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  1. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side

  2. [Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: physiopathology, endocrine status].

    PubMed

    Teissier, M-P; Lopez, S

    2004-09-01

    The pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy remains uncertain. An inflammatory reaction is well established in orbital tissues in Graves' thyrotoxicosis. This inflammation is associated with antithyroid antibody action, but is not systematic in autoimmune hyperthyroidism patients. If ocular manifestations are pathognomonic for Graves' disease they can present in association with euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Ophthalmopathy factors could be genetically determined but environmental parameters such as smoking and stress may also be involved, supporting the hypothesis that the autoimmune process in this ocular inflammation could be modulated in each patient based on personal and environmental factors.

  3. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  4. Overexpression of collagen XIII in extraocular fat affected by active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: A crucial piece of the puzzle?

    PubMed

    Morris, Olivia Claire; Schebitz Walter, Kirsten; Telemo, Esbjörn; Hintschich, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) causes irreversible increase in extraocular fat volume that contributes to the risk of exophthalmos and compressive optic neuropathy. Collagen XIII is implicated in uncontrolled cell growth in some tumours, but we are not aware of any studies of collagen XIII in TAO-affected solid tissue to date. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for collagen XIII alpha 1 (COL13A1), present in both the transmembrane and cleaved forms of collagen XIII, in consecutive prospectively collected human extraocular tissue specimens from patients with TAO and controls. We identified overexpression of collagen XIII in active TAO-affected fat. We discuss how species and cell-type specific responses of collagen XIII to stressors may help explain the different phenotypes of TAO. PMID:27245701

  5. [Reappraise the value of orbital decompression for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li-hua

    2012-08-01

    Compressive optic neuropathy and exposure keratopathy is classical indications of orbital decompression surgery for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Recently, its therapeutic value should extend to cosmetic requirement, the entity of congestive orbitopathy, ocular hypertension and hormonal resistance. In order to improve the safe and efficacy of orbital decompressions, we need the graded decompression plans and the modified areas of bone removal. The preferred area of bone removal is deep lateral wall. In serious patients, a combined medial, inferior and deep lateral wall decompression is recommended. There have also been technical advances in the cosmetic incisions such as transconjunctival, eyelid crease or endoscopic access. Removing periorbital fat is a supplement skill for bony decompression. The removed amount and indications should be regulated strictly. Individual operative project is the tendency of development of orbital decompressions.

  6. Biologic therapeutics in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: translating disease mechanism into therapy.

    PubMed

    Naik, Vibhavari; Khadavi, Nicole; Naik, Milind N; Hwang, Cathy; Goldberg, Robert A; Tsirbas, Angelo; Smith, Terry J; Douglas, Raymond S

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disease which targets the thyroid, orbit, and skin. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) refers specifically to the orbital and periorbital manifestations of GD. Several important concepts have emerged from our enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the disease. Considerable debate remains concerning the specific identity and roles of inflammatory T-cell subsets, soluble and contact-mediated signalling, and autoantigens driving TAO. However B and T lymphocytes appear central in the process through production of disease mediators including activating autoantibodies to the thyrotropin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor; cytokines including IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-16; and chemokines including RANTES. Many of these molecules appear central to the inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix macromolecules, and fibrosis in the disease. Novel therapeutics targeting other autoimmune diseases may provide an opportunity for disrupting disease pathogenesis. It is imperative that agents targeting B-and T-cell functions be further evaluated in the treatment of aggressive forms of TAO utilizing multicenter clinical trials that allow adequate statistical power and sample size. PMID:18713027

  7. Latent Pathways Identification by Microarray Expression Profiles in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pingqian; Yin, Haitao; Tao, Chen; Chen, Ping; Song, Ying; Yang, Wenlei; Liu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to screen potential genes related to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and get a further understanding about the pathogenesis of this disease. GSE9340 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including eight thyroid tissue samples from hyperthyroid patients without TAO and ten ones from hyperthyroid patients with TAO. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the linear models for microarray data package. And their potential functions were predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) was obtained from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database, and the PPI network was visualized with Cytoscape. Then, module analysis was performed by the Molecular Complex Detection analysis. Additionally, the potential pathway interactions were identified by Latent Pathway Identification Analysis. Totally, 511 upregulated and 507 downregulated DEGs in TAO were screened. Some DEGs (e.g., UBE2C) were related to cell cycle, and DEGs encoding proteasome (e.g., PSMA1, PSMC5, PSMC4, and PSMD1) were related to negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Several upregulated DEGs encoding signal recognition particle (e.g., SRP14, SRP54, and SRP9) were found to be enriched in protein export pathway. Furthermore, some pathways (e.g., ribosome and protein export) had interactions. The DEGs related to cell cycle (e.g., UBE2C), DEGs encoding proteasome (e.g., PSMA1, PSMC5, PSMC4, and PSMD1) and signal recognition particle (e.g., SRP14, SRP54, and SRP9), as well as pathways of ribosome, protein export and retinol metabolism, might play key roles in the development of TAO.

  8. The Change of Lacrimal Gland Volume in Korean Patients with Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Hyoun-Do; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Seong-Jae; Yoo, Ji-Myong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the change of lacrimal gland volumes in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) via computed tomography (CT). Methods A retrospective review of CT images from 217 TAO patients and 135 control subjects was performed. The TAO patients were diagnosed between May 2005 and May 2014 and had a CT performed on initial presentation (330 orbital CT scans). These images were compared with 270 orbital CT scans from the control group, obtained between May 2013 and May 2014. An open source DICOM viewer was used to calculate the volume of the lacrimal gland. Results The mean volume of the lacrimal gland in TAO patients was 0.816 cm3 in the right orbit (standard deviation [SD], 0.048) and 0.811 cm3 in the left orbit (SD, 0.051), with no significant difference between right and left (p = 0.192). However, significant differences were observed between TAO patients and healthy individuals (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between mean lacrimal gland volumes of males (0.812 cm3; SD, 0.037) and females (0.816 cm3; SD, 0.029) (p = 0.513). There was a negative correlation between gland volume and age in TAO patients (Pearson r = -0.479, p = 0.00). The subjective tearing (right: r = 0.244, p = 0.018; left: r = 0.226, p = 0.024), corneal superficial punctate keratopathy (right: r = 0.192, p = 0.040; left: r = 0.206, p = 0.036), and exophthalmometry (right: r = 0.182, p = 0.032; left: r = 0.180, p = 0.046) correlated with lacrimal gland volume. Conclusions This study is the first to use CT images to calculate the lacrimal gland volume of Korean TAO patients. In TAO patients, the lacrimal gland volume was notably increased compared to control subjects. The lacrimal gland volume decreased with age, but there was no difference between gender and no difference between left and right. The lacrimal gland volume correlated with subjective tearing, corneal superficial punctate keratopathy and exophthalmometry. PMID:27729751

