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Sample records for thistle silybum marianum

  1. Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice; Ladas, Elena J; Kelly, Kara M

    2007-06-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an herbal supplement used to treat liver and biliary disorders. Silymarin, a mixture of flavanoid complexes, is the active component that protects liver and kidney cells from toxic effects of drugs, including chemotherapy. Although milk thistle has not significantly altered the course of chronic liver disease, it has reduced liver enzyme levels and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and T cell-modulating effects. There is strong preclinical evidence for silymarin's hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects, including inhibition of cancer cell growth in human prostate, skin, breast, and cervical cells. Milk thistle is considered safe and well-tolerated, with gastrointestinal upset, a mild laxative effect, and rare allergic reaction being the only adverse events reported when taken within the recommended dose range. More clinical trials of rigorous methodology, using standardized and well-defined products and dosages, are needed to evaluate the potential of silymarin against liver toxicity, chronic liver disease, and human cancers.

  2. New therapeutic potentials of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Suvajdzić, Ljiljana; Zarkov, Marija; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2013-12-01

    Silymarin is a bioflavonoid complex extract derived from dry seeds of Milk thistle [(Silybum marianum(L.) Gaemrnt. (Fam. Asteraceae/Compositaceae)] whose hepatoprotective effect has clinically been proved. Low toxicity, favorable pharmacokinetics, powerful antioxidant, detoxifying, preventive, protective and regenerative effects and side effects similar to placebo make silymarin extremely attractive and safe for therapeutic use. The medicinal properties of silymarin and its main component silibinin have been studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, sepsis, burns, osteoporosis, diabetes, cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia. Owing to its apoptotic effect, without cytotoxic effects, silymarin possesses potential applications in the treatment of various cancers. Silymarin is being examined as a neuro-, nephro- and cardio-protective in the damage of different etiologies due to its strong antioxidant potentials. Furthermore, it has fetoprotective (against the influence of alcohol) and prolactin effects and is safe to be used during pregnancy and lactation. Finally, the cosmetics industry is examining the antioxidant and UV-protective effects of silymarin. Further clinical studies and scientific evidence that silymarin and silibinin are effective in the therapy of various pathologies are indispensable in order to confirm their different flavonolignan pharmacological effects.

  3. Flavonolignans from Aspergillus iizukae, a fungal endophyte of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Raja, Huzefa A; Graf, Tyler N; Faeth, Stanley H; Cech, Nadja B; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2014-02-28

    Silybin A (1), silybin B (2), and isosilybin A (3), three of the seven flavonolignans that constitute silymarin, an extract of the fruits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), were detected for the first time from a fungal endophyte, Aspergillus iizukae, isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of S. marianum. The flavonolignans were identified using a UPLC-PDA-HRMS-MS/MS method by matching retention times, HRMS, and MS/MS data with authentic reference compounds. Attenuation of flavonolignan production was observed following successive subculturing of the original flavonolignan-producing culture, as is often the case with endophytes that produce plant-based secondary metabolites. However, production of 1 and 2 resumed when attenuated spores were harvested from cultures grown on a medium to which autoclaved leaves of S. marianum were added. The cycle of attenuation followed by resumed biosynthesis of these flavonolignans was replicated in triplicate.

  4. The Effects of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) on Human Cytochrome P450 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Marina; Frye, Reginald F.; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Brinda, Bryan J.; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Bernstein, Hilary J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts are widely used as a complementary and alternative treatment of various hepatic conditions and a host of other diseases/disorders. The active constituents of milk thistle supplements are believed to be the flavonolignans contained within the extracts. In vitro studies have suggested that some milk thistle components may significantly inhibit specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. However, determining the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with milk thistle products has been complicated by inconsistencies between in vitro and in vivo study results. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized milk thistle supplement on major P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes after a 14-day exposure period. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 activities were measured by simultaneously administering the four probe drugs, caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and midazolam, to nine healthy volunteers before and after exposure to a standardized milk thistle extract given thrice daily for 14 days. The three most abundant falvonolignans found in plasma, following exposure to milk thistle extracts, were silybin A, silybin B, and isosilybin B. The concentrations of these three major constituents were individually measured in study subjects as potential perpetrators. The peak concentrations and areas under the time-concentration curves of the four probe drugs were determined with the milk thistle administration. Exposure to milk thistle extract produced no significant influence on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5 activities. PMID:25028567

  5. The effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on human cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Marina; Frye, Reginald F; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Brinda, Bryan J; Chavin, Kenneth D; Bernstein, Hilary J; Markowitz, John S

    2014-10-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts are widely used as a complementary and alternative treatment of various hepatic conditions and a host of other diseases/disorders. The active constituents of milk thistle supplements are believed to be the flavonolignans contained within the extracts. In vitro studies have suggested that some milk thistle components may significantly inhibit specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. However, determining the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with milk thistle products has been complicated by inconsistencies between in vitro and in vivo study results. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized milk thistle supplement on major P450 drug-metabolizing enzymes after a 14-day exposure period. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 activities were measured by simultaneously administering the four probe drugs, caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and midazolam, to nine healthy volunteers before and after exposure to a standardized milk thistle extract given thrice daily for 14 days. The three most abundant falvonolignans found in plasma, following exposure to milk thistle extracts, were silybin A, silybin B, and isosilybin B. The concentrations of these three major constituents were individually measured in study subjects as potential perpetrators. The peak concentrations and areas under the time-concentration curves of the four probe drugs were determined with the milk thistle administration. Exposure to milk thistle extract produced no significant influence on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5 activities. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. [Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum) as a Supportive Phytotherapeutic Agent in Oncology].

    PubMed

    Frassová, Z; Rudá-Kučerová, J

    2017-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been traditionally used in medicine, particularly in the treatment of liver diseases. Today, it is used for the same purpose in evidence-based medicine (EBM). Its main active ingredient is a complex of flavonolignans, known as silymarin. Silymarin is used as a hepatoprotective agent, but its potential therapeutic use in oncology patients has drawn attention only recently. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the potential therapeutic effects of milk thistle in oncology patients and potential indications for its use as a supportive therapy either as an anticarcinogenic agent or as an agent that attenuates the side effects of oncological treatments. Evidence of its effects and its safety, and possible interactions with other cancer treatments are emphasized. Available findings are supported mainly by in vitro studies and the results of animal research, but the number of clinical trials in oncology patients is increasing. Based on the results of these studies, milk thistle or silymarin could be beneficial in oncology patients, especially for the treatment of the side effects of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Evidence from clinical studies shows that it has mainly beneficial effects in hepatotoxicity and radiotherapy-induced skin and mucosa damage at dosages of 160-600 mg daily.Key words: phytotherapy - drug-herb interactions - cancer - adverse effects - milk thistle - Silybum marianum This publication was written at Masaryk University as part of the project "Experimental and translational pharmacological research and development", number MUNI/A/1063/2016 with the support of the Specific University Research Grant, as provided by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic in the year 2017. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE

  7. Phylogenetic and chemical diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (milk thistle)

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Huzefa A.; Kaur, Amninder; El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Cech, Nadja B.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is widespread, and its chemistry has been studied for over 50 years. However, milk thistle endophytes have not been studied previously for their fungal and chemical diversity. We examined the fungal endophytes inhabiting this medicinal herb to determine: (1) species composition and phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes; (2) chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by these organisms; and (3) cytotoxicity of the pure compounds against the human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line. Forty-one fungal isolates were identified from milk thistle comprising 25 operational taxonomic units based on BLAST search via GenBank using published authentic sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Maximum likelihood analyses of partial 28S rRNA gene showed that these endophytes had phylogenetic affinities to four major classes of Ascomycota, the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Leotiomycetes. Chemical studies of solid–substrate fermentation cultures led to the isolation of four new natural products. In addition, 58 known secondary metabolites, representing diverse biosynthetic classes, were isolated and characterized using a suite of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques. Selected pure compounds were tested against the PC-3 cell line, where six compounds displayed cytotoxicity. PMID:26000195

  8. Phylogenetic and chemical diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (milk thistle).

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Kaur, Amninder; El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H; Cech, Nadja B; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2015-01-02

    Use of the herb milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ) is widespread, and its chemistry has been studied for over 50 years. However, milk thistle endophytes have not been studied previously for their fungal and chemical diversity. We examined the fungal endophytes inhabiting this medicinal herb to determine: (1) species composition and phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes; (2) chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by these organisms; and (3) cytotoxicity of the pure compounds against the human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line. Forty-one fungal isolates were identified from milk thistle comprising 25 operational taxonomic units based on BLAST search via GenBank using published authentic sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Maximum likelihood analyses of partial 28S rRNA gene showed that these endophytes had phylogenetic affinities to four major classes of Ascomycota, the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Leotiomycetes. Chemical studies of solid-substrate fermentation cultures led to the isolation of four new natural products. In addition, 58 known secondary metabolites, representing diverse biosynthetic classes, were isolated and characterized using a suite of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques. Selected pure compounds were tested against the PC-3 cell line, where six compounds displayed cytotoxicity.

  9. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Nielka P H; Baker, Sharyn D; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Sparreboom, Alex; Gelderblom, Hans

    2005-11-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies, and its principal constituent silybin significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase isoform 1A1 (UGT1A1) in vitro. Here, we investigated whether milk thistle affects the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan, a substrate for CYP3A4 and UGT1A1, in humans. Six cancer patients were treated with irinotecan (dose, 125 mg/m(2)) given as a 90-minute infusion once every week. Four days before the second dose, patients received 200 mg milk thistle, thrice a day, for 14 consecutive days. Pharmacokinetic studies of irinotecan and its metabolites 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), 7-ethyl-10-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-pyran-2-carboxylic acid]-camptothecin (SN-38-glucuronide), and 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin were done during the first three irinotecan administrations. Short-term (4 days) or more prolonged intake of milk thistle (12 days) had no significant effect on irinotecan clearance (mean, 31.2 versus 25.4 versus 25.6 L/h; P = 0.16). The area under the curve ratio of SN-38 and irinotecan was slightly decreased by milk thistle (2.58% versus 2.23% versus 2.17%; P = 0.047), whereas the relative extent of glucuronidation of SN-38 was similar (10.8 versus 13.5 versus 13.1; P = 0.64). Likewise, the area under the curve ratio of 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin and irinotecan was unaffected by milk thistle (0.332 versus 0.285 versus 0.337; P = 0.53). The maximum plasma concentrations of silybin ranged between 0.0249 and 0.257 micromol/L. Silybin concentrations after intake of milk thistle are too low to significantly affect the function of CYP3A4 and UGT1A1 in vivo, indicating that milk thistle is unlikely to alter the disposition of anticancer drugs metabolized by these enzymes.

  10. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanjari, Sepideh; Shobbar, Zahra Sadat; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Sadat-Noori, Seyed-Ahmad; Tirnaz, Soodeh

    2015-12-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid compound derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds which has several pharmacological applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; thereby, the identification of CHS encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of CHS genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae CHS genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of CHS gene family,SmCHS1 and SmCHS2. Third member, full-length cDNA (SmCHS3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp including exon 1 (190 bp) and exon 2 (1049 bp), encoding 63 and 349 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis of SmCHS3 sequence contains all the conserved CHS sites and shares high homology with CHS proteins from other plants.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that SmCHS1 and SmCHS3 had the highest transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the mid-flowering stage which are most probably involved in anthocyanin and silymarin biosynthesis.

  11. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  12. Molecular insights of genetic variation in milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.) populations collected from southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafizadeh, Azam; Koohi-Dehkordi, Mehrana; Sorkheh, Karim

    2018-06-07

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is among the world's popular medicinal plants. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system was utilized to investigate the genetic variability of 80 S. marianum genotypes from eight populations in Iran. SCoT marker produced 255 amplicons and 84.03% polymorphism was generated. The SCoT marker system's polymorphism information content value was 0.43. The primers' resolving power values were between 4.18 and 7.84. The percentage of polymorphic bands was between 33.3 and 100%. The Nei's gene diversity (h) was 0.19-1.30 with an average 0.72. The Shannon's index (I) ranged from 0.29 to 1.38 with an average value of 0.83. The average gene flow (0.37) demonstrated a high genetic variation among the studied populations. The variation of 42% was displayed by the molecular variance analysis among the populations while a recorded variation of 58% was made within the populations. Current investigation suggested that SCoT marker system could effectively evaluate milk thistle genotypes genetic diversity.

  13. A validated UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of flavonolignans in milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts.

    PubMed

    Graf, Tyler N; Cech, Nadja B; Polyak, Stephen J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-07-15

    Validated methods are needed for the analysis of natural product secondary metabolites. These methods are particularly important to translate in vitro observations to in vivo studies. Herein, a method is reported for the analysis of the key secondary metabolites, a series of flavonolignans and a flavonoid, from an extract prepared from the seeds of milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)]. This report represents the first UHPLC MS-MS method validated for quantitative analysis of these compounds. The method takes advantage of the excellent resolution achievable with UHPLC to provide a complete analysis in less than 7min. The method is validated using both UV and MS detectors, making it applicable in laboratories with different types of analytical instrumentation available. Lower limits of quantitation achieved with this method range from 0.0400μM to 0.160μM with UV and from 0.0800μM to 0.160μM with MS. The new method is employed to evaluate variability in constituent composition in various commercial S. marianum extracts, and to show that storage of the milk thistle compounds in DMSO leads to degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.)-Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michal

    2017-11-10

    Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ) is a medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. The main component of S. marianum fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan called silybin, which is not only the major silymarin element but is also the most active ingredient of this extract, which has been confirmed in various studies. This compound belongs to the flavonoid group known as flavonolignans. Silybin's structure consists in two main units. The first is based on a taxifolin, the second a phenyllpropanoid unit, which in this case is conyferil alcohol. These two units are linked together into one structure by an oxeran ring. Since the 1970s, silybin has been regarded in official medicine as a substance with hepatoprotective properties. There is a large body of research that demonstrates silybin's many other healthy properties, but there are still a lack of papers focused on its molecular structure, chemistry, metabolism, and novel form of administration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is a literature review presenting and systematizing our knowledge of the silybin molecule, with particular emphasis on its structure, chemistry, bioavailability, and metabolism.

  15. Solid-state fermentation of industrial solid wastes from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum for feed quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Li, Feng; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2013-08-01

    The industrial solid wastes generated during the production of silymarin from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum was used as the substrate. Preparation and evaluation of the feeds produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the industrial solid wastes was carried out. The protein content of the fermented feed (FF) from a combination of Aspergillus niger and Candida tropicalis was the highest among the examined strains. The optimal process parameters for protein enrichment with SSF using A. niger and C. tropicalis included incubation temperature of 30.8 °C, fermentation time of 87.0 h, and initial moisture content of 59.7 %. Under these conditions, the value additions of FF occurred. The fiber of FF was decreased by 25.07 %, while the digestibility of protein, protein content, and the ratio of total essential amino acids to total amino acids were increased by 79.85, 16.22, and 8.21 %, respectively. The analysis indicated that FF contained 1.44 mg/kg flavonoids and 0.5 mg/kg silybin, which significantly increased by 2.42 and 1.63 times, respectively than those in unfermented substrates. FF recorded reduced molecular weight of proteins from 20.1 to 44.3 kDa to below 14.3 kDa. The results of feeding trial of FF replacement with soybean meal in broilers diets for 8 weeks showed that FF significantly improved carcass characteristics including abdominal fat rate, serum biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and immune responses of broilers. A potential feed quality improvement was achieved through mixed strains SSF of industrial solid wastes of S. marianum fruits.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) (Review).

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-05-01

    Changes in life style over the past several decades including much of the time spent outdoors and the use of tanning devices for cosmetic purposes by individuals have led to an increase in the incidence of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin diseases including the risk of skin cancers. Solar UV radiations are considered as the most prevalent environmental carcinogens, and chronic exposure of the skin to UV leads to squamous and basal cell carcinoma and melanoma in human population. A wide variety of phytochemicals have been reported to have substantial anti-carcinogenic activity because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Silymarin is one of them and extensively studied for its skin photoprotective capabilities. Silymarin, a flavanolignan, is extracted from the fruits and seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), and has been shown to have chemopreventive effects against photocarcinogenesis in mouse tumor models. Topical treatment of silymarin inhibited photocarcinogenesis in mice in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and growth of the tumors. Wide range of in vivo mechanistic studies conducted in a variety of mouse models indicated that silymarin has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties which led to the prevention of photocarcinogenesis in mice. This review summarizes and updates the photoprotective potential of silymarin with the particular emphasis on its in vivo mechanism of actions. It is suggested that silymarin may favorably supplement sunscreen protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and immunomodulatory effects.

  17. Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kroll, David J; Paine, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC(50) of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 microM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9 1 (6.7 versus 12 microM), rCYP2C9 2 (9.3 versus 19 microM), and rCYP2C9 3 (2.4 versus 9.3 microM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1-15 microM) and six inhibitor (1-80 microM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (K(i) values of 4.8 and 10 microM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5-75 microM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction.

  18. Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Carmen; Diamond, Suzanne

    2007-06-01

    Milk thistle extracts have been used as traditional herbal remedies for almost 2000 years. The extracts are still widely used to protect the liver against toxins and to control chronic liver diseases. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that milk thistle extracts also have anticancer, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective effects. This article reviews clinical trials of milk thistle conducted in the past 5 years including pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies, herb-drug interactions, and other safety issues. Several trials have studied the effects of milk thistle for patients with liver diseases, cancer, hepatitis C, HIV, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Promising results have been reported in the protective effect of milk thistle in certain types of cancer, and ongoing trials will provide more evidence about this effect. In addition, new established doses and improvement on the quality and standardization of this herb will provide the much-awaited evidence about the efficacy of milk thistle in the treatment of liver diseases. Milk thistle extracts are known to be safe and well tolerated, and toxic or adverse effects observed in the reviewed clinical trials seem to be minimal. The future of milk thistle research is promising, and high-quality randomized clinical trials on milk thistle versus placebo may be needed to further demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this herb.

  19. Spatial organization of silybin biosynthesis in milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn].

    PubMed

    Lv, Yongkun; Gao, Song; Xu, Sha; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Silymarin is a collection of compounds extracted from the medicinal herb milk thistle, among which silybin is the major flavonolignan. However, the biosynthesis pathway of silybin remains unclear. In this study, biomimetic reactions demonstrated that silybin can be synthesized from coniferyl alcohol and taxifolin by the action of peroxidase. The concentration profiles of silybin and its precursors and RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression revealed that the amount of taxifolin and the activity of peroxidase serve as the limiting factors in silybin biosynthesis. Hierarchical clustering of the expression profile of genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway distinguished flowers from other organs. RNA-Seq revealed five candidates for the peroxidase involved in silybin production, among which APX1 (ascorbate peroxidase 1) showed a distinct peroxidase activity and the capacity to synthesize silybin. The spatial organization of silybin biosynthesis in milk thistle was elucidated, which could help our understanding of the biosynthesis of silybin and other flavonolignans. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of UAV imagery for mapping Silybum marianum weed patches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive weed, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has the tendency to grow in patches. In order to perform site-specific weed management, determining the spatial distribution of weeds is important for its eradication. Remote sensing has been used to perform species discrimination, and it offers pr...

  1. Anti-glycation activities of phenolic constituents from Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) flower in vitro and on human explants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Minkyung; Kum, Hyunwoo; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-02-19

    Glycation is an ageing reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins, with clinical signs appearing in vivo around age 30, and increasing steadily/regularly with age. The suppleness of the dermis is affected by the formation of bridges between proteins and sugars (Maillard's reaction). The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in skin plays a very important role in skin ageing. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess antiglycation activities may have great anti-ageing potential. In the present study, Silybum marianum flower extract (SMFE) was demonstrated to possess antiglycation activity. We found that SMFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. In addition, antiglycation activity of SMFE was confirmed in a human skin explants model. SMFE reduced Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) expression, whereas SMFE stimulated fibrillin-1 expression compared to treatment with methyglyoxal. An active ingredient contributing to the observed activities was identified as silibinin. The antiglycation activity of silibinin was dose-dependent. The beneficial effects of silibinin may be applied to prevention or management of AGE-mediated pathologies, targeting in a pleiotropic and complementary way the biochemical and cellular bases of skin aging.

  2. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K 2 SO 4 ] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey. The antimicrobial activities of seed ethanol extracts and seed oil were tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli, (E. coli) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) using the disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle was determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the disappearance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH•) at 517 nm according to the method described by Brand-Williams et al .[17] The phenolic contents in the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle were determined according to the procedure described by Slinkard and Singleton[19] with a slight modification of using a Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic reagent. The amount of total flavonoid in the ethanolic extracts was measured by aluminum chloride [AlCl 3 ] colorimetric assay. The ions in aerosol samples were determined by using Dionex ICS 1100 Series ion chromatography. Seed and seed oils obtained from obvious doses of potassium sulfate [0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1 fertilizer applications showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli , A. niger and P. aeruginosa . The application of 90 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 on seed oil resulted in the highest antimicrobial activities. At 100 µg mL -1 and 200 µg mL -1 , except the highest

  3. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum

    PubMed Central

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of seed ethanol extracts and seed oil were tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli, (E. coli) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) using the disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle was determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the disappearance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH•) at 517 nm according to the method described by Brand-Williams et al.[17] The phenolic contents in the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle were determined according to the procedure described by Slinkard and Singleton[19] with a slight modification of using a Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic reagent. The amount of total flavonoid in the ethanolic extracts was measured by aluminum chloride [AlCl3] colorimetric assay. The ions in aerosol samples were determined by using Dionex ICS 1100 Series ion chromatography. Results: Seed and seed oils obtained from obvious doses of potassium sulfate [0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1 fertilizer applications showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli, A. niger and P. aeruginosa. The application of 90 kg ha -1 of K2SO4 on seed oil resulted in the highest antimicrobial activities. At 100 µg mL-1 and 200

  4. Assessment of a dry extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for interference with human liver cytochrome-P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Doehmer, Johannes; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P; Appel, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    The effect of a standardised dry extract from Silybum marianum (HEPAR-PASC®) on the enzyme kinetics of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes (CYP) was investigated with primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes in order to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions. A cytotoxic effect on hepatocytes was observed at concentrations at and above 50 μg/ml. The EC(50) value was calculated to be 72.0 μg/ml. Therefore, the chosen test concentrations for CYP induction on human hepatocytes were 50, 10, and 1.5 μg/ml, which allowed for interpretation of the clinical significance of the data with a range of 50-1-fold c(max) at maximal recommended doses. No induction was observed at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, which is close to c(max). The extract did not induce CYP 3A4 at any of the tested concentrations. A low or marginal induction of 1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 at the maximum concentration of 50 μg/ml was observed. CYP inhibition on human microsomes was tested at concentrations of 150, 15, and 1.5 μg/ml. No or minor CYP inhibition was observed for all CYPs tested at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, i.e. CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. At concentrations of 15 and 150 μg/ml the extract significantly inhibited CYP 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and 3A4. In these cases, K(i) values were determined. All K(i) values exceeded c(max) by at least a factor of 10-fold. According to FDA regulations 1>c(max)/K(i)>0.1 indicates, that drug-drug interactions are possible for CYPs 2C8, and 2C9, but not likely, and are remote for CYPs 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment with milk thistle extract (Silybum marianum), ursodeoxycholic acid, or their combination attenuates cholestatic liver injury in rats: Role of the hepatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alaca, Nuray; Özbeyli, Dilek; Uslu, Serap; Şahin, Hasan Hüseyin; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Kurtel, Hızır; Öktem, Gülperi; Çağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2017-11-01

    Cholestasis, which results in hepatic cell death, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure, is associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of milk thistle (MT, Silybum marianum) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or their combination on the activation of hepatic stem cells and on the severity of cholestasis liver injury in rats. Under anesthesia, bile ducts of female Sprague Dawley rats were ligated (BDL) or had sham operation. BDL rats were administered saline, UDCA (15 mg/kg/d), MT (600 mg/kg/d), or UDCA+MT by gavage for 10 days. On the 11th day, rats were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were obtained. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Hepatic injury, a-smooth muscle actin expression, and stem cell markers c-kit, c-Myc, Oct3/4, and SSEA-1 were histologically determined. Histological scores, serum ALT, and hepatic MDA levels were higher in BDL group than in the sham rats, while all treatments significantly reduced these levels. The reduction in ALT was significantly greater in UCDA+MT-treated group than in other treatment groups. c-Kit, c-Myc, Oct3/4, and SSEA-1 were increased in saline-treated BDL group with respect to sham-operated control group, and these markers were significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In addition to a modulatory effect on the stem cell-induced regenerative response of the liver, UDCA, MT, and their combination demonstrated similar anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects on cholestasis-induced hepatic injury.

  6. Milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from Silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Davis-Searles, Paula R; Nakanishi, Yuka; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E; Agarwal, Rajesh; Kroll, David J

    2005-05-15

    Extracts from the seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum, are known commonly as silibinin and silymarin and possess anticancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Seven distinct flavonolignan compounds and a flavonoid have been isolated from commercial silymarin extracts. Most notably, two pairs of diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B and isosilybin A and isosilybin B, are among these compounds. In contrast, silibinin is composed only of a 1:1 mixture of silybin A and silybin B. With these isomers now isolated in quantities sufficient for biological studies, each pure compound was assessed for antiproliferative activities against LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cell lines. Isosilybin B was the most consistently potent suppressor of cell growth relative to either the other pure constituents or the commercial extracts. Isosilybin A and isosilybin B were also the most effective suppressors of prostate-specific antigen secretion by androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Silymarin and silibinin were shown for the first time to suppress the activity of the DNA topoisomerase IIalpha gene promoter in DU145 cells and, among the pure compounds, isosilybin B was again the most effective. These findings are significant in that isosilybin B composes no more than 5% of silymarin and is absent from silibinin. Whereas several other more abundant flavonolignans do ultimately influence the same end points at higher exposure concentrations, these findings are suggestive that extracts enriched for isosilybin B, or isosilybin B alone, might possess improved potency in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

  7. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Barone, Gary W; Williams, D Keith; Carrier, Julie; Breen, Philip; Yates, C Ryan; Song, Peng-fei; Hubbard, Martha A; Tong, Yudong; Cheboyina, Sreekhar

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug transporters may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Serial serum concentration-time profiles of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, were used to determine whether supplementation with milk thistle or black cohosh modified P-gp activity in vivo. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg daily) or black cohosh (40 mg daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (600 mg daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (1000 mg daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxicaps, 0.4 mg) was administered orally before and at the end of each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin serum concentrations were obtained over 24 h and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of area under the serum concentration time curves from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), AUC(0-24), Cmax, apparent oral clearance of digoxin (CL/F), and elimination half-life were used to assess the effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Rifampin produced significant reductions (p < 0.01) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, whereas clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p < 0.01). Significant changes in digoxin half-life and CL/F were also observed with clarithromycin. No statistically significant effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics were observed following supplementation with either milk thistle or black cohosh, although digoxin AUC(0-3) and AUC(0-24) approached significance (p = 0.06) following milk thistle administration. When compared with rifampin and clarithromycin, supplementation with these specific formulations of milk thistle or black cohosh did not appear to affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that these supplements are not potent modulators of P-gp in vivo.

  8. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Barone, Gary W.; Williams, D. Keith; Carrier, Julie; Breen, Phillip; Yates, C. Ryan; Song, Peng-fei; Hubbard, Martha A.; Tong, Yudong; Cheboyina, Sreekhar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug transporters may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Serial plasma concentration-time profiles of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, were used to determine whether supplementation with milk thistle or black cohosh modified P-gp activity in vivo. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg daily) or black cohosh (40 mg daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (600 mg daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (1000 mg daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxicaps®, 0.4 mg) was administered orally before and at the end of each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24), Cmax,, CL/F, and elimination half-life were used to assess the effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Rifampin produced significant reductions (p<0.01) in AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24) and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.01). Significant changes in digoxin half-life and CL/F were also observed with clarithromycin. No statistically significant effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics were observed following supplementation with either milk thistle or black cohosh, although digoxin AUC(0–3) and AUC(0–24) approached significance (p=0.06) following milk thistle administration. When compared to rifampin and clarithromycin, supplementation with these specific formulations of milk thistle or black cohosh did not appear to affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that these supplements are not potent modulators of P-gp in vivo. PMID:17079360

  9. Silybum marianum pericarp yields enhanced silymarin products.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh F; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Friesen, J Brent; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-07-01

    An improved method for the purification of silymarin, the flavonolignan complex from the fruits of milk thistle, Silybum marianum, is reported. The method enables a more efficient extraction of silymarin from the pericarp after it has been separated mechanically from the rest of the fruits. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was employed for each extraction procedure. Quantitation of the eight major silymarin components in the pericarp extract was compared to that of the whole fruit extract using two orthogonal analytical methods. The pericarp extract showed higher silymarin content (2.24-fold by HPLC and 2.12-fold by qHNMR) than whole fruit extract using acetone as an extraction solvent following defatting with hexane. Furthermore, the mg/g recovery of silymarin major components was not diminished by eliminating the hexane defatting step from the pericarp extraction procedure. The efficiencies of acetone, ethanol, and methanol as extraction solvents were compared. Methanol pericarp extract showed the highest content of the silymarin major components, 2.72-fold higher than an extract prepared from the whole fruits using acetone. Finally, all of the major silymarin components showed a higher w/w content in the pericarp extract than in a commercial extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for differences in regioselective and stereoselective glucuronidation of silybin diastereomers from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Jančová, Petra; Siller, Michal; Anzenbacherová, Eva; Křen, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Simánek, Vilím

    2011-09-01

    The flavonolignan silybin, the main component of silymarin, extract from the seeds of Silybum marianum, is used mostly as a hepatoprotectant. Silybin is almost 1:1 mixture of two diastereomers A and B. The individual UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) contributing to the metabolism of silybin diastereomers have not been identified yet. In this study, the contribution of UGTs to silybin metabolism was examined. The potential silybin metabolites were formed in vitro by incubating silybin (i) with the human liver microsomal fraction, (ii) with human hepatocytes and finally (iii) with 12 recombinant UGTs (UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10, 2B4, 2B7, 2B15 and 2B17). High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) techniques with UV detection and additionally MS detection were used for metabolite identification. Hepatocytes and microsomes formed silybin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronides, B-7-O-β-D-glucuronides, A-20-O-β-D-glucuronides and B-20-O-β-D-glucuronides. With recombinant UGTs, the major role of the UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A8 and 1A10 enzymes but also of the UGT1A6, 1A7, 1A9, 2B7 and 2B15 in the stereoselective reactions leading to the respective silybin glucuronides was confirmed. UGT1A4, UGT2B4 and UGT2B17 did not participate in silybin glucuronidation. The predominant formation of 7-O-β-D-glucuronides and the preferential glucuronidation of silybin B diastereomer in vitro by human UGTs were confirmed.

  11. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) in the management and prevention of hepatotoxicity in a patient undergoing reinduction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ali; Augustin, Kristan M; Nobbe, Julie; Westervelt, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Hepatotoxicity has been observed with several chemotherapy agents and combination regimens. Conventional treatment methods often include supportive care or observation. We report a case of a patient with noted transaminitis presumed secondary to chemotherapy, which did not resolve with supportive care but was shown to respond to milk thistle. The patient had an immediate decrease in liver function tests and showed decreased elevation in levels upon treatment with subsequent chemotherapy regimens. This case demonstrates the potential efficacy of milk thistle as a unique hepatoprotective agent.

  12. The effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and its main flavonolignans on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Frye, Reginald F; Markowitz, John S

    2017-06-01

    Milk thistle is a widely-consumed botanical used for an array of purported health benefits. The primary extract of milk thistle is termed silymarin, a complex mixture that contains a number of structurally-related flavonolignans, the flavonoid, taxifolin, and a number of other constituents. The major flavonolignans present in most extracts are silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin and isosilychristin. Silymarin itself has been reported to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in vitro, but the effect of the individual flavonolignans on this enzyme has not been studied. To investigate the effects of milk thistle extract and its main flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B) on CYP2C8 activity at relevant concentrations, the effect of milk thistle extract and the flavonolignans on CYP2C8 enzyme activity was studied in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLM) incorporating an enzyme-selective substrate for CYP2C8, amodiaquine. Metabolite formation was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The concentration causing 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC 50 ) was used to express the degree of inhibition. Isosilibinin, a mixture of the diastereoisomers isosilybin A and isosilybin B, was found to be the most potent inhibitor, followed by isosilybin B with IC 50 values (mean ± SE) of 1.64 ± 0.66 μg/mL and 2.67 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The rank order of observed inhibitory potency after isosilibinin was silibinin > isosilybin A > silybin A > milk thistle extract > and silybin B. These in vitro results suggest a potentially significant inhibitory effect of isosilibinin and isosilybin B on CYP2C8 activity. However, the observed IC 50 values are unlikely to be achieved in humans supplemented with orally administered milk thistle extracts due to the poor bioavailability of flavonolignans documented with most commercially available formulations. Copyright © 2017

  13. Quick method (FT-NIR) for the determination of oil and major fatty acids content in whole achenes of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Koláčková, Pavla; Růžičková, Gabriela; Gregor, Tomáš; Šišperová, Eliška

    2015-08-30

    Calibration models for the Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) instrument were developed for quick and non-destructive determination of oil and fatty acids in whole achenes of milk thistle. Samples with a range of oil and fatty acid levels were collected and their transmittance spectra were obtained by the FT-NIR instrument. Based on these spectra and data gained by the means of the reference method - Soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography (GC) - calibration models were created by means of partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Precision and accuracy of the calibration models was verified via the cross-validation of validation samples whose spectra were not part of the calibration model and also according to the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and the validation coefficient of determination (R(2) ). R(2) for whole seeds were 0.96, 0.96, 0.83 and 0.67 and the RMSEP values were 0.76, 1.68, 1.24, 0.54 for oil, linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids, respectively. The calibration models are appropriate for the non-destructive determination of oil and fatty acids levels in whole seeds of milk thistle. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. New amides from seeds of Silybum marianum with potential antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning-Bo; Jia, Cui-Cui; Xu, Jun; Li, Da-Hong; Xu, Fan-Xing; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Two new amide compounds, mariamides A and B (1-2), were obtained together with fourteen known compounds from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Most of the compounds showed significant antioxidant activities than positive control in ABTS and FRAP assays. However, only amide compounds 1-4 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and compounds 7 and 16 showed the most potent activity against DPPH. Most of the compounds showed moderate to stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Nevertheless, only flavonoids showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities. These results indicate a use of milk thistle seed extracts as promising antioxidant and antidiabetic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Serçe, Aynur; Toptancı, Bircan Çeken; Tanrıkut, Sevil Emen; Altaş, Sevcan; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also efficiently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products. PMID:28115903

  16. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Serçe, Aynur; Toptancı, Bircan Çeken; Tanrıkut, Sevil Emen; Altaş, Sevcan; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Süleyman; Kızıl, Murat

    2016-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also efficiently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.

  17. Novelty Detection Classifiers in Weed Mapping: Silybum marianum Detection on UAV Multispectral Images.

    PubMed

    Alexandridis, Thomas K; Tamouridou, Afroditi Alexandra; Pantazi, Xanthoula Eirini; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Ovakoglou, Georgios; Polychronos, Vassilios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the detection and mapping of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. weed using novelty detection classifiers is reported. A multispectral camera (green-red-NIR) on board a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was employed for obtaining high-resolution images. Four novelty detection classifiers were used to identify S. marianum between other vegetation in a field. The classifiers were One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM), One Class Self-Organizing Maps (OC-SOM), Autoencoders and One Class Principal Component Analysis (OC-PCA). As input features to the novelty detection classifiers, the three spectral bands and texture were used. The S. marianum identification accuracy using OC-SVM reached an overall accuracy of 96%. The results show the feasibility of effective S. marianum mapping by means of novelty detection classifiers acting on multispectral UAV imagery.

  18. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  19. Protective effect of Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Ali; Değer, Yeter; Yıldırım, Serkan

    2017-11-01

    The protective effect of the extracts of the plants Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was researched. Sixty-six female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, CCl 4 , Silybum marianum+ CCl 4 , Taraxacum officinale+CCl 4 . The Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were administered as 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. The CCl 4 was administered as 1.5 mL/kg (i.p.). At the end of the trial period, in the serums obtained from the animals, in the CCl 4 group it was found that the MDA level increased in the kidney tissue samples as well as in the ALP and GGT enzyme activities. It was also found that the GSH level and the GST enzyme activities decreased (p<.05). The microscopic evaluations showed that the CCl 4 caused a serious hydropic degeneration, coagulation necrosis, and mono-nuclear cell infiltration in the kidney cell. In the animals where CCl 4 and Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were applied together, it was found that the serum ALP and GGT enzyme activities decreased and that the MDA level decreased in the kidney tissue, and that the GSH level and GST enzyme activities increased. It was observed that the histopathological changes caused by the CCl 4 toxicity were corrected by applying the extracts. Eventually, it was determined that the Silybum marianum was more effective. Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts which were used against histopathological changes in the kidney caused by toxication showed a corrective effect, which were supported by biochemical parameters.

  20. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%).

  1. Silybin content and overexpression of chalcone synthase genes in Silybum marianum L. plants under abiotic elicitation.

    PubMed

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Khattab, Salah; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A; Abou Ali, Rania; Abdel Azeiz, Ahmed Z; Elhalwagi, Abeer; El Sherif, Fadia

    2016-11-01

    Silymarin, a Silybum marianum seed extract containing a mixture of flavonolignans including silybin, is being used as an antihepatotoxic therapy for liver diseases. In this study, the enhancing effect of gamma irradiation on plant growth parameters of S. marianum under salt stress was investigated. The effect of gamma irradiation, either as a single elicitor or coupled with salinity, on chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression and silybin A + B yield was also evaluated. The silybin A + B content in S. marianum fruits was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An increase in silybin content was accompanied by up-regulation of the CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 genes, which are involved in the silybin biosynthetic pathway. The highest silybin A + B production (0.77 g/100 g plant DW) and transcript levels of the three studied genes (100.2-, 91.9-, and 24.3-fold increase, respectively) were obtained with 100GY gamma irradiation and 4000 ppm salty water. The CHS2 and CHS3 genes were partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database under the accession numbers KT252908.1 and KT252909.1, respectively. Developing new approaches to stimulate silybin biosynthetic pathways could be a useful tool to potentiate the use of plants as renewable resources of medicinal compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergistic effects of drought stress and photoperiods on phenology and secondary metabolism of Silybum marianum.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Adnan; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Adil, Muhammad; Anjum, Sumaira; Zia, Muhammad; Ihsan-Ul-Haq

    2014-09-01

    Silybum marianum is an important medicinal plant of the family Asteraceae, well known for its set of bioactive isomeric mixture of secondary metabolites "silymarin", primarily acting as a hepato-protective agent. Abiotic stress augments plant secondary metabolism in different plant tissues to withstand harsh environmental fluctuations. In the current study, our aim was to induce drought stress in vitro on S. marianum under the influence of different photoperiod treatments to study the effects, with respect to variations in secondary metabolic profile and plant growth and development. S. marianum was extremely vulnerable to different levels of mannitol-induced drought stress. Water deficiency inhibited root induction completely and retarded plant growth was observed; however, phytochemical analysis revealed enhanced accumulation of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total protein content along with several antioxidative enzymes. Secondary metabolic content was positively regulated with increasing degree of drought stress. A dependent correlation of seed germination frequency at mild drought stress and antioxidative activities was established with 2 weeks dark + 2 weeks 16/8 h photoperiod treatment, respectively, whereas a positive correlation existed for TPC and TFC when 4 weeks 16/8 h photoperiod treatment was applied. The effects of drought stress are discussed in relation to phenology, seed germination frequency, biomass build up, antioxidative potential, and secondary metabolites accumulation.

  3. The role of a fixed Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum combination in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate if the addition of Berberis aristata/Silybum marianum (Berberol(®)) leads to a reduction of insulin dose and to an improvement of glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. 85 type 1 diabetic patients were enrolled and randomized to take placebo or B. aristata/S. marianum 588/105 mg, 1 tablet at lunch and 1 tablet at dinner, for six months. We evaluated if there was a reduction of insulin dose necessary to reach an adequate glycemic control. We also evaluated at the study start, and after 6 months: body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial glucose (PPG), lipid profile. We observed a reduction of total insulin consumption in B. aristata/S. marianum, both compared to baseline and to placebo. Regarding insulin administration at meals, we recorded that the group treated with B. aristata/S. marianum used less insulin at meals, and at bedtime. Glycated hemoglobin decreased with B. aristata/S. marianum compared to baseline, but not compared to placebo. There was a decrease of FPG, and PPG with B. aristata/S. marianum both compared to baseline and to placebo. Regarding lipid profile, we recorded a decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol and an increase of HDL-cholesterol with B. aristata/S. marianum, both compared to baseline and to placebo. The addition of B. aristata/S. marianum to insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus leads to a reduction of the insulin dose necessary to have an adequate glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Yield improvement strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture: silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, S

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture can be a potential source for the production of important secondary metabolites. This technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods. The main problem to arrive at a cost-effective process is the low productivity. This is mainly due to lack of differentiation in the cultured cells. Many approaches have been used to maximise the yield of secondary metabolites produced by cultured plant cells. Among these approaches: choosing a plant with a high biosynthetic capacity, obtaining efficient cell line for growth and production of metabolite of interest, manipulating culture conditions, elicitation, metabolic engineering and organ culture. This article gives an overview of the various approaches used to maximise the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. Examples of using these different approaches are shown for the production of silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

  6. Silybum marianum oil attenuates oxidative stress and ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in mice treated with D-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Dong, Ying; Tu, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhou, Xing Hua; Xu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum has been used as herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and to prevent liver cancer in Europe and Asia since ancient times. Silybum marianum oil (SMO), a by-product of silymarin production, is rich in essential fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, and vitamin E. However, it has not been very good development and use. Objective: In the present study, we used olive oil as a control to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effect of SMO in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice. Materials and Methods: D-gal was injected intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg body weight daily) for 7 weeks while SMO was simultaneously administered orally. The triglycerides (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels were estimated in the serum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), monoamine oxidase (MAO), malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were determined in the liver and brain. The activities of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity of the liver mitochondrial were estimated. Results: SMO decreased levels of TRIG and CHOL in aging mice. SMO administration elevated the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC, which are suppressed by aging. The levels of MAO and MDA in the liver and brain were reduced by SMO administration in aging mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that SMO significantly decreased the concentration of caspase-3 and improved the activity of Bcl-2 in the liver and brain of aging mice. Furthermore, SMO significantly attenuated the D-gal induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity. Conclusion: These results indicate that SMO effectively attenuated oxidative damage and improved apoptosis related factors as well as liver mitochondrial dysfunction in aging mice. PMID:24914315

  7. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  8. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The study of flavonolignan association patterns in fruits of diverging Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. chemotypes provides new insights into the silymarin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Tommaso; Whittaker, Anne; Benedettelli, Stefano; Carboni, Andrea; Andrzejewska, Jadwiga

    2017-12-01

    Silymarin is the phytochemical with medicinal properties extracted from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. fruits. Yet, little information is available about silymarin biosynthesis. Moreover, the generally accepted pathway, formulated thus far, is not in agreement with actual experimental measurements on flavonolignan contents. The present work analyses flavonolignan and taxifolin content in 201 S. marianum samples taking into consideration a wide phenotypic variability. Two stable chemotypes were identified: one characterized by both high silychristin and silybin content (chemotype A) and another by a high silydianin content (chemotype B). Through the correlation analysis of samples divided according to chemotype, it was possible to construct a simplified silymarin biosynthetic pathway that is sufficiently versatile in explaining experimental results responding to the actually unresolved questions about this process. The proposed pathway highlights that three separate and equally sized metabolite pools exist, namely: diastereoisomers A (silybin A plus isosilybin A), diastereoisomers B (silybin B plus isosilybin B) and silychristin. In both A and B diastereoisomers pools, isosilybin A and isosilybin B always represent a given amount of the metabolite flux through the specific metabolite pool suggesting the possible involvement of dirigent protein-like enzymes. We suggest that chemotype B possesses a complete silymarin biosynthetic pathway in which silydianin biosynthesis is enzymatically controlled. On the contrary, chemotype A is probably a natural mutant unable to biosynthesize silydianin. The present simplified pathway for silymarin biosynthesis will constitute an important tool for the further understanding of the reactions that drive flavonolignan biosynthesis in S. marianum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  11. Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of p-Coumaric Acid in Vinegar, Carrot Juice, and Seed Extract from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Rostami, Zeinab; Bagherzade, Ghodsieh; Khojeh, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    In this study, for the monitoring and quantification of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) in vinegar, carrot juice, and seed extract from the plant species Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, an efficient and low-cost analytical method has been applied. For this purpose, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection, was used. To form a cloudy solution, a binary mixture containing ethanol as a disperser solvent and chloroform as an extraction solvent was rapidly injected by syringe into a sample solution containing p-CA. After centrifugation, dilution of the obtained organic phase was done with the proper amount of ethanol, and the phase was transferred into a micro cell for subsequent measurement. Some effective parameters for the DLLME method, such as the volume of disperser solvent and extraction solvent, pH, and salt concentration were inspected by a 24 full factorial central composite design using design Export Software. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was between 10 and 150 ng/mL, and the LOD was 2.3 ng/mL. The results of the proposed method were similar to the obtained results using a GC with flame-ionization detection method.

