Nylon 6,6 Polyamide White block 261 PlexiglasTM Polymethylmethacrylate Transparent block 90-100* Delrin T Polyacetal White block 179

  18. Imprinting of confining sites for cell cultures on thermoplastic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, C. D.; Fleenor, E. N.

    1969-01-01

    Prevention of test cell migration beyond the field of observation involves confining cells or cultures in microlagoons made in either a layer of grease or a thermoplastic substrate. Thermoplastic films or dishes are easily imprinted with specifically designed patterns of microlagoons.

  19. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 {open_quotes}Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,{close_quotes} EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers.

  20. Optimization of Buckypaper-enhanced Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongrui; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-02-01

    A series of flattened-nanotube reinforced thermoplastic composites are sizably fabricated as a function of buckypaper loading. The effects of the volume fraction, nanotube alignment and length on the tensile performance of the composites are factored into a general expression. The incorporation of self-reinforcing polyphenylene resin (Parmax) into a highly aligned buckypaper frame at an optimal weight ratio boosts the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the buckypaper/Parmax composite to 1145 MPa and 150 GPa, respectively, far exceeding those of Parmax and aligned buckypaper individually. The composite also exhibits improved thermal (>65 W/m-K) and electrical (~700 S/cm) conductivities, as well as high thermoelectric power (22 μV/K) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the composite displays a heterogeneously complex structure. The hexyl groups of Parmax noncovalently interact with the honeycomb structure of the flattened nanotube through π-stacking and CH-π interaction, correspondingly improving the dispersity of polymer on the nanotube surface and the interfacial stress transferring while the high alignment degrees of nanotube facilitate phonon and charge transport in the composites.

  1. Optimization of Buckypaper-enhanced Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongrui; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    A series of flattened-nanotube reinforced thermoplastic composites are sizably fabricated as a function of buckypaper loading. The effects of the volume fraction, nanotube alignment and length on the tensile performance of the composites are factored into a general expression. The incorporation of self-reinforcing polyphenylene resin (Parmax) into a highly aligned buckypaper frame at an optimal weight ratio boosts the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the buckypaper/Parmax composite to 1145 MPa and 150 GPa, respectively, far exceeding those of Parmax and aligned buckypaper individually. The composite also exhibits improved thermal (>65 W/m-K) and electrical (~700 S/cm) conductivities, as well as high thermoelectric power (22 μV/K) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the composite displays a heterogeneously complex structure. The hexyl groups of Parmax noncovalently interact with the honeycomb structure of the flattened nanotube through π-stacking and CH-π interaction, correspondingly improving the dispersity of polymer on the nanotube surface and the interfacial stress transferring while the high alignment degrees of nanotube facilitate phonon and charge transport in the composites. PMID:28205637

  2. Thermoplastic polymeric adhesive for structural bonding applications for orthopaedic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, D.; King, R.; Swarts, D.; Lin, S.; Ramani, K.; Tagle, J.

    1994-12-31

    The orthopaedics industry has witnessed tremendous growth in recent years primarily due to the introduction of high performance, porous coated implants. These devices have eliminated the need for the use of bone cement for in vivo implant fixation, replacing it with the ingrowth of bone into the porous surfaces. The metallurgical bonding processes used for attaching the porous to the implant body introduce some undesirable effect i.e., the reduction of the fatigue strength of the implant due to the ``notches`` created and also due to the high temperature exposure during the sintering operations. This paper describes the development of a thermoplastic polymeric adhesive based structural bonding technique. The high performance polymeric adhesive is fully characterized with respect to its intended application. The design of the porous layer is optimized to achieve a reliable bond to the implant. A thermal heating/cooling process was developed to control the final polymer morphology. Static and fatigue tests were conducted to fully characterize the adhesive bond strength. A ring shear test method was developed to determine the shear strength of the bond interface. Besides the characterization of the adhesive bond, the joints will be analyzed using finite element models. The correlation between the analytical models and the

  3. Multiblock thermoplastic polyurethanes for biomedical and shape memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinzhu

    Polyurethanes are a class of polymers that are capable of tailoring the overall polymer structure and thus final properties by many factors. The great potential in tailoring polymer structures imparts PUs unique mechanical properties and good cytocompatibility, which make them good candidates for many biomedical devices. In this dissertation, three families of multiblock thermoplastic polyurethanes are synthesized and characterized for biomedical and shape memory applications. In the first case described in Chapters 2, 3 and 4, a novel family of multiblock thermoplastic polyurethanes consisting of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are presented. These materials were discovered to be very durable, with strain-to-break higher than 1200%. Heat-triggered reversible plasticity shape memory (RPSM) was observed, where the highly deformed samples completely recovered their as-cast shape within one minute when heating above the transition temperature. Instead of conventional "hard" blocks, entanglements, which result from high molecular weight, served as the physical crosslinks in this system, engendering shape recovery and preventing flow. Moreover, water-triggered shape memory effect of PCL-PEG TPUs is explored, wherein water permeated into the initially oriented PEG domains, causing rapid shape recovery toward the equilibrium shape upon contact with liquid water. The recovery behavior is found to be dependent on PEG weight percentage in the copolymers. By changing the material from bulk film to electrospun fibrous mat, recovery speed was greatly accelerated. The rate of water recovery was manipulated through structural variables, including thickness of bulk film and diameter of e-spun webs. A new, yet simple shape memory cycle, "wet-fixing" is also reported, where both the fixing and recovery ratios can be greatly improved. A detailed microstructural study on one particular composition is presented, revealing the evolution of microphase

  4. Thermochemical characterization of some thermoplastic materials. [flammability and toxicity properties for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use or being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included thermomechanical properties such as glass-transition and melt temperature, changes in polymer enthalpy, thermogravimetric analysis in anerobic and oxidative environments, oxygen index, smoke evolution, relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and selected physical properties. The generic polymers evaluated included acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonate-poly (dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented. Under these test conditions, some of the advanced polymers evaluated were significantly less flammable and toxic than or equivalent to polymers in current use.

  5. Thermoforming continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiang.

    1990-01-01

    In this research the forming process was first decomposed into basic deformation elements with simple geometries, and models were then developed for these elements. A series-parallel model was developed for predicting the upper and lower bounds of composite shear modulus at forming temperature based on the fiber content, fiber distribution, and matrix shear modulus. A shear-flexure model was proposed to describe the initial load-deflection behavior of thermoplastic composites in bending. A ply buckling model was developed which included the contributions from both a surface tension term and a ply buckling term.

  6. Radiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Udagawa, Akira; Seguchi, Tadao

    1993-12-31

    Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and a newly developed thermoplastic polyimide ``new-TPI`` were applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a matrix resin. PEEK and new-TPI showed excellent resistance over 50 MGy to electron irradiation and the crosslinking proceeded predominantly by irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties induced by electron irradiation of the CFRP with the two resins were examined at various temperatures. The flexural strength and modulus measured at {minus}196 and 25{degree}C were scarcely affected up to 120 MGy and both the values measured at high temperature were increased with dose.

  7. Model of holographic recording in thermoplastic materials.

    PubMed

    Bányász, I

    1998-04-10

    A method for the evaluation of images reconstructed from holograms recorded in thermoplastic materials is reported. The method is based on the use of the experimental modulation transfer function and nonlinear holographic characteristics of the recording material. Calculations have been carried out for high-numerical-aperture holograms of a five-element Ronchi ruling. The quality of the reconstructed image as a function of the recording parameters has been computed. The model predicts that it is possible to optimize holographic recording in these materials.

  8. Thermal decomposition of nano-enabled thermoplastics: Possible environmental health and safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Singh, Dilpreet; Zhang, Fang; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Spielman-Sun, Eleanor; Hoering, Lutz; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Lowry, Gregory V.; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Nano-enabled products (NEPs) are currently part of our life prompting for detailed investigation of potential nano-release across their life-cycle. Particularly interesting is their end-of-life thermal decomposition scenario. Here, we examine the thermal decomposition of a widely used NEP, namely thermoplastic nanocomposites, and assess the properties of the byproducts (released aerosol and residual ash) and possible environmental health and safety implications. We focus on establishing a fundamental understanding on the effect of thermal decomposition parameters, such as polymer matrix, nanofiller properties, decomposition temperature, on the properties of byproducts using a recently-developed lab-based experimental integrated platform. Our results indicate that thermoplastic polymer matrix strongly influences size and morphology of released aerosol, while there was minimal but detectable nano-release, especially when inorganic nanofillers were used. The chemical composition of the released aerosol was found not to be strongly influenced by the presence of nanofiller at least for the low, industry-relevant loadings assessed here. Furthermore, the morphology and composition of residual ash was found to be strongly influenced by the presence of nanofiller. The findings presented here on thermal decomposition/incineration of NEPs raise important questions and concerns regarding the potential fate and transport of released engineered nanomaterials in environmental media and potential environmental health and safety implications. PMID:26642449

  9. Thermal decomposition of nano-enabled thermoplastics: Possible environmental health and safety implications.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Singh, Dilpreet; Zhang, Fang; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G; Spielman-Sun, Eleanor; Hoering, Lutz; Kavouras, Ilias G; Lowry, Gregory V; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2016-03-15

    Nano-enabled products (NEPs) are currently part of our life prompting for detailed investigation of potential nano-release across their life-cycle. Particularly interesting is their end-of-life thermal decomposition scenario. Here, we examine the thermal decomposition of widely used NEPs, namely thermoplastic nanocomposites, and assess the properties of the byproducts (released aerosol and residual ash) and possible environmental health and safety implications. We focus on establishing a fundamental understanding on the effect of thermal decomposition parameters, such as polymer matrix, nanofiller properties, decomposition temperature, on the properties of byproducts using a recently-developed lab-based experimental integrated platform. Our results indicate that thermoplastic polymer matrix strongly influences size and morphology of released aerosol, while there was minimal but detectable nano-release, especially when inorganic nanofillers were used. The chemical composition of the released aerosol was found not to be strongly influenced by the presence of nanofiller at least for the low, industry-relevant loadings assessed here. Furthermore, the morphology and composition of residual ash was found to be strongly influenced by the presence of nanofiller. The findings presented here on thermal decomposition/incineration of NEPs raise important questions and concerns regarding the potential fate and transport of released engineered nanomaterials in environmental media and potential environmental health and safety implications.

  10. Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Marianne Ayumi; Olivato, Juliana Bonametti; Garcia, Patrícia Salomão; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used.

  11. Characterization of poly(butylene succinate)/glycerol co-plasticized thermoplastic gelatin prepared by melt blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviero, Maria; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable thermoplastic poly(butylene succinate)/gelatin (PBS/TPG) blends with various blending ratios were prepared by melt mixing technique. The main goal of these blends is to improve the water sensitivity of thermoplastic gelatin by blending it with a hydrophobic biodegradable polymer obtained also from renewable resources. The incorporation of PBS yielded a decrease in absorbed moisture. Under the relative humidity 50 and 100%, the absorbed moisture obtained values were 19 and 229% for pure TPG, 12.3 and 127% for TPG/PBS(80/20), and 1.7 and 37% for TPG/PBS(20/80), respectively. The water resistance increased only for the samples containing a high value of PBS (>40%wt). Furthermore, mechanical properties and morphological analyses revealed that PBS/TPG blends were immiscible.

  12. Method and apparatus for extruding thermoplastic material

    SciTech Connect

    McKelvey, J.M.

    1985-02-26

    A gear pump assisted screw conveyor extrusion system utilizing a cartridge heating device disposed axially within the screw and having the drives for the gear pump and the screw correlated in speed to create relatively little pressure in the thermoplastic material being extruded such that relatively little mechanical working thereof occurs. The thermoplastic material is melted in the screw conveyor primarily by heat transfer from the cartridge heater and the gear pump is utilized for conveying the melted material under pressure to a subsequent work station. A relatively deep material-conveying spiral channel is provided in the screw for maximized extrusion output per revolution of the screw and minimized mechanical energy generation by the screw. A motionless mixer may be employed intermediate the screw and the work station to homogenize the melted material for reducing temperature gradients therein. The system advantageously is capable of extruding material at a substantially greater rate and a lower material temperature and with substantially increased power economy than conventional systems utilizing a high pressure, externally heated screw conveyor portion.

  13. Supportability evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanani, G. R.; Boldi, D.; Cramer, S. G.; Heimerdinger, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    Nearly 300 advanced composite components manufactured by Northrop Corporation are flying on U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy supersonic aircraft as part of a three-year Air Force/Navy/Northrop supportability evaluation. Both thermoplastic and high-temperature thermoset composites were evaluated for their in-service performance on 48 USAF and Navy F-5E fighter and USAFT-38 trainer aircraft in the first large-scale, long-term maintenance evaluation of these advanced materials. Northrop manufactured four types of doors for the project-avionics bay access, oil fill, inlet duct inspection, and a main landing gear door. The doors are made of PEEK (polyetheretherketone) thermoplastic, which is tougher and potentially less expensive to manufacture than conventional composites; and 5250-3 BMI (bismaleimide) thermoset, which is manufactured like a conventional epoxy composite but can withstand higher service temperatures. Results obtained so far indicate that both the BMI and PEEK are durable with PEEK being somewhat better than BMI.

  14. Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Huang, Kai; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-07-01

    An inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastic was developed through acetylation of rice straw (RS) with acetic anhydride. Acetylation conditions were optimized. The structure and properties of acetylated RS were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that acetylation of RS has successfully taken place, and comparing with raw RS, the degree of crystallinity decreased and the decomposition rate was slow. The acetylated RS has got thermoplasticity when weight ratio of RS and acetic anhydride was 1:3, using sulphuric acid (9% to RS) as catalyst in glacial acetic acid 35°C for 12h, and the dosage of solvent was 9 times RS, in which weight percent gain (WPG) of the modified RS powder was 35.5% and its percent acetyl content was 36.1%. The acetylated RS could be formed into transparent thin films with different amount of plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) using tape casting technology.

  15. Processing parameters for thermoplastic filament winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, J.; Leach, D.

    The consolidation pressure and winding speed for thermoplastic filament winding were studied. Thermoplastic composite parts were manufactured from tape prepreg (APC-2); powder-coated, semiconsolidated towpreg; and commingled fiber towpeg. The material used was carbon fiber (AS-4) (60 vol pct) in a PEEK matrix. The parts made were open-ended cylinders of the three materials, 177.8 mmID, 228.6 mm long, 17 plies thick with a 0 deg lay-up angle; and rings, 50 plies of APC-2 thick, 6.35 mm wide (one strip wide), 177.8 mm ID, and a lay-up of 0 deg. Their quality was determined by surface finish and void percentage. The tubes made from APC-2 appeared to have the best quality of the three prepregs. For the rings, the speed of lay down had a significant effect on both the final width of the parts and on the percentage of voids. The pressure of the roller had a significant effect on the final widths at a 99 percent confidence level, but only a significant effect on the percentage of voids at a 95 percent confidence level.

  16. Positron lifetime studies in thermoplastic polyimide test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stclair, T. L.; Holt, W. H.; Mock, W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were made in two thermoplastic polyimide materials recently developed at Langley. The long component lifetime values in polyimidesulfone samples are 847 + or - 81 Ps (dry) and 764 + or - 91 Ps (saturated). The corresponding values in LARC thermoplastic imides are 1080 + or - 139 Ps (dry) and 711 + or - 96 Ps (saturated). Clearly, the presence of moisture has greater effect on positron lifetime in LARC thermoplastic imides than in the case of polyimidesulfones. This result is consistent with the photomicrographic observations made on frozen water saturated specimens of these materials.

  17. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Steven Z.; Davey, John R.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  18. Thermoplastic Single-Ply Roof Relieves Water Damage and Inconvenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Assesses use of thermoplastic single-ply roofs by North Carolina's Mars Hill College to prevent leaks, reduce maintenance costs, and enhance the value of their older historic buildings. Administrators comment on the roof's installation efficiency and cleanliness. (GR)

  19. Manufacturing developments of filament winding for thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Minoru; Saigoku, Haruyoshi; Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    Thermoplastic composite materials for aerospace structures are examined. A forming method for filament windings is described, and the hot pressing technology is discussed. The test results are given, and the nondestructive inspection of fracture surfaces is considered.

  20. Induction Consolidation/Molding of Thermoplastic Composites Using Smart Susceptors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to explore and define the technical and economic viability of induction consolidation for thermoplastic composites and to fabricate a wide spectrum of components in an energy-efficient manner.

  1. Heating of thermoplastic-based unidirectional composite prepregs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Weber, M.E.; Charrier, J.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Thermoplastic-based prepregs offer a potential for faster manufacture of composite products than with thermoset-based prepregs. The winding or controlled placement of thermoplastic-based prepreg tapes requires the rapid heating of the moving tape, just prior to its contact with the substrate on the mandrel. In the case of complex shapes, geometrical constraints and significant variations in tape speeds in the course of manufacture, make it particularly desirable to be able to model the heating process. A mathematical model and its experimental verification for convection/conduction heat transfer to and through either a homogeneous thermoplastic material, or thermoplastic-based unidirectional composites featuring glass, aramid and carbon fibers, is discussed. 12 refs.

  2. Thermoplastic starch films reinforced with talc nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luciana; López, Olivia; López, Cintia; Zaritzky, Noemí; García, M Alejandra; Barbosa, Silvia; Villar, Marcelo

    2013-06-20

    Nanocomposite films of thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) with talc particles were obtained by thermo-compression in order to study the effect of filler on structure, optical, and thermal properties. Talc increased the films rigid phase, thus their cross-sections resulted more irregular. Talc preferential orientation within matrix and good compatibility between particles and TPS was observed by SEM. Slight crystalline structure changes in TPS matrix were measured by XRD and DSC, due to talc nucleating effect. Randomly dispersed talc nanoagglomerates and individual platelets were assessed by TEM. Laminar morphology and nano-sized particles allowed that nanocomposite films were optically transparent. TPS-talc films resulted heterogeneous materials, presenting domains rich in glycerol and others rich in starch. Talc incorporation higher than 3%, w/w increased softening resistance of the nanocomposites as stated by DMA. Relaxation temperatures of glycerol-rich phase shifted to higher values since talc reduces the mobility of starch chains.

  3. Monitoring impact damaging of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, S.; Carlomagno, G. M.; Meola, C.; Russo, P.; Simeoli, G.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoplastic composites are becoming ever more attractive also to the aeronautical sector. The main advantage lies in the possibility to modify the interface strength of polypropylene based laminates by adjusting the composition of the matrix. Understanding these aspects is of great importance to establish a possible link between the material toughness and the matrix ingredients. The aim of the present work is to ascertain the ability of an infrared imaging device to visualize any change, in the material behaviour to low energy impact, induced by changes in the matrix composition. Attention is given to image processing algorithms; in particular, an original procedure to measure the extension of the impact-affected area is proposed.

  4. ACT/ICAPS: Thermoplastic composite activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, M. P.; Burpo, S. J.; Roundy, L. M.; Todd, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is teamed with Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) under NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) initiative in a program entitled Innovative Composite Aircraft Primary Structures (ICAPS). Efforts at MCAIR have focused on the use of thermoplastic composite materials in the development of structural details associated with an advanced fighter fuselage section with applicability to transport design. Based on innovative design/manufacturing concepts for the fuselage section primary structure, elements were designed, fabricated, and structurally tested. These elements focused on key issues such as thick composite lugs and low cost forming of fastenerless, stiffener/moldline concepts. Manufacturing techniques included autoclave consideration, single diaphragm co-consolidation (SDCC), and roll-forming.

  5. Long-short fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, C.R.; Cuff, G.; Cianelli, D.A.; Travis, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents information on a new family of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic compounds developed by ICI PLC and now produced by LNP under the trade mark ''Verton.'' Production is by a pultrusion process, rather than by the usual compounding extruder, which enables a high level of impregnation to be achieved without damaging the fibers. The result in molded parts is a 0.24-0.40 inch (6-10 mm) typical fiber length versus 0.008-0.016 inches (0.2-0.4 mm) for conventional short fiber products. Consequently, this enables fabricators to achieve typically a 10 to 20-fold increase in average fiber length in the finished component. These long-short fiber reinforced compounds exhibit substantial property improvements over short fiber system. Processing conditions are similar to corresponding short fiber compounds.

  6. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  7. Toward Strong Thermoplastic Elastomers with Asymmetric Miktoarm Block Copolymer Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Thermoplastic elastomers ( TPEs ) are designed by embedding discrete...glassy or semicrystalline domains in an elastomeric matrix. Typical styrenic-based amorphous TPEs are made of linear ABA-type triblock copolymers...are a dominant category in the family of commercial thermoplastic elastomers ( TPEs ). Typical examples are polystyrene−poly(butadiene)−polystyrene (SBS

  8. Some properties of thermoplastic mixtures for forming ceramics by extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mosin, Yu.M.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-11-01

    The change in the rheological properties of mixtures for plastic forming based on cordierite and aluminum nitride as a function of the composition of the thermoplastic binder and the temperature is considered. A supposition on the influence of the ratio between the crystalline and the amorphous components of the thermoplastic dispersion medium on the properties of the mixture is made. Some recommendations on forming of ceramic pieces are given.

  9. Polymer alloys with balanced heat storage capacity and engineering attributes and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soroushian, Parviz

    2002-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer of relatively low melt temperature is blended with at least one of thermosets, elastomers, and thermoplastics of relatively high melt temperature in order to produce a polymer blend which absorbs relatively high quantities of latent heat without melting or major loss of physical and mechanical characteristics as temperature is raised above the melting temperature of the low-melt-temperature thermoplastic. The polymer blend can be modified by the addition of at least one of fillers, fibers, fire retardants, compatibilisers, colorants, and processing aids. The polymer blend may be used in applications where advantage can be taken of the absorption of excess heat by a component which remains solid and retains major fractions of its physical and mechanical characteristics while absorbing relatively high quantities of latent heat.

  10. Characterization of composites fabricated from discontinuous random carbon fiber thermoplastic matrix sheets produced by a paper making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducote, Martin Paul, Jr.

    In this thesis, a papermaking process was used to create two randomly oriented, high performance composite material systems. The primary objective of this was to discover the flexural properties of both composite systems and compare those to reported results from other studies. In addition, the process was evaluated for producing quality, randomly oriented composite panels. Thermoplastic polymers have the toughness and necessary strength to be alternatives to thermosets, but with the promise of lower cycle times and increased recyclability. The wet-lay papermaking process used in this study produces a quality, randomly oriented thermoplastic composite at low cycle times and simple production. The materials chosen represent high performance thermoplastics and carbon fibers. Short chopped carbon fiber filled Nylon 6,6 and PEEK composites were created at varying fiber volume fractions. Ten nylon based panels and five PEEK based panels were subjected to 4-point flexural testing. In several of the nylon-based panels, flexural testing was done in multiple direction to verify the in-plane isotropy of the final composite. The flexural strength performance of both systems showed promise when compared to equivalent products currently available. The flexural modulus results were less than expected and further research should be done into possibly causes. Overall, this research gives good insight into two high performance engineering composites and should aid in continued work.

  11. Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Filled Thermoplastics for Thermal Interface Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prindl, John

    Hexagonal Boron Nitride has been shown to enhance thermal conductivity in polymer composites more so than conventional ceramic fillers. However, to see a significant increase in thermal conductivity a high loading level of the advanced ceramic is often needed which can have an adverse effect on the mechanical behavior of the composite part. Applications for thermal management using thermal interface materials (TIM) continue to grow with thermoplastic injection molded parts emerging as an area for market growth. There is a growing need for published technical data in this particular area of application. In the current study, the thermal conductivity and mechanical behavior of hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) loaded thermoplastic composites is investigated. The main objectives of this work is produce a novel data package which illustrates the effects of hBN, loaded at high concentrations, across several different thermoplastic resins with the ultimate goal being to find a desirable formulation for specific thermal management applications. The desired properties for such applications being high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistivity with a minimal decrease in mechanical properties. Hexagonal BN cooling filler agglomerates were compounded into polypropylene (PP), nylon-6 (PA-6), and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) via twin-screw extruder at 3 different loading levels. Injection molded samples were produced and characterized to show varying degrees of thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Results from this research showed that in all cases, the thermal conductivity increased with increasing levels of hBN addition. The largest increases in thermal conductivity were seen in the PA-6 and TPE systems with the possible indication of exceeding the percolation threshold in the TPE system. This is hypothesized to occur due to the preferential migration of hBN to form conduction pathways around the elastomeric domains in the TPE matrix. Though TPE produced

  12. Improvement of bonding properties of laser transmission welded, dissimilar thermoplastics by plasma surface treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Sooriyapiragasam, S.; Behm, H.; Dahlmann, R.

    2015-05-22

    Compared to different welding methods such as ultrasonic welding, laser transmission welding is a relatively new technology to join thermoplastic parts. The most significant advantages over other methods are the contactless energy input which can be controlled very precisely and the low mechanical loads on the welded parts. Therefore, laser transmission welding is used in various areas of application, for example in medical technology or for assembling headlights in the automotive sector. However, there are several challenges in welding dissimilar thermoplastics. This may be due to different melting points on the one hand and different polarities on the other hand. So far these problems are faced with the intermediate layer technique. In this process a layer bonding together the two components is placed between the components. This means that an additional step in the production is needed to apply the extra layer. To avoid this additional step, different ways of joining dissimilar thermoplastics are investigated. In this regard, the improvement in the weldability of the dissimilar thermoplastics polyamide 6 (PA 6) and polypropylene (PP) by means of plasma surface modification and contour welding is examined. To evaluate the influence of the plasma surface modification process on the subsequent welding process of the two dissimilar materials, the treatment time as well as the storage time between treatment and welding are varied. The treatment time in pulsed micro wave excited oxygen plasmas with an electron density of about 1x10{sup 17} m{sup −3} is varied from 0.5 s to 120 s and the time between treatment and welding is varied from a few minutes up to a week. As reference, parts being made of the same polymer (PP and PA 6) are welded and tested. For the evaluation of the results of the welding experiments, short-time tensile tests are used to determine the bond strength. Without plasma treatment the described combination of PA 6/PP cannot be welded with

  13. Improvement of bonding properties of laser transmission welded, dissimilar thermoplastics by plasma surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Sooriyapiragasam, S.; Behm, H.; Dahlmann, R.

    2015-05-01

    Compared to different welding methods such as ultrasonic welding, laser transmission welding is a relatively new technology to join thermoplastic parts. The most significant advantages over other methods are the contactless energy input which can be controlled very precisely and the low mechanical loads on the welded parts. Therefore, laser transmission welding is used in various areas of application, for example in medical technology or for assembling headlights in the automotive sector. However, there are several challenges in welding dissimilar thermoplastics. This may be due to different melting points on the one hand and different polarities on the other hand. So far these problems are faced with the intermediate layer technique. In this process a layer bonding together the two components is placed between the components. This means that an additional step in the production is needed to apply the extra layer. To avoid this additional step, different ways of joining dissimilar thermoplastics are investigated. In this regard, the improvement in the weldability of the dissimilar thermoplastics polyamide 6 (PA 6) and polypropylene (PP) by means of plasma surface modification and contour welding is examined. To evaluate the influence of the plasma surface modification process on the subsequent welding process of the two dissimilar materials, the treatment time as well as the storage time between treatment and welding are varied. The treatment time in pulsed micro wave excited oxygen plasmas with an electron density of about 1x1017 m-3 is varied from 0.5 s to 120 s and the time between treatment and welding is varied from a few minutes up to a week. As reference, parts being made of the same polymer (PP and PA 6) are welded and tested. For the evaluation of the results of the welding experiments, short-time tensile tests are used to determine the bond strength. Without plasma treatment the described combination of PA 6/PP cannot be welded with sufficient bond

  14. A new technology for sandwich plates and structures based on the use of in-situ foamable thermoplastic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukers, Adriaan

    The cost effectiveness of structures in transports is basically depending on the operational capability and availability, the so called structure effectiveness, per unit cost. These costs are mainly determined by the cost to manufacture (acquisition costs) and the costs to operate (mass) and to maintain (damage sensitivity). In this paper the attention is focused on a new approach leading to efficiency improving sandwich material concepts, structures and related manufacturing processes, satisfying the value for money criterion as formulated by the cost effectiveness criterion. The sandwich materials and technology applied are based on the use of thermoformable continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymers, in particular E-glass reinforced polyetherimide (PEI).