  9. Unique attributes of orbital fibroblasts and global alterations in IGF-1 receptor signaling could explain thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terry J; Tsai, Chieh Chih; Shih, Mei-Ju; Tsui, Shanli; Chen, Beiling; Han, Rui; Naik, Vibha; King, Chris S; Press, Chris; Kamat, Shweta; Goldberg, Robert A; Phipps, Richard P; Douglas, Raymond S; Gianoukakis, Andrew G

    2008-09-01

    Tissue remodeling associated with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) involves the complex interplay between resident cells (endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, extraocular muscle, and fibroblasts) and those recruited to the orbit, including members of the "professional" immune system. Inflammation early in the disease can later culminate in fibrosis and diminished extraocular muscle motility. TAO remains a poorly understood process, in large part because access to tissues early in the disease is limited and because no robust and complete animal models of Graves' disease have yet been devised. Remaining uncertainty as to the identity of a pathogenic autoantigen(s) that underlies lymphocyte trafficking to the orbit complicates matters. These limitations in our understanding of extrathyroidal Graves' disease have resulted in poorly served patients with severe TAO. Therapies have targeted symptoms rather than the underlying disease processes. Our laboratory group has focused over the last several years on defining the peculiarities of the human orbital fibroblasts as a strategy for shedding more light on the pathologies occurring in TAO. We have reasoned that unique properties of these cells might ultimately prove the basis for why the manifestations of Graves' disease occur in an anatomically selective manner. In this brief review we attempt to survey our findings. We believe that they might provide a "roadmap" for further discovery into the pathogenesis of TAO. Clearly, more questions remain than those thus far answered.

  10. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Sayın, Osman; Yeter, Volkan; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  11. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sayın, Osman; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  12. Short and long-term effects of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Wang, Shu; Qin, Li; Qiang, Wei; Dahal, Mahesh; Fan, Ping; Gao, Shan; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    The majority of previous studies on high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse (IVMP) therapy have observed the clinical conditions of patients prior to and following treatment without any long-term follow-up, and these studies have predominantly focused on combined treatment. The present prospective clinical study aimed to assess the long-term effects and safety of high-dose IVMP therapy in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), as well as the significance of thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-l (sICAM-1) during IVMP therapy. A total of 58 patients with TAO were treated with high-dose IVMP therapy, and their clinical characteristics and indices were recorded before, during and after therapy, with a 12–57 month (mean, 28.4 months) follow-up. Before treatment and on the second day after each IVMP therapy, serum TRAb and sICAM-1 levels were evaluated in 23 patients with TAO via a competitive radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that the symptoms of eyelid swelling, ophthalmodynia, photophobia, lacrimation and diplopia, and visual acuity, ocular motility, proptosis and clinical activity score (CAS) indices were all significantly improved after IVMP therapy. In addition, analysis of covariance demonstrated that alterations in the levels of serum TRAb during the course of treatment were associated with CAS of TAO, whereas the change in serum sICAM-1 was not. In conclusion, high-dose IVMP therapy is an effective, safe, stable and well-tolerated treatment for TAO, which is associated with rare, minor adverse effects. Furthermore, serum TRAb levels are correlated with the CAS of TAO and may serve as a predictor of the response to methylprednisolone therapy. PMID:27446294

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: a double blind and self-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujie; Tong, Boding; Luo, Yongheng; Xie, Guiyuan; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) was evaluated by various objective and quantitative indexes including T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the degree of exophthalmos using clinical research with prospective, randomized, double blind, self controlled. Methods: The patients with TAO who in the moderate and severe active period and had similar double eyes condition in the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of Xiangya No. 2 Hospital of Central South University from 2011.2 to 2014.2 were selected as objects in this study. The related body check was finished after the research group was built. For the object, one eye of patient having random radiotherapy was chosen as the experimental eye. The other eye in the same patient with pseudo radiotherapy (merely known by operator, doctors in department of ophthalmology and patients were double blind) was selected as the control eye. The radiotherapy plan was made by the operator according to the CT results. The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree was compared by MRI check to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy. Results: The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree between both eyes (experimental and control eyes) had significant differences and these data had statistical significance. Conclusions: The treatment of radiotherapy is effective for the TAO in the moderate and severe active period. PMID:25932139

  14. Orbital decompression surgery and horse chestnut seed extract improved superior orbital vein blood flow in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Wei, Xin; Xiao, Man-Yi; Xiong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of orbital decomposition (OD) surgery in combination with horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), as compared to OD alone, in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS Sixty-two orbits from 62 TAO patients were randomly assigned to OD or OD+HCSE at 1:1 ratio (31 received OD alone, 31 received OD+HCSE). Forty-two orbits from 21 healthy subjects were used as controls. Complete ophthalmic examination and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed before surgery and 3mo post-surgery on all 62 orbits from the TAO patients. CDFI were also performed on the 42 control orbits. The effect of OD+HCSE and OD alone on TAO orbits was compared on several endpoints, including superior ophthalmic vein blood flow (SOVBF) parameters, subjective assessment, soft tissue involvement, lid retraction, diplopia, eye movement restriction, degree of exophthalmos, and intraocular pressure. The control orbits were used as reference for the SOVBF parameters. RESULTS OD surgery with or without HCSE improved SOVBF, symptoms and soft tissue involvement, decreased degree of exophthalmos and intraocular pressure in orbits of TAO patients. The OD+HCSE combination led to significantly better improvement of SOVBF than OD alone. The differences between the reductions of SOVBF in the two groups are 1.26 cm/s in max-volecity and 0.52 cm/s in min-volecity (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION SOVBF is significantly reduced in the orbits affected with TAO, indicating that congestion may be an important factor contributing to TAO pathogenesis. OD surgery improves the SOVBF, and combination of HCSE medication and OD surgery further improved venous return than OD surgery alone. PMID:27366690

  15. Customized Orbital Decompression Surgery Combined with Eyelid Surgery or Strabismus Surgery in Mild to Moderate Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Yeun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of customized orbital decompression surgery combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Twenty-seven consecutive subjects who were treated surgically for proptosis with disfigurement or diplopia after medical therapy from September 2009 to July 2012 were included in the analysis. Customized orbital decompression surgery with correction of eyelid retraction and extraocular movement disorders was simultaneously performed. The patients had a minimum preoperative period of 3 months of stable range of ocular motility and eyelid position. All patients had inactive TAO and were euthyroid at the time of operation. Preoperative and postoperative examinations, including vision, margin reflex distance, Hertel exophthalmometry, ocular motility, visual fields, Goldmann perimetry, and subject assessment of the procedure, were performed in all patients. Data were analyzed using paired t-test (PASW Statistics ver. 18.0). Results Forty-nine decompressions were performed on 27 subjects (16 females, 11 males; mean age, 36.6 ± 11.6 years). Twenty-two patients underwent bilateral operations; five required only unilateral orbital decompression. An average proptosis of 15.6 ± 2.2 mm (p = 0.00) was achieved, with a mean preoperative Hertel measurement of 17.6 ± 2.2 mm. Ocular motility was corrected through recession of the extraocular muscle in three cases, and no new-onset diplopia or aggravated diplopia was noted. The binocular single vision field increased in all patients. Eyelid retraction correction surgery was simultaneously performed in the same surgical session in 10 of 49 cases, and strabismus and eyelid retraction surgery were performed in the same surgical session in two cases. Margin reflex distance decreased from a preoperative average of 4.3 ± 0.8 to 3.8 ± 0.5 mm postoperatively. Conclusions The customized orbital decompression procedure decreased