  12. Effect of milk thistle, Silybium marianum, extract on toxicity, development, nutrition, and enzyme activities of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Hasheminia, Seyedeh M; Sendi, Jalal J; Jahromi, Khalil T; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of milk thistle, Silybium marianum L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), was investigated for its effects on the mortality, growth, feeding indices, enzymatic activity, and levels of non-enzymatic molecules of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a pest of cruciferous plants. Feeding indices including approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate (RGR), and relative consumption rate (RCR) were measured. These indices were variously affected: the RGR, RCR, and AD decreased, but the ECD and ECI increased. The LC50 and LC25 values were estimated as 2.94% and 1.20%, respectively. At the lowest concentration of S. marianum extract (0.625%), the feeding deterrence index was 40.48%. The duration of the pupal stage and the rate of larval growth decreased. These changes may be due to alterations in metabolic activity, such as the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, which is likely involved in detoxification. Additionally, the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which are key components of amino acid catabolism, decreased. The amount of glucose (an energy source) and uric acid (the excreted end product) increased, while total protein (another energy source) and cholesterol decreased. These results indicate that this plant possesses potential secondary metabolites that may be useful for the future study of the control of insect pests.

  13. Accumulation of silymarin in milk thistle seeds under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz Afshar, Reza; Chaichi, Mohammad Reza; Ansari Jovini, Mahya; Jahanzad, Emad; Hashemi, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    According to the results obtained in this study, drought stress can enhance the accumulation of silymarin in milk thistle seeds. Moreover, under drought stress, the share of silybin increased which possess the greatest degree of biological activity among the silymarin components. Silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn) seeds, has been used for its hepatoprotective effects for more than 2,000 years. Biosynthesis and accumulation of active substances like silymarin in plant tissues highly interacts with the environmental conditions. Effects of moderate and severe drought stress (based on soil moisture depletion) on silymarin content and composition in milk thistle seeds were evaluated in a field study. Averaged across treatments, milk thistle seeds contained 19.3 g kg(-1) silymarin. Drought stress enhanced silymarin accumulation in milk thistle seeds. Plants grown under moderate and severe drought stress treatments contained 4 and 17 % greater silymarin than those grown in well-watered condition, respectively. Greater content of sylimarin in stressed plants was attributed to more contents of silybin, isosilybin and silychristin, while silydianin content was lower under drought condition. According to the results obtained in this study, drought stress enhanced accumulation of silymarin in milk thistle seeds and improved its quality by increasing the share of silybin, which possess the greatest degree of biological activity among the silymarin components.

  14. Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors.

  15. Silibinin (Milk Thistle) potentiates ethanol-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma progression in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Eheim, Ashley L; Foureau, David M; Walling, Tracy L; Schrum, Laura W; McKillop, Iain H

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health burden with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Silibinin, an antioxidant derived from the Milk Thistle plant (Silybum marianum), is reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects in vitro and in vivo by suppressing oxidative stress and proliferation. Using a DEN-initiated mouse model of HCC, this study examined the effects of dietary silibinin supplementation alone, or in combination with chronic ethanol consumption on HCC progression. Our data demonstrate silibinin exerted marginal hepatoprotective effects in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis but, when co-administered with ethanol, exacerbated the promotional effects of ethanol in HCC bearing mice, but only in males. PMID:22863537

  16. Milk thistle and the treatment of hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Giese, L A

    2001-01-01

    Gastroenterology nurses and associates will find it helpful to be informed about milk thistle (silybum marianum), a popular, safe and promising herb used by patients with liver disease. Silymarin is a derivative from the milk thistle plant with few side effects that has been safely used for centuries to treat liver ailments. Since the 1970s, there has been a reemergence of the marketing and use of silymarin. Research results of some small studies suggest silymarin has hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, and regenerative properties producing a beneficial effect for some types of hepatitis. It is unclear, however, whether silymarin might interfere with the effect of interferon or ribavirin. A well-designed, placebo-controlled study of a larger population is needed. It is certainly encouraging that a large collaborative study is currently underway for milk thistle therapy in hepatitis C. This study is funded by NCCAM, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Research updates are available online at www.nccam.nih.gov and through the NCCAM Clearinghouse at 1-888-644-6226.

  17. Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplementation on antioxidant status and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour Koujan, Soraiya; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Mobasseri, Majid; Valizadeh, Hadi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-15

    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to its pathogenesis and complications. Since Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, this randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on oxidative stress indices and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetes patients aged 25-50 yr old and on stable medication were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes Society and endocrinology clinics in East Azarbayjan (Tabriz, Iran) and randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in the silymarin treatment group received 140 mg, thrice daily of dried extracts of Silybum marianum (n = 20) and those in the placebo group (n = 20) received identical placebos for 45 days. Data pertaining to height, weight, waist circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption, were collected at base line and at the conclusion of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained and antioxidant indices and hs-CRP were assessed at baseline, as well as at the end of the trial. All 40 patients completed the study and did not report any adverse effects or symptoms with the silymarin supplementation. Silymarin supplementation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to patients taking the placebo, by 12.85%, 30.32% and 8.43%, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels by 26.83% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the placebo group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration significantly decreased by 12.01% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the baseline. Silymarin supplementation improves some antioxidant indices (SOD, GPX and TAC) and decrease hs-CRP levels in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  18. Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum standardized extracts versus only Berberis aristata in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Putignano, Pietro; Villanova, Nicola; Montesi, Luca; Moscatiello, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Background Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used to improve the glucidic and lipidic profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The limitation of berberine seems to be its poor oral bioavailability, which is affected by the presence, in enterocytes, of P-glycoprotein – an active adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-consuming efflux protein that extrudes berberine into the intestinal lumen, thus limiting its absorption. According to some authors, silymarin, derived from Silybum marianum, could be considered a P-glycoprotein antagonist. Aim The study aimed to evaluate the role played by a possible P-glycoprotein antagonist (silymarin), when added to a product containing Berberis aristata extract, in terms of benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study enrolled 69 patients with type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycemic control who were treated with diet, hypoglycemic drugs, and in cases of concomitant alterations of the lipid profile, hypolipidemic agents. The patients received an add-on therapy consisting of either a standardized extract of Berberis aristata (titrated in 85% berberine) corresponding to 1,000 mg/day of berberine, or Berberol®, a fixed combination containing the same standardized extract of Berberis aristata plus a standardized extract of Silybum marianum (titrated as >60% in silymarin), for a total intake of 1,000 mg/day of berberine and 210 mg/day of silymarin. Results Both treatments similarly improved fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and liver enzyme levels, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were reduced to a greater extent by the fixed combination. Conclusion The association of berberine and silymarin demonstrated to be more effective than berberine alone in reducing HbA1c, when administered at the same dose and in the form of standardized extracts in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24277991

  19. RATIONALIZED AND COMPLEMENTARY FINDINGS OF SILYMARIN (MILK THISTLE) IN PAKISTANI HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad; Abid, Farah; Riffat, Sualeha; Bashir, Sajid; Iqbal, Javed; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Afzal, Attia; Zaheer, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the influence of gender on pharmacokinetics of silymarin; a basic constituent of medicinal herb "milk thistle" (Silybum marianum). The presented work is the extension of published work of Usman et al. (16). The comparative parallel design pharmacokinetic study was conducted in Pakistani healthy volunteers (male and female) receiving a single 200 mg oral dose of silymarin. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) were enrolled and completed the 12 h study. Blood screening was done on HPLC and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by APO, 3.2 Ver. software using non-compartmental and two compartment model approaches. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in almost all calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of silymarin in male and female. Clinically, the silymarin has been underestimated in the previous study. Gender based clinical investigations should be directed in the future on other flavono-lignans of 'milk thistle' as well.

  20. Effects of dietary milk thistle on blood parameters, liver pathology, and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in white carneaux pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with B1 aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, Judith; Hadley, Tarah L; Rotstein, David S; Perrin, Shannon L; Gerhardt, Lillian E; Beam, James D; Saxton, Arnold M; Jones, Michael P; Daniel, Gregory B

    2009-06-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been used in humans for the treatment of liver disease because of its antioxidant properties and its ability to stabilize cell membranes and regulate cell permeability. To investigate possible hepatoprotective effects in birds, standardized extracts (80%) of silymarin from milk thistle were tested in white Carneaux pigeons (Columba livia). Pigeons were separated into 3 groups and fed diets formulated to provide milk thistle at a level of 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg body weight per day. After acclimation, the birds were challenged with B1 aflatoxin (3 mg/kg body weight for 2 consecutive days) by oral gavage. Liver function then was assessed by hematologic testing and plasma biochemical analysis, liver histopathology, and hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Results of histopathology and hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed no protective effects from milk-thistle administration. Aflatoxin challenge resulted in hepatic inflammation and necrosis, biliary-duct hyperplasia, and lymphocyte infiltration. All hepatobiliary scintigraphy elements increased significantly after aflatoxin challenge. Bile acid levels and plasma enzyme concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine phosphokinase all increased after aflatoxin exposure and were mostly unchanged with consumption of milk thistle. Only birds fed 10 mg/kg body weight milk thistle showed significant reductions in lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine phosphokinase concentrations after aflatoxin exposure. Our results show that consumption of milk thistle is not associated with hepatoprotective effects against acute B1 aflatoxin exposure in pigeons.

  1. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  2. Efficacy of Pre- and Post-Treatment by Topical Formulations Containing Dissolved and Suspended Silybum marianum against UVB-Induced Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig and on HaCaT Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Pálma; Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Váradi, Judit; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Róka, Eszter; Juhász, Béla; Varga, Balázs; Bombicz, Mariann; Priksz, Dániel; Bácskay, Ildikó; Vecsernyés, Miklós

    2016-09-22

    Plants with high amounts of antioxidants may be a promising therapy for preventing and curing UV-induced oxidative skin damage. The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of topical formulations containing dissolved and suspended Silybum marianum extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in guinea pig and HaCaT keratinocytes. Herbal extract was dissolved in Transcutol HP (TC) and sucrose-esters were incorporated as penetration enhancers in creams. Biocompatibility of compositions was tested on HeLa cells and HaCaT keratinocytes as in vitro models. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) tests were performed to prove the safety of formulations in vivo. Drug release of different compositions was assessed by Franz diffusion methods. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) activities were evaluated before and after UVB irradiation in a guinea pig model and HaCaT cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme activity was measured in the epidermis of guinea pigs treated by different creams before and after UVB irradiation. Treatment with compositions containing silymarin powder (SM) dissolved in TC and sucrose stearate SP 50 or SP 70 resulted in increased activities of all reactive oxygen species (ROS) eliminating enzymes in the case of pre- and post-treatment as well. Reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation end products was also detected after treatment with these two compositions. Post-treatment was more effective as the increase of the activity of antioxidants was higher. Lower HO-1 enzyme levels were measured in the case of pre- and post-treatment groups compared to control groups. Therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of topical formulations containing silymarin in inhibiting UVB irradiation induced oxidative stress of the skin.

  3. Quantitation of silibinin, a putative cancer chemopreventive agent derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and identification of possible metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Carmen S L; Boocock, David J; Marczylo, Timothy H; Brown, V A; Cai, Hong; Steward, William P; Berry, David P; Gescher, Andreas J

    2007-04-04

    Silibinin has recently received attention as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent because of its antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects. A simple and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitation of silibinin in human plasma. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation, and separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis C18 column with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 40 degrees C and UV detection at 290 nm. Silibinin was detected as two peaks corresponding to trans-diastereoisomers. The peak area was linear over the investigated concentration range (0-5000 ng/mL). The limits of detection were 2 and 1 ng/mL for the two diastereoisomers (d1 and d2), with a recovery of 53-58%. This method was utilized to detect silibinin in plasma of colorectal patients after 7 days of treatment with silipide (silibinin formulated with phosphatidyl choline).

  4. Silibinin (Milk Thistle) potentiates ethanol-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma progression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Eheim, Ashley L; Foureau, David M; Walling, Tracy L; Schrum, Laura W; McKillop, Iain H

    2012-12-29

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health burden with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Silibinin, an antioxidant derived from the Milk Thistle plant (Silybum marianum), is reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects in vitro and in vivo by suppressing oxidative stress and proliferation. Using a DEN-initiated mouse model of HCC, this study examined the effects of dietary silibinin supplementation alone, or in combination with chronic ethanol consumption on HCC progression. Our data demonstrate silibinin exerted marginal hepatoprotective effects in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis but, when co-administered with ethanol, exacerbated the promotional effects of ethanol in HCC bearing mice, but only in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2005-04-18

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle or milk thistle constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or viral liver diseases (hepatitis B and hepatitis C). The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and full text searches were combined (December 2003). Manufacturers and researchers in the field were contacted. Only randomised clinical trials in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases (acute and chronic) were included. Interventions encompassed milk thistle at any dose or duration versus placebo or no intervention. The trials could be double blind, single blind, or unblinded. The trials could be unpublished or published and no language limitations were applied. The primary outcome measure was mortality. Binary outcomes are reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were performed with regard to methodological quality. Thirteen randomised clinical trials assessed milk thistle in 915 patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. The methodological quality was low: only 23% of the trials reported adequate allocation concealment and only 46% were considered adequately double-blinded. Milk thistle versus placebo or no intervention had no significant effect on mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.15), complications of liver disease (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.09), or liver histology. Liver-related mortality was significantly reduced by milk thistle in all trials (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.88), but not in high-quality trials (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.19). Milk

  6. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-10-17

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle or milk thistle constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or viral liver diseases (hepatitis B and hepatitis C). The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and full text searches were combined (July 2007). Manufacturers and researchers in the field were contacted. Only randomised clinical trials in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases (acute and chronic) were included. Interventions encompassed milk thistle at any dose or duration versus placebo or no intervention. The trials could be double blind, single blind, or unblinded. The trials could be unpublished or published and no language limitations were applied. The primary outcome measure was mortality. Binary outcomes are reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were performed with regard to methodological quality. Eighteen randomised clinical trials assessed milk thistle in 1088 patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. The methodological quality was low: only 28.6% of the trials reported high methodological quality characteristics. Milk thistle versus placebo or no intervention had no significant effect on mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.15), complications of liver disease (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.09), or liver histology. Liver-related mortality was significantly reduced by milk thistle in all trials (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.88), but not in high-quality trials (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.19). Milk thistle was not associated with a significantly

  7. Blessed Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... monks. Today, blessed thistle is prepared as a tea and used for loss of appetite and indigestion; ... as more than 5 grams per cup of tea, blessed thistle can cause stomach irritation and vomiting. ...

  8. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  9. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic profile of free, conjugated, and total silymarin flavonolignans in human plasma after oral administration of milk thistle extract.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhiming; Dumas, Todd E; Schrieber, Sarah J; Hawke, Roy L; Fried, Michael W; Smith, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of polyphenolic flavonoids extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is composed mainly of silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B (SB(B)), isosilybin A (ISB(A)), and isosilybin B. In this study, the plasma concentrations of free (unconjugated), conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated), and total (free and conjugated) silymarin flavonolignans were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, after a single oral dose of 600 mg of standardized milk thistle extracts to three healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that silymarin flavonolignans were rapidly eliminated with short half-lives (1-3 and 3-8 h for free and conjugated, respectively). The AUC(0-->infinity) values of the conjugated silymarin flavonolignans were 4- to 30-fold higher than those of their free fractions, with SB(B) (mean AUC(0-->infinity) = 51 and 597 microg x h/l for free and conjugated, respectively) and ISB(A) (mean AUC(0-->infinity) = 30 and 734 microg x h/l for free and conjugated, respectively) exhibiting higher AUC(0-->infinity) values in comparison with other flavonolignans. Near the plasma peak times (1-3 h), the free, sulfated, and glucuronidated flavonolignans represented approximately 17, 28, and 55% of the total silymarin, respectively. In addition, the individual silymarin flavonolignans exhibited quite different plasma profiles for both the free and conjugated fractions. These data suggest that, after oral administration, silymarin flavonolignans are quickly metabolized to their conjugates, primarily forming glucuronides, and the conjugates are primary components present in human plasma.

  10. The effects of milk thistle on hepatic fibrosis due to methotrexate in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Ali Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Ostadi, Ali; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asadi, Parviz

    2011-06-01

    Extracts of milk thistle (MT), Silybum marianum, have been used as medical remedies since the time of ancient Greece. Methotrexate is a potentially hepatotxic drug. To clarify the hepatoprotective effects of MT on methotrexate. From January 2010 to April 2010, 30 male rats were recruited into three 10-rat subgroups in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Normal saline was injected intraperitoneally in the first group (A; the controls); intraperitoneal methotrexate plus oral MT extract were administered to the second group (B) and intraperitoneal methotrexate alone was given to the third group (C). Pre- and post-interventional measuring of serum parameters were carried out every 15 days. After six weeks, the rats were decapitated and histopathological evaluation of liver was done. Serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, creatinine and BUN were measured on days 0, 15, 30, 45. They were significantly higher in the group C, comparing with other two groups. Serum albumin was the least in group C animals as well. There were no significant differences between groups A and B. The mean±SD fibrosis score using semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS) was 1.25±0.46, 1.40±0.52 and 6.70±0.82, in groups A, B and C, respectively (p<0.001). MT extract can effectively prevent methotrexate-induced liver dysfunction and fibrosis in rats.

  11. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... the liver: from basic research to clinical practice. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;17(18):2288-2301. Milk Thistle. Natural Medicines Web site. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com ...

  12. Optimization and single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of flavonolignans in milk thistle seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Paley, Lori; Schieber, Andreas; Brown, Paula N

    2015-10-01

    Seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., are used for treatment and prevention of liver disorders and were identified as a high priority ingredient requiring a validated analytical method. An AOAC International expert panel reviewed existing methods and made recommendations concerning method optimization prior to validation. A series of extraction and separation studies were undertaken on the selected method for determining flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds and finished products to address the review panel recommendations. Once optimized, a single-laboratory validation study was conducted. The method was assessed for repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, analyte stability, and linearity. Flavonolignan content ranged from 1.40 to 52.86% in raw materials and dry finished products and ranged from 36.16 to 1570.7 μg/mL in liquid tinctures. Repeatability for the individual flavonolignans in raw materials and finished products ranged from 1.03 to 9.88% RSDr, with HorRat values between 0.21 and 1.55. Calibration curves for all flavonolignan concentrations had correlation coefficients of >99.8%. The LODs for the flavonolignans ranged from 0.20 to 0.48 μg/mL at 288 nm. Based on the results of this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of the six major flavonolignans in milk thistle raw materials and finished products, as well as multicomponent products containing dandelion, schizandra berry, and artichoke extracts. It is recommended that this method be adopted as First Action Official Method status by AOAC International.

  13. Modulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers by selected commercial-source milk thistle and goldenseal products.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Jason W; Trudeau, Vance L; Drouin, Cathy E; Panahi, Mitra; Arnason, J Thor; Foster, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we used an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model to evaluate aqueous extracts of commercial-source goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) capsule formulations, their marker phytochemicals (berberine and silibinin, respectively), as well as dillapiol, vinblastine, and the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir for their ability to modulate CYP3A4 and ABCB1 expression after short-term exposure (48 h). Both upregulation and downregulation of CYP3A4 expression was observed with extracts of varying concentrations of the two natural health products (NHPs). CYP3A4 was highly responsive in our system, showing a strong dose-dependent modulation by the CYP3A4 inhibitor dillapiol (upregulation) and the milk thistle flavonolignan silibinin (downregulation). ABCB1 was largely unresponsive in this cellular model and appears to be of little value as a biomarker under our experimental conditions. Therefore, the modulation of CYP3A4 gene expression can serve as an important marker for the in vitro assessment of NHP-drug interactions.

  14. Silibinin meglumine, a water-soluble form of milk thistle silymarin, is an orally active anti-cancer agent that impedes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cufí, Sílvia; Bonavia, Rosa; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Visa, Joana; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-10-01

    Silibinin is the primary active constituent of a crude extract (silymarin) from milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) seeds. We explored the ability of an oral milk thistle extract formulation that was enriched with a water-soluble form of silibinin complexed with the amino-sugar meglumine to inhibit the growth of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) mouse xenografts. As a single agent, oral silibinin meglumine notably decreased the overall volumes of NSCLC tumors as efficiently as did the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib. Concurrent treatment with silibinin meglumine impeded the regrowth of gefitinib-unresponsive tumors, resulting in drastic tumor growth prevention. Because the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required by a multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to EGFR TKIs, we evaluated the ability of silibinin meglumine to impede the EMT in vitro and in vivo. Silibinin-meglumine efficiently prevented the loss of markers associated with a polarized epithelial phenotype as well as the de novo synthesis of proteins associated with the mesenchymal morphology of transitioning cells. Our current findings with this non-toxic, orally active, and water-soluble silibinin formulation might facilitate the design of clinical trials to test the administration of silibinin meglumine-containing injections, granules, or beverages in combination with EGFR TKIs in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of isosilybin a from milk thistle seeds as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Atanasov, Atanas G; Malainer, Clemens; Noha, Stefan M; Kunert, Olaf; Schuster, Daniela; Heiss, Elke H; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M

    2014-04-25

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPARγ activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPARγ-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPARγ agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor.

  16. Clinical assessment of CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans: effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, goldenseal, kava kava, St. John's wort, and Echinacea.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Swain, Ashley; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Barone, Gary; Hartsfield, Faith; Tong, Yudong; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar; Battu, Sunil K

    2008-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), an important CYP isoform with regard to drug-drug interactions, accounts for the metabolism of approximately 30% of all medications. To date, few studies have assessed the effects of botanical supplementation on human CYP2D6 activity in vivo. Six botanical extracts were evaluated in three separate studies (two extracts per study), each incorporating 16 healthy volunteers (eight females). Subjects were randomized to receive a standardized botanical extract for 14 days on separate occasions. A 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. In study 1, subjects received milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). In study 2, kava kava (Piper methysticum) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) extracts were administered, and in study 3 subjects received St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea). The CYP2D6 substrate, debrisoquine (5 mg), was administered before and at the end of supplementation. Pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP2D6 using 8-h debrisoquine urinary recovery ratios (DURR). Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation DURR revealed significant inhibition (approximately 50%) of CYP2D6 activity for goldenseal, but not for the other extracts. Accordingly, adverse herb-drug interactions may result with concomitant ingestion of goldenseal supplements and drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates.

  17. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min−1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  18. A systematic approach to evaluate herb-drug interaction mechanisms: investigation of milk thistle extracts and eight isolated constituents as CYP3A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min(-1)) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation.

  19. Semisynthesis, cytotoxicity, antiviral activity, and drug interaction liability of 7-O-methylated analogues of flavonolignans from milk thistle.

    PubMed

    Althagafy, Hanan S; Graf, Tyler N; Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Gufford, Brandon T; Paine, Mary F; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Stephen J; Croatt, Mitchell P; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-07-01

    Silymarin, an extract of the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is used as an herbal remedy, particularly for hepatoprotection. The main chemical constituents in silymarin are seven flavonolignans. Recent studies explored the non-selective methylation of one flavonolignan, silybin B, and then tested those analogues for cytotoxicity and inhibition of both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 activity in human liver microsomes and hepatitis C virus infection in a human hepatoma (Huh7.5.1) cell line. In general, enhanced bioactivity was observed with the analogues. To further probe the biological consequences of methylation of the seven major flavonolignans, a series of 7-O-methylflavonolignans were generated. Optimization of the reaction conditions permitted selective methylation at the phenol in the 7-position in the presence of each metabolite's 4-5 other phenolic and/or alcoholic positions without the use of protecting groups. These 7-O-methylated analogues, in parallel with the corresponding parent compounds, were evaluated for cytotoxicity against Huh7.5.1 cells; in all cases the monomethylated analogues were more cytotoxic than the parent compounds. Moreover, parent compounds that were relatively non-toxic and inactive or weak inhibitors of hepatitis C virus infection had enhanced cytotoxicity and anti-HCV activity upon 7-O-methylation. Also, the compounds were tested for inhibition of major drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronsyltransferases) in pooled human liver or intestinal microsomes. Methylation of flavonolignans differentially modified inhibitory potency, with compounds demonstrating both increased and decreased potency depending upon the compound tested and the enzyme system investigated. In total, these data indicated that monomethylation modulates the cytotoxic, antiviral, and drug interaction potential of silymarin flavonolignans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The therapeutic potential of milk thistle in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kazazis, Christos E; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Kollas, Aris; Vallianou, Natalia G

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle has been known for more than 2.000 years as a herbal remedy for a variety of disorders. It has mainly been used to treat liver and gallbladder diseases. Silibum marianum, the Latin term for the plant, and its seeds contain a whole family of natural compounds, called flavonolignans. Silimarin is a dry mixture of these compounds; it is extracted after processing with ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin contains mainly silibin A, silibin B, taxifolin, isosilibin A, isosilibin B, silichristin A, silidianin, and other compounds in smaller concentrations. Apart from its use in liver and gallbladder disorders, milk thistle has recently gained attention due to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Recently, a substance from milk thistle has been shown to possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist properties. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones, which are used clinically as insulin sensitizers to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes type 2 patients. The thiazolidinedione type of PPARγ ligands is an agonist with a very high binding affinity. However, this ligand type demonstrates a range of undesirable side effects, thus necessitating the search for new effective PPARγ agonists. Interestingly, studies indicate that partial agonism of PPARγ induces promising activity patterns by retaining the positive effects attributed to the full agonists, with reduced side effects. In this review, the therapeutic potential of milk thistle in the management of diabetes and its complications are discussed.

  1. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry - a suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mahmoud N; Krawinkel, Michael B; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-05-15

    Extraction parameters, chemical fingerprint, and the single compounds' activity levels were considered for the selection of active botanicals. For an initial survey, the total bioactivity (i.e., total reducing capacity, total flavonoids contents and free radical scavenging capacity) of 21 aqueous and 21 ethanolic plant extracts was investigated. Ethanolic extracts showed a higher yield and were further analyzed by HPTLC in detail to obtain fingerprints of single flavonoids and further bioactive components. Exemplarily shown for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed using three selected (bio)assays, the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, the Bacillus subtilis bioassay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay. As a proof of principle, the bioactive components found in the extracts were confirmed by HPTLC-MS. Bioassays in combination with planar chromatography directly linked to the known, single effective compounds like curcumin and silibinin. However, also some unknown bioactive components were discovered and exemplarily characterized, which demonstrated the strength of this kind of EDA. HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-MS could become a useful tool for selection of active botanicals and for the activity profiling of the active ingredients therein. The flexibility in effect-directed detections allows a comprehensive survey of effective ingredients in samples. This streamlined methodology comprised a non-targeted, effect-directed screening first, followed by a highly targeted characterization of the discovered bioactive compounds. HPTLC-EDA-MS can also be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food on the food intake side, as not only effective phytochemicals, but also unknown bioactive degradation products during food processing or contamination products or residues or metabolites can be detected. Thus, an efficient survey on potential food intake effects on wellness could be obtained. Having performed

  2. Milk Thistle (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Milk thistle is available in the United States as a dietary supplement and small studies have been done in several cancers. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved milk thistle as a treatment for cancer or other medical conditions. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  4. Milk Thistle (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Milk thistle is available in the United States as a dietary supplement. Human clinical trials have investigated milk thistle in hepatitis or cirrhosis, although small studies have been reported in some cancers. Get detailed information on studies of milk thistle in cancer in this clinician summary.

  5. Characterization of chitosan-nanoclay bionanocomposite active films containing milk thistle extract.

    PubMed

    Beigzadeh Ghelejlu, Sara; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Almasi, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, bio-based and antioxidant active packaging is attracting significant attention as one of the preferred emerging technologies to prevent sensitive oxidation of foods. In this study, chitosan/nanoclay nanocomposite active films containing three different levels of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on chitosan) and Silybum marianum L. extract (SME) (0.5, 1 and 1.5% v/v) were prepared. The obtained films were characterized in terms of structural, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties as well as antioxidant behavior. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the exfoliated dispersion form of MMT nanolayers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an increase in films' surface roughness by the addition of MMT. The results indicated that water vapor permeability and solubility of films reduced significantly (p<0.05) by incorporation of MMT and SME. The mechanical and optical properties of films were significantly affected by the content of MMT and SME (p<0.05). Antioxidant properties of the films also were improved by SME incorporation, suggesting that the formulated bionanocomposites could be considered as a promising antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Russian thistle for soil mulch in coal mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Day, A.D.; Tucker, T.C.; Thames, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of Russian thistle mulch in reducing soil moisture loss from coal mine soil was gauged and compared with the effectiveness of barley straw mulch. The decrease in soil moisture loss after mulch addition was greater in a low temperature, high humidity environment. Russian thistle mulch was as effective as barley straw in reducing soil moisture loss in Red Mesa loam, unmined soil, and coal mine soil. Because Russian thistle can be grown on mine spoils and has a higher organic volume than barley straw mulch has, treatment of mine soil with thistle will improve soil characteristics and plantmore » growth. (14 references, 1 table)« less

  7. Enhanced biological control of yellow starthistle and tumbleweed (Russian thistle).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-07-01

    Yellow starthistle and tumbleweed (Russian thistle) are two of the most important weeds on California Department of Transportation : (Caltrans) rights-of-way. They occur in high densities, out-competing desirable grasses and increasing risk of wildfi...

  8. Silymarin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Neha; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is the active constituent of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) which is a C-25 containing flavonolignan. Milk thistle has a lot of traditional values, being used as a vegetable, as salad, as bitter tonic, and as galactogogue in nursing mothers and in various ailments such as liver complications, depression, dyspepsia, spleenic congestions, varicose veins, diabetes, amenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and menstrual problems. In this present chapter, a comprehensive attempt has been made to discuss the potential of silymarin in chronic disorders. An insight into modulation of cellular signaling by silymarin and its implication in various disorders such as liver disorders, inflammatory disorders, cancer, neurological disorders, skin diseases, and hypercholesterolemia is being provided.

  9. Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-12-15

    This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of a self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system containing Silybum marianum native seed oil against experimentally induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Fehér, P; Ujhelyi, Z; Vecsernyés, M; Fenyvesi, F; Damache, G; Ardelean, A; Costache, M; Dinischiotu, A; Hermenean, A; Bácskay, I

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to certify the effect of native silymarin oil (SM-oil) formulated in a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). The optimal formulation was 25% of SM-oil, 33.3 % of Cremophor RH40, 20% of Transcutol HP, 16.6% of Labrasol and 5% of Capryol 90. In this novel formulation the SM-oil was the active substance and the lipid part. The in vivo study examined the preventive effects of SMEDDS containing SM native seeds oil against carbon tetrachloride (CC14) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and also liver histology investigations have been done. The liver antioxidant status was determined with the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) hepatic lipid peroxidation was examined and expressed in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The plasma levels of AST and ALT significantly diminished by pre-treatment with 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg SMEDDS. The pre-treatment with 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg SMEDDS increased GSH level by about 6% respectively 24% compared to the CC14 group. Due to preventive administration of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of SMEDDS in the intoxicated animals, MDA levels were reduced by 22% respectively 58%. Also, an insignificant rise by almost 17% and 19% in the animals treated with the both doses of SMEDDS could be noticed. It can be concluded that hepatotoxicity may be avoided by the oral application of our formulation.

  11. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canada thistle (CIRSIUM ARVENSE – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study were to: (i) conduct bioclimati...

  12. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study are to: (i) conduct bioclim...

  13. Feasibility of commercialization of Russian thistle, Salsola kali L. , as a fuel source. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karpiscak, M.M.; Foster, K.E.; Rawles, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The use of Russian thistle as an energy resource has been demonstrated. Russian thistle biomass can be harvested, stored and transported using readily available machinery. Propagation seed can be harvested, cleaned and sown using commercially available machines and traditional techniques. In addition, preliminary tests did not detect that burning Russian thistle biomass causes any major toxicological or immunological problems. Many questions remain to be answered, however, concerning use of Russian thistle as a biomass fuel. The lack of confirmed, long-term data, on the agronomics of Russian thistle makes additional research necessary. Additional data are required to produce a sound datamore » base for evaluating the economics of Russian thistle production, for improving agricultural methods, and for fully evaluating the toxic and immunologic properties of Russian thistle. In conclusion, it appears that Russian thistle biomass has a great potential for becoming a fuel source in arid areas that are lacking fossil fuel reserves or where possible reduction of environmental problems associated with the use of fossil fuels is desired. Analyses of economic and energy factors show that there is a significant net gain in energy with the production and processing of Russia thistle biomass into synthetic logs (Tumblelogs), although the cost of Tumblelogs is slightly higher than that of synthetic logs made from wood waste. 10 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.« less

  14. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  15. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  16. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  17. The Thistle Field - Analysis of its past performance and optimisation of its future development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayat, M.G.; Tehrani, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Thistle Field geology and its reservoir performance over the past six years have been reviewed. The latest reservoir simulation study of the field, covering the performance history-matching, and the conclusions of various prediction cases are reported. The special features of PORES, Britoil in-house 3D 3-phase fully implicit numerical simulator and its modeling aids as applied to the Thistle Field are presented.

  18. Effect of milk thistle on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Stephen C; Formentini, Elizabeth; Burstein, Aaron H; Alfaro, Raul; Jagannatha, Shyla; Falloon, Judith

    2002-05-01

    To characterize the pharmacokinetics of indinavir in the presence and absence of milk thistle and to determine the offset of any effect of milk thistle on indinavir disposition. Prospective open-label drug interaction study. Outpatient clinic. Ten healthy volunteers. Intervention. Blood samples were collected over 8 hours after the volunteers took four doses of indinavir 800 mg every 8 hours on an empty stomach for baseline pharmacokinetics. This dosing and sampling were repeated after the subjects took milk thistle 175 mg (confirmed to contain silymarin 153 mg, the active ingredient) 3 times/day for 3 weeks. After an 11-day washout, indinavir dosing and blood sampling were repeated to evaluate the offset of any potential interaction. Indinavir concentrations were measured by using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were determined: highest concentration (Cmax), hour-0 concentration, hour-8 concentration (C8), time to reach Cmax, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the 8-hour dosing interval (AUC8). Milk thistle did not alter significantly the overall exposure of indinavir, as evidenced by a 9% reduction in the indinavir AUC8 after 3 weeks of dosing with milk thistle, although the least squares mean trough level (C8) was significantly decreased by 25%. Milk thistle in commonly administered dosages should not interfere with indinavir therapy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

  19. Encroachment of oriental bittersweet into Pitcher’s thistle habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2012-01-01

    Common invasive species and rare endemic species can grow and interact at the ecotone between forested and non-forested dune habitats. To investigate these interactions, a comparison of the proximity and community associates of a sympatric invasive (Celastrus orbiculatus; oriental bittersweet) and native (C. scandens; American bittersweet) liana species to federally threatened Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle) in the dunes habitats of Lake Michigan was conducted. Overall, the density of the invasive liana species was significantly greater in proximity to C. pitcheri than the native species. On the basis of composition, the three focal species occurred in both foredune and blowout habitats. The plant communities associated with the three focal species overlapped in ordination space, but there were significant differences in composition. The ability of C. orbiculatus to rapidly grow and change the ecological dynamics of invasion sites adds an additional threat to the successional habitats of C. pitcheri.

  20. Consequences of artichoke thistle invasion and removal on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, D. L.; Harpole, W. S.; Suding, K. N.; Goulden, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in vegetation structure and composition may interact with management activities to influence biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy in unforeseen ways. Increases in the distribution and density of artichoke thistle (Cynara cardunculus), a perennial, non-native forb in Californian coastal grasslands, may alter seasonal dynamics of ecosystem C-assimilation and evapotranspiration (ET). During spring and summer 2006, we compared midday net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ET among adjacent grassland plots where thistle was present and where it was absent. Estimates of NEE supported the prediction that deeply-rooted thistles increase ecosystem C-assimilation. Measurements of midday ecosystem respiration demonstrated that increases in ecosystem C-assimilation were associated with increased ecosystem photosynthesis rather than declines in respiration. Furthermore, the presence of C. cardunculus increased midday ET but did not influence shallow soil moisture or ecosystem water use efficiency. Following the initial sampling in late April, we removed C. cardunculus from half the thistle- containing plots with spot applications of herbicide. Three weeks later, fluxes in thistle-removal plots were indistinguishable from those in plots where thistles were never present, suggesting additive rather than interactive effects of thistles on grassland CO2 exchange and ET. Similar to woody-encroachment in some semi-arid ecosystems, C. cardunculus invasion in Californian grasslands increases ecosystem CO2 assimilation. Moreover, our results suggest that herbicide removal of C. cardunculus may be accompanied by few legacy effects. Future research should focus on the effects of C. cardunculus on early-growing season fluxes and belowground C-storage, and the interaction between the spread of non-native species and climate variability on biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and water.

  1. A novel approach for the efficient extraction of silybin from milk thistle fruits.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caihong; Xu, Xianrong; Shang, Yaqi; Fu, Xianli; Xia, Guohua; Yang, Huan

    2014-10-01

    Milk Thistle fruit is an important herb popularly consumed worldwide for a very long time. Silybin is the main bioactive constituent of the herb, and it has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medicine to treat liver diseases. Presently, using conventional technology, the meal of Milk Thistle fruit is used as the raw material to extract silybin. To investigate the necessity of detaching husk from kernel of the herb and also to propose a novel approach to enhance the extraction technology in pharmaceutical practices. The husk of Milk Thistle fruit was detached from the kernel of the herb using an automatic huller specially designed for this application. The husk and the meal of Milk Thistle fruit was subsequently refluxed, separately, with production rate of silybin as index for comparison of their extraction effect. The highest production rate was achieved under optimized condition. The husk was extracted 2 times (3 hrs each) using ethyl acetate, and the ratio of solvent to raw material was 8:1. The extract was allowed to be crystallized out. The separation of kernel from the husk of Milk Thistle fruit and using only the husk as raw material can largely enhance the extraction of silybin.

  2. Developmental and environmental effects on assimilate partitioning in Canada thistle

    SciTech Connect

    Tworkoski, T.J.

    1989-04-01

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) plants at three stages of development (rosette, bolt, and flower bud) were grown under spring-simulated or fall-simulated environments. Sucrose export from a single leaf exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was significantly greater in rosette-plants than bolt- or flower bud-plants during the first two hours after pulse. Twenty-four hours after pulse, total {sup 14}C translocation (dpm) was the same in both environments but the {sup 14}C concentration (dpm/gm) was greater in roots of fall-grown plants. Shoot meristem respiration of fall-grown plants was approximately 50% less than spring-grown plants and was a factor responsible for this trend. Concentrationsmore » of inulin and water-insoluble starch were greater in roots of fall-grown than spring-grown plants and pulsed {sup 14}C accumulated in these fractions. The results suggest that a shift in respiration and metabolism of fall-grown rosette- and bolt-plants leads to increased assimilate movement to the root which may have practical implications for control of this weed.« less

  3. Fungal profiles in various milk thistle botanicals from US retail.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Rivera Calo, J; Sapp, C

    2013-06-03

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible beneficial effect on liver health. As botanicals, they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. This study was conducted in an effort to determine the mycological quality of various MT botanical supplements from the US market. Conventional plating methods were used for the isolation and enumeration of fungi, while conventional microscopy as well as molecular methods were employed for the speciation of the isolated strains. Results showed that a high percentage of the MT samples tested were contaminated with fungi. Total counts ranged between <2.00 and 5.60 log10 colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). MT whole seeds carried the highest fungal levels followed by MT cut herb. No live fungi were recovered from MT seed tea bags, liquid extracts, capsules or soft gels. Potentially toxigenic molds from the Aspergillus sections Flavi and Nigri as well as Eurotium, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species were isolated from MT supplements. The predominant molds were Eurotia (E. repens, E. amstelodami and E. rubrum), A. flavus, A. tubingensis, A. niger and A. candidus. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on fungal contamination profiles of MT botanicals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Milk thistle and indinavir: a randomized controlled pharmacokinetics study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward; Wilson, Kumanan; Clarke, Mike; Foster, Brian; Walker, Scott; Rachlis, Beth; DeGroot, Nick; Montori, Victor M; Gold, Wayne; Phillips, Elizabeth; Myers, Stephen; Gallicano, Keith

    2005-03-01

    To determine whether ingestion of milk thistle affects the pharmacokinetics of indinavir. We conducted a three-period, randomized controlled trial with 16 healthy participants. We randomized participants to milk thistle or control. All participants received initial dosing of indinavir, and baseline indinavir levels were obtained (AUC(0-8)) (phase I). The active group were then given 450 mg milk-thistle extract capsules to be taken t.i.d. from day 2 to day 30. The control group received no plant extract. On day 29 and day 30, indinavir dosing and sampling was repeated in both groups as before (phase II). After a wash-out period of 7 days, indinavir dosing and sampling were repeated as before (phase III). All participants completed the trial, but two were excluded from analysis due to protocol violation. There were no significant between-group differences. Active group mean AUC(0-8) indinavir decreased by 4.4% (90% CI, -27.5% to -26%, P=0.78) from phase I to phase II in the active group, and by 17.3% (90% CI, -37.3% to +9%, P=0.25) in phase III. Control group mean AUC(0-8) decreased by 21.5% (90% CI, -43% to +8%, P=0.2) from phase I to phase II and by 38.5% (90% CI, -55.3% to -15.3%, P=0.01) of baseline at phase III. To place our findings in context, milk thistle-indinavir trials were identified through systematic searches of the literature. A meta-analysis of three milk thistle-indinavir trials revealed a non-significant pooled mean difference of 1% in AUC(0-8) (95% CI, -53% to 55%, P=0.97). Indinavir levels were not reduced significantly in the presence of milk thistle.

  5. Milk thistle and its derivative compounds: a review of opportunities for treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hackett, E S; Twedt, D C; Gustafson, D L

    2013-01-01

    Milk thistle extracts have been used as a "liver tonic" for centuries. In recent years, silibinin, the active ingredient in milk thistle extracts, has been studied both in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the beneficial effects in hepatic disease. Silibinin increases antioxidant concentrations and improves outcomes in hepatic diseases resulting from oxidant injury. Silibinin treatment has been associated with protection against hepatic toxins, and also has resulted in decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Limited information currently is available regarding silibinin use in veterinary medicine. Future study is justified to evaluate dose, kinetics, and treatment effects in domestic animals. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Occurrence of aflatoxins in milk thistle herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Sapp, C; Trucksess, M W

    2012-01-01

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible liver-health-promoting properties. As botanicals they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. The aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus has been previously isolated from these commodities. Currently, there is no published method for determining aflatoxins (AFs) in MT. Therefore, a liquid chromatography (LC) method validated for aflatoxin analysis in botanicals was evaluated and applied to MT. The method consisted of acetonitrile/water extraction, immunoaffinity column clean-up, LC separation, post-column photochemical reaction derivatisation and fluorescence detection. The average recoveries for AFs added to MT seeds, herb, oil-based liquid extract and alcohol-based liquid extract were 76% or higher. The mean relative standard deviation was <10%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 µg kg(-1). The method was used to conduct a small survey. A total of 83 MT samples from the US market were analysed. AFs were detected in 19% of the samples with levels ranging from 0.04 to 2.0 µg kg(-1). Additionally, an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain from ATTC and an A. parasiticus strain isolated from MT herb powder were found to produce high amounts of aflatoxins (11,200 and 49,100 µg kg(-1), respectively) when cultured in MT seed powder. This is the first study reporting on aflatoxin contamination of MT botanical supplements and identifying methodology for AF analysis of these commodities.