  15. An approach towards tailoring interfacial structures and properties of multiphase renewable thermoplastics from lignin–nitrile rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Bova, Tony; Tran, Chau D.; Balakshin, Mikhail Y.; Chen, Jihua; Capanema, Ewellyn A.; Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-08-08

    Lignin-derived thermoplastics and elastomers with both versatile performance and commercialization potential have been an elusive pursuit for the past several decades. Lignin content has been limited to about 30 wt %, often requiring chemical modification, solvent fractionation of lignin, or prohibitively expensive additives. Each of these factors is a deterrent to industrial adoption of lignin-based polymers, limiting the potential of this renewable resource. Herein we describe high-performance multiphase thermoplastics made with a blend of 41 wt % unmodified industrial lignin and low-cost additives in a matrix of general-purpose acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). Hardwood soda lignin (HSL) and softwood kraft lignin (SKL) were blended under high shear conditions with NBR, carbon black (CB), polyethylene oxide (PEO), boric acid (BA), and dicumyl peroxide (DCP). This combination with SKL lignin in the proper proportions resulted in a thermoplastic with a tensile strength and failure strain of 25.2 MPa and 9 %, respectively; it exhibited an unexpected tensile yield, similar to that of ABS, a commodity thermoplastic. The analogous HSL lignin compositions are tough materials with tensile strengths of 7.3 16.7 MPa and failure strain of 80 140 %. The contrasting ductility and yield stress behavior were analyzed based on the compositions morphology and interfacial structure arising from the nature of each lignin studied. Lastly, the roles of CB as a reinforcement in the rubbery phase, DCP and BA as cross-linkers to create multiphase networks, and PEO to promote the adhesion and compatibility of lignin in commercial-grade NBR are also discussed in detail.

  16. An approach towards tailoring interfacial structures and properties of multiphase renewable thermoplastics from lignin–nitrile rubber

    DOE PAGES

    Bova, Tony; Tran, Chau D.; Balakshin, Mikhail Y.; ...

    2016-08-08

    Lignin-derived thermoplastics and elastomers with both versatile performance and commercialization potential have been an elusive pursuit for the past several decades. Lignin content has been limited to about 30 wt %, often requiring chemical modification, solvent fractionation of lignin, or prohibitively expensive additives. Each of these factors is a deterrent to industrial adoption of lignin-based polymers, limiting the potential of this renewable resource. Herein we describe high-performance multiphase thermoplastics made with a blend of 41 wt % unmodified industrial lignin and low-cost additives in a matrix of general-purpose acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). Hardwood soda lignin (HSL) and softwood kraft lignin (SKL)more » were blended under high shear conditions with NBR, carbon black (CB), polyethylene oxide (PEO), boric acid (BA), and dicumyl peroxide (DCP). This combination with SKL lignin in the proper proportions resulted in a thermoplastic with a tensile strength and failure strain of 25.2 MPa and 9 %, respectively; it exhibited an unexpected tensile yield, similar to that of ABS, a commodity thermoplastic. The analogous HSL lignin compositions are tough materials with tensile strengths of 7.3 16.7 MPa and failure strain of 80 140 %. The contrasting ductility and yield stress behavior were analyzed based on the compositions morphology and interfacial structure arising from the nature of each lignin studied. Lastly, the roles of CB as a reinforcement in the rubbery phase, DCP and BA as cross-linkers to create multiphase networks, and PEO to promote the adhesion and compatibility of lignin in commercial-grade NBR are also discussed in detail.« less

  17. Production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites through the use of polyhydroxybutyrate-rich biomass.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J; Wolcott, Michael P; Englund, Karl; McDonald, Armando G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that production of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (NFRTCs) utilizing bacterially-derived pure polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) does not yield a product that is cost competitive with synthetic plastic-based NFRTCs. Moreover, the commercial production of pure PHB is not without environmental impacts. To address these issues, we integrated unpurified PHB in NFRTC construction, thereby eliminating a significant energy and cost sink (ca. 30-40%) while concurrently yielding a fully biologically based commodity. PHB-rich biomass synthesized with the microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii UWD was utilized to manufacture NFRTCs with wood flour. Resulting composites exhibited statistically similar bending strength properties despite relatively different PHB contents. Moreover, the presence of microbial cell debris allowed for NFRTC processing at significantly reduced polymer content, relative to pure PHB-based NFRTCs. Results further indicate that current commercial PHB production yields are sufficiently high to produce composites comparable to those manufactured with purified PHB.

  18. A chitosan coated monolith for nucleic acid capture in a thermoplastic microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Eric L.; Wienhold, Erik; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for microfluidic, pH modulated DNA capture and purification using chitosan functionalized glycidyl methacrylate monoliths is presented. Highly porous polymer monoliths are formed and subsequently functionalized off-chip in a batch process before insertion into thermoplastic microchannels prior to solvent bonding, simplifying the overall fabrication process by eliminating the need for on-chip surface modifications. The monolith anchoring method allows for the use of large cross-section monoliths enabling high flowrates and high DNA capture capacity with a minimum of added design complexity. Using monolith capture elements requiring less than 1 mm2 of chip surface area, loading levels above 100 ng are demonstrated, with DNA capture and elution efficiency of 54.2% ± 14.2% achieved. PMID:25379094

  19. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique.

  20. Electrical conductivity enhancement in thermoplastic polyurethane-graphene nanoplatelet composites by stretch-release cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Pietro; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marras, Sergio; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S.

    2017-03-01

    This study shows that electrical conductivity and elastic modulus of conductive thermoplastic elastomers containing graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) can be significantly enhanced by exposing them to stretch-release cycles, without exceeding 20% of the maximum strain. Although no alignment of GnPs in any specific direction was detected, this enhancement was found to occur due to redistribution of the GnPs within the polymer matrix undergoing repeated stretch-release cycles. Up to 60% of reduction in electrical resistance and 30% enhancement in elastic modulus were measured for certain nanocomposites at the end of 1000 cycles. Processing of such GnP nanocomposites with stretch-release cycles could constitute an innovative approach to enhance their electrical and mechanical properties.

  1. Process analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fink, Herbert; Panne, Ulrich; Niessner, Reinhard

    2002-09-01

    An experimental setup for direct elemental analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS, or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, LIBS) was realized. The combination of a echelle spectrograph, featuring a high resolution with a broad spectral coverage, with multivariate methods, such as PLS, PCR, and variable subset selection via a genetic algorithm, resulted in considerable improvements in selectivity and sensitivity for this complex matrix. With a normalization to carbon as internal standard, the limits of detection were in the ppm range. A preliminary pattern recognition study points to the possibility of polymer recognition via the line-rich echelle spectra. Several experiments at an extruder within a recycling plant demonstrated successfully the capability of LIPS for different kinds of routine on-line process analysis.

  2. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  3. Highly conductive thermoplastic composites for rapid production of fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Jianhua [Blacksburg, VA; Baird, Donald G [Blacksburg, VA; McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-04-29

    A low cost method of fabricating bipolar plates for use in fuel cells utilizes a wet lay process for combining graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers, and reinforcing fibers to produce a plurality of formable sheets. The formable sheets are then molded into a bipolar plates with features impressed therein via the molding process. The bipolar plates formed by the process have conductivity in excess of 150 S/cm and have sufficient mechanical strength to be used in fuel cells. The bipolar plates can be formed as a skin/core laminate where a second polymer material is used on the skin surface which provides for enhanced conductivity, chemical resistance, and resistance to gas permeation.

  4. Electrical Properties of a Thermoplastic Polyurethane Filled with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Koerner, Hilmar; Kidder, Michelle; Vaia, Richard; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R

    2010-01-01

    In this study we report a nanodielectric system composed of pre-synthesized nanoparticles embedded in an elastomer. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were synthesized in an aqueous solution of titanium chloride and polyethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were blended in a twin screw extruder with a thermoplastic, polyurethane (Morthane PS455-203), to form nanodielectrics at three different weight fractions of titanium dioxide. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to study polymer dynamics and the influence of nanoparticles on relaxation. The segmental relaxation associated with the glass transition of the polyurethane matrix, and the local relaxations associated with short range motions of polar groups were investigated at wide ranges of frequency (20 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-20 K). The dielectric breakdown strength of the nanodielectrics was also measured to characterize their insulating properties and their potential for use in high voltage applications.

  5. High Temperature Reactive Thermoplastic Aromatic Polyimides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    temperatures and isothermal aging studies of the polymer, as well as, Dr. E. G. Jones for mass spectra TGA analysis . iii AFWAL-TR-80-4013 TABLE OF CONTENTS...after 200 hours (Figure 6). Mass spectra TGA analysis was carried out on polymer VIIIb from room temperature to 900’C using a 4.2°C/minute heating rate

  6. A Thermoplasticity Model for Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Camp, David W.

    2017-03-01

    Several regions of the world have abundant oil shale resources, but accessing this energy supply poses a number of challenges. One particular difficulty is the thermomechanical behavior of the material. When heated to sufficient temperatures, thermal conversion of kerogen to oil, gas, and other products takes place. This alteration of microstructure leads to a complex geomechanical response. In this work, we develop a thermoplasticity model for oil shale. The model is based on critical state plasticity, a framework often used for modeling clays and soft rocks. The model described here allows for both hardening due to mechanical deformation and softening due to thermal processes. In particular, the preconsolidation pressure—defining the onset of plastic volumetric compaction—is controlled by a state variable representing the kerogen content of the material. As kerogen is converted to other phases, the material weakens and plastic compaction begins. We calibrate and compare the proposed model to a suite of high-temperature uniaxial and triaxial experiments on core samples from a pilot in situ processing operation in the Green River Formation. We also describe avenues for future work to improve understanding and prediction of the geomechanical behavior of oil shale operations.

  7. Relaxation in bolted thermoplastic composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Walter J.; Schmitt, Ron R.

    1993-04-01

    The long term effects of the relaxation of fastener clamp-up force on the strength of mechanically fastened joints were investigated through a test program of single-shear joints. Static tests of two graphite/thermoplastic composite materials, IM6/KIII and IM8/APC (HTA), established joint bearing strength as a function of clamp-up force for both protruding head and countersunk fasteners. Test results indicated that joint bearing strength of both materials increased by as much as twenty-eight percent over the range of clamp-up force. Short-term fastener clamp-up force relaxation was monitored with special bolt force sensor washers. The results of these tests indicated that the fastener clamp-up force decreased an average of six percent from the initial value during the short-term room temperature tests and was projected to be as high as sixteen percent after 100,000 hours of service. The relaxation rate at the elevated temperature of 250F was projected to be as high as thirty-seven percent for HTA and sixty percent for KIII after 100,000 hours of service. It was concluded that the short-term relaxation of the clamp-up force did not significantly lower the bearing strength of either material, but an extended exposure to 250F could affect the bearing strength.

  8. Development of thermoplastic composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.; Todd, Stephanie A.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts focused on the use of thermoplastic composite materials in the development of structural details associated with an advanced fighter fuselage section with applicability to transport design. In support of these designs, mechanics developments were conducted in two areas. First, a dissipative strain energy approach to material characterization and failure prediction, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, was evaluated as a design/analysis tool. Second, a finite element formulation for thick composites was developed and incorporated into a lug analysis method which incorporates pin bending effects. Manufacturing concepts were developed for an upper fuel cell cover. A detailed trade study produced two promising concepts: fiber placement and single-step diaphragm forming. Based on the innovative design/manufacturing concepts for the fuselage section primary structure, elements were designed, fabricated, and structurally tested. These elements focused on key issues such as thick composite lugs and low cost forming of fastenerless, stiffener/moldine concepts. Manufacturing techniques included autoclave consolidation, single diaphragm consolidation (SDCC) and roll-forming.

  9. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  10. Development and characterization of hybrid thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkhanis, Priyanka Chandrashekhar

    This work is aimed at studying the possibility of using interply hybrid woven thermoplastic semi-pregs in secondary structures in aircrafts at TenCate Advanced Composites, Netherlands and Purdue University. Three different interply hybrids were designed from combination of Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg, Owen corning's woven glass with PPS sheets and discontinuous chopped Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg to get desired flexural, out of plane and bearing properties. The design calculations are done based on classical laminate theory and the selection of materials to be used with carbon-PPS was done based on cost and availability. The Hybrid laminate performances are analyzed and compared to the conventional Cetex (c) Carbon-PPS semi-preg laminates. Observations are reported on three point bend test (European standard 2562), four point bend test(ASTM D6415-99) and bearing test (Airbus standards AITM 1-0009) for the laminates and it was found that hybrid laminates show a reduction of 5-10% in bending stiffness, 20-40% reduction in out-of-plane strength and 2-5%reduction in bearing with a cost reduction of 20-30%. The research identifies and documents the different factors responsible for failures and reduction in strength in the Hybrids.

  11. Materials for Heated Head Automated Thermoplastic Tape Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is currently pursuing multiple paths to develop out of autoclave (OOA) polymeric composite materials and processes. Polymeric composite materials development includes the synthesis of new and/or modified thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix resins designed for specific OOA processes. OOA processes currently under investigation include vacuum bag only (VBO) prepreg/composite fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) and heated head automated thermoplastic tape placement (HHATP). This paper will discuss the NASA Langley HHATP facility and capabilities and recent work on characterizing thermoplastic tape quality and requirements for quality part production. Samples of three distinct versions of APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) thermoplastic dry tape were obtained from two materials vendors, TENCATE, Inc. and CYTEC Engineered Materials** (standard grade and an experimental batch). Random specimens were taken from each of these samples and subjected to photo-microscopy and surface profilometry. The CYTEC standard grade of APC-2 tape had the most voids and splits and the highest surface roughness and/or waviness. Since the APC-2 tape is composed of a thermoplastic matrix, it offers the flexibility of reprocessing to improve quality, and thereby improve final quality of HHATP laminates. Discussions will also include potential research areas and future work that is required to advance the state of the art in the HHATP process for composite fabrication.

  12. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  13. Non-invasive primate head restraint using thermoplastic masks

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Carlson, Monica L.; Toda, Koji; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of many neuroscientific studies depends upon adequate head fixation of awake, behaving animals. Typically, this is achieved by surgically affixing a head-restraint prosthesis to the skull. New Method Here we report the use of thermoplastic masks to non-invasively restrain monkeys’ heads. Mesh thermoplastic sheets become pliable when heated and can then be molded to an individual monkey’s head. After cooling, the custom mask retains this shape indefinitely for day-to-day use. Results We successfully trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to perform cognitive tasks while wearing thermoplastic masks. Using these masks, we achieved a level of head stability sufficient for high-resolution eye-tracking and intracranial electrophysiology. Comparison with Existing Method Compared with traditional head-posts, we find that thermoplastic masks perform at least as well during infrared eye-tracking and single-neuron recordings, allow for clearer magnetic resonance image acquisition, enable freer placement of a transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, and impose lower financial and time costs on the lab. Conclusions We conclude that thermoplastic masks are a viable non-invasive form of primate head restraint that enable a wide range of neuroscientific experiments. PMID:26112334

  14. Analytical Prediction of Forming Limits for Thermoplastic Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhikannickal, Elizabeth; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2005-08-01

    Commodity thermoplastics such as polypropylene and polyethylene are gaining more attention from the automotive industries for applications requiring weight and cost savings. In order to assess the feasibility of employing thermoplastic tubes for subsequent forming into automotive structural components, first an establishment of the forming limits (or the forming limit diagram) for these materials is required. An analytical model, which is able to predict the forming limits for thermoplastic tubes, is useful from the perspective of examining the effect of material properties on the forming of a given shape without numerous experimental forming trials. Knowledge of the forming limits for these materials is also useful in die design as well as process control. Since thermoplastics such as polypropylene are temperature and strain rate dependent, the proposed analytical model would be able to predict the effect of temperature and strain rate on the resulting forming limits for the tube along various loading paths. Preliminary results from the model indicate that thermoplastic tubes formed at elevated temperature undergo larger strains in both the hoop and axial directions of the tube prior to localized necking.

  15. The effect of polymer matrix on laser microfabrication of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Hiromasa; Tabata, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    The effect of polymer matrix on laser processing of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resist was reported. Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer is a resist in which Au nanoparticles with average diameter of around 3 nm was dispersed. Since the resist has a strong absorption at the wavelength of around 530 nm, it can be micromachined using focused low power Nd:YVO 4-SHG laser (CW, wavelength of 532 nm). From the evaluation of a dispersibility of Au nanoparticle in the different polymer using X-ray diffraction and visible ray absorbance, it was confirmed that the dispersibility of Au nanoparticle induced by the kind of polymer matrix influenced laser-processed shape. Moreover, from thermal properties and the calculation of temperature rise distribution by laser beam in polymer resist, it was predicted that the processing mechanism for thermoplastic polymer resist was related with melt and grain growth of Au nanoparticle.

  16. Self reinforcing polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kenig, S.

    1993-12-31

    In the advent of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), self reinforcing polymer composites comprising a polymer matrix and an LCP reinforcement, have become a reality. The so called self reinforcement is due to the LCPs orientability characteristics resulting from their rigid molecular backbone and anisotropy structure in the fluid state. Orientation development takes place during melt processing of the LCP composite blends where shear as well as elongational flows occur prior to consolidation to the solid state. By proper flow control anisotropy develops and in-situ composites are obtained. Polymer composites comprising self-reinforcement by LCPs during processing induced flow, were analyzed and studied with respect to their orientation development and resultant mechanical properties. The analysis commenced with the hydrodynamics of immiscible fluids in shear and elongational flows. Based on the analysis, orientation and morphology development in capillary extrusion was studied, using a variety of thermoplastic polymer matrices like amorphous and crystalline polyamides, polycarbonate and polyester in conjunction of a naphthalene based thermotropic LCP. Based on the flow-morphology relationship the amorphous polyamide/LCP composite was further investigated as it exhibited enhanced properties. Laminated composites based on LCP/amorphous polyamide were developed composed of unidirectional extruded and drawn sheets that were subsequently compression molded. Unidirectional, +45/{minus}45 and quasi-isotropic laminates were prepared and analyzed as to their microstructure and mechanical properties.

  17. Polyolefin Thermoplastics for Multiple Shape and Reversible Shape Memory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Weifeng; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-02-08

    This work reports the first pure hydrocarbon thermoplastic polyolefin material with reversible shape memory effect under stress-free or very small external loading condition. A thermoplastic ethylene/1-octene diblock copolymer with designed chain microstructure was synthesized. The polyolefin material performed not only the conventional one-way multishape memory effects, but also a two-way reversible shape memory effect (RSME). The elongation and contraction induced by oriented crystallization with heating was confirmed as the mechanism of RSME without chemical cross-linking. This work demonstrated that the thermoplastic reversible shape memory could be achieved through careful design of chain microstructure, based on sole hydrocarbon materials such as ethylene-1-octene copolymer.

  18. Analysis techniques for the design of thermoplastic bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmer, R.P.; Bailey, O.A.; Paro, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Increasingly, thermoplastic resins are being applied to automotive components which require structural performance. The work reported in this paper summarizes an ongoing effort to develop efficient mechanical technology for application in the design of thermoplastic bumpers. The technology development has included identification of material properties, investigation of basic component behavior, and finally the development of an automated system of analysis. A basic question often posed with regard to the analysis of structural components made of thermoplastics is whether the appropriate material properties are available and whether available analysis procedures can be applied accurately. This question was addressed through a program of fundamental material characterization, followed by structural component analysis. The analysis was then compared to test results from a parallel experimental program.

  19. Aliphatic-Aromatic Heterocyclics as Potential Thermoplastics for Composite Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Kiskiras, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The successful development of impact- and solvent-resistant thermoplastic systems for glass graphite composites is particularly attractive because of the demonstrated streamlined manufacturability of such composites. Hypothetically, thermoplastics only require simple heating and cooling cycles for component manufacture, whereas thermosets require precise, and possibly extended heating schedules which must be consistent with the cure chemistry. The sensitivity of the majority of existing thermoplastics to aircraft fluids and other solvents preempts their serious consideration in aircraft components. This is the basic reason that Acurex proposed insolubility in common solvents as the starting point. The target properties are summarized as follows: (1) prepreg properties (use of conventional prepregging equipment, 6+ months shelf stability, processability, and thermoformability); and (2) composite properties (-54 C to 93 C capability, good mechanical properties, good environmental properties, and impact resistance).

  20. Preparation of polypropylene thermoplastic container via thermoforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruqiyah Nik Hassan, Nik; Amira Mohd Ghazali, Farah; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mazni Ismail, Noor

    2016-02-01

    In this study, plastic containers made of polypropylene (PP) sheets were fabricated via vacuum thermoforming. Thermoforming is a process used in fabricating plastic parts by changing flat thermoplastic sheet to three dimensional shapes. In preparing these thermoplastic containers, the design and fabrication of mould were first done by using Catia V5 software and CNC milling machine, respectively. The thermoforming process was then performed at various temperatures ranging from 160°C until 200°C on the PP sheet to form the container. From the experiment, it can be suggested that the outcomes of final thermoplastic containers are significantly depends on temperature control during thermoforming process and also the vent holes design of the mould.

  1. Processing and Characterization of Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Group on Polymer Nanocomposites- PNC- Tech, http://www.imi.cnrc-nrc.gc.ca/ english /Default.htm. 2. Zhu, J ., et al ., “Reinforcing Epoxy Polymer Composites...through Covalent Integration of Functionalized Nanotubes”, Advanced Functional Materials, No. 7, 2004, pp.643-648. 3. Zeng, J ., et al , “Processing...Barrera, V., “A Study on Nanofiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (II): Investigation of the mixing Rheology and Conduction Properties

  2. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  3. Viscous and thermal modelling of thermoplastic composites forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Eduardo; Liang, Biao; Hamila, Nahiene; Boisse, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process. It is suitable for automotive composite parts manufacturing. The simulation of thermoplastic prepreg forming is achieved by alternate thermal and mechanical analyses. The thermal properties are obtained from a mesoscopic analysis and a homogenization procedure. The forming simulation is based on a viscous-hyperelastic approach. The thermal simulations define the coefficients of the mechanical model that depend on the temperature. The forming simulations modify the boundary conditions and the internal geometry of the thermal analyses. The comparison of the simulation with an experimental thermoforming of a part representative of automotive applications shows the efficiency of the approach.

  4. Continuation of tailored composite structures of ordered staple thermoplastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santare, Michael H.; Pipes, R. Byron

    1992-01-01

    The search for the cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising approaches is the conversion of a planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. A framework was established which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. Predictions for the effective viscosities of a hyper-anisotropic medium consisting of collimated, discontinuous fibers suspended in viscous matrix were extended to capture the characteristics of typical polymers including non-Newtonian behavior and temperature dependence. In addition, the influence of fiber misorientation was also modeled by compliance averaging to determine ensemble properties for a given orientation distribution. A design tool is presented for predicting the effect of material heterogeneity on the performance of curved composite beams such as those used in aircraft fuselage structures. Material heterogeneity can be induced during manufacturing processes such as sheet forming and stretch forming of thermoplastic composites. This heterogeneity can be introduced in the form of fiber realignment and spreading during the manufacturing process causing radial and tangential gradients in material properties. Two analysis procedures are used to solve the beam problems. The first method uses separate two-dimensional elasticity solutions for the stresses in the flange and web sections of the beam. The separate solutions are coupled by requiring that forces and displacements match section boundaries. The second method uses an approximate Rayleigh-Ritz technique to find the solutions for more complex beams. Analyses

  5. Tough, Microcracking-Resistant, High-Temperature Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Razon, Pert; Smith, Ricky; Working, Dennis; Chang, Alice; Gerber, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous synthesis from thermosetting and thermoplastic components yields polyimide with outstanding properties. Involves process in which one polymer cross-linked in immediate presence of other, undergoing simultaneous linear chain extension. New material, LaRC-RP40 synthesized from high-temperature thermosetting imide prepolymer and from thermoplastic monomer. Three significantly improved properties: toughness, resistance to microcracking, and glass-transition temperature. Shows promise as high-temperature matrix resin for variety of components of aircraft engines and for use in other aerospace structures.

  6. Cure kinetics, morphologies, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic/MWCNT modified multifunctional glassy epoxies prepared via continuous reaction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaole

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop a novel continuous reactor method to prepare partially cured epoxy prepolymers for aerospace prepreg applications with the aim of replacing traditional batch reactors. Compared to batch reactors, the continuous reactor is capable of solubilizing and dispersing a broad range of additives including thermoplastic tougheners, stabilizers, nanoparticles and curatives and advancing epoxy molecular weights and viscosities while reducing energy consumption. In order to prove this concept, polyethersulfone (PES) modified 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (44DDS)/tetraglycidyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) epoxy prepolymers were firstly prepared using both continuous reactor and batch reactor methods. Kinetic studies confirmed the chain extension reaction in the continuous reactor is similar to the batch reactor, and the molecular weights and viscosities of prepolymers were readily controlled through reaction kinetics. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed similar cured network morphologies for formulations prepared from batch and continuous reactors. Additionally tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture toughness analyses concluded mechanical properties of cured epoxy matrices produced from both reactors were equivalent. Effects of multifunctional epoxy compositions on thermoplastics phase-separated morphologies were systematically studied using a combination of AFM with nanomechanical mapping, spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to provide new insights to tailor cured reaction induced phase separation (CRIPS) in multifunctional epoxy blend networks. Furthermore, how resultant crosslinked glassy polymer network and phase-separated morphologies correlated with mechanical properties are discussed in detail. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TGDDM epoxy prepolymers were further prepared by combining the successful strategies for advancing epoxy chemistries and dispersing nanotubes using the continuous reactor

  7. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  8. A new synthetic route to a family of non-classical addition-type thermoplastics. I - Concept and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis scheme was developed for a host of nonclassical addition-type thermoplastics (ATT) that can be cured by an addition reaction, leading to a linear polymer structure. The synthesis involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated prepolymer with either a bismaleimide (BMI) or a biscitraconimide. A new polymer, designated LaRC-RP80, synthesized using this scheme, was found to exhibit several significantly improved properties over the commercial BMI, Kerimid 601, including an eight-fold increase in toughness while maintaining a high Tg, a higher (by 167 C) heat stability, and a 50-percent increase in moisture resistance. In addition, LaRC-RP80 has good hot/wet lap shear strength and processes easily at 288 C without voids in the finished product.

  9. Electron Beam Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymers with Tunable Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Keith; Nash, Landon D; Volk, Brent L; Ware, Taylor; Lewicki, James P; Voit, Walter E; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

    2013-06-01

    Novel electron beam crosslinked polyurethane shape memory polymers with advanced processing capabilities and tunable thermomechanical properties have been synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate the ability to manipulate crosslink density in order to finely tune rubbery modulus, strain capacity, ultimate tensile strength, recovery stress, and glass transition temperature. This objective is accomplished for the first time in a low-molecular-weight polymer system through the precise engineering of thermoplastic resin precursors suitable for mass thermoplastic processing. Neurovascular stent prototypes were fabricated by dip-coating and laser machining to demonstrate processability.

  10. Electron Beam Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymers with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Nash, Landon D.; Volk, Brent L.; Ware, Taylor; Lewicki, James P.; Voit, Walter E.; Wilson, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Novel electron beam crosslinked polyurethane shape memory polymers with advanced processing capabilities and tunable thermomechanical properties have been synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate the ability to manipulate crosslink density in order to finely tune rubbery modulus, strain capacity, ultimate tensile strength, recovery stress, and glass transition temperature. This objective is accomplished for the first time in a low-molecular-weight polymer system through the precise engineering of thermoplastic resin precursors suitable for mass thermoplastic processing. Neurovascular stent prototypes were fabricated by dip-coating and laser machining to demonstrate processability. PMID:25411531

  11. Method for preparing spherical thermoplastic particles of uniform size

    DOEpatents

    Day, J.R.

    1975-11-17

    Spherical particles of thermoplastic material of virtually uniform roundness and diameter are prepared by cutting monofilaments of a selected diameter into rod-like segments of a selected uniform length which are then heated in a viscous liquid to effect the formation of the spherical particles.

  12. Hybridized Thermoplastic Aramids: Enabling Material Technology For Future Force Headgear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers with thermoplastic elastomer matrices. The properties and use of these materials have been well described... elastomer Glass stitch bond Epoxy UHMWPE reported as a pass/fail based on the threshold criteria defined in performance specifications... elastomer Glass stitch bond Epoxy UHMWPE CANDIDATE MATERIALS FOR IMPROVED BALLISTIC EFFICIENCY DETAILS OF POLYOLEFIN-BASED ARAMID microscopy SEM Stage I

  13. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  14. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model for fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, T. S.; Sun, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    A constitutive model to describe the elastic/viscoplastic behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites under plane stress conditions is presented. Formulations are given for quasi-static plasticity and time-dependent viscoplasticity. Experimental procedures required to generate the necessary material constants are explained, and the experimental data is compared to the predicted behavior.