  16. The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on IL-1β Induced IL-8 Expression in Orbital Fibroblast from Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yun, Mihee; Lee, Seong-Beom; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Orbital fibroblasts have been reported to be an important effector cells for the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Orbital fibroblasts secrete various inflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulation, leading to TAO-related tissue swelling. It has also been reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG affects the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 in human orbital fibroblasts from TAO patients. Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced the level of IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-8 and the expression of IL-8 mRNA. IL-1β-induced the degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK, and the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 mRNA was inhibited by specific inhibitors, such as BAY-117085 for NF-kB, SB203580 for p38, and PD98059 for ERK. In addition, treatment with EGCG inhibited the IL-1β-induced degradation of IκBα, and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. However, pre-treatment with antioxidants, NVN and NAC, which suppressed ROS generation, did not reduce IL-8 expression in IL-1β-treated orbital fibroblasts, suggesting that the IL-1β-induced IL-8 expression is not mediated by the generation of ROS. These results show that EGCG suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-8 through inhibition of the NF-κB, p38, and ERK pathways. These findings could contribute to the development of new types of EGCG-containing pharmacological agents for use in the treatment of TAO. PMID:26848751

  17. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    PubMed

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  18. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity and volume of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the relationship between inflammation and swelling of extraocular muscles in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Methods The signal intensities and volumes of the superior rectus (SR), inferior rectus (IR), lateral rectus (LR), medial rectus (MR), and superior oblique (SO) muscles were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 25 eyes of 25 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in the acute inflammatory phase before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of muscles and brain white matter were calculated. Result The mean SIRs before treatment were 2.28±0.74 in SR, 2.66±0.57 in IR, 2.03±0.42 in LR, 2.45±0.49 in MR, and 1.98±0.48 in SO muscles. The mean SIRs after treatment were 1.82±0.62, 1.84±0.52, 1.70±0.35, 1.95±0.46, and 1.60±0.36, respectively. The mean volumes (cm3) before treatment were 1.35±0.67 in SR, 1.21±0.39 in IR, 0.66±0.13 in LR, 0.94±0.31 in MR, and 0.58±0.14 in SO muscles. Those after treatment were 1.12±0.45, 0.91±0.31, 0.61±0.12, 0.85±0.28, and 0.49±0.11, respectively. The SIRs showed significantly positive correlations with volumes both before and after treatment in SR muscles (before, r=0.77; after, r=0.69), IR muscles (before, r=0.65; after, r=0.60), MR muscles (before, r=0.69; after, r=0.73), and SO muscles (before, r=0.52; after, r=0.50) (P<0.01 for all correlations). Conclusion Swelling reflected the inflammation in extraocular muscles of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy both before and after treatment. PMID:27143850

  19. Thyrotropin Receptor and CD40 Mediate Interleukin-8 Expression in Fibrocytes: Implications for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Raymond S.; Mester, Tünde; Ginter, Anna; Kim, Denise S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) through elucidating the role of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and CD40 in the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peripheral blood fibrocytes. Fibrocytes infiltrate the orbit of patients with TAO, where they differentiate into fibroblasts. Fibrocyte precursors occur with increased frequency in the peripheral blood expressing TSHR and CD40 in TAO patients. We hypothesize that in vitro derived fibrocytes and peripheral blood fibrocyte precursors express proinflammatory chemoattractant molecules including IL-8 initiated by TSHR and CD40 signaling. Since nearly all TAO patients express activating antibodies to TSHR, this is particularly relevant for activation of peripheral blood fibrocytes. Methods: TSHR and CD40 expression on peripheral blood fibrocytes was determined by flow cytometry. IL-8 RNA was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-8 protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and CD40 ligand–stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in peripheral blood fibrocytes was studied by flow cytometry. Results: Both TSHR- and CD40-mediated signaling lead to IL-8 expression in mature fibrocytes. Fibrocyte precursors assayed directly from circulating peripheral blood demonstrate intracellular IL-8 expression with addition of thyroid-stimulating hormone or CD40 ligand. TSHR- and CD40-induced IL-8 production is mediated by Akt phosphorylation. Conclusions: Peripheral blood TSHR+ and CD40+ fibrocytes express IL-8 and may promote the recruitment of inflammatory cells, mitogenesis, and tissue remodeling in TAO. TSHR- and CD40-mediated IL-8 signaling is mediated by Akt. Delineating the molecular mechanisms of fibrocyte immune function may provide potential therapeutic targets for TAO. PMID:25411513

  20. Diagnosis, Follow-Up and Treatment Results in Thyroid Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Savku, Esra; Gündüz, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss our follow-up and treatment results in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Ma­te­ri­als and Met­hods: The records of 168 TAO cases who were followed at our clinic between October 1998 and October 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The severity and activity of the disease were evaluated according to the criteria of the European Group on Graves’ Ophthalmopathy (EUGOGO) and Clinical Activity Score (CAS). Re­sults: Sixty-three men and 105 women participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 42.3±12.4 years. Smoking habit was noted in 54.2% of the cases. Graves’ disease was the most common (80.4%) thyroid pathology accompanying TAO. TAO was mild in 64.4%, moderate-to-severe in 33.6% and severe in 2% of the eyes. Male gender was found as an independent risk factor for severity of the disease (p=0.040). TAO was in the active phase in 32.6% of the eyes. Older age and high thyroid receptor antibody titer were correlated with disease activity (P=0.031 and P<0.001, respectively). Thirty-four patients (20%) were treated for ocular findings. The most common treatment was systemic steroid therapy (12%); others included orbital decompression (5%), orbital radiotherapy (2%), and topical application of guanethidine (1%). Conclusion: Non-infiltrative phase and mild ocular findings were generally seen in TAO. Therefore, treatment is not recommended for many cases. Systemic steroid therapy is the most commonly used treatment modality in the active phase. However, orbital decompression surgery is necessary in a small number of cases with sight-threatening ocular findings. PMID:27800224