  7. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. In vivo efficacy study of milk thistle extract (ETHIS-094™) in STAM™ model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Pais, Pilar; D'Amato, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    A subcategory of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by accumulation of fat accompanied by inflammatory infiltration and hepatocellular damage. The active complex of milk thistle is a lipophilic extract from its seeds, comprising three isomers, collectively known as silymarin. Silymarin has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties, and has been extensively studied in the treatment of liver diseases. The majority of published clinical research on silymarin has used Legalon(®) (Rottapharm/Madaus), containing the patented extract of milk thistle ETHIS-094™ (Euromed). The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of ETHIS-094™ in the Stelic Animal Model (STAM™), a validated and widely used animal model for NASH. After 4 h fasting from 4 to 8 weeks of age, 15 male mice in whom NASH had been induced were orally administered, once daily, either (1) vehicle (saline) at a volume of 10 mL/kg, (2) vehicle supplemented with milk thistle at a dose of 500 mg/kg, or (3) vehicle supplemented with milk thistle at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Mean liver weight and the liver-to-body weight ratio were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in the milk thistle high-dose group compared with the vehicle group. NAFLD activity score (NAS) tended to decrease in the milk thistle treatment groups compared with vehicle group, as did steatosis scores. Milk thistle extract administration induced a decreasing trend in NAS compared with the vehicle group. Milk thistle induced a numerical decrease of the steatosis score compared with vehicle, and this was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in liver weight and the liver-to-body weight ratio, implying a potential anti-steatosis effect of milk thistle.

  9. Effective landscape scale management of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) utilizing biological control

    Treesearch

    G. P. Markin; D. Larson

    2013-01-01

    The stem mining weevil, Ceutorhynchus litura Fabricius, the gall forming fly, Urophora cardui L., and the seedhead weevil, Larinus planus Fabricius, were established as biological control agents on an 1800 hectare multiple-habitat wildlife refuge in northwestern Oregon in the mid-1990s. At the time, Canada thistle was the most wide spread, aggressive, and difficult...

  10. A multidiscipline look at the Thistle field area, Pecos County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Land, J.P.

    1992-04-01

    To allow an evaluation of the perspective provided by certain nonseismic methods in the Val Verde basin, the synergistic interpretation of gravimetric and magnetic data, surface geomorphology, and the Ellenburgger surface are compared to surface geochemical data and drilling immediate to the Thistle field, Pecos County, Texas.

  11. Dual concentric gas-lift completion design for the Thistle field

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.C.; Adair, P.

    1991-02-01

    A unique dual concentric gas-lift completion was installed in two wells in the thistle field during 1987. This paper outlines the completion concept and design, including vertical-lift performance and tubing movement/stress analysis. Results of field performance after 1 year of production history are presented and compared with predicted values.

  12. Evaluation of Restoration Methods to Minimize Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System has an active habitat restoration program and annually seeds thousands of hectares with native plant species. The noxious weed, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), plagues these restorations. This study evaluates planting methodology and seed mixes with the goal of recommending optimal methods to reduce infestation of noxious weeds, especially Canada thistle, in new restorations. Three planting methods (dormant season broadcast, growing season [summer] broadcast, and growing season [summer] drill) were fully crossed with three levels of seed diversity (10, 20, and 34 species [plus a fourth level, 58 species, on the three sites in Iowa]) in a completely randomized design replicated on nine sites in Minnesota and Iowa. The propagule bank of Canada thistle was evaluated at each site. Planting occurred in winter 2004 and spring-summer 2005. Here I report on results through summer 2007. None of the planting methods or seed mix diversities consistently resulted in reduced abundance of Canada thistle. Soil texture had the strongest influence; sites with greater proportions of clay had greater frequency and cover of Canada thistle than did sandy sites. At the Minnesota study sites, the dormant broadcast planting method combined with the highest seed diversity resulted in both the greatest cover of planted species as well as the greatest richness of planted species. At the Iowa sites, planted species richness was slightly greater in the summer drill plots, but cover of planted species was greatest in the dormant broadcast plots. Richness of planted species at the Iowa sites was maximized in the high diversity plots, with the extra-high diversity seed mix resulting in significantly lower species richness. Individual species responded to planting methods idiosyncratically, which suggests that particular species could be favored by tailoring planting methods to that species.

  13. Milk thistle nomenclature: why it matters in cancer research and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Kroll, David J; Shaw, Heather S; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2007-06-01

    Extracts of milk thistle have been recognized for centuries as "liver tonics" and are well-known to prevent or reverse hepatotoxicity of reactive drug metabolites or naturally occurring toxins. Milk thistle extracts are now under intense study in the experimental therapeutics of cancer for chemoprevention, treatment, and amelioration of chemotherapy side effects. Precision in nomenclature, however, has lagged behind this progress. The crude commercial product of milk thistle is termed silymarin, a complex of at least 7 flavonolignans and 1 flavonoid that comprises 65% to 80% of milk thistle extract. From silymarin is derived silibinin, a semipurified fraction once thought to be a single compound but now recognized as a 1:1 mixture of 2 diastereoisomers, silybin A and silybin B. The distinction between silymarin and silibinin is not only important to understanding the historical literature, but thorough characterization and use of chemically defined mixtures in preclinical and clinical studies are essential to the progress of these botanical compounds as human therapeutics. As a result, we urge clinicians and preclinical investigators alike to exercise rigor in nomenclature and use pure compounds or precisely defined chemical mixtures in subsequent studies. Herein, we provide a guide to the proper nomenclature and composition of milk thistle extracts and discuss the known pharmacokinetic studies of these botanical medicines. The drug-interaction potential of these extracts appears to be quite low, and in fact, silibinin appears to synergize with the antitumor effects of some commonly used chemotherapeutics. However, some precautions are advised as high-dose, phase II studies are conducted.

  14. Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Meddeb, Wiem; Rezig, Leila; Abderrabba, Manef; Lizard, Gérard; Mejri, Mondher

    2017-12-02

    In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively) and oleic acid (C18:1) (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO) in α-tocopherol. The highest content was recorded for that of the region of Zaghouan (286.22 mg/kg). The total phenolic contents (TPC) of Zaghouan, Bizerte, and Sousse were 1.59, 8.12, and 4.73 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) mg/g, respectively. Three phenolic acids were also identified (vanillic, p -coumaric, and silybine), with a predominance of the vanillic acid. The highest value was recorded for the Zaghouan milk thistle seed oil (83 mg/100 g). Differences in outcomes between regions may be due to climatic differences in areas. Zaghouan's cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had a better quality than those of Bizerte and Sousse, and can be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products or by-products for industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical utilization.

  15. Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Meddeb, Wiem; Rezig, Leila; Abderrabba, Manef

    2017-01-01

    In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively) and oleic acid (C18:1) (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO) in α-tocopherol. The highest content was recorded for that of the region of Zaghouan (286.22 mg/kg). The total phenolic contents (TPC) of Zaghouan, Bizerte, and Sousse were 1.59, 8.12, and 4.73 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) mg/g, respectively. Three phenolic acids were also identified (vanillic, p-coumaric, and silybine), with a predominance of the vanillic acid. The highest value was recorded for the Zaghouan milk thistle seed oil (83 mg/100 g). Differences in outcomes between regions may be due to climatic differences in areas. Zaghouan’s cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had a better quality than those of Bizerte and Sousse, and can be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products or by-products for industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical utilization. PMID:29207484

  16. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product–Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G.; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4′- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27–66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2–8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19–73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65–120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20–310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product–drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  17. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  18. Mechanistic study of the biomimetic synthesis of flavonolignan diastereoisomers in milk thistle.

    PubMed

    Althagafy, Hanan S; Meza-Aviña, Maria Elena; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Croatt, Mitchell P

    2013-08-02

    The mechanism for the biomimetic synthesis of flavonolignan diastereoisomers in milk thistle is proposed to proceed by single-electron oxidation of coniferyl alcohol, subsequent reaction with one of the oxygen atoms of taxifolin's catechol moiety, and finally, further oxidation to form four of the major components of silymarin: silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B. This mechanism is significantly different from a previously proposed process that involves the coupling of two independently formed radicals.

  19. Lumichrome and phenyllactic acid as chemical markers of thistle (Galactites tomentosa Moench) honey.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Cottiglia, Filippo; Floris, Ignazio

    2011-01-12

    HPLC-DAD-MS/MS chromatograms of thistle (Galactites tomentosa Moench) unifloral honeys, previously selected by sensory evaluation and melissopalynological analysis, showed high levels of two compounds. One was characterized as phenyllactic acid, a common acid found in honeys, but the other compound was very unusual for honeys. This compound was extracted from honey with ethyl acetate and purified by SPE using C(18), SiOH, and NH(2) phases. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HPLC-MS/MS and Q-TOF analysis, and it was identified as lumichrome (7,8-dimethylalloxazine). Lumichrome is known to be the main product of degradation obtained in acid medium from riboflavin (vitamin B(2)), and this is the first report of the presence of lumichrome in honeys. Analysis of the G. tomentosa raw honey and flowers extracts confirmed the floral origin of this compound. The average amount of lumichrome in thistle honey was 29.4 ± 14.9 mg/kg, while phenyllactic acid was 418.6 ± 168.9 mg/kg. Lumichrome, along with the unusual high level of phenyllactic acid, could be used as a marker for the botanical classification of unifloral thistle (G. tomentosa) honey.

  20. Using prairie restoration to curtail invasion of Canada thistle: the importance of limiting similarity and seed mix richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J.B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Palaia, Nicholas; Rabie, Paul A.; Vacek, Sara; Wells, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Theory has predicted, and many experimental studies have confirmed, that resident plant species richness is inversely related to invisibility. Likewise, potential invaders that are functionally similar to resident plant species are less likely to invade than are those from different functional groups. Neither of these ideas has been tested in the context of an operational prairie restoration. Here, we tested the hypotheses that within tallgrass prairie restorations (1) as seed mix species richness increased, cover of the invasive perennial forb, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) would decline; and (2) guilds (both planted and arising from the seedbank) most similar to Canada thistle would have a larger negative effect on it than less similar guilds. Each hypothesis was tested on six former agricultural fields restored to tallgrass prairie in 2005; all were within the tallgrass prairie biome in Minnesota, USA. A mixed-model with repeated measures (years) in a randomized block (fields) design indicated that seed mix richness had no effect on cover of Canada thistle. Structural equation models assessing effects of cover of each planted and non-planted guild on cover of Canada thistle in 2006, 2007, and 2010 revealed that planted Asteraceae never had a negative effect on Canada thistle. In contrast, planted cool-season grasses and non-Asteraceae forbs, and many non-planted guilds had negative effects on Canada thistle cover. We conclude that early, robust establishment of native species, regardless of guild, is of greater importance in resistance to Canada thistle than is similarity of guilds in new prairie restorations.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, Ángel; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; García-Luna y González-Rubio, Manuel; Gayosso-de-Lucio, Juan A; Morales-González, José A

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in treating illnesses has been reported since ancestral times. In the case of hepatic diseases, several species such as Silybum marianum, Phyllanthus niruri, and Panus giganteus (Berk.) have been shown to ameliorate hepatic lesions. Silymarin is a natural compound derived from the species Silybum marianum, which is commonly known as Milk thistle. This plant contains at least seven flavoligands and the flavonoid taxifolin. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of silymarin is caused by its ability to inhibit the free radicals that are produced from the metabolism of toxic substances such as ethanol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride. The generation of free radicals is known to damage cellular membranes and cause lipoperoxidation. Silymarin enhances hepatic glutathione and may contribute to the antioxidant defense of the liver. It has also been shown that silymarin increases protein synthesis in hepatocytes by stimulating RNA polymerase I activity. A previous study on humans reported that silymarin treatment caused a slight increase in the survival of patients with cirrhotic alcoholism compared with untreated controls. PMID:24672644

  2. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2006-02-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study's purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics was unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo.

  3. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle.

    PubMed

    Moran, Patrick J; Wibawa, M Irene; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-12-01

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A. salsolae differently on the target and nontarget plant species, decreasing the mite's realized host range. Plants were infested with A. salsolae under lamps that emitted UV-A, along with broad-spectrum lighting, and the size of mite populations and plant growth was compared to infested plants exposed only to broad-spectrum light. Russian thistle supported 3- to 55-fold larger mite populations than nontarget plants regardless of UV-A treatment. UV-A exposure did not affect mite populations on Russian thistle or S. calceoliformis, whereas it increased populations 7-fold on B. hyssopifolia. Main stems on nontarget plants grew 2- to 6-fold faster than did Russian thistle under either light treatment. The two nontarget plants attained greater volume under the control light regime than UV-A, but Russian thistle was unaffected. Although Russian thistle was always the superior host, addition of UV-A light to the artificial lighting regime did not reduce the ability of A. salsolae to reproduce on the two nontarget species, suggesting that UV-B or other environmental factors may be more important in limiting mite populations in the field.

  4. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  5. Silymarin Constituents Enhance ABCA1 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Rotter, Susanne; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is a hepatoprotective mixture of flavonolignans and flavonoids extracted from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn). This study investigates the effect of major bioactive constituents from silymarin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilychristin, and taxifolin, on the expression of ABCA1, an important cholesterol efflux transporter, in THP-1-derived macrophages. Four of the studied compounds, isosilybin A, silybin B, silychristin and isosilychristin, were found to significantly induce ABCA1 protein expression without affecting cell viability. Moreover, isosilybin A, a partial PPARγ agonist, was found to promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings first show ABCA1 protein up-regulating activity of active constituents of silymarin and provide new avenues for their further study in the context of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26729088

  6. Silymarin Constituents Enhance ABCA1 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Rotter, Susanne; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-12-31

    Silymarin is a hepatoprotective mixture of flavonolignans and flavonoids extracted from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn). This study investigates the effect of major bioactive constituents from silymarin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilychristin, and taxifolin, on the expression of ABCA1, an important cholesterol efflux transporter, in THP-1-derived macrophages. Four of the studied compounds, isosilybin A, silybin B, silychristin and isosilychristin, were found to significantly induce ABCA1 protein expression without affecting cell viability. Moreover, isosilybin A, a partial PPARγ agonist, was found to promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings first show ABCA1 protein up-regulating activity of active constituents of silymarin and provide new avenues for their further study in the context of cardiovascular disease.

  7. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Modulatory Activity of the Natural Products Silymarin and Silibinin

    PubMed Central

    Rakelly de Oliveira, Dayanne; Relison Tintino, Saulo; Morais Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Linde Athayde, Margareth; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin is a standardized extract from the dried seeds of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) clinically used as an antihepatotoxic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of silymarin and its major constituent (silibinin) against different microbial strains and their modulatory effect on drugs utilized in clinical practice. Silymarin demonstrated antimicrobial activity of little significance against the bacterial strains tested, with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 512 µg/mL. Meanwhile, silibinin showed significant activity against Escherichia coli with a MIC of 64 µg/mL. The results for the antifungal activity of silymarin and silibinin demonstrated a MIC of 1024 µg/mL for all strains. Silymarin and silibinin appear to have promising potential, showing synergistic properties when combined with antibacterial drugs, which should prompt further studies along this line. PMID:25866771

  8. Integrating multiple disturbance aspects: management of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Shea, Katriona

    2012-11-01

    Disturbances occur in most ecological systems, and play an important role in biological invasions. We delimit five key disturbance aspects: intensity, frequency, timing, duration and extent. Few studies address more than one of these aspects, yet interactions and interdependence between aspects may lead to complex outcomes. In a two-cohort experimental study, we examined how multiple aspects (intensity, frequency and timing) of a mowing disturbance regime affect the survival, phenology, growth and reproduction of an invasive thistle Carduus nutans (musk thistle). Our results show that high intensity and late timing strongly delay flowering phenology and reduce plant survival, capitulum production and plant height. A significant interaction between intensity and timing further magnifies the main effects. Unexpectedly, high frequency alone did not effectively reduce reproduction. However, a study examining only frequency and intensity, and not timing, would have erroneously attributed the importance of timing to frequency. We used management of an invasive species as an example to demonstrate the importance of a multiple-aspect disturbance framework. Failure to consider possible interactions, and the inherent interdependence of certain aspects, could result in misinterpretation and inappropriate management efforts. This framework can be broadly applied to improve our understanding of disturbance effects on individual responses, population dynamics and community composition.

  9. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsola to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola spp., Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western U.S. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reprodu...

  10. Investigating the potential for toxicity from long-term use of the herbal products, goldenseal and milk thistle.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, June K; Singh, Bhanu; Nyska, Abraham; Peckham, John; Kissling, Grace E; Sanders, J Michael

    2011-02-01

    Two-year toxicity studies were conducted on the widely used herbal products, goldenseal and milk thistle, in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. With goldenseal root powder, the primary finding was an increase in liver tumors in rats and mice, and with milk thistle extract, a decrease in spontaneous background tumors including mammary gland tumors in female rats and liver tumors in male mice. Increased tumorigenicity in rodents exposed to goldenseal root powder may be due in part to the topoisomerase inhibition properties of berberine, a major alkaloid constituent in goldenseal, or its metabolite, berberrubine. In the clinic, use of topoisomerase-inhibiting agents has been associated with secondary tumor formation and inhibition in DNA repair processes. In contrast, the radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties of silibinin and other flavonolignans in milk thistle extract may have contributed to the decrease in background tumors in rodents in the present studies. The fate of the active constituents of goldenseal and milk thistle is similar in humans and rodents; therefore, the modes of action may translate across species. Further studies are needed to extrapolate the findings to humans.

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of silymarin phytosomes compared to milk thistle extract in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Gazayerly, O N; Makhlouf, A I A; Soelm, A M A; Mohmoud, M A

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle extract is a well-known hepatoprotectant with low bioavailability (20-50%). The objective of the present study is to prepare and characterize silymarin phytosomes and to test the hepatoprotective effect of the phytosomes in CCl4 induced liver injury in rats compared to milk thistle extract. Phytosomes were prepared using lecithin from soybeans and from egg yolk. The prepared phytosomes were examined using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H(1)NMR). The loading efficiency was >85% in all phytosomal formulations. Formula P2 (with the molar ratio of soybean lecithin to silybin 1:1) and P4 (with the molar ratio of egg-yolk lecithin to silybin 0.25:1) exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) faster release than milk thistle extract. The in vivo study revealed that phytosomes significantly (p < 0.05) decreased glutamic pyruvic transaminase and super oxide dismutase activities compared to milk thistle extract.

  12. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Hepatitis C Viral Activities of Commercial Milk Thistle Food Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kevin; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Uprichard, Susan; Hammouda, Faiza; Saleh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the USA and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold silymarin, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities, and antiviral activity against HCV. Antioxidant activity was measured as radical scavenging activity using DPPH and by estimating their antioxidant capacity as trolox equivalent. Anti-HCV activity was measured in an HCV genotype 1b replication inhibition assay. Samples were found to vary widely in their silymarin content, with some samples having none or very low concentrations while silymarin represented higher than 80% of other samples. Both antioxidant and anti-HCV activity correlated with the overall level of silymarin. PMID:26787620

  14. Milk thistle and olive extract: old substances with a new mission against sun-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    DI Caprio, Roberta; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Gasparri, Franco; Micillo, Raffaella; Balato, Anna; Lembo, Serena

    2017-11-30

    Natural antioxidants represent an effective option in the prevention and/or improvement of ultraviolet radiations (UVR)-induced/aggravated skin conditions. UVR cause DNA damage in keratinocytes, directly, in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), or indirectly, through oxidative stress production. Failure of the repair system can result in genetic mutations primarily responsible for the initiation of NMSCs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro protective effect of milk thistle and olive purified extracts on cultured keratinocytes after solar simulator irradiations (SSR). Immortalized keratinocytes were pre-incubated with different concentrations of milk thistle and olive purified extracts, and irradiated with increasing doses of SSR. Thereafter, CPDs and p53 expression were evaluated to assess DNA damage, whereas cellular antioxidants consumption and lipid membranes peroxidation were measured to analyse oxidative stress. The study substances were well tolerated by cells and displayed good cytoprotective and anti-oxidant activities, being milk thistle dry extract more effective in limiting the direct DNA damage, and olive extract particularly able to reduce lipid membrane peroxidation and to increase cellular antioxidants. Both study substances can be defined as safe compounds, showing differential cytoprotective and anti-oxidant activities and might represent interesting options for NMSCs chemoprevention.

  15. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Chicory and Milk Thistle on Serum Concentrations of Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Tamoxifen-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Behrouj, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Some medications may change trace element levels in the body. Extracts of various plants, due to having the several elements, can have beneficial effects. Consumption of herbal extracts with chemical drugs may reduce adverse effects of medication. The goal of this study was to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in serum of rats treated with tamoxifen, chicory, and/or milk thistle extracts. Therefore, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: normal control, chicory control, milk thistle control, tamoxifen, tamoxifen-chicory, and tamoxifen-milk thistle. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected and sera isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cu, Zn, and Mn levels. The Zn concentration increased in milk thistle-supplemented groups. The Cu level increased in the chicory control group only. Tamoxifen had no affect on Cu, Zn, and Mn levels, but seed extract of milk thistle increased Zn concentration, and chicory root extract increased Cu concentration. Although elevated levels of Cu in rats receiving tamoxifen-chicory were milder than rats treated only with chicory, it seems that the extract and tamoxifen impact on the Cu are in conflict with each other.

  16. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: Comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A.; Williams, D. Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W. Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J.; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study’s purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics were unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo. PMID:16432272

  17. Seed release by invasive thistles: the impact of plant and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Jongejans, Eelke; Pedatella, Nicholas M; Shea, Katriona; Skarpaas, Olav; Auhl, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Dispersal is a key process in biological studies of spatial dynamics, but the initiation of dispersal has often been neglected, despite strong indications that differential timing of dispersal can significantly affect dispersal distances. To investigate which plant and environmental factors determine the release of plumed seeds by the invasive thistles Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans, we exposed 192 flower heads of each species to increasing wind speeds in a full-factorial wind tunnel experiment with four air flow turbulence, three flower head wetness and two flower head temperature levels. The number of seed releases was highest under dry and turbulent conditions and from heads that had already lost a considerable number of seeds, but was not affected by flower head size, head angle or temperature. Inspection of the trials on video showed that higher wind speeds were needed to meet the seed release threshold in laminar flows and for C. acanthoides heads that had been wet for a longer time. Species differences were minimal, although seed release was more sensitive to lower levels of turbulence in the larger-headed and more open C. nutans heads. Knowledge of seed release biases towards weather conditions favourable for long-distance dispersal improves our understanding of the spread of invaders and allows managers to increase the efficiency of their containment strategies by applying them at crucial times. PMID:17666379

  18. Combined effects of plant competition and insect herbivory hinder invasiveness of an introduced thistle.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Tomomi; Louda, Svata M

    2012-06-01

    The biotic resistance hypothesis is a dominant paradigm for why some introduced species fail to become invasive in novel environments. However, predictions of this hypothesis require further empirical field tests. Here, we focus on evaluating two biotic factors known to severely limit plants, interspecific competition and insect herbivory, as mechanisms of biotic resistance. We experimentally evaluated the independent and combined effects of three levels of competition by tallgrass prairie vegetation and two levels of herbivory by native insects on seedling regeneration, size, and subsequent flowering of the Eurasian Cirsium vulgare, a known invasive species elsewhere, and compared its responses to those of the ecologically similar and co-occurring native congener C. altissimum. Seedling emergence of C. vulgare was greater than that of C. altissimum, and that emergence was reduced by the highest level of interspecific competition. Insect leaf herbivory was also greater on C. vulgare than on C. altissimum at all levels of competition. Herbivory on seedlings dramatically decreased the proportion of C. vulgare producing flower heads at all competition levels, but especially at the high competition level. Competition and herbivory interacted to significantly decrease plant survival and biomass, especially for C. vulgare. Thus, both competition and herbivory limited regeneration of both thistles, but their effects on seedling emergence, survival, size and subsequent reproduction were greater for C. vulgare than for C. altissimum. These results help explain the unexpectedly low abundance recorded for C. vulgare in western tallgrass prairie, and also provide strong support for the biotic resistance hypothesis.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on topical administration of milk thistle extract.

    PubMed

    Spada, Gianpiera; Gavini, Elisabetta; Cossu, Massimo; Rassu, Giovanna; Carta, Antonio; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2013-01-30

    Two water in oil emulsions composed by eudermic ingredients as glycerin, cocoa butter, almond oil and a variety of lipids, were enriched respectively with milk thistle dry extract (MT) or with a binary complex composed by MT and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP) (1:4 w/w) correspondent to 1% (w/w) in sylimarine in order to obtain two different emulsions designed for the skin delivery and determine influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the extract delivery and permeation. Uv-vis spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that phytocomplex formation influences the finding of MT after the complexation process and the in vitro antioxidant activity. Further in vitro and ex vivo experiments demonstrated that the penetration capability of MT from formulations is strictly influenced by the phytocomplex able to control MT permeation; moreover phytocomplex increases flavonoids stability during the in vitro tests. Additionally, in vivo studies showed that the penetration into the stratum corneum of the active ingredients is effectively achieved by the phytocomplex formation, in fact about 80% of MT is absorbed by the skin along 1h despite the 30% of MT not complexed absorbed during the same period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Milk thistle: a future potential anti-osteoporotic and fracture healing agent.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fozi, Nur Farhana; Mazlan, Mazliadiyana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Isa Naina, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the skeleton characterised by bone fragility due to a reduction in bone mass and possibly to alteration in bone architecture that lead to a propensity to fracture with minimum trauma. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at locations rich in trabecular or cancellous bone and usually related to post menopausal women. Recently, silymarin received attention due to its alternative beneficial effect on bone formation. It is a mixture of flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties. This review focuses on the use of milk thistle or silymarin for the treatment of osteoporosis that may be related to fracture bone. Silymarin shows potent antioxidant herb that may modulate multiple genes in favour of helping to build bone and prevent bone loss. In the mouse fracture healing model, silymarin supplementation improved tibial healing with elevated BMD and serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin. Silymarin also demonstrated clear estrogenic antiosteoporotic effects in bone structure. Silymarin appears to play a crucial role to prevent bone loss and might regulate osteogenesis and may be beneficial for fracture healing. If silymarin is considered for the use of post menopausal women, it may be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. It would be of great benefit to postmenopausal women to develop an oestrogen antagonist that is as potent and efficacious as oestrogen in preventing bone loss without the major side effect associated with HRT.

  1. Antiosteoclastic activity of milk thistle extract after ovariectomy to suppress estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Lye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  2. Antiosteoclastic Activity of Milk Thistle Extract after Ovariectomy to Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Lye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. PMID:23781510

  3. Impact of thistle rennet from Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia on bacterial diversity and dynamics of a specialty Italian raw ewes' milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Polverigiani, Serena; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Mozzon, Massimo; Foligni, Roberta; Franciosi, Elena; Tuohy, Kieran; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-08-16

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is an Italian specialty soft cheese manufactured with Sopravissana raw ewes' milk and thistle rennet prepared with young fresh leaves and stems of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia, according to an ancient tradition deeply rooted in the territory of origin (mountainous hinterland of the Marche region, Central Italy). In this study, the impact of thistle rennet on the bacterial dynamics and diversity of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese was investigated by applying a polyphasic approach based on culture and DNA-based techniques (Illumina sequencing and PCR-DGGE). A control cheese manufactured with the same batch of ewes' raw milk and commercial animal rennet was analyzed in parallel. Overall, a large number of bacterial taxa were identified, including spoilage, environmental and pro-technological bacteria, primarily ascribed to Lactobacillales. Thistle rennet was observed clearly to affect the early bacterial dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese with Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum/pentosus being detected in the phyllosphere of C. acanthifolia All., thistle rennet and curd obtained with thistle rennet. Other bacterial taxa, hypothetically originating from the vegetable coagulant (Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides/pseudomesenteroides), were exclusively found in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese by PCR-DGGE. At the end of the maturation period, Illumina sequencing demonstrated that both cheeses were dominated by Lactobacillales; however curd and cheese produced with thistle rennet were co-dominated by Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc, whereas Lactoccous prevailed in curd and cheese produced with commercial animal rennet followed by Lactobacillus. Differences in the bacterial composition between the two cheeses at the end of their maturation period were confirmed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  4. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application. PMID:25290524

  5. Effect of milk thistle on the pharmacokinetics of darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement milk thistle (silymarin) to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor combination darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. Silymarin (150 mg every 8 h) was added to the antiretroviral treatment from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on day 0 and darunavir-ritonavir plus silymarin on day 14. Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 48 years (interquartile range, 44 to 50 years), and the median body weight was 70 kg (interquartile range, 65 to 84 kg). Silymarin was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMRs for darunavir coadministered with silymarin relative to darunavir alone were 0.86 (90% CI, 0.70 to 1.05) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, 0.83 (90% CI, 0.80 to 0.98) for the maximum concentration, and 0.94 (90% CI, 0.73 to 1.19) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In summary, coadministration of silymarin with darunavir-ritonavir seems to be safe in HIV-infected patients; no dose adjustment for darunavir-ritonavir seems to be necessary.

  6. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Graf, Tyler N; Paguigan, Noemi D; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-11-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-D-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-D-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society

  7. Milk thistle extract and silymarin inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced lamellar separation of hoof explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2014-10-06

    The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT) and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control), MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application.

  8. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Graf, Tyler N.; Paguigan, Noemi D.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-d-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-d-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. PMID:26316643

  9. A study on pyrolysis of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) with titania based catalysts for bio-fuel production.

    PubMed

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2016-11-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Cirsium arvense was performed with titania supported catalysts under the operating conditions of 500°C, 40°C/min heating rate, 100mL/min N2 flow rate in a fixed bed reactor for biofuel production. The effect of catalysts on product yields was investigated. The amount of pyrolysis products (bio-char, bio-oil, gas) and the composition of the produced bio-oils were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and elemental analysis (EA) techniques. Thistle bio-oils had lower O/C and H/C molar ratios compared to feedstock. The highest bio-char and bio-oil yields of 29.32wt% and 36.71wt% were obtained in the presence of Ce/TiO2 and Ni/TiO2 catalysts respectively. GC-MS identified 97 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained from thistle pyrolysis. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the bio-oils contained ∼55-77% aliphatic and ∼6-19% aromatic structural units. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities.

  11. Best linear unbiased prediction of host range of the facultative parasite Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a potential biological control agent of Russian thistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) is an introduced invasive weed in N. America. It is widely distributed in the U.S. and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative parasitic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. f. sp. salsolae is a po...

  12. Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a classical biological control agent of several invasive alien thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. Trichosirocalus horridus was recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based ...

  13. Changes in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) shoot density following inoculation with Puccinia punctiformis and induction of symptomatic and asymptomatic systemic disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense, CT) is one of the worst weeds in temperate areas of the world. The rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis was first proposed as a biological control agent for CT in 1893. The rust causes systemic disease which ultimately kills CT plants. In 2013, it was demonstrated in fo...

  14. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model.

    PubMed

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; Fanimakki, Omid

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks.

  15. Silymarin and milk thistle extract may prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vessal, Ghazal; Akmali, Masoumeh; Najafi, Parisa; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effect of silymarin and milk thistle extract on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg/d) or the extract (1.2 g/kg/d) was gavaged for 4 weeks. Blood glucose (BS), serum urea (S(u)), serum creatinine (S(cr)), and 24-h urine protein (Up) were measured and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the renal tissue. Data were expressed as mean +/- SEM. Silymarin or the extract had no significant effect on BS, S(cr), and GFR. Both milk thistle extract and silymarin, respectively, decreased S(u) (mg/dL) (87.1 +/- 7.78, p < 0.001; 84.5 +/- 7.15, p < 0.001), Up (mg) (5.22 +/- 1.56, p = 0.014; 5.67 +/- 0.86, p = 0.034), and tissue TBARS (nmol/mg protein) (0.67 +/- 0.04, p < 0.001; 0.63 +/- 0.07, p < 0.001) in diabetic rats, compared to diabetic control (DC) (S(u): 131.0 +/- 4.55, Up: 8.3 +/- 0.84, TBARS: 0.94 +/- 0.06). Both the extract and silymarin could increase the activity of CAT (IU/mg protein) (25.5 +/- 4.0, p = 0.005; 20 +/- 1.8, p = 0.16) and GPx (IU/mg protein) (0.86 +/- 0.05, p = 0.005; 0.74 +/- 0.04, p = 0.10), respectively, in diabetic rats compared to DC (CAT = 14.4 +/- 2.0, GPx = 0.57 +/- 0.02). Milk thistle extract, to a lesser extent silymarin, can attenuate DN in rats possibly by increasing kidney CAT and GPx activity and decreasing lipid peroxidation in renal tissue.

  16. Inhibition by blueberries (bilberries) and extract from milk thistle of rat forestomach hyperplasia induced by oral smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Robert; Mićić, Mileva; Filipović, Jelena; Šobot, Ana Valenta; Drakulić, Dunja; Stanojlović, Miloš; Joksiċ, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify palatable additives which have a significant protective action against soft tissue changes in the oral cavity caused by Swedish smokeless tobacco ("snus"), and that satisfy existing legal requirements. Although the cancer risk from snus is extremely low, long term use may result in highly undesirable keratotic lesions and associated epithelial abnormalities in the oral cavity. The rat forestomach, which is vulnerable to the irritative action of non-genotoxic compounds like butylated hydroxyanisole, propionic acid as well as snus, was chosen as an experimental model. Studied toxicological endpoints included histopathology and cellular proliferation based on DNA incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. After 6 weeks' exposure, blueberries (bilberries) and an extract from the common milk thistle were found to exert a highly significant inhibition of cell proliferation induced by snus in the rat forestomach epithelium, indicating a potential protection with respect soft tissue changes in the human oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiopreventive efficacy of pure flavonolignans from milk thistle extract against prostate cancer: targeting VEGF-VEGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Gangar, Subhash Chander; Rajamanickam, Subapriya; Raina, Komal; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The role of neo-angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PCA) growth and metastasis is well established, but the development of effective and non-toxic pharmacological inhibitors of angiogenesis remains an unaccomplished goal. In this regard, targeting aberrant angiogenesis through non-toxic phytochemicals could be an attractive angiopreventive strategy against PCA. The rationale of the present study was to compare the anti-angiogenic potential of four pure diastereoisomeric flavonolignans, namely silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, which we established previously as biologically active constituents in Milk Thistle extract. Results showed that oral feeding of these flavonolignans (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) effectively inhibit the growth of advanced human PCA DU145 xenografts. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that these flavonolignans inhibit tumor angiogenesis biomarkers (CD31 and nestin) and signaling molecules regulating angiogenesis (VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, phospho-Akt and HIF-1α) without adversely affecting the vessel-count in normal tissues (liver, lung, and kidney) of tumor bearing mice. These flavonolignans also inhibited the microvessel sprouting from mouse dorsal aortas ex vivo, and the VEGF-induced cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation and invasiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Further studies in HUVEC showed that these diastereoisomers target cell cycle, apoptosis and VEGF-induced signaling cascade. Three dimensional growth assay as well as co-culture invasion and in vitro angiogenesis studies (with HUVEC and DU145 cells) suggested the differential effectiveness of the diastereoisomers toward PCA and endothelial cells. Overall, these studies elucidated the comparative anti-angiogenic efficacy of pure flavonolignans from Milk Thistle and suggest their usefulness in PCA angioprevention.

  18. In vitro inhibitory effects of major bioactive constituents of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Silybum marianum on human liver microsomal morphine glucuronidation: A prediction of potential herb-drug interactions arising from andrographolide, curcumin and silybin inhibition in humans.

    PubMed

    Uchaipichat, Verawan

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the liver microsomal inhibitory effects of silybin, silychristin, andrographolide, and curcumin by using morphine as an in vitro UGT2B7 probe substrate, and predict the magnitude of the herb-drug interaction arising from these herbal constituents' inhibition in vivo. Studies were performed in the incubation with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA). Andrographolide and curcumin showed a marked inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation with IC 50 of 50&87 and 96&111 μM, respectively. In the presence of 2%BSA, andrographolide also showed a strong inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation (IC 50 4.4&21.6 μM) whereas curcumin showed moderate inhibition (IC 50 338&333 μM). In the absence and presence of 2%BSA, morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation was moderately inhibited by silybin (IC 50 583&862 and 1252&1421 μM, respectively), however was weakly inhibited by silychristin (IC 50 3527&3504 and 1124&1530 μM, respectively). The K i of andrographolide, curcumin and silybin on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation were 7.1&9.5, 72.7&65.2, and 224.5&159.7 μM, respectively, while the respective values generated from the system containing 2%BSA were 2.4&3.1, 96.4&108.8, and 366.3&394.5 μM. Using the in vitro and in vivo extrapolation approach, andrographolide was herbal component that may have had a potential interaction in vivo when it was co-administered with morphine. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Properties of Fructan:Fructan 1-Fructosyltransferases from Chicory and Globe Thistle, Two Asteracean Plants Storing Greatly Different Types of Inulin1

    PubMed Central

    Vergauwen, Rudy; Van Laere, André; Van den Ende, Wim

    2003-01-01

    Remarkably, within the Asteraceae, a species-specific fructan pattern can be observed. Some species such as artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and globe thistle (Echinops ritro) store fructans with a considerably higher degree of polymerization than the one observed in chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) is the enzyme responsible for chain elongation of inulin-type fructans. 1-FFTs were purified from chicory and globe thistle. A comparison revealed that chicory 1-FFT has a high affinity for sucrose (Suc), fructose (Fru), and 1-kestose as acceptor substrate. This makes redistribution of Fru moieties from large to small fructans very likely during the period of active fructan synthesis in the root when import and concentration of Suc can be expected to be high. In globe thistle, this problem is avoided by the very low affinity of 1-FFT for Suc, Fru, and 1-kestose and the higher affinity for inulin as acceptor substrate. Therefore, the 1-kestose formed by Suc:Suc 1-fructosyltransferase is preferentially used for elongation of inulin molecules, explaining why inulins with a much higher degree of polymerization accumulate in roots of globe thistle. Inulin patterns obtained in vitro from 1-kestose and the purified 1-FFTs from both species closely resemble the in vivo inulin patterns. Therefore, we conclude that the species-specific fructan pattern within the Asteraceae can be explained by the different characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Although 1-FFT and bacterial levansucrases clearly differ in their ability to use Suc as a donor substrate, a kinetic analysis suggests that 1-FFT also works via a ping-pong mechanism. PMID:12970504

  20. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  1. Effects of milk thistle meal on performance, ileal bacterial enumeration, jejunal morphology and blood lipid peroxidation in laying hens fed diets with different levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Jabali, N S; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sedghi, M; Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of milk thistle meal on performance, blood biochemical indices, ileal bacterial counts and intestinal histology in laying hens fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy. A total number of 200 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly assigned to eight experimental treatments with five cage replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of four levels of milk thistle meal (0%, 15%, 30% and 60%) and two levels of AME n (11.09 and 12.34 MJ/kg) fed over a period of 80 days. In vitro studies revealed that the total phenolic component of milk thistle meal was 470.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the sample, and its antioxidant activity for inhibiting the 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrichydrazyl free radical and reducing ferric ions was about 21% higher than that of butylated hydroxyltoluene (p < .05). Diets containing high level of AME n led to improved egg production (p < .05), egg weight (p < .05), egg mass (p < .01) and feed conversion ratio (p < .01). In addition, offering diets containing high energy significantly enhanced (p < .01) serum triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as jejunal villus height. Dietary supplementation of 3% milk thistle meal resulted in the best feed conversion ratio (p < .05), reduction of ileal Escherichia coli enumeration (p < .01) and an enhancement in the villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < .05). Furthermore, feeding incremental levels of this meal led to remarkable decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA (p < .01) concentrations while significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein content and goblet cell numbers (p < .05). The present findings indicate that milk thistle meal with high antioxidant and antibacterial properties in laying hen diets may improve health indices and productive performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological variability in Golden Thistle functional parts: comparative study of roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Marmouzi, Ilias; El Karbane, Miloud; El Hamdani, Maha; Kharbach, Mourad; Naceiri Mrabti, Hanae; Alami, Rachid; Dahraoui, Souhail; El Jemli, Meryem; Ouzzif, Zhor; Cherrah, Yahia; Derraji, Soufiane; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2017-11-01

    Scolymus hispanicus or the Golden Thistle, locally known as 'Guernina' or 'Taghediwt', is one of the most appreciated wild vegetables in Morocco. This study aims to characterise the functional chemical and pharmacological variability of Scolymus hispanicus parts (roots, stems, leaves and flowers). The chemical analysis revealed higher content of α-tocopherol in the flowers (2.79 ± 0.07 mg/100 g) and lead to the identification of 3 flavonoids and 13 phenolic acids, with high content of gallic acid in leaves (187.01 ± 10.19 mg/kg); chlorogenic (936.18 ± 92.66 mg/kg) and caffeic (4400.14 ± 191.43 mg/kg) acids in flowers, roots were much more higher in sinapic acid (0.25 ± 0.03 mg/kg) compared to the other parts. Moreover, Scolymus hispanicus ethanolic extracts exhibited interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, promising anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities and relevant diuretic effect that confirms its traditional uses.

  3. Milk thistle seed extract protects rat C6 astroglial cells from acute cocaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Badisa, Ramesh B; Fitch-Pye, Cheryl A; Agharahimi, Maryam; Palm, Donald E; Latinwo, Lekan M; Goodman, Carl B

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine is a powerful addictive drug, widely abused in most Western countries. It easily reaches various domains within and outside of the central nervous system (CNS), and triggers varying levels of cellular toxicity. No pharmacological treatment is available to alleviate cocaine-induced toxicity in the cells without side-effects. Here, we discerned the role of milk thistle (MT) seed extract against cocaine toxicity. First, we investigated acute cytotoxicity induced by treatment with 2, 3 and 4 mM cocaine for 1 h in astroglial, liver and kidney cells in vitro, and then in living shrimp larvae in vivo. We showed that astroglial cells are more sensitive to cocaine than liver, kidney cells or larvae. Cocaine exposure disrupted the general architecture of astroglial cells, induced vacuolation, decreased cell viability, and depleted the glutathione (GSH) level. These changes may represent the underlying pathology of cocaine in the astrocytes. By contrast, MT pretreatment (200 µg/ml) for 30 min sustained the cell morphological features and increased both cell viability and the GSH level. Besides its protective effects, the MT extract was revealed to be non-toxic to astroglial cells, and displayed high free-radical scavenging activity. The results from this study suggest that enhanced GSH level underlies cell protection, and indicate that compounds that promote GSH synthesis in the cells may be beneficial against cocaine toxicity.

  4. Semen quality, antioxidant status and reproductive performance of rabbits bucks fed milk thistle seeds and rosemary leaves.

    PubMed

    Attia, Youssef A; Hamed, Rawia S; Bovera, Fulvia; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Shahba, Hossam A

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of milk thistle seeds (MTS) and rosemary leaves (RL) both at 5 and 10g/kg diet on reproductive performance, semen quality and blood metabolites of rabbit bucks. A total of 35 rabbit bucks were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (7 bucks/group). All the groups were fed the same basal diet. The 1st group (control) did not have MTS and RL in its basal diet. The 2nd and 3rd groups were supplemented with MTS at 5 and 10g/kg, respectively. The 4th and 5th groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with RL at 5 and 10g/kg, respectively. The sperm concentration (SC), total sperm output (TSO), live sperm (LS), total live sperm (TLS) and total motile sperm (TMS) were significantly greater in the bucks fed MTS at 10 and RL at 5g/kg diet than the control group. Bucks fed MTS at 10g/kg diet had higher fertility than the control. Also, RL 5g/kg group showed higher testosterone and fertility than the control, but the MTS 10g/kg group showed the highest value for both parameters. In conclusion, MTS and RL at 10 and 5g/kg, respectively, significantly improved the semen quality and the fertility and MTS also increased the economic efficiency of rabbit bucks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potent inhibitory effect of silibinin from milk thistle on skin inflammation stimuli by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenfeng; Li, Yonglian; Zheng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Du, Zhiyun

    2015-12-01

    Silibinin, a major polyphenol in milk thistle, has been reported to have multiple pharmacological activities; therefore, there is an urgent need to well understand how silibinin works on inflammation-associated skin diseases. We herein designed silibinin on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated skin inflammation to test its inhibitory effects. It was demonstrated that silibinin, applied topically onto mouse ears following TPA stimulation, effectively down-regulated the expressions of TPA-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner. Further mechanistic investigations indicated that silibinin suppressed the expression of IκB kinase (IKK) by inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, and thereby suppressing TPA-stimulated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Promisingly, silibinin, used for transdermal application, may be a potent naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention of inflammation-associated skin diseases.