  16. Processing and characterization of unidirectional thermoplastic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Kameshwaran

    The manufacture of continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposites is discussed for the case of E-Glass reinforced polypropylene (PP) matrix and for E-Glass reinforced Polyamide-6 (Nylon-6), with and without dispersed nanoclay (montmorillonite) platelets. The E-Glass/PP nanocomposite was manufactured using pultrusion, whereas the E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite was manufactured using compression molding. Mechanical characterization of nanocomposites were performed and compared with traditional microcomposites. Compressive as well as shear strength of nanocomposites was improved by improving the yield strength of the surrounding matrix through the dispersion of nanoclay. Significant improvements were achieved in compressive strength and shear strength with relatively low nanoclay loadings. Initially, polypropylene with and without nanoclay were melt intercalated using a single-screw extruder and the pultruded nanocomposite was fabricated using extruded pre-impregnated (pre-preg) tapes. Compression tests were performed as mandated by ASTM guidelines. SEM and TEM characterization revealed presence of nanoclay in an intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology. Mechanical tests confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122% at 10% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜60% at 3% nanoclay loading) in modified pultruded E-Glass/PP nanocomposites in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3% nanoclay loading. Subsequently, E-Glass/Nylon-6 nanocomposite panels were manufactured by compression molding. Compression tests were performed according to IITRI guidelines, whereas short beam shear and uni-axial tensile tests were performed according to ASTM standards. Mechanical tests confirmed strength enhancement with nanoclay addition, with a significant improvement in compressive strength (50% at 4% nanoclay loading) and shear strength (˜36% at 4% nanoclay loading

  17. On-line consolidation of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Jen

    An on-line consolidation system, which includes a computer-controlled filament winding machine and a consolidation head assembly, has been designed and constructed to fabricate composite parts from thermoplastic towpregs. A statistical approach was used to determine the significant processing parameters and their effect on the mechanical and physical properties of composite cylinders fabricated by on-line consolidation. A central composite experimental design was used to select the processing conditions for manufacturing the composite cylinders. The thickness, density, void content, degree of crystallinity and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured for each composite cylinder. Micrographs showed that complete intimate contact and uniform fiber-matrix distribution were achieved. The degree of crystallinity of the cylinders was found to be in the range of 25-30%. Under optimum processing conditions, an ILSS of 58 MPa and a void content of <1% were achieved for APC-2 (PEEK/Carbon fiber) composite cylinders. An in-situ measurement system which uses a slip ring assembly and a computer data acquisition system was developed to obtain temperature data during winding. Composite cylinders were manufactured with eight K-type thermocouples installed in various locations inside the cylinder. The temperature distribution inside the composite cylinder during winding was measured for different processing conditions. ABAQUS finite element models of the different processes that occur during on-line consolidation were constructed. The first model was used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for the hot-air heat source. A convective heat transfer coefficient of 260 w/msp{2°}K was obtained by matching the calculated temperature history to the in-situ measurement data. To predict temperature distribution during winding an ABAQUS winding simulation model was developed. The winding speed was modeled by incrementally moving the convective boundary conditions

  18. Nonlinear rheology and strain recovery of short chain branched polyolefin elastomers and thermoplastic olefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patham, Bhaskar

    Polyolefin elastomers are random copolymers having a polyethylene backbone with the higher olefinic comonomer incorporated as short-chain branches. These random copolymers are widely used as polymer modifiers for thermoplastic materials such as polypropylenes, resulting in thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends. This thesis addresses the nonlinear rheological behavior of the elastomers and then of the TPO blends. The effects of varying short chain branch density (SCB) on the melt rheology of three ethylene-octene random copolymers have been investigated. In particular, the strain-hardening behavior in extensional flow and strain recovery following nonlinear shear creep has been evaluated. The zero-shear viscosity followed trends in the backbone molecular weight closely. While the three copolymers were indistinguishable in linear viscoelastic creep and recovery, recovery following nonlinear shear creep decreased progressively with increasing SCB density. This reveals that the extent of rapid chain equilibration that occurs over Rouse time scales at higher strains was progressively lower with increasing SCB density. Strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow was observed for all three copolymers. At strain rates below the primitive chain equilibration rates, strain hardening increases progressively with increasing SCB density. At higher rates, upon onset of primitive chain stretch, the strain hardening behavior for the three melts merges. Two thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends were characterized in the context of injection molding; the surface morphology of injection molded tensile bars with these materials showed surface defects or flow marks to different extents. The flow marks were traced to different degrees of strain recovery in the dispersed phases of the two blends. This recovery occurred over injection molding timescales of the order of a few seconds. Strain recovery after shear creep was higher in the blend that displayed more severe flow marks in injection

  19. Modification of wood fiber with thermoplastics by reactive steam-explosion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renneckar, Scott H.

    For the first time, a novel processing method of co-refining wood and polyolefin (PO) by steam-explosion was scientifically explored for wood-thermoplastic composites without a coupling agent. Traditional studies have addressed the improvement of adhesion between components of wood thermoplastic composites through the use of coupling agents such as maleated PO. The objective of this study was to increase adhesion between wood and PO through reactive processing conditions of steam-explosion. PO characteristics, such as type (polyethylene or polypropylene), form (pellet, fiber, or powder) and melt viscosity were studied along with oxygen gas content of the steam-explosion reactor vessel. Modification of co-processed wood fiber was characterized in four studies: microscopy analysis of dispersion of PO with wood fiber, sorption properties of co-processed material, chemical analysis of fractionated components, and morphological investigation of co-processed material. Two additional studies are listed in the appendices that relate to adsorption of amphiphilic polymers to the cellulose fiber surface, which is one hypothesis of fiber surface modification by co-steam-explosion. Microscopy studies revealed that PO melt viscosity was found to influence the degree of dispersion and uniformity of the steam-exploded material. The hygroscopic nature of the co-processed fiber declined as shown by sorption isotherm data. Furthermore, a water vapor kinetics study found that all co-refined material had increased initial diffusion coefficients compared to the control fiber. Chemical changes in fractionated components were PO-type dependent. Lignin extracted from co-processed wood and polyethylene showed PO enrichment determined from an increase of methylene stretching in the Fourier Transform infrared subtraction spectra, while lignin from co-processed wood and polypropylene did not. Additionally, extracted PO showed indirect signs of oxidation as reflected by fluorescence studies

  20. Study on the fabricating process monitoring of thermoplastic based materials packaged OFBG and their sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    As common materials or engineering materials, thermoplastic resin based materials can be used not only directly fabricating products but also FRTP(fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymer) materials for other uses. As one kind of FRTP material, GFRPP(glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) has lots of merits, such as: light weight, high strength, high tenacity, high elongation percentage, good durability, reshaping character and no environmental pollution characters. And they also can be conveniently formed hoop rebar in civil engineering. While a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG smart rod which combined GFRPP and OFBG together can be used as not only structure materials but also sensing materials. Meanwhile, PP packaged OFBG strain sensor can be expected for its low modulus, good sensitivity and good durability. Furthermore, it can be used for large strain measuring. In this paper, we have successfully fabricated a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene-Optic Fiber Bragg Grating) rod by our own thermoplastic pultrusion production line and a new kind of PP packaged OFBG strain sensor by extruding techniques. And we monitored the inner strain and temperature changes with tow OFBG simultaneously of the fabricating process. The results show that: OFBG can truly reflect the strain and temperature changes in both the GFRPP rod and the PP packaged OFBG, these are very useful to modify our processing parameters. And we also find that because of the shrinkage of PP, this new kind of PP packaged OFBG have -13000μɛ storage, and the strain sensing performance is still very well, so which can be used for large strain measuring. Besides these, GFRPP-OFBG smart rod has good sensing performance in strain sensing just like that of FRSP-OFBG rod, the strain sensitivity coefficient is about1.19pm/μɛ. Besides these, the surface of GFRPP-OFBG rods can be handled just as steel bars and also can be bended and reshaped. These are all very useful and very important for the use

  1. Energetic Polyoxetane Thermoplastic Elastomers: Synthesis and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    exception of one sample of random BAMO/AMMO ( Rocketdyne , Azusa, Calif.). was prepared previously, with butanediol borontrifluoride etherate initiator...of the Early Stages of the Crystallization of PET, Polym. Lem :. Vol. 10 (1972), pp. 473-77. 40. K. E. Hardenstine, G. V. S. Henderson, Jr., L. H... Rocketdyne Division, Canoga Park, CA H. Frankle (1) 1. Wilson (1) 1 Rutgers University, High Pressure Materials Research Laboratory, Piscataway, NJ (K. D. Pas

  2. Semi-interpenetrating polymer network for tougher and more microcracking resistant high temperature polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpenetrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. An improved high temperature matrix resin is provided which is capable of performing at 316 C in air for several hundreds of hours. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability and mechanical performance, and cost effectiveness.

  3. Blending Novatein¯ thermoplastic protein with PLA for carbon dioxide assisted batch foaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walallavita, Anuradha; Verbeek, Casparus J. R.; Lay, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The convenience of polymeric foams has led to their widespread utilisation in everyday life. However, disposal of synthetic petroleum-derived foams has had a detrimental effect on the environment which needs to be addressed. This study uses a clean and sustainable approach to investigate the foaming capability of a blend of two biodegradable polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and Novatein® Thermoplastic Protein (NTP). PLA, derived from corn starch, can successfully be foamed using a batch technique developed by the Biopolymer Network Ltd. NTP is a patented formulation of bloodmeal and chemical additives which can be extruded and injection moulded similar to other thermoplastics. However, foaming NTP is a new area of study and its interaction with blowing agents in the batch process is entirely unknown. Subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide have been examined individually in two uniquely designed pressure vessels to foam various compositions of NTP-PLA blends. Foamed material were characterised in terms of expansion ratio, cell size, and cellular morphology in order to study how the composition of NTP-PLA affects foaming with carbon dioxide. It was found that blends with 5 wt. % NTP foamed using subcritical CO2 expanded up to 11 times due to heterogeneous nucleation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that foams blown with supercritical CO2 had a finer cell structure with consistent cell size, whereas, foams blown with subcritical CO2 ranged in cell size and showed cell wall rupture. Ultimately, this research would contribute to the production of a biodegradable foam material to be used in packaging applications, thereby adding to the application potential of NTP.

  4. Foam injection molding of thermoplastic elastomers: Blowing agents, foaming process and characterization of structural foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, S.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer foams play an important role caused by the steadily increasing demand to light weight design. In case of soft polymers, like thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), the haptic feeling of the surface is affected by the inner foam structure. Foam injection molding of TPEs leads to so called structural foam, consisting of two compact skin layers and a cellular core. The properties of soft structural foams like soft-touch, elastic and plastic behavior are affected by the resulting foam structure, e.g. thickness of the compact skins and the foam core or density. This inner structure can considerably be influenced by different processing parameters and the chosen blowing agent. This paper is focused on the selection and characterization of suitable blowing agents for foam injection molding of a TPE-blend. The aim was a high density reduction and a decent inner structure. Therefore DSC and TGA measurements were performed on different blowing agents to find out which one is appropriate for the used TPE. Moreover a new analyzing method for the description of processing characteristics by temperature dependent expansion measurements was developed. After choosing suitable blowing agents structural foams were molded with different types of blowing agents and combinations and with the breathing mold technology in order to get lower densities. The foam structure was analyzed to show the influence of the different blowing agents and combinations. Finally compression tests were performed to estimate the influence of the used blowing agent and the density reduction on the compression modulus.

  5. The crystallization of tough thermoplastic resins in the presence of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theil, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of carbon fibers increased the crystallization rates of both PEEK and PPS thermoplastic polymers. The effect was most pronounced at higher crystallization temperatures. Isothermal crystallization rates were analyzed by applying classical phenomenological nucleation theory. Unusually high values of the so-called Avrami exponent were found for neat PEEK. Isothermal crystallization of PEEK and PPS polymers produced crystalline samples having a wide variety of melting temperatures. The melting as observed by differential scanning calorimetry occurred as dual endotherms which were called primary (higher temperature) and secondary melting peaks. Each primary peak accounted for most of the crystallinity present. The secondary peaks represented the melting of crystallites formed later than those attributable to the primary endotherms. The presence of carbon fibers increased the thermal stability of both PEEK and PPS crystallites as manifested by higher temperatures for the primary melting peaks. This may be attributable to increased crystallite size, greater crystallite perfection, and/or favorable modification of the crystallite interface. Over the range studied, crystallization temperature strongly influenced the positions of the secondary peaks but not the primary peaks.

  6. Effects of Prior Aging at 316 deg C in Argon on Inelastic Deformation Behavior of PMR-15 Polymer at 316 deg C : Experiment and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    material. The term “polymer” actually applies to a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a variety of properties and purposes. Actually, a... extrusion [29,30]. Further, thermoplastics can also be divided into two classifications: amorphous and crystalline. While thermoplastics that are capable of... Rubber and neoprene can be stated as the best known examples of the elastomers. Thermoset polymers are the most common types of matrix systems [28

  7. A Structural Approach to Establishing a Platform Chemistry for the Tunable, Bulk Electron Beam Cross-Linking of Shape Memory Polymer Systems.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Keith; Besset, Celine J; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter E; Wilson, Thomas S; Wooley, Karen L; Maitland, Duncan J

    2013-11-26

    The synthetic design and thermomechanical characterization of shape memory polymers (SMPs) built from a new polyurethane chemistry that enables facile, bulk and tunable cross-linking of low-molecular weight thermoplastics by electron beam irradiation is reported in this study. SMPs exhibit stimuli-induced geometry changes and are being proposed for applications in numerous fields. We have previously reported a polyurethane SMP system that exhibits the complex processing capabilities of thermoplastic polymers and the mechanical robustness and tunability of thermomechanical properties that are often characteristic of thermoset materials. These previously reported polyurethanes suffer practically because the thermoplastic molecular weights needed to achieve target cross-link densities severely limit high-throughput thermoplastic processing and because thermally unstable radiation-sensitizing additives must be used to achieve high enough cross-link densities to enable desired tunable shape memory behavior. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate cross-link density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs (Mw as low as ~1.5 kDa) without radiation-sensitizing additives by incorporating specific structural motifs into the thermoplastic polymer side chains that we hypothesized would significantly enhance susceptibility to e-beam cross-linking. A custom diol monomer was first synthesized and then implemented in the synthesis of neat thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs that were irradiated at doses ranging from 1 to 500 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated rubbery moduli to be tailorable between 0.1 and 55 MPa, and both DMA and sol/gel analysis results provided fundamental insight into our hypothesized mechanism of electron beam cross-linking, which enables controllable bulk cross-linking to be achieved in highly processable, low-molecular weight thermoplastic shape memory polymers without sensitizing additives.

  8. Interfacial strength development in thermoplastic resins and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, Jeremy C.; Loos, Alfred C.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental program to develop test methods to be used to characterize interfacial (autohesive) strength development in polysulfone thermoplastic resin and graphite-polysulfone prepreg during processing is reported. Two test methods were used to examine interfacial strength development in neat resin samples. These included an interfacial tension test and a compact tension (CT) fracture toughness test. The interfacial tensile test proved to be very difficult to perform with a considerable amount of data scatter. Thus, the interfacial test was discarded in favor of the fracture toughness test. Interfacial strength development was observed by measuring the refracture toughness of precracked compact tension specimens that were rehealed at a given temperature and contact time. The measured refracture toughness was correlated with temperature and contact time. Interfacial strength development in graphite-polysulfone unidirectional composites was measured using a double cantilever beam (DCB) interlaminar fracture toughness test. The critical strain energy release rate of refractured composite specimens was measured as a function of healing temperature and contact time.

  9. Near-Infrared Radiation Based Composite Repair Using Thermoplastics as Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    molding , which has been used for most of the thermoplastics described above. The first of five is a plain PA12 alloy, with no promoter. Within the...FINAL REPORT Near-Infrared Radiation Based Composite Repair Using Thermoplastics as Adhesives SERDP Project WP-1581 DECEMBER 2007 Dr...Using Thermoplastics as Adhesiveste 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  10. Microwave Induced Welding of Carbon Nanotube-Thermoplastic Interfaces for Enhanced Mechanical Strength of 3D Printed Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Charles; Lackey, Blake; Saed, Mohammad; Green, Micah

    Three-dimensional (3D) printed parts produced by fused-filament fabrication of a thermoplastic polymer have become increasingly popular at both the commercial and consumer level. The mechanical integrity of these rapid-prototyped parts however, is severely limited by the interfillament bond strength between adjacent extruded layers. In this report we propose for the first time a method for welding thermoplastic interfaces of 3D printed parts using the extreme heating response of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to microwave energy. To achieve this, we developed a coaxial printer filament with a pure polylactide (PLA) core and a CNT composite sheath. This produces parts with a thin electrically percolating network of CNTs at the interfaces between adjacent extruded layers. These interfaces are then welded together upon microwave irradiation at 2.45GHz. Our patent-pending method has been shown to increase the tensile toughness by 1000% and tensile strength by 35%. We investigated the dielectric properties of the PLA/CNT composites at microwave frequencies and performed in-situ microwave thermometry using a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera to characterize the heating response of the PLA/CNT composites upon microwave irradiation.

  11. Tribology of polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, K.

    1993-12-31

    Polymer composites are more and more used as structural components which are very often subjected to friction and wear loadings under use. This overview describes the following cases: (1) short fiber/thermoplastic matrix composites and their friction and wear properties as a function of both microstructural composition and external testing conditions. Special attention is focused on the effects of different polymer matrices, fiber reinforcements, and additional internal lubricants on the coefficient of friction and the specific wear rate of these materials when sliding against hard steel counterparts. Further effects on these tribological properties due to changes in testing temperature, sliding speed and contact pressure are outlined; (2) results of sliding wear experiments with continuous glass, carbon or aramid fiber/polymer matrix composites against steel counterparts. They were used to develop a hypothetical model composite with optimum wear resistance. This was achieved for hybrids with carbon fibers parallel and aramid fibers normal to the sliding direction of the counterpart; and (3) the friction and wear performance of thin layer composites strengthened with steel backeners to sustain very high pressure loadings during sliding wear.

  12. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  13. Screw-actuated displacement micropumps for thermoplastic microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Han, J Y; Rahmanian, O D; Kendall, E L; Fleming, N; DeVoe, D L

    2016-10-05

    The fabrication of on-chip displacement pumps integrated into thermoplastic chips is explored as a simple and low cost method for achieving precise and programmable flow control for disposable microfluidic systems. The displacement pumps consist of stainless steel screws inserted into threaded ports machined into a thermoplastic substrate which also serve as on-chip reagent storage reservoirs. Three different methods for pump sealing are investigated to enable high pressure flows without leakage, and software-defined control of multiple pumps is demonstrated in a self-contained platform using a compact and self-contained microcontroller for operation. Using this system, flow rates ranging from 0.5-40 μl min(-1) are demonstrated. The pumps are combined with on-chip burst valves to fully seal multiple reagents into fabricated chips while providing on-demand fluid distribution in a downstream microfluidic network, and demonstrated for the generation of size-tunable water-in-oil emulsions.

  14. Pultrusion with thermoplastics for the fabrication of structures in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the pultrusion method to produce structures in space is proposed. This technique is based on transporting materials in coils or bundles and fabricating the structures in space. Two methods for thermoplastic impregnation of advanced composite are described. The properties of three pultruded thermoplastic matrix materials, polyphenylene sulfide, polyetherimide (PEI), and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) are discussed and evaluated. It is observed that the pultrusions containing PEI and PEEK reveal post-fabrication potential of lightweight, high strength advanced composites and this method of fabrication produces strength values comparable to those of conventional techniques. Earth-based and space-based planetary shelter models are developed and compared. It is noted that cargo storage volume is dependent on a combination of profiles, packaging, and manufacturing methods.

  15. Method for shaping sheet thermoplastic and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akilian, Mireille K. (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Processes and apparati for shaping sheet glass or thermoplastic materials use force from a layer of a flowing fluid, such as air, between the sheet and a mandrel at close to the softening temperature of the thermoplastic. The shape is preserved by cooling. The shape of the air bearing mandrel and the pressure distribution of the fluid contribute to the final shape. A process can be conducted on one or two surfaces such that the force from the air layer is on one or two surfaces of the sheet. The gap size between the sheet and mandrel determines the pressure profile in the gap, which also determines the final sheet shape. In general, smaller gaps lead to larger viscous forces. The pressure profile depends on the shape of the mandrel, the size of the fluid gap and the sheet and the fluid supply pressure.

  16. Thermoplastic starch-waxy maize starch nanocrystals nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Angellier, Hélène; Molina-Boisseau, Sonia; Dole, Patrice; Dufresne, Alain

    2006-02-01

    Waxy maize starch nanocrystals obtained by hydrolysis of native granules were used as a reinforcing agent in a thermoplastic waxy maize starch matrix plasticized with glycerol. Compared to our previous studies on starch nanocrystals reinforced natural rubber (NR) [Macromolecules 2005, 38, 3783; 2005, 38, 9161], the present system presents two particularities: (i) thermoplastic starch is a polar matrix, contrarily to NR, and (ii) the chemical structures of the matrix and the filler are similar. The influence of the glycerol content, filler content, and aging on the reinforcing properties of waxy maize starch nanocrystals (tensile tests, DMA) and crystalline structure (X-ray diffraction) of materials were studied. It was shown that the reinforcing effect of starch nanocrystals can be attributed to strong filler/filler and filler/matrix interactions due to the establishment of hydrogen bonding. The presence of starch nanocrystals leads to a slowing down of the recrystallization of the matrix during aging in humid atmosphere.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of reprocessing on the structure and properties of low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blends.

    PubMed

    Peres, Anderson M; Pires, Ruthe R; Oréfice, Rodrigo L

    2016-01-20

    The great quantity of synthetic plastic discarded inappropriately in the environment is forcing the search for materials that can be reprocessable and biodegradable. Blends between synthetic polymers and natural and biodegradable polymers can be good candidates of such novel materials because they can combine processability with biodegradation and the use of renewable raw materials. However, traditional polymers usually present high levels of recyclability and use the well-established recycling infrastructure that can eventually be affected by the introduction of systems containing natural polymers. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the effect of reprocessing (simulated here by multiple extrusions) on the structure and properties of a low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/TPS) blend compared to LDPE. The results indicated that multiple extrusion steps led to a reduction in the average size of the starch-rich phases of LDPE/TPS blends and minor changes in the mechanical and rheological properties of the materials. Such results suggest that the LDPE/TPS blend presents similar reprocessability to the LDPE for the experimental conditions used.

  18. Structural response of bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall

    1991-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the structural response and failure characteristics of selected bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear-webs are presented. Results are given for specimens with one stiffeneer, with two stiffeners, and different stiffener geometries. Selected analytical results that were obtained with the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed computer code are presented. Analytical results that describe normal and transverse shear stress are also presented.

  19. 120mm Prestressed Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastic Overwrapped Gun Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    YYYY) 30-10-2008 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 120mm Prestressed Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastic...successfully test fired. The first barrel was not prestressed and was reported on previously. This paper will focus on the other three barrels. The... prestress in the jacket. Dealing with these issues greatly complicated the manufacturing process to the point where mass-producing the barrels would

  20. Modified Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Reinforce Thermoplastic Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron-COlon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic polyimide film was obtained by the addition of noncovalently functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Polyimide films were reinforced using pristine SWNTs and functionalized SWNTs (F-SWNTs). The tensile strengths of the polyimide films containing F-SWNTs were found to be approximately 1.4 times higher than those prepared from pristine SWNTs.

  1. Method to determine factors contributing to thermoplastic sheet shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensch, Greg J.; Frye, Brad A.

    A test method is presented for the determination of shrinkage behavior in vacuum-formed thermoplastic resin sheeting, as presently simulated for various resin lots, sheet-gage thicknesses, sheet orientations, and mold profiles. The thermoforming machine and vacuum-forming mold characteristics are discussed. It is established that the four variable factors exert statistically significant effects on the shrinkage response of three Declar resin lots, but that these are of no real practical significance for either engineering or manufacturing operations.

  2. Structure-property relationships of polyisobutylene- block-polyamide thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are a class of polymer fit for a wide variety of applications due to their customizability. In the synthesis of these types of materials, an elastically-performing polymer, deemed the "soft block," is combined with a stiffer "hard block" polymer, each of which can be selected based on their own specific properties in order to achieve desired material behavior in the final copolymer. Recently, the use of polyisobutylene as a soft block in combination with a polyamide hard block has been investigated for use in TPE synthesis. While the material showed some promising behavior, many properties were still below those of the commercially standard TPE material PebaxRTM. Polyisobutylene and polyamide samples of varying molecular weights and types were synthesized and combined in different ratios to form a variety of polyisobutylene-block-polyamide (PIB-PA) samples. Mechanical stirring as opposed to magnetic mixing and an increase in the soft block component of the copolymer were the most important adjustments made from previous PIB-PA syntheses. The effect of overall block length and the incorporation of a wider variety of polyamide (PA) types were also investigated. Mechanical stirring allowed for the achievement of higher molecular weights, and use of PA-6,6 as a hard block also produced a TPE with a markedly higher melting point than previously witnessed. Increasing the PIB content as well as using longer blocks of both precursors produced tougher copolymers, allowing them to undergo more mechanical deformation before failure as compared to previous PIB-PA formulations.

  3. Processing and Damage Tolerance of Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites Containing Puncture Self-Healing Thermoplastic Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Gordon, Keith L.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) has identified several commercially available thermoplastic polymers that self-heal after ballistic impact and through-penetration. One of these resins, polybutadiene graft copolymer (PB(sub g)), was processed with unsized IM7 carbon fibers to fabricate reinforced composite material for further evaluation. Temperature dependent characteristics, such as the degradation point, glass transition (T(sub g)), and viscosity of the PBg polymer were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic parallel plate rheology. The PBg resin was processed into approximately equal to 22.0 cm wide unidirectional prepreg tape in the NASA LaRC Advanced Composites Processing Research Laboratory. Data from polymer thermal characterization guided the determination of a processing cycle used to fabricate quasi-isotropic 32-ply laminate panels in various dimensions up to 30.5cm x 30.5cm in a vacuum press. The consolidation quality of these panels was analyzed by optical microscopy and acid digestion. The process cycle was further optimized based on these results and quasi-isotropic, [45/0/-45/90]4S, 15.24cm x 15.24cm laminate panels were fabricated for mechanical property characterization. The compression strength after impact (CAI) of the IM7/pBG composites was measured both before and after an elevated temperature and pressure healing cycle. The results of the processing development effort of this composite material as well as the results of the mechanical property characterization are presented in this paper.

  4. Novel alpha-zirconium phosphonates for the reinforcement of ductile thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Benjamin R.

    2007-12-01

    Ductile thermoplastics are useful additives for providing fracture toughness to brittle thermosetting polymers; however, this toughening is usually accompanied by a significant decrease in elastic modulus. Therefore, alpha-zirconium phosphonates (ZrP) were developed and investigated as reinforcing nano-scale fillers that increase the yield strength and elastic modulus of a polyester thermoplastic without causing a reduction in its ductility. ZrP materials are synthetic layered compounds that are imbued with targeted organic surface functionalities and whose structural development can be carefully controlled in the laboratory. Ether-terminal alkyl ZrP materials were designed and synthesized, using a conventional ZrF62--mediated preparation, with the intent of developing strong dipole-dipole interactions between the layer surfaces and polyester macromolecules. Additionally, a general method for using lamellar lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC's) as supramolecular templates for alkyl ZrP was evaluated, whose products showed promising similarity to the conventionally prepared materials. The LLC-forming characteristics of several organophosphonate preparations were determined, showing improved mesophase stability with mixed amphiphiles and preparation with R4N + counterions. A mixed-surface octyl/methoxyundecyl ZrP was produced and combined with polycaprolactone (PCL) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in concentrations up to 50% (w/w). The mechanical properties of the ZrP/PCL nanocomposite were evaluated by tensile, flexural, and dynamic mechanical testing methods. Nanocomposites containing 5% (w/w) ZrP showed significant increases in tensile yield stress and elastic modulus without suffering any loss of ductility versus the unfilled polymer. Layer delamination from the ZrP tactoids was minimal and did not occur through an intercalative mechanism. Higher ZrP loadings resulted in the agglomeration of tactoids, leading to defect structures and loss of strength and ductility

  5. Application of radiation-chemical technology to the manufacture of polymer-based materials and products

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.S.; Kalinina, N.A.; Migunova, I.I.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes research in the areas of: cross-linking of thermoplastics; curing of oligomer-monomer compositions for obtaining various compounds, and curing of adhesives for obtaining flockulated materials on a polymer support. The efficiency of the processes is stressed.

  6. Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c... chemicals vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  8. Laser-generated Macroscopic and Microscopic Surface Structures for the Joining of Aluminum and Thermoplastics using Friction Press Joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Alexander N.; Wirth, Franz X.; Rinck, Philipp; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Structural lightweight construction is increasingly utilized in the aerospace and automotive industry. Hybrid structures have great potential, especially with regard to load-specific component layouts. Usually, a surface pre-treatment is applied prior to joining dissimilar materials to improve bonding mechanisms such as form closure. In previous studies pulsed wave (pw) lasers were used for structuring metals. This paper presents the results of aluminum pre-treatment via a continuous wave (cw) single-mode fiber laser: macroscopic and microscopic structures were generated on the aluminum surface; the samples were joined with glass fiber reinforced polyamide using Friction Press Joining (FPJ), a method for joining metals and thermoplastic polymers in lap joint configuration. Using these new methods for surface structuring, shear strength was increased by 40% compared to previous studies with pw lasers.