  1. Cloning and characterization of the novel thyroid and eye muscle shared protein G2s: autoantibodies against G2s are closely associated with ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gunji, K; De Bellis, A; Li, A W; Yamada, M; Kubota, S; Ackrell, B; Wengrowicz, S; Bellastella, A; Bizzarro, A; Sinisi, A; Wall, J R

    2000-04-01

    Serum autoantibodies against eye muscle antigens are closely linked with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), although their significance is unclear. The two antigens that are most often recognized are eye muscle membrane proteins with molecular masses of 55 and 64 kDa, as determined from immunoblotting with crude human or porcine eye muscle membranes. We cloned a fragment of the 55-kDa protein by screening an eye muscle expression library with affinity-purified anti-55 kDa protein antibody prepared from a TAO patient's serum. A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a novel protein, which we have called G2s, was sequenced on both strands, and its size was 411 bp. The open reading frame of G2s corresponded to a 121-amino acid peptide with a size of 1.4 kb. Using the rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends technique we were able to clone an additional 0.3 kb of the protein. G2s did not share significant homologies with any other entered protein in computer databases and had one putative transmembrane domain. Using the 1.4 kb cDNA as probe in Northern blotting of a panel of messenger ribonucleic acids prepared from human tissues, the parent protein was shown to correspond to a large molecule of about 5.8 kb with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 220 kDa, consistent with earlier immunoblot studies performed in the absence of reducing agents. G2s was strongly expressed in eye muscle, thyroid, and other skeletal muscle and to a lesser extent in pancreas, liver, lung, and heart muscle, but not in kidney or orbital fibroblasts. We tested sera from patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism with and without ophthalmopathy and from control patients and subjects for antibodies against a G2s fusion protein by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In immunoblotting, antibodies reactive with G2s were identified in 70% of patients with TAO of less than 3 yr duration, 53% with TAO of more than 3 yr duration, 36% with Graves' hyperthyroidism without evident

  2. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  3. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  4. Update on advanced imaging options for thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Michael P.; Carrasco, Jacqueline R.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a diverse spectrum of signs and symptoms that appears to have immunologic and pathologic causative factors as diverse as its clinical presentations. Lymphocytes, hormones, and cytokines affect orbital fibroblasts and other similar cells, which exert their effects on orbital tissues, including the extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and optic nerve. This complicated inflammatory cascade and the myriad of clinical findings that result contributes to the active phase of TAO. The distinction between the active and inactive phases of TAO is an important one, as the proper treatment will depend on the disease phase and degree thereof. Several clinical grading scales and scores have been established to help qualify and quantify the disease severity. Aiding clinical exam and acumen, proper and reproducible imaging of the orbit and ocular adnexa is incredibly important to the management of TAO. Orbital ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy each have unique abilities, including quantifying orbital changes, assessing disease activity, correlating orbital findings with clinical changes, guiding appropriate treatment, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Further, study ease, accessibility, cost, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and risks are all important considerations in picking the right test with which to diagnose and follow TAO. This analysis will provide a review of orbital imaging for TAO, including the mechanism of each imaging technique as well as their rationales, advantages, disadvantages, and utilities. PMID:23961023

  5. Extra-ocular muscle cells from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy secrete α (CXCL10) and β (CCL2) chemokines under the influence of cytokines that are modulated by PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari; Gelmini, Stefania; Ferrannini, Ele; Fallahi, Poupak

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the involvement of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-chemokines in extra-ocular muscle (EOM) myopathy in "patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy" (TAO-p). We tested the effects of interferon (IFN)γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α stimulation, and of increasing concentrations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists (pioglitazone or rosiglitazone; 0.1 μM-20 μM), on Th1-chemokine [C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)10] and Th2-chemokine [C-C motif ligand (CCL)2] secretion in primary EOM cultures from TAO-p vs. control myoblasts. Moreover, we evaluated serum CXCL10 and CCL2 in active TAO-p with prevalent EOM involvement (EOM-p) vs. those with prevalent orbital fat expansion (OF-p). Serum CXCL10 was higher in OF-p and EOM-p vs. controls, while serum CCL2 was not significantly different in controls, or in OF-p and EOM-p. We showed the expression of PPARγ in EOM cells. In primary EOM cultures from TAO-p: a) CXCL10 was undetectable in the supernatant, IFNγ dose-dependently induced it, whereas TNFα did not; b) EOM produced basally low amounts of CCL2, TNFα dose-dependently induced it, whereas IFNγ did not; c) the combination of TNFα and IFNγ had a significant synergistic effect on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion; and d) PPARγ agonists have an inhibitory role on the modulation of CXCL10, while they stimulate CCL2 secretion. EOM participates in the self-perpetuation of inflammation by releasing both Th1 (CXCL10) and Th2 (CCL2) chemokines under the influence of cytokines, in TAO. PPARγ agonist activation plays an inhibitory role on CXCL10, but stimulates the release of CCL2.

  6. Risk Factors Associated with the Severity of Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Yeul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for severe thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) and compressive optic neuropathy in Korean patients. Methods This study was a retrospective comparative case series. All TAO patients who were first seen at our institution between 2005 and 2009 and who had follow-up periods of at least 6 months were included. Patients were divided into mild or moderate and severe TAO groups. Cases were also segregated based on the presence or absence of optic neuropathy. Demographics, smoking status, comorbidities, thyroid hormonal status, thyroid autoantibody levels, and clinical presentations were assessed. Results A total of 99 patients (83 with mild to moderate courses and 16 with severe courses; 90 without optic neuropathy and 9 with optic neuropathy) were included in this study. On multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking status was a predictive risk factor for a severe course of TAO and the development of optic neuropathy (odds ratios = 6.57 and 10.00, respectively). Other factors such as age, gender, free T4 level, thyroid binding-inhibiting immunoglobulin, and a history of diabetes were not predictive of severe TAO or optic neuropathy. Conclusions Although various factors may influence the severity of TAO and the development of optic neuropathy, this study showed that smoking was a risk factor for severe TAO and the development of optic neuropathy. Therefore, it is important for patients with Graves' disease to refrain from smoking. Frequent and careful observation should also be performed in current smokers, as TAO patients who smoke are susceptible to a severe course and/or optic neuropathy. PMID:21052505

  7. Experimental model for ophthalmopathy in BALB/c and outbred (CD-1) mice genetically immunized with G2s and the thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masayo; Li, Audrey Wu; West, Kenneth A; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Wall, Jack R