  6. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Silychristin, a Flavonolignan Derived From the Milk Thistle, Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jörg; Jayarama-Naidu, Roopa; Meyer, Franziska; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Schweizer, Ulrich; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Renko, Kostja

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are charged and iodinated amino acid derivatives that need to pass the cell membrane facilitated by thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT) to exert their biological function. The importance of functional THTT is affirmed by the devastating effects of mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, leading to a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Modulation of THTT function by pharmacological or environmental compounds might disturb TH action on a tissue-specific level. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds with relevant environmental exposure and THTT-modulating activity. Based on a nonradioactive TH uptake assay, we performed a screening of 13 chemicals, suspicious for TH receptor interaction, to test their potential effects on THTT in MCT8-overexpressing MDCK1-cells. We identified silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle, to be a potent inhibitor of T3 uptake by MCT8. Because silymarin is a complex mixture of flavonolignan substances, we further tested its individual components and identified silychristin as the most effective one with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. The measured IC50 value is at least 1 order of magnitude below those of other known THTT inhibitors. This finding was confirmed by T3 uptake in primary murine astrocytes expressing endogenous Mct8 but not in MCT10-overexpressing MDCK1-cells, indicating a remarkable specificity of the inhibitor toward MCT8. Because silymarin is a frequently used adjuvant therapeutic for hepatitis C infection and chronic liver disease, our observations raise questions regarding its safety with respect to unwanted effects on the TH axis.

  8. Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, R; Ramachandran, V; Komoroski, B J; Zhang, S; Schiff, P L; Strom, S C

    2000-11-01

    Milk thistle extract is one of the most commonly used nontraditional therapies, particularly in Germany. Milk thistle is known to contain a number of flavonolignans. We evaluated the effect of silymarin, on the activity of various hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. Treatment with silymarin (0.1 and 0.25 mM) significantly reduced the activity of CYP3A4 enzyme (by 50 and 100%, respectively) as determined by the formation of 6-beta-hydroxy testosterone and the activity of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A6/9) (by 65 and 100%, respectively) as measured by the formation of 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide. Silymarin (0.5 mM) also significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration as determined by MTT reduction in human hepatocytes. These observations point to the potential of silymarin to impair hepatic metabolism of certain coadministered drugs in humans. Indiscriminate use of herbal products may lead to altered pharmacokinetics of certain drugs and may result in increased toxicity of certain drugs.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. In vitro effects on biofilm viability and antibacterial and antiadherent activities of silymarin.

    PubMed

    Evren, Ebru; Yurtcu, Erkan

    2015-07-01

    Limited treatment options in infectious diseases caused by resistant microorganisms created the need to search new approaches. Several herbal extracts are studied for their enormous therapeutic potential. Silymarin extract, from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), is an old and a new remedy for this goal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial and antiadherent effects of silymarin besides biofilm viability activity on standard bacterial strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), antiadherent/antibiofilm activity, and effects on biofilm viability of silymarin were evaluated against standard bacterial strains. MIC values were observed between 60 and >241 μg/mL (0.25->1 mmol/L). Gram-positive bacteria were inhibited at concentrations between 60 and 120 μg/mL. Gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited by the silymarin concentrations included in this study. MBC values for Gram-positive bacteria were greater than 241 μg/mL. Adherence/biofilm formations were decreased to 15 μg/mL silymarin concentration when compared with silymarin-untreated group. Silymarin reduced the biofilm viabilities to 13 and 46 % at 1 and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations, respectively. We demonstrated that silymarin shows antibacterial and antiadherent/antibiofilm activity against certain standard bacterial strains which may be beneficial when used as a dietary supplement or a drug.

  11. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Erica S; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard P; Zink, Erika M; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Waters, Katrina M; Metz, Thomas O; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Polyak, Stephen J

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin, a characterized extract of the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), suppresses cellular inflammation. To define how this occurs, transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies were performed in human liver and T cell lines. Cellular stress and metabolic pathways were modulated within 4 h of silymarin treatment: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed silymarin suppression of glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism. Anti-inflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e., 24 h) silymarin exposure, with suppression of multiple pro-inflammatory mRNAs and signaling pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO). Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that silymarin inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, whereas silymarin inhibition of mTOR required DDIT4. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Thus, natural products activate stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory cellular phenotype. Natural products like silymarin may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  12. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, a characterized extract of the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), suppresses cellular inflammation. To define how this occurs, transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies were performed in human liver and T cell lines. Cellular stress and metabolic pathways were modulated within 4 h of silymarin treatment: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed silymarin suppression of glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism. Anti-inflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 h) silymarin exposure, with suppression of multiple pro-inflammatory mRNAs and signaling pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO). Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that silymarin inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while silymarin inhibition of mTOR required DDIT4. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Thus, natural products activate stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory cellular phenotype. Natural products like silymarin may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation. PMID:26186142

  13. Silymarin Ascending Multiple Oral Dosing Phase I Study in Noncirrhotic Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Roy L.; Schrieber, Sarah J.; Soule, Tedi A.; Wen, Zhiming; Smith, Philip C.; Reddy, K. Rajender; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Navarro, Victor J.; Berman, Josh; Liu, Qi-Ying; Doo, Edward; Fried, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum, is widely used for self-treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), and its antiviral activity has been demonstrated in vitro and in HCV patients administered an intravenous formulation of the major silymarin flavonolignans, silybin A and silybin B. The safety and dose-exposure relationships of higher than customary oral doses of silymarin and its acute effects on serum HCV RNA were evaluated in noncirrhotic HCV patients. Four cohorts of 8 patients with well-compensated, chronic noncirrhotic HCV who failed interferon-based therapy were randomized 3:1 to silymarin or placebo. Oral doses of 140, 280, 560, or 700 mg silymarin were administered every 8 hours for 7 days. Steady-state exposures for silybin A and silybin B increased 11-fold and 38-fold, respectively, with a 5-fold increase in dose, suggesting nonlinear pharmacokinetics. No drug-related adverse events were reported, and no clinically meaningful reductions from baseline serum transaminases or HCV RNA titer were observed. Oral doses of silymarin up to 2.1 g per day were safe and well tolerated. The nonlinear pharmacokinetics of silybin A and silybin B suggests low bioavailability associated with customary doses of silymarin may be overcome with doses above 700 mg. PMID:19841158

  14. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Silymarin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant, is used for the protection against various liver conditions in both clinical settings and experimental models. In this review, we summarize the recent investigations and mechanistic studies regarding possible molecular targets of silymarin for cancer prevention. Number of studies has established the cancer chemopreventive role of silymarin in both in vivo and in vitro models. Silymarin modulates imbalance between cell survival and apoptosis through interference with the expressions of cell cycle regulators and proteins involved in apoptosis. In addition, silymarin also showed anti-inflammatory as well as anti-metastatic activity. Further, the protective effects of silymarin and its major active constituent, silibinin, studied in various tissues, suggest a clinical application in cancer patients as an adjunct to estabilished therapies, to prevent or reduce chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy-induced toxicity. This review focuses on the chemistry and analogues of silymarin, multiple possible molecular mechanisms, in vitro as well as in vivo anticancer activities, and studies on human clinical trials. PMID:18472213

  15. Silymarin and its constituents in cardiac preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Zholobenko, A; Modriansky, M

    2014-09-01

    Silymarin, a standardised extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle), comprises mainly of silybin, with dehydrosilybin (DHSB), quercetin, taxifolin, silychristin and a number of other compounds which are known to possess a range of salutary effects. Indeed, there is evidence for their role in reducing tumour growth, preventing liver toxicity, and protecting a number of organs against ischemic damage. The hepatoprotective effects of silymarin, especially in preventing Amanita and alcohol intoxication induced damage to the liver, are a well established fact. Likewise, there is weighty evidence that silymarin possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Additionally, it has emerged that in animal models, silymarin can protect the heart, brain, liver and kidneys against ischemia reperfusion injury, probably by preconditioning. The mechanisms of preconditioning are, in general, well studied, especially in the heart. On the other hand, the mechanism by which silymarin protects the heart from ischemia remains largely unexplored. This review, therefore, focuses on evaluating existing studies on silymarin induced cardioprotection in the context of the established mechanisms of preconditioning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Silymarin/Silybin and Chronic Liver Disease: A Marriage of Many Years.

    PubMed

    Federico, Alessandro; Dallio, Marcello; Loguercio, Carmelina

    2017-01-24

    Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum , or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation. It also has a direct antiviral effect associated with its intravenous administration in hepatitis C virus infection. With respect to alcohol abuse, silymarin is able to increase cellular vitality and to reduce both lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis. Furthermore, silymarin/silybin use has important biological effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These substances antagonize the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by intervening in various therapeutic targets: oxidative stress, insulin resistance, liver fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Silymarin is also used in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma that represent common end stages of different hepatopathies by modulating different molecular patterns. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Adolescent silymarin treatment increases anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Rabiei, Afshin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is one of the most important periods of brain development in mammals. There is increasing evidence that some medicines during this period can affect brain and behavioral functions in adulthood. Silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, is known as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective drug. Although researchers have extensively studied the effects of SM during adulthood, to date there is no information on the effects of this drug during the stages of brain development on behavioral functions in adulthood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of adolescent SM treatment on body weight and anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice. Adolescent NMRI mice (postnatal day 30-50) were treated orally with water or SM (50 and 100 mg/kg). Animals were weighed during drug treatment and were then subjected to open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box tests from postnatal day 70. The results indicated that adolescent SM treatment increased anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box in adult mice, while not altering body weight. Collectively, these findings suggest that adolescent SM treatment may have profound effects on the development of brain and behavior in adulthood.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  19. Targeting STAT3 with silibinin to improve cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Queralt, Bernardo; Menendez, Javier A

    2017-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has a prominent role in mediating resistance to conventional chemo-/radio-therapies and modern targeted drugs. While a number of STAT3 inhibitors have been shown to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic agents in vitro, the majority of them have yet to enter clinical evaluation mostly because of lack of efficacy issues. Silibinin is the main component of the silymarin complex, a standardized extract obtained from the seeds of the milk thistle herb Silybum marianum. This review summarizes current evidence supporting the ability of silibinin to function as a natural down-modulator of STAT3 activity. We examine the reported capacity of silibinin to reduce the toxicity of cancer treatments and to reverse tumor cell resistance via STAT3 inhibition. We also briefly review our clinical data in cancer patients treated with oral nutraceutical products containing silibinin. The beneficial effects of silibinin might accelerate the design of strategies aimed to overcome and prevent the emergence of STAT3-mediated cancer drug resistance in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Role of Silibinin as a Putative Epigenetic Modulator in Human Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Anestopoulos, Ioannis; Sfakianos, Aristeidis P; Franco, Rodrigo; Chlichlia, Katerina; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Kroll, David J; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-12-31

    Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle ( Silybum marianum L.), has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin's pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12), and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED) in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that silibinin-mediated reduction of EZH2 levels was accompanied by an increase in trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine (Κ)-27 residue (H3K27me3) levels and that such response was, in part, dependent on decreased expression levels of phosphorylated Akt (ser473) (pAkt) and phosphorylated EZH2 (ser21) (pEZH2). Additionally silibinin exerted other epigenetic effects involving an increase in total DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity while it decreased histone deacetylases 1-2 (HDACs1-2) expression levels. We conclude that silibinin induces epigenetic alterations in human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that subsequent disruptions of central processes in chromatin conformation may account for some of its diverse anticancer effects.

  1. Silibinin and STAT3: A natural way of targeting transcription factors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-06-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many different types of cancer and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. Retrospective studies have established that STAT3 expression or phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3 or activated STAT3) are poor prognostic markers for breast, colon, prostate and non-small cell lung cancer. Silibinin or silybin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid which is present in seed extracts of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silibinin has been shown to inhibit multiple cancer cell signaling pathways in preclinical models, demonstrating promising anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes evidence suggesting that silibinin can inhibit pSTAT3 in preclinical cancer models. We also discuss current strategies to overcome the limitations of oral administration of silibinin to cancer patients to translate the bench results to the bed side. Finally, we review the ongoing clinical trials exploring the role of silibinin in cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silibinin ameliorates anxiety/depression-like behaviors in amyloid β-treated rats by upregulating BDNF/TrkB pathway and attenuating autophagy in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyu; Liu, Bo; Cui, Lingyu; Zhou, Biao; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Fanxing; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Hattori, Shunji; Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of developing AD. Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used as a hepato-protectant in the clinical treatment of liver diseases. In this study, the effect of silibinin on Aβ-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors in rats was investigated. Silibinin significantly attenuated anxiety/depression-like behaviors caused by Aβ1-42-treatment as shown in tail suspension test (TST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST). Moreover, silibinin was able to attenuate the neuronal damage in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-injected rats. Silibinin-treatment up-regulated the function through BDNF/TrkB pathway and attenuated autophagy in the hippocampus. Our study provides a new insight into the protective effects of silibinin in the treatment of anxiety/depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulatory effects of silibinin in various cell signaling pathways against liver disorders and cancer - A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Polachi, Navaneethakrishnan; Bai, Guirong; Li, Tingyang; Chu, Yang; Wang, Xiangyang; Li, Shuming; Gu, Ning; Wu, Jiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-11-10

    Silibinin, a natural flavanone, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), was illustrated for several medicinal uses such as liver-protective, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and many other. However, silibinin has poor absorbance and bioavailability due to low water solubility, thereby limiting its clinical applications and therapeutic efficiency. To overcome this problem, the combination of silibinin with phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a formulation was used to enhance the solubility and bioavailability. The results indicated that silibinin-PC taken orally markedly enhanced bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency. In addition, a deeper understanding of the signaling pathways modulated by silibinin is important to realize its potential in developing targeted therapies against liver disorders and cancer. Silibinin has been shown to inhibit many cell signaling pathways in preclinical models, demonstrating promising effects against liver disorders and cancer through in vitro and in vivo studies. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic properties, bioavailability, safety data, clinical activities and modulatory effects of silibinin in different cell signaling pathways against liver disorders and cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective Effect of Silibinin on Learning and Memory Impairment in LPS-Treated Rats via ROS-BDNF-TrkB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Biao; Zhang, Pingping; Lei, Di; Wang, Yubin; Yao, Guodong; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Xia, Mingyu; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used as a hepato-protectant in the clinical treatment of liver disease. In the present study, the effect of silibinin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory impairment in rats is investigated. Injection of LPS into lateral ventricle caused learning and memory impairment. Rats were treated with silibinin to see the effect in comparison with resveratrol as a positive control. Y-maze and Morris water maze tests showed that silibinin significantly attenuated memory damage caused by LPS treatment. At the molecular analysis, the levels of IL-1β and of IL-4 in the hippocampus were decreased and enhanced, respectively, by the treatment with silibinin. NF-κB expression was attenuated by silibinin treatment. Furthermore, generation of total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hippocampus was elevated in silibinin-treated groups, and so were the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). At the same time, LPS-induced reduction of neurons in hippocampus was reversed by silibinin. In conclusion, silibinin ameliorated the impairment of learning and memory of LPS-injection rats, possibly due to the activation of ROS-BDNF-TrkB pathway in the hippocampus as well as the suppression of inflammatory response. This study gives an insight on the beneficial consequences of ROS in central nervous system. Silibinin might be a potential candidate drug for neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The Binding of Silibinin, the Main Constituent of Silymarin, to Site I on Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Sato, Hiroki; Minagoshi, Saori; Kyubun, Karin; Anraku, Makoto; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Seo, Hakaru; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Silibinin is the main constituent of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Because silibinin has many pharmacological activities, extending its clinical use in the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. In this study, we report on the binding of silibinin to plasma proteins, an issue that has not previously been extensively studied. The findings indicated that silibinin mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA). Mutual displacement experiments using ligands that primarily bind to sites I and II clearly revealed that silibinin binds tightly and selectively to site I (subsites Ia and/or Ic) of HSA, which is located in subdomain IIA. Thermodynamic analyses suggested that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions are major contributors to silibinin-HSA interactions. Furthermore, the binding of silibinin to HSA was found to be decreased with increasing ionic strength and detergent concentration of the media, suggesting that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the binding. Trp214 and Arg218 were identified as being involved in the binding of silibinin to site I, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSAs. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that silibinin binds to the region close to Trp214 and Arg218 in site I of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and can displace site I drugs (e.g., warfarin or iodipamide), but not site II drugs (e.g., ibuprofen).

  6. Silibinin triggers yeast apoptosis related to mitochondrial Ca2+ influx in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae Gyu; Lee, Dong Gun

    2016-11-01

    Candida albicans is a common yeast that resides in the human body, but can occasionally cause systemic fungal infection, namely candidiasis. As this infection rate is gradually increasing, it is becoming a major problem to public health. Accordingly, we for the first time investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of silibinin, a natural product extracted from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), against C. albicans. On treatment with 100μM silibinin, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria, which can cause yeast apoptosis via oxidative stress, was increased by 24.17% compared to that in untreated cells. Subsequently, we found disturbances in ion homeostasis such as release of intracellular K + and accumulation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca 2+ . Among these phenomena, mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload particularly plays a crucial role in the process of apoptosis, promoting the activation of pro-apoptotic factors. Therefore, we investigated the significance of mitochondrial Ca 2+ in apoptosis by employing 20mM ruthenium red (RR). Additional apoptosis hallmarks such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and DNA damage were observed in response to silibinin treatment, whereas RR pre-treatment seemed to block these responses. In summary, our results suggest that silibinin induces yeast apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial Ca 2+ signaling in C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic effects of silibinin on LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting NLRP3 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin; Li, Weimin; Wang, Tan

    2017-07-01

    Silibinin, a natural product extracted from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of silibinin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI). Male BALB/c mice were conditioned with silibinin 1 h after intranasal instillation of LPS. After 12 h, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in lung tissues, the wet/dry (W/D) ratio, inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and histopathological examination of lung were detected. Our results showed that silibinin inhibited LPS-induced histopathological changes and MPO activity, as well as the wet/dry (W/D) ratio in the lung tissues. Furthermore, silibinin significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production in the BALF. In addition, silibinin suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. These results indicate that silibinin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  9. Silibinin Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Differentiation in Functional Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Ignazio; Vanella, Luca; Cambria, Maria T.; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Guarnaccia, Laura; Zappalà, Agata; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a natural plant flavonolignan is the main active constituent found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum). It is known to have hepatoprotective, anti-neoplastic effect, and suppresses lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silibinin on adipogenic differentiation and thermogenic capacity of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Silibinin (10 μM) treatment, either at the beginning or at the end of adipogenic differentiation, resulted in an increase of SIRT-1, PPARα, Pgc-1α, and UCPs gene expression. Moreover, silibinin administration resulted in a decrease of PPARγ, FABP4, FAS, and MEST/PEG1 gene expression during the differentiation, confirming that this compound is able to reduce fatty acid accumulation and adipocyte size. Our data showed that silibinin regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism, inducing thermogenesis and promoting a brown remodeling in adipocyte. Taken together, our findings suggest that silibinin increases UCPs expression by stimulation of SIRT1, PPARα, and Pgc-1α, improved metabolic parameters, decreased lipid mass leading to the formation of functional adipocytes. PMID:26834634

  10. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of milk thistle extract (CAS No. 84604-20-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Milk thistle extracts have been used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Treatment claims also include lowering cholesterol levels; reducing insulin resistance; reducing the growth of cancer cells in breast, cervical, and prostate gland cancers; and antiviral activity. Other reported uses of milk thistle in folk medicine include as a treatment for malarial fever, bronchitis, gallstones, jaundice, peritonitis, uterine congestion, varicose veins, and as a milk production stimulant for nursing mothers. The roots soaked in water overnight are used in food, and the despined leaves are added to salads. Roasted milk thistle fruit has been used as a coffee substitute. Milk thistle extract was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences because it is one of the most widely used herbs in the United States. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to an ethanol/water extract of milk thistle fruit (milk thistle extract) containing approximately 65% silymarin in feed for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,125, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 260, 525, 1,050, 2,180, or 4,500 mg milk thistle extract/kilogram body weight to males and 260, 510, 1,050, 2,150, or 4,550 mg/kg to females) for 14 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of exposed groups were within 10% of those of the controls. Feed consumption by exposed and control groups was similar. The sperm motility in 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm males was decreased by 5%, 11%, and 9%, respectively, relative to that of the controls; the total number of spermatid heads per testis

  11. Silymarin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic, comprehensive, and critical review.

    PubMed

    Mastron, Jeanetta K; Siveen, Kodappully S; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-06-01

    The blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), a flowering plant native to Mediterranean Europe, has been consumed and extensively used as a cure for various chronic liver ailments over several centuries. Milk thistle extract, known as silymarin, is a complex mixture of seven major flavonolignans and one flavonoid. The phytoconstituents of silymarin owe their therapeutic and hepatoprotective effects to their strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primary liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), occurs in a milieu of oxidative stress and inflammation. The etiology of HCC includes chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, cirrhosis, and exposure to dietary and environmental hepatocarcinogens. Current therapeutic options for HCC, including surgical resection and liver transplantation, have limited benefits and are essentially ineffective. Chemoprevention, using phytochemicals with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, represents a fascinating strategy, which has been a subject of intense investigation in the recent years. In this review, we explore the potential role of silymarin as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for HCC. The review systematically evaluates the preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo studies investigating the effects of silymarin and its constituents on HCC. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the anti-liver-cancer effects of silymarin have been presented. The current status of clinical studies evaluating the potential of role of silymarin in liver cancer, especially that caused by hepatitis C virus, has also been examined. Potential challenges and future directions of research involved in the 'bench-to-bedside' transition of silymarin phytoconstituents for the chemoprevention and treatment of HCC have also been discussed.

  12. An Assessment of Pharmacokinetics and Antioxidant Activity of Free Silymarin Flavonolignans in Healthy Volunteers: A Dose Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Brinda, Bryan J.; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Bernstein, Hilary J.; Patrick, Kennerly S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts, one of the most widely used dietary supplements, contain a mixture of six major flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, and silydianin) and other components. However, the pharmacokinetics of the free individual flavonolignans have been only partially investigated in humans. Furthermore, antioxidant effects of the extract, which may underlie the basis of many therapeutic effects, have not been thoroughly assessed. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of the six major flavonolignans in healthy volunteers receiving single doses of either one (175 mg), two (350 mg), or three (525 mg) milk thistle capsule(s) on three separate study visits. Additionally, the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after the subjects were administered one capsule three times daily for 28 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that all six flavonolignans were rapidly absorbed and eliminated. In order of abundance, the exposure to free flavonolignans was greatest for silybin A followed by silybin B, isosilybin B, isosilybin A, silychristin, and silydianin. The systemic exposure to these compounds appeared linear and dose proportional. The disposition of flavonolignans was stereoselective, as evidenced by the apparent clearance of silybin B, which was significantly greater than silybin A, whereas the apparent clearance of isosilybin B was significantly lower than isosilybin A. The concentrations of urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, a commonly used biomarker of oxidative status in humans, were considerably decreased in study subjects after a 28-day exposure to the extract (1.3 ± 0.9 versus 0.8 ± 0.9 ng/mg creatinine) but failed to reach statistical significance (P = 0.076). PMID:23835761

  13. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Amy S; Black, Sherry R; Patel, Purvi R; So, James; Mathews, James M

    2007-07-01

    Drug-herb interactions can result from the modulation of the activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) and/or drug transporters. The effect of extracts and individual constituents of goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba (and its hydrolyzate), grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng on the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes were determined using enzyme-selective probe substrates, and their effect on human P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was determined using a baculovirus expression system by measuring the verapamil-stimulated, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC to standardize their concentration(s) of constituents associated with the pharmacological activity, and to allow comparison of their effects on P450 and Pgp with literature values. Many of the extracts/constituents exerted > or = 50 % inhibition of P450 activity. These include those from goldenseal (normalized to alkaloid content) inhibiting CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 at 20 microM, ginkgo inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, grape seed inhibiting CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 at 10 microM, milk thistle inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, and ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 (but not ginseng extract) inhibiting CYP3A4 at 10 microM. Goldenseal extracts/constituents (20 microM, particularly hydrastine) and ginsenoside Rh1 stimulated ATPase at about half of the activity of the model substrate, verapamil (20 microM). The data suggest that the clearance of a variety of drugs may be diminished by concomitant use of these herbs via inhibition of P450 enzymes, but less so by Pgp-mediated effects.

  14. Effect of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Liver Disease in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Unsuccessfully Treated With Interferon Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Michael W.; Navarro, Victor J.; Afdhal, Nezam; Belle, Steven H.; Wahed, Abdus S.; Hawke, Roy L.; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M.; Reddy, K. Rajender

    2013-01-01

    Context The botanical product silymarin, an extract of milk thistle, is commonly used by patients to treat chronic liver disease, despite scant and conflicting evidence of its efficacy. Objective To determine the effect of silymarin on liver disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection unsuccessfully treated with interferon-based therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 4 medical centers in the United States. Participants included 154 persons with chronic HCV infection and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 65 U/L or greater who were previously unsuccessfully treated with interferon-based therapy. Enrollment began in May 2008 and was completed in May 2010, with the last follow-up visit completed in March 2011. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive 420-mg silymarin, 700-mg silymarin, or matching placebo administered 3 times per day for 24 weeks. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure was serum ALT level of 45 U/L or less (considered within the normal range) or less than 65 U/L, provided this was at least a 50% decline from baseline values. Secondary outcomes included changes in ALT levels, HCV RNA levels, and quality-of-life measures. Results After 24 weeks of treatment, only 2 participants in each treatment group (P≥.99) met the primary outcome measure (3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for placebo, 4.0% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.7%] for 420-mg silymarin, and 3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for 700-mg silymarin). The mean decline in serum ALT activity at the end of treatment did not differ significantly (P=.75) across the 3 treatment groups (mean decline, −4.3 [95% CI, −17.3 to 8.7] U/L for placebo, −14.4 [95% CI, −41.6 to 12.7] U/L for 420-mg silymarin, −11.3 [95% CI, −27.9 to 5.4] U/L for 700-mg silymarin); there likewise were no significant differences in HCV RNA levels (mean change, 0.07 [95% CI, −0.05 to 0.18] log10

  15. Protective effects of flavonoids isolated from Korean milk thistle Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Abdul, Qudeer Ahmed; Byun, Jeong Su; Joung, Eun-Ji; Gwon, Wi-Gyeong; Lee, Min-Sup; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-09-14

    Milk thistle leaves and flowers have been traditionally used as herbal remedy to alleviate liver diseases for decades. Korean milk thistle, Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum has been employed in traditional folk medicine as diuretic, antiphlogistic, hemostatic, and detoxifying agents. The aim of current investigation was to evaluate hepatoprotective properties of the MeOH extract of the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of Korean milk thistle as well as four isolated flavonoids, luteolin, luteolin 5-O-glucoside, apigenin and apigenin 7-O-glucuronide during t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective potential of the MeOH extracts and flavonoids derived from Korean milk thistle against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells were evaluated following MTT method. Incubating HepG2 cells with t-BHP markedly decreased the cell viability and increased the intracellular ROS generation accompanied by depleted GSH levels. Protein expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) was determined by Western blot. Our findings revealed that pretreating HepG2 cells with MeOH extracts and bioactive flavonoids significantly attenuated the t-BHP-induced oxidative damage, followed by increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The results illustrate that excess ROS generation was reduced and GSH levels increased dose-dependently when HepG2 cells were pretreated with four flavonoids. Moreover, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that protein expressions of Nrf-2 and HO-1 were also up-regulated by flavonoids treatment. These results clearly demonstrate that the MeOH extracts and flavonoids from Korean milk thistle protected HepG2 cells against oxidative damage triggered by t-BHP principally by modulating ROS generation and restoring depleted GSH levels in addition to the increased Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling cascade. These flavonoids are potential natural antioxidative biomarkers against oxidative stress

  16. Separation and characterization of silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin in milk thistle extract by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, James I; Hsu, Bih H; Wu, Di; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2006-05-26

    A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed for the characterization of silymarin in commercially available milk thistle extract. In this study, six main active constituents, including silydianin, silychristin, diastereomers of silybin (silybin A and B) and diastereomers of isosilybin (isosilybin A and B) in silymarin, were completely separated on a YMC ODS-AQ HPLC column using a gradient mobile phase system comprised of ammonium acetate and methanol/water/formic acid. Identification and characterization of the major constituents were based not only on the product ion scan, which provided unique fragmentation information of a selected molecular ion, but also on the specific fragmentation of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data, which confirmed the retention times of LC chromatographic peaks. The method was applied in the analysis of human plasma samples in the presence of silymarin and appeared to be suitable for the pharmacokinetic studies in which the discrimination of silymarin constituents is essential.

  17. Identification and utilization of a sow thistle powdery mildew as a poorly adapted pathogen to dissect post-invasion non-host resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yingqiang; Wang, Wenming; Feng, Jiayue; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Tsuda, Kenichi; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Bauchan, Gary; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2011-01-01

    To better dissect non-host resistance against haustorium-forming powdery mildew pathogens, a sow thistle powdery mildew isolate designated Golovinomyces cichoracearum UMSG1 that has largely overcome penetration resistance but is invariably stopped by post-invasion non-host resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified. The post-invasion non-host resistance is mainly manifested as the formation of a callosic encasement of the haustorial complex (EHC) and hypersensitive response (HR), which appears to be controlled by both salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defence pathways, as supported by the susceptibility of the pad4/sid2 double mutant to the pathogen. While the broad-spectrum resistance protein RPW8.2 enhances post-penetration resistance against G. cichoracearum UCSC1, a well-adapted powdery mildew pathogen, RPW8.2, is dispensable for post-penetration resistance against G. cichoracearum UMSG1, and its specific targeting to the extrahaustorial membrane is physically blocked by the EHC, resulting in HR cell death. Taken together, the present work suggests an evolutionary scenario for the Arabidopsis–powdery mildew interaction: EHC formation is a conserved subcellular defence evolved in plants against haustorial invasion; well-adapted powdery mildew has evolved the ability to suppress EHC formation for parasitic growth and reproduction; RPW8.2 has evolved to enhance EHC formation, thereby conferring haustorium-targeted, broad-spectrum resistance at the post-invasion stage. PMID:21193574

  18. Milk thistle impedes the development of carbontetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats through suppression of bcl-2 and regulating caspase pathway.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Abdullah; Can, Muhammed İsmail

    2014-11-04

    The objective of this study was to examine whether MT plays a protective role against the damage in the liver by administering carbontetrachloride (CCl4) to rats. 28 male Wistar albino (n=28, 8weeks old) rats have been used in the study. The rats were distributed into 4 groups according to their live weights. The groups were: (i) negative control (NC): normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and milk thistle (MT) is administered; (ii) positive control (PC): normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 is administered but MT is administered; (iii) CCl4 group: normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 is administered (2ml/kg live weight, ip); and (iv) CCl4+MT group: CCl4 and MT administered group (2ml/kg live weight, ip). Caspase-3, caspase-9, bax, and bcl-2 protein syntheses were examined via western blotting. MDA determination in liver tissue was made using spectrophotometer. MDA amount has decreased in the CCl4+MT group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3 and caspase-9 has increased and bax and bcl-2 has decreased. These results show that MT protects the liver against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative Bioavailability of Silybin A and Silybin B From 2 Multiconstituent Dietary Supplement Formulations Containing Milk Thistle Extract: A Single-dose Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Yi; Yu, Guo; Hogan, Renee M; Mohandas, Rajesh; Frye, Reginald F; Gumpricht, Eric; Markowitz, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability between 2 milk thistle-containing dietary supplements, Product B and IsaGenesis, in healthy volunteers. Bioavailability between Product B, originally formulated as a powdered capsule, and IsaGenesis, reformulated as a soft gel, were compared by measuring silybin A and silybin B as surrogate pharmacokinetic markers for differences in absorption and bioavailability. For this randomized, open-label, crossover pharmacokinetic study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed a single-dose serving of each supplement separated by at least a 7-day washout period. Serial blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 hours and analyzed via LC-MS/MS. Rapid absorption and elimination of silybin A and silybin B have been observed after oral administration of both Product B and IsaGenesis. However, the absorption rate and extent, as indicated by mean the C max and mean plasma AUC, were significantly higher for the IsaGenesis soft gel formulation. The dose-corrected mean C max was 365% and 450% greater for silybin A and B, respectively, relative to powdered Product B. The time to T max was reached, on average, at least 1 hour earlier with IsaGenesis relative to Product B for both silybin A and silybin B. The IsaGenesis soft gel formulation provided substantially greater absorption and bioavailability of silybin A and silybin B relative to the powdered Product B supplement. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02529605. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Powers, Chelsea N; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements. In this study, 568 phytochemicals found in 17 of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States were built and docked with two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ (a total of 27 different protein crystal structures). The docking results revealed six strongly docking compounds in Echinacea, three from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), three from Gingko biloba, one from Sambucus nigra, none from maca (Lepidium meyenii), five from chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), two from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and two from Rhodiola rosea. Notably, of the most popular herbal supplements for women, there were numerous compounds that docked strongly with the estrogen receptor: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) had a total of 26 compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor, 15 with wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), 11 from black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), eight from muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum), eight from red clover (Trifolium pratense), three from damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca or T. diffusa), and three from dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Of possible concern were the compounds from men's herbal supplements that exhibited strong docking to the estrogen receptor: Gingko biloba had three compounds, gotu kola (Centella asiatica) had two, muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum) had eight, and Tribulus terrestris had six compounds. This molecular docking study has revealed that almost all popular herbal supplements contain phytochemical components that may bind to the human estrogen receptor and exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulation. As such, these herbal supplements may cause unwanted side effects related to estrogenic activity.

  1. Rationale, challenges, and participants in a Phase II trial of a botanical product for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Steven H; Fried, Michael W; Afdhal, Nezam; Navarro, Victor J; Hawke, Roy L; Wahed, Abdus S; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as a consequence of progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Current treatment for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin is associated with suboptimal responses and numerous adverse effects. A number of botanical products have been used to treat hepatic disorders. Silymarin, extracted from the milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), has been most widely used for various liver disorders, including chronic hepatitis C, B, and alcoholic liver disease. However, the safety and efficacy of silymarin have not been studied systematically in chronic hepatitis C. Purpose We describe our strategy for a phased approach for studying the impact of silymarin in hepatitis C, in the context of the unique challenges of botanical product clinical trials and the development of specific and curative antiviral therapy. Methods This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with four clinical centers and a data-coordinating center in the United States, to assess the impact of silymarin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who failed conventional antiviral therapy. Results Key aspects relevant to performing clinical trials of botanical products include early identification of an appropriate product with standard product chemistry, acquisition of pharmacokinetic and dosing information, selection of the appropriate study group, and choosing rigorous outcome variables. Potential limitations Trial participants were chronic hepatitis C patients who were nonsustained virologic responders to IFN-based therapy; therefore, the findings are not generalizable to all hepatitis C populations. Further, alanine aminotransferase, a biochemical liver test, rather than hepatitis viral RNA or liver histology was the primary end point. Conclusions The challenges identified and addressed during

  2. Silymarin Prevents Restraint Stress-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Dal-Seok; Oh, Ji Youn; Son, Tae Gen; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-04-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum. It has been reported to prevent liver injuries induced by various chemicals or toxins. Our recent study suggested that silymarin induces hepatic synthesis of glutathione by increasing cysteine availability, which may consequently contribute to increased antioxidant capacity of the liver. In the present study, we investigated the effects of silymarin on acute liver injury induced by restraint stress. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was orally administered to BALB/c mice every 12 h (3 times in total). After the last dose, mice were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h, and serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxidation were determined. Hepatic levels of sulfur-containing metabolites such as methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione were also measured. The level of pro-inflammatory mediators in both liver and serum was determined. To study the mechanism of the effects of silymarin, we assessed Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and apoptotic signaling. Restraint stress induced severe oxidative stress and increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators; both effects of restraint stress were significantly inhibited by silymarin. Moreover, administration of silymarin significantly prevented acute liver injury induced by restraint stress by blocking JNK activation and subsequently apoptotic signaling. In conclusion, these results suggest that the inhibition of restraint stress-induced liver injury by silymarin is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to suppress the inflammatory response.

  3. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in the Disposition of Silymarin between Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, Sarah J.; Wen, Zhiming; Smith, Philip C.; Reddy, K. Rajender; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Navarro, Victor J.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Doo, Edward; Fried, Michael. W.

    2011-01-01

    Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum and widely used for self-treatment of liver diseases, is composed of six major flavonolignans including silybin A and silybin B, which are the predominant flavonolignans quantified in human plasma. The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of silymarin flavonolignans were examined in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) to determine whether the disposition of silymarin and therefore its potential efficacy vary among liver disease populations. Cohorts of eight subjects with noncirrhotic liver disease were randomized 3:1 to oral silymarin or placebo (280 or 560 mg) every 8 h for 7 days. Forty-eight-hour blood sampling was conducted after the first and final doses. In general, plasma concentrations of silybin A and silybin B were higher, whereas concentrations of conjugates were lower in NAFLD compared with HCV. After adjustment of the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0–8 h) for weight and dose, only silybin B and silybin B conjugates differed significantly between disease types. For NAFLD, the adjusted mean AUC0–8 h was higher for silybin B (p < 0.05) but lower for silybin B conjugates (p < 0.05) compared with that for HCV. At the 280-mg dose, steady-state plasma concentrations of silybin B conjugates for NAFLD subjects were characterized by 46% lower AUC0–8 h (p < 0.05) and 42% lower Cmax (p < 0.05) compared with HCV subjects. Evidence of enterohepatic cycling of flavonolignans was only observed in NAFLD subjects. In summary, the efficacy of silymarin may be more readily observed in NAFLD patients because of their higher flavonolignan plasma concentrations and more extensive enterohepatic cycling compared with those in HCV patients. PMID:21865319

  5. Rationale, challenges, and participants in a Phase II trial of a botanical product for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Rajender; Belle, Steven H; Fried, Michael W; Afdhal, Nezam; Navarro, Victor J; Hawke, Roy L; Wahed, Abdus S; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M

    2012-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as a consequence of progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Current treatment for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin is associated with suboptimal responses and numerous adverse effects. A number of botanical products have been used to treat hepatic disorders. Silymarin, extracted from the milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), has been most widely used for various liver disorders, including chronic hepatitis C, B, and alcoholic liver disease. However, the safety and efficacy of silymarin have not been studied systematically in chronic hepatitis C. We describe our strategy for a phased approach for studying the impact of silymarin in hepatitis C, in the context of the unique challenges of botanical product clinical trials and the development of specific and curative antiviral therapy. This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with four clinical centers and a data-coordinating center in the United States, to assess the impact of silymarin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who failed conventional antiviral therapy. Key aspects relevant to performing clinical trials of botanical products include early identification of an appropriate product with standard product chemistry, acquisition of pharmacokinetic and dosing information, selection of the appropriate study group, and choosing rigorous outcome variables. POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS: Trial participants were chronic hepatitis C patients who were nonsustained virologic responders to IFN-based therapy; therefore, the findings are not generalizable to all hepatitis C populations. Further, alanine aminotransferase, a biochemical liver test, rather than hepatitis viral RNA or liver histology was the primary end point. The challenges identified and addressed during development of this United States multicenter Phase

  6. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy

    DOE PAGES

    DebRoy, Swati; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; ...

    2016-06-08

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle ( Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. In this paper, to elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and humanmore » albumin (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. Finally, the results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes.« less

  7. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, Swati; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle ( Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. In this paper, to elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and humanmore » albumin (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. Finally, the results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes.« less

  8. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  9. The apoptotic effects of silibinin on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bayram, D; Çetin, E S; Kara, M; Özgöçmen, M; Candan, I A

    2017-06-01

    Silibinin is a bioactive flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle, known as Silybum marianum. Silibinin exerts strong antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies have shown that silibinin inhibits experimentally induced malignancies of the liver, prostate, skin, and colon as well as promotes inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cell lines in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of silibinin on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 in monolayer and spheroid cultures. The MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines were cultured in both monolayer and spheroid cultures. Cells were treated with silibinin at 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. The 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling index was used to determine the cells of the synthesis phase. Poly-ADP-ribose-polimerase immunohistochemical staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick and labeling assay were used to determine the death of cells in both the monolayer and spheroid cultures. An half maximal inhibitory concentration dose of silibinin in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was 100 µM/mL at 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick and labeling positive cells and active poly-ADP-ribose-polimerase were detected after treatment with silibinin in both the monolayer and spheroid cultures. The dead cell count was higher in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines with silibinin applied than in the controls. Our study demonstrated that silibinin applications enhanced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick and labeling positive cells and active poly-ADP-ribose-polimerase in comparison to the control in both the monolayer and spheroid cultures.

  10. Identification of Diet-Derived Constituents as Potent Inhibitors of Intestinal Glucuronidation

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes within enterocytes constitute a key barrier to xenobiotic entry into the systemic circulation. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice are cornerstone examples of diet-derived xenobiotics that perpetrate interactions with drugs via mechanism-based inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4. Relative to intestinal CYP3A4-mediated inhibition, alternate mechanisms underlying dietary substance–drug interactions remain understudied. A working systematic framework was applied to a panel of structurally diverse diet-derived constituents/extracts (n = 15) as inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) to identify and characterize additional perpetrators of dietary substance–drug interactions. Using a screening assay involving the nonspecific UGT probe substrate 4-methylumbelliferone, human intestinal microsomes, and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing gut-relevant UGT1A isoforms, 14 diet-derived constituents/extracts inhibited UGT activity by >50% in at least one enzyme source, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50 values of 13 constituents/extracts (≤10 μM with at least one enzyme source) were well below intestinal tissue concentrations or concentrations in relevant juices, suggesting that these diet-derived substances can inhibit intestinal UGTs at clinically achievable concentrations. Evaluation of the effect of inhibitor depletion on IC50 determination demonstrated substantial impact (up to 2.8-fold shift) using silybin A and silybin B, two key flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) as exemplar inhibitors, highlighting an important consideration for interpretation of UGT inhibition in vitro. Results from this work will help refine a working systematic framework to identify dietary substance–drug interactions that warrant advanced modeling and simulation to inform clinical assessment. PMID:25008344

  11. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid, induces autophagy via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of ATP involving BNIP3 in human MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhaoyang; Ji, Zhiwei; Meng, Guanmin

    2015-06-01

    Silibinin, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), has anticancer and chemopreventive properties. Silibinin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which silibinin exerts an anticancer effect are poorly defined. The present study aimed to investigate whether silibinin-induced cell death might be attributed to autophagy and the underlying mechanisms in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that silibinin-induced cell death was greatly abrogated by two specific autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). In addition, silibinin triggered the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, promoted the upregulation of Atg12-Atg5 formation, increased Beclin-1 expression, and decreased the Bcl-2 level. Moreover, we noted elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, concomitant with the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and a drastic decline in ATP levels following silibinin treatment, which were effectively prevented by the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. Silibinin stimulated the expression of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-death Bcl-2 family member, and silencing of BNIP3 greatly inhibited silibinin-induced cell death, decreased ROS production, and sustained ΔΨm and ATP levels. Taken together, these findings revealed that silibinin induced autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP depletion involving BNIP3 in MCF7 cells.