  9. The study of multiphase polymer-blend morphologies by HVEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanaugh, T.J.; Nauman, E.B.; Buttle, K.; Turner, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Multiphase polymer blends are important in the polymer industry. Most commercial blends consist of two main polymers combined with a third, compatibilizing polymer, typically a graft or block copolymer. The most common examples are those involving the impact modification of a brittle thermoplastic by the microdispersion of a rubber into the matrix. Recently, a model of ternary polymer blend has provided a wealth of morphologies for examination. Even though this model can give an excellent basis for the design of a polymer blend, experimental verification is necessary. A correlation of blend properties such as impact strength with blend morphology must also be made. The focus is to confirm the predicted morphologies in binary and ternary blends using HVEM.

  10. Novel sustainable polymers derived from renewable rosin and fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbon, Perry

    In the work of this dissertation, polymers derived from renewable bio-based resources prepared by various polymerization techniques were investigated. The properties of these polymeric materials were characterized and discussed. Rosin was first converted into acrylate or methacrylate monomers for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Second, rosin was combined with vegetable oil to produce completely renewable novel polyesters by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. Third, degradable block copolymers were synthesized composed of polycaprolactone and rosin grafted polycaprolactone with the aid of ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Finally, degradable polyesters were produced using vegetable oil derivatives as starting materials. These new rosin and fatty acid based renewable polymer materials will have potential applications as sustainable thermoplastics, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.

  11. Study of Transport Properties and Structure of Extended-Chain Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    almost unavoidable consequences of the synthesis methods and processing conditions. Clearly a will be influenced by such variables. For example, the...and vapor diffusion D of polymers has been done on thin films of extruded or r molded thermoplastics and elastomers . Although some stu- dies have...polymeric systems and concluded that electronic conductions exist in s-me polymers such as polyacrylonitrile and polyamides . However, a very large

  12. Recycling of ligno-cellulosic and polyethylene wastes from agricultural operations in thermoplastic composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, wood plastic composites (WPC) represent one of the successful markets for natural fiber-filled thermoplastic composites. The WPC typically use virgin or recycled thermoplastic as the substrate and wood fiber as the filler. A major application of the WPC is in non-structural building appli...

  13. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic composites were measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF in thermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WF and one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs and thermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improved adhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seen on the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties of WF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensile and flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties of thermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPP coupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with the combination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with the use of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties required by the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards. PMID:27879719

  14. Study on ternary low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend films.

    PubMed

    Sabetzadeh, Maryam; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Masoomi, Mahmood

    2015-03-30

    In this work, low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) films are prepared with the aim of obtaining environmentally friendly materials containing high TPS content with required packaging properties. Blending of LDPE/LLDPE (70/30 wt/wt) with 5-20 wt% of TPS and 3 wt% of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) is performed in a twin-screw extruder, followed by the blowing process. Differential scanning calorimetric results indicate starch has more pronounced effect on crystallization of LLDPE than LDPE. Scanning electron micrograph shows a fairly good dispersion of TPS in PE matrices. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirm compatibility between polymers using PE-g-MA as the compatibilizer. Storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity increase with incorporation of starch. Tensile strength and elongation-at-break decrease from 18 to 10.5 MPa and 340 to 200%, respectively when TPS increases from 5 to 20%. However, the required mechanical properties for packaging applications are attained when 15 wt% starch is added, as specified in ASTM D4635. Finally 12% increase in water uptake is achieved with inclusion of 15 wt% starch.

  15. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-02-15

    This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  16. Impact Behavior of Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent with Thermoplastic Polyurethane Interleave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Heimann, Paula J.; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Martin, Richard E.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Impact damage tolerance and damage resistance is a critical metric for application of polymer matrix composites where failure caused by impact damage could compromise structural performance and safety. As a result, several materials and/or design approaches to improve impact damage tolerance have been investigated over the past several decades. Many composite toughening methodologies impart a trade-off between increased fracture toughness and compromised in-plane strength and modulus. In large part, mechanical tests to evaluate composite damage tolerance include static methods such as Mode I, Mode II, and mixed mode failures. However, ballistic impact damage resistance does not always correlate with static properties. The intent of this paper is to evaluate the influence of a thermoplastic polyurethane veil interleave on the static and dynamic performance of composite test articles. Static coupon tests included tension, compression, double cantilever beam, and end notch flexure. Measurement of the resistance to ballistic impact damage were made to evaluate the composites response to high speed impact. The interlayer material showed a decrease of in-plane performance with only a moderate improvement to Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness. However, significant benefit to impact damage tolerance was observed through ballistic tests.

  17. Effect of carboxylic acids as compatibilizer agent on mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch and polypropylene blends.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa Bercini; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2016-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene/thermoplastic starch (PP/TPS) blends were prepared as an alternative material to use in disposable packaging, reducing the negative polymeric environmental impact. Unfortunately, this material displays morphological characteristics typical of immiscible polymer blends and a compatibilizer agent is needed. Three different carboxyl acids: myristic (C14), palmitic (C16) and stearic acids (C18) were used as natural compatibilizer agent (NCA). The effects of NCA on the mechanical, physical, thermal and morphological properties of PP/TPS blends were investigated and compared against PP/TPS with and without PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA). When compared to PP/TPS, blends with C18, PPgMA and C14 presented an improvement of 25, 22 and 17% in tensile strength at break and of 180, 194 and 259% in elongation at break, respectively. The highest increase, 54%, in the impact strength was achieved with C14 incorporation. Improvements could be seen, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, in the compatibility between the immiscible components by acids incorporation. These results showed that carboxylic acids, specifically C14, could be used as compatibilizer agent and could substitute PPgMA.

  18. Electrospinning of unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers: Fiber orientation and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers were electrospun using a custom-built electrospinning device. The unidirectionally aligned fibers were collected using two parallel copper plates, and the orthogonally aligned fibers were collected using two orthogonal sets of parallel copper plates with alternate negative connections. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added to modify the polymer solution. It was found that both CNT and PAA were capable of increasing solution conductivity. The TPU/PAA fiber showed the highest degree of fiber orientation with more than 90% of the fibers having an orientation angle between −10° and 10° for unidirectionally aligned fibers, and for orthogonally aligned fibers, the orientation angle of 50% fibers located between −10° and 10° and 48% fibers located between 80° and 100°. Viability assessment of 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on TPU/PAA fibers suggested that the material was cytocompatible. The cells’ orientation and migration direction closely matched the fibers’ orientation. The cell migration velocity and distance were both enhanced with the guidance of fibers compared with cells cultured on random fibers and common tissue culture plastic. Controlling cell migration velocity and directionality may provide ways to influence differentiation and gene expression and systems that would allow further exploration of wound repair and metastatic cell behavior. PMID:24771704

  19. A new class of renewable thermoplastics with extraordinary performance from nanostructured lignin-elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jihua D.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Naskar, Amit K.; Tran, Chau D.

    2016-03-22

    In this study, a new class of thermoplastic elastomers has been created by introducing nanoscale-dispersed lignin (a biomass-derived phenolic oligomer) into nitrile rubber. Temperature-induced controlled miscibility between the lignin and the rubber during high shear melt-phase synthesis allows tuning the material s morphology and performance. The sustainable product has unprecedented yield stress (15–45 MPa), strain hardens at large deformation, and has outstanding recyclability. The multiphase polymers developed from an equal-mass mixture of a melt-stable lignin fraction and nitrile rubber with optimal acrylonitrile content, using the method described here, show 5–100 nm lignin lamellae with a high-modulus rubbery interphase. Molded or printed elastomeric products prepared from the lignin-nitrile material offer an additional revenue stream to pulping mills and biorefineries. Research was sponsored by the Technology Innovation Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. TEM (J.C. and C.D.T.) and SAXS (J.K.K.) experiments were conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  20. Using Improved Equation of State to Model Simultaneous Nucleation and Bubble Growth in Thermoplastic Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Irfan; Costeux, Stephane; Adrian, David; Cristancho, Diego

    2013-11-01

    Due to environmental regulations carbon-dioxide (CO2) is increasingly being used to replace traditional blowing agents in thermoplastic foams. CO2 is dissolved in the polymer matrix under supercritical conditions. In order to predict the effect of process parameters on foam properties using numerical modeling, the P-V-T relationship of the blowing agents should accurately be represented at the supercritical state. Previous studies in the area of foam modeling have all used ideal gas equation of state to predict the behavior of the blowing agent. In this work the Peng-Robinson equation of state is being used to model the blowing agent during its diffusion into the growing bubble. The model is based on the popular ``Influence Volume Approach,'' which assumes a growing boundary layer with depleted blowing agent surrounds each bubble. Classical nucleation theory is used to predict the rate of nucleation of bubbles. By solving the mass balance, momentum balance and species conservation equations for each bubble, the model is capable of predicting average bubble size, bubble size distribution and bulk porosity. The effect of the improved model on the bubble growth and foam properties are discussed.

  1. A new class of renewable thermoplastics with extraordinary performance from nanostructured lignin-elastomers

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jihua D.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Naskar, Amit K.; ...

    2016-03-22

    In this study, a new class of thermoplastic elastomers has been created by introducing nanoscale-dispersed lignin (a biomass-derived phenolic oligomer) into nitrile rubber. Temperature-induced controlled miscibility between the lignin and the rubber during high shear melt-phase synthesis allows tuning the material s morphology and performance. The sustainable product has unprecedented yield stress (15–45 MPa), strain hardens at large deformation, and has outstanding recyclability. The multiphase polymers developed from an equal-mass mixture of a melt-stable lignin fraction and nitrile rubber with optimal acrylonitrile content, using the method described here, show 5–100 nm lignin lamellae with a high-modulus rubbery interphase. Molded ormore » printed elastomeric products prepared from the lignin-nitrile material offer an additional revenue stream to pulping mills and biorefineries. Research was sponsored by the Technology Innovation Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. TEM (J.C. and C.D.T.) and SAXS (J.K.K.) experiments were conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.« less

  2. Green technology for conversion of food scraps to biodegradable thermoplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Du, Guocheng; Yu, Jian

    2002-12-15

    A new technology is developed and demonstrated that couples anaerobic digestion of food scraps with production of biodegradable thermoplastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The food wastes were digested in an anaerobic reactor producing four major organic acids. The concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and lactic acids reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4, and 32.7 g/L, respectively. The fermentative acids were transferred through membranes via molecule diffusion into an air-bubbling reactor where the acids were utilized to produce PHAs in an enriched culture of Ralstonia eutropha. With a silicone rubber membrane, butyric acid and small amounts of acetic and propionic acids were transferred and used, producing a homopolymer PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The dry cell weight and PHA content reached 11.3 g/L and 60.2% (w/w), respectively. With a dialysis membrane, the mass transfer rates of fermentative acids were enhanced, and the PHA production was significantly improved. The dry cell weight and its PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6% (w/w), respectively. The formed PHA was a copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8 mol % HV monomer unit. The polymer content (72.6% of dry cell mass) reported in this study is the highest one obtained from organic wastes and is comparable with the PHA content from pure glucose fermentation.

  3. The role of symmetry of chain extender in controlling the morphology of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamuo, Onyenkachi; Song, Cheng; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    Although polyurethane is a well-studied subject, the specific role of chain extender in the alteration of segmental dynamics and morphology formation has yet to be elucidated. Relatively low molecular weight thermoplastic polyurethanes synthesized from a two-step polymerization method were utilized in this study. The effect of the symmetry of chain extenders used in the polymerization on the morphological behavior has been studied. Comparison has been made for a number of chain extenders, including a symmetric 1,4 butanediol or 1,6 hexanediol and an asymmetric 1,2 propanediol or 1,3 butanediol. Using a combination of thermal analysis, spectroscopy and mechanical properties measurements, the development of morphological features were determined as a function of time and temperature. The symmetric chain-extended polyurethanes promotes the formation of hydrogen bonding, shows two glass transition temperatures consistent with a phase separation behavior and furthermore gives a more rigid, less extensible mechanical property when compared with the asymmetric chain-extended polyurethanes. In the latter case, the reacted polymer exhibits poor chain packing thus limiting the formation of robust hydrogen bonding behavior. It showed a singular glass transition representative of a more phase mixed system and shows more extensibility in terms of its mechanical behavior.

  4. Processing and properties of multiscale cellular thermoplastic fiber reinforced composite (CellFRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, L.; Cafiero, L.; D'Auria, M.; Iannace, S.

    2015-12-01

    High performance fiber reinforced polymer composites are made by embedding high strength/modulus fibers in a polymeric matrix. They are a class of materials that owe its success to the impressive specific mechanical properties with respect to metals. In many weight-sensitive applications, where high mechanical properties and low mass are required, properties per unit of mass are more important than absolute properties and further weight reduction is desirable. A route to reach this goal could be the controlled induction of porosity into the polymeric matrix, while still ensuring load transfer to the reinforcing fibers and fiber protection from the environment. Cellular lightweight fiber reinforced composites (CellFRC) were prepared embedding gas bubbles of controlled size within a high performance thermoplastic matrix reinforced with continuous fibers. Pores were induced after the composite was first saturated with CO2 and then foamed by using an in situ foaming/shaping technology based on compression moulding with adjustable mould cavities. The presence of micro- or submicro-sized cells in the new CellFRC reduced the apparent density of the structure and led to significant improvements of its impact properties. Both structural and functional performances were further improved through the use of a platelet-like nanofiller (Expanded Graphite) dispersed into the matrix.

  5. Development of LaRC (TM): IA thermoplastic polyimide coated aerospace wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, Jack

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley has invented LaRC(exp TM) IA and IAX which are thermoplastic polyimides with good melting, thermal and chemical resistance properties. It was the objective of this contract to prepare and extrude LaRC (exp TM) polyimide onto aircraft wire and evaluate the polymers performance in this critical application. Based on rheology and chemical resistance studies at Imitec, LaRC (exp TM) IAX melts readily in an extruder, facilitating the manufacture of thin wall coatings. The polyimide does not corode the extruder, develop gel particles nor advance in viscosity. The insulated wire was tested according to MiL-W-22759E test specifications. The resulting wire coated with LaRC (exp TM) IAX displayed exceptional properties: surface resistance, non blocking, non burning, hot fluid resistance, impulse dielectric, insulation resistance, low temperature flexibility, thermal aging, wire weight, dimensions, negligible high temperature shrinkage and stripability. The light weight and other properties merit its application in satellites, missiles and aircraft applications. The extruded IAX results in a polyimide aircraft insulation without seams, outstanding moisture resistance, continuous lengths and abrasion resistance.

  6. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  7. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  8. Scratch behaviors in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chen

    2000-10-01

    As part of a large effort toward the fundamental understanding of scratch behaviors in polymeric materials, studies were carried out on a broad range of polymers, with an emphasis on automotive thermoplastic olefins (TPOs). Two types of scratch tests were performed in this research, i.e., Ford constant load and instrumented progressive load scratch tests. A scratch model proposed by Hamilton and Goodman was applied to understand the fundamental mechanics of the scratch process. Several characterization techniques were used to investigate the scratch damage mechanisms in polymers. Both testing results and the scratch model analysis indicate that certain rigidity in polymers is essential to give good scratch resistance. Fundamental understanding of the scratching process in terms of basic material characteristics such as Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, friction coefficient, scratch hardness, penetration recovery and fracture toughness are discussed. Scratch damage investigation, on both surface and subsurface, shows that shear yielding is the main cause of the plastics flow scratch pattern, while tensile tear on the surface and shear induced fracture on the subsurface are the main damage mechanisms in the fracture scratch pattern. This study explains why automotive TPOs are susceptible to scratch under the current scratch test practiced in automotive industry. Shear deformation and fracture behavior in model TPOs are also studied using the Iosipescu shear test. Iosipescu shear deformation in terms of shear stress-strain curves of model TPOs is obtained experimentally. Shear fracture process and damage mechanisms in TPOs are also demonstrated and revealed. Further studies on the scratch damage in TPOs based on the roles of additives and fillers in the scratch behavior are addressed. The effects of phase morphology and toughening mechanisms on scratch behavior in TPOs are also discussed. This research has resulted in an increased understanding of the

  9. The effect of fullerene fillers on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. V.; Kostromin, S. V.; Shlykov, A. V.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of fullerene and carbon fillers on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites based on thermoreactive (epoxy resin) and thermoplastic (polyamide-12) matrices was investigated. It was found that the introduction of these fillers did not affect the properties of the thermoreactive blends, but Young's modulus and the tensile strength of the thermoplastic ones increased by about 30-40% upon addition of 0.02-0.08 wt.% fullerene materials. The best results were obtained for a mixture of C 60/ C 70.

  10. Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Bead Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossieny, Nemat

    Polymer bead foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a complex geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) bead foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-bead sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the beads as well strengthening the individual beads to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer bead foaming technologies, the E-TPU bead foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.

  11. Induction Consolidation of Thermoplastic Composites Using Smart Susceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsen, Marc R

    2012-06-14

    This project has focused on the area of energy efficient consolidation and molding of fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite components as an energy efficient alternative to the conventional processing methods such as autoclave processing. The expanding application of composite materials in wind energy, automotive, and aerospace provides an attractive energy efficiency target for process development. The intent is to have this efficient processing along with the recyclable thermoplastic materials ready for large scale application before these high production volume levels are reached. Therefore, the process can be implemented in a timely manner to realize the maximum economic, energy, and environmental efficiencies. Under this project an increased understanding of the use of induction heating with smart susceptors applied to consolidation of thermoplastic has been achieved. This was done by the establishment of processing equipment and tooling and the subsequent demonstration of this fabrication technology by consolidating/molding of entry level components for each of the participating industrial segments, wind energy, aerospace, and automotive. This understanding adds to the nation's capability to affordably manufacture high quality lightweight high performance components from advanced recyclable composite materials in a lean and energy efficient manner. The use of induction heating with smart susceptors is a precisely controlled low energy method for the consolidation and molding of thermoplastic composites. The smart susceptor provides intrinsic thermal control based on the interaction with the magnetic field from the induction coil thereby producing highly repeatable processing. The low energy usage is enabled by the fact that only the smart susceptor surface of the tool is heated, not the entire tool. Therefore much less mass is heated resulting in significantly less required energy to consolidate/mold the desired composite components. This energy efficiency

  12. Nonlinear mechanical behavior of thermoplastic matrix materials for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent theories of nonlinear mechanical response are quantitatively compared and related to experimental data. Computer techniques are formulated to handle the numerical integration and iterative procedures needed to solve the associated sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Problems encountered during these formulations are discussed and some open questions described. Bearing in mind these cautions, the consequences of changing parameters that appear in the formulations on the resulting engineering properties are discussed. Hence, engineering approaches to the analysis of thermoplastic matrix material can be suggested.

  13. Heat flow analysis in connection with thermoplastic filament winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brage, Anders; Lamrell, Charles

    1988-04-01

    In thermoplastic filament winding the calculated rate of cooling is found to be in the order of 100000 degr.C/second at the bonding interface. Short range heat flow phenomena are analyzed, and the result provides a simple rule of thumb for practice, together with a winding speed dependant correction for glass and carbon fiber composites. This enables an easy method to calculate the lower temperature limits for the process of continuous welding, as well as the upper temperature limit where resin starved laminates result from excessive resin flow due to heat buildup. The applied model of heat transfer is given in analytical expressions. Calculated results are given in several graphs.

  14. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Neitzert, Heinz C.; Sorrentino, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The frequency and the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin based bio-material have been investigated. At lower frequencies the dielectric response is strongly affected by charge carrier accumulation at the electrodes which modifies the dominating hopping conduction mechanism. The variation of the ac conductivity with frequency obeys a Jonscher type power law except for a small deviation in the low frequency range due to the electrode polarization effect. The master curve of the ac conductivity data shows that the conductivity relaxation of the gelatin is temperature independent.

  15. Use of vacuum bagging for fabricating thermoplastic microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Christopher L; Simon, Andrew J; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-07

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features.

  16. Time Issues in Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Cooling rate of semicrystalline thermoplastic (PEEK) based composite parts has been assessed by means of a thermal flow model. Cold tool thermoforming was found suitable for thin parts, but the use of a preheated tool is suggested. Cooling rate is critical for automated lay-up; consequently the optimization of this technique requires the use of a complex apparatus, able to provide both heating of the part during lay-up and a control of the cooling rate. Alternatively a modified cooling rate vs. crystallinity behavior of the material must be achieved.

  17. Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites.

    PubMed

    Bootklad, Munlika; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2013-09-12

    Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared using compression molding and chicken eggshell was used as a filler. The effect of the eggshell powder (EP) on the properties of TPS was compared with the effect of commercial calcium carbonate (CC). The organic compound on the surface of the eggshell powder acted as a coupling agent that resulted in a strong adhesion between the eggshell powder and the TPS matrix, as confirmed by SEM micrographs. The biodegradation was determined by the soil burial test. The TPS/EP composites were more rapidly degraded than the TPS/CC composites. In addition, the eggshell powder improved the water resistance and thermal stability of the TPS.

  18. FIBER ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDED LONG CARBON FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Mathur, Raj N.; Sharma, Bhisham; Sangid, Michael D.; Costa, Franco; Jin, Xiaoshi; Tucker III, Charles L.; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2015-03-23

    A set of edge-gated and center-gated plaques were injection molded with long carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, and the fiber orientation was measured at different locations of the plaques. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) software was used to simulate the injection molding of these plaques and to predict the fiber orientation, using the anisotropic rotary diffusion and the reduced strain closure models. The phenomenological parameters of the orientation models were carefully identified by fitting to the measured orientation data. The fiber orientation predictions show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Polymer research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Johnston, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Polymer synthesis programs involve the development of Novel thermoplastics, pseudothermoplastics, and thermosets. These systems are prepared to elucidate structure-property relationships involving thermal capabilities, toughness, processability and environmental stability. Easily processable polyimides, solvent-resistant polysulfones and polyphenylquinoxalines, and tougher high and intermediate temperature polymers were developed. Characterization efforts included high pressure liquid chromatography methodology, the development of toughness tests for fiber reinforced composites, a study of electrical properties of metal ion filled polyimides, and a study of the mutagenicity of aromatic diamines. Also the mechanism of cure/degradation of experimental polymers was studied by rheology, mechanical behavior, separation techniques and spectroscopy. The degradative crosslinking of alkyl-containing polyimides, the separation and identification of crosslinked phenylquinoxalines, the rheological behavior of hot-melt polyimides, and the elucidation of the cure of norbornene endcapped imides were also studied.

  20. Polyphenylquinoxalines containing pendant phenylethynyl and ethynyl groups. [for thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Poly(phenylquinoxaline) prepolymers containing pendant phenylethynyl and ethynyl groups are disclosed along with the process for forming these polymers. Monomers and the process for producing same that are employed to prepare the polymers are also disclosed.

  1. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  2. Potential for Advanced Thermoplastic Composites in Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    in gages down to 125 fxm. (34). 43 Damping The intrinsic damping of polymer matrix composite is one of three decades greater than aluminum or...PROPERTIES BETWEEN POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE , ALUMINUM, AND BERYLLIUM Polymer Matrix Composite Aluminum Beryllium Density, mg/m3 1.7 2.7 1.7...0*, 0*. 0*, 0"], laminate that is directionally stiffened for beam and tube applications. bMinimum polymer matrix composite gage is for six plies

  3. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  4. Patterning methods for polymers in cell and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Nam; Kang, Do-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jiao, Alex; Kim, Deok-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2012-06-01

    Polymers provide a versatile platform for mimicking various aspects of physiological extracellular matrix properties such as chemical composition, rigidity, and topography for use in cell and tissue engineering applications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of patterning methods of various polymers with a particular focus on biocompatibility and processability. The materials highlighted here are widely used polymers including thermally curable polydimethyl siloxane, ultraviolet-curable polyurethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol, thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and thermoplastic and conductive polymers. We also discuss how micro- and nanofabricated polymeric substrates of tunable elastic modulus can be used to engineer cell and tissue structure and function. Such synergistic effect of topography and rigidity of polymers may be able to contribute to constructing more physiologically relevant microenvironment.

  5. 3D thermoplastic elastomer microfluidic devices for biological probe immobilization.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Daniel; Clime, Liviu; Li, Kebin; Geissler, Matthias; Miville-Godin, Caroline; Roy, Emmanuel; Veres, Teodor

    2011-12-07

    Microfluidics has emerged as a valuable tool for the high-resolution patterning of biological probes on solid supports. Yet, its widespread adoption as a universal biological immobilization tool is still limited by several technical challenges, particularly for the patterning of isolated spots using three-dimensional (3D) channel networks. A key limitation arises from the difficulties to adapt the techniques and materials typically used in prototyping to low-cost mass-production. In this paper, we present the fabrication of thin thermoplastic elastomer membranes with microscopic through-holes using a hot-embossing process that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing. The membranes provide the basis for the fabrication of highly integrated 3D microfluidic devices with a footprint of only 1 × 1 cm(2). When placed on a solid support, the device allows for the immobilization of up to 96 different probes in the form of a 10 × 10 array comprising isolated spots of 50 × 50 μm(2). The design of the channel network is optimized using 3D simulations based on the Lattice-Boltzmann method to promote capillary action as the sole force distributing the liquid in the device. Finally, we demonstrate the patterning of DNA and protein arrays on hard thermoplastic substrates yielding spots of excellent definition that prove to be highly specific in subsequent hybridization experiments.

  6. Interlaminate Deformation in Thermoplastic Composite Laminates: Experimental-Numerical Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M.; Tong, J.; Wang, S.; Fang, Y.

    2010-06-01

    The interlaminar deformation behaviors of thermoplastic AS4/PEEK composite laminates subjected to static tensile loading are investigated by means of microscopic moiré interferometry with high spatial resolution. The fully threedimensional orthotropic elastic-plastic analysis of interlaminar deformation for the thermoplastic laminates is developed in this paper, and used to simulate the stress-strain curves of tensile experiment for its angle-ply laminates. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic FE analysis and microscopic moiré interferometry of interlaminar deformations are carried out for the [±25]S4 laminates. The quantitative local-filed experimental results of interlaminar shear strain and displacements at freeedge surface of the laminate are compared with corresponding numerical results of the orthotropic elastic-plastic FE model. It is indicated that the numerical tensile stressstrain curves of angle-ply laminates computed with 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic model are agree with experimental results. The numerical interlaminar displacement U and shear strain γxz are also consistent with the experimental results obtained by moiré interferometry. It is expected the elastic-plastic interlaminar stresses and deformations analysis for the optimal design and application of AS4/PEEK laminates and its structures.

  7. CREEP MODELING FOR INJECTION-MOLDED LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2008-06-30

    This paper proposes a model to predict the creep response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior described by the Schapery’s model. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber length and orientation distributions were measured and used in the analysis that applies the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka assumption (termed as the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach) and the fiber orientation averaging technique to compute the overall strain increment resulting from an overall constant applied stress during a given time increment. The creep model for LFTs has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been validated against the experimental creep data obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens. The effects of fiber orientation and length distributions on the composite creep response are determined and discussed.

  8. Extrusion foaming of protein-based thermoplastic and polyethylene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Chanelle; Lay, Mark C.; Verbeek, Casparus J. R.

    2016-03-01

    Currently the extrusion foamability of Novatein® Thermoplastic Protein (NTP) is being investigated at the University of Waikato in collaboration with the Biopolymer Network Ltd (NZ). NTP has been developed from bloodmeal (>86 wt% protein), a co-product of the meat industry, by adding denaturants and plasticisers (tri-ethylene glycol and water) allowing it to be extruded and injection moulded. NTP alone does not readily foam when sodium bicarbonate is used as a chemical blowing agent as its extensional viscosity is too high. The thermoplastic properties of NTP were modified by blending it with different weight fractions of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH) compatibiliser. Extrusion foaming was conducted in two ways, firstly using the existing water content in the material as the blowing agent and secondly by adding sodium bicarbonate. When processed in a twin screw extruder (L/D 25 and 10 mm die) the material readily expanded due to the internal moisture content alone, with a conditioned expansion ratio of up to ± 0.13. Cell structure was non-uniform exhibiting a broad range cell sizes at various stages of formation with some coalescence. The cell size reduced through the addition of sodium bicarbonate, overall more cells were observed and the structure was more uniform, however ruptured cells were also visible on the extrudate skin. Increasing die temperature and introducing water cooling reduced cell size, but the increased die temperature resulted in surface degradation.