    2002-09-01

    In an attempt to develop an animal model for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) we have genetically immunized BALB/c and outbred (CD-1) mice with cDNAs encoding the thyroid and eye muscle shared protein G2s and full length human thyrotropin receptor (TSHr). Firstly, BALB/c mice were immunized with cDNAs for G2s and the TSHr, alone or in tandem with cDNAs for interleukin (IL)4 or IL12. Control mice were immunized with empty vehicle only. Sera from the great majority of experimental mice contained antibodies against a G2s fusion protein and the flavoprotein (Fp) subunit of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, the "64 kDa protein", with the greatest levels being found at sacrifice (17 wk). Antibody levels in mice immunized with G2s + TSHr or G2s + IL12 were generally higher than those in mice immunized with G2s only. TSHr antibodies (TRAb), measured as TSH binding inhibition, were detected in only two mice. On histological examination of the orbits, mild edema, eye muscle fiber separation and mast cell infiltration in and around the eye muscles were found in the majority of experimental mice, but not in control mice. Splenocytes were transferred from selected G2s-immunized mice to normal syngeneic litter mates. None of the transfer mice had serum antibodies against G2s, Fp or TSHr but their orbital tissue showed the same degree of mast cell infiltration as primary mice. No major histological changes were observed in the thyroid or other skeletal muscle in either primary or transfer mice. Similar results were observed in CD-1 mice although, overall, the model was better expressed than in BALB/c mice. In these mice, serum anti-G2s antibody levels were not significantly different between the various experimental groups except at 16 wk, when they were slightly greater than in control animals. Anti-Fp antibodies were detected at 12, 14 and 16 wk, in all experimental groups, including those immunized with G2s only, and were greatest in mice immunized with TSHr alone

  8. [Orbital decompression for Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Boulétreau, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M

    2005-04-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is a complex orbital condition with a controversial pathogenesis. It is the clinical expression of a discordance between the inextensible orbit and hypertrophic muscular and fatty elements within the orbit responding to immunological stimulation. The relationship between the orbital and its content can be improved by surgical expansion which increases the useful volume of the orbit. This procedure can be combined with lipectomy to decrease the volume of the orbital contents. We briefly recall the history of surgical decompression techniques and present our experience with Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

  9. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  10. Euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy with negative autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Mehtap

    2005-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune-based hyperthyroidism in which a number of different antibodies directed against thyroid tissue plays a role. Graves' ophthalmopathy is thought to be a consequence of this autoimmune basis and occurs in some patients with Graves' disease. On occasional cases, the disease may present only with ophthalmopathy without hyperthyroidism. A 32-year-old woman with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy and negative thyroid autoantibodies, including TSH receptor antibody, is presented here. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16334503

  11. [Surgical treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Rødahl, E; Seland, J; Olofsson, J; Aanderud, S; Kråkenes, J

    1999-05-10

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory disorder of the extraocular muscles, orbital fat and orbital connective tissue that is most commonly seen in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Inflammation is accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix components, in particular glycosaminoglycans. The increase in the volume of the orbital contents may lead to periorbital swelling, extraocular muscle dysfunction, disfiguring proptosis, exposure keratitis, increased intraocular pressure and optic nerve compression. In many cases, surgical treatment is necessary for the rehabilitation of patients. In this report, we present a series of patients to illustrate relevant procedures and the results of surgical treatment in patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy. The records of all patients (66) with thyroid ophthalmopathy hospitalized in the Department of Ophthalmology, Haukeland University Hospital 1 April 1994-31 March 1998 were retrospectively evaluated. Orbital decompressions were performed in 43 patients (in 17 for compressive optic neuropathy), squint surgery in 13 patients, correction of eyelid retraction in 20 patients, and removal of excessive skin and fat from the eyelids in 11 patients. Average reduction of proptosis was 4 mm after lateral wall resection, and 6 mm after combined medial and lateral wall resection. Visual acuity improved in patients with compressive optic neuropathy to 6/6 or better in 18/20 eyes (postoperative data were not available for all patients), while that of the remaining two eyes was 6/9 and 6/24, respectively. Squint surgery was successful (no diplopia in primary or reading position) in eight patients after one procedure, and in four after two procedures. One patient has been scheduled for a third procedure due to a severe esotropia. In patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy, suboptimal treatment of the thyroid disorder may worsen the ophthalmopathy. 16 patients had their medication adjusted, ten were referred for thyroid surgery, and

  12. The TAOS Robotic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-H.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Bianco, F. B.; Gimmarco, J.; Porrata, R.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Wang, S.-Y.; Yen, W.-L.; Rice, J. A.; de Pater, I.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation survey (TAOS) operate four small telescopes in central Taiwan to search for occultations by small (~1 km diameter) Kuiper Belt Objects. The system is fully robotic, requiring human intervention only in the event of hardware failures. However, the status of the system during observations is monitored remotely via smart-phone. A successor survey, the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is currently being constructed. This next generation survey will be more than one hundred times as sensitive as the earlier survey. In this paper, we summarize the science goals of the surveys, describe the two surveys, and discuss the lessons learned in automating the TAOS observations.

  13. Characterization and outcomes of repeat orbital decompression for thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang-Nunes, Sandy X; Dang, Sabin; Garneau, Helene Chokron; Hwang, Catherine; Isaacs, David; Chang, Shu-Hong; Goldberg, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Orbital decompression for thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is commonly performed for disfiguring proptosis, congestion, and optic neuropathy. Although one decompression typically achieves goals, a small percentage requires repeat decompression. We performed a 10-year retrospective chart review of all orbital decompressions for TAO at a single tertiary referral institution. Four-hundred and ninety-five orbits (330 patients) were decompressed for TAO, with 45 orbits (37 patients) requiring repeat decompression. We reviewed the repeat cases for indications, clinical activity scores, approach, walls decompressed, and outcomes. Nine percent of orbits required repeat decompression for proptosis (70%), optic neuropathy (25%) or congestion (45%). Sixty-four percent were for recurrence of disease, 36% were for suboptimal decompression. Three incisional approaches were used: lateral upper eyelid crease, inferior transconjunctival, and transcaruncular, with inferior transconjunctival being most common. Of the three walls removed, deep lateral, inferior, and medial, the deep lateral wall was most common (51%). A repeat lateral decompression was the most frequent pattern. Of 37 patients requiring repeat decompression, 40% had diplopia prior to repeat, and an additional 24% developed diplopia after the repeat. Whereas previous studies published by our group cited only 2.6% of deep lateral wall orbital decompressions leading to new-onset primary gaze diplopia, repeat orbital decompressions have a much higher rate of post-operative diplopia. The new onset primary gaze diplopia after repeat decompression group had a higher average preoperative CAS (3.3 vs. 2.4, p < 0.01), higher mean blood loss (56 vs. 19 mL, p = 0.04), more frequent medial wall decompressions (47% vs. 29%, p = 0.33), and greater proptosis reduction (2.4 vs. 1.7 mm, p = 0.24).