  12. Metabolic effects of silibinin in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Colturato, Carina Parisoto; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Maeda, Antônio Sueiti; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete

    2012-01-25

    The flavonolignan silibinin, which is a mixture of two diastereoisomers, silybin A and silybin B, is a component of the extract obtained from the fruit and seeds of the variegated milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)), known as silymarin. Among the therapeutic properties credited to silibinin, its antihyperglycaemic action has been extensively explored. Silibinin is structurally related to the flavonoids quercetin and fisetin, which have been previously demonstrated to be very active on liver metabolic processes related to glycaemic regulation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of silibinin on metabolic pathways responsible for the maintenance of glycaemia, particularly glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, in the perfused rat liver. The activities of some key enzymes in these pathways and on parameters of energy metabolism in isolated mitochondria were also examined. At a concentration range of 50-300μM, silibinin inhibited gluconeogenesis in the fasted condition and inhibited glycogenolysis and glycolysis in the fed condition. The mechanisms by which silibinin exerted these actions were multiple and complex. It inhibited the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase, inhibited the pyruvate carrier, and reduced the efficiency of mitochondrial energy transduction. It can also act by reducing the supply of NADH for gluconeogenesis and mitochondria through its pro-oxidative actions. In general, the effects and the potency of silibinin were similar to those of quercetin and fisetin. However, silibinin exerted some distinct effects such as the inhibitory effect on oxygen consumption in the fed condition and a change in the energy status of the perfused livers. It can be concluded that the effects of silibinin on liver glucose metabolism may explain its antihyperglycaemic property. However, this effect was, in part, secondary to impairment in cellular energy metabolism, a finding that should be considered in its therapeutic usage

  13. Assessment of silibinin as a potential antifungal agent and investigation of its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae Gyu; Lee, Dong Gun

    2017-08-01

    Silibinin, which is derived from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), has used as a traditional remedy for liver or biliary disorders and known to have superior antioxidant activity. In addition, silibinin was recently reported to have antifungal effect related to fungal apoptosis against Candida albicans and the interest in the therapeutic effect is increasing. In this study, we found another mode of antifungal action of silibinin and its antibiofilm activity on C. albicans. To investigate influence on fungal plasma membrane, propidium iodide and bis-(1, 3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethineoxonol [DiBAC 4 (3)] assay were primarily carried out. After 5-h incubation with silibinin (50, 100, 150, or 200 µg/mL), the propidium iodide fluorescent percentages increased by 11.90%, 28.50%, 34.10%, and 44.52%, respectively, and the DiBAC 4 (3) fluorescent percentages increased by 13.18%, 34.64%, 46.99%, and 57.15%, respectively. As a result, we thought that silibinin concentrations of more than 100 µg/mL have a membrane-damaging effect. Subsequently, to estimate the degree of membrane damage, we used Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled dextrans (FDs) of various sizes and the results indicated that silibinin allowed penetration of molecules smaller than approximately FD20 (3.3 nm). In addition, silibinin inhibited the dimorphic transition of C. albicans and resulted in the inhibition of biofilm development at an early stage. In conclusion, we found membrane-damaging effect of silibinin and its antibiofilm effect in C. albicans. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(8):631-637, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

    2013-03-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0 ± 1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish.

  15. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of silyamarin in individuals chronically exposed to hydrogen sulfide; modulating influence of TNF-α cytokine genetic polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is believed to exert some of its hepatoprotective effects though inhibition of free radicals and inflammation. In this study the effect of some pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and also antioxidant genes polymorphisms on the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin in the occupationally exposed individuals to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the sour natural gas refinery was investigated. Methods We genotyped seven polymorphisms in six genes reported by others as modifiers of oxidative stress (NQO1, mEPXH1, GSTT1 and GSTM1) and inflammation (TNF-α and TGF-β1) for an association in effect of decreasing in liver function tests (LFTs). The LFTs of 77 sour gas refinery workers were measured before and after administration of silymarin (140 mg, three times per day for 1 month). Results A significant reduction of blood AST, ALT and ALP was observed after 30 days of consumption (p < 0.001). The decreasing effect of silymarin on ALT in the subjects with high producer genotype (A allele carriers) was less than low producers. There were no significant associations between TGF-β1 and the studied genes of oxidative stress pathway and the effectiveness of silymarin. Conclusion This is the first report about the effectiveness of silymarin in the subjects exposed chronically to H2S. Meanwhile, the modulatory effect of TNF-α on the effectiveness of silymarin might be used for individualize therapy. PMID:23566372

  17. Silymarin Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and DNA Damage by Nucleotide Excision Repair Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.; Mantena, Sudheer K.; Meeran, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well recognized epidemiologic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. This observation has been linked to the accumulation of UVB radiation-induced DNA lesions in cells, and that finally lead to the development of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is less understood whether chemopreventive effect of silymarin is mediated through the repair of DNA lesions in skin cells and that protect the cells from apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with silymarin blocks UVB-induced apoptosis of NHEK in vitro. Silymarin reduces the amount of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by reduced amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and as measured by comet assay, and that ultimately may lead to reduced apoptosis of NHEK. The reduction of UV radiation-induced DNA damage by silymarin appears to be related with induction of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, because UV radiation-induced apoptosis was not blocked by silymarin in NER-deficient human fibroblasts. Cytostaining and dot-blot analysis revealed that silymarin repaired UV-induced CPDs in NER-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair UV-induced CPD-positive cells in NER-deficient fibroblasts from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-A disease. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that silymarin did not reduce the number of UVB-induced sunburn/apoptotic cells in the skin of NER-deficient mice, but reduced the number of sunburn cells in their wild-type counterparts. Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells. PMID:21731736

  18. Application of Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination on Weed Mapping Using UAV Multispectral Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Tamouridou, Afroditi A.; Lagopodi, Anastasia L.; Kashefi, Javid; Kasampalis, Dimitris; Kontouris, Georgios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are routinely used in plant species discrimination and of weed mapping. In the presented work, successful Silybum marianum detection and mapping using multilayer neural networks is demonstrated. A multispectral camera (green-red-near infrared) attached on a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized for the acquisition of high-resolution images (0.1 m resolution). The Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination (MLP-ARD) was used to identify the S. marianum among other vegetation, mostly Avena sterilis L. The three spectral bands of Red, Green, Near Infrared (NIR) and the texture layer resulting from local variance were used as input. The S. marianum identification rates using MLP-ARD reached an accuracy of 99.54%. Τhe study had an one year duration, meaning that the results are specific, although the accuracy shows the interesting potential of S. marianum mapping with MLP-ARD on multispectral UAV imagery. PMID:29019957

  19. Application of Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination on Weed Mapping Using UAV Multispectral Imagery.

    PubMed

    Tamouridou, Afroditi A; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Pantazi, Xanthoula E; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Kasampalis, Dimitris; Kontouris, Georgios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-10-11

    Remote sensing techniques are routinely used in plant species discrimination and of weed mapping. In the presented work, successful Silybum marianum detection and mapping using multilayer neural networks is demonstrated. A multispectral camera (green-red-near infrared) attached on a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized for the acquisition of high-resolution images (0.1 m resolution). The Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination (MLP-ARD) was used to identify the S. marianum among other vegetation, mostly Avena sterilis L. The three spectral bands of Red, Green, Near Infrared (NIR) and the texture layer resulting from local variance were used as input. The S. marianum identification rates using MLP-ARD reached an accuracy of 99.54%. Τhe study had an one year duration, meaning that the results are specific, although the accuracy shows the interesting potential of S. marianum mapping with MLP-ARD on multispectral UAV imagery.

  20. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of Sardinian wild thistles (Onopordum spp.) inhibit TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-κB pathway in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Arianna; Fumagalli, Marco; Sanna, Cinzia; Maxia, Andrea; Piazza, Stefano; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2018-01-10

    Thistles species (Family: Compositae) are traditionally used in the Mediterranean area, particularly in Sardinia. They are usually gathered from the wild and used for both food and therapeutic purposes, including gastrointestinal disorders. This work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of eight wild thistles from Sardinia, in an in vitro model of gastric inflammation, and to identify the major active compounds in the extracts. The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial part of each species was prepared. After the induction of inflammation by the addition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (10ng/mL), AGS cells were treated with extracts/pure compounds under study. The inhibition of interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, IL-8 and NF-κB promoter activities and NF-κB nuclear translocation were evaluated. Extracts main components were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Only Onopordum horridum Viv. and Onopordum illyricum L. hydro-alcoholic extracts reduced, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells AGS. The effect was partially due to the NF-κB pathway impairment. Onopordum hydro-alcoholic extracts were also chemically profiled, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the main compounds identified in the extract. Further investigations showed that 3,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid highly inhibited IL-8 secretion in AGS cells (IC 50 0.65μM), thus suggesting that this compound contributed, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity elicited by O. illyricum extracts. Our results suggest that Onopordum species may exert beneficial effects against gastric inflammatory diseases. Thus, these wild plants deserve further investigations as preventive or co-adjuvant agents in gastric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of silymarin (milk thistle) on liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fried, Michael W; Navarro, Victor J; Afdhal, Nezam; Belle, Steven H; Wahed, Abdus S; Hawke, Roy L; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M; Reddy, K Rajender

    2012-07-18

    The botanical product silymarin, an extract of milk thistle, is commonly used by patients to treat chronic liver disease, despite scant and conflicting evidence of its efficacy. To determine the effect of silymarin on liver disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection unsuccessfully treated with interferon-based therapy. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 4 medical centers in the United States. Participants included 154 persons with chronic HCV infection and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 65 U/L or greater who were previously unsuccessfully treated with interferon-based therapy. Enrollment began in May 2008 and was completed in May 2010, with the last follow-up visit completed in March 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 420-mg silymarin, 700-mg silymarin, or matching placebo administered 3 times per day for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was serum ALT level of 45 U/L or less (considered within the normal range) or less than 65 U/L, provided this was at least a 50% decline from baseline values. Secondary outcomes included changes in ALT levels, HCV RNA levels, and quality-of-life measures. After 24 weeks of treatment, only 2 participants in each treatment group (P ≥ .99) met the primary outcome measure (3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for placebo, 4.0% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.7%] for 420-mg silymarin, and 3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for 700-mg silymarin). The mean decline in serum ALT activity at the end of treatment did not differ significantly (P = .75) across the 3 treatment groups (mean decline, -4.3 [95% CI, -17.3 to 8.7] U/L for placebo, -14.4 [95% CI, -41.6 to 12.7] U/L for 420-mg silymarin, -11.3 [95% CI, -27.9 to 5.4] U/L for 700-mg silymarin); there likewise were no significant differences in HCV RNA levels (mean change, 0.07 [95% CI, -0.05 to 0.18] log10 IU/mL for placebo, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.18 to 0.12] log10 IU/mL for 420-mg silymarin, 0.04 [95% CI, -0.08 to

  2. Days of Wine and Thistles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Max R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews Peterson's 1979 study of the current and preferred ranking of 20 educational goals at 18 community colleges. In response to their low ranking, explains how community services are linked to three more highly rated goals: college community, personal development, and developmental/remedial education. (DML)

  3. An in vitro and in vivo study of a 4-herb formula on the management of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Ken; Law, Hon Wai; Koon, Chi Man; Lau, Kit Man; Leung, Ping Chung; Yan, Choly; Lau, Clara Bik San

    2018-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects. Functional foods or nutraceuticals which have potentially important anti-obesity properties have thus attracted great attention. Schisandrae Fructus is a Chinese herb traditionally used as a liver tonic. Silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is a dietary supplement that is widely used in western society for the prevention and treatment of liver problems. Crataegus Fructus (hawthorn) is traditionally used to promote digestion and dissipate food stagnation. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic Medicine. We aimed to develop a multi-targeted herbal formula to target on the multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome using individual herbs. This proposed herbal formula include sylimarin and Schisandrae Fructus, for NAFLD; Crataegus Fructus for obesity and hyperlipidemia; and Momordica charantia for hyperglycemia. For in vitro study, we carried out insulin-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation and fluorescent tagged cholesterol-treated Caco-2 cell assay to study for adipogenesis and cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells, respectively. Oleic acid-induced HepG2 cell assay was used to study for oleic acid-induced fatty liver, and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) assay was used to study for glucose uptake from the gut. For in vivo study, we performed an 8-week and a 12-week treatment studies, with each study comprising of 4 groups of C57Bl/6 male mice given: (i) Normal-chow diet; (ii)-(iv) High-fat diet

  4. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-03-01

    This review focuses on the medicinal plants growing and having history of folk medicine in Iran and found effective as anti free radical damage in animal or human. Embase, Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, IranMedex, and SID databases were searched up to 2 February 2008. The search terms were antioxidant or "lipid peroxidation" and "plant, medicinal plant, herb, traditional, natural or herbal medicine" limited to Iran. Studies that assessed effects on cell lines or isolated organs, fetal toxicity, and reviews or letters were excluded. Antioxidative effect and lipid peroxidation inhibition were the key outcomes. Forty-six animal studies on the efficacy of medicinal plants were reviewed. Lipid peroxidation was reduced in different clinical circumstances by Ferula szovitsiana, Nigella sativa, Rosa damascene petal, Phlomis anisodonta, Rosemary, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Saffron, Amirkabiria odorastissima mozaffarian, Ficus carica Linn., Ziziphora clinopoides, Carica papaya, Chichorium intybus, Turmer, Eugenol, Curcumin, and Pistacia vera L. Human studies showed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey reduce lipid peroxidation and improve total antioxidant power in healthy subjects. Improvement of blood lipid profile was shown by Silybum marianum, garlic, and wheat germ. Amongst these useful herbs, some like Cinnamon, Silybum marianum, Garlic, Nigella, and Echium seem potential targets of future effective drugs for diseases in which free radical damage play a pathogenical role.

  5. Status of biological control projects on yellow starthistle, Russian thistle, Scotch thistle, Cape-ivy and French broom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS quarantine laboratory in Albany, CA, in cooperation with foreign scientists, is currently developing classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Host specificity testing of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, indica...

  6. A Review on Phytosome Technology as a Novel Approach to Improve The Bioavailability of Nutraceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Tawheed; Bhat, Suman Vikas

    2012-08-01

    The bioavailability and absorption of water soluble phytoconstituents is erratic due to poor solubility of these constituents in gastrointestinal tract. This can be overcome by a novel delivery system known as phytosome technology in which water soluble phytoconstituents are allowed to react with phospholipids. For better and improved bioavailability, natural phytoconstituents must have a good balance between hydrophilicity (helps in dissolution in gastro-intestinal fluids) and hydrophobicity (helps to cross lipid rich cell membranes). This is achieved through phytosome technology. Phospholipids have a dual solubility and acts as an emulsifier. Phytosome technology acts as a bridge between novel and conventional delivery systems. Many products are available in the market based on this phytosome technology which include popular herbal extracts such as Ginkgo biloba, Silybum marianum, grape seed, olive oil flavonoids etc.

  7. Antimicrobial, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities of Cotinus coggyria Scop. essential oil (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Çenet, Menderes; Oztürk, Bintuğ; Balcilar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Cotinus coggyria Scop.' leaves was found to be rich in α-pinene (43.1%), limonene (21.3%) and β-myrcene (8.5%). In the antimicrobial screening, essential oil was notably active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC BAA-977, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 using the disc diffusion and volatilisation assays. The fumigant assay of the essential oil caused 70% and 100% mortality on the two pest adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum at 80 μL L⁻¹ air concentration at 96 h, respectively. In the toxicity assay on weeds, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in the germination and seedling growth of Silybum marianum and Portulaca oleracea. The present results indicated that oil could be suggested as an effective biocontrol agent in various fields.

  8. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070

  9. Herbicidal activity of pure compound isolated from rhizosphere inhabiting Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Saeed Ullah; Lutfullah, Ghosia; Iqbal, Zafar; Rehman, Irshad Ur; Ahmad, Jamshaid; Khan, Abid Ali

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for bioactive natural products of fungal origin, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from rhizosphere of Mentha piperita using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Czapec Yeast Broth (CYB) nutrient media for metabolites production. In total, three different metabolites were purified using HPLC/LCMS and the structures were established using 500 Varian NMR experiments. Further the isolated metabolites in different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) were tested for herbicidal activity using Completely Randomized design (CRD) against the seeds of Silybum marianum and Avena fatua which are major threats to wheat crop in Pakistan. Among the isolated metabolites, one compound was found active against the test weed species whose activity is reported in the present work. The chemical name of the compound is 2-(1, 4-dihydroxybutan-2-yl)-1, 3-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethoxyanthracene-9, 10(4aH, 9aH)-dione with mass of 388. Results showed that all seeds germinated in control treatment; however, with the metabolite treated, the growth was retarded to different levels in all parts of the weeds. At a dose of 1000 μg/mL of the pure compound, 100% seeds of S. marianum and 60% seeds of A. fatua were inhibited. Interestingly, the pure compound exhibited less inhibition of 10% towards the seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum).

  10. Megachile (Megachile) montivaga (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nesting in live thistle (Asteraceae: Cirsium)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rare genus Trachusoides, previously known only from a single species inhabiting the Western Ghats of India, is reviewed. Trachusoides elsieae, new species, is described from Laos, an additional record for T. simplex is documented, and a key to separate the species is provided....

  11. Layer chromatography-bioassays directed screening and identification of antibacterial compounds from Scotch thistle.

    PubMed

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Alberti, Ágnes; Darcsi, András; Horváth, Györgyi; Csontos, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Ott, Péter G

    2017-11-17

    The antibacterial profiling of Onopordum acanthium L. leaf extract and subsequent targeted identification of active compounds is demonstrated. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and off-line overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) coupled with direct bioautography were utilized for investigation of the extract against eight bacterial strains including two plant and three human pathogens and a soil, a marine and a probiotic human gut bacteria. Antibacterial fractions obtaining infusion-transfusion OPLC were transferred to HPLC-MS/MS analysis that resulted in the characterization of three active compounds and two of them were identified as, linoleic and linolenic acid. OPLC method was adopted to preparative-scale flash chromatography for the isolation of the third active compound, which was identified after a further semi-preparative HPLC purification as the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin. Pure onopordopicrin exhibited antibacterial activity that was specified as minimal inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Making Sense of Education Change at Thistle College: The Existence of Witchcraft, Witches and Shamans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a complex and charged change program and its management at a Scottish higher education institution. Discusses the difficulties of the educational change process in higher education, the complexities surrounding notions of organizational cultures and communities of practice, and issues of power and management including the new…

  13. Knowledge, use and ecology of golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.) in Central Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper assesses the current ethnobotanical knowledge, use and management of Scolymus hispanicus L. in two localities of Central Spain and the relation with its natural abundance. It also addresses the influence of sociodemographic factors such as age, gender and time living in the village in the variation of knowledge and practice levels. Methods During 2007 and 2008, 99 semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire were made to a random stratified sample by sex and age, asking them about their traditional knowledge and practices (use and gathering) of Scolymus hispanicus. A knowledge and practice (KP) index was created based on the answers to the questionnaire. Results and Discussion Scolymus hispanicus is still gathered and consumed by 20% and 35% of the informants, respectively. According to the KP index, the knowledge and practice level is similar in both villages. Age and time living in the village are the factors that better explain the variability in the KP level. People living for more than ten years in the village and those older than 60 years have the highest knowledge level, whereas the younger than 19 the lowest. Conclusions Our data suggests that the prevalence of ethnobotanical knowledge and uses depends more on the cultural importance of the plant and the transmission of such popular knowledge than on the resource's abundance. PMID:20028498

  14. Cumulative herbivory outpaces compensation for early floral damage on a monocarpic perennial thistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Floral herbivory presents a threat to plant reproductive success. Monocarpic plants should tolerate early apical damage with compensatory reproductive effort by subsequent flower heads during their single flowering season. However, the actual contribution of this tolerance response to net fitness is...

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of silymarin on ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Koki; Oshima, Hideki; Yamashita, Akiko; Sakatani, Kaoru; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We examined the effects of silymarin, which was extracted from Silybum marianum, on delayed neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats (sham group), rats which underwent ischemic surgery (control group), rats which were treated with silymarin before and after ischemic surgery (pre group), and rats which were treated with silymarin after ischemic surgery only (post group). We performed the ischemic surgery by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 20min and sacrificed the rats one week after the surgery. Silymarin was administered orally at 200mg/kg body weight. Smaller numbers of delayed cell deaths were noted in the rat CA1 region of the pre- and post-groups, and no significant difference was observed between these groups. There were few apoptotic cell deaths in all groups. Compared to the control group, significantly fewer cell deaths by autophagy were found in the pre- and post-group. We concluded that silymarin exerts a preservation effect on delayed neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus and this effect has nothing to do with the timing of administering of silymarin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical Silymarin Administration for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Sepideh; Shojaee, Farzaneh Sadat Rezazadeh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a frequent dose-limiting adverse reaction of capecitabine in patient with gastrointestinal cancers. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the Silybum marianum that exhibits strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated silymarin efficacy in prevention of capecitabine-induced HFS in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, as the first human study. During this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of silymarin gel 1%, which is applied on the palms and soles twice daily starting at the first day of chemotherapy for 9 weeks, on HFS occurrence was assessed. Forty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria assigned to the silymarin or placebo group. World Health Organization HFS grading scale scores were recorded at baseline and every 3 weeks during these 9 weeks. The median WHO HFS scores were significantly lower in silymarin group at the end of the 9 th week (p < 0.05). The scores increased significantly in both placebo and silymarin groups during chemotherapy, but there was a delay for HFS development and progression in silymarin group. Prophylactic administration of silymarin topical formulation could significantly reduce the severity of capecitabine-induced HFS and delays its occurrence in patients with gastrointestinal cancer after 9 weeks of application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of Silymarin on Diabetes Mellitus Complications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stolf, Aline Maria; Cardoso, Cibele Campos; Acco, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficit in the production of (type 1) or response to (type 2) insulin. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycemia and such symptoms as weight loss, thirst, polyuria, and blurred vision. These disturbances represent one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality nowadays, despite available treatments, such as insulin, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, many efforts have been made to discover new drugs for diabetes treatment, including medicinal plant extracts. Silymarin is a powder extract of the seeds from Silybum marianum, a plant from the Asteraceae family. The major active ingredients include four isomers: silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin. Silymarin is indicated for the treatment of hepatic disorders, such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and gallstones. Moreover, several studies of other pathologies, including diabetes, sepsis, osteoporosis, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, viral infections, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, have tested the effects of silymarin and reported promising results. This article reviews data from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies on the use of silymarin, with a focus on the complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, healing delays, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Silymarin impacts on immune system as an immunomodulator: One key for many locks.

    PubMed

    Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Anaraki, Sima Balouchi; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Moayedi, Behjat

    2017-09-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid complex extracted from the Silybum marianum plant. It acts as a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenger by different mechanisms. But in addition to antioxidant effects, silymarin/silybin reveals immunomodulatory affects with both immunostimulatory and immunosuppression activities. Different studies have shown that silymarin has the anti-inflammatory effect through the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway and TNF-α activation. It also has different immunomodulatory activities in a dose and time-dependent manner. As an immunomodulator agent, silymarin inhibits T-lymphocyte function at low doses while stimulates inflammatory processes at high doses. Studies have shown that silymarin has attenuated autoimmune, allergic, preeclampsia, cancer, and immune-mediated liver diseases and also has suppressed oxidative and nitrosative immunotoxicity. Silymarin also has indicated dual effects on proliferation and apoptosis of different cells. In conclusion, based on the current review, silymarin has a broad spectrum of immunomodulatory functions under different conditions. Recognizing the exact mechanisms of silymarin on cellular and molecular pathways would be very valuable for treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Also further studies are needed to assess the utility of silymarin in protection against autoimmune, cancer, allergic and other diseases in human subjects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  1. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 = 49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 = 147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s = 9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  2. Silymarin nanoparticle prevents paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suvadra; Roy, Partha; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Mukherjee, Arup

    2011-01-01

    Silymarin (Sm) is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement. Relatively recently, Sm has proved to be a valuable chemopreventive and a useful antineoplastic agent. Medical success for Sm is, however, constrained by very low aqueous solubility and associated biopharmaceutical limitations. Sm flavonolignans are also susceptible to ion-catalyzed degradation in the gut. Proven antihepatotoxic activity of Sm cannot therefore be fully exploited in acute chemical poisoning conditions like that in paracetamol overdose. Moreover, a synchronous delivery that is required for hepatic regeneration is difficult to achieve by itself. This work is meant to circumvent the inherent limitations of Sm through the use of nanotechnology. Sm nanoparticles (Smnps) were prepared by nanoprecipitation in polyvinyl alcohol stabilized Eudragit RS100® polymer (Rohm Pharma GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany). Process parameter optimization provided 67.39% entrapment efficiency and a Gaussian particle distribution of average size 120.37 nm. Sm release from the nanoparticles was considerably sustained for all formulations. Smnps were strongly protective against hepatic damage when tested in a paracetamol overdose hepatotoxicity model. Nanoparticles recorded no animal death even when administered after an established paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Preventing progress of paracetamol hepatic damage was traced for an efficient glutathione regeneration to a level of 11.3 μmol/g in hepatic tissue due to Smnps. PMID:21753880

  3. Isolation and purification of diastereoisomeric flavonolignans from silymarin by binary-column recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiquan; Yang, Guang; Zhong, Fanyi; Yang, Nan; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Yunpeng; Fan, Guorong

    2014-09-01

    Silymarin extracted from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn consists of a large number of flavonolignans, of which diastereoisomeric flavonolignans including silybin A and silybin B, and isosilybin A and isosilybin B are the main bioactive components, whose preparation from the crude extracts is still a difficult task. In this work, binary-column recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography systems without sample loop trapping, where two columns were switched alternately via one or two six-port switching valves, were established and successfully applied to the isolation and purification of the four diastereoisomeric flavonolignans from silymarin. The proposed system showed significant advantages over conventional preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with a single column in increasing efficiency and reducing the cost. To obtain the same amounts of products, the proposed system spends only one tenth of the time that the conventional system spends, and needs only one eleventh of the solvent that the conventional system consumes. Using the proposed system, the four diastereoisomers were successfully isolated from silymarin with purities over 98%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Potential antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula derived from three Chinese medicinal herbs against CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Ching; Fang, Jong-Yi; Hong, Tuan-Liang; Wang, Tzu-Ching; Zhou, Ya-En; Lin, Ta-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula (AEF) derived from Artemisia capillaris, Lonicera japonica and Silybum marianum (ratio 1:1:1) were evaluated by its antioxidant properties and its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats. The antioxidant analyses revealed that the AEF showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities as well as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) compared with the individual herbs, suggesting a synergism in antioxidation between the three herbs. The animal experiments showed that the CCl(4) treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, but decreased triglyceride (TG) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, AEF administration can successfully lower serum ALT and AST activities, restore the GSH level, ameliorate or restore GPx and CAT activities as well as improve SOD action depending on AEF dosage. Histological examination of liver showed that CCl(4) increased the extent of bile duct proliferation, necrosis, fibrosis and fatty vacuolation throughout the liver, but AEF can improve bile duct proliferation, vacuolation and fibrosis, and restore necrosis. The present study demonstrated the hepatoprotective potential of AEF as an alternative to the traditional silymarin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Moradi, Leila; Mehri, Avin; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of hyperlipidemia in human. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to 11th May 2010. The search terms were "hyperlipidemia" and ("herbal medicine" or "medicine traditional", "extract plant") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in lipid profiles were included. Fifty three relevant clinical trials were reviewed for efficacy of plants. This study showed significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol after treatment with Daming capsule (DMC), chunghyul-dan, Glycyrrhiza glabra, garlic powder (Allicor), black tea, green tea, soy drink enriched with plant sterols, licorice, Satureja khuzestanica, Monascus purpureus Went rice, Fenugreek, Commiphora mukul (guggul), Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Ningzhi capsule (NZC), cherry, compositie salviae dropping pill (CSDP), shanzha xiaozhi capsule, Ba-wei-wan (hachimijiogan), rhubarb stalk, Silybum marianum, Rheum Ribes and Jingmingdan granule (primrose oil). Conflicting data exist for red yeast rice, garlic and guggul. No significant adverse effect or mortality were observed except in studies with DMC, guggul, and Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis, ginger, and garlic powder (Allium sativum). Amongst reviewed studies, 22 natural products were found effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that deserve further works to isolate and characterization of their constituents to reach novel therapeutic and more effective agents.

  6. Silibinin-induced glioma cell apoptosis by PI3K-mediated but Akt-independent downregulation of FoxM1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Yunhui; Gao, Yun; Li, Shaoyi

    2015-10-15

    The oncogenic transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in many human tumors, including glioma. As a critical regulator of the cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes, FoxM1 is a potential therapeutic target against human malignant glioma. Silibinin, a flavonoid isolated from Silybum marianum, dose-dependently reduced glioma cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and downregulated FoxM1 expression. Knockdown of FoxM1 by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection also promoted glioma cell apoptosis and augmented the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of silibinin. Moreover, silibinin increased caspase-3 activation, upregulated pro-apoptotic Bax, and suppressed anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, effects enhanced by FoxM1 knockdown. Silibinin treatment suppressed U87 cell PI3K phospho-activation, and simultaneous silibinin exposure, FoxM1 knockdown, and PI3K inhibition additively increased U87 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, PI3K inhibition reduced FoxM1 expression. Akt activity was also suppressed by FoxM1 downregulation but Akt inhibition did not alter FoxM1 expression. Thus, silibinin likely inhibited glioma cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through inactivation of PI3K and FoxM1, leading to activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. FoxM1 may be a novel target for chemotherapy against human glioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Silibinin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid β peptide aggregation: a dual-target drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duan, Songwei; Guan, Xiaoyin; Lin, Runxuan; Liu, Xincheng; Yan, Ying; Lin, Ruibang; Zhang, Tianqi; Chen, Xueman; Huang, Jiaqi; Sun, Xicui; Li, Qingqing; Fang, Shaoliang; Xu, Jun; Yao, Zhibin; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, in this paper, we examined silibinin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for AD treatment. To achieve this, we used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to examine the affinity of silibinin with Aβ and AChE in silico. Next, we used circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy to study the anti-Aβ aggregation capability of silibinin in vitro. Moreover, a Morris Water Maze test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine double labeling, and a gene gun experiment were performed on silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice. In molecular dynamics simulations, silibinin interacted with Aβ and AChE to form different stable complexes. After the administration of silibinin, AChE activity and Aβ aggregations were down-regulated, and the quantity of AChE also decreased. In addition, silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice had greater scores in the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, silibinin could increase the number of newly generated microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and neuronal precursor cells. Taken together, these data suggest that silibinin could act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Silibinin Induced Human Glioblastoma Cell Apoptosis Concomitant with Autophagy through Simultaneous Inhibition of mTOR and YAP.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhuan-Li; Tay, Vincent; Guo, Shu-Zhong; Ren, Juan; Shu, Mao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Silibinin, also known as silybin, is the major flavonolignan isolated from Silybum marianum . Although previous reports demonstrated that silibinin exhibits significant tumor suppressor activities in various cancers by promoting cell apoptosis, it was also shown to trigger autophagy to counteract apoptosis induced by exogenous stresses in several types of cells. However, there is no report to address the role of silibinin induced autophagy in human A172 and SR glioblastoma cells. Our study showed that silibinin treatment not only inhibited the metabolic activities of glioblastoma cells but also promoted their apoptosis through the regulation of caspase 3 and PARP-1 in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, silibinin induced autophagy through upregulation of microtubule-associated protein a light chain 3- (LC3-) II. And autophagy inhibition with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent, significantly enhanced silibinin induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis. Moreover, silibinin dose-dependently downregulated the phosphorylation levels of mTOR at Ser-2448, p70S6K at Thr-389, and 4E-BP1 at Thr-37/46. Furthermore, the expression of YAP, the downstream effector of Hippo signal pathway, was also suppressed by silibinin. These results suggested that silibinin induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis concomitant with autophagy which might be due to simultaneous inhibition of mTOR and YAP and silibinin induced autophagy exerted a protective role against cell apoptosis in both A172 and SR cells.

  9. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D; Sah, Archana N; Nabavi, Seyed M; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus . Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  10. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by popular herbal remedies used in southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 =49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 =147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50 s=9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Improvement in The Function of Isolated Rat Pancreatic Islets through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Using Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mahroui, Neda; Mirzaei, Sanaz; Siahpoosh, Zahra; D.4, Pharm.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Baeeri, Maryam; Hajiaghaie, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic islets have fewer antioxidant enzymes than other tissues and thus are vulnerable to oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of nine specifically selected Iranian medical plants on the mitochondria function and survival of isolated rat islets were examined. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, following laparotomy, pancreases of rats were removed and the islets isolated and incubated in vitro for 24 hours. Logarithmic doses of plant materials were added to the islets and incubated for an additional 24 hours after which the viability of the cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. Levels of insulin production in relation to static and stimulated glucose concen- trations were also determined. Results The tested compounds markedly increased survival of the islet cells, their mi- tochondrial activity, and insulin levels at the same time as reducing production of ROS. Greatest effects were observed in the following order: Peganum harmala, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Satureja hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Teucrium scordium, Aloe vera, Zingiber officinale, Silybum marianum, and Hypericum perforatum at doses of 10, 103, 104, 10, 102, 102, 10-1, 10 and 103μgmL-1, respectively. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that pretreatment with these select- ed Iranian medical plants can improve the outcomes of pancreas transplants and grafts through the control of oxidative stress damage. PMID:24567945

  12. Protective effects of silymarin against bisphenol A-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Zaulet, Mihaela; Kevorkian, Steliana Elvira Maria; Dinescu, Sorina; Cotoraci, Coralia; Suciu, Maria; Herman, Hildegard; Buburuzan, Laura; Badulescu, Liliana; Ardelean, Aurel; Hermenean, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum. Administration of BPA to male CD-1 mice for 10 days caused a significant increase in the number of cells immunopositive for interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokines that mediate the hepatic inflammatory response. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of silymarin concurrently with BPA for 10 days resulted in a diminished level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in significantly reduced ultrastructural injuries. Additionally, silymarin was able to restore the significantly decreased glycogen deposits observed following BPA exposure to normal levels, thus favoring hepatic glycogenesis. This study represents the first report of silymarin ability to reduce hepatic lesions and to counteract inflammation caused by BPA in mice. A dose of 200 mg/kg silymarin was sufficient to induce a protective effect against structural and ultrastructural injuries induced by BPA and to lower the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in murine liver tissue following exposure to BPA. PMID:28450905

  13. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D.; Sah, Archana N.; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver. PMID:28848436

  14. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  15. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  16. Silymarin (Livergol®) Decreases Disease Activity Score in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Non-randomized Single-arm Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Mehrdad; Moini, Ali; Shakiba, Yadollah; Mashkorinia, Ahamad; Dehghani, Milad; Asar, Shirin; Kiani, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which can lead to joint destruction and disability. Pannus formation due to chronic synovitis is the hallmark of RA. Oxidative stress as a consequence of immune cell activation and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs can prevent inflammation and tissue destruction. Silymarin, an antioxidant extract from Silybum marianum, has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases for decades. In the present non-randomized single-arm clinical trial (NRSACT) study we evaluated the effects of silymarin tablet (Livergol®) on inflammatory markers in stable RA patients. Disease activity score (DAS-28) was measured before and after adding silymarin to standard drug regimen used for controlling inflammation in RA patients. Silymarin significantly reduced the DAS28 related symptoms in 44 RA patients after 90 days (3.02±0.98 versus 2.3±0.74, p<0.001). The exact mechanism of therapeutic effects of silymarin in RA patients is not clear but it could be as the results of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Conducting the study on larger number of patients and also measuring cytokines levels including TNF-α and IL-1β may clarify the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin in RA patients.

  17. Hepatotoxicity induced by paclitaxel interaction with turmeric in association with a microcystin from a contaminated dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Luísa; Rodrigues, José A; Azevedo, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Eiras, Eduardo; Campos, Maria Graça

    2018-05-29

    A 67-year-old Caucasian male with lung cancer was presented to the Emergency Department with asthenia, anorexia, jaundice and choluria. The patient's lung cancer was being treated medically by a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin with bi-monthly frequency. The patient was also self-medicating with several natural products, including Chlorella (520 mg/day), Silybum marianum (total of 13.5 mg silymarin/day), zinc sulphate (5.5 mg), selenium (50 μg) and 15 g/day of Curcuma longa. In first chemotherapy cycle no toxicity was observed even he was taking other medications as budesonide and sitagliptin. The toxic events started only after the introduction of the dietary products. Chlorella had contamination with cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales) and 1.08 μg of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) per gram of biomass was found. Patient was consuming ca 0.01 μg MC-LR/kg/day. This case report describes the first known case of paclitaxel toxicity probably related to pharmacokinetic interaction with Turmeric and a contaminated Chlorella supplement resulting in an acute toxic hepatitis and the impact on oncologic patient health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  19. In silico approaches and proportional odds model towards identifying selective ADAM17 inhibitors from anti-inflammatory natural molecules.

    PubMed

    Borah, Pallab Kumar; Chakraborty, Sourav; Jha, Anupam N; Rajkhowa, Sanchaita; Duary, Raj Kumar

    2016-11-01

    ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression. Silymarin was the most selective inhibitor of ADAM17 exhibiting H-bonding with Glu 406, Gly 349, Glu 398, Asn 447, Tyr 433, and Lys 432. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for 10ns. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean squared fluctuations (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent accessible surface area (SASA), and H-bonding indicated the induced metastability. A comparison of the principal component analysis revealed that the silymarin complex also explored lesser region compared to IK682 complex. A control study on ADAM17 protein (2OI0) is included. These observations present silymarin (widely present in plants such as milk thistle (Silybum maianum), wild artichokes (Cynara cardunculus), turmeric (Curcuma longa) roots, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds, etc.) as a promising natural template for development of ADAM17 selective drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote distinction of a noxious weed (musk thistle: Carduus nutans) using airborne hyperspectral imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote detection of invasive plant species using geospatial imagery may significantly improve monitoring, planning, and management practices by eliminating shortfalls such as observer bias and accessibility involved in ground-based surveys. The use of remote sensing for accurate mapping invasion ex...

  1. A Phase I Dose-Finding Study of Silybin Phosphatidylcholine (Milk Thistle) in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; Narayan, Rupa; Rodriguez, Rosa; Goyal, Abhishek; Jacobson, Judith S.; Kelly, Kara; Ladas, Elena; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Flaig, Thomas W.; Tsai, Wei Yann; Wu, David P. H.; Lee, Valerie; Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose per day of silybin phosphatidylcholine (Siliphos) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic dysfunction. Experimental Design Patients with advanced HCC not eligible for other therapies based on poor hepatic function were enrolled in a phase I study of silybin phosphatidylcholine. A standard phase I design was used with 4 planned cohorts, dose escalating from 2, 4, 8, to 12 g per day in divided doses for 12 weeks. Results Three participants enrolled in this single institution trial. All enrolled subjects consumed 2 g per day of study agent in divided doses. Serum concentrations of silibinin and silibinin glucuronide increased within 1 to 3 weeks. In all 3 patients, liver function abnormalities and tumor marker α-fetoprotein progressed, but after day 56 the third patient showed some improvement in liver function abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers. All 3 participants died within 23 to 69 days of enrolling into the trial, likely from hepatic failure, but it could not be ruled out that deaths were possibly due to the study drug. Conclusion Short-term administration of silybin phosphatidylcholine in patients with advanced HCC resulted in detectable increases in silibinin and its metabolite, silibinin glucuronide. The maximum tolerated dose could not be established. Since patients died soon after enrollment, this patient population may have been too ill to benefit from an intervention designed to improve liver function tests. PMID:23757319

  2. Effectiveness of Selected Native Plants as Competitors with Non-indigenous and Invasive Knapweed and Thistle Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    M. Wolfe. 2004. The evolution of an invasive plant : An experimental study with Silene latifolia. Ecology 85(11):3035-42. Blossey, B., and R...Notzold. 1995. Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants : A hypothesis. Journal of Ecology 83(5):887-9. Bottoms, R. M... interactions between salt marsh plants : Effects of salinity, sediment and waterlogging. Journal of Ecology 88(3):492-505. Hyder, S. Z., and S. Yasmin

  3. Genetic and behavioral differences among purported species of the weevil Trichosirocalus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control of thistles (Asteraceae, Cardueae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Trichosirocalus horridus was introduced to North America, New Zealand and Australia for biological control of Carduus nutans. Since then two more species of Trichosirocalus have been described (Alonso-Zarazaga and Sánchez-...

  4. A phase I dose-finding study of silybin phosphatidylcholine (milk thistle) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Abby B; Narayan, Rupa; Rodriguez, Rosa; Goyal, Abhishek; Jacobson, Judith S; Kelly, Kara; Ladas, Elena; Lunghofer, Paul J; Hansen, Ryan J; Gustafson, Daniel L; Flaig, Thomas W; Tsai, Wei Yann; Wu, David P H; Lee, Valerie; Greenlee, Heather

    2014-01-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose per day of silybin phosphatidylcholine (Siliphos) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic dysfunction. Patients with advanced HCC not eligible for other therapies based on poor hepatic function were enrolled in a phase I study of silybin phosphatidylcholine. A standard phase I design was used with 4 planned cohorts, dose escalating from 2, 4, 8, to 12 g per day in divided doses for 12 weeks. Three participants enrolled in this single institution trial. All enrolled subjects consumed 2 g per day of study agent in divided doses. Serum concentrations of silibinin and silibinin glucuronide increased within 1 to 3 weeks. In all 3 patients, liver function abnormalities and tumor marker α-fetoprotein progressed, but after day 56 the third patient showed some improvement in liver function abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers. All 3 participants died within 23 to 69 days of enrolling into the trial, likely from hepatic failure, but it could not be ruled out that deaths were possibly due to the study drug. Short-term administration of silybin phosphatidylcholine in patients with advanced HCC resulted in detectable increases in silibinin and its metabolite, silibinin glucuronide. The maximum tolerated dose could not be established. Since patients died soon after enrollment, this patient population may have been too ill to benefit from an intervention designed to improve liver function tests.