  9. Dielectric Characterization of PCL-Based Thermoplastic Materials for Microwave Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Suzette M.; Shea, Jacob D.; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5 – 3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported three-dimensional anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21622068

  10. Manufacturing of a REBCO racetrack coil using thermoplastic resin aiming at Maglev application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor is a promising technology for the Maglev application in terms of its high critical temperature. The operating temperature of the on-board magnets can be around 40-50 K with the coated conductor. The REBCO coils are cooled by cryocoolers directly, and hence the thermal design of the REBCO coils significantly changes from that of LTS coils. We have developed a novel REBCO coil structure using thermoplastic resin. The coil is not impregnated and the thermoplastic resin is used to bond the coil winding and the heat transfer members, e.g. copper and aluminum plates. The viscosity of the thermoplastic resin is high enough for the thermoplastic resin not to permeate between the turns in the coil. Therefore, the thermal stress does not occur and the risk of degradation is removed. This paper contains the following three topics. First, the thermal resistance of the thermoplastic resin was measured at cryogenic temperature. Then, a small round REBCO coil was experimentally produced. It has been confirmed that the thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation and, the adhesion between the coil winding and copper plates withstands the thermal stress. Finally, we successfully produced a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil applying the coil structure with the thermoplastic resin.

  11. Dielectric characterization of PCL-based thermoplastic materials for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Shea, Jacob D; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Van Veen, Barry D; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-03-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported 3-D anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  12. High-Performance, Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Cannon, Michelle S.; Whitehead, Fred M.; Ely, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    High-performance polymer made by new synthesis in which one or more easy-to-process, but brittle, thermosetting polyimides combined with one or more tough, but difficult-to-process, linear thermoplastics to yield semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) having combination of easy processability and high tolerance to damage. Two commercially available resins combined to form tough, semi-IPN called "LaRC-RP49." Displays improvements in toughness and resistance to microcracking. LaRC-RP49 has potential as high-temperature matrix resin, adhesive, and molding resin. Useful in aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries.

  13. LDRD final report on intelligent polymers for nanodevice performance control

    SciTech Connect

    JAMISON,GREGORY M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.; SAUNDERS,RANDALL S.L; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; CARR,MARTIN J.; SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymer systems were prepared and evaluated for their bulk response to optical, thermal and chemical environmental changes. These included modeling studies of polyene-bridged metal porphyrin systems, metal-mediated oligomerization of phosphaalkynes as heteroatomic analogues to polyacetylene monomers, investigations of chemically amplified degradation of acid- and base-sensitive polymers and thermally responsive thermoplastic thermosets based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition chemistry. The latter class of materials was utilized to initiate work to develop a new technique for rapidly building a library of systems with varying depolymerization temperatures.

  14. Analytical and experimental evaluation of techniques for the fabrication of thermoplastic hologram storage devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on recording information on thermoplastic are given. A description was given of a typical fabrication configuration, the recording sequence, and the samples which were examined. There are basically three configurations which can be used for the recording of information on thermoplastic. The most popular technique uses corona which furnishes free charge. The necessary energy for deformation is derived from a charge layer atop the thermoplastic. The other two techniques simply use a dc potential in place of the corona for deformation energy.

  15. Sub-second thermoplastic forming of bulk metallic glasses by ultrasonic beating

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiang; Liang, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Zhiyuan; Gong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The work proposed a novel thermoplastic forming approach–the ultrasonic beating forming (UBF) method for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in present work. The rapid forming approach can finish the thermoplastic forming of BMGs in less than one second, avoiding the time-dependent crystallization and oxidation to the most extent. Besides, the UBF is also proved to be competent in the fabrication of structures with the length scale ranging from macro scale to nano scale. Our results propose a novel route for the thermoplastic forming of BMGs and have promising applications in the rapid fabrication of macro to nano scale products and devices. PMID:26644149

  16. High performance thermoplastics: A review of neat resin and composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    A review was made of the principal thermoplastics used to fabricate high performance composites. Neat resin tensile and fracture toughness properties, glass transition temperatures (Tg), crystalline melt temperatures (Tm) and approximate processing conditions are presented. Mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites made from many of these thermoplastics are given, including flexural, longitudinal tensile, transverse tensile and in-plane shear properties as well as short beam shear and compressive strengths and interlaminar fracture toughness. Attractive features and problems involved in the use of thermo-plastics as matrices for high performance composites are discussed.

  17. Is 3D printing safe? Analysis of the thermal treatment of thermoplastics: ABS, PLA, PET, and nylon.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Szymon; Klama, Piotr; Baran, Tomasz

    2017-02-06

    The fast development of low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers has made those devices widely accessible for goods manufacturing at home. However, is it safe? Users may belittle the effects or influences of pollutants (organic compounds and ultrafine particles) generated by the devices in question. Within the scope of this study, the authors attempt to investigate thermal decomposition of the following commonly used, commercially available thermoplastic filaments: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon. Thermogravimetric analysis has shown the detailed thermal patterns of their behavior upon increasing temperature in neutral atmosphere, while GC analysis of organic vapors emitted during the process of heating thermoplastics have made it possible to obtain crucial pieces of information about the toxicity of 3D printing process. The conducted study has shown that ABS is significantly more toxic than PLA. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been in the range of 0.50 μmol/h. Styrene has accounted for more than 30% of total VOC emitted from ABS, while for PLA, methyl methacrylate has been detected as the predominant compound (44% of total VOCs emission). Moreover, the authors have summarized available or applicable methods that can eliminate formed pollutants and protect the users of 3D printers. This paper summarizes theoretical knowledge on thermal degradation of polymers used for 3D printers and shows results of authors' investigation, as well as presents forward-looking solutions that may increase the safety of utilization of 3D printers.

  18. Thermosetting epoxy resin/thermoplastic system with combined shape memory and self-healing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Wang, Jingjie; Lu, Haibao; Xu, Ben; Fu, Yongqing; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile strategy was proposed to construct a thermosetting/thermoplastic system with both shape memory and self-healing properties based on commercial epoxy resin and poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-PCL. Thermoplastic material is capable of re-structuring and changing the stiffness/modulus when the temperature is above melting temperature. PCL microfiber was used as a plasticizer in epoxy resin-based blends, and served as a ‘hard segment’ to fix a temporary shape of the composites during shape memory cycles. In this study, the electrospun PCL membrane with a porous network structure enabled a homogenous PCL fibrous distribution and optimized interaction between fiber and epoxy resin. The self-healing capability is achieved by phase transition during curing of the composites. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of the thermosetting (rubber)/thermoplastic composite is attributed to the structural design of the thermoplastic network inside the thermosetting resin/rubber matrix.

  19. Relaxation map of a 100% green thermoplastic film. Glass transition and fragility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiter, J. M.; Dobircau, L.; Saiah, R.; Sreekumar, P. A.; Galandon, A.; Gattin, R.; Leblanc, N.; Adhikari, R.

    2010-02-01

    A 100% green thermoplastic obtained by extrusion of a mixture of wheat flour and plasticizers has been realized. The existence of two vitreous phases in this 100% green thermoplastic film has been pointed out by means of calorimetric measurements ( T g=-56 °C and T g=10 °C) and confirmed by electron microscopy. The molecular dynamics have been investigated by means of DMA measurements for temperature domains in the vicinity of the glass transition of each phase. We show that each phase exhibits a molecular dynamic characteristic of a fragile glass liquid former. The size of the cooperative domain engaged in the relaxation processes have also been estimated and we show that this new green thermoplastic exhibits relaxation mechanisms as expected for a conventional thermoplastic, as for instance a PMMA.

  20. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  1. Preprosthetic minor tooth movement with thermoplastic appliances and interproximal stripping: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    This clinical report describes preprosthodontic minor tooth movement with serial thermoplastic appliances and interproximal stripping. A patient with rotated and labially tipped anterior teeth sought care with a request for improved appearance. The prosthodontic planning and treatment approach are discussed.

  2. Permittivity measurement of thermoplastic composites at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Ku, H S; Horsfield, B; Ball, J A; Siores, E

    2001-01-01

    The material properties of greatest importance in microwave processing of a dielectric are the complex relative permittivity epsilon = epsilon'-jepsilon", and the loss tangent, tan delta = epsilon"/epsilon'. This paper describes two convenient laboratory based methods to obtain epsilon', epsilon" and hence tan delta of fibre-reinforced thermoplastic (FRTP) composites. One method employs a microwave network analyzer in conjunction with a waveguide transmission technique, chosen because it provides the widest possible frequency range with high accuracy. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of glass fibre reinforced (33%) low density polyethylene, LDPE/GF (33%), polystyrene, PS/GF (33%), and Nylon 66/GF (33%), were obtained. Results are compared with those obtained by another method using a high-temperature dielectric probe.

  3. Processing Optimization of Deformed Plain Woven Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Vaidya, Uday K.

    2013-12-01

    This research addresses the processing optimization of post-manufactured, plain weave architecture composite panels consisted of four glass layers and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) when formed with only localized heating. Often times, during the production of deep drawn composite parts, a fabric preform experiences various defects, including non-isothermal heating and thickness variations. Minimizing these defects is of utmost importance for mass produceability in a practical manufacturing process. The broad objective of this research was to implement a design of experiments approach to minimize through-thickness composite panel variation during manufacturing by varying the heating time, the temperature of heated components and the clamping pressure. It was concluded that the heated tooling with least area contact was most influential, followed by the length of heating time and the amount of clamping pressure.

  4. Fabrication of metallic glass micro grooves by thermoplastic forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Zhang, Hong; Liang, Xiong; Gong, Feng; Ma, Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are considered as ideal materials for miniature fabrication because of their excellent thermoplastic forming ability in the supercooled liquid region. We show that Pd-based MG micro grooves, which are essential for microdluidic devices, can be prepared by a highly efficient and precise fabrication method. The scanning electron microscope observation and surface profiler measurement show that the MG micro grooves have superior dimensional accuracy. The excellent corrosion resistance of MGs compared with silicon, which is the conventional microfluidic device material, is also proved by the weight-loss corrosion method. Our results indicate that MG can be a promising candidate material for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and may have broad applications in the biomedical areas.

  5. Intrinsic manufacture of hollow thermoplastic composite/metal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, Daniel; Grützner, Raik; Garthaus, Christian; Gude, Maik; Müller, Roland; Langrebe, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to common and classical joining technologies for composite/metal hybrid structures such as bonding and riveting, profile and contour joints offer a promising potential for novel lightweight hybrid structures. First and foremost, joining systems with a form closure function enable to pass very high loads into rod- and tube-shaped fibre reinforced structures and achieve high degrees of material utilization for the composite part. This paper demonstrates the theoretical and technological principals for a resource efficient design and production of highly loaded thermoplastic composite profile structures with integrated metallic load introduction elements and a multi scale form closure. The hybrid structures are produced in an integral blow moulding process in which a braided tape-preform is simultaneously consolidated and formed into the metallic load introduction element. These metallic load introduction elements are manufactured in a two-stage process of external and internal hydroforming, after forming simulations have assured process stability for consistent quality.

  6. An automated technique for manufacturing thermoplastic stringers in continuous length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Baxevani, E.; Spelz, U.

    In the present work an automated Continuous Compression Moulding Technique for the manufacture of stringers in continuous length is presented. The method combines pultrusion and hot-pressing. The technique is utilized for the production of L-shape stringers which are widely applied in aerospace constructions. The investigation was carried out on carbon reinforced PEEK (C/PEEK), as well as, for comparison, on the thermoplastic composites carbon reinforced polyethersulfon (C/PES), glass and carbon reinforced polyphenylene-sulfide (G/PPS, C/PPS) and Kevlar reinforced Polyamide 6 (K/PA 6). For the materials investigated the optimized process parameters for manufacturing the L-shape stringers were derived experimentally. To achieve this goal, the quality of the produced parts was controlled by using non-destructive testing techniques. Parts providing satisfactory quality were also tested destructively to measure their mechanical properties. The investigation results have shown the suitability of the technique to produce continuous length stringers.

  7. Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2009-10-30

    This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions is performed to establish the stiffness reduction relation for the composite as a function of the microcrack volume fraction. Next, continuum damage mechanics and a thermodynamic formulation are used to derive the constitutive relations and the damage evolution law. The fatigue damage model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code and has been applied to analyze fatigue of the studied glass/PA6,6 specimens. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.

  8. Tape Placement Head for Applying Thermoplastic Tape to an Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, Ralph D. (Inventor); Funck, Steve B. (Inventor); Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Lamontia, Mark A. (Inventor); Johnson, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A tape placement head for applying thermoplastic tape to an object includes a heated feeder which guides the tape/tow to a heated zone. The heated zone has a line compactor having a single row of at least one movable heated member. An area compactor is located in the heated zone downstream from the line compactor. The area compactor includes a plurality of rows of movable feet which are extendable toward the tape/tow different distances with respect to each other to conform to the shape of the object. A shim is located between the heated compactors and the tape/tow. A chilled compactor is in a chilled zone downstream from the heated zone. The chilled zone includes a line chilled compactor and an area chilled compactor. A chilled shim is mounted between the chilled compactor and the tape/tow.

  9. Adjustable forming of thermoplastic composites for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Hou, M; Friedrich, K

    1998-02-01

    The present study was focused on the development of a special thermoforming technique for manufacturing of continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite parts with complex surface contours. In particular, a stamp forming process was modified to investigate the potential manufacturing advantages of thermoplastic composites in orthopaedic applications. An apparatus was designed which allowed the thermoforming procedure to be fully automatic, i.e. a cold pre-consolidated laminate panel, as the feed material, was heated up in an infrared heating zone and then transferred into a cold mould system, where it was stamp formed. Both halves of the mould were made of many tiny round metal sticks in a metal frame. This needle-bed mould allowed one to copy any contour by pushing it slightly on spring fixed sticks. The desired position of these sticks could then be adjusted by forcing the side plates of the metal frame together. To prevent any press mark of stick-tops on the composite, i.e. to achieve smooth surfaces of the themoformed composite parts, flexible rubber pads were needed to cover the mould surfaces. Experimental results showed that the surface profile of CF/PP and GF/PP composites formed by the needle-bed mould reproduced fairly well the contour of a saddle shaped, complex model sample. Unique properties of this needle-bed mould are that it can be repeatedly used, and that it can copy any complex surface contours, for example a bone surface, by simply adjusting the stick positions according to the special surface requirements.

  10. Color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasp denture

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dae-Eun; Lee, Ji-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seon; Lee, Jang-Jae

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp dentures to those of thermoplastic polyamide and conventional heat-polymerized denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three types of denture base resin, which are conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20), thermoplastic polyamide resin (Bio Tone), thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) were used as materials for this study. One hundred five specimens were fabricated. For the color stability test, specimens were immersed in the coffee and green tee for 1 and 8 weeks. Color change was measured by spectrometer. Water sorption was tested after 1 and 8 weeks immersion in the water. For the test of cytotoxicity, cell viability assay was measured and cell attachment was analyzed by FE-SEM. RESULTS All types of denture base resin showed color changes after 1 and 8 weeks immersion. However, there was no significant difference between denture base resins. All specimens showed significant color changes in the coffee than green tee. In water sorption test, thermoplastic acrylic resin showed lower values than conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin and thermoplastic polyamide resin. Three types of denture base showed low cytotoxicity in cell viability assay. Thermoplastic acrylic resin showed the similar cell attachment but more stable attachment than conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin. CONCLUSION Thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp denture showed acceptable color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity. To verify the long stability in the mouth, additional in vitro studies are needed. PMID:26330974

  11. FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

  12. Study of correlations between microstructure and conductivity in a thermoplastic polyurethane electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Furtado, C.A.

    1999-08-26

    Micro-Raman and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) have been used to investigate the structure of a thermoplastic polyurethane/LiClO{sub 4} solid flexible polymer electrolyte at room temperature. Correlation between the free volume and carrier concentration with ionic conductivity was observed. The polyurethane soft phase consisted of a poly(tetramethylene glycol-co-ethylene glycol) copolymer reinforced by condensation with hexamethyldiisocianate. The range of salt concentration between 5 and 35 wt %, which attained the beginning of phase segregation, was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed the presence of three thermal events; the soft-phase T{sub g}, a change in heat capacity suggested as the hard-phase T{sub g}, and a hard-phase ordering endotherm. The total ionic conductivity was found to be approximately 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} S cm{sup {minus}1} at 23 C up to 27 wt % salt, whereas there were pronounced changes observed by the spectroscopic techniques. The PALS measurements indicated a decrease of 40% of the ratio (V{sub f}I{sub 3}/(V{sub f}I{sub 3}){sub 0}) between the free volume parameters probed by the positron particle. This ratio is proportional to the fractional free volume of the system. The micro-Raman results showed an increase of ionic aggregation, although the charge carrier concentration increased significantly in the range of compositions studied. The opposite effects of the microstructural changes and the maximum conductivity value, in the observed range of concentrations, are discussed.

  13. Antimicrobial polymers with metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-19

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

  14. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

  15. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-09-01

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.

  16. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to −150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed. PMID:26382318

  17. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-09-18

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.

  18. Comparison of Piezoresistive Monofilament Polymer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Melnykowycz, Mark; Koll, Birgit; Scharf, Dagobert; Clemens, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The development of flexible polymer monofilament fiber strain sensors have many applications in both wearable computing (clothing, gloves, etc.) and robotics design (large deformation control). For example, a high-stretch monofilament sensor could be integrated into robotic arm design, easily stretching over joints or along curved surfaces. As a monofilament, the sensor can be woven into or integrated with textiles for position or physiological monitoring, computer interface control, etc. Commercially available conductive polymer monofilament sensors were tested alongside monofilaments produced from carbon black (CB) mixed with a thermo-plastic elastomer (TPE) and extruded in different diameters. It was found that signal strength, drift, and precision characteristics were better with a 0.3 mm diameter CB/TPE monofilament than thick (∼2 mm diameter) based on the same material or commercial monofilaments based on natural rubber or silicone elastomer (SE) matrices. PMID:24419161

  19. Comparison of piezoresistive monofilament polymer sensors.

    PubMed

    Melnykowycz, Mark; Koll, Birgit; Scharf, Dagobert; Clemens, Frank

    2014-01-13

    The development of flexible polymer monofilament fiber strain sensors have many applications in both wearable computing (clothing, gloves, etc.) and robotics design (large deformation control). For example, a high-stretch monofilament sensor could be integrated into robotic arm design, easily stretching over joints or along curved surfaces. As a monofilament, the sensor can be woven into or integrated with textiles for position or physiological monitoring, computer interface control, etc. Commercially available conductive polymer monofilament sensors were tested alongside monofilaments produced from carbon black (CB) mixed with a thermo-plastic elastomer (TPE) and extruded in different diameters. It was found that signal strength, drift, and precision characteristics were better with a 0.3 mm diameter CB/TPE monofilament than thick (~2 mm diameter) based on the same material or commercial monofilaments based on natural rubber or silicone elastomer (SE) matrices.

  20. Large-Strain Transparent Magnetoactive Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses polymer nano - composite superparamagnetic actuators that were prepared by the addition of organically modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite films exhibited large deformations under a magnetostatic field with a low loading level of 0.1 wt% in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) matrix. The maximum actuation deformation of the nanocomposite films increased exponentially with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cyclic deformation actuation of a high-loading magnetic nanocomposite film was examined in a low magnetic field, and it exhibited excellent reproducibility and controllability. Low-loading TPU nanocomposite films (0.1-2 wt%) were transparent to semitransparent in the visible wavelength range, owing to good dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetoactuation phenomena were also demonstrated in a high-modulus, high-temperature polyimide resin with less mechanical deformation.

  1. Combustion of a Polymer (PMMA) Sphere in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann C.; Hamins, Anthony; Donnelly, Michelle K.

    1999-01-01

    A series of low gravity, aircraft-based, experiments was conducted to investigate the combustion of supported thermoplastic polymer spheres under varying ambient conditions. The three types of thermoplastic investigated were polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene (PP). and polystyrene (PS). Spheres with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 6.35 mm were tested. The total initial pressure varied from 0.05 MPa to 0. 15 MPa whereas the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 19 % to 30 % (by volume). The ignition system consisted of a pair of retractable energized coils. Two CCD cameras recorded the burning histories of the spheres. The video sequences revealed a number of dynamic events including bubbling and sputtering, as well as soot shell formation and break-up during combustion of the spheres at reduced gravity. The ejection of combusting material from the burning spheres represents a fire hazard that must be considered at reduced gravity. The ejection process was found to be sensitive to polymer type. All average burning rates were measured to increase with initial sphere diameter and oxygen concentration, whereas the initial pressure had little effect. The three thermoplastic types exhibited different burning characteristics. For the same initial conditions, the burning rate of PP was slower than PMMA, whereas the burning rate of PS was comparable to PMMA. The transient diameter of the burning thermoplastic exhibited two distinct periods: an initial period (enduring approximately half of the total burn duration) when the diameter remained approximately constant, and a final period when the square of the diameter linearly decreased with time. A simple homogeneous two-phase model was developed to understand the changing diameter of the burning sphere. Its value is based on a competition between diameter reduction due to mass loss from burning and sputtering, and diameter expansion due to the processes of swelling (density decrease with heating) and bubble growth

  2. The influence of different screw concepts while processing fibre reinforced thermoplastics with the concept of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, E.; Müller, E.; Kleeschulte, R.

    2014-05-01

    Today, the global market poses major challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, the wide range of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to fulfil. Product series additionally have shorter and shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaptation, polymers are increasingly able to substitute traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals in various fields of application [1]. But polymers can only substitute other materials if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important [2]. The problem is that the traditional development process for new polymer formulations is much too complex, too slow and therefore too expensive. Product-specific material development is thus out of the question for most processors. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process would lead to a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, providing an opportunity to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. In order to develop this innovative formulation concept, with the focus on fibre reinforced thermoplastics, different screw-concepts are compared with regard to the resultant performance characteristics in the part, such as mechanical properties and fibre length distribution.

  3. Flow properties of a series of experimental thermoplastic polymides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, H. D.; Nelson, J. B.; Price, H. L.

    1981-01-01

    The softening temperature to degradation temperature range of the polymers was about 440 to 650 K. All of the polymers retained small amounts of solvent as indicated by an increase in T(sub g) as the polymers were dried. The flow properties showed that all three polymers had very high apparent viscosities and would require high pressures and/or high temperatures and/or long times to obtain adequate flow in prepregging and molding. Although none was intended for such application, two of the polymers were combined with carbon fibers by solution prepregging. The prepregs were molded into laminates at temperatures and times, the selection of which was guided by the results from the flow measurements. These laminates had room temperature short beam shear strength similar to that of carbon fiber laminates with a thermosetting polyimide matrix. However, the strength had considerable scatter, and given the difficult processing, these polymides probably would not be suitable for continuous fiber composites.

  4. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  5. Structure-processing-property relationships for polymer interphases in fiber reinforced composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drzal, L.T.

    1995-12-31

    When polymer matrix composite materials are fabricated, polymers are processed to surround each reinforcing element while they are fluid and then they solidify in intimate contact with the reinforcement surface. For thermoset matrices, chemisorption of constituents, segregation of components. and processing constraints all can influence the resulting structure of the polymer in its solidified state. For thermoplastic matrices, segregation by molecular weight, morphological changes resulting from crystallization or additive segregation can also control the final matrix structure. In addition the surface of the fibers is coated with chemical agents that can also interact with the polymer. Examples will be given to illustrate the effect of the structure of this polymer interphase on adhesion. It will be shown that in some cases if the resulting polymer structure is known, adhesion and composite properties can be predicted.

  6. Polycyanurates and Polycarbonates Based on Eugenol: Alternatives to Thermosetting and Thermoplastic Polymers Based on Bisphenol A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    Celsius, Mn = 8360, and a polydispersity of 1.88. No phase separation was observed in an 80:20 blend of cyanate ester : polycarbonate during or after...technologies for our air, space, and cyberspace force. AFRL Mission DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cyanate Esters ...Cyanate Esters Around the Solar System 5 Images: courtesy NASA (public release) • The science decks on the Mars Phoenix lander are made from M55J

  7. High-performance vitrimers from commodity thermoplastics through dioxaborolane metathesis.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Max; Domenech, Trystan; van der Weegen, Rob; Breuillac, Antoine; Nicolaÿ, Renaud; Leibler, Ludwik

    2017-04-07

    Windmills, cars, and dental restoration demand polymer materials and composites that are easy to process, assemble, and recycle while exhibiting outstanding mechanical, thermal, and chemical resistance. Vitrimers, which are polymer networks able to shuffle chemical bonds through exchange reactions, could address these demands if they were prepared from existing plastics and processed with fast production rates and current equipment. We report the metathesis of dioxaborolanes, which is rapid and thermally robust, and use it to prepare vitrimers from polymers as different as poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, and high-density polyethylene that, although permanently cross-linked, can be processed multiple times by means of extrusion or injection molding. They show superior chemical resistance and dimensional stability and can be efficiently assembled. The strategy is applicable to polymers with backbones made of carbon-carbon single bonds.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of metal-polymer nanocomposites with radiation-protective properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, A. N.; Dzhardimalieva, G. I.; Fetisov, G. P.; Valskiy, V. V.; Golubeva, N. D.; Pomogailo, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-polymer nanocomposites, which can weaken the activity of a beta radiation source in undesirable directions at the minimum protection size, are developed. These nanocomposites are fabricated by dispersing metal-containing nanoparticles in thermoplastic matrices. Metal nanoparticles are synthesized by the polymerassisted thermolysis of metal-containing precursors. The composition and structure of the nanocomposites are characterized by elemental and X-ray diffraction analyses and transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Effect of the crystallization on the surface temperature of a polymer during injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Ronan; Delaunay, Didier

    2007-04-01

    We present experimental results and theoretical analysis of heat transfer during injection moulding of a fibber reinforced semi-crystalline thermoplastic (IXEF). This one is a PA MXD6, with a mass fibber ratio of 30% and 50%. We illustrate the influence of the source term of crystallization on the surface temperature of the polymer, inducing strong influence of the pressure and of the shear during filling on this temperature.

  10. Chemical imaging of thermoplastic olefin (TPO) surface architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, H.R.; Turner, J.F. II; Munro, B.; Ryntz, R.A.; Treado, P.J.

    1999-04-13

    In the automotive industry, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is mixed with polypropylene (PP) to form a thermoplastic olefin (TPO) for use as car bumpers and fascia. An adhesion promoting primer, chlorinated polyolefin (CPO), is spray coated onto the TPO surface to increase adhesion of the base and clear coat paints to the low surface free energy TPO substrate. The surface morphology of rubber domains within the CPO-coated TPO substrate contributes strongly to the material characteristics, including impact resistance and adhesion properties. However, elastomer-phase analysis is challenging using traditional microanalysis imaging techniques. The authors employ fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging to characterize the TPO architecture in order to better understand the surface properties of coated TPO. Fluorescence imaging makes use of Nile red (NR), a fluorescent solvatochromic dye, solvated in the primer, which is effective in differentiating rubber from polypropylene on the basis of large variations in the fluorescence quantum efficiency. Confocal fluorescence chemical imaging performed on T PO coated with NR-doped CPO shows a thin (2--3 {micro}m) layer of elastomer that has migrated to the TPO surface. Raman chemical imaging is in direct agreement with the fluorescence experiments by measuring the intrinsic vibrational signatures of CPO, EPR, and PP without the need for dyes or stains. Raman contrast is enhanced using cosine correlation analysis, a novel multivariate processing technique that provides chemical contrast on the basis of differences in spectral shape.

  11. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties relationship of segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, Achim Borm, Michael Kaoud, Nouran Kolodziej, Jan Neudeck, Jens

    2014-05-15

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) are important polymeric materials for seals. In competition with Acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), TPU exhibits higher strength and a considerable better abrasion resistance. The advantage of NBR over TPU is a smaller compression set but however TPU excels in its much shorter processing cycle times. Generally a TPU is a block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments, which plays an important role in determining the material properties. TPU can be processed either to ready moulded parts or can be incorporated by multi component moulding, in both cases it shows decent mechanical properties. In the present work, the relationship between melt-process induced TPU morphology and resultant thermo mechanical properties were examined and determined by means of quasi-static tensile test, creep experiment, tension test and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron beam microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the morphology of the samples. A significant mathematical description of the stress-strain behaviour of TPU was found using a 3 term approach. Moreover it became evident that processing conditions such as processing temperature have crucial influence on morphology as well as short and long-term performance. To be more precise, samples processed at higher temperatures showed a lack of large hard segment agglomerates, a smaller strength for strains up to 250% and higher creep compliance.