  14. Teaching in the Tao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Patrick

    This book shares the philosophy that what a teacher learned through the martial arts form, Aikido, allowed him to look beyond aggressive acts without responding aggressively himself, viewing the student behind the angry behavior. The teacher notes that compassion works better than any form of discipline he has ever encountered in education. Tao,…

  15. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  16. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ishrat; Taylor, Peter; Das, Gautam; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2016-01-01

    Summary TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO) is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease. Learning points Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy can present initially with negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies. Patients with suggestive symptoms of ophthalmopathy should be carefully evaluated for GO with imaging studies even when thyroid function and autoantibodies are normal. Patients with EGO can develop thyroid dysfunction within 4 years of follow-up underpinning the need for long-term follow-up and continued

  17. Taos: A low cost satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, P.

    Aerospatiale, under contract to CNES, has studied a new satellite based system with the double mission of mobile tracking and paging. This is called Taos. A constellation of five Taos satellites will allow positioning with an accuracy of 1 km, as well as small message transmission with a maximum time delay of 2 hours. Using a low earth orbit, Taos will have a small power budget, with the attendant gains in dimensions, mass, and eventually cost. The emergence of such class of lightsats has been fostered by the progress of electronics, as well as the new small launchers now being offered. Furthermore, the market is clearly hungry for ever more worldwide data collection. This paper describes the Taos system of satellite and ground segment, for which a primary goal will be a significant reduction of the recurring price. Weighing 152 kg, each satellite will have a power of 270 W.

  18. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  19. Severe eyelid oedema in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Adamidou, Fotini; Poulasouchidou, Maria; Karras, Spyridon

    2013-07-13

    We report a case of severe eyelid oedema due to Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim was to present a case report and review of the literature about eyelid oedema due to GO. The case report includes a history of patient data and literature review. The patient was offered intravenous methylprednisolone and gave consent. A dosage of 500 mg intravenous methylprednisolone once weekly for 6 weeks, followed by 250 mg intravenous methylprednisolone once weekly for 6 weeks, with a total treatment period of 12 weeks was given. Up to day, minor improvement has been observed. Severe eyelid oedema due to GO is a rare manifestation of Graves' disease. In cases of active and moderate-to-severe disease, treatment with intravenous glucorticoids is recommended alone or with orbital radiotherapy, followed by rehabilitative surgery.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Oculometric Variables in Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miot, Hélio Amante; dos Santos Fernandes, Leonardo Parr; Jorge, Edson Nassib; Pivotto, Daniel Rosito; Nogueira, Célia Regina; da Silva Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate oculometric parameters of Graves’ ophthalmopathy in comparison to healthy eyes using digital photography and digital image analysis. INTRODUCTION Graves’ ophthalmopathy is the main cause of eye proptosis. Because these protrusions cause clinically perceived distortions in orbital architecture, digital photographs can be used to detect and quantify these changes. METHODS We carried out a cross-sectional study comprising 12 healthy volunteers and 15 Graves’ ophthalmopathy patients with the purpose of evaluating the use of simple, non-invasive digital photography to estimate oculometric parameters of Graves’ ophthalmopathy and compare them with the parameters of unaffected eyes. Facial photographs of cases and controls were taken in a standardized manner. Oculometric parameters were compared between the groups and then correlated to proptometer measures. RESULTS All estimated oculometric variables showed significant differences between the groups, in particular with regard to mediopupilar aperture, lateral height, distance from the iris edge to the lateral boundary of the palpebral fissure, and distance from the higher point of the iris to the lateral limit of the palpebral fissure. The product of medial aperture and horizontal palpebral fissure also revealed greater discrepancy between the groups. Proptometer measures showed significant linear correlation between the distance from the iris edge to the lateral boundary of the palpebral fissure and between the distance from the higher point of the iris to the lateral limit of palpebral fissure (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Comparative analysis of oculometric parameters in Graves’ ophthalmopathy suggests that eye proptosis is related to an asymmetric increase in lateral oculometric measures. Standardized digital photographs can be used in clinical practice to objectively estimate oculometric parameters of Graves’ ophthalmopathy patients. PMID:19759882

  1. Graves disease with ophthalmopathy following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.; Fleming, B.J.

    1984-12-01

    The number of patients achieving long-term survival following neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is increasing. Paralleling this increase in survivors is the development of late complications of the therapy itself. Eleven patients have previously been reported who developed Graves ophthalmopathy 18 months to seven years after receiving neck radiotherapy for nonthyroidal malignancies. The seven patients who had HLA typing were all HLA-B8 negative, despite the reported association of the HLA-B8 antigen with Graves disease. A patient who is HLA-B8 positive who developed Graves ophthalmopathy and hyperthyroidism nine years after receiving mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease is reported. It is recommended that Graves disease be included among the thyroid diseases that receive consideration during follow-up of patients who have received mantle radiotherapy.

  2. TAOS/LS1 development final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.; Gentry, S.M.; Falls, J.M.; Claassen, P.J.; Alder, G.J.

    1997-12-01

    The Laser Sensor No. 1 (LS1) is a system designed and built by Sandia to detect and report laser illumination of an orbiting satellite. It was launched March 1994 as part of the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) satellite program. The engineering details of the system are described in this report. Operation characteristics and results have been reserved for inclusion in a classified Air Force report prepared by the TAOS Program Office of Phillips Laboratory.

  3. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asa, Sylvia L.; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B.; Gagel, Robert F.; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Methods: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. Results: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. Conclusions: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice. PMID:25810047

  4. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee.

    PubMed

    Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808

  5. Digital Data From the Taos West Aeromagnetic Survey in Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; ,

    2007-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a survey covering the southwestern portion of Taos County west of the Town of Taos, New Mexico, in October, 2006. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  6. Update on the medical treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J; Garrity, James A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review recent advances in the understanding of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) pathogenesis as well as discuss current and future medical management strategies. Design: Interpretive essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Medical treatment of GO has slowly evolved during the past few decades and has been hampered by a poor understanding of the disease at a cellular and molecular level. Current treatment recommendations and guidelines therefore focus on nonspecific immuno-suppression. Newer classes of treatment agents hold promise to more selectively target underlying cellular and molecular alterations in GO. Conclusion: Cooperation between individual patients, physicians and between differing medical centers, together with a refined understanding of the pathogenesis of GO, will lead to newer more-effective treatments for the disease and improve patient quality of life. PMID:20360911

  7. Use of corticosteroids to prevent progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalena, L.; Marcocci, C.; Bogazzi, F.; Panicucci, M.; Lepri, A.; Pinchera, A. )