  5. Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

  6. Silymarin ameliorates experimentally induced depressive like behavior in rats: Involvement of hippocampal BDNF signaling, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Vishnu N; Aswar, Manoj K; Kulkarni, Yogesh P; Patil, Rajesh R; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2017-10-01

    Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats. Behavioral (ambulatory and rearing activity and immobility time), neurochemical [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level], biochemical (MDA formation, IL-6, TNF-α and antioxidants) changes in hippocampus and cerebral cortex along with serum corticosterone were investigated. Rats subjected to OBX elicited significant increase in immobility time, ambulatory and rearing behaviors, reduced BDNF level, 5-HT, DA, NE and antioxidant parameters along with increased serum corticosterone, MDA formation, IL-6, and TNF-α in hippocampus and cerebral cortex compared to sham operated rats. Administration of with silymarin significantly attenuated immobility time, ambulatory and rearing behaviors, serum corticosterone and improved BDNF expression, 5-HT, DA, NE and antioxidant paradigms in cerebral cortex as well as hippocampus. In addition, silymarin attenuated IL-6, and TNF-α significantly in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in OBX rats. Thus, silymarin exhibits anti-depressant-like activity in OBX rats due to alterations in several neurotransmitters, endocrine and immunologic systems, including BDNF, 5-HT, DA, NE, MDA formation, IL-6, and TNF-α in hippocampus and cerebral cortex as well as serum corticosterone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Silymarin inhibits melanoma cell growth both in vitro and in vivo by targeting cell cycle regulators, angiogenic biomarkers and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin diseases and is often associated with activating mutations of the proto-oncogene BRAF. To develop more effective strategies for the prevention or treatment of melanoma, we have examined the inhibitory effects of silymarin, a flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on melanoma cells. Using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (non BRAF-mutated but highly metastatic) human melanoma cell lines, we found that in vitro treatment with silymarin resulted in a dose-dependent: (i) reduction in cell viability; (ii) enhancement of either Go/G1 (A375) or G2-M (Hs294t) phase cell cycle arrest with corresponding alterations in cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases; and (iii) induction of apoptosis. The silymarin-induced apoptosis of human melanoma cells was associated with a reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), an increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax), and activation of caspases. Further, oral administration of silymarin (500 mg/kg body weight/2× a week) significantly inhibited (60%, P < 0.01) the growth of BRAF-mutated A375 melanoma tumor xenografts, and this was associated with: (i) inhibition of cell proliferation; (ii) induction of apoptosis of tumor cells; (iii) alterations in cell cycle regulatory proteins; and (iv) reduced expression of tumor angiogenic biomarkers in tumor xenograft tissues. These results indicate that silymarin may have a chemotherapeutic effect on human melanoma cell growth and warrant its further evaluation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Potential antidepressant-like activity of silymarin in the acute restraint stress in mice: Modulation of corticosterone and oxidative stress response in cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Vishnu N; Dhakane, Valmik D; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2016-10-01

    Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavanoid of Silybum marianum, elicited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in stressed model. It was found to increase 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antidepressant-like activity of silymarin in the acute restraint stress (ARS) in mice. The ARS was induced by immobilizing the mice for a period of 7h using rodent restraint device preventing them for any physical movement. One hour prior to ARS, silymarin was administered at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg per oral to non stressed and ARS mice. Various behavioral parameters like immobility time in force swim test, locomotor activity in open field test, and biochemical alterations, serum corticosterone, 5-HT, DA, NE level, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzymes (GSH, CAT and SOD) in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in non stressed and ARS subjected mice were investigated. Experimental findings reveals mice subjected to ARS exhibited significant increase immobility time, serum corticosterone, MDA formation and impaired SOD and CAT activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex as compared to non stressed mice. Silymarin treatment (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) significantly attenuated immobility time, corticosterone and restored the antioxidant enzymes after ARS. The present experimental findings indicate that silymarin exhibits antidepressant like activity probably either through alleviating oxidative stress by modulation of corticosterone response, and antioxidant defense system in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in ARS mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  9. Silibinin Capsules improves high fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters through modifying hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chun-Xue; Deng, Jing-Na; Yan, Li; Liu, Yu-Ying; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Sun, Hao-Yu; Wang, Ying-Hong; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-08-17

    Silibinin Capsules (SC) is a silybin-phospholipid complex with silybin as the bioactive component. Silybin accounts for 50-70% of the seed extract of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.. As a traditional medicine, silybin has been used for treatment of liver diseases and is known to provide a wide range of hepatoprotective effects. High fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide health problem. This study was to investigate the role of SC in NAFLD with focusing on its underlying mechanism and likely target. Male hamsters (Cricetidae) received HFD for 10 weeks to establish NAFLD model. NAFLD was assessed by biochemical assays, histology and immunohistochemistry. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and western blot were conducted to gain insight into the mechanism. Hamsters fed HFD for 10 weeks developed fatty liver accompanying with increased triglyceride (TG) accumulation, enhancing de novo lipogenesis, increase in fatty acid (FA) uptake and reducing FA oxidation and TG lipolysis, as well as a decrease in the expression of phospho-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα) and Sirt 1. SC treatment at 50mg/kg silybin and 100mg/kg silybin for 8 weeks protected hamsters from development of fatty liver, reducing de novo lipogenesis and increasing FA oxidation and p-AMPKα expression, while having no effect on FA uptake and TG lipolysis. SC protected against NAFLD in hamsters by inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and promotion of FA oxidation, which was likely mediated by activation of AMPKα. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The natural flavonoid silybin improves the response to Photodynamic Therapy of bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gándara, L; Sandes, E; Di Venosa, G; Prack Mc Cormick, B; Rodriguez, L; Mamone, L; Batlle, A; Eiján, A M; Casas, A

    2014-04-05

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an anticancer treatment based on photosensitisation of malignant cells. The precursor of the photosensitiser Protoporphyrin IX, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), has been used for PDT of bladder cancer. Silybin is a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, and it has been reported to increase the efficacy of several anticancer treatments. In the present work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of the combination of ALA-PDT and silybin in the T24 and MB49 bladder cancer cell lines. MB49 cells were more sensitive to PDT damage, which was correlated with a higher Protoporphyrin IX production from ALA. Employing lethal light doses 50% (LD50) and 75% (LD75) and additional silybin treatment, there was a further increase of toxicity driven by PDT in both cell lines. Using the Chou-Talalay model for drug combination derived from the mass-action law principle, it was possible to identify the effect of the combination as synergic when using LD75, whilst the use of LD50 led to an additive effect on MB49 cells. On the other hand, the drug combination turned out to be nearly additive on T24 cells. Apoptotic cell death is involved both in silybin and PDT cytotoxicity in the MB49 line but there is no apparent correlation with the additive or synergic effect observed on cell viability. On the other hand, we found an enhancement of the PDT-driven impairment of cell migration on both cell lines as a consequence of silybin treatment. Overall, our results suggest that the combination of silybin and ALA-PDT would increase PDT outcome, leading to additive or synergistic effects and possibly impairing the occurrence of metastases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of silymarin on hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy: is silymarin effective in hepatic regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkunar, Suleyman; Tokgoz, Serhat; Bilgin, Bulent Caglar; Erdem, Hasan; Aktimur, Recep; Can, Serpil; Erol, Huseyin Serkan; Isgoren, Atilla; Sozen, Selim; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Silymarin from Silybum marianum was found to reduce liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of silymarin on hepatic regeneration in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals as sham, control and experimental groups. In the sham group (n=10) abdominal incision was closed after laparotomy. In the control group (n=10), the rats underwent 70% hepatectomy after laparotomy. In the experimental group (n=10) after partial 70% hepatectomy, silymarin (200 mg/kg/d) were given to rats for 10 days. Rats in three groups were sacrificed on 10 days. Aspartate (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), ALP, LDH and total bilirubin levels were measured using intracardiac blood samples. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and tissue glutathion (GSH) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. To reveal the increase in the mass of the remnant liver tissue in the control and experimental groups relative weight of the liver was calculated. Histopathological analysis of the liver was performed using a semi-quantitative scoring system. Results: A statistically significant difference among three groups was not shown for AST and ALT levels. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups as for total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Increases in relative liver weights were seen with time in Groups 2 and 3. A statistically significant difference was not found for tissue malondialdehyde, Glutathion and Superoxide dismutase levels between hepatectomy and hepatectomy + silymarin groups. On liver tissue sections of the rats in the hepatectomy + silymarin group, increased regeneration and lipid peroxidation were observed accompanied by decreased antioxidant response. Conclusion: It has been observed that silymarin with many established functions such as antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and energy antioxidant effects, does

  12. Therapeutic potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Oswal, Rajesh J; Dhakane, Valmik D; Aswar, Manoj K; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2018-02-01

    Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress. The mice were subjected to CUMS for 28 days (4 weeks) and administered with silymarin (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), or fluoxetine or vehicle from days 8 to 28 (3 weeks simultaneously). Animals were evaluated for behavioral changes, such as anhedonia by sucrose preference test, behavioral despair by forced swim test, and exploratory behaviors by an open field test. In addition, neurobiochemical alterations, mainly monoamines, 5-HT, NE, DA, neurotrophic factor BDNF, and cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, oxidant-antioxidant parameters by determining the malondialdehyde formation (an index of lipid peroxidation process), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in hippocampus and cerebral cortex along with serum corticosterone were investigated. Our findings reveal that mice subjected to CUMS exhibited lower sucrose preference, increase immobility time without affecting general locomotion of the animals, and reduce BDNF, 5-HT, NE, and DA level, increased serum corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α along with an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Silymarin significantly reversed the CUMS-induced changes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Thus, the possible mechanism involved in the antidepressant-like activity of silymarin is correlated to the alleviation of monoaminergic, neurogenesis (enhancing 5-HT, NE, and BDNF levels), and

  13. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  14. Silymarin prevents diabetes-induced hyperpermeability in human retinal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Marta; Turch, Mireia; Simó-Servat, Olga; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an essential role in development of diabetic macular edema (DME). While there is evidence suggesting that silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, could be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy, no studies have been conducted in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of silymarin on disruption of inner blood retinal barrier (BRB), the primary cause of DME. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were cultured under standard (5.5mM D-glucose) and diabetogenic conditions (25mM D-glucose and 25mM D-glucose + recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor [rVEGF, 25mg/mL]). To assess cell viability, three concentrations of silymarin were tested (2, 4 and 10μg/mL). The effect of silymarin on HREC disruption was determined using a dextran (70kD) permeability asssay. No differences were found in the viability of HRECs treated with 2 or 4μg/mL of silymarin as compared to untreated cells, but viability significantly decreased after using 10μg/mL. The concentration of 4 μg/mL was therefore selected. Silymarin (4μg/mL) caused a significant decrease in VEGF-induced permeability in both media with 5.5nM (422±58 vs. 600±72 ng/mL/cm2; p<0.03) and 25nM of D-glucose (354 ± 28 vs. 567 ± 102 ng/mL/cm2; p<0.04). Our results show that silymarin is effective for preventing hyperpermeability induced by diabetic conditions in HRECs. Further studies are needed to assess whether silymarin could be useful to treat DME. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Different anti-adipogenic effects of bio-compounds on primary visceral pre-adipocytes and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Several natural compounds exhibit strong capacity for decreasing triglyceride accumulation, enhancing lipolysis and inducing apoptosis. The present study reports the anti-adipogenic effects of Silybum marianum (SL), Citrus aurantium (CA), Taraxacum officinale (TO), resveratrol (RE), Curcuma longa (CU), caffeine (CF), oleuropein (OL) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing differentiation and increasing lipolysis and apoptosis. Analyses were performed on human primary visceral pre-adipocytes after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and on mature adipocytes after 7 days of treatment (A7). The percentage of apoptosis induced by TO extract in P10 and P20 cells was significantly higher than that induced by all other compounds and in CTRL cells. Triglyceride accumulation was significantly lower in cells treated with DHA, CF, RE in comparison to cells treated with OL and in CTRL cells. Treatments with CF, DHA and OL significantly incremented lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to other compounds and in CTRL cells. On the contrary, the treatment of A7 cells with OL, CA and TO compounds significantly increased cell lipolysis. The addition of CF in differentiating P20 pre-adipocytes significantly increased the expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT1, WNT3A, SFRP5, and DLK1. Genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as CCND1, CEBPB and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by the treatment. The screening of bioactive compounds for anti-adipogenic effects showed that in differentiating cells TO extract was the most effective in inducing apoptosis and CF and DHA extracts were more efficient in inhibition of differentiation and in induction of cell lipolysis. PMID:27540349

  16. A study of high-dose oral silybin-phytosome followed by prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Thomas W; Glodé, Michael; Gustafson, Daniel; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tao, Yuzhen; Wilson, Shandra; Su, Lih-Jen; Li, Yuan; Harrison, Gail; Agarwal, Rajesh; Crawford, E David; Lucia, M Scott; Pollak, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Silibinin is a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianium) with anti-oxidant properties. The purpose of the current trial was to determine the tissue and blood effects of high-dose silybin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients. Subjects with localized prostate cancer planning for a prostatectomy were eligible to enroll. Six patients received 13 g of silybin-phytosome daily with six additional participants serving as control subjects. Patients in the treatment arm received silybin-phytosome for 14-31 days (mean was 20 days) prior to surgery. Silibinin blood levels were measured 1 hr after the first silybin-phytosome dose with a mean value of 19.7 microM. Trough silibinin levels were assessed at the end of the trial with an average concentration of 1.2 microM. In contrast to the high peak levels of silibinin observed in blood, the highest silibinin level observed in the harvested prostate tissue was 496.6 pmol/g. There were no significant differences noted in baseline and post-treatment blood levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. One of the treated patients developed a grade 4 post-operative thromboembolic event. The other observed toxicities in the treatment group were mild: four subjects had diarrhea and one had asymptomatic grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia which was transient. High-dose oral silybin-phytosome achieves high blood concentrations transiently, but low levels of silibinin are seen in prostate tissue. Silibinin's lack of tissue penetration may be explained by its short half-life, the brief duration of therapy in this study or an active process removing silibinin from the prostate.

  17. Effects and Tolerance of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Chen, Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of silymarin on chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV-) infected patients. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of silymarin in chronic HCV-infected patients up to April 1, 2014 were systematically identified in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Results. A total of 222 and 167 patients in five RCTs were randomly treated with silymarin (or intravenous silibinin) and placebo, respectively. Serum HCV RNA relatively decreased in patients treated with silymarin compared with those administered with placebo, but no significance was found (P = 0.09). Meta-analysis of patients orally treated with silymarin indicated that the changes of HCV RNA are similar in the two groups (P = 0.19). The effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of oral silymarin is not different from that of placebo (P = 0.45). Improvements in quality-of-life (Short Form-36) in both silymarin and placebo recipients were impressive but relatively identical (P = 0.09). Conclusion. Silymarin is well tolerated in chronic HCV-infected patients. However, no evidence of salutary effects of oral silymarin has yet been reported based on intermediate endpoints (ALT and HCV RNA) in this population. Moreover, intravenous administration of silymarin should be further studied. PMID:25247194

  18. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  19. Effects and tolerance of silymarin (milk thistle) in chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongguo; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Chen, Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of silymarin on chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV-) infected patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of silymarin in chronic HCV-infected patients up to April 1, 2014 were systematically identified in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 222 and 167 patients in five RCTs were randomly treated with silymarin (or intravenous silibinin) and placebo, respectively. Serum HCV RNA relatively decreased in patients treated with silymarin compared with those administered with placebo, but no significance was found (P = 0.09). Meta-analysis of patients orally treated with silymarin indicated that the changes of HCV RNA are similar in the two groups (P = 0.19). The effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of oral silymarin is not different from that of placebo (P = 0.45). Improvements in quality-of-life (Short Form-36) in both silymarin and placebo recipients were impressive but relatively identical (P = 0.09). Silymarin is well tolerated in chronic HCV-infected patients. However, no evidence of salutary effects of oral silymarin has yet been reported based on intermediate endpoints (ALT and HCV RNA) in this population. Moreover, intravenous administration of silymarin should be further studied.

  20. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  1. Silymarin Targets β-Catenin Signaling in Blocking Migration/Invasion of Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Sun, Qian; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a leading cause of death from skin diseases, and is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We have examined the inhibitory effect of silymarin, a plant flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on cell migration of metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines (A375 and Hs294t) and assessed whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the target of silymarin. Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of human melanoma cell lines with silymarin resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin, while reducing the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin (i.e., β-catenin inactivation) and reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and MMP-9 which are the down-stream targets of β-catenin. Silymarin enhanced: (i) the levels of casein kinase 1α, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and phosphorylated-β-catenin on critical residues Ser45, Ser33/37 and Thr41, and (ii) the binding of β-transducin repeat-containing proteins (β-TrCP) with phospho forms of β-catenin in melanoma cells. These events play important roles in degradation or inactivation of β-catenin. To verify whether β-catenin is a potent molecular target of silymarin, the effect of silymarin was determined on β-catenin-activated (Mel 1241) and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel 1011) melanoma cells. Treatment of Mel 1241 cells with silymarin or FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, significantly inhibited cell migration of Mel 1241 cells, which was associated with the elevated levels of casein kinase 1α and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and decreased accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, this effect of silymarin and FH535 was not found in Mel 1011 melanoma cells. These results indicate for the first time that silymarin inhibits melanoma cell migration by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:21829575

  2. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  3. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  4. Silibinin as a potential therapeutic for sulfur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the

  5. 75 FR 27981 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... and Grade Realignments, Yellow Star Thistle and Knapweed, Invasive Species Education and Awareness... Creek Weed Treatment, Maud-S Canyon Trail Reconstruction, Maverick Mountain Hazard Tree Removal, and...

  6. Protective and therapeutic effects of an extract mixture of alder tree, labiate herb, milk thistle green bean-rice bran fermentation, and turnip against ethanol-induced toxicity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min-Won; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Huh, Chul-Sung

    2008-01-01

    An herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were tested for their protective and therapeutic effects on ethanol-induced liver injury. The herbal extract mixture, yogurt and commercial drugs were used for treatment for two weeks prior to administering a single oral dose of ethanol (3 g/kg body weight). The herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were found to provide protection against ethanol-induced toxicity comparable to the commercial drug treatment, according to the serum and histopathological analysis. It was also shown that co-treatment with herbal extract mixture and yogurt against a triple oral dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight, over one week) provided protection against ethanol toxicity. After the initial set of experiments, the herbal extract mixture and yogurt treatments were extended for three more weeks. When compared to the positive control, further treatment with both the herbal extract and yogurt significantly reduced liver injury and resulted in a lower grade of lipid deposition. PMID:18296886

  7. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sargın, Seyid Ahmet; Akçicek, Ekrem; Selvi, Selami

    2013-12-12

    -christi Mill., Rosa canina L., Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Elymus repens (L.) Gould and Juglans regia L. were the most commonly used species. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment respiratory tract diseases (14.1%), gastro-intestinal diseases (10%), kidney problems (7.3%), diabetes (7.1%), cholesterol (5%), rheumatism (4%), cancer various (4%), cardiovascular problems (3.1%) and burn (3%). Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Alaşehir areas. These plants, used in the treatment of many different diseases, are freely harvested in this region at abundant amounts. Due to the increasing health service facilities in the area, herbal medicine, seemed to be more related to health care and disease prevention than cure. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural Resources Investigations of the West Bank Hurricane Protection Project, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    most common understory plants include thistle (Carduus sp.), violet (Viola sp.), bur- marigold (Bidens laevis), and ferns. Drained cypress-tupelo swamp... marigold (Bidens laevis), violet (Viola sp.), thistle (Carduus sp.), and Southern shield fern (Thelypteris kunthil). Drained marsh makes up the

  9. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  10. 76 FR 71935 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... medusahead grass and bull thistle from construction of temporary roads. Ability to reclaim temporary roads... and bulbous blue grass in the area. Potential effects to historic properties, including the National...

  11. Field experiments to evaluate host plant specificity of prospective agents of Onopordum acanthium in Bulgaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium, is an invasive alien weed in North America that originates from Europe. Previous field observations in Bulgaria have confirmed the presence of prospective biological control agents including Cassida rubiginosa, Chaetostomella cylindrica, Eublemma amoena, Larinus ...

  12. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... build up in your body. The herbal supplement market is a multi-million dollar business. You may ... Ginseng Bai Zhi (root) Bitter Melon (fruit, leaf) Black Mustard (leaf) Blessed Thistle Chervit (leaf) Chicory (leaf) ...

  13. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says Share: ... Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle Milk ...

  14. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Crotalaria sagittalis Sedge - Cyperus compressus Sullcap - Scutellaria spp. Thistle - Cirsium spp. Yellow nutsedge - Cyperus esculentus L. Yellow...the plant hormone, gibberellin, which is necessary for stem elongation Susceptible Species: Ornamentals, turf species, wheat, barley, rice , sor- ghum

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction II, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Onopordum acanthium Scotch thistle Salsola sp. Russian thistle Tamarisk ramosissima Saltcedar Verbascum thapsus Mullein 3.7.4 Site-Specific...AFB by the City of Aurora. 3.10 RADON Radon is an odorless, tasteless radioactive gas. It is released by the breakdown of uranium -bearing deposits...such as sterile oats or winter wheat to establish root mass and compete with weeds • Follow sterile oats or winter wheat planting with mixed grass

  16. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-OK-11, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Russian thistle (_Iol]L kALL ), and thistle ( r_ _ium spp.) among others. Scattered sagebrush and rabbitbrush . (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), and a dense...described in detail selectively. All artifact analyses take the form of paradigmatic classifications as defined by Dunnell ( 1971 , 1979). In this system...with certain methods of production and particular steps in the reductive sequence (e.g., Crabtree 1972, 1976a,b; Flenniken and Garrison 1975; Muto 1971

  17. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of herbal products.

    PubMed

    Wilasrusmee, Chumpon; Siddiqui, Josephine; Bruch, David; Wilasrusmee, Skuntala; Kittur, Smita; Kittur, Dilip S

    2002-10-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs have been developed from natural products such as soil and fungi, which are also the sources of some commonly used herbal products. However, the effect of herbal products on immune response has not been investigated. Because these products can affect the host immune system they can induce either rejection or tolerance after a transplant procedure. To investigate the effects of ten commonly used herbal products on transplant-related immune function we performed in vitro lymphocyte proliferation tests using phytohemagglutinin, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) assay, and interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 production from MLC. Dong quai, ginseng, and milk thistle had nonspecific immunostimulatory effects on lymphocyte proliferation, whereas ginger and green tea had immunosuppressive effects. Dong quai and milk thistle increased alloresponsiveness in MLC, whereas ginger and tea decreased these responses. The immunostimulatory effects of dong quai and milk thistle were consistently seen in both cell-mediated immune response and nonspecific lymphoproliferation, whereas that of ginseng was not. The immunosuppressive effect of green tea and ginger were mediated through a decrease in IL-2 production, but the immunostimulatory effects of dong quai and milk thistle were not. We conclude that green tea, dong quai, ginseng, milk thistle, and ginger have effects on in vitro immune assays that may be relevant in transplantation in humans.

  18. Taxonomic status of Trichosirocalus species (Curculionidae) attacking Carduus, Cirsium and Onopordum species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Trichosirocalus Colonnelli includes some host-specific weevil species or biotypes with a relatively narrow host-range limited to some thistles of the subfamily Carduinae. An Italian population of T. horridus (Panzer) was introduced in 1974 into the USA, and a population from Germany was in...

  19. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a troublesome weed infesting the drier regions of western North America. It is native to Central Asia and infests rangelands and semi-arid pasture lands, croplands, residential, disturbed and industrial areas. Cosmobaris scolopacea (Germar) is a...

  20. Improving the evaluation process of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a prospective biocontrol agent of Salsola tragus, using a molecular approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (sensu lato), (Chenopodiaceae) is a weed native to Central Asia that was accidentally introduced in the U.S. in the early 1870s with seeds imported from Russia. Due to the dramatic impacts of its invasiveness on ecology and human activities, the weed has been targe...

  1. Alaska Plant Materials Center | Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov Websites

    Alaska Plant Materials Center Serving Alaska's needs in the production of native plants and traditional Division of Agriculture Grants Alaska Agriculture Statistics Annual Overview Invasive Plants Invasive Plants Program Invasives News Plant Profiles Canada thistle Elodea European Bird Cherry Giant hogweed

  2. The economic cost of noxious weeds on Montana grazing lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We distributed a 16-question survey concerning noxious weed abundances, impacts and management to livestock producers grazing on privately-owned or leased grazing lands in Montana. The noxious weeds most commonly reported as being present on respondents’ grazing units were Canada thistle (64% of gra...

  3. The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother.

    PubMed

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail M; Barnes, Kylie N; Myles, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    To review data regarding the efficacy of galactogogues available in the US to increase breast milk production in postpartum mothers. Literature was sought using PubMed (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1973-June 2012). Search terms included breastfeeding, breast milk, lactation, galactogogue, metoclopramide, oxytocin, fenugreek, milk thistle, silymarin, growth hormone, thyroid releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone, domperidone, goat's rue, beer, Asparagus racemosus, shatavari, Medicago sativa, alfalfa, Onicus benedictus, blessed thistle, Galega officinalis, brewer's yeast, and herbals. All studies including humans and published in English with data assessing the efficacy of galactogogues for increasing breast milk production were evaluated. Breast milk is considered the optimal food source for newborns through 1 year of age. Many factors influence overall maternal production, including maternal pain, illness, balance of time when returning to work, anxiety, or emotional stress. Although a variety of herbal and pharmaceutical options have anecdotal evidence of their ability to improve breast milk production, peer-reviewed studies proving their efficacy are lacking. Metoclopramide, oxytocin, fenugreek, and milk thistle have shown mixed results in improving milk production; however, the trials were small and had a variety of limitations. Nonpharmacologic recommendations should be exhausted before adding therapy. Although anecdotal evidence encourages the use of metoclopramide, fenugreek, asparagus, and milk thistle for their galactogogue properties, efficacy and safety data in the literature are lacking. Oxytocin and domperidone are potentially available for compounding purposes, but safety data are limited. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of available galactogogues on breast milk production.

  4. Creative Photography - Wildlife

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-25

    Thistle blooms provide a midday meal for a gulf fritillary butterfly at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in Florida. NASA’s Kennedy Space Center shares boundaries with the refuge, which is home to more than 330 native and migratory bird species, along with 25 mammal, 117 fish, and 65 amphibian and reptile species.

  5. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  6. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-12

    for combatting diseases and pests , a precise technology when supplying it with technical resources, effective forms of labor organization and first... combat waste and to decrease the range of grades. Our branch has many collectives which constantly manufacture good products such as the Kolomna...foxtail, wild buckwheats [razvesistaya and vyunkovaya grechishka], goosefoot, stickseed, hemp nettle , field morning glory, knapweed, thistles), which

  7. 77 FR 64503 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...'s existing Payson Gate Meter Station for the downstream Lake Side 2 Power Plant. No incremental... County: A second compressor package at its existing Thistle Creek Compressor Station; Replacement of... pressure; and Metering and ancillary facility upgrades at Questar's existing Payson Gate Meter Station. In...

  8. Finalizing host range determination of a weed biological control pathogen with BLUPs and damage assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (CGS) is a facultative parasitic fungus being evaluated as a classical biological control agent of Russian thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.). In initial host range determination tests, Henderson’s mixed model equat...

  9. In vivo metabolomic interpretation of the anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.) administration in high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Eun Sung; Singh, Digar; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-08-01

    The esoteric anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L) have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of hyacinth bean compared to milk thistle, a natural herb employed for ameliorating obesity-related diseases, using high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice towards unfolding the perplexing mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered hyacinth bean (25 mg/kg/day) and milk thistle (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks along with HFD. Intriguingly, a number of anti-obesity mechanisms indexed through clinical parameters, suppression in weight gains and liver steatosis were found similar to some disparity. Furthermore, the corresponding metabolic implications were studied through MS-based metabolite profiling, and using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes for metabolic pathways revealing that hyacinth bean or milk thistle administration effectively attenuates the HFD-induced lipid, glucose, and bile acid metabolism, with former specifically attenuates pyruvate-derived amino acids metabolism. Among them, valine, asparagine, and lysine displayed high correlation with blood clinical parameters. A lower dose of hyacinth bean resulted in similar anti-obesity effects as milk thistle, as confirmed by both clinical and metabolomics analyses. Equivocally, we conjecture that hyacinth bean could be used as a potent anti-obesity herbal functional food. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California, Mid-Valley Area, Phase III. Design Memorandum, Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    spp.), clover (Melilotus spp. and Trifoliumsppp.), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ), several thistles (Cirsium sp.), grasses, and forbs form an often...including grasses, daisies (Compositae family), cottonwood seedlings, cockelbur (Xanthium strumarium ), mint (Labiatae family), and wild mustard...vegetative species including grasses, daisies (Compositae family), cottonwood seedlings, cockelbur (Xanthium strumarium ), mint (Labiatae family), and wild

  11. First report of stem canker of Salsola tragus caused by Diaporthe eres in Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salsola tragus L. (Russian thistle, tumbleweed), family Chenopodiaceae, is a problematic invasive weed in the western United States and a target of biological control efforts. In September of 2007, dying Salsola tragus plants were found along the Azov Sea at Chushka, Russia. About 30 plants in the...

  12. Optical sensing of weed infestations at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsola ssp.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. These weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives...

  13. Successful establishment of epiphytotics of Puccinia punctiformis for biological control of Cirsium arvense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense, CT) is one of the worst weeds in temperate areas of the world. The rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis was first proposed as a biological control agent for CT in 1893. The rust causes systemic disease, is specific to CT, and is in all countries where CT is found. Despi...

  14. Mothers and Sons: Androgynous Relationships in African-West Indian and African-American Novels of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSeur, Geta

    1992-01-01

    Four African-American and West Indian novels of childhood illustrate relationships and bonding between mothers and sons: (1) "Go Tell It on the Mountain" (James Baldwin); (2) "Not without Laughter" (Langston Hughes); (3) "Amongst Thistles and Thorns" (Austin Clarke); and (4) "In the Castle of My Skin"…

  15. Environmental Assessment for Central Wyoming Relay Node, Site Number RN 8C928WY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-19

    alkali sacaton, Indian ricegrass, basin wild rye, thread leaf sedge, side oats grama, and milk vetch (SCS, 1990). 3-4 The SSA contains an abundance of free...Russian thistle , indicating that its native vegetation has been disturbed. Thermopolis, the nearest residential community, is approximately 7.5 miles

  16. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  17. Tourism, Tolerance, or Hospitality? An Assessment of a Native/Non-Native, Urban/Rural Youth Exchange Program between Fort Good Hope, NWT, and East Vancouver, BC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article considers and assesses a youth exchange project between two community-based youth centers: The Purple Thistle Centre in East Vancouver, British Columbia, and the K'asho Got'ine Youth Centre in Fort Good Hope, Northwest Territories. Both centers serve primarily low-income youth, but after that the similarities are very few. The…

  18. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    elderberry ( Sambucus race- mosa) form the understory, along with hedge nettle (Stachys cooleyae), -48- nettle (Urtica spp.) and thistles (Cirsium spp...identified aquatic lands as areas supporting certain flowering plants and algae common to intertidal areas. NEC noted that mosspecies listed occurred low

  19. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Hydrophytic Status~a) SHRUBS (Cant.) Rubus occidentalis - Blackberry UP* Sambucus canadensis American elder FACW Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush... flowered agrimony FAC Allium vineale Field garlic FACU Boebmeria cylindrica False nettle FACW Cirsium vulzare Thistle FACU Galium tinctorium Dyers...industrial waste. However, hazardous materials such as petroleum waste, oil , lubricant products,. contaminated soil excavated from UST sites, and

  20. SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integratedmore » prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.« less

  1. Essiac for cancer?

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    An analysis of a mixture of herbs in Essiac, an alternative-medicine anti-cancer therapy, has shown it contains a variety of compounds which have antioxidant activity as well as the ability to block cell growth. The Essiac mixture contains burdock root, Indian rhubarb, sheep sorrel, inner bark of slippery elm, watercress, blessed thistle, red clover, and kelp. A review of patients taking Essiac shows that there was no obvious toxicity. Clinical trials are recommended to determine Essiac's efficacy.

  2. Demolition, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of New Boat Docks, Boat Ramp, and Support Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Environmental Assessment. Version 1.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-16

    invasive weeds present in lower densities. In addition, cogon grass , melaleuca, mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and small populations of thistles...area. Adverse impacts to indigos are not expected since the area consists of mowed grass only. To ensure potential impacts are reduced, the 45 SW...inside the Trident Basin, is primarily grass with rock revetment. The security activities would require boat operations in other areas of the Port as

  3. Interactions Between IGFBP-3 and Nuclear Receptors in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    flavonoid found in grapes, green vegetables, and onions, induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells (240). This was accompanied with a decrease in IGF-1 and -2 and...stabilized integrin receptor complexes (27). In vivo. GROWTH INHIBITION. Mice bearing human prostate 22RV1 tumor xenografts were fed apigenin, a flavonoid ...the active component of flavonoid antioxidant silymarin (milk thistle extract) significantly inhib- ited tumor volume in DU145 tumor xenograft nude

  4. The Population Ecology of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species, ’Cirsium rhothophilum’ on Vandenberg AFB, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    always been operative--physical stress, sand burial, insect attack. The artichoke plume moth causes extensive damage to seeds and leaves, but this most...dunes. I - -. - * 24 C. rhothophilum is conspicuously susceptible to a number of insects, but the most destructive appears to be the artichoke plume... artichoke plume moth is widespread and feeds on a number of species of thistles. It attacks the leaves, buds, and flowering heads of C. rhothophilum. Adult

  5. Environmental Assessment: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Management Cannon Air Force Base and Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    requirements are met by metabolizing grazed vegetation. Prairie dogs dig burrows to an average depth of 2-3 meters with some tunnels interconnecting with...the potential to impact non- target species such as mice, kangaroo rats, and some songbirds. Establishing control zones at CAFB and MAFR could not be...Gutierrezia sarothrae), and Russian thistle (Salsola iberica). Water requirements are met by metabolizing grazed vegetation. Prairie dogs dig burrows

  6. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  7. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    PubMed

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  8. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  9. Silymarin for hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Polyak, Stephen J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dahari, Harel; Ferenci, Peter; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and silymarin-derived compounds have been considered hepatoprotective since the plant was first described in ancient times. Hepatoprotection is defined as several non-mutually exclusive biological activities including antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions. Despite clear evidence for silymarin-induced hepatoprotection in cell culture and animal models, evidence for beneficial effects in humans has been equivocal. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge on silymarin in the context of hepatitis C virus infection. The information was collated from a recent workshop on silibinin in Germany. PMID:23011959

  10. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    49 B3 Risk map for Bromus tectorum……………………………………………………………...50 B4 Risk map for Centaurea maculosa …………………………………………………………..51 B5 Risk map...tectorum Centaurea maculosa Cirsium arvense Linaria dalmatica Verbascum thapsus Intercept -5.89384 7.63606 2.10221 -447.2744 -36.33253 -2.07618... maculosa (spotted knapweed), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Linaria dalmatica (Dalmation toadflax), and Verbascum thapsus (common mullein

  11. Global asymptotic stability of density dependent integral population projection models.

    PubMed

    Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Townley, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Many stage-structured density dependent populations with a continuum of stages can be naturally modeled using nonlinear integral projection models. In this paper, we study a trichotomy of global stability result for a class of density dependent systems which include a Platte thistle model. Specifically, we identify those systems parameters for which zero is globally asymptotically stable, parameters for which there is a positive asymptotically stable equilibrium, and parameters for which there is no asymptotically stable equilibrium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Type characters of non-native plant species in Great Lakes national parks (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Brundu, G.; Brock, J.; Camarda, I.; Child, L.; Wade, M.

    2001-01-01

    Non-native plant species are increasing in frequency and abundance in many natural areas in the United States. In Midwestern National Parks, as much as one third of the flora may be non-native. It was hypothesized that botanical characters of these species could be used to typify them and improve the methods of predicting invasions. Data on 19 characters of 341 non-native species from the four Great Lakes national lakeshores (Apostle Islands, Indiana Dunes, Pictured Rocks, and Sleeping Bear Dunes) and invasive non-native species for the State of Wisconsin were collected and studied. For many of the species, little data could be found, but for 139 of them, data were collected for at least 80% of the characters. The frequencies of classes of the characters were tabulated and ranked to typify the most common non-native species. This led to a description of a 'type species' just for these four National Parks. Three species of Cirsium, including Canada (C. arvense), marsh (C. palustre) and bull thistle (C. vulgare), matched the type species better than other species. C. vulgare occurs in more National Parks than the other thistles.

  13. Invasive plant species: Inventory, mapping, and monitoring - A national strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  14. The influence of deep-seabed CO2 sequestration on small metazoan (meiofaunal) viability and community structure: final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thistle, D

    2008-09-30

    Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuel has produced carbon dioxide at an increasing rate. Present atmospheric concentration is about ~1.5 times the preindustrial level and is rising. Because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, its increased concentration in the atmosphere is thought to be a cause of global warming. If so, the rate of global warming could be slowed if industrial carbon dioxide were not released into the atmosphere. One suggestion has been to sequester it in the deep ocean, but theory predicts that deep-sea species will be intolerant of the increased concentrations of carbon dioxide andmore » the increased acidity it would cause. The aim of our research was to test for consequences of carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea, sediment-dwelling meiofauna. Recent technical advances allowed us to test for effects in situ at depths proposed for sequestration. The basic experimental unit was an open-topped container into which we pumped ~20 L of liquid carbon dioxide. The liquid carbon dioxide mixed with near-bottom sea water, which produced carbon dioxide-rich sea water that flowed out over the near-by seabed. We did 30-day experiments at several locations and with different numbers of carbon dioxide-filled containers. Harpacticoid copepods (Crustacea) were our test taxon. In an experiment we did during a previous grant period, we found that large numbers of individuals exposed to carbon dioxide-rich sea water had been killed (Thistle et al. 2004). During the present grant period, we analyzed the species-level data in greater detail and discovered that, although individuals of many species had been killed by exposure to carbon dioxide-rich sea water, individuals of some species had not (Thistle et al. 2005). This result suggests that seabed sequestration of carbon dioxide will not just reduce the abundance of the meiofauna but will change the composition of the community. In another experiment, we found that some harpacticoid

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Commonly Used Herbal Extracts on UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A4, 1A6, and 1A9 Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly used botanicals on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities in human liver microsomes. The extracts screened were black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, milk thistle, saw palmetto, and valerian in addition to the green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Formation of trifluoperazine glucuronide, serotonin glucuronide, and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide was used as an index reaction for UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities, respectively, in human liver microsomes. Inhibition potency was expressed as the concentration of the inhibitor at 50% activity (IC50) and the volume in which the dose could be diluted to generate an IC50-equivalent concentration [volume/dose index (VDI)]. Potential inhibitors were EGCG for UGT1A4, milk thistle for both UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, saw palmetto for UGT1A6, and cranberry for UGT1A9. EGCG inhibited UGT1A4 with an IC50 value of (mean ± S.E.) 33.8 ± 3.1 μg/ml. Milk thistle inhibited both UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 with IC50 values of 59.5 ± 3.6 and 33.6 ± 3.1 μg/ml, respectively. Saw palmetto and cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, respectively, with IC50 values >100 μg/ml. For each inhibition, VDI was calculated to determine the potential of achieving IC50-equivalent concentrations in vivo. VDI values for inhibitors indicate a potential for inhibition of first-pass glucuronidation of UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 substrates. These results highlight the possibility of herb-drug interactions through modulation of UGT enzyme activities. Further clinical studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo extent of the observed interactions. PMID:21632963

  16. An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Munoz, Juliana; Gurley, Bill J; Markowitz, John S

    2015-04-02

    Botanical medicines are frequently used in combination with therapeutic drugs, imposing a risk for harmful botanical-drug interactions (BDIs). Among the existing BDI evaluation methods, clinical studies are the most desirable, but due to their expense and protracted time-line for completion, conventional in vitro methodologies remain the most frequently used BDI assessment tools. However, many predictions generated from in vitro studies are inconsistent with clinical findings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to develop a novel ex vivo approach for BDI assessment and expand the safety evaluation methodology in applied ethnopharmacological research. This approach differs from conventional in vitro methods in that rather than botanical extracts or individual phytochemicals being prepared in artificial buffers, human plasma/serum collected from a limited number of subjects administered botanical supplements was utilized to assess BDIs. To validate the methodology, human plasma/serum samples collected from healthy subjects administered either milk thistle or goldenseal extracts were utilized in incubation studies to determine their potential inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Silybin A and B, two principal milk thistle phytochemicals, and hydrastine and berberine, the purported active constituents in goldenseal, were evaluated in both phosphate buffer and human plasma based in vitro incubation systems. Ex vivo study results were consistent with formal clinical study findings for the effect of milk thistle on the disposition of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, and for goldenseal׳s influence on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a widely accepted CYP3A4/5 substrate. Compared to conventional in vitro BDI methodologies of assessment, the introduction of human plasma into the in vitro study model changed the observed inhibitory effect of silybin A, silybin B and hydrastine and berberine on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively, results which more

  17. An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Munoz, Juliana; Gurley, Bill J.; Markowitz, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Botanical medicines are frequently used in combination with therapeutic drugs, imposing a risk for harmful botanical-drug interactions (BDIs). Among the existing BDI evaluation methods, clinical studies are the most desirable, but due to their expense and protracted time-line for completion, conventional in vitro methodologies remain the most frequently used BDI assessment tools. However, many predictions generated from in vitro studies are inconsistent with clinical findings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to develop a novel ex vivo approach for BDI assessment and expand the safety evaluation methodoloy in applied ethnopharmacological research. Materials and Methods This approach differs from conventional in vitro methods in that rather than botanical extracts or individual phytochemicals being prepared in artificial buffers, human plasma/serum collected from a limited number of subjects administered botanical supplements was utilized to assess BDIs. To validate the methodology, human plasma/serum samples collected from healthy subjects administered either milk thistle or goldenseal extracts were utilized in incubation studies to determine their potential inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Silybin A and B, two principal milk thistle phytochemicals, and hydrastine and berberine, the purported active constituents in goldenseal, were evaluated in both phosphate buffer and human plasma based in vitro incubation systems. Results Ex vivo study results were consistent with formal clinical study findings for the effect of milk thistle on the disposition of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, and for goldenseal’s influence on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a widely accepted CYP3A4/5 substrate. Compared to conventional in vitro BDI methodologies of assessment, the introduction of human plasma into the in vitro study model changed the observed inhibitory effect of silybinA, silybin B and hydrastine and berberine

  18. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of emergency haying on vegetative characteristics within selected Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, A.W.; Cade, B.S.; Vandever, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Successional changes in vegetation composition within seeded grasslands may effect attainment of long term conservaation objectives. Comparisons between vegetation composition within Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields planted to cool season, introduced grasses hayed for emergency we, and non hayed fields of the same age and species composition were completed to determine potential effects of periodic haying. Emergency haying had little long term effect on vegetation height/density, percent cover of live pass, or forb cover when compared to characteristics within non hayed fields?. The presence of legumes [primarily alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)] increased in response to haying, whereas, abundance of noxious weeds [chiefly Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L) Scop.)] diminished. Implications for long term management CRP grassland to achieve wildlife habitat objectives are discussed.

  20. Improving the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of silymarin by nanoencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Hong, Da Young; Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to improve the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of milk thistle silymarin by nanoencapsulation and to assess the functions of silymarin nanoparticle-containing film as an antimicrobial food-packaging agent. Silymarin nanoparticles were prepared using water-soluble chitosan (WCS) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). As the WCS and silymarin concentrations increased, particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) significantly increased. Nanoencapsulation significantly improved the water solubility of silymarin 7.7-fold. Antimicrobial activity of silymarin was effectively improved when silymarin was entrapped within the nanocapsule compared to when it was not entrapped. Films incorporating silymarin nanoparticles had better antimicrobial activity than films incorporating free silymarin. The results suggest that silymarin nanoparticles have applications in antimicrobial food additives and food packing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River Floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W.C.; Dixon, M.D.; Scott, M.L.; Rabbe, L.; Larson, G.; Volke, M.; Werner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wetdry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 510 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting. ?? 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  2. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has beenmore » cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.« less

  3. Silibinin ameliorates Aβ25-35-induced memory deficits in rats by modulating autophagy and attenuating neuroinflammation as well as oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Biao; Cui, Lingyu; Lei, Di; Zhang, Pingping; Yao, Guodong; Xia, Mingyu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Hattori, Shunji; Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory response, oxidative stress and autophagy are involved in amyloid β (Aβ)-induced memory deficits. Silibinin (silybin), a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle, is well known for its hepatoprotective activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of silibinin on Aβ 25-35 -injected rats. Results demonstrated that silibinin significantly attenuated Aβ 25-35 -induced memory deficits in Morris water maze and novel object-recognition tests. Silibinin exerted anxiolytic effect in Aβ 25-35 -injected rats as determined in elevated plus maze test. Silibinin attenuated the inflammatory responses, increased glutathione (GSH) levels and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and upregulated autophagy levels in the Aβ 25-35 -injected rats. In conclusion, silibinin is a potential candidate for AD treatment because of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy regulating activities.

  4. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

  5. Threshold responses to interacting global changes in a California grassland ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher; Mooney, Harold; Vitousek, Peter

    2015-02-02

    Building on the history and infrastructure of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment, we conducted experiments to explore the potential for single and combined global changes to stimulate fundamental type changes in ecosystems that start the experiment as California annual grassland. Using a carefully orchestrated set of seedling introductions, followed by careful study and later removal, the grassland was poised to enable two major kinds of transitions that occur in real life and that have major implications for ecosystem structure, function, and services. These are transitions from grassland to shrubland/forest and grassland to thistle patch. The experiment took place inmore » the context of 4 global change factors – warming, elevated CO 2, N deposition, and increased precipitation – in a full-factorial array, present as all possible 1, 2, 3, and 4-factor combinations, with each combination replicated 8 times.« less

  6. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  7. Influence of richness and seeding density on invasion resistance in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Helzer, Christopher J.; Wedin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations and agencies have restored thousands of hectares of cropland to grassland in the Great Plains of the United States. However, little is known about the relationships between richness and seeding density in these restorations and resistance to invasive plant species. We assessed the effects of richness and seeding density on resistance to invasive and other unseeded plant species in experimental tallgrass prairie plots in central Nebraska. In 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m plots were planted with six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. There was a significant negative relationship between richness and basal cover of unseeded perennial forbs/legumes and unseeded perennial/annual grasses, abundance of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), and the number of inflorescences removed from smooth brome (Bromus inermis) transplants. Invasion resistance may have been higher in the high richness treatments because of the characteristics of the dominant species in these plots or because of greater interspecific competition for limiting resources among forbs/legumes with neighboring plants belonging to the same functional group. Seeding density was not important in affecting invasion resistance, except in the cover of unseeded grasses. Increasing seed mix richness may be more effective than increasing the seeding density for decreasing invasion by unseeded perennial species, bull thistle, and smooth brome.