  12. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-09

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  13. Consolidation of graphite thermoplastic textile preforms for primary aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J.; Mahon, J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of innovative cost effective material forms and processes is being considered for fabrication of future primary aircraft structures. Processes that have been identified as meeting these goals are textile preforms that use resin transfer molding (RTM) and consolidation forming. The Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications (NCWFA) program has as its objective the integration of innovative design concepts with cost effective fabrication processes to develop damage-tolerant structures that can perform at a design ultimate strain level of 6000 micro-inch/inch. In this on-going effort, design trade studies were conducted to arrive at advanced wing designs that integrate new material forms with innovative structural concepts and cost effective fabrication methods. The focus has been on minimizing part count (mechanical fasteners, clips, number of stiffeners, etc.), by using cost effective textile reinforcement concepts that provide improved damage tolerance and out-of-plane load capability, low-cost resin transfer molding processing, and thermoplastic forming concepts. The fabrication of representative Y spars by consolidation methods will be described. The Y spars were fabricated using AS4 (6K)/PEEK 150g commingled angle interlock 0/90-degree woven preforms with +45-degree commingled plies stitched using high strength Toray carbon thread and processed by autoclave consolidation.

  14. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  15. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  16. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E. Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration. PMID:26491575

  17. Rapid and inexpensive blood typing on thermoplastic chips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-You; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chou, Hsin-Hao; Wang, Cheng-Po; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2015-12-21

    A portable and cost-effective colorimetric diagnostic device was fabricated for rapid ABO and Rh blood typing. Using microfluidic construction on a thermoplastic chip, blood antibodies were preloaded into a reaction channel and exposed to blood samples to initiate a haemagglutination reaction. Downstream high-aspect ratio filters, composed of 2 μm high microslits, block agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) to turn the reaction channel red, indicating the presence of the corresponding blood antigen. Users manually actuate the blood sample using a simple screw pump that drives the solution through serpentine reaction channels and chaotic micromixers for maximum interaction of the preloaded antibodies with the blood sample antigens. Mismatched RBCs and antibodies elute from the channel into an outlet reservoir based on the rheological properties of RBCs with no colorimetric change. As a result, unambiguous blood typing tests can be distinguished by the naked eye in as little as 1 min. Blood disorders, such as thalassemia, can also be distinguished using the device. The required blood volume for the test is just 1 μL, which can be obtained by the less invasive finger pricking method. The low reagent consumption, manual driving force, low-cost of parts, high yield, and robust fabrication process make this device sensitive, accurate, and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  18. Investigation the degradation and devulcanization reaction of thermoplastic vulcanizate using peroxide compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temram, Chokkanit; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

    2012-09-01

    Investigation the Degradation and Devulcanization Reaction of Thermoplastic Vulcanizate using Peroxide Compound was carried out by means of benzoyl peroxide as a devulcanizing agent. The temperature for the recycling condition was gradually increased from 80°C to 190°C because of the half-life of benzoyl peroxide. Furthermore, the effects of time and concentration of devulcanizing agent on the recycling process were investigated. The extent of devulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizate was studied by estimation of percent devulcanization, gel fraction of rubber after swelling and crosslink density. According to the results, we found that the crosslink density of devulcanized thermoplastic vulcanizate was 29.37% less than virgin thermoplastic vulcanizate by adding benzoyl peroxide for 1 phr. This result is correspondence to the decreasing in gel fraction of devulcanized thermoplastic vulcanizate. Moreover, the addition of 5 phr and 10 phr to TPVs result to the significant decrement in crosslink density about 64%. The effect of temperature for devulcanization was also investigated to obtain the optimum conditions. The result shows that the percentage of devulcanization was slightly increased as the increasing in the starting temperature from 80°C to 105°C.

  19. Thermal Degradation, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Wheat Straw Flour Filled Recycled Thermoplastic Composites.

    PubMed

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Karakus, Kadir

    2008-01-24

    Thermal behaviors of wheat straw flour (WF) filled thermoplastic compositeswere measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanningcalorimetry. Morphology and mechanical properties were also studied using scanningelectron microscope and universal testing machine, respectively. Presence of WF inthermoplastic matrix reduced the degradation temperature of the composites. One for WFand one for thermoplastics, two main decomposition peaks were observed. Morphologicalstudy showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between WFs andthermoplastic. WFs were embedded into the thermoplastic matrix indicating improvedadhesion. However, the bonding was not perfect because some debonding can also be seenon the interface of WFs and thermoplastic matrix. In the case of mechanical properties ofWF filled recycled thermoplastic, HDPE and PP based composites provided similar tensileand flexural properties. The addition of coupling agents improved the properties ofthermoplastic composites. MAPE coupling agents performed better in HDPE while MAPPcoupling agents were superior in PP based composites. The composites produced with thecombination of 50-percent mixture of recycled HDPE and PP performed similar with theuse of both coupling agents. All produced composites provided flexural properties requiredby the ASTM standard for polyolefin-based plastic lumber decking boards.

  20. Characteristics of thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar blend: Thermal, tensile, and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Jumaidin, R; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of biodegradable sugar palm starch (SPS) based thermoplastic containing agar in the range of 10-40wt%. The thermoplastics were melt-mixed and then hot pressed at 140°C for 10min. SEM investigation showed good miscibility between SPS and agar. FT-IR analysis confirmed that SPS and agar were compatible and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds existed between them. Incorporation of agar increased the thermoplastic starch tensile properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength). The thermal stability and moisture uptake increased with increasing agar content. The present work shows that starch-based thermoplastics with 30wt% agar content have the highest tensile strength. Higher content of agar (40wt%) resulted to more rough cleavage fracture and slight decrease in the tensile strength. In conclusion, the addition of agar improved the thermal and tensile properties of thermoplastic SPS which widened the potential application of this eco-friendly material. The most promising applications for this eco-friendly material are short-life products such as packaging, container, tray, etc.

  1. Thermoplastic vulcanizate nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (PP/EPDM) prepared by reactive extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Amin

    For this work, different grades of polypropylene-g-maleic anhydride polymers were chosen to elucidate the effect of compatibilizer on the nanoclay dispersion level in thermoplastic phase. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs confirmed that prepared PP nanocomposites ranged from intercalated structure to a coexistence of intercalated tactoids and exfoliated layers namely “partially exfoliated” nanocomposite. Among various factors affecting the compatibilizer performance, it is shown that only the relaxation behaviour of compatibilizer correlates directly with the nanocomposites characterization results; higher relaxation times of the compatibilizer are associated with better dispersion of nanoclay. To study the co-continuity development of the nonreactive blends, EPDM and the mentioned PP nanocomposites at various compositions were melt blended using an internal mixer. Based on continuity measurements of TPEs and TPE nanocomposites for both thermoplastic and rubber phase, it is shown that the presence of nanoclay decreases the co-continuity composition range and alters its symmetrical feature. However, this effect is more pronounced in the intercalated nanocomposites than in partially exfoliated nanocomposites. It seems that better nanoclay dispersion limits the reduction of the thermoplastic phase continuity in a manner that the continuity index of the thermoplastic phase for partially exfoliated TPE nanocomposite prepared at high EPDM content (i.e. at 70 wt%) is greater than that of corresponding TPE without nanoclay. According to these results, it is possible to shift to higher EPDM content using partially exfoliated system before formation of matrix-dispersed particle structure which limits thermoplastic vulcanizate production. This should be mentioned that gamma irradiation was carried out in order to fix the EPDM morphology to estimate the continuity of PP

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability criteria...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Known Organic HAP Emitted From the... 63—Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products Thermoplastic product/Subcategory Organic HAP/chemical name(CAS No.) Acet-aldehyde (75-07-0) Acrylo-nitrile (107-13-1) 1,3...

  4. Reactive polymers: a route to nanoimprint lithography at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Karl; Reuther, Freimut; Carlberg, Patrick; Fink, Marion; Gruetzner, Gabi; Montelius, Lars

    2003-06-01

    To utilize the potential of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) you need polymers, which give relief patterns with good thermal and etch resistance, a necessity for subsequent process steps. Thermoplastic polymers with high thermal stability require high imprint temperatures. Such temperatures can cause polymer degradation and problems with pattern transfer due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion of substrate, polymer and stamp. The characteristics and benefits of two types of cross-linking prepolymers with low glass transition temperature (Tg) for nanoimprinting are described. They are soluble in organic solvents and their solutions can be processed like those of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The imprinted patterns receive high thermal and mechanical stability through cross-linking polymerization and exhibit high plasma etch resistance. The course of the polymerization was investigated to determine the appropriate conditions for the imprint process. In thermally cross-linking allyl polymers, the cross-linking occurs during imprinting. Process time and temperature depend on the polymerization rate. Volume shrinkage during the polymerization does not adversely affect imprinting. Photochemically cross-linking epoxy-based polymers permit imprint temperatures below 100°C and short imprint times. Tg of the prepolymer determines the imprint temperature. The cross-linking reaction and structural stabilization is performed after imprinting. SEM images demonstrate the realization of the cross-linking polymer approach. Isolated lines down to 50 nm width confirm the successful application of the polymers.

  5. Morphological control of inter-penetrating polymer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Marion

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymer chemistry has been successful in producing composition of matter with thermal oxidation stability and progressively higher glass transition temperatures. In part, this was done by increasing the steric-hindrance of moieties in the chain of a macromolecule. The resulting polymers are usually quite insoluble and produce molten polymers of very high viscosities. These types of polymers are not easily processed into graphite fiber prepregs by melt or solution impregnation methods. Hence, a technological need exists to produce new knowledge of how to produce polymer-fiber composites from this class of polymers. The concept of freeze drying amic-acid prepolymers with reactive thermoplastic was proposed as a research topic for the ASEE/NASA Summer Faculty Program of 1989 as a means of producing polymer-fiber composites. This process scheme has the thermodynamic attribute that the magnitude of phase separation due to differences in solubility of two organic constituents in solution will be greatly reduced by removing a solvent not by evaporation but by sublimation. Progress to date on evaluating this polymer processing concept is briefly outlined.

  6. FEA of the clinching process of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic with an aluminum sheet using LS-DYNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Vucetic, M.; Grbic, N.

    2016-10-01

    A structural concept in multi-material design is used in the automotive industry with the aim of achieving significant weight reductions of conventional car bodies. In this respect, the use of aluminum and short fiber reinforced plastics represents an interesting material combination. A wide acceptance of such a material combination requires a suitable joining technique. Among different joining techniques, clinching represents one of the most appealing alternative for automotive applications. This contribution deals with the FE simulation of the clinching process of two representative materials PA6GF30 and EN AW 5754 using the FE software LS-DYNA. With regard to the material modelling of the aluminum sheet, an isotropic material model based on the von Mises plasticity implemented in LS-DYNA was chosen. Analogous to aluminum, the same material model is used for modelling the short fiber reinforced thermoplastic. Additionally, a semi-analytical model for polymers (SAMP-1) also available in LS-DYNA was taken. Finally, the FEA of clinching process is carried out and the comparison of the simulation results is presented above.

  7. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications.

  8. In situ development of self-reinforced cellulose nanocrystals based thermoplastic elastomers by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan; Wang, Chunpeng; Wang, Jifu; Chu, Fuxiang

    2016-05-05

    Recently, the utilization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a reinforcing material has received a great attention due to its high elastic modulus. In this article, a novel strategy for the synthesis of self-reinforced CNCs based thermoplastic elastomers (CTPEs) is presented. CNCs were first surface functionalized with an initiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Subsequently, SI-ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) was carried out in the presence of sacrificial initiator to form CTPEs in situ. The CTPEs together with the simple blends of CNCs and linear poly(MMA-co-BA) copolymer (P(MMA-co-BA)) were characterized for comparative study. The results indicated that P(MMA-co-BA) was successfully grafted onto the surface of CNCs and the compatibility between CNCs and the polymer matrix in CTPEs was greatly enhanced. Specially, the CTPEs containing 2.15wt% CNCs increased Tg by 19.2°C and tensile strength by 100% as compared to the linear P(MMA-co-BA).

  9. Synthesis of bio-based thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers containing isosorbide and polycarbonate diol and their biocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Oh, So-Yeon; Kang, Min-Sil; Knowles, Jonathan C; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2015-09-01

    A new family of highly elastic polyurethanes (PUs) partially based on renewable isosorbide were prepared by reacting hexamethylene diisocyanate with a various ratios of isosorbide and polycarbonate diol 2000 (PCD) via a one-step bulk condensation polymerization without catalyst. The influence of the isorsorbide/PCD ratio on the properties of the PU was evaluated. The successful synthesis of the PUs was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting PUs showed high number-average molecular weights ranging from 56,320 to 126,000 g mol(-1) and tunable Tg values from -34 to -38℃. The thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The PU films were flexible with breaking strains from 955% to 1795% at from 13.5 to 54.2 MPa tensile stress. All the PUs had 0.9-2.8% weight lost over 4 weeks and continual slow weight loss of 1.1-3.6% was observed within 8 weeks. Although the cells showed a slight lower rate of proliferation than that of the tissue culture polystyrene as a control, the PU films were considered to be cytocompatible and nontoxic. These thermoplastic PUs were soft, flexible and biocompatible polymers, which open up a range of opportunities for soft tissue augmentation and regeneration.

  10. Nanoscale Mo- MoO3 Entrapped in Engineering Thermoplastic: Inorganic Pathway to Bactericidal and Fungicidal Action.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Nilam; Chaudhari, Ravindra; Mane, Pramod; Shinde, Manish; Jadakar, Sandesh; Rane, Sunit; Kale, Bharat; Bhalerao, Anand; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    In our contemporary endeavor, metallic molybdenum (Mo) and semiconducting molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanostructures have been simultaneously generated via solid state reaction between molybdenum (III) chloride (MoCl3) and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) at 285 (°)C in unimolar ratio for different time durations, namely, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h. The resultant nanocomposites (NCs) revealed formation of predominantly metallic Mo for all the samples. However, MoO3 gradually gained prominent position as secondary phase with rise in reaction time. The present study was intended to investigate the antibacterial potential of metal-metal oxide-polymer NCs, i.e., Mo- MoO3-PPS against microorganisms, viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The antibacterial activity of the NCs was evaluated by agar well diffusion investigation. Maximum sensitivity concentrations of NCs were determined by finding out minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Moreover, the NCs prepared at reaction time of 48 h exhibited best MBC values and were tested with time kill assay which revealed that the growth of S. aureus was substantially inhibited by Mo- MoO3-PPS NCs. This synchronized formation of Mo- MoO3 nanostructures in an engineering thermoplastic may have potential antimicrobial applications in biomedical devices and components. Prima facie results on antifungal activity are indicative of the fact that these materials can show anti-cancer behavior.

  11. Photoactive layered nanocomposites obtained by direct transferring of anodic TiO2 nanotubes to commodity thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Zimbone, Massimo; Scuderi, Viviana; Amiard, Guillaume; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Privitera, Vittorio

    2017-03-01

    TiO2 nanotubes demonstrated to be a versatile nanostructure for biomaterials, clean energy and water remediation applications. However, the cost of titanium and the poor mechanical properties of the nanotubes hinder their adoption at large scale. This work presents a straightforward and scalable method for transferring photoactive anodic TiO2 nanotubes from titanium foils to commodity thermoplastic polymers, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, and polymethylmetacrylate, allowing the reusing of the remaining titanium. The obtained flexible nanocomposites reach a maximum photonic efficiencies of 0.038% (ISO-10678:2010) representing the 93% of photonic efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium. In addition, the nanocomposites and TiO2 nanotubes on titanium present similar antibacterial properties under 1 mW cm-2 UV-A, 60% of Escherichia coli survival after 1 h of exposition. The final objective of this work is to point out main concepts and key parameters for a low-cost fabrication of a photoactive nanocomposite material.

  12. Preparation of cotton linter nanowhiskers by high-pressure homogenization process and its application in thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savadekar, N. R.; Karande, V. S.; Vigneshwaran, N.; Kadam, P. G.; Mhaske, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    The present work deals with the preparation of cotton linter nanowhiskers (CLNW) by acid hydrolysis and subsequent processing in a high-pressure homogenizer. Prepared CLNW were then used as a reinforcing material in thermoplastic starch (TPS), with an aim to improve its performance properties. Concentration of CLNW was varied as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% in TPS. TPS/CLNW nanocomposite films were prepared by solution-casting process. The nanocomposite films were characterized by tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (OP), X-ray diffraction and light transmittance properties. 3 wt% CLNW-loaded TPS nanocomposite films demonstrated 88 % improvement in the tensile strength as compared to the pristine TPS polymer film; whereas, WVP and OP decreased by 90 and 92 %, respectively, which is highly appreciable compared to the quantity of CLNW added. DSC thermograms of nanocomposite films did not show any significant effect on melting temperature as compared to the pristine TPS. Light transmittance ( T r) value of TPS decreased with increased content of CLNW. Better interaction between CLNW and TPS, caused due to the hydrophilic nature of both the materials, and uniform distribution of CLNW in TPS were the prime reason for the improvement in properties observed at 3 wt% loading of CLNW in TPS. However, CLNW was seen to have formed agglomerates at higher concentration as determined from SEM analysis. These nanocomposite films can have potential use in food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  13. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold’s microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

  14. Microstructural Characterization of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Pater, Ruth H.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1996-01-01

    Thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides have complementary physical and mechanical properties. Whereas thermoset polyimides are brittle and generally easier to process, thermoplastic polyimides are tough but harder to process. A combination of these two types of polyimides may help produce polymers more suitable for aerospace applications. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (S-IPN) of thermoset LaRC(TM)-RP46 and thermoplastic LaRC(TM)-IA polyimides were prepared in weight percent ratios ranging from 100:0 to 0:100. Positron lifetime measurements were made in these samples to correlate their free volume features with physical and mechanical properties. As expected, positronium atoms are not formed in these samples. The second lifetime component has been used to infer the positron trap dimensions. The 'free volume' goes through a minimum at a ratio of about 50:50, and this suggests that S-IPN samples are not merely solid solutions of the two polymers. These data and related structural properties of the S-IPN samples are discussed.

  15. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  16. Classification automation of thermoplastic particles in a cured epoxy matrix according to their size on microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablina, Victoria A.; Varnavsky, Alexander N.; Varnavsky, Andrei N.

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy resins have wide applications in modern industries. To improve the properties of such resins the thermoplastic component is often used. This component dissolves in the epoxy resin at a high temperature. To determine the properties of the obtained cured epoxy matrix with thermoplastic particles it is important to estimate and classify this particle sizes. In this paper we investigate methods for solving these tasks automatically. The thermoplastic particle sizes are analyzed using the microscopy images of the cured epoxy matrix. The digital image processing methods for the thermoplastic particle detection are discussed. The Otsu's method is implemented for microscopic images with homogeneous background. The Circular Hough Transform method is implemented for microscopic images with big visible particle radii. The results of both methods for the considered images are represented. The parameters of the Gaussian distribution for the thermoplastic particle sizes in a cured epoxy matrix are estimated from the analyzed microscopic images.

  17. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  18. Simulation of a Novel Joining Process for Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites and Metallic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, M.; Freund, A.; Vogel, C.; Kupfer, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new joining technology to produce hybrid structures with continuous-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics and metallic components is presented adapting the concept of classical clinching for thermoplastic composites. To demonstrate the capability of the thermoclinching process, prototypic joints were manufactured using an experimental joining installation developed. Nondestructive and destructive analyses of the thermoclinched joints showed that a relocation of the reinforcement into the neck and head area of the joining zone could be achieved. For a first estimation of the maximum load-carrying capacity of the joints, single-lap specimens with both reinforced and nonreinforced thermoplastics were manufactured and tested, revealing up to 50% higher failure loads of the reinforced joints. To understand the local material configuration and to achieve a defined and adjustable fabric structure in the head area of the joint, further analyses with regard to material- and tool-side conditions of the joining zone are necessary.

  19. Evaluation of impact-affected areas of glass fibre thermoplastic composites from thermographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, S.; Carlomagno, G. M.; Simeoli, G.; Russo, P.; Meola, C.

    2016-07-01

    The usefulness of an infrared imaging device, in terms of both acting as a mechanism for surface thermal monitoring when a specimen is being impacted and as a non-destructive evaluation technique, has already been proved. Nevertheless, past investigation has focused on mainly thermoset-matrix composites with little attention towards thermoplastic ones. Conversely, these thermoplastic composites are becoming ever more attractive to the aeronautical sector. Their main advantage lies in the possibility of modifying their interface strength by adjusting the composition of the matrix. However, for a proper exploitation of new materials it is necessary to detail their characterization. The purpose of the present paper is to focus on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to gain information on the behaviour of thermoplastic composites under impact. In addition, attention is given to image processing algorithms with the aim of more effectively measuring the extension of the impact-affected area.4

  20. Effect of natural fibres on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Moácicki, Leszek; Mitrus, Marcin; Kupryaniuk, Karol; Kusz, Andrzej; Bartnik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results covering the mechanical properties of thermoplastic potato starch granules with flax, cellulose fibre, and pine bark addition. A modified single screw extrusion-cooker TS-45 with L/D = 18 and an additional cooling section of the barrel was used as the processing unit. The establishment influence of the fibre addition, as well as the extrusion-cooker screw speed, on the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic starch granules was the main objective of the investigation. The maximum force during compression to 50% of the sample diameter, elastic modulus, and compression strength were evaluated. Significant differences were noted depending on the amount of fibre used, while only an insignificant influence of screw speed on the mechanical properties of the granulate was reported. An increased amount of fibres lowered the maximum force as well as the elastic modulus and compression strength of the thermoplastic starch granulates.

  1. Characteristics of denture thermoplastic resins for non-metal clasp dentures.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Yota

    2010-08-01

    Six thermoplastic resins and conventional acrylic resin were examined to characterize their mechanical and physical properties, water sorption, solubility, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and color stability. Thermoplastic resins for non-metal clasp dentures exhibiting low water sorption and solubility offer hygienic advantages. Since they have a low modulus of elasticity and are easily manipulated, these materials make it possible for larger undercuts to be used for retention compared to acrylic resin. Not all of the thermoplastic resins tested fractured after the bending test in contrast to the conventional denture base resin, which fractured when tested beyond its proportional limit. It was also found that clinically noticeable staining may occur on the polyamide resins and polyethylene terephtalate resins.

  2. On compression and damage evolution in two thermoplastics

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, S. C.; Eastwood, D. S.; Parry, S.; Rau, C.; Withers, P. J.; McDonald, S. A.; Brown, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The well-known Taylor cylinder impact test, which follows the impact of a flat-ended cylindrical rod onto a rigid stationary anvil, is conducted over a range of impact speeds for two polymers, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). In previous work, experiments and a model were developed to capture the deformation behaviour of the cylinder after impact. These works showed a region in which spatial and temporal variation of both longitudinal and radial deformation provided evidence of changes in phase within the material. In this further series of experiments, this region is imaged in a range of impacted targets at the Diamond synchrotron. Further techniques were fielded to resolve compressed regions within the recovered polymer cylinders that showed a fracture zone in the impact region. The combination of macroscopic high-speed photography and three-dimensional X-ray imaging has identified the development of failure with these polymers and shown that there is no abrupt transition in behaviours but rather a continuous range of responses to competing operating mechanisms. The behaviours noted in PEEK in these polymers show critical gaps in understanding of polymer high strain-rate response. PMID:28265185

  3. On compression and damage evolution in two thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.; Garcea, S. C.; Eastwood, D. S.; Parry, S.; Rau, C.; Withers, P. J.; McDonald, S. A.; Brown, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The well-known Taylor cylinder impact test, which follows the impact of a flat-ended cylindrical rod onto a rigid stationary anvil, is conducted over a range of impact speeds for two polymers, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). In previous work, experiments and a model were developed to capture the deformation behaviour of the cylinder after impact. These works showed a region in which spatial and temporal variation of both longitudinal and radial deformation provided evidence of changes in phase within the material. In this further series of experiments, this region is imaged in a range of impacted targets at the Diamond synchrotron. Further techniques were fielded to resolve compressed regions within the recovered polymer cylinders that showed a fracture zone in the impact region. The combination of macroscopic high-speed photography and three-dimensional X-ray imaging has identified the development of failure with these polymers and shown that there is no abrupt transition in behaviours but rather a continuous range of responses to competing operating mechanisms. The behaviours noted in PEEK in these polymers show critical gaps in understanding of polymer high strain-rate response.

  4. The use of scanning probe microscopy to characterize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, T.; Yao, L.; Beatty, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scanning probe microscopy for the examination of atomic scale phenomena in polymers has been well documented, but the use of scanning probe microscopy to examine submicron scale structures has not been well documented. The purpose of this project was to examine the structure of polymer blends on a submicron scale. Two different systems were studied; a blend of recycled thermoplastics and a blend of ground rubber tire particles in a polystyrene matrix. Topographical images, z modulation plots, internal sensor measurements, and lateral force microscopy images were obtained for both systems. The plots were compared to the structures that we were expected to obtain. A second method of mathematical analysis, fractal dimension measurement, was also performed on the topographical images. Fractal dimension measurement has been correlated to fracture toughness in homopolymers, but the correlation has not been established for polymer blends. Comparison of both methods will be shown.

  5. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  6. Functionalization of polymers using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor and the impact on SLM-processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, M. Schmitt, A. Schmidt, J. Peukert, W. Wirth, K-E

    2014-05-15

    In order to improve thermoplastics (e.g. Polyamide, Polypropylene and Polyethylene) for Selective Laser Beam Melting (SLM) processes a new approach to functionalize temperature sensitive polymer powders in a large scale is investigated. This is achieved by combining an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a fluidized bed reactor. Using pressurized air as the plasma gas, radicals like OH* are created. The functionalization leads to an increase of the hydrophilicity of the treated polymer powder without changing the bulk properties. Using the polymers in a SLM process to build single layers of melted material leads to an improvement of the melted layers.

  7. Tailoring the degradation kinetics of poly(ester-carbonate urethane)urea thermoplastic elastomers for tissue engineering scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Kazuro L.; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Pelinescu, Anca L.; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds are of increasing interest for applications in soft tissue repair and regeneration, particularly in mechanically active settings. The rate at which such a scaffold should degrade for optimal outcomes, however, is not generally known and the ability to select from similar scaffolds that vary in degradation behavior to allow such optimization is limited. Our objective was to synthesize a family of biodegradable polyurethane elastomers where partial substitution of polyester segments with polycarbonate segments in the polymer backbone would lead to slower degradation behavior. Specifically, we synthesized poly(ester carbonate)urethane ureas (PECUUs) using a blended soft segment of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(1,6-hexamethylene carbonate) (PHC), a 1,4-diisocyanatobutane hard segment and chain extension with putrescine. Soft segment PCL/PHC molar ratios of 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 were investigated. Polymer tensile strengths varied from 14-34 MPa with breaking strains of 660-875%, initial moduli of 8-24 MPa and 100% recovery after 10% strain. Increased PHC content was associated with softer, more distensible films. Scaffolds produced by salt leaching supported smooth muscle cell adhesion and growth in vitro. PECUU in aqueous buffer in vitro and subcutaneous implants in rats of PECUU scaffolds showed degradation slower than comparable poly(ester urethane)urea and faster than poly(carbonate urethane)urea. These slower degrading thermoplastic polyurethanes provide opportunities to investigate the role of relative degradation rates for mechanically supportive scaffolds in a variety of soft tissue repair and reconstructive procedures. PMID:20188411

  8. Chemical Modification and Structure-property Relationships of Acrylic and Ionomeric Thermoplastic Elastomer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargantwar, Pruthesh Hariharrao

    Block copolymers (BCs) have remained at the forefront of materials research due to their versatility in applications ranging from hot-melt/pressure-sensitive adhesives and impact modifiers to compatibilizing agents and vibration-dampening/nanotemplating media. Of particular interest are macromolecules composed of two or more chemically dissimilar blocks covalently linked together to form triblock or pentablock copolymers. If the blocks are sufficiently incompatible and the copolymer behaves as a thermoplastic elastomer, the molecules can spontaneously self-assemble to form nanostructured materials that exhibit shape memory due to the formation of a supramolecular network. The BCs of these types are termed as conventional. When BCs contain blocks having ionic moieties such as sulfonic acid groups, they are termed as block ionomers. Designing new systems based on either conventional or ionic BCs, characterizing their structure-property relationships and later using them as electroacive polymers form the essential objectives of this work. Electroactive polymers (EAPs) exhibit electromechanical actuation when stimulated by an external electric field. In the first part of this work, it is shown that BCs resolve some of the outstanding problems presently encountered in the design of two different classes of EAP actuators: dielectric elastomers (DEs) and ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). All-acrylic triblock copolymer gels used as DEs actuate with high efficacy without any requirement of mechanical prestrain and, thus, eliminate the need for bulky and heavy hardware essential with prestrained dielectric actuators, as well as material problems associated with stress relaxation. The dependence of actuation behavior on gel morphology as evaluated from mechanical and microstructure studies is observed. In the case of IPMCs, ionic BCs employed in this study greatly facilitate processing compared to other contenders such as NafionRTM, which is commonly used in this class

  9. Characterization of a sustainable sulfur polymer concrete using activated fillers

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Juhyuk; Kalb, Paul D.; Milian, Laurence; ...