    1989-11-16

    We studied the effects of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease on Graves' ophthalmopathy and the possible protective role of corticosteroids. Between June 1985 and June 1988, 26 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with radioiodine alone (group 1) and 26 to treatment with this agent and concomitant administration of systemic prednisone for four months (group 2). The initial dose of prednisone was 0.4 to 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight for one month; the drug was gradually withdrawn over the next three months. All patients were evaluated at 3-month intervals for 18 months after they underwent radioiodine therapy. Ocular changes were assessed with the ophthalmopathy index; patients with moderate-to-severe changes (scores greater than or equal to 4) were excluded from the study. Before treatment, 10 patients in group 1 and 5 in group 2 had no evidence of ophthalmopathy: in none of them did ocular symptoms appear after radioiodine therapy. Among the patients in group 1 with an initial ophthalmopathy index greater than or equal to 1, ocular disease worsened in 56 percent (mostly involving soft-tissue changes and extraocular-muscle function) and did not change in 44 percent. In contrast, ophthalmopathy improved in 52 percent and did not change in 48 percent of group 2. The mean ophthalmopathy index increased from 1.5 to 3.0 in group 1 (P less than 0.005) and decreased from 2.2 to 1.3 in group 2 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that systemic corticosteroid treatment prevents the exacerbations of Graves' ophthalmopathy that occur after radioiodine therapy in a substantial proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism who have some degree of ocular involvement before treatment.

  8. TAOS. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-09

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints, and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.

  9. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  10. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  11. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

  12. Graves' Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Barrio, Jesús; Sabater, Alfonso L; Bonet-Farriol, Elvira; Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Galofré, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3-7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified "GO activity assessment checklist" for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients.

  13. TAOS: An Occultation Survey of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; de Pater, I.; Geary, J. C.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Norton, T.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Ruiz Reyes, M.; Schwamb, M. E.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Wang, J.-H.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.

    2011-10-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation survey (TAOS) operate four small telescopes in central Taiwan to search for occultations by small (∼1 km diameter) Kuiper Belt Objects. The system is fully robotic, requiring human intervention only in the event of hardware failures. However, the status of the system during observations is monitored remotely via smart-phone. A successor survey, the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)1 is currently being constructed. This next generation survey will be more than one hundred times as sensitive as the earlier survey. In my talk I will present the results of TAOS I, discuss the future plans of the survey, and provide a detailed description of the TAOS II project.

  14. Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.

  15. Water resources of Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrabrant, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    In Taos County, ground water generally is unconfined and moves toward the Rio Grande or perennial streams. Water quality is good except in some areas where water has high values of specific conductance and hardness and contains high concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride. Most wells are completed in alluvial sediments of Quaternary and Tertiary age in the Costilla Plains. A few wells are completed in basalt of the Taos Plateau and in alluvium of stream channels in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Depths to water in wells range from less than 1 to 1,080 feet below land surface. Well yields range from 1 to 3,000 gallons per minute. Water levels in wells in Sunshine Valley dropped 5 to 50 feet between 1955 and 1970. Ground-water irrigation has since declined and water levels have risen. Surface-water records show the county is a net producer of water. The average discharge gained in the Rio Grande as it flows through the county was 271,700 acre-feet per year for water years 1931-89. The highest mean monthly discharge occurs in May or June due to snowmelt runoff. Water quality ranges from good in upstream reaches to fair in lower reaches. Surface water was the source for 93 percent of water withdrawn in 1990, but ground water was used for all public supply, domestic, and industrial purposes. The largest water use is irrigation. About 28,500 acres were irrigated in 1990; alfalfa, native pasture, and planted pasture accounted for 91 percent of this acreage.

  16. Prognostic factors in the radiotherapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, I.A.; Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Between April 1968 and February 1988, 311 patients with symptomatic and progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with megavoltage orbital radiotherapy. The patients were divided into three groups: I treated with 20 Gy/2 weeks; II treated with 30 Gy/3 weeks, and III received 20 Gy/2 weeks. The degree of eye involvement was evaluated numerically before and after therapy for each of five parameters: soft tissue signs, proptosis, eye muscle impairment, corneal involvement, and sight loss. Pre-treatment and current thyroid diagnosis and status were also noted. To evaluate the effects of radiotherapy alone, follow-up was terminated at the time any eye surgery was done; for those not treated surgically the minimum follow-up was 12 months. Because there were significant demographic differences between the patient groups, the results of each group were analyzed separately. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to determine if there were any significant variables affecting outcome. Based on these data formulae were derived which enable outcome to be predicted in any patient. Before therapy more than 90% of patients in all groups had soft tissue and eye muscle involvement, whereas 65-75% had proptosis and about half 50% had some degree of sight loss. Radiotherapy arrested progression of ophthalmic parameters in all but 1-6% of the patients. Objective and symptomatic improvement was noted for all parameters assessed, but there was marked individual variability. The best responses were noted for soft tissue, corneal involvement, and sight loss; however over half the patients had some improvement in eye muscle function and proptosis. Factors which resulted in less favorable outcome included male gender, advanced age, need for concurrent therapy for hyperthyroidism, and no history of hyperthyroidism. No complications have been observed.

  17. Spontaneous Improvement of Untreated Mild Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Rundle's Curve Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Francesca; Profilo, Maria Antonietta; Leo, Marenza; Sisti, Eleonora; Altea, Maria Antonietta; Rocchi, Roberto; Latrofa, Francesco; Nardi, Marco; Vitti, Paolo; Marcocci, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to Rundle's curve, Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) worsens during an initial phase up to a peak of maximum severity, then improves and reaches a static plateau, with the activity curve preceding the severity curve by a few months. To our knowledge, no studies have tried to replicate Rundle's curve, and very few have investigated the natural history of GO. Here, we studied GO natural history retrospectively and tried to identify factors that may affect it. Methods: A total of 65 patients with untreated GO underwent an eye assessment after a median of seven months after the appearance of GO and then after a median of 40 months. The primary endpoints were the variation of the single GO features and of the NOSPECS score, as well as the overall outcome of GO. The secondary endpoint was the influence of several variables (age, sex, smoking, GO and thyroid disease duration, thyroid treatment, thyroid status, thyroid volume, anti-TSH receptor autoantibodies) on the outcome of GO. Results: The majority of patients had mild, minimally active GO, and only five had a Clinical Activity Score (CAS) >3. There was a significant reduction of CAS (p<0.0001) and NOSPECS (p=0.01) between the first and last observation, with a timing pattern resembling Rundle's curve. This difference was confirmed even when patients with a CAS >3 at first observation were excluded. At the last observation, 50.8% of patients had improved, 33.8% had remained stable, and 15.4% had worsened moderately or substantially. The overall outcome of GO was not affected by any of the variables under examination. Conclusions: In confirmation of Rundle's observations, untreated GO improves spontaneously with time in the majority of patients, with an activity peak between 13 and 24 months, which may have implications in determining the proper timing of GO treatments. PMID:23980907

  18. TAO-robust backpropagation learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pernía-Espinoza, Alpha V; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín B; Martínez-de-Pisón, Francisco J; González-Marcos, Ana

    2005-03-01

    In several fields, as industrial modelling, multilayer feedforward neural networks are often used as universal function approximations. These supervised neural networks are commonly trained by a traditional backpropagation learning format, which minimises the mean squared error (mse) of the training data. However, in the presence of corrupted data (outliers) this training scheme may produce wrong models. We combine the benefits of the non-linear regression model tau-estimates [introduced by Tabatabai, M. A. Argyros, I. K. Robust Estimation and testing for general nonlinear regression models. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 58 (1993) 85-101] with the backpropagation algorithm to produce the TAO-robust learning algorithm, in order to deal with the problems of modelling with outliers. The cost function of this approach has a bounded influence function given by the weighted average of two psi functions, one corresponding to a very robust estimate and the other to a highly efficient estimate. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are studied with an example.