  8. Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For themore » first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native

  9. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. What magnitude are observed non-target impacts from weed biocontrol?

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Sforza, René François Henri

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review focused by plant on non-target impacts from agents deliberately introduced for the biological control of weeds found significant non-target impacts to be rare. The magnitude of direct impact of 43 biocontrol agents on 140 non-target plants was retrospectively categorized using a risk management framework for ecological impacts of invasive species (minimal, minor, moderate, major, massive). The vast majority of agents introduced for classical biological control of weeds (>99% of 512 agents released) have had no known significant adverse effects on non-target plants thus far; major effects suppressing non-target plant populations could be expected to be detectable. Most direct non-target impacts on plants (91.6%) were categorized as minimal or minor in magnitude with no known adverse long-term impact on non-target plant populations, but a few cacti and thistles are affected at moderate (n = 3), major (n = 7) to massive (n = 1) scale. The largest direct impacts are from two agents (Cactoblastis cactorum on native cacti and Rhinocyllus conicus on native thistles), but these introductions would not be permitted today as more balanced attitudes exist to plant biodiversity, driven by both society and the scientific community. Our analysis shows (as far as is known), weed biological control agents have a biosafety track record of >99% of cases avoiding significant non-target impacts on plant populations. Some impacts could have been overlooked, but this seems unlikely to change the basic distribution of very limited adverse effects. Fewer non-target impacts can be expected in future because of improved science and incorporation of wider values. Failure to use biological control represents a significant opportunity cost from the certainty of ongoing adverse impacts from invasive weeds. It is recommended that a simple five-step scale be used to better communicate the risk of consequences from both action (classical biological control) and no

  11. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Murúa, M. Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E.; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M. Inés; Villagrán, M. Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon. Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  12. Serum levels of TGFβ, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 cytokines in β-thalassemia major patients: the impact of silymarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Balouchi, Sima; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Mirmoghtadaei, Milad; Moayedi, Behjat

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Several immunological abnormalities have been characterized in β-thalassemia, many of which are linked to or identified with cytokines. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 in β-thalassemia major patients in comparison with healthy controls. The immunomodulatory effect of silymarin (a flavonoid complex obtained from Silybum marinum) on the serum levels of cytokines was further evaluated in thalassemia patients receiving silymarin (420 mg/day) and compared with patients treated with placebo for 6-month. Serum cytokines levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a significant higher concentration of TGF-β and IL-23 in the patient group than control group. Among studied cytokines, a significant reduction in serum IL-10 levels was found in patients treated with silymarin when compared with IL-10 values at baseline. However, no significant difference was observed between baseline values of cytokine compared with end values in placebo group. Our data suggest the presence of imbalanced immune condition involving inflammation and immunosuppression in thalassemia patients, which could be modulated to a more effective immune response by silymarin.

  13. Changes in vegetation structure in seeded nesting cover in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Barker, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    needing special management attention on public lands are leafy spurge (Euphorbia podperae), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), musk thistle (Carduus nutans), and plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). Sites disturbed by mammal diggings or those skipped during planting operations became revegetated mostly with species other than those of seeded nesting cover.Successfully established stands on good sites provided substantial food and cover for wildlife for at least 6 years and retained stand composition for at least 10 years. Further study will be necessary to determine longevity of these stands. Except for mandatory noxious weed control, no management treatments of seeded nesting cover were necessary before the seventh growing season, at which time some stands needed renovation. The primary goals for management of seeded nesting cover should be stand quality and longevity. Guidelines to these goals are suggested.

  14. Degradation and Local Survival of Permafrost Through the Last Interglaciation in Interior Alaska and Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. V.; Froese, D. G.; Jensen, B. J.

    2006-12-01

    Permafrost in northern North America is warming, and recent modeling efforts have predicted the widespread disappearance of permafrost through much of the northern hemisphere over the next century. However, little is known of the impacts of past sustained warm intervals on permafrost dynamics, antiquity, and distribution due to difficulties in establishing reliable chronologies. Permafrost thus remains the last element of the Arctic cryosphere for which there is poor understanding of its adaptability to past warmer-than-present climate. Here we present observations from three sites in the region of interior Alaska and Yukon Territory that remained ice-free during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, which collectively demonstrate the variable nature of the response of permafrost to warming during the last interglaciation. Chronology for all sites is based on identification of Old Crow tephra (OCt; 140±10 ka) by glass major element composition. Throughout the study region, OCt is consistently associated with organic-rich sediments that represent the last interglaciation on the basis of pollen, insect, and macrofossil assemblages. At the Palisades site on the Yukon River, 250 km west of Fairbanks, OCt is 1.5-3.5 m below thick (>1m) organic-rich silts and peats that are locally rich in beaver-chewed wood and large wood stumps, some of which are in growth position. In contrast, placer mining at Thistle Creek in central Yukon Territory exposes a dramatic thaw unconformity that is presumably related to local, but incomplete, permafrost degradation during the last interglaciation. In upslope positions at Thistle Creek, OCt is incorporated into a steeply dipping, 30 cm thick, organic-rich silt horizon that truncates at least one intact, relict ice wedge. The steeply dipping organic- rich horizon grades downslope into organic-rich silt with dense accumulations of wood fragments, including tree stems up to 2 m long. Evidence for similar permafrost degradation during the last

  15. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  16. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland withmore » components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years but shortly after

  17. The use of natural products to minimize and or counter act the risk of exposure to environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Kevin P.

    Essential oils have been studied for their unique ability to act as antioxidants. There is a large pool of publications describing the antioxidant activity of essential oils, however they all present results of research that was performed on a small number of oils and at most an individual botanical family or related species Antioxidant activities of 423 essential oils of 48 different botanical families were evaluated for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavenging agents using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryihydrazyl method. The EC50 of the 84 most active oils ranged from 4 to 2000 microg/mL. Oils having an EC50 of less than 300 mug/mL, (20 selected samples) were subjected to beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant activity test. Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the U.S.A and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold milk thistle, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities and anti-HCV activity. Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L. of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. There are few phytochemical studies found in the literature describing the chemical constituents of the two described species. Their lipoid constituents were examined to determine their essential oil and fatty acid composition. Both extracts were also tested for their radical scavenging activity. We investigated three groups of natural herbal antioxidants . One group related to essential oils showed the active antioxidant is mostly related to monoterpenes (or phenolic compounds) and ciscoterpenes. With silymarin , the active antioxidant chemicals are polyphenolic compounds. With the Rumnex , they showed the possibility of significant antioxidant activity and

  18. What Magnitude Are Observed Non-Target Impacts from Weed Biocontrol?

    PubMed Central

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Sforza, René François Henri

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review focused by plant on non-target impacts from agents deliberately introduced for the biological control of weeds found significant non-target impacts to be rare. The magnitude of direct impact of 43 biocontrol agents on 140 non-target plants was retrospectively categorized using a risk management framework for ecological impacts of invasive species (minimal, minor, moderate, major, massive). The vast majority of agents introduced for classical biological control of weeds (>99% of 512 agents released) have had no known significant adverse effects on non-target plants thus far; major effects suppressing non-target plant populations could be expected to be detectable. Most direct non-target impacts on plants (91.6%) were categorized as minimal or minor in magnitude with no known adverse long-term impact on non-target plant populations, but a few cacti and thistles are affected at moderate (n = 3), major (n = 7) to massive (n = 1) scale. The largest direct impacts are from two agents (Cactoblastis cactorum on native cacti and Rhinocyllus conicus on native thistles), but these introductions would not be permitted today as more balanced attitudes exist to plant biodiversity, driven by both society and the scientific community. Our analysis shows (as far as is known), weed biological control agents have a biosafety track record of >99% of cases avoiding significant non-target impacts on plant populations. Some impacts could have been overlooked, but this seems unlikely to change the basic distribution of very limited adverse effects. Fewer non-target impacts can be expected in future because of improved science and incorporation of wider values. Failure to use biological control represents a significant opportunity cost from the certainty of ongoing adverse impacts from invasive weeds. It is recommended that a simple five-step scale be used to better communicate the risk of consequences from both action (classical biological control) and no

  19. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  20. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage.

    PubMed

    Istrati, D; Lacatusu, I; Bordei, N; Badea, G; Oprea, O; Stefan, L M; Stan, R; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to -45mV) and displayed average sizes of 70nm to 140nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract-bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285-SA-32) - Re-Vegetation Plot Study Along the Lower Monumental-McNary Transmission Line ROW

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ken

    2001-11-15

    Re-vegetation Plot Study along the Lower Monumental-McNary Transmission Line ROW. The study area sections are located near structures 38/4 and 39/3. The line is a 500kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 165 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor as indicated on the attached checklist. A summer of 2001 fire burned the subject area leaving the ROW in a bare ground situation. Before, the fire the site was dominated by annual vegetation (cheatgrass) and noxious weeds (yellowstar thistle). As a study of plant succession after the firemore » for a local Boy Scout group, two 100 X 100 foot areas will be identified for study over the next 2-3 years. The two test plots will be identified and permanently marked. One will receive treatment while the other will not be treated and used as a control plot.« less

  2. Study of methyl- and phenyl-substituted thermostable polysiloxane-silarylene motionless phases for capillary gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, A. O.; Shashkov, M. V.; Sidel'nikov, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    Capillary columns based on a number of thermostable polysiloxane-silarylene motionless phases are prepared and their properties are studied. Three polymers with different contents of methyl and phenyl groups are synthesized: dimethylsiloxanesilarylene (DMS), methylphenylsiloxanesilarylene (MPhS), and diphenylsiloxanesilarylene (DPhS). Studies of their thermostability show that the level of the background current of these columns upon heating to 350°C is several times lower than that of a column based on polydimethylsiloxane. Based on McReynolds' studies of polarity and Abraham's studies of the selectivity of prepared columns according to the parameters of intermolecular interactions, it is found that silarylene MLPs are more affected by the contributions from specific interactions (especially for dipole-dipole, π-π-, and n-π-interactions) than MLPs with no phenylene inserts. The effect on the selectivity of a phenyl group inside a chain differs from the one produced by the phenyl groups in side MLP chains. The effect on the selectivity of a phenyl group inside a chain differs from the one produced by the phenyl groups in side MLP chains. Examples of the separation of test mixtures of aromatic and oxygen-containing compounds are obtained, along with an extract of thistle oil containing tocopherols and phytosterols at a final temperature of analysis of 350°C.

  3. Amelioration of Alcoholic Liver Steatosis by Dihydroquercetin through the Modulation of AMPK-Dependent Lipogenesis Mediated by P2X7R-NLRP3-Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Jin, Quan; Li, Xia; Jiang, Min; Cui, Ben-Wen; Xia, Kai-Li; Wu, Yan-Ling; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2018-05-16

    Dihydroquercetin (TAX) is the most abundant dihydroflavone found in onions, milk thistle, and Douglas fir bark. We investigated whether TAX could inhibit lipid accumulation in alcoholic liver steatosis in vivo and in vitro. An in vivo model was established by intragastrically treating mice with ethanol, and an in vitro model was created by treating HepG2 cells with ethanol. TAX regulated SREBP1 and ACC expression by elevating LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Also, TAX upregulated SIRT1 expression, which was suppressed by ethanol intake. Decreased expression of P2X7R and NLRP3 and suppressed cleavage of caspase-1 by TAX resulted in the inhibition of IL-1β production and release. Additionally, TAX reduced lipogenesis and promoted lipid oxidation via the regulation of AMPK and ACC in ethanol-treated steatotic HepG2 cells. TAX downregulated IL-1β cleavage responses to LPS and ATP stimulation in HepG2 cells. P2X7R deficiency attenuated lipid accumulation, characterized by increased AMPK activity and decreased SREBP1 expression in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. Our data showed that TAX exhibited the ability to inhibit lipogenesis and a hepatoprotective capacity, indicating that TAX has therapeutic potential for preventing alcoholic liver steatosis.

  4. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-04-01

    With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb-drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of silymarin and silymarin-doxorubicin applications on telomerase activity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Yurtcu, Erkan; Darcansoy Iseri, Ozlem; Iffet Sahin, Feride

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin. Milk thistle extract, or its active constituent silymarin has been used by cancer patients as an alternative and complementary agent. Telomerase activation is one of the initial events of HCC. In this study, we applied doxorubicin and silymarin for 72 hrs in order to test individual and combined effect of the agents on telomerase activity. The effects of doxorubicin, silymarin, and their combination on the proliferation of HepG2 cell line were tested by MTT assay, and Checkerboard micro plate method was applied to define the nature of doxorubicin and silymarin interactions on the cells. Lipid peroxidations were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level. Telomerase activity was determined according to the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). Untreated cells were used as control group. Doxorubicin-silymarin combination had indifferent antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells. Telomerase activity of the cells incubated with IC50 of doxorubicin and silymarin decreased to 72% (p<0.05). IC50 combinations of doxorubicin and silymarin caused 70% (p<0.05) reduction. All treatments except for the 1/2IC50 of silymarin caused significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels when compared to controls. TBARS levels did not significantly increase when doxorubicin and silymarin were applied in combination, which is in concordance with the indifferent drug interaction. IC50 of both doxorubicin and silymarin alone and in combination inhibited telomerase activity. Mechanism of inhibition may be elucidated by further molecular studies.

  6. Increase of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog by Silymarin to Inhibit Human Pharynx Squamous Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chin-Hui; Chen, Li-Jen; Liao, Jyh Fei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Silymarin is an active principle from the seeds of the milk thistle plant and is widely used as a hepatoprotective gent due to its antioxidant-like activity. In the present study, we evaluated the potential efficacy of silymarin against oral cancer and investigated its possible mechanism of action. Cell viability assay and western blotting analyses were used to identify silymarin-induced apoptotic cell death in human pharynx squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu) cells. The short interfering RNA (siRNA) is used to confirm the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in silymarin-induced apoptosis. Treatment of FaDu cells with silymarin resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (up to 70%). Silymarin inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt (over 10-fold) with an increase in expression of PTEN (five to sixfold). Consequently, the level of Bcl-2 expression was decreased five to sixfold and caspase 3 activated to induce apoptosis. Treatment with siRNA specific to PTEN gene diminished the action of silymarin. The results suggest that silymarin inhibits the Akt signaling pathway by increasing PTEN expression in FaDu cells and directly affects Bcl-2 family members. Also, we demonstrated the inhibitory activity of silymarin for oral cancer is related to cell survival. These mechanisms may in part explain the actions of silymarin and provide a rationale for the development of silymarin as an anticancer agent. PMID:23909904

  7. Effect of Oral Silymarin Administration on Prevention of Radiotherapy Induced Mucositis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Sepideh; Hosseini, Sare; Niazi Moghadam, Mohammad Reza; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-11-01

    Mucositis is a frequent severe complication of radiation therapy in patient with head and neck cancer. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle that exhibits strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluate silymarin efficacy in prevention of radiotherapy induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer, as the first human study. During this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of oral silymarin 420 mg daily in three divided doses starting at the first day of radiotherapy for 6 weeks, on oral mucositis occurrence was assessed. Twenty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria assigned to the silymarin or placebo group. World Health Organization and National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria oral mucositis grading scale scores were recorded at baseline and weekly during these 6 weeks. The median World Health Organization and National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria scores were significantly lower in silymarin group at the end of the first to sixth week (p < 0.05). The scores increased significantly in both placebo and silymarin groups during radiotherapy, but there was a delay for mucositis development and progression in silymarin group. Prophylactic administration of conventional form of silymarin tablets could significantly reduce the severity of radiotherapy induced mucositis and delay its occurrence in patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  9. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer.

  10. The effect of rodent seed predation on four species of California annual grasses.

    PubMed

    Borchert, M I; Jain, S K

    1978-01-01

    The effect of seed predation by Microtus californicus and Mus musculus on plant numbers of four species of California annual grasses was investigated for one year period on a grassland near Davis, California. In winter, mice utilized dead star thistle plants for cover when grasses in open areas were short, but moved into open areas when grass grew tall in spring.Using exclosures and plots sown with known quantities of seed, it was estimated that a mouse population (approximate density 120/acre) consumed 75% of Avena fatua seed, 44% of Hordeum leporinum seed, and 37% of Bromus diandrus seed. Mice showed a strong preference for Avena seed.Plant numbers of Avena and Hordeum were reduced by 62% and 30%, respectively. Hordeum, Lolium, and to a lesser extent, Bromus responded to a competitive release from Avena by increases in plant size and reproductive output. In addition, seed predation markedly increased seed to adult plant survivorship of Avena, Hordeum, and Bromus.Vertebrate seed predation is discussed as a potentially important factor in the yearly patterns of plant population regulation in California annual grasslands.

  11. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  12. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638–710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications. PMID:29048342

  13. A Dentin Sialophosphoprotein Mutation That Partially Disrupts a Splice Acceptor Site Causes Type II Dentin Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Simmer, James P.; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2009-01-01

    The dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene on chromosome 4q21.3 encodes the major noncollagenous protein in tooth dentin. DSPP mutations are the principal cause of dentin dysplasia type II, dentinogenesis imperfecta type II, and dentinogenesis imperfecta type III. We have identified a DSPP splice junction mutation (IVS2-6T>G) in a family with dentin dysplasia type II. The primary dentition is discolored brown with severe attrition. The mildly discolored permanent dentition has thistle-shaped pulp chambers, pulp stones, and eventual pulp obliteration. The mutation is in the sixth nucleotide from the end of intron 2, perfectly segregates with the disease phenotype, and is absent in 200 normal control chromosomes. An in vitro splicing assay shows that pre-mRNA splicing of the mutant allele generates wild-type mRNA and mRNA lacking exon 3 in approximately equal amounts. Skipping exon 3 might interfere with signal peptide cleavage, causing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and also reduce DSPP secretion, leading to haploinsufficiency. PMID:19026876

  14. Tallgrass prairie restoration: seeding for success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Tallgrass prairie is one of the most imperiled ecosystems on Earth. A 2004 estimate indicated that only 2.4 percent of the original northern tallgrass prairie remained in the United States. If tallgrass prairie and the species dependent on it are to survive, management must include restoration of cropland and degraded prairies, in addition to preservation of the few remaining fragments. Despite the importance of restoration and its long history (the first tallgrass prairie restoration was started in 1935 at Curtis Prairie in Wisconsin), few studies have been undertaken with the goal of refining restoration practice. This fact sheet contains the results of one such study, started in 2005, in which we compared three seeding methods (dormant-season broadcast, growing-season broadcast, and growing-season drill) fully crossed with low (10-), medium (20-), and high (34-species) seed mixes replicated 12 times on each of 9 former agricultural fields in Minnesota and Iowa. Plots were 12.2 x 12.2 meters (m) and occupied about 1.6 hectares (ha) (4 acres) of each field. A “successful” restoration is one in which cover and richness of planted species is maximized and cover of exotic and invasive species, especially the noxious weed Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), is minimized. Details of the planting methods can be located in Larson and others (2011).

  15. Response of brain metastasis from lung cancer patients to an oral nutraceutical product containing silibinin.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Sais, Elia; Cañete, Noemí; Marruecos, Jordi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Izquierdo, Angel; Porta, Rut; Haro, Manel; Brunet, Joan; Pedraza, Salvador; Menendez, Javier A

    2016-05-31

    Despite multimodal treatment approaches, the prognosis of brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Untreated patients with BM have a median survival of about 1 month, with almost all patients dying from neurological causes. We herein present the first report describing the response of BM from NSCLC patients to an oral nutraceutical product containing silibinin, a flavonoid extracted from the seeds of the milk thistle. We present evidence of how the use of the silibinin-based nutraceutical Legasil® resulted in significant clinical and radiological improvement of BM from NSCLC patients with poor performance status that progressed after whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The suppressive effects of silibinin on progressive BM, which involved a marked reduction of the peritumoral brain edema, occurred without affecting the primary lung tumor outgrowth in NSCLC patients. Because BM patients have an impaired survival prognosis and are in need for an immediate tumor control, the combination of brain radiotherapy with silibinin-based nutraceuticals might not only alleviate BM edema but also prove local control and time for either classical chemotherapeutics with immunostimulatory effects or new immunotherapeutic agents such as checkpoint blockers to reveal their full therapeutic potential in NSCLC BM patients. New studies aimed to illuminate the mechanistic aspects underlying the regulatory effects of silibinin on the cellular and molecular pathobiology of BM might expedite the entry of new formulations of silibinin into clinical testing for progressive BM from lung cancer patients.

  16. Direct targeting of MEK1/2 and RSK2 by silybin induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits melanoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Hyun; Huang, Zunnan; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Sung-Young; Xie, Hua; Park, Si Jun; Kim, Jae Young; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Bode, Ann M.; Surh, Young-Joon; Dong, Zigang

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal functioning of multiple gene products underlies the neoplastic transformation of cells. Thus, chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents with multigene targets hold promise in the development of effective anticancer drugs. Silybin, a component of milk thistle, is a natural anticancer agent. In the present study, we investigated the effect of silybin on melanoma cell growth and elucidated its molecular targets. Our study revealed that silybin attenuated the growth of melanoma xenograft tumors in nude mice. Silybin inhibited the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1/2 and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-2 in melanoma cells. The direct binding of silybin with MEK1/2 and RSK2 was explored using a computational docking model. Treatment of melanoma cells with silybin attenuated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and RSK2, which are regulated by the upstream kinases MEK1/2. The blockade of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-RSK2 signaling by silybin resulted in a reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, which are transcriptional regulators of a variety of proliferative genes in melanomas. Silybin, by blocking the activation of these transcription factors, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and inhibited melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, silybin suppresses melanoma growth by directly targeting MEK- and RSK-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:23447564

  17. Autophagy induction by silibinin positively contributes to its anti-metastatic capacity via AMPK/mTOR pathway in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Ma, Zhenkun; Guan, Zhenfeng; Chen, Yule; Wu, Kaijie; Guo, Peng; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Zeng, Jin

    2015-04-15

    Silibinin, a dietary cancer chemopreventive flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to exhibit anti-metastatic effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in regulating silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells. Using RCC ACHN and 786-O cells as a model system in vitro, we found that silibinin treatment increased the expression of LC3-II, resulted in the formation of autophagolysosome vacuoles, and caused a punctate fluorescence pattern with the monomeric red fluorescence protein-enhanced green fluorescence protein-LC3 (mRFP-EGFP-LC3) protein, which all are markers for cellular autophagy. Autophagy flux was induced by silibinin in RCC cells, as determined by LC3 turnover assay. Mechanically, the adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was identified as involved in regulation of silibinin-induced autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy induction was demonstrated to positively contribute to silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells in vitro. Activation of autophagy enhanced silibinin-induced inhibition of migration and invasion of RCC cells, while inhibition of autophagy attenuated it. These findings thus provide new information about the potential link between autophagy and metastasis inhibition induced by silibinin, and the induction of autophagy may shed some light into future treatment strategies for metastatic RCC.

  18. Silibinin suppresses astroglial activation in a mouse model of acute Parkinson's disease by modulating the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Kyung Moon; Jung, Young-Suk; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-11-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, and is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss in midbrain. The MPTP-induced PD model has been well characterized by motor deficits and selective dopaminergic neuronal death accompanied by glial activation. Silibinin is a constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and has been proposed to have hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, the authors studied the neuroprotective effects of silibinin in an acute MPTP model of PD. Silibinin was administered for 2 weeks, and then MPTP was administered to mice over 1 day (acute MPTP induced PD). Silibinin pretreatment effectively ameliorated motor dysfunction, dopaminergic neuronal loss, and glial activations caused by MPTP. In addition, an in vitro study demonstrated that silibinin suppressed astroglial activation and ERK and JNK phosphorylation in primary astrocytes in response to MPP(+) treatment. These findings show silibinin protected dopaminergic neurons in an acute MPTP-induced mouse model of PD, and suggest its neuroprotective effects might be mediated by the suppression of astrocyte activation via the inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the study indicates silibinin should be viewed as a potential treatment for PD and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blockade of lipid accumulation by silibinin in adipocytes and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyung Joo; Cho, So Young; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-02-05

    Silibinin is a compound present mainly in milk thistle. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which silibinin suppresses adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, and evaluated the anti-adipogenic effect of silibinin in zebrafish. Silibinin reduced lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenic factors, such as, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). The reduction of these adipogenic protein levels was associated with the regulation of early adipogenic factors, such as, C/EBPβ and Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), and was reflected in downregulation of lipid synthetic enzymes. Silibinin arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by downregulation of cyclins and upregulation of p27, a cell cycle inhibitor. These results correlated with the finding of deactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT, a serine/threonine-specific kinase. In addition, silibinin activated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. As observed in 3T3-L1 cells, silibinin inhibited lipid accumulation in zebrafish with the reduction of adipogenic factors and triglyceride levels. Our data revealed that silibinin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish, and this inhibitory effect was associated with abrogation of early adipogenesis via regulation of cell cycle and AMPKα signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silibinin prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease via mitochondrial stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujeong; Park, Hee Ra; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The lipophile 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can cross the blood-brain barrier and is subsequently metabolized into toxic1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+) ), which causes mitochondrial dysfunction and the selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons. The present article reports the neuroprotective effects of silibinin in a murine MPTP model of PD. The flavonoid silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and is known to have hepatoprotective, anticancer, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, silibinin effectively attenuated motor deficit and dopaminergic neuronal loss caused by MPTP. Furthermore, in vitro study confirmed that silibinin protects primary cultured neurons against MPP(+) -induced cell death and mitochondrial membrane disruption. The findings of the present study indicate that silibinin has neuroprotective effects in MPTP-induced models of PD rather than antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effects and that the neuroprotection afforded might be mediated by the stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, these findings suggest that silibinin protects mitochondria in MPTP-induced PD models and that it offers a starting point for the development of treatments that ameliorate the symptoms of PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Silibinin stimluates apoptosis by inducing generation of ROS and ER stress in human choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jiyeon; Lim, Whasun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2018-02-01

    Silibinin is a flavonolignan extracted from seeds of milk thistles. Traditionally, it has been used as a therapeutic agent for liver disorders, and now it is well-known for its anti-cancer effects. However, studies on anti-cancer effects of silibinin on choriocarcinoma are very limited. Therefore, we performed proliferation and apoptosis assays to determine effects of silibinin on the viability of human choriocarcinoma (JAR and JEG3) cells. Our results showed that silibinin significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both JAR and JEG3 cells, and significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, silibinin disrupted mitochondrial function by inducing permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium ion efflux in JAR and JEG3 cells. Furthermore, silibinin-induced apoptosis in choriocarcinoma cells via AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and unfolded protein response (UPR) signal transduction. Collectively, our results suggest that silibinin is a novel therapeutic agent or dietary supplement for management of human placental choriocarcinomas. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Autophagy Induction by Silibinin Positively Contributes to Its Anti-Metastatic Capacity via AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Ma, Zhenkun; Guan, Zhenfeng; Chen, Yule; Wu, Kaijie; Guo, Peng; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Zeng, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Silibinin, a dietary cancer chemopreventive flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to exhibit anti-metastatic effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in regulating silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells. Using RCC ACHN and 786-O cells as a model system in vitro, we found that silibinin treatment increased the expression of LC3-II, resulted in the formation of autophagolysosome vacuoles, and caused a punctate fluorescence pattern with the monomeric red fluorescence protein-enhanced green fluorescence protein-LC3 (mRFP-EGFP-LC3) protein, which all are markers for cellular autophagy. Autophagy flux was induced by silibinin in RCC cells, as determined by LC3 turnover assay. Mechanically, the adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was identified as involved in regulation of silibinin-induced autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy induction was demonstrated to positively contribute to silibinin-induced anti-metastatic effects on RCC cells in vitro. Activation of autophagy enhanced silibinin-induced inhibition of migration and invasion of RCC cells, while inhibition of autophagy attenuated it. These findings thus provide new information about the potential link between autophagy and metastasis inhibition induced by silibinin, and the induction of autophagy may shed some light into future treatment strategies for metastatic RCC. PMID:25884331

  3. Silybin and the liver: From basic research to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio, Carmela; Festi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Herbal products are increasingly used, mainly in chronic liver disease. Extracts of milk thistle, Silymarin and silybin, are the most prescribed natural compounds, with different indications, but with no definitive results in terms of clinical efficacy. This review analyzes the available studies on the effects of the purified product silybin, both as a free and a conjugated molecule, on liver cells or on experimentally induced liver damage, and in patients with liver disease. We searched PUBMED for articles pertaining to the in vitro and in vivo effects of silybin, its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, as well as its metabolic effects, combined with the authors’ own knowledge of the literature. Results indicate that the bioavailability of silybin phytosome is higher than that of silymarin and is less influenced by liver damage; silybin does not show significant interactions with other drugs and at doses < 10 g/d has no significant side effects. Experimental studies have clearly demonstrated the antifibrotic, antioxidant and metabolic effects of silybin; previous human studies were insufficient for confirming the clinical efficacy in chronic liver disease, while ongoing clinical trials are promising. On the basis of literature data, silybin seems a promising drug for chronic liver disease. PMID:21633595

  4. A supersaturating delivery system of silibinin exhibiting high payload achieved by amorphous nano-complexation with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh-Hiep; Yu, Hong; Dong, Bingxue; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-06-30

    The therapeutic potentials of silibinin - a phytochemical isolated from milk thistle plants - have not been fully realized due to its poor oral bioavailability caused by the low aqueous solubility. Existing solubility enhancement strategies of silibinin by nanonization were limited by their low payload. Herein we developed a supersaturating delivery system of silibinin exhibiting a high payload (≈76%) in the form of amorphous silibinin-chitosan nanoparticle complex (or silibinin nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly drug-polysaccharide complexation. The effects of (1) pH and (2) charge ratio of chitosan to silibinin on the nanoplex's physical characteristics (i.e. size, zeta potential, and payload) and preparation efficiency (i.e. silibinin utilization, overall yield) were investigated. The formation of nanoplex (≈240nm) was feasible only in a narrow pH range (5.1-5.8) and favored charge ratio below unity. At the optimal condition (pH 5.8 and charge ratio of 0.30), the nanoplex preparation exhibited 87% silibinin utilization rate and 63% yield signifying its high efficiency. The amorphous state and colloidal stabilities of the nanoplex during storage, and prolonged supersaturation generation (3h) at more than 10× of the saturation solubility were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Silibinin suppresses EMT-driven erlotinib resistance by reversing the high miR-21/low miR-200c signature in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cufí, Sílvia; Bonavia, Rosa; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Visa, Joana; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Micol, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    The flavolignan silibinin was studied for its ability to restore drug sensitivity to EGFR-mutant NSCLC xenografts with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-driven resistance to erlotinib. As a single agent, silibinin significantly decreased the tumor volumes of erlotinib-refractory NSCLC xenografts by approximately 50%. Furthermore, the complete abrogation of tumor growth was observed with the co-treatment of erlotinib and silibinin. Silibinin fully reversed the EMT-related high miR-21/low miR-200c microRNA signature and repressed the mesenchymal markers SNAIL, ZEB, and N-cadherin observed in erlotinib-refractory tumors. Silibinin was sufficient to fully activate a reciprocal mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in erlotinib-refractory cells and prevent the highly migratogenic phenotype of erlotinib-resistant NSCLC cells. Given that the various mechanisms of resistance to erlotinib result from EMT, regardless of the EGFR mutation status, a water-soluble, silibinin-rich milk thistle extract might be a suitable candidate therapy for upcoming clinical trials aimed at preventing or reversing NSCLC progression following erlotinib treatment. PMID:23963283

  6. Silibinin down-regulates expression of secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Zamaraeva, Maria; Siegert, Gabriele; Menschikowski, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Silibinin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid produced by milk thistle, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities. In the current study, we examined the effects of silibinin on the expression of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, especially those of group IIA (hGIIA), which play a crucial role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. The effects of silibinin on sPLA2 expressions in human HepG2 hepatoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Silibinin inhibited the expression of hGIIA in unstimulated and cytokine-primed HepG2 and PC-3 cells. The mRNA levels of sPLA2 of groups IB, III and V were also significantly decreased by silibinin. Analyses of transcription factor activation suggest that nuclear factor-κB, but not specificity protein 1 (SP1) is implicated in the silibinin-mediated down-regulation of hGIIA. Silibinin exhibits inhibitory effects on basal and cytokine-induced expression of sPLA2s in cancer cells and therefore, may have the potential to protect against up-regulation of hGIIA and other sPLA2 isoforms during inflammation and cancer.

  7. Silibinin suppresses bladder cancer cell malignancy and chemoresistance in an NF-κB signal-dependent and signal-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Guan, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Wencai; Jiang, Yazhuo; Li, Qing; Cheng, Yongyi; Xu, Yonggang

    2017-10-01

    Because bladder cancer (BCa) is the 9th most common malignant tumor and 13th leading cause of death due to cancer, therapeutic approaches have attracted a great deal of attention from both clinicians and BCa patients. Although the development of surgery and targeted drugs has brought new challenges for the traditional concept of BCa therapy, various types of chemotherapy remain the final treatment method for many BCa patients. However, chemoresistance inevitably appears, leading to the failure of chemotherapy. Silibinin, a polyphenolic flavonoid component isolated from the fruits or seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to play important roles in inhibiting tumor chemoresistance in breast cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Our previous study indicated that silibinin inhibited BCa progression in some mechanisms but with no conclusion of chemoresistance inhibition. Therefore, in the present study, we dissected the role of silibinin in BCa progression and chemoresistance. Our results revealed that in BCa, chemodrug-induced chemoresistance was reversed in the presence of silibinin. Further mechanistic study indicated that silibinin suppressed chemoresistance and BCa malignancy in an NF-κB-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, all of the inhibitory effects were dose‑dependent. Thus, our results provide a potential use for silibinin in BCa therapeutics.

  8. Silibinin induces mitochondrial NOX4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its subsequent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Seo, Young-Kyo; Chun, Sung-Sik; Yu, Hak-Sun; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    2016-07-12

    Silibinin, a biologically active compound of milk thistle, has chemopreventive effects on cancer cell lines. Recently it was reported that silibinin inhibited tumor growth through activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway. Although various evidences showed multiple signaling pathways of silibinin in apoptosis, there were no reports to address the clear mechanism of ROS-mediated pathway in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Several studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in various signaling cascades, but the primary source of ROS was currently unclear. The effect of silibinin was investigated on cell growth of prostate cell lines by MTT assay. We examined whether silibinin induced apoptosis through production of ROS using flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related protein and gene were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Results showed that silibinin triggered mitochondrial ROS production through NOX4 expression and finally led to induce apoptosis. In addition, mitochondrial ROS caused ER stress through disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Co-treatment of ROS inhibitor reduced the silibinin-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of NOX4 expression, resulting in reduction of both Ca(2+) level and ER stress response. Taken together, silibinin induced mitochondrial ROS-dependent apoptosis through NOX4, which is associated with disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER stress response. Therefore, the regulation of NOX4, mitochondrial ROS producer, could be a potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Cynara cornigera: Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibition and In Silico Ligand Docking.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Mohamed, Tarik A; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; El Halawany, Ali M; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Alsaid, Mansour S; Paré, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Wild artichoke (Cynara cornigera), a thistle-like perennial belonging to the Asteraceae family, is native to the Mediterranean region, northwestern Africa, and the Canary Islands. While the pleasant, albeit bitter, taste of the leaves and flowers is attributed to the sesquiterpene lactones cynaropicrin and cynarin, a comprehensive phytochemical investigation still needs to be reported. In this study seven sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from an aqueous methanol plant extract, including a new halogenated metabolite (1), the naturally isolated compound sibthorpine (2), and five metabolites isolated for the first time from C. cornigera. Structures were established by spectroscopic methods, including HREIMS, (1 )H, (13 )C, DEPT, (1 )H-(1 )H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC-NMR experiments as well as by X-ray analysis. The isolated bioactive nutrients were analyzed for their antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Compound 1 exhibited a potent metal chelating activity as well as a high antioxidant capacity. Moreover, select compounds were effective as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors presenting the possibility for such compounds to be examined for anti-neurodegenerative activity. A computational pharmacophore elucidation and docking study was performed to estimate the pharmacophoric features and binding conformation of isolated compounds in the acetyl cholinesterase active site. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Herb–Drug Interactions: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Argikar, Aneesh A.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Nagar, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that “natural” ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb–drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb–drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb–drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb–drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

  11. Holocene vegetation and historic grazing impacts at Capitol Reef National Park reconstructed using packrat middens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Henderson, N.; Shafer, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Mid- to late-Holocene vegetation change from a remote high-desert site was reconstructed using plant macrofossils and pollen from 9 packrat middens ranging from 0 to 5400 yr in age. Presettlement middens consistently contained abundant macrofossils of plant species palatable to large herbivores that are now absent or reduced, such as winterfat (Ceratoides lanatd) and ricegrass (Stipa hymenoides). Macrofossils and pollen of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and roundleaf buffaloberry (Shepherdia rotundifolia) were also recently reduced to their lowest levels for the 5400-yr record. Conversely, species typical of overgrazed range, such as snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), viscid rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus visidiflorus), and Russian thistle (Salsola sp.), were not recorded prior to the historic introduction of grazing animals. Pollen of Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) also increased during the last 200 yr. These records demonstrate that the most severe vegetation changes of the last 5400 yr occurred during the past 200 yr. The nature and timing of these changes suggest that they were primarily caused by 19th-century open-land sheep and cattle ranching. The reduction of pinyon and sagebrush concurrent with other grazing impacts suggests that effects of cattle grazing at modern stocking levels may be a poor analog for the effects of intense sheep grazing during drought.

  12. Tapping into the Hexagon spy imagery database: A new automated pipeline for geomorphic change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Joshua; Rupper, Summer

    2015-10-01

    Declassified historical imagery from the Hexagon spy satellite database has near-global coverage, yet remains a largely untapped resource for geomorphic change studies. Unavailable satellite ephemeris data make DEM (digital elevation model) extraction difficult in terms of time and accuracy. A new fully-automated pipeline for DEM extraction and image orthorectification is presented which yields accurate results and greatly increases efficiency over traditional photogrammetric methods, making the Hexagon image database much more appealing and accessible. A 1980 Hexagon DEM is extracted and geomorphic change computed for the Thistle Creek Landslide region in the Wasatch Range of North America to demonstrate an application of the new method. Surface elevation changes resulting from the landslide show an average elevation decrease of 14.4 ± 4.3 m in the source area, an increase of 17.6 ± 4.7 m in the deposition area, and a decrease of 30.2 ± 5.1 m resulting from a new roadcut. Two additional applications of the method include volume estimates of material excavated during the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption and the volume of net ice loss over a 34-year period for glaciers in the Bhutanese Himalayas. These results show the value of Hexagon imagery in detecting and quantifying historical geomorphic change, especially in regions where other data sources are limited.

  13. Response of brain metastasis from lung cancer patients to an oral nutraceutical product containing silibinin

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Sais, Elia; Cañete, Noemí; Marruecos, Jordi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Izquierdo, Angel; Porta, Rut; Haro, Manel; Brunet, Joan; Pedraza, Salvador; Menendez, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite multimodal treatment approaches, the prognosis of brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Untreated patients with BM have a median survival of about 1 month, with almost all patients dying from neurological causes. We herein present the first report describing the response of BM from NSCLC patients to an oral nutraceutical product containing silibinin, a flavonoid extracted from the seeds of the milk thistle. We present evidence of how the use of the silibinin-based nutraceutical Legasil® resulted in significant clinical and radiological improvement of BM from NSCLC patients with poor performance status that progressed after whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The suppressive effects of silibinin on progressive BM, which involved a marked reduction of the peritumoral brain edema, occurred without affecting the primary lung tumor outgrowth in NSCLC patients. Because BM patients have an impaired survival prognosis and are in need for an immediate tumor control, the combination of brain radiotherapy with silibinin-based nutraceuticals might not only alleviate BM edema but also prove local control and time for either classical chemotherapeutics with immunostimulatory effects or new immunotherapeutic agents such as checkpoint blockers to reveal their full therapeutic potential in NSCLC BM patients. New studies aimed to illuminate the mechanistic aspects underlying the regulatory effects of silibinin on the cellular and molecular pathobiology of BM might expedite the entry of new formulations of silibinin into clinical testing for progressive BM from lung cancer patients. PMID:26959886

  14. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Ramla; Dufloer, Cédric; Beaufay, Claire; Bero, Joanne; Ksouri, Riadh; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum, a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC50 = 11.53 μg/ml on J774, IC50 = 29.89 µg/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6). In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1) mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3β-ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones. PMID:28785293

  15. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Ramla; Rivière, Céline; Dufloer, Cédric; Beaufay, Claire; Neut, Christel; Bero, Joanne; Hennebelle, Thierry; Roumy, Vincent; Ksouri, Riadh; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum , a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC 50 = 11.53  μ g/ml on J774, IC 50 = 29.89  µ g/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6). In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1) mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3 β -ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3 β -ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones.

  16. Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

    2014-03-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens.

  17. In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of silymarin on oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Won, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Lee-Han; Jang, Boonsil; Yang, In-Hyoung; Kwon, Hye-Jeong; Jin, Bohwan; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kang, Ju-Hee; Hong, Seong-Doo; Shin, Ji-Ae; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2018-05-01

    Silymarin, a standardized extract from milk thistle fruits has been found to exhibit anti-cancer effects against various cancers. Here, we explored the anti-cancer activity of silymarin and its molecular target in human oral cancer in vitro and in vivo. Silymarin dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of HSC-4 oral cancer cells and promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis. A human apoptosis protein array kit showed that death receptor 5 may be involved in silymarin-induced apoptosis, which was also shown through western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Silymarin increased cleaved caspase-8 and truncated Bid, leading to accumulation of cytochrome c. In addition, silymarin activated death receptor 5/caspase-8 to induce apoptotic cell death in two other oral cancer cell lines (YD15 and Ca9.22). Silymarin also suppressed tumor growth and volume without any hepatic or renal toxicity in vivo. Taken together, these results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the anti-cancer effect of silymarin and death receptor 5, and caspase-8 may be essential players in silymarin-mediated apoptosis in oral cancer.

  18. Combining Site Occupancy, Breeding Population Sizes and Reproductive Success to Calculate Time-Averaged Reproductive Output of Different Habitat Types: An Application to Tricolored Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J.; Graves, Emily E.

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005–2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method

  19. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals.

  20. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  1. Knowledge and characteristics of herbal supplement usage among community pharmacy customers in a Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Yeong, S W; Choong, Y C

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the knowledge and characteristics of herbal supplement usage of the customers of community pharmacies in a Malaysian population. Self-administered questionnaires (in English, Malay, or Chinese) were provided to customers at three community pharmacies in Malaysia (Ipoh, Perak). Questionnaire validation and translation validation were performed. A pilot study was conducted before actual questionnaire distribution. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Total number of participants was 270 (99 males and 171 females) with majority from the 31-50 age group (41.5%). Among the participants, 45.6% were herbal users. The most commonly used herbal supplements were evening primrose oil (17.9%), ginkgo biloba (13.0%), and milk thistle (8.5%). The participants seemed to have sufficient knowledge regarding herbal supplements including safety, quality, and indication of use from medical literature. Participants obtained information about herbal supplements from pharmacists (26.9%), package inserts (25.2%), friends (20.5%), and the Internet (13.3%) more often than from their doctors (9.8%). Most herbal users did not inform their doctors about their usage of herbal supplements (68.3%) or the side effects (61.5%). Herbal supplement users also tended to be women, >50-year-old, and those with higher monthly household incomes. Community pharmacists have a vital role in educating their customers about the safe use of herbal supplements. The participants had sufficient knowledge about herbal supplement usage; therefore, customers of these community pharmacies may have benefitted from the advice of the pharmacists. Further studies could be carried out in future on the knowledge, skills and roles of community pharmacists in the safe use of herbal supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Providing the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows: effects on litter performance and oxidative stress in sows.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C; Lapointe, J; Cormier, I

    2017-03-01

    Silymarin is an extract from the plant milk thistle that was shown to have antioxidant and hyperprolactinemic properties. Taking into account the essential role of prolactin for lactating sows and the systemic oxidative stress occurring during lactation, it is of interest to investigate the potential beneficial effects of silymarin on lactating sows. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effects of providing either 1 or 8 g/day of the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows. Sows in first, second or third parity were fed conventional diets during gestation and, at farrowing, were assigned as controls (CTL, n=33), or were fed 1 g/day (SYL1, n=33) or 8 g/day (SYL8, n=33) of silymarin. The silymarin was provided in two equal amounts per day, and was fed throughout a 20-day lactation. The performance of sows and their litters was assessed and circulating concentrations of prolactin (days 7 and 18), urea (days 7 and 18) and oxidative status, via protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase activity (day 18), were measured in sows. Milk samples were obtained on day 18 to measure standard composition. There was no effect of silymarin (P>0.10) on circulating prolactin or urea, or on oxidative damage to proteins or antioxidant potential in sows. Lactation feed intake, backfat and BW of sows were unaffected by treatment (P>0.10) as was the case for milk composition and piglet growth (P>0.10). Results demonstrate that providing up to 8 g/day of the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows had no beneficial effects in terms of circulating prolactin concentrations or oxidative status of sows, or in terms of performances of sows and their litters.