    2016-01-02

    Sulfur polymer concrete (SPC) is a thermoplastic composite concrete consisting of chemically modified sulfur polymer and aggregates. This study focused on the characterization of a new SPC that has been developed as a sustainable construction material. It is made from industrial by-product sulfur that is modified with activated fillers of fly ash, petroleum refinery residual oil, and sand. Unlike conventional sulfur polymer cements made using dicyclopentadiene as a chemical modifier, the use of inexpensive industrial by-products enables the new SPC to cost-effectively produce sustainable, low-carbon, thermoplastic binder that can compete with conventional hydraulic cement concretes. A series of characterization analysesmore » was conducted including thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and spatially-resolved Xray absorption spectroscopy to confirm the polymerization of sulfur induced from the presence of the oil. In addition, mechanical testing, internal pore structure analysis, and scanning electron microscope studies evaluate the performance of this new SPC as a sustainable construction material with a reduced environmental impact.« less

  10. Characterization of a sustainable sulfur polymer concrete using activated fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Juhyuk; Kalb, Paul D.; Milian, Laurence; Northrup, Paul A.

    2016-01-02

    Sulfur polymer concrete (SPC) is a thermoplastic composite concrete consisting of chemically modified sulfur polymer and aggregates. This study focused on the characterization of a new SPC that has been developed as a sustainable construction material. It is made from industrial by-product sulfur that is modified with activated fillers of fly ash, petroleum refinery residual oil, and sand. Unlike conventional sulfur polymer cements made using dicyclopentadiene as a chemical modifier, the use of inexpensive industrial by-products enables the new SPC to cost-effectively produce sustainable, low-carbon, thermoplastic binder that can compete with conventional hydraulic cement concretes. A series of characterization analyses was conducted including thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and spatially-resolved Xray absorption spectroscopy to confirm the polymerization of sulfur induced from the presence of the oil. In addition, mechanical testing, internal pore structure analysis, and scanning electron microscope studies evaluate the performance of this new SPC as a sustainable construction material with a reduced environmental impact.

  11. Characterization of elastic-viscoplastic properties of an AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, K. J.; Sun, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    The elastic-viscoplastic properties of an AS4/PEEK (APC-2) thermoplastic composite were characterized at 24 C (75 F) and 121 C (250 F) by using a one-parameter viscoplasticity model. To determine the strain-rate effects, uniaxial tension tests were performed on unidirectional off-axis coupon specimens with different monotonic strain rates. A modified Bodner and Partom's model was also used to describe the viscoplasticity of the thermoplastic composite. The experimental results showed that viscoplastic behavior can be characterized quite well using the one-parameter overstress viscoplasticity model.

  12. Computer-based manufacturing cost analysis for the fabrication of thermoplastic composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Michael; Bernardon, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are very expensive to manufacture. Cost estimation techniques are useful as tools for increasing cost effectiveness in part design, in selecting materials, and in the design of automated systems and manufacturing processes. A computer-based cost estimation model has been developed for analyzing the manufacturing costs involved in the fabrication of thermoplastic composite structures. The model, described in detail in this paper, evaluates existing manual and automated techniques for manufacturing a thermoplastic composite skin. Cost analysis results and their relevance to increasing cost effectiveness are discussed.

  13. Uniaxial Extensional Behavior of A--B--A Thermoplastic Elastomers: Structure-Properties Relationship and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Luca

    At service temperatures, A--B--A thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) behave similarly to filled (and often entangled) B-rich rubbers since B block ends are anchored on rigid A domains. Therefore, their viscoelastic behavior is largely dictated by chain mobility of the B block rather than by microstructural order. Relating the small- and large-strain response of undiluted A--B--A triblocks to molecular parameters is a prerequisite for designing associated TPE-based systems that can meet the desired linear and nonlinear rheological criteria. This dissertation was aimed at connecting the chemical and topological structure of A--B--A TPEs with their viscoelastic properties, both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. Since extensional deformations are relevant for the processing and often the end-use applications of thermoplastic elastomers, the behavior was investigated predominantly in uniaxial extension. The unperturbed size of polymer coils is one of the most fundamental properties in polymer physics, affecting both the thermodynamics of macromolecules and their viscoelastic properties. Literature results on poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) unperturbed chain dimensions, plateau modulus, and critical molar mass for entanglement effect in viscosity were reviewed and discussed in the framework of the coil packing model. Self-consistency between experimental estimates of melt chain dimensions and viscoelastic properties was discussed, and the scaling behaviors predicted by the coil packing model were identified. Contrary to the widespread belief that amorphous polylactide must be intrinsically stiff, the coil packing model and accurate experimental measurements undoubtedly support the flexible nature of PLA. The apparent brittleness of PLA in mechanical testing was attributed to a potentially severe physical aging occurring at room temperature and to the limited extensibility of the PLA tube statistical segment. The linear viscoelastic response of A--B--A TPEs was first

  14. Dynamic viscoelasticities for short fiber-thermoplastic elastomer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wuyun; Ashida, Michio . Graduate School of Science and Technology)

    1993-11-20

    Dynamic moduli, E[prime] and E[double prime], and loss tangent tan [delta] were investigated for thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymers (SISs), styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS), and Hytrel and composites reinforced by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) short fibers. The styrenic TPEs have a typical rubbery behavior and the Hytrel TPE has medial characteristics between rubber and plastic. Both E[prime] and E[double prime] of the composites depended on the matrix as well as the fiber loading and fiber length. Based on the viewpoint of different extensibility between the fiber and the matrix elastomer, a triblock model was considered for estimating the storage modulus of the short fiber-TPE composites as follows: E[sub c] = [alpha] V[sub f]E[sub f] + [beta](1 [minus] V[sub f])E[sub m], where [alpha] and [beta] are the effective deformation coefficients for the fiber and the matrix elastomer, respectively. They can be quantitatively represented by modulus ratio M (= E[sub m]/E[sub f]) and fiber length L: [alpha] = (L[sup n] + k)M/(L[sup n]M + k), [beta] = (1 [minus] [alpha]V[sub f])/(1 [minus] V[sub f]), where the constants n and k are obtained experimentally. When k = 0.0222 and n = 0.45, E[sub c] of the TPE composites agreed well with the prediction of the proposed model. The relaxation spectrum of the composites showed a distinct main peak ascribed to the matrix elastomer, but no peak to the PET fiber.

  15. Roles of nanofiller structure on mechanical behavior of thermoplastic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Jong Il

    The roles of nanofiller structural parameters, such as filler shape, aspect ratio and orientation, on mechanical properties of thermoplastic nanocomposites have been studied. A commercial grade nylon-6/clay nanocomposite is subjected to a large-scale simple shear orientation process and the resulting morphology is investigated on various length scale levels. Both the orientation and the aspect ratio of nanoclays, which can be altered by the simple shear process, have been studied. The incorporation of well-dispersed nanoclays into the nylon-6 matrix greatly reduces the chain mobility as well as the crystallinity of nylon-6. The exfoliated nanocomposites show that the global orientation of clay layers dictates the orientation of crystalline lamellae. Two types of lamellar orientation are observed, as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering. One type of lamellae is oriented ˜41° away from the clay surface, whereas the simple shear process induces another weak preferred lamellar orientation nearly perpendicular to the clay surface. The formation of those lamellar orientations appears to be related to both orientation of the clay in the nanocomposite and the simple shear process. It is found that the modulus, strength, and heat distortion temperature of the nanocomposites decrease as the clay aspect ratio and degree of orientation are reduced. The micromechanics-based models accurately describe the relationship between clay structural parameters and the corresponding moduli for exfoliated nanocomposites. The impact fracture mechanisms of polypropylene (PP)-calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles have been investigated. A detailed investigation reveals that the CaCO 3 nanoparticles act as stress concentrators to initiate massive crazes, followed by shear banding in the PP matrix.

  16. Biodegradable, thermoplastic polyurethane grafts for small diameter vascular replacements.

    PubMed

    Bergmeister, Helga; Seyidova, Nargiz; Schreiber, Catharina; Strobl, Magdalena; Grasl, Christian; Walter, Ingrid; Messner, Barbara; Baudis, Stefan; Fröhlich, Sophie; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Griesser, Markus; di Franco, Matt; Krssak, Martin; Liska, Robert; Schima, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable vascular grafts with sufficient in vivo performance would be more advantageous than permanent non-degradable prostheses. These constructs would be continuously replaced by host tissue, leading to an endogenous functional implant which would adapt to the need of the patient and exhibit only limited risk of microbiological graft contamination. Adequate biomechanical strength and a wall structure which promotes rapid host remodeling are prerequisites for biodegradable approaches. Current approaches often reveal limited tensile strength and therefore require thicker or reinforced graft walls. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of thin host-vessel-matched grafts (n=34) formed from hard-block biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduits (n=34) served as control grafts. Grafts were analyzed by various techniques after retrieval at different time points (1 week; 1, 6, 12 months). TPU grafts showed significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.001). Population by host cells increased significantly in the TPU conduits within 1 month of implantation (P=0.01). After long-term implantation, TPU implants showed 100% patency (ePTFE: 93%) with no signs of aneurysmal dilatation. Substantial remodeling of the degradable grafts was observed but varied between subjects. Intimal hyperplasia was limited to ePTFE conduits (29%). Thin-walled TPU grafts offer a new and desirable form of biodegradable vascular implant. Degradable grafts showed equivalent long-term performance characteristics compared to the clinically used, non-degradable material with improvements in intimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of host cells.

  17. Flexible fabrication and applications of polymer nanochannels and nanoslits

    PubMed Central

    Chantiwas, Rattikan; Kim, Byoung Choul; Sunkara, Vijaya; Hwang, Hyundoo

    2016-01-01

    Fluidic devices that employ nanoscale structures (<100 nm in one or two dimensions, slits or channels, respectively) are generating great interest due to the unique properties afforded by this size domain compared to their micro-scale counterparts. Examples of interesting nanoscale phenomena include the ability to preconcentrate ionic species at extremely high levels due to ion selective migration, unique molecular separation modalities, confined environments to allow biopolymer stretching and elongation and solid-phase bioreactions that are not constrained by mass transport artifacts. Indeed, many examples in the literature have demonstrated these unique opportunities, although predominately using glass, fused silica or silicon as the substrate material. Polymer microfluidics has established itself as an alternative to glass, fused silica, or silicon-based fluidic devices. The primary advantages arising from the use of polymers are the diverse fabrication protocols that can be used to produce the desired structures, the extensive array of physiochemical properties associated with different polymeric materials, and the simple and robust modification strategies that can be employed to alter the substrate's surface chemistry. However, while the strengths of polymer microfluidics is currently being realized, the evolution of polymer-based nanofluidics has only recently been reported. In this critical review, the opportunities afforded by polymer-based nanofluidics will be discussed using both elastomeric and thermoplastic materials. In particular, various fabrication modalities will be discussed along with the nanometre size domains that they can achieve for both elastomer and thermoplastic materials. Different polymer substrates that can be used for nanofluidics will be presented along with comparisons to inorganic nanodevices and the consequences of material differences on the fabrication and operation of nanofluidic devices (257 references). PMID:21442106

  18. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  19. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  20. Rheometry of polymer melts using processing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesenbichler, Walter; Neunhäuserer, Andreas; Duretek, Ivica

    2016-08-01

    The technology of slit-die rheometry came into practice in the early 1960s. This technique enables engineers to measure the pressure drop very precisely along the slit die. Furthermore, slit-die rheometry widens up the measurable shear rate range and it is possible to characterize rheological properties of complicated materials such as wall slipping PVCs and high-filled compounds like long fiber reinforced thermoplastics and PIM-Feedstocks. With the use of slit-die systems in polymer processing machines e.g., Rauwendaal extrusion rheometer, by-pass extrusion rheometer, injection molding machine rheometers, new possibilities regarding rheological characterization of thermoplastics and elastomers at processing conditions near to practice opened up. Special slit-die systems allow the examination of the pressure-dependent viscosity and the characterization of cross-linking elastomers because of melt preparation and reachable shear rates comparable to typical processing conditions. As a result of the viscous dissipation in shear and elongational flows, when performing rheological measurements for high-viscous elastomers, temperature-correction of the apparent values has to be made. This technique was refined over the last years at Montanuniversitaet. Nowadays it is possible to characterize all sorts of rheological complicated polymeric materials under process- relevant conditions with viscosity values fully temperature corrected.

  1. Photoluminescent zinc oxide polymer nanocomposites fabricated using picosecond laser ablation in an organic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Philipp; Faramarzi, Shamsolzaman; Schwenke, Andreas; Rosenfeld, Rupert; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-06-01

    Nanocomposites made of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane were synthesized using picosecond laser ablation of zinc in a polymer-doped solution of tetrahydrofuran. The pre-added polymer stabilizes the ZnO nanoparticles in situ during laser ablation by forming a polymer shell around the nanoparticles. This close-contact polymer shell has a layer thickness up to 30 nm. Analysis of ZnO polyurethane nanocomposites using optical spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that oxidized and crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were produced. Those nanocomposites showed a green photoluminescence emission centred at 538 nm after excitation at 350 nm, which should be attributed to oxygen defects generated during the laser formation mechanism of the monocrystalline nanoparticles. Further, the influence of pulse energy and polymer concentration on the production rate, laser fluence and energy-specific mass productivity was investigated.

  2. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  3. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  4. High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Chuang; Cai, Lei; Sonawane, Bhushan; Wang, Shanfeng; Dong, Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chuang; Cai, Lei; Sonawane, Bhushan; Wang, Shanfeng; Dong, Jingyan

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

  6. Large-strain, rigid-to-rigid deformation of bistable electroactive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhibin; Yuan, Wei; Brochu, Paul; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhitian; Pei, Qibing

    2009-11-01

    Thermoplastic poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PTBA) is reported as an electroactive polymer that is rigid at ambient conditions and turns into a dielectric elastomer above a transition temperature. In the rubbery state, a PTBA thin film can be electrically actuated to strains up to 335% in area expansion. The calculated actuation pressure is 3.2 MPa. The actuation is made bistable by cooling to below glass transition temperature. The PTBA represents the bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP) that can be actuated to various largely strained, rigid shapes. The application of the BSEP for refreshable Braille display, an active tactile display, is also demonstrated.

  7. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method

    SciTech Connect

    Burat, Firat; Gueney, Ali; Olgac Kangal, M.

    2009-06-15

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35 g/cm{sup 3} and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  8. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method.

    PubMed

    Burat, Firat; Güney, Ali; Olgaç Kangal, M

    2009-06-01

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35g /cm(3) and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  9. Multichannel and repeatable self-healing of mechanical enhanced graphene-thermoplastic polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Yi, Ningbo; Wu, Yingpeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-04-18

    A novel self-healing material, which was fabricated using few-layered graphene (FG) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via a facile method, not only exhibits a mechanical enhanced property, but also can be repeatedly healed by various methods including infrared (IR) light, electricity and electromagnetic wave with healing efficiencies higher than 98%.

  10. Examining the Relationship Between Ballistic and Structural Properties of Lightweight Thermoplastic Unidirectional Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Kevlar KM2® Style 705 PVB phenolic woven aramid composite was included. A developmental unidirectional thermoplastic aramid fiber, Honeywell... discovery and development of the ARL X Hybrid architecture, which consists of 1) the balance of architecture in the panel being 75% [0°/90°] and 25

  11. Biobased composites from cross-linked soybean oil and thermoplastic polyurethane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethane contribute to the adhesion of the blend compon...

  12. Helium High Pressure Tanks at EADS Space Transportation New Technology with Thermoplastic Liner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    breadboards which were all successfully checked (geometrical and NDI: US and Xray ); figure 4 : Xray Control of a 300 L thermoplastic lined Tank 4...After testing, the tank was checked by NDI (ultrasonic, Xray ) and dimensional control. All the controls concluded in the total integrity of the tank

  13. Properties of thermoplastic starch and TPS/polycaprolactone blend reinforced with sisal whiskers using extrusion processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sisal whiskers (SW) were prepared by acid hydrolysis for subsequent evaluation as reinforcing material for biodegradable matrices of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and TPS/polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blends. The acid hydrolyzed SW had dimensions of 5±2 nm in diameter and 210±60 nm in length and 78% cryst...

  14. Building Block Approach' for Structural Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Components for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carello, M.; Amirth, N.; Airale, A. G.; Monti, M.; Romeo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced thermoplastic prepreg composite materials stand out with regard to their ability to allow complex designs with high specific strength and stiffness. This makes them an excellent choice for lightweight automotive components to reduce mass and increase fuel efficiency, while maintaining the functionality of traditional thermosetting prepreg (and mechanical characteristics) and with a production cycle time and recyclability suited to mass production manufacturing. Currently, the aerospace and automotive sectors struggle to carry out accurate Finite Elements (FE) component analyses and in some cases are unable to validate the obtained results. In this study, structural Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been done on a thermoplastic fiber reinforced component designed and manufactured through an integrated injection molding process, which consists in thermoforming the prepreg laminate and overmolding the other parts. This process is usually referred to as hybrid molding, and has the provision to reinforce the zones subjected to additional stresses with thermoformed themoplastic prepreg as required and overmolded with a shortfiber thermoplastic resin in single process. This paper aims to establish an accurate predictive model on a rational basis and an innovative methodology for the structural analysis of thermoplastic composite components by comparison with the experimental tests results.

  15. Thermoplastic rubber comprising ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, asphalt and fluxing oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermoplastic rubber is made from a mixture of between about 10 percent and about 50 percent of asphalt, between about 5 percent and about 30 percent fluxing oil, and between about 35 percent and about 70 percent of a copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate.

  16. Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks, and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and gu...

  17. Preparing composite materials from matrices of processable aromatic polyimide thermoplastic blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Gleason, John R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite materials with matrices of tough, thermoplastic aromatic polyimides are obtained by blending semi-crystalline polyimide powders with polyamic acid solutions to form slurries, which are used in turn to prepare prepregs, the consolidation of which into finished composites is characterized by excellent melt flow during processing.

  18. Recycling of ligno-cellulosic and polythylene wastes from agricultural operations in thermoplastic composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, wood plastic composites (WPC) represent one of the successful markets for natural fiber-filled thermoplastic composites. In the past several years, the availability of good quality wood fiber has been diminishing and prices of wood and plastic have been increasing. Therefore, the vast qua...

  19. Recycling of ligno-cellulosic and polyethylene wastes from agricultural operations in thermoplastic composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, wood plastic composites (WPC) represent one of the successful markets for natural fiber-filled thermoplastic composites. In the past several years, the availability of good quality wood fiber has been diminishing and prices of wood and plastic have been increasing. Therefore, the vast qua...

  20. Vacuum forming of thermoplastic sheet results in low-cost investment casting patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, A. E., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    Vacuum forming of a sheet of thermoplastic material around a mandrel conforming to the shape of the finished object provides a pattern for an investment mold. The thickness of the metal part is determined by the thickness of the plastic pattern.

  1. Fatigue and environmental behavior of long fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Ashutosh

    In the present work we have characterized the mechanical behavior of long fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites (21% E-glass fiber/polypropylene) under different conditions. We start by comparing the elastic modulus of LFT predicted by a microstructure-based approach called Object Oriented Finite (OOF) element method, and compare the result with prediction from various models commonly used in the literature and the experimental value. The predictions from the models used currently in the literature did not agree well with the experimental value due to the assumptions inherent in the models. The prediction by OOF was the closest to the experimental value because of the microstructure based approach which takes into account the fiber distribution and orientation during the finite element calculation. This was followed by characterization of fatigue behavior of LFT. Samples tested along longitudinal direction showed a higher fatigue life than the transverse samples because of the preferred orientation of the fibers along the longitudinal direction developed during the processing of LFT by extrusion-compression molding process. Fatigue life decreased with increase in frequency. Hysteretic energy loss and temperature rise were measured; they depended on the stress amplitude as well as the cyclic frequency. LFT composite showed a lower temperature rise compared to neat PP because LFT has higher thermal conductivity than neat PP and thus faster heat dissipation to the surroundings occur. The hysteretic heating also led to decrease in the modulus of LFT as a function of number of cycles. The last part of the work was to study the effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the microstructure and mechanical properties of LFT. Microscopic observations revealed that the damage due to UV was confined only to the surface region in the form of surface cracking and exposure of fibers to the surface in the case of LFT. FTIR and nanoindentation results showed that there was a large

  2. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  3. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  4. Transparent Large Strain Thermoplastic Polyurethane Magneto-Active Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Carpen, Ileana; Peck, John; Sola, Francisco; Bail, Justin; Lerch, Bradley; Meador, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Smart adaptive materials are an important class of materials which can be used in space deployable structures, morphing wings, and structural air vehicle components where remote actuation can improve fuel efficiency. Adaptive materials can undergo deformation when exposed to external stimuli such as electric fields, thermal gradients, radiation (IR, UV, etc.), chemical and electrochemical actuation, and magnetic field. Large strain, controlled and repetitive actuation are important characteristics of smart adaptive materials. Polymer nanocomposites can be tailored as shape memory polymers and actuators. Magnetic actuation of polymer nanocomposites using a range of iron, iron cobalt, and iron manganese nanoparticles is presented. The iron-based nanoparticles were synthesized using the soft template (1) and Sun's (2) methods. The nanoparticles shape and size were examined using TEM. The crystalline structure and domain size were evaluated using WAXS. Surface modifications of the nanoparticles were performed to improve dispersion, and were characterized with IR and TGA. TPU nanocomposites exhibited actuation for approximately 2wt% nanoparticle loading in an applied magnetic field. Large deformation and fast recovery were observed. These nanocomposites represent a promising potential for new generation of smart materials.

  5. Lifecycle Verification of Tank Liner Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Smith, Barton

    2014-03-01

    This report describes a method that was developed for the purpose of assessing the durability of thermoplastic liners used in a Type IV hydrogen storage tank during the tank s expected service life. In the method, a thermoplastic liner specimen is cycled between the maximum and minimum expected working temperatures while it is differentially pressurized with high-pressure hydrogen gas. The number of thermal cycling intervals corresponds to those expected within the tank s design lifetime. At prescribed intervals, hydrogen permeation measurements are done in situ to assess the ability of the liner specimen to maintain its hydrogen barrier properties and to model its permeability over the tank lifetime. Finally, the model is used to assess whether the steady-state leakage rate in the tank could potentially exceed the leakage specification for hydrogen fuel cell passenger vehicles. A durability assessment was performed on a specimen of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that is in current use as a tank liner. Hydrogen permeation measurements were performed on several additional tank liner polymers as well as novel polymers proposed for use as storage tank liners and hydrogen barrier materials. The following technical barriers from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program MYRDD were addressed by the project: D. Durability of on-board storage systems lifetime of at least 1500 cycles G. Materials of construction vessel containment that is resistant to hydrogen permeation M. Lack of Tank Performance Data and Understanding of Failure Mechanisms And the following technical targets1 for on-board hydrogen storage systems R&D were likewise addressed: Operational cycle life (1/4 tank to full) FY 2017: 1500 cycles; Ultimate: 1500 cycles Environmental health & safety Permeation and leakage: Meets or exceeds applicable standards Loss of useable H2: FY 2017: 0.05 g/h/kg H2; Ultimate: 0.05 g/h/kg H2

  6. Development of bipolar plates for fuel cells from graphite filled wet-lay material and a compatible thermoplastic laminate skin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brent D.; Baird, Donald G.

    In this paper a method with the potential to lead to the rapid production of thermoplastic polymer composite bipolar plates with improved mechanical properties, formability, and half-cell resistance is described. In our previous work it was reported that laminate structure composite bipolar plates made with a polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) based wet-lay material as the core and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/graphite mixture as the laminate exhibited improved formability, through-plane conductivity, and half-cell resistance over that of wet-lay based bipolar plates. However, the mechanical strength of the laminate plates needed improvement. In this work laminate polymer composite plates consisting of a PPS/graphite-based laminate mixture and a PPS based wet-lay core are manufactured in an effort to improve mechanical strength. Additionally, our existing channel design has been altered to reduce the channel depth from 0.8 to 0.5 mm in an effort to improve the half-cell resistance by reducing the total plate thickness. The plates are characterized by their half-cell resistance and mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures. The PPS based laminate plates exhibited half-cell resistances as low as 0.018 Ω cm 2, tensile strength of up to 37 MPa, and flexural strength of up to 60 MPa at ambient temperature. The laminate bipolar plates can be manufactured in several ways with two of them being discussed in detail in the paper.

  7. Polymers & People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  8. Injection molded polymer optics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beich, William S.

    2005-08-01

    Precision polymer optics, manufactured by injection molding techniques, has been a key enabling technology for several decades now. The technology, which can be thought of as a subset of the wider field of precision optics manufacturing, was pioneered in the United States by companies such as Eastman Kodak, US Precision Lens, and Polaroid. In addition to suppliers in the U.S. there are several companies worldwide that design and manufacture precision polymer optics, for example Philips High Tech Plastics in Europe and Fujinon in Japan. Designers who are considering using polymer optics need a fundamental understanding of exactly how the optics are created. This paper will survey the technology and processes that are employed in the successful implementation of a polymer optic solution from a manufacturer's perspective. Special emphasis will be paid to the unique relationship between the molds and the optics that they produce. We will discuss the key elements of production: molding resins, molds and molding equipment, and metrology. Finally we will offer a case study to illustrate just how the optics designer carries a design concept through to production. The underlying theme throughout the discussion of polymer optics is the need for the design team to work closely with an experienced polymer optics manufacturer with a solid track record of success in molded optics. As will be seen shortly, the complex interaction between thermoplastics, molds, and molding machines dictates the need for working closely with a supplier who has the critical knowledge needed to manage all aspects of the program.

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c styrene... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c styrene... vapor pressure criteria are specific to the listed chemical or to “all chemicals,” as indicated. b Maximum true...

  11. Dynamics and thermodynamics of polymer glasses.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, D

    2014-04-16

    The fate of matter when decreasing the temperature at constant pressure is that of passing from gas to liquid and, subsequently, from liquid to crystal. However, a class of materials can exist in an amorphous phase below the melting temperature. On cooling such materials, a glass is formed; that is, a material with the rigidity of a solid but exhibiting no long-range order. The study of the thermodynamics and dynamics of glass-forming systems is the subject of continuous research. Within the wide variety of glass formers, an important sub-class is represented by glass forming polymers. The presence of chain connectivity and, in some cases, conformational disorder are unfavourable factors from the point of view of crystallization. Furthermore, many of them, such as amorphous thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers, are widely employed in many applications. In this review, the peculiarities of the thermodynamics and dynamics of glass-forming polymers are discussed, with particular emphasis on those topics currently the subject of debate. In particular, the following aspects will be reviewed in the present work: (i) the connection between the pronounced slowing down of glassy dynamics on cooling towards the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the thermodynamics; and, (ii) the fate of the dynamics and thermodynamics below Tg. Both aspects are reviewed in light of the possible presence of a singularity at a finite temperature with diverging relaxation time and zero configurational entropy. In this context, the specificity of glass-forming polymers is emphasized.

  12. Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Hearon, K; Gall, K; Ware, T; Maitland, D J; Bearinger, J P; Wilson, T S

    2011-07-01

    Novel urethane shape-memory polymers (SMPs) of significant industrial relevance have been synthesized and characterized. Chemically crosslinked SMPs have traditionally been made in a one-step polymerization of monomers and crosslinking agents. However, these new post-polymerization crosslinked SMPs can be processed into complex shapes by thermoplastic manufacturing methods and later crosslinked by heat exposure or by electron beam irradiation. Several series of linear, olefinic urethane polymers were made from 2-butene-1,4-diol, other saturated diols, and various aliphatic diisocyanates. These thermoplastics were melt-processed into desired geometries and thermally crosslinked at 200°C or radiation crosslinked at 50 kGy. The SMPs were characterized by solvent swelling and extraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile testing, and qualitative shape-recovery analysis. Swelling and DMA results provided concrete evidence of chemical crosslinking, and further characterization revealed that the urethanes had outstanding mechanical properties. Key properties include tailorable transitions between 25 and 80°C, tailorable rubbery moduli between 0.2 and 4.2 MPa, recoverable strains approaching 100%, failure strains of over 500% at T(g), and qualitative shape-recovery times of less than 12 seconds at body temperature (37°C). Because of its outstanding thermo-mechanical properties, one polyurethane was selected for implementation in the design of a complex medical device. These post-polymerization crosslinked urethane SMPs are an industrially relevant class of highly processable shape-memory materials.