  19. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased.

  20. Digital Aeromagnetic Data and Derivative Products from a Helicopter Survey over the Town of Taos and Surrounding Areas, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a helicopter geophysical survey in northern New Mexico during October 2003. The survey covers the Town of Taos, Taos Pueblo, and surrounding communities in Taos County. Several derivative products from these data are also presented, including reduced-to-pole, horizontal gradient magnitude, and downward continued grids and images.

  1. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  2. Doppler imaging of orbital vessels in the assessment of the activity and severity of thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pauk-Domańska, Magdalena; Sanocka, Urszula; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Patients with symptoms of thyroid-associated orbitopathy are classified on the basis of the clinical activity score (CAS) proposed by Mourits in 1989. Despite its undoubted clinical usefulness, it has several limitations which can decide about the success or failure of the implemented treatment. Numerous reports mention the presence of hemodynamic changes in orbital and bulbar vessels in the course of an orbitopathy called Graves’ disease. The usage of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of numerous ophthalmologic vascular diseases suggests that changes in thyroid-associated orbitopathy can correlate with the activity and severity of the disease. This paper presents the overview of the state-of-the-art concerning the usefulness of Doppler imaging in patient selection for the treatment of thyroid-associated orbitopathy. It has been shown that the velocity of blood flow in the superior ophthalmic vein, which is the most susceptible to changes in anatomical conditions in the enclosed orbital space, decreases in a statistically significant way. A decrease in blood flow velocity is closely associated with the active stage of the disease whereas reverse flow or its absence attest to severe orbitopathy and constitute a risk factor of ocular neuropathy. The activity of the inflammatory process in the eyeball is also confirmed by an increase in peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery as well as end-diastolic velocity (EDV) in the ophthalmic artery. Resistance index values decrease in the ophthalmic artery and increase in the central retinal artery mainly in cases with considerable expansion of the extraocular muscles. PMID:26807296

  3. 53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn by architect Frederick L. Confer and inscribed by Mrs. O'Neill to the builder, Lloyd C. Simpson. Dated 1937. - Eugene O'Neill House, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. Efficacy of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Jinglan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of the orbital somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC) to detect clinical stage of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the response to corticosteroid therapy. The subjects of the experiment were 46 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and four volunteers without eye disease or GO as the normal group (NG). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and the left and right lateral position planar imaging of the heads of the all subjects were obtained 4 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC. The (99m)Tc-TOC SPECT/CT was repeated 3 months later. 35 (35/46) patients were received corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone, 10 mg po tid ) for 3 months, however, the other 11 patients as control groups did not receive any treatment. The treatment effect was evaluated both by the orbital (99m)Tc-TOC uptake and NOSPECS. A significant decrease in the O/OC ratio was observed in 22 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). There were neither significant difference of the O/OC ratio in 13 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment periods, nor significant difference in the 9 (9/11) patients before and after three months. Orbital (99m)Tc-TOC scintigraphy is a feasible technique to estimate the Graves' ophthalmopathy activity and predict the response to subsequent corticosteroid therapy in GO patients. The technique could be a useful tool for physicians not familiar with CAS determination.

  5. THE TAOS PROJECT: RESULTS FROM SEVEN YEARS OF SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-Y.; King, S.-K.; Cook, K. H.; Lee, T.; Granados, A. P.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Coehlo, N. K.; De Pater, I.; Kim, D.-W.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; and others

    2013-07-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to detect serendipitous occultations of stars by small ({approx}1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare (<10{sup -3} events per star per year) and short in duration ({approx}200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS monitors typically {approx}500 stars simultaneously at a 5 Hz readout cadence with four telescopes located at Lulin Observatory in central Taiwan. In this paper, we report the results of the search for small Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in seven years of data. No occultation events were found, resulting in a 95% c.l. upper limit on the slope of the faint end of the KBO size distribution of q = 3.34-3.82, depending on the surface density at the break in the size distribution at a diameter of about 90 km.

  6. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Castro, Joel; Chen, Wen Ping; Chu, You-Hua; Cook, Kem H.; Geary, John C.; Huang, Chung-Kai; Kim, Dae-Won; Norton, Timothy; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, WeiLing; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Figueroa, Liliana

    2016-10-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) will aim to detect occultations of stars by small (~1 km diameter) objects in the Kuiper Belt and beyond. Such events are very rare ($<0.001 events per star per year) and short in duration (~200 ms), so many stars must be monitored at a high readout cadence. TAOS II will operate three 1.3 meter telescopes at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico. With a 2.3 square degree field of view and a high speed camera comprising CMOS imagers, the survey will monitor 10,000 stars simultaneously with all three telescopes at a readout cadence of 20 Hz. Construction of the site began in the fall of 2013, and the survey will begin in the summer of 2017. This poster will provide an update on the status of the survey development and the schedule leading to the beginning of survey operations.

  7. Ocular Changes and Approaches of Ophthalmopathy in Basedow – Graves- Parry- Flajani Disease

    PubMed Central

    SARACI, George; TRETA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune condition with multiple local and systemic aspects. Among these, oculopathy has a major impact on patient's life from both functional and esthetic point of view. Basedow-Graves oculopathy requires an appropriate positive and differential diagnosis using clinical and imagistic approaches. Treatment is always required in moderate or severe forms and it begins with simple general points and continues with medical and surgical therapies. Current article stresses upon the most characteristic clinical signs of thyroidian ophthalmopathy and the required current therapeutic approaches. PMID:22205899

  8. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Chen, W P; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2008-08-22

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small ({approx}3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  9. A perceived low-frequency sound in Taos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.H. ); Poteet, H. )

    1994-11-01

    Persistent complaints of an annoying low-frequency sound in Northern New Mexico, particularly in the vicinity of Taos, led to a request by members of the Congressional delegation of NM for an investigation. During the summer of 1993, in Taos, extensive simultaneous measurements