  3. Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Ma, Yalin; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Dongping; Huang, Guangrong

    2014-11-15

    The polyphenolic flavonoid silymarin that is the milk thistle extract has been found to possess an anti-cancer effect against various human epithelial cancers. In this study, to explore the regulative effect of silymarin on human ovarian cancer line A2780s and PA-1 cells, 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were respectively used to determine the inhibitory effect of silymarin on the both cell lines, and to measure their cell cycle progression. Apoptosis induction and mitochondrial membrane potential damage were separately detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling assay and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide staining. Additionally, western blotting was applied to determine cytochrome C release and expression levels of p53, p21, p27, p16, CDK2, Bax, Bcl-2, procaspase-9, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins. The activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was measured using Caspase-Glo-9 and Caspase-Glo-3 assay. The results indicated that silymarin effectively suppressed cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and arrested cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in A2780s and PA-1 cells via up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27 protein expression, and down-regulation of CDK2 protein expression. Additionally, silymarin treatment for 24h at 50 and 100µg/ml resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release, and significantly induced apoptosis in A2780s and PA-1 cells by increasing Bax and decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, silymarin is a possible potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Silymarin Induces Insulin Resistance through an Increase of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Xiao; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Amitani, Haruka; Ueki, Takatoshi; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Inui, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that regulates crucial cellular functions, including insulin signaling, lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as survival and apoptosis. Silymarin is the active ingredient in milk thistle and exerts numerous effects through the activation of PTEN. However, the effect of silymarin on the development of insulin resistance remains unknown. Methods Wistar rats fed fructose-rich chow or normal chow were administered oral silymarin to identify the development of insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamping. Changes in PTEN expression in skeletal muscle and liver were compared using western blotting analysis. Further investigation was performed in L6 cells to check the expression of PTEN and insulin-related signals. PTEN deletion in L6 cells was achieved by small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection. Results Oral administration of silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/kg once daily induced insulin resistance in normal rats and enhanced insulin resistance in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. An increase of PTEN expression was observed in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats with insulin resistance. A decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt in L6 myotube cells, which was maintained in a high-glucose condition, was also observed. Treatment with silymarin aggravated high-glucose-induced insulin resistance. Deletion of PTEN in L6 cells reversed silymarin-induced impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake. Conclusions Silymarin has the ability to disrupt insulin signaling through increased PTEN expression. Therefore, silymarin should be used carefully in type-2 diabetic patients. PMID:24404172

  5. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1980-10-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7%more » to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of /sup 137/Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum /sup 90/Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond.« less

  6. Vegetation, substrate, and eolian sediment transport at Teesto Wash, Navajo Nation, 2009-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Amoroso, Lee

    2012-01-01

    On the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States, warming temperatures and recent drought have increased eolian (windblown) sediment mobility such that large, migrating sand dunes affect grazing lands, housing, and road access. We present an assessment of seasonal variations in sand transport, mobility, and ground cover (vegetation and substrate) within a 0.2-km2 study area near Teesto Wash, southern Navajo Nation, as part of a multiyear study measuring the effects of drought on landscape stability. Sand mobility in the study area decreased substantially as one year (2010) with near-normal monsoon rainfall somewhat abated a decade-long drought, temporarily doubling vegetation cover. The invasive annual plant Russian thistle (Salsola sp.), in particular, thrived after the monsoon rains of 2010. Vegetation that grew during that year with adequate rain died off rapidly during drier conditions in 2011 and 2012, and the proportion of bare, open sand area increased steadily after summer 2010. We infer that isolated seasonal increases in rainfall will not improve landscape stability in the long term because sustained increase in perennial plants, which are more effective than annual plants at stabilizing sand against wind erosion, requires multiple consecutive seasons of adequate rain. On the basis of climate projections, a warmer, drier climate and potentially enhanced sediment supply from ephemeral washes may further increase eolian sediment transport and dune activity, worsening the present challenges to people living in this region. Connections between climate, vegetation cover, and eolian sediment erodibility in this region also are highly relevant for studies in other regions worldwide with similar environmental characteristics.

  7. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  8. Cross-scale assessment of potential habitat shifts in a rapidly changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Bella, Elizabeth S.; Carlson, Matthew L.; Graziano, Gino; Lamb, Melinda; Seefeldt, Steven S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the ability of climatic, environmental, and anthropogenic variables to predict areas of high-risk for plant invasion and consider the relative importance and contribution of these predictor variables by considering two spatial scales in a region of rapidly changing climate. We created predictive distribution models, using Maxent, for three highly invasive plant species (Canada thistle, white sweetclover, and reed canarygrass) in Alaska at both a regional scale and a local scale. Regional scale models encompassed southern coastal Alaska and were developed from topographic and climatic data at a 2 km (1.2 mi) spatial resolution. Models were applied to future climate (2030). Local scale models were spatially nested within the regional area; these models incorporated physiographic and anthropogenic variables at a 30 m (98.4 ft) resolution. Regional and local models performed well (AUC values > 0.7), with the exception of one species at each spatial scale. Regional models predict an increase in area of suitable habitat for all species by 2030 with a general shift to higher elevation areas; however, the distribution of each species was driven by different climate and topographical variables. In contrast local models indicate that distance to right-of-ways and elevation are associated with habitat suitability for all three species at this spatial level. Combining results from regional models, capturing long-term distribution, and local models, capturing near-term establishment and distribution, offers a new and effective tool for highlighting at-risk areas and provides insight on how variables acting at different scales contribute to suitability predictions. The combinations also provides easy comparison, highlighting agreement between the two scales, where long-term distribution factors predict suitability while near-term do not and vice versa.

  9. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  10. Yeasts associated with an abandoned mining area in Pernek and their tolerance to different chemical elements.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Lišková, Desana

    2016-05-01

    Four plants, Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel) and Phragmites australis (common reed), which grew in an abandoned Sb-mining area in Pernek (Malé Karpaty Mts., Slovakia), were investigated for the yeast species. Yeasts were isolated from both the leaves of the plants and the soil adjacent to the plants. In total, 65 yeast cultures, belonging to 11 ascomycetous and 5 basidiomycetous yeast species, were isolated. The species most frequently isolated from both the soil and leaf samples were Trichosporon porosum, Galactomyces candidus and Candida solani, whereas Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida tsuchiyae and Sporidiobolus metaroseus were isolated exclusively from the plant leaves. All the yeast species isolated were tested for their tolerance to two heavy metals (Cd, Zn) and three metalloids (As, Sb and Si). The yeasts isolated from both the leaves and soils exhibited a high tolerance level to both As and Sb, present in elevated concentrations at the locality. Among the yeast species tested, Cryptococcus musci, a close relative to Cryptococcus humicola, was the species most tolerant to all the chemical elements tested, with the exception of Si. It grew in the presence of 200 mmol/L Zn, 200 mmol/L Cd, 60 mmol/L As and 50 mmol/L Sb, and therefore, it can be considered as a multi-tolerant species. Some of the yeast species were tolerant to the individual chemical elements. The yeast-like species Trichosporon laibachii exhibited the highest tolerance to Si of all yeasts tested, and Cryptococcus flavescens and Lindnera saturnus showed the same tolerance as Cryptococcus musci to Zn and As, respectively. The majority of the yeasts showed a notably low tolerance to Cd (not exceeded 0.5 mmol/L), which was present in small amounts in the soil. However, Candida solani, isolated from the soil, exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd (20 mmol/L) than to As (2 mmol/L).

  11. Fugitive dust mitigation for PM{sub 10} attainment in the western Mojave Desert: Recommendations on revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Roberts, E.

    1997-12-31

    Methods to suppress fugitive dust and associated violations of federal PM{sub 10} standards in the western Mojave Desert, following removal of native vegetation by tillage or overgrazing, have been under investigation by a multi-agency task force for several years. Interim recommendations are now possible for this area of high winds, low rainfall, and mostly arable soil with patchy blowing sand. There can be no guarantee of success in any revegetation program in the desert, but the greatest probability of success in this area can be attained by using the native shrub Atriplex canescens, whether direct seeded or transplanted. No additionalmore » nitrogen should be added, and excess nitrogen should be removed if possible, perhaps by a preliminary cropping of barley. This will itself stabilize the soil surface in the short term. Young plants should be protected from herbivory and the harsh elements by using plastic cones. Irrigation is helpful if available. In areas located near native populations of rabbitbrush annual plant cover should be burned but no tillage or other soil disturbance should be imposed, as this facilitates invasion of annual species, including russian thistle, and prevents establishment of rabbitbrush. In sandy areas, seeding with Indian ricegrass may be more effective than with A. canescens. For immediate, short-term, mitigation of blowing dust, furrowing alone and installation of windfences may be effective. Rainfall exhibits high annual variability in arid regions. Absence of fugitive dust emissions in rainy periods, associated with ground cover by annual vegetation, is unlikely to survive several years of low, but normal, rainfall. It is precisely during those periods when rainfall is adequate that long-term revegetation with shrubs has the best chance of success.« less

  12. Aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitat.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, C; Herzog, J; Rouchet, R

    2017-04-01

    Specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. Work on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. Populations specialized on different secondary host plants during the parthenogenetic summer generations are also described for the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae complex) and are usually treated as different (morphologically cryptic) subspecies. In contrast to pea aphids, however, host choice and mate choice are decoupled in black bean aphids, because populations from different summer hosts return to the same primary host plant to mate and lay overwintering eggs. This could counteract evolutionary divergence, and it is currently unknown to what extent black bean aphids using different summer hosts are indeed differentiated. We addressed this question by microsatellite genotyping and endosymbiont screening of black bean aphids collected in summer from the goosefoot Chenopodium album (subspecies A. f. fabae) and from thistles of the genus Cirsium (subspecies A. f. cirsiiacanthoides) across numerous sites in Switzerland and France. Our results show clearly that aphids from Cirsium and Chenopodium exhibit strong and geographically consistent genetic differentiation and that they differ in their frequencies of infection with particular endosymbionts. The dependence on a joint winter host has thus not prevented the evolutionary divergence into summer host-adapted populations that appear to have evolved mechanisms of reproductive isolation within a common mating habitat. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Arbes, Samuel J; Gergen, Peter J; Elliott, Leslie; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2005-08-01

    Allergy skin tests were administered in the second and third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and III) conducted in the United States from 1976 through 1980 and 1988 through 1994, respectively. This study estimated positive skin test response rates in NHANES III and identified predictors of one or more positive test responses. Comparisons with NHANES II were also made. In NHANES III, 10 allergens and 2 controls were tested in all subjects aged 6 to 19 years and a random half-sample of subjects aged 20 to 59 years. A wheal-based definition of a positive test response was used. In NHANES III, 54.3% of the population had positive test responses to 1 or more allergens. Prevalences were 27.5% for dust mite, 26.9% for perennial rye, 26.2% for short ragweed, 26.1% for German cockroach, 18.1% for Bermuda grass, 17.0% for cat, 15.2% for Russian thistle, 13.2% for white oak, 12.9% for Alternaria alternata, and 8.6% for peanut. Among those with positive test responses, the median number of positive responses was 3.0. Adjusted odds of a positive test response were higher for the following variables: age of 20 to 29 years, male sex, minority race, western region, old homes, and lower serum cotinine levels. For the 6 allergens common to NHANES II and III, prevalences were 2.1 to 5.5 times higher in NHANES III. The majority of the US population represented in NHANES III was sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Whether the higher prevalences observed in NHANES III reflect true changes in prevalence or methodological differences between the surveys cannot be determined with certainty.

  14. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Salo, Päivi M; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J; Hoppin, Jane A; Sever, Michelle L; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-05-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population. We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88). In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  16. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would

  17. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  18. Xanthatin and xanthinosin from the burs of Xanthium strumarium L. as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Erosa, Irving; Huang, Yaoge; Hickie, Robert A; Sutherland, Ronald G; Barl, Branka

    2007-11-01

    Xanthatin and xanthinosin, 2 sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the burs of Xanthiun strumarium L. (cocklebur), showed moderate to high in vitro cytotoxic activity in the human cancer cell lines WiDr ATCC (colon), MDA-MB-231 ATCC (breast), and NCI-417 (lung). Xanthatin and xanthinosin were purified as the result of a multi-screening bioassay-guided study of wild plant species of the family Asteraceae, collected from various sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. Seventy-five extracts at a single concentration of 100 microg/mL were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity to the human cancer cell lines used. The chloroform extract of Carduus nutans L. (nodding thistle) aerial parts (IC50, 9.3 microg/mL) and the hexane extract of Echinacea angustifolia DC. (narrow-leaved purple coneflower) root (IC50, 4.0 microg/mL) were moderately to highly cytotoxic to the lung cancer cell line. The chloroform extracts of X. strumarium L. burs and Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy) aerial parts exhibited the highest cytotoxicity for all cell lines tested; their IC50 values, obtained from multidose testing, ranged from 0.1 to 6.2 microg/mL (X. strumarium) and from 2.4 to 9.1 microg/mL (T. vulgare). Further purification of the chloroform fraction of X. strumarium yielded xanthatin and xanthinosin in high yields. This is the first time that these compounds have been reported in the burs of X. strumarium. Their IC50 values are also reported herein.

  19. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    PubMed

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  20. Silibinin and its 2,3-Dehydro-derivative Inhibit Basal Cell Carcinoma Growth via Suppression of Mitogenic Signaling and Transcription Factors Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Cynthia; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla; Wempe, Michael F; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kren, Vladimir; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide, and its current treatment options are insufficient and toxic. Surprisingly, unlike several other malignancies, chemopreventive efforts against BCC are almost lacking. Silibinin, a natural agent from milk thistle seeds, has shown strong efficacy against several cancers including ultraviolet radiation-induced skin (squamous) cancer; however, its potential activity against BCC is not yet examined. Herein, for the first time, we report the efficacy of silibinin and its oxidation product 2,3-dehydrosilibinin (DHS) against BCC both in vitro and in vivo using ASZ (p53 mutated) and BSZ (p53 deleted) cell lines derived from murine BCC tumors. Both silibinin and DHS significantly inhibited cell growth and clonogenicity while inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with DHS showing higher activity at lower concentrations. Both agents also inhibited the mitogenic signaling by reducing EGFR, ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 phosphorylation and suppressed the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. More importantly, in an ectopic allograft model, oral administration of silibinin and DHS (200 mg/kg body weight) strongly inhibited the ASZ tumor growth by 44 and 71% (p<0.05), respectively, and decreased the expression of proliferation biomarkers (PCNA and cyclin D1) as well as NF-κB p50 and c-Fos in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence for the efficacy and usefulness of silibinin and its derivative DHS against BCC, and suggest the need for additional studies with these agents in pre-clinical and clinical BCC chemoprevention and therapy models. PMID:25492239

  1. Effect of Silibinin in Reducing Inflammatory Pathways in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Infection-Induced Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ratana; Morwood, Carrington J.; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Infection-induced preterm birth is the largest cause of infant death and of neurological disabilities in survivors. Silibinin, from milk thistle, exerts potent anti-inflammatory activities in non-gestational tissues. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of silibinin on pro-inflammatory mediators in (i) human fetal membranes and myometrium treated with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and (ii) in preterm fetal membranes with active infection. The effect of silibinin on infection induced inflammation and brain injury in pregnant mice was also assessed. Fetal membranes and myometrium (tissue explants and primary cells) were treated with 200 μM silibinin in the presence or absence of 10 μg/ml LPS or 1 ng/ml IL-1β. C57BL/6 mice were injected with 70 mg/kg silibinin with or without 50 μg LPS on embryonic day 16. Fetal brains were collected after 6 h. In human fetal membranes, silibinin significantly decreased LPS-stimulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8, COX-2, and prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α. In primary amnion and myometrial cells, silibinin also decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. Preterm fetal membranes with active infection treated with silibinin showed a decrease in IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-9 expression. Fetal brains from mice treated with silibinin showed a significant decrease in LPS-induced IL-8 and ninjurin, a marker of brain injury. Our study demonstrates that silibinin can reduce infection and inflammation-induced pro-labour mediators in human fetal membranes and myometrium. Excitingly, the in vivo results indicate a protective effect of silibinin on infection-induced brain injury in a mouse model of preterm birth. PMID:24647589

  2. SciTech Connect

    McClure, Janela; Margineantu, Daciana H.; Sweet, Ian R.

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbNmore » or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.« less

  3. Silibinin attenuates MPP⁺-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Un Ju; Jeon, Min-Tae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. The cause of neuronal death in PD is largely unknown, but it is becoming clear that inflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of PD. Silibinin is a major flavonoid in milk thistle which has an anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated whether silibinin could have neuroprotective effects on DA neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-treated animal model of PD in vivo. To address this question, animals received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg of silibinin, starting 1 day before MPP(+) injection and continued daily until 6 days post-lesion for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining, or until 1 hour prior to the MPP(+) injection to examine the expression levels of inflammatory proteins. Finally, their brains were harvested at the indicated time points for the analyses. Silibinin treatment with 10 mg/kg had no significantly neuroprotective effects in the substantia nigra (SN). However, 50 and 100 mg/kg of silibinin ameliorated the MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in the SN in a dose-dependent manner, and the increased levels of inflammatory molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by MPP(+) treatment were attenuated by treatment with 100 mg/kg of silibinin. These results indicate that silibinin could be a useful and beneficial natural product offering promise for the prevention of DA neuronal degeneration involved in PD.

  4. Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Parvin; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-04-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)s increase in blood and accumulate in the tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing animals, contributing to immune suppression in cancer. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent and supportive care agent to reduce the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of silibinin on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and antitumor activity of silibinin in a mouse model of breast cancer. 4T1 luciferase-transfected mammary carcinoma cells were injected into in the mammary fat pad female BALB/c mice, and female CB17-Prkdc Scid/J mice. Silibinin treatment started on day 4 or day 14 after tumor inoculation continued every other day. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) measuring total photon flux. Flow cytometry measured total leukocytes, CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSC, and T cells in the blood and tumors of tumor-bearing mice. The effects of silibinin on 4T1 cell viability in vitro were measured by BLI. Treatment with silibinin increased overall survival in mice harboring tumors derived from the 4T1-luciferase breast cancer cell line, and reduced tumor volumes and numbers of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs in the blood and tumor, and increased the content of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Silibinin failed to inhibit tumor growth in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficiency mice, supporting the hypothesis that anticancer effect of silibinin is immune-mediated. The antitumor activity of silibinin requires an intact host immune system and is associated with decreased accumulation of blood and tumor-associated MDSCs. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Parvin; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)s increase in blood and accumulate in the tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing animals, contributing to immune suppression in cancer. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent and supportive care agent to reduce the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of silibinin on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and antitumor activity of silibinin in a mouse model of breast cancer. 4T1 luciferase-transfected mammary carcinoma cells were injected into in the mammary fat pad female BALB/c mice, and female CB17-Prkdc Scid/J mice. Silibinin treatment started on day 4 or day 14 after tumor inoculation continued every other day. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) measuring total photon flux. Flow cytometry measured total leukocytes, CD11b+ Gr-1+ MDSC, and T cells in the blood and tumors of tumor-bearing mice. The effects of silibinin on 4T1 cell viability in vitro were measured by BLI. Treatment with silibinin increased overall survival in mice harboring tumors derived from the 4T1-luciferase breast cancer cell line, and reduced tumor volumes and numbers of CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs in the blood and tumor, and increased the content of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Silibinin failed to inhibit tumor growth in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficiency mice, supporting the hypothesis that anticancer effect of silibinin is immune-mediated. The antitumor activity of silibinin requires an intact host immune system and is associated with decreased accumulation of blood and tumor-associated MDSCs. PMID:24574320

  6. Silibinin and its 2,3-dehydro-derivative inhibit basal cell carcinoma growth via suppression of mitogenic signaling and transcription factors activation.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Cynthia; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla; Wempe, Michael F; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kren, Vladimir; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide, and its current treatment options are insufficient and toxic. Surprisingly, unlike several other malignancies, chemopreventive efforts against BCC are almost lacking. Silibinin, a natural agent from milk thistle seeds, has shown strong efficacy against several cancers including ultraviolet radiation-induced skin (squamous) cancer; however, its potential activity against BCC is not yet examined. Herein, for the first time, we report the efficacy of silibinin and its oxidation product 2,3-dehydrosilibinin (DHS) against BCC both in vitro and in vivo using ASZ (p53 mutated) and BSZ (p53 deleted) cell lines derived from murine BCC tumors. Both silibinin and DHS significantly inhibited cell growth and clonogenicity while inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with DHS showing higher activity at lower concentrations. Both agents also inhibited the mitogenic signaling by reducing EGFR, ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 phosphorylation and suppressed the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. More importantly, in an ectopic allograft model, oral administration of silibinin and DHS (200 mg/kg body weight) strongly inhibited the ASZ tumor growth by 44% and 71% (P < 0.05), respectively, and decreased the expression of proliferation biomarkers (PCNA and cyclin D1) as well as NF-κB p50 and c-Fos in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence for the efficacy and usefulness of silibinin and its derivative DHS against BCC, and suggest the need for additional studies with these agents in pre-clinical and clinical BCC chemoprevention and therapy models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anti-Cancer Efficacy of Silybin Derivatives - A Structure-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chapla; Wadhwa, Ritambhara; Deep, Gagan; Biedermann, David; Gažák, Radek; Křen, Vladimír; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Silybin or silibinin, a flavonolignan isolated from Milk thistle seeds, is one of the popular dietary supplements and has been extensively studied for its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer properties. We have envisioned that potency of silybin could be further enhanced through suitable modification/s in its chemical structure. Accordingly, here, we synthesized and characterized a series of silybin derivatives namely 2,3-dehydrosilybin (DHS), 7-O-methylsilybin (7OM), 7-O-galloylsilybin (7OG), 7,23-disulphatesilybin (DSS), 7-O-palmitoylsilybin (7OP), and 23-O-palmitoylsilybin (23OP); and compared their anti-cancer efficacy using human bladder cancer HTB9, colon cancer HCT116 and prostate carcinoma PC3 cells. In all the 3 cell lines, DHS, 7OM and 7OG demonstrated better growth inhibitory effects and compared to silybin, while other silybin derivatives showed lesser or no efficacy. Next, we prepared the optical isomers (A and B) of silybin, DHS, 7OM and 7OG, and compared their anti-cancer efficacy. Isomers of these three silybin derivatives also showed better efficacy compared with respective silybin isomers, but in each, there was no clear cut silybin A versus B isomer activity preference. Further studies in HTB cells found that DHS, 7OM and 7OG exert better apoptotic activity than silibinin. Clonogenic assays in HTB9 cells further confirmed that both the racemic mixtures as well as pure optical isomers of DHS, 7OM and 7OG were more effective than silybin. Overall, these results clearly suggest that the anti-cancer efficacy of silybin could be significantly enhanced through structural modifications, and identify strong anti-cancer efficacy of silybin derivatives, namely DHS, 7OM, and 7OG, signifying that their efficacy and toxicity should be evaluated in relevant pre-clinical cancer models in rodents. PMID:23555889

  8. Ecological aspects of decommissioning and decontamination of facilities on the Hanford Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Klepper, E.L.

    1976-06-01

    The Hanford environment and biota are described in relation to decommissioning of obsolescent facilities contaminated with low-levels of radioactive materials. The aridity at Hanford limits both the productivity and diversity of biota. Both productivity and diversity are increased when water is added, as for example on the margins of ponds. Certain plants, especially Salsola kali (Russian thistle or tumbleweed), are avid accumulators of minerals and will accumulate radioactive materials if their roots come into contact with contaminated soils. Data on concentration ratios (pCi per gDW of plant/pCi per gDW soil) are given for several native plants for long-lived radionuclides. Plantsmore » are generally more resistant than animals to ionizing radiation so that impacts of high-level radiation sources would be expected to occur primarily in the animals. Mammals and birds are discussed along with information on where they are to be found on the Reservation and what role they may play in the long-term management of radioactive wastes. Food habits of animals are discussed and plants which are palatable to common herbivores are listed. Food chains leading to man are shown to be very limited, including a soil-plant-mule deer-man path for terrestrial sites and a pond-waterfowl-man pathway for pond sites. Retention basins are discussed as an example of how an ecologically sound decommissioningprogram might be planned. Finally, burial of large volumes of low-level wastes can probably be done if barriers to biological invasion are provided.« less

  9. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesismore » of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.« less

  10. Comparative structure-function characterization of the saposin-like domains from potato, barley, cardoon and Arabidopsis aspartic proteases.

    PubMed

    Bryksa, Brian C; Grahame, Douglas A; Yada, Rickey Y

    2017-05-01

    The present study characterized the aspartic protease saposin-like domains of four plant species, Solanum tuberosum (potato), Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon; artichoke thistle) and Arabidopsis thaliana, in terms of bilayer disruption and fusion, and structure pH-dependence. Comparison of the recombinant saposin-like domains revealed that each induced leakage of bilayer vesicles composed of a simple phospholipid mixture with relative rates Arabidopsis>barley>cardoon>potato. When compared for leakage of bilayer composed of a vacuole-like phospholipid mixture, leakage was approximately five times higher for potato saposin-like domain compared to the others. In terms of fusogenic activity, distinctions between particle size profiles were noted among the four proteins, particularly for potato saposin-like domain. Bilayer fusion assays in reducing conditions resulted in altered fusion profiles except in the case of cardoon saposin-like domain which was virtually unchanged. Secondary structure profiles were similar across all four proteins under different pH conditions, although cardoon saposin-like domain appeared to have higher overall helix structure. Furthermore, increases in Trp emission upon protein-bilayer interactions suggested that protein structure rearrangements equilibrated with half-times ranging from 52 to 120s, with cardoon saposin-like domain significantly slower than the other three species. Overall, the present findings serve as a foundation for future studies seeking to delineate protein structural features and motifs in protein-bilayer interactions based upon variability in plant aspartic protease saposin-like domain structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boerboom, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I{sub 50}s from 0.6more » to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I{sub 50}s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I{sub 50} of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I{sub 50} of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, {sup 14}C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min{sm bullet}mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81.« less

  12. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  13. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M.; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), gentian (Gentiana lutea L.), lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies. PMID:29674964

  14. Accumulation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in indigenous and agricultural plants grown in HMX-contaminated anti-tank firing-range soil.

    PubMed

    Groom, Carl A; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Morris, Neil; Olivier, Lucie; Dubois, Charles; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.

  15. Reclassification of rhizosphere bacteria including strains causing corky root of lettuce and proposal of Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov., Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Francis, Isolde M; Jochimsen, Kenneth N; De Vos, Paul; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2014-04-01

    The genus Rhizorhapis gen. nov. (to replace the illegitimate genus name Rhizomonas) is proposed for strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing corky root of lettuce, a widespread and important lettuce disease worldwide. Only one species of the genus Rhizomonas was described, Rhizomonas suberifaciens, which was subsequently reclassified as Sphingomonas suberifaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in the cell envelope. However, the genus Sphingomonas is so diverse that further reclassification was deemed necessary. Twenty new Rhizorhapis gen. nov.- and Sphingomonas-like isolates were obtained from lettuce or sow thistle roots, or from soil using lettuce seedlings as bait. These and previously reported isolates were characterized in a polyphasic study including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid composition, morphology, substrate oxidation, temperature and pH sensitivity, and pathogenicity to lettuce. The isolates causing lettuce corky root belonged to the genera Rhizorhapis gen. nov., Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis and Rhizorhabdus gen. nov. More specifically, we propose to reclassify Rhizomonas suberifaciens as Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain, CA1(T) = LMG 17323(T) = ATCC 49355(T)), and also propose the novel species Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strains NL9(T) ( = LMG 12560(T) = ATCC 51296(T)), WI4(T) ( = LMG 11032(T) = ATCC 51292(T)) and SP1(T) ( = LMG 12581(T) = ATCC 51289(T)), respectively. Several strains isolated from lettuce roots belonged to the genus Sphingomonas, but none of them were pathogenic.

  16. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  17. Complementary medicine, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the OCD spectrum: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Camfield, David; Berk, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) current standard pharmacotherapies may be of limited efficacy. Non-conventional interventions such as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), self-help techniques, and lifestyle interventions are commonly used by sufferers of OCD, however to date no systematic review of this specific area exists. We conducted a systematic review of studies using CAM, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for treatment of OCD and trichotillomania (TTM). PubMed, PsycINFO, China Academic Journals Full-text Database, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched (up to Jan 11th 2011), for controlled clinical trials using non-conventional interventions for OCD. A quality analysis using a purpose-designed scale and an estimation of effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data was available, were also calculated. The literature search revealed 14 studies that met inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of nutraceutical studies (nutrients and herbal medicines) were rated as high (mean 8.6/10), whereas mind-body or self-help studies were poorer (mean 6.1/10). In OCD, tentative evidentiary support from methodologically weak studies was found for mindfulness meditation (d=0.63), electroacupuncture (d=1.16), and kundalini yoga (d=1.61). Better designed studies using the nutrient glycine (d=1.10), and traditional herbal medicines milk thistle (insufficient data for calculating d) and borage (d=1.67) also revealed positive results. A rigorous study showed that N-acetylcysteine (d=1.31) was effective in TTM, while self-help technique "movement decoupling" also demonstrated efficacy (d=0.94). Mixed evidence was found for myo-inositol (mean d=0.98). Controlled studies suggest that St John's wort, EPA, and meridian-tapping are ineffective in treating OCD. While several studies were positive, these were un-replicated and commonly used small samples. This precludes firm confidence in the strength of clinical effect. Preliminary evidence however is encouraging

  18. Anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of the hepatoprotective silymarin and the schistosomicide praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is an isoquinoline derivative (2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino{2,1-a}-isoquinoline-4-one), and is currently the drug of choice for all forms of schistosomiasis. Silymarin, a standardized milk thistle extract, of which silibinin is the main component, is known for its hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities, and hepatocyte regeneration. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrotic effects of silymarin and/or PZQ on schistosomal hepatic fibrosis. Methods Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were divided into two large groups (I & II), each with four subgroups and were run in parallel. (i) Infected untreated; (ii) treated with silymarin, starting from the 4th (3 weeks before PZQ therapy) or 12th (5 weeks after PZQ therapy) weeks post infection (PI); (iii) treated with PZQ in the 7th week PI; and (iv) treated with silymarin, as group (ii) plus PZQ as group (iii). Comparable groups of uninfected mice run in parallel with the infected groups. Mice of groups I and II were killed 10 and 18 weeks PI, respectively. Hepatic content of hydroxyproline (HYP), serum levels and tissue expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and number of mast cells were determined. In addition, parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters that reflect disease severity and morbidity were examined. Results Silymarin caused a partial decrease in worm burden; hepatic tissue egg load, with an increase in percentage of dead eggs; modulation of granuloma size, with significant reduction of hepatic HYP content; tissue expression of MMP-2, TGF-β1; number of mast cells, with conservation of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH). PZQ produced complete eradication of worms, eggs and alleviated liver inflammation and fibrosis. The best results were obtained, in most parameters studied, in groups of mice treated with silymarin in addition to PZQ. Conclusions Our

  19. Phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers and colonic estrogen receptor β: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Mariabeatrice; Di Leo, Alfredo; Pricci, Maria; Scavo, Maria Principia; Guido, Raffaella; Tanzi, Sabina; Piscitelli, Domenico; Pisani, Antonio; Ierardi, Enzo; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Barone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and effect of the supplementation of a patented blend of dietary phytoestrogens and insoluble fibers on estrogen receptor (ER)-β and biological parameters in sporadic colonic adenomas. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Patients scheduled to undergo surveillance colonoscopy for previous sporadic colonic adenomas were identified, and 60 eligible patients were randomized to placebo or active dietary intervention (ADI) twice a day, for 60 d before surveillance colonoscopy. ADI was a mixture of 175 mg milk thistle extract, 20 mg secoisolariciresinol and 750 mg oat fiber extract. ER-β and ER-α expression, apoptosis and proliferation (Ki-67 LI) were assessed in colon samples. RESULTS: No adverse event related to ADI was recorded. ADI administration showed a significant increases in ER-β protein (0.822 ± 0.08 vs 0.768 ± 0.10, P = 0.04) and a general trend to an increase in ER-β LI (39.222 ± 2.69 vs 37.708 ± 5.31, P = 0.06), ER-β/ER-α LI ratio (6.564 ± 10.04 vs 2.437 ± 1.53, P = 0.06), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (35.592 ± 14.97 vs 31.541 ± 11.54, P = 0.07) and Ki-67 (53.923 ± 20.91 vs 44.833 ± 10.38, P = 0.07) approximating statistical significance. A significant increase of ER-β protein (0.805 ± 0.13 vs 0.773 ± 0.13, P = 0.04), mRNA (2.278 ± 1.19 vs 1.105 ± 1.07, P < 0.02) and LI (47.533 ± 15.47 vs 34.875 ± 16.67, P < 0.05) and a decrease of ER-α protein (0.423 ± 0.06 vs 0.532 ± 0.11, P < 0.02) as well as a trend to increase of ER-β/ER-α protein in ADI vs placebo group were observed in patients without polyps (1.734 ± 0.20 vs 1.571 ± 0.42, P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The role of ER-β on the control of apoptosis, and its amenability to dietary intervention, are supported in our study. PMID:23885143

  20. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of

  1. SciTech Connect

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-watermore » potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined

  2. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 2005–2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 2005–2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.44–2.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.41–1.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.83–5.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

  3. Effects of A Breast-Health Herbal Formula Supplement on Estrogen Metabolism in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women not Taking Hormonal Contraceptives or Supplements: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Maggie; Cockerline, Carla A.; Sepkovic, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Both indole-3-carbinol and dietary lignans have beneficial effects on estrogen metabolism and breast cancer risk. There is no published literature on the effects of a combination product. This study was designed to investigate the impact of a combination product on estrogen metabolism. The major trial objective was to determine whether a breast health supplement containing indole-3-carbinol and hydroxymatairesinol lignan would alter estrogen metabolism to favour C-2 hydroxylation and reduce C-16 hydroxylation. Higher concentrations of C-2 metabolites and lower concentrations of C-16 metabolites may reduce breast cancer risk and risk for other hormonally-related cancers. Methods Forty-seven pre-menopausal and forty-nine post-menopausal women were recruited for this study, and were divided by random allocation into treatment and placebo group. The treatment supplement contained HMR lignan, indole-3-carbinol, calcium glucarate, milk thistle, Schisandra chinesis and stinging nettle, and each woman consumed either treatment or placebo for 28 days. At day 0 and day 28, blood samples were analysed for serum enterolactone concentrations, and first morning random urine samples were assessed for estrogen metabolites. Repeated measures ANOVA statistical testing was performed. Results In pre-menopausal women, treatment supplementation resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in urinary 2-OHE concentrations and in the 2:16α-OHE ratio. In post-menopausal women, treatment supplementation resulted in a significant increase in urinary 2-OHE concentrations. In pre- and post-menopausal women combined, treatment supplementation produced a significant increase in urinary 2-OHE concentration and a trend (P = 0.074) toward an increased 2:16α-OHE ratio. There were no significant increases in serum enterolactone concentrations in the treatment or placebo groups. Conclusions Supplementation with a mixture of indole-3-carbinol and HMR lignan in women significantly

  4. Crosstalk of ROS/RNS and autophagy in silibinin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Wei-Wei; Li, Fei; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulating cell survival and death. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle with anti-tumor activities, but it was found to induce cytoprotective ROS/RNS in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with silibinin down-regulates ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, and inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we explored the relationship between ER-associated pathways and RNS/ROS in MCF-7 cells. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal regulation between ROS/RNS levels and autophagy in the death signaling pathways in silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Silibinin (100-300 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased ROS/RNS generation in MCF-7 cells (with high expression of ERα and low expression of ERβ) and MDA-MB-231 cells (with low expression of ERα and high expression of ERβ). Scavenging ROS/RNS significantly enhanced silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB231 cells. Pharmacological activation or blockade of ERα in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced or decreased, respectively, silibinin-induced ROS/RNS generation, whereas activation or block of ERβ had no effect. In silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells, exposure to the ROS/RNS donators decreased the autophagic levels, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA significantly increased ROS/RNS levels. We further showed that increases in ROS/RNS generation, ERα activation or autophagy down-regulation had protective roles in silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Under a condition of ERα activation, scavenging ROS/RNS or stimulating autophagy enhanced the cytotoxicity of silibinin. These results demonstrate the existence of two conflicting pathways in silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells: one involves the down-regulation of ERα and thereby augmenting the pro-apoptotic autophagy downstream, leading to cell death; the other involves the up

  5. Crosstalk of ROS/RNS and autophagy in silibinin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Wei-wei; Li, Fei; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulating cell survival and death. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle with anti-tumor activities, but it was found to induce cytoprotective ROS/RNS in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with silibinin down-regulates ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, and inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we explored the relationship between ER-associated pathways and RNS/ROS in MCF-7 cells. We also investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal regulation between ROS/RNS levels and autophagy in the death signaling pathways in silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Silibinin (100–300 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased ROS/RNS generation in MCF-7 cells (with high expression of ERα and low expression of ERβ) and MDA-MB-231 cells (with low expression of ERα and high expression of ERβ). Scavenging ROS/RNS significantly enhanced silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB231 cells. Pharmacological activation or blockade of ERα in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced or decreased, respectively, silibinin-induced ROS/RNS generation, whereas activation or block of ERβ had no effect. In silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells, exposure to the ROS/RNS donators decreased the autophagic levels, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA significantly increased ROS/RNS levels. We further showed that increases in ROS/RNS generation, ERα activation or autophagy down-regulation had protective roles in silibinin-treated MCF-7 cells. Under a condition of ERα activation, scavenging ROS/RNS or stimulating autophagy enhanced the cytotoxicity of silibinin. These results demonstrate the existence of two conflicting pathways in silibinin-induced death of MCF-7 cells: one involves the down-regulation of ERα and thereby augmenting the pro-apoptotic autophagy downstream, leading to cell death; the other involves the up

  6. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  7. Biological Effect of Cynara cardunculus on Kidney Status of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkushi, Abdullah Glil

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cynara cardunculus or artichoke thistle belongs to the sunflower family and has a variety of cultivable forms. Historically, it was cultivated as a vegetable, but more recently, it is being used in cheese and biofuel preparation. Artichoke leaf extracts are also known for its medicinal purposes, particularly in reducing the elevated cholesterol levels in blood. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is also associated with other complications such as impaired renal function and diabetes mellitus. A remedy without major side effects for HC and its associated complications is highly desirable. Aims: We explored the effect of artichoke on the kidneys of hypercholesterolemic adult male Sprague–Dawley albino rats. Subjects and Methods: Oral administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of C. cardunculus leaf extract (CCL) and C. cardunculus pulp extract (CCP) was made to male Sprague–Dawley albino hypercholesterolemic rats and investigated the levels of glucose, creatinine, uric acid, and urea in their blood. Results: We observed that both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the creatinine and uric acid levels in the blood in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). Further, the histopathological investigation of the kidney sections showed that CCL treatment resolved HC-associated kidney damage. Conclusion: CCL not only has cholesterol-reducing capacity but also reduces the blood glucose levels and repairs the impaired kidney functions and damages. These findings are significant particularly because HC results in further complications such as diabetes and kidney damage, both of which can be treated effectively with artichoke. SUMMARY C. cardunculus leaf extract (CCL) not only has cholesterol-reducing capacity but also reduces the blood glucose levels and repairs the impaired kidney functions and damages. This study evaluated the nephroprotective role of CCL and CCP in

  8. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    PubMed

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a

  9. [Administration of Cardiodoron® in patients with functional cardiovascular disorders and/or sleep disorders--results of a prospective, non-interventional study].

    PubMed

    Rother, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Functional cardiovascular disorders (FCD) can be attributed to around 25-40% of all heart patients, i.e. organic causes are not detectable. Characteristic symptoms are tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmia, hyperventilation, vertigo, vasovagal syncopes and sleep disorders, with the latter being a problem of its own. Disturbed vegetative rhythms form the basis of these diseases. The medicinal product Cardiodoron counteracts the dysfunctional vegetative rhythmicity with 3 medicinal plants--Primula veris (common cowslip), Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) and Onopordum acanthium (cotton thistle). By means of a prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study, the development of disease-specific disorders during treatment with Cardiodoron (drops) was supposed to be shown. Between September 2009 and March 2012, 92 physicians documented 501 patients suffering from functional cardiovascular and/or sleep disorders who have been treated with Cardiodoron for 3-6 months. After an initial examination, a final examination after 90 (± 10) days and, in case of continuation of therapy, a follow-up examination after 90 (± 10) days were carried out. Besides 30 symptoms assessed by the physicians, the patients rated their condition on the basis of the complaints list according to v. Zerssen (B-L and B-L') and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) according to Buysse. The severity of functional cardiovascular disorders as well as sleep disorders was significantly reduced. The same applies for all of the documented 30 disease-specific symptoms. Furthermore, the total score of the complaints list was significantly reduced as well as the PSQI. The largest effect regarding all parameters was detectable after 3 months. Continuation of Cardiodoron therapy stabilised the symptomatology once more and resulted in further improvement. On average, patients reported initial improvement after 13 days of treatment. Tolerability was almost consistently assessed with 'very good / good

  10. Stable Isotope Composition of Dissolved Sulphate and Carbonate in Selected Natural Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniaszek, Piotr

    . For plants growing in the vicinity of industrial SO_2 emissions it was found that the delta^{18 }O values in sulphate are influenced by the delta^{18}O values of local precipitation (comparison of data from Alberta, Canada, and California, USA). Thistles with very high sulphur concentrations (12,000 ppm) growing near the sour gas processing plant at Crossfield, Alberta were examined. It was concluded from the isotope data that they derived their sulphur from deeper soil. In contrast, grass with shallower roots contained much higher proportions of industrially emitted sulphur. In the vicinity of springs emitting H _2S, a linear correlation was found between delta^{34}S and delta^{18}O values in plant sulphate and that in springs. Mosses did not follow this trend. Their delta^{18 }O values were higher than for other adjacent plants.

  11. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progressmore » in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of

  12. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  13. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    . Most precipitation is monsoonal, convective storms that bring moisture from the Gulf of Mexico beginning in early July and ending by October. Large frontal storms during December and January are responsible for most winter precipitation (Figure 2). The record from U.S. Geological Survey gauging station number 09379000 operated by the BLM from 1959 through 1968 indicates that Comb Wash flows in direct response to precipitation events. Most daily discharge and peak events occur in late July through September, coinciding with high intensity monsoon thunderstorms. Comb Wash supports a variety of vegetation typical of the Great Basin Desert and the northern desert shrub zone as described by Fowler and Koch (1982). On the lower alluvial terraces, bushes and shrubs dominate the vegetation, including: sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), winterfat (Eurotia lanata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and shadscale (Atriplex concertifolia). Juniper trees (Juniperus osteosperma) can be found on the rocky colluvial slopes near Comb Ridge and on the higher terrace near Cedar Mesa. The floodplain contains an abundance of riparian vegetation including cottonwood (Populus fremontii), willow (Salix exigua), and tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). Tamarisk is one of 7 non-native species present in the lower Comb Wash watershed. At least seven known species of noxious weeds have invaded the watershed, including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), field bindweed (Convolvulus avensis), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens), tamarisk and camel thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi). Of these, tamarisk or salt-cedar has most aggressively colonized the southwestern United States, including the San Juan watershed. Graf (1978) estimates that since the late 19th century, tamarisk has spread at a rate of 20 km per year. Tamarisk first appeared in Comb Wash during the mid to early 20th century based on

  14. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event