  13. Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, K.; Gall, K.; Ware, T.; Maitland, D. J.; Bearinger, J. P.; Wilson, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    Novel urethane shape-memory polymers (SMPs) of significant industrial relevance have been synthesized and characterized. Chemically crosslinked SMPs have traditionally been made in a one-step polymerization of monomers and crosslinking agents. However, these new post-polymerization crosslinked SMPs can be processed into complex shapes by thermoplastic manufacturing methods and later crosslinked by heat exposure or by electron beam irradiation. Several series of linear, olefinic urethane polymers were made from 2-butene-1,4-diol, other saturated diols, and various aliphatic diisocyanates. These thermoplastics were melt-processed into desired geometries and thermally crosslinked at 200°C or radiation crosslinked at 50 kGy. The SMPs were characterized by solvent swelling and extraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile testing, and qualitative shape-recovery analysis. Swelling and DMA results provided concrete evidence of chemical crosslinking, and further characterization revealed that the urethanes had outstanding mechanical properties. Key properties include tailorable transitions between 25 and 80°C, tailorable rubbery moduli between 0.2 and 4.2 MPa, recoverable strains approaching 100%, failure strains of over 500% at Tg, and qualitative shape-recovery times of less than 12 seconds at body temperature (37°C). Because of its outstanding thermo-mechanical properties, one polyurethane was selected for implementation in the design of a complex medical device. These post-polymerization crosslinked urethane SMPs are an industrially relevant class of highly processable shape-memory materials. PMID:21572577

  14. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Laura Ann

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  15. A study on thermal properties of biodegradable polymers using photothermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, A. P. L.; Poley, L. H.; Sanchez, R.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    In this work is reported the use of photothermal techniques applied to the thermal characterization of biodegradable polymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family. This is a family of polymer produced by bacteria using renewable resources. It exhibits thermoplastic properties and therefore it can be an alternative product for engineering plastics, being also applied as packages for food industry and fruits. Thermal diffusivities were determined using the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) configuration. Specific heat capacity measurements were performed monitoring temperature of the samples under white light illumination against time. Typical values obtained for the thermal properties are in good agreement with those found in the literature for other polymers. Due to the incorporation of hydroxyvalerate in the monomer structure, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity increase reaching a saturation value, otherwise the specific thermal capacity decreases as the concentration of the hydroxyvalerate (HV) increases. These results can be explained by polymers internal structure and are allowing new applications of these materials.

  16. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  17. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  18. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  19. Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

  20. Antibody orientation enhanced by selective polymer-protein noncovalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Clarizia, Lisa-Jo A; Sok, Davin; Wei, Ming; Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; McDonald, Melisenda J

    2009-03-01

    A unique interaction has been found between protein G' (a truncated recombinant bacterial "alphabet" protein which aligns by noncovalent attachment to the antibody stem) and poly(methyl methacrylate), a thermoplastic polymer substrate, which can be easily fabricated using high-rate processes. Significantly improved orientation efficiency with traditional passive adsorption for this system (termed ALYGNSA) has been achieved as compared to the same assay performed on a polystyrene substrate with protein G'. Results were consistent with an average alignment of 80% of the human immunoglobulin G capture antibody which translated into a 30% to 50% improved alignment over an array of industry standards tested. Laser scanning confocal microscopy confirmed the immunological results. Studies of additional poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer derivatives and protein biolinker (A and AG) combinations have been conducted and have revealed different degrees of antibody alignment. These findings may lead to additional novel noncovalent methods of antibody orientation and greater sensitivity in immunological assays.

  1. Blocked Shape Memory Effect in Negative Poisson's Ratio Polymer Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Boba, Katarzyna; Bianchi, Matteo; McCombe, Greg; Gatt, Ruben; Griffin, Anselm C; Richardson, Robert M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hamerton, Ian; Grima, Joseph N

    2016-08-10

    We describe a new class of negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) open cell PU-PE foams produced by blocking the shape memory effect in the polymer. Contrary to classical NPR open cell thermoset and thermoplastic foams that return to their auxetic phase after reheating (and therefore limit their use in technological applications), this new class of cellular solids has a permanent negative Poisson's ratio behavior, generated through multiple shape memory (mSM) treatments that lead to a fixity of the topology of the cell foam. The mSM-NPR foams have Poisson's ratio values similar to the auxetic foams prior their return to the conventional phase, but compressive stress-strain curves similar to the ones of conventional foams. The results show that by manipulating the shape memory effect in polymer microstructures it is possible to obtain new classes of materials with unusual deformation mechanisms.

  2. Tough, processable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks from monomer reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) was developed which had significantly improved processability, damage tolerance, and mechanical performance, when compared to the commercial Thermid materials. This simultaneous semi-IPN was prepared by mixing the monomer precursors of Thermid AL-600 (a thermoset) and NR-150B2 (a thermoplastic) and allowing the monomers to react randomly upon heating. This reaction occurs at a rate which decreases the flow and broadens the processing window. Upon heating at a higher temperature, there is an increase in flow. Because of the improved flow properties, broadened processing window and enhanced toughness, high strength polymer matrix composites, adhesives and molded articles can now be prepared from the acetylene end-capped polyimides which were previously inherently brittle and difficult to process.

  3. Residual stresses in injection molded shape memory polymer parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmer, Sukran; Esen, Huseyin; Karatas, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are materials which have shape memory effect (SME). SME is a property which has the ability to change shape when induced by a stimulator such as temperature, moisture, pH, electric current, magnetic field, light, etc. A process, known as programming, is applied to SMP parts in order to alter them from their permanent shape to their temporary shape. In this study we investigated effects of injection molding and programming processes on residual stresses in molded thermoplastic polyurethane shape memory polymer, experimentally. The residual stresses were measured by layer removal method. The study shows that injection molding and programming process conditions have significantly influence on residual stresses in molded shape memory polyurethane parts.

  4. Organometallic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  5. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  6. Effect of nanocellulose as a filler on biodegradable thermoplastic starch films from tuber, cereal and legume.

    PubMed

    Montero, Belén; Rico, Maite; Rodríguez-Llamazares, Saddys; Barral, Luis; Bouza, Rebeca

    2017-02-10

    Starches from different vegetal sources (tuber, cereal and legume) were plasticized with an invariant glycerol content and reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals by solution casting method. The influence of both, starch nature and filler amount, in the crystallinity and the extension of plasticization have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Thermoplastic starches (TPS) morphologies were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties and thermal stability were analyzed by dynamomechanical and thermogravimetric analysis. Water absorption evolution was studied as well. A major extension in plasticization (high amylopectin starches) led to matrices with large starch-rich domains, a good thermal stability and resistance to water absorption but low stiffness. The incorporation of cellulose nanoparticles favoured plasticization and increased the rigidity in TPS films, as well as the thermal stability and moisture resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain bio-based thermoplastic starch films for replacing petroleum-derived ones in packaging industry, especially for short-life applications.

  7. Dependence of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites on Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sok Won; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kang, K. H.

    2007-06-01

    Since the restrictions for environmental protection being strengthened, thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibers (NF’s), such as jute, kenaf, flax, etc. have appeared as alternatives to chemical plastics for automobile interior materials. In this study, the thermal conductivity, tensile strength, and deformation of several kinds of thermoplastic composites composed of 50% polypropylene (PP) and 50% natural fiber (NF) irradiated by an electron beam (energy: 0.5 MeV, dose: 0 20 kGy) were measured. The length and thickness of PP and NF are 80 ± 10 mm and 40 120 μm, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity and the tensile strength changed and became minimum, when the dose of the electron beam was 10 kGy. However, the effect of the dose on the deformation was not clear.

  8. ["Elastic osteosynthesis" with autocompression plates of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic material].

    PubMed

    Stange, J; Mittelmeier, H

    1989-06-01

    The problem of atrophic bone that occurs in osteosynthesis employing rigid plates is first depicted. Attempts at fabricating "simirigid" plates, which, however, have so far failed to gain any practical importance are then discussed. The reason for this seems to be that made of duroplastics cannot be molded during the operation and the thermoplastics do not have sufficient strength. The production of semirigid plates made of thermoplastic Polyethersulfon (PES), reinforced with 20% short carbon fibres, results in plates which are made moldable by heating in a small oven, white retaining sufficient static strength, although only limited fatigue strength. Biomechanical examinations revealed that with appropriate dimensioning of the plates, "elastic osteosynthesis" results in less loss of mechanical function of the stabilized bones, so that less atrophy of the bone may be expected. During more pronounced exercise loading, a reversible "springiness" of the fracture results, which might stimulate callus formation and improved stability.

  9. Single-use thermoplastic microfluidic burst valves enabling on-chip reagent storage.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, Omid D; DeVoe, Don L

    2015-05-01

    A simple and reliable method for fabricating single-use normally closed burst valves in thermoplastic microfluidic devices is presented, using a process flow that is readily integrated into established workflows for the fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidics. An experimental study of valve performance reveals the relationships between valve geometry and burst pressure. The technology is demonstrated in a device employing multiple valves engineered to actuate at different inlet pressures that can be generated using integrated screw pumps. On-chip storage and reconstitution of fluorescein salt sealed within defined reagent chambers are demonstrated. By taking advantage of the low gas and water permeability of cyclic olefin copolymer, the robust burst valves allow on-chip hermetic storage of reagents, making the technology well suited for the development of integrated and disposable assays for use at the point of care.

  10. Advanced fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with reduced processing times by use of nanoscale fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockerhoff, Georg; Brüll, Robert; Vonberg, Klaus; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The industrial standard for the manufacturing of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTCs) is the film stacking method. An alternative to this is commingling thermoplastic fibres with reinforcing fibres into hybrid rovings. These rovings are woven into weaves and consolidated through compression moulding. This paper evaluates the effects of 5 weight percent (wt.-%) titanium dioxide (TiO2) in commingled polyamide 6 (PA6) on the cycle time during the consolidation process and the mechanical properties. A product representing the industrial standard is used as reference. In order to achieve a good comparability with this product, the film stacking process is also reproduced. Finally, the three plate types are compared regarding their consolidation, tensile and flexural strength. The results show that the hybrid roving FRTC is more consolidated, has better mechanical properties and enables shorter cycle times when compared to the film stacking process.

  11. Preparation and characterization of wheat straw fibers for reinforcing application in injection molded thermoplastic composites.

    PubMed

    Panthapulakkal, S; Zereshkian, A; Sain, M

    2006-01-01

    The potential of wheat straw fibers prepared by mechanical and chemical processes as reinforcing additives for thermoplastics was investigated. Fibers prepared by mechanical and chemical processes were characterized with respect to their chemical composition, morphology, and physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Composites of polypropylene filled with 30% wheat straw fibers were prepared and their mechanical properties were also evaluated. The fibers prepared by chemical process exhibited better mechanical, physical and thermal properties. Wheat straw fiber reinforced polypropylene composites exhibited significantly enhanced properties compared to virgin polypropylene. However, the strength properties of the composites were less for chemically prepared fiber filled composites. This was due to the poor dispersion of the fibers under the processing conditions used. These results indicate that wheat straw fibers can be used as potential reinforcing materials for making thermoplastic composites.

  12. Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

    In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

  13. Rheology of Hyperbranched Poly(triglyceride)-Based Thermoplastic Elastomers via RAFT polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mengguo; Cochran, Eric

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we discuss how melt- and solid-state properties are influenced by the degree of branching and molecular weight in a family of hyperbranched thermoplastics derived from soybean oil. Acrylated epoxidized triglycerides from soybean oils have been polymerized to hyperbranched thermoplastic elastomers using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. With the proper choice of chain transfer agent, both homopolymer and block copolymer can be synthesized. By changing the number of acrylic groups per triglycerides, the chain architectures can range from nearly linear to highly branched. We show how the fundamental viscoelastic properties (e.g. entanglement molecular weight, plateau modulus, etc.) are influenced by chain architecture and molecular weight.

  14. Polymers All Around You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Susan

    Background information on natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and the properties of polymers is presented as an introduction to this curriculum guide. Details are provided on the use of polymer products in consumer goods, polymer recycling, polymer densities, the making of a polymer such as GLUEP, polyvinyl alcohol, dissolving plastics, polymers…

  15. Synthesis and characterization of aryl phosphine oxide containing thermoplastic polyimides and thermosetting polyimides with controlled reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Hong

    1998-11-01

    Phosphorus containing monomers, bis(3-aminophenyl)methyl phosphine oxide (m-DAMPO) and bis(3-aminophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (m-DAPPO), were synthesized and incorporated into a thermoplastic poly(arylene ether imide) based upon 2,2sp'-bis (4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl) propane dianhydride and 1,3-phenylene diamine, in order to study their influence on flame resistance and other properties. DAMPO or DAPPO were quantitatively incorporated in concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mole percent, using the "one pot" ester-acid method. The number average molecular weights of the prepared materials were controlled to 20,000g/mol by off-setting the stoichiometry and endcapping with phthalic anhydride. This strategy enabled one to distinguish the effects of the phosphine oxide incorporation from the influence of molecular weight. The resulting copolymers demonstrated a significant increase in char yield as a function of the phosphine oxide content, thus suggesting improved fire resistance. Glass transition temperatures similar to the control were determined by DSC analysis. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of the DAMPO system at room temperature showed that tensile strength and elongation at failure values were comparable to the control system, while the DAPPO containing copolymers were surprisingly brittle. The influence of the reactive endgroup on the synthesis, cure behavior and network properties of thermosetting polyetherimides was investigated. Reactive phenylacetylene, acetylene and maleimide terminated poly(ether imide) oligomers were prepared and characterized. Optimal reaction conditions were established to produce fully endcapped oligomers with imidized structures and controlled molecular weight. The phenylacetylene endcapped system was synthesized by a conventional ester-acid method. The acetylene endcapped system was prepared via modified ester-acid method and the maleimide endcapped system was fabricated utilizing an amic-acid route. It was determined

  16. Understanding the Impact of Bead Type on Paint and Thermoplastic Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    20 Figure 7: Bead Performance Over Time for Polyurea (Needham, 2011) ......................... 23 Figure 8...specifically. Research conducted at the Air Force Institute of Technology reveals that bead type does impact the degradation rate of polyurea ...Preformed tape - profiled < 1.0 8 Methyl methacrylate < 1.0 9 Thermoplastics profiled < 1.0 10 Polyurea < 1.0 11 Cold applied plastics < 1.0 12

  17. Ultrasonic Attenuation Results of Thermoplastic Resin Composites Undergoing Thermal and Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1998-01-01

    As part of an effort to obtain the required information about new composites for aviation use, materials and NDE researchers at NASA are jointly performing mechanical and NDE measurements on new composite materials. The materials testing laboratory at NASA is equipped with environmental chambers mounted on load frames that can expose composite materials to thermal and loading cycles representative of flight protocols. Applying both temperature and load simultaneously will help to highlight temperature and load interactions during the aging of these composite materials. This report highlights our initial ultrasonic attenuation results from thermoplastic composite samples that have undergone over 4000 flight cycles to date. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements are a standard method used to assess the effects of material degradation. Recently, researchers have shown that they could obtain adequate contrast in the evaluation of thermal degradation in thermoplastic composites by using frequencies of ultrasound on the order of 24 MHz. In this study, we address the relationship of attenuation measured at lower frequencies in thermoplastic composites undergoing both thermal and mechanical loading. We also compare these thermoplastic results with some data from thermoset composites undergoing similar protocols. The composite s attenuation is reported as the slope of attenuation with respect to frequency, defined as b = Da(f)/Df. The slope of attenuation is an attractive parameter since it is quantitative, yet does not require interface corrections like conventional quantitative attenuation measurements. This latter feature is a consequence of the assumption that interface correction terms are frequency independent. Uncertainty in those correction terms can compromise the value of conventional quantitative attenuation data. Furthermore, the slope of the attenuation more directly utilizes the bandwidth information and in addition, the bandwidth can be adjusted in the post

  18. Determination of thermal contact conductance in vacuum-bagged thermoplastic prepreg stacks using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumard, Théo; De Almeida, Olivier; Menary, Gary; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice; Bikard, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The infrared heating of a vacuum-bagged, thermoplastic prepreg stack of glass/PA66 was studied to investigate the influence of vacuum level on thermal contact resistance between plies. A higher vacuum level was shown experimentally to decrease the transverse heat transfer efficiency, indicating that considering only the effect of heat conduction at the plies interfaces is not sufficient to predict the temperature distribution. An inverse analysis was used to retrieve the contact resistance coefficients as a function of vacuum pressure.

  19. Non-contact inline monitoring of thermoplastic CFRP tape quality using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essig, W.; Fey, P.; Meiler, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2017-02-01

    Beginning with the aerospace industry, fiber reinforced plastics have spread towards many applications such as automotive, civil engineering as well as sports and leisure articles. Their superior strength and stiffness to mass ratio made them the number one material for achieving high performance. Especially continuous fiber reinforced plastics allow for the construction of structures which are custom tailored to their mechanical loads by adjusting the paths of the fibers to the loading direction. The two main constituents of CFRP are carbon fibers and matrix. Two possibilities for matrix material exist: thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix. While thermosetting matrix may yield better properties with respect to thermal loads, thermoplasticity opens a wide range of applications due to weldability, shapeability, and compatibility to e.g. injection molded thermoplastic materials. Thin (0.1 mm) thermoplastic continuous fiber CFRP tapes with a width of 100 mm were examined using air-coupled ultrasound. Transducers were arranged in reflection as well as transmission setup. By slanted incidence of the ultrasound on the tape surface, guided waves were excited in the material in fiber direction and perpendicular to the fiber direction. Artificial defects - fiber cuts, matrix cuts, circular holes, low velocity impacts from tool drop, and sharp bends - were produced. Experiments on a stationary tape showed good detectability of all artificial defects by guided waves. Also the effects of variation in material properties, fiber volume content and fiber matrix adhesion being the most relevant, on guided wave propagation were examined, to allow for quality assessment. Guided wave measurements were supported by destructive analysis. Also an apparatus containing one endless loop of CFRP tape was constructed and built to simulate inline testing of CFRP tapes, as it would be employed in a CFRP tape production environment or at a CFRP tape processing facility. The influences of tape

  20. Functionalized Graphene Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites as Strain Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0233 FUNCTIONALIZED GRAPHENE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC NANOCOMPOSITES AS STRAIN SENSORS IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING... MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...SENSORS IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (Preprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-C-5205 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63112F 6

  1. Characterization of thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration. We performed multiple filtration experiments using human blood to compare the influence of three factors on separation efficiency: hematocrit level (40%, 23.2%, and 10.9%), membrane pore size (5 μm, 2 μm, and 1 μm), and flow rate (0.02 ml/min, 0.06 ml/min, 0.1 ml/min). To prevent hemolysis, the pressure within the microchannel was kept below 0.5 bars throughout all filtration experiments. The experimental results clearly demonstrated the following: (1) The proposed microfiltration chip is able to separate white blood cells and red blood cells from whole human blood with a separation efficiency that exceeds 95%; (2) no leakage occurred during any of the experiments, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of bonding a commercial membrane with a thermoplastic substrate using UV adhesive in a ring-shaped structure; (3) separation efficiency can be increased by using a membrane with smaller pore size, by using diluted blood with lower hematocrit, or by injecting blood into the microfiltration chip at a lower flow rate.

  2. Surface Charge, Electroosmotic Flow and DNA Extension in Chemically Modified Thermoplastic Nanoslits and Nanochannels

    PubMed Central

    Uba, Franklin I.; Pullagurla, Swathi R.; Sirasunthorn, Nichanun; Wu, Jiahao; Park, Sunggook; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Cho, Yoonkyoung; Shin, Heungjoo; Soper, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoplastics have become attractive alternatives to glass/quartz for microfluidics, but the realization of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices has been slow in spite of the rather simple fabrication techniques that can be used to produce these devices. This slow transition has in part been attributed to insufficient understanding of surface charge effects on the transport properties of single molecules through thermoplastic nanochannels. We report the surface modification of thermoplastic nanochannels and an assessment of the associated surface charge density, zeta potential and electroosmotic flow (EOF). Mixed-scale fluidic networks were fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Oxygen plasma was used to generate surface-confined carboxylic acids with devices assembled using low temperature fusion bonding. Amination of the carboxylated surfaces using ethylenediamine (EDA) was accomplished via EDC coupling. XPS and ATR-FTIR revealed the presence of carboxyl and amine groups on the appropriately prepared surfaces. A modified conductance equation for nanochannels was developed to determine their surface conductance and was found to be in good agreement with our experimental results. The measured surface charge density and zeta potential of these devices were lower than glass nanofluidic devices and dependent on the surface modification adopted, as well as the size of the channel. This property, coupled to an apparent increase in fluid viscosity due to nanoconfinement, contributed to the suppression of the EOF in PMMA nanofluidic devices by an order of magnitude compared to the micro-scale devices. Carboxylated PMMA nanochannels were efficient for the transport and elongation of λ-DNA while these same DNA molecules were unable to translocate through aminated nanochannels. PMID:25369728

  3. Advanced thermoplastic composites: An attractive new material for usage in highly loaded vehicle components

    SciTech Connect

    Mehn, R.; Seidl, F.; Peis, R.; Heinzmann, D.; Frei, P.

    1995-10-01

    Beside the lightweight potential and further well known advantages of advanced composite materials, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics employed in vehicle structural parts especially offer short manufacturing cycle times and an additional economically viable manufacturing process. Presenting a frame structure concept for two highly loaded vehicle parts, a safety seat and a side door, numerous features concerning the choice of suitable composite materials, design aspects, investigations to develop a thermoforming technique, mature for a series production of vehicle parts, are discussed.

  4. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; ...

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffinemore » tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.« less

  5. A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic/carbon fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The themoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfone, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than visa-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

  6. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; Steren, Carlos A.; Goodwin, Andrew; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Gido, Samuel; Beiner, Mario; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam -Goo; Mays, Jimmy; Wang, Weiyu; White, Benjamin T.

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffine tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.

  7. Field Verification of Structural Performance of Thermoplastic Pipe Under Deep Backfill Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargand, S.

    2002-05-01

    This report provides information regarding the structural performance of thermoplastic pipes under relatively deep soil cover conditions. The eighteen (12 HDPE, 6 PVC) thermoplastic pipes, with diameter ranging from 30 to 60 in., were instrumented with sensors, embedded with granular backfill in shallow trenches, and subjected to 20-ft or 40-ft high soil fill for about 10 months. Their installation plans involved two types of backfill soil, three relative compactions, and varying bedding thickness to study the effects of these installation parameters on the pipe performance. Once the field performance of each test pipe was presented and discussed, comparative cross examinations of the entire field data were made to identify the effects of various installation parameters on the pipe deformations/deflections and soil pressure against pipe. A comprehensive set of soil testing was performed in the laboratory to characterize each of the three soil types that existed in the field. Results from the shear strength tests were analyzed further to obtain hyperbolic model parameter values for these soils. Three analytical methods (modified Iowa formula, elastic solutions, and finite element) were applied to evaluate their abilities to predict the field performance of the thermoplastic pipes under relatively deep soil cover. In their applications, material properties measured in the laboratory were utilized as much as possible.

  8. National Symposium on Polymers in the Service of Man, State-of-the-Art Symposium (16th) held June 9-11, 1980, Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    energy costs. BACKGROUND Energy and materials costs in the polymer and automotive industries rose rapid! in 19T3 with tht abrupt increase in the...in the weight- saving war being vuged by the automotive companies. The following materials were highlighted at a 1978 Chemical Marketing ««search...compared to the a..000 pound car with conventional materials . Thermoplastic elastomers for automotive appli- cations do not require vulcanisation to

  9. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  10. Shock, release and Taylor impact of the semicrystalline thermoplastic polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.; Brown, E. N.; Millett, J. C. F.; Gray, G. T.

    2008-04-01

    The high strain-rate response of polymers is a subject that has gathered interest over recent years due to their increasing engineering importance, particularly in load bearing applications subject to extremes of pressure and strain rate. The current work presents two specific sets of experiments interrogating the effect of dynamic, high-pressure loading in the regime of the phase II to phase III pressure-induced crystalline phase transition in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). These are gas-gun driven plate- and Taylor impact. Together these experiments highlight several effects associated with the dynamic, pressure-induced phase transitions in PTFE. An elevated release wave speed shows evidence of a pressure-induced phase change at a stress commensurate with that observed statically. It is shown that convergence between analytic derivations of release wave speed and the data requires the phase II to III transition to occur. Taylor impact is an integrated test that highlights continuum behavior that has origin in mesoscale response. There is a rapid transition from ductile to brittle behavior observed that occurs at a pressure consistent with this phase transition.

  11. Toughening mechanisms in interfacially modified HDPE/thermoplastic starch blends.

    PubMed

    Taguet, Aurélie; Bureau, Martin N; Huneault, Michel A; Favis, Basil D

    2014-12-19

    The mechanical behavior of polymer blends containing 80 wt% of HDPE and 20 wt% of TPS and compatibilized with HDPE-g-MA grafted copolymer was investigated. Unmodified HDPE/TPS blends exhibit high fracture resistance, however, the interfacial modification of those blends by addition of HDPE-g-MA leads to a dramatic drop in fracture resistance. The compatibilization of HDPE/TPS blends increases the surface area of TPS particles by decreasing their size. It was postulated that the addition of HDPE-g-MA induces a reaction between maleic anhydride and hydroxyl groups of the glycerol leading to a decrease of the glycerol content in the TPS phase. This phenomenon increases the stiffness of the modified TPS particles and stiffer TPS particles leading to an important reduction in toughness and plastic deformation, as measured by the EWF method. It is shown that the main toughening mechanism in HDPE/TPS blends is shear-yielding. This article demonstrates that stiff, low diameter TPS particles reduce shear band formation and consequently decrease the resistance to crack propagation.

  12. Hydrophobic corn starch thermoplastic films produced by plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Daniele C; Santos, Anastácia E F; da Silva, Monica L V J; Simão, Renata A

    2009-07-01

    Polymer coating technology is currently an important field in science as it can lead to final products with enhanced characteristics characterized by desired bulk and surface properties. Low power plasmas can induce the polymerization of a precursor gas on the substrate surface as well as introduce functional groups under specific plasma conditions. In the present work, we studied the possibility of reducing water sensitivity of corn starch films by sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) plasma treatment. Confocal laser microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy was used to observe the main surface modifications and results indicated starch cross-linking. Fluoride was incorporated to the surface and the relationship between fluoride and sulfur incorporation to the surface was very much dependent on plasma power. Results indicate that fluoride could be preferentially incorporated on polymeric surfaces at -100V self-bias and the overall surface morphology determined the measured contact angle. The dynamic behavior of surface contact angle was observed to be very much dependent on the treatment time and force-distance curves were used to further characterize the chemical surface modifications locally. Optimized treatment conditions led to water contact angles up to 130 degrees . Even after being in contact with water for 10min, surfaces remained hydrophobic, presenting contact angles over 100 degrees .

  13. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  14. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  15. Polymer inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Syed Moeez; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a Gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semiclassical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by an epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow-roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckian initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  16. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B; Microstructural Characterization of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Pater, Ruth H.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1998-01-01

    Thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides have complementary physical/mechanical properties. Whereas thermoset polyimides are brittle and generally easier to process, thermoplastic polyimides are tough but harder to process. It is expected that a combination of these two types of polyimides may help produce polymers more suitable for aerospace applications. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (S-IPNs) of thermoset LaRC(Trademark)-RP46 and thermoplastic LARC(Trademark)-IA polyimides were prepared in weight percent ratios ranging from 100:0 to 0: 100. Positron lifetime measurements were made in these samples to correlate their free volume features with physical/mechanical properties. As expected, positronium atoms are not formed in these samples. The second life time component has been used to infer the positron trap dimensions. The "free volume" goes through a minimum at about 50:50 ratio, suggesting that S-IPN samples are not merely solid solutions of the two polymers. These data and related structural properties of the S-IPN samples have been discussed in this paper.

  17. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  18. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  19. Compression behavior of graphite-thermoplastic and graphite-epoxy panels with circular holes or impact damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the compression behavior of laminated specimens made from graphite-epoxy tape, graphite-thermoplastic tape and graphite-thermoplastic fabric was conducted. Specimens with five different stacking sequences were loaded to failure in uniaxial compression. Some of the specimens had central circular holes with diameters up to 65 percent of the specimen width. Other specimens were subjected to low speed impact with impact energies up to 35 J prior to compressive loading. This investigation indicates that graphite-thermoplastic specimens with holes have up to 15 percent lower failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and hole size. However, graphite-thermoplastic specimens subjected to low speed impact have up to 15 percent higher failure stresses and strains than graphite-epoxy specimens with the same stacking sequence and impact energy. Compression tests of graphite-thermoplastic specimens constructed of unidirectional tape and fabric indicate that the material form has little effect on failure strains in specimens with holes or low speed impact damage.

  20. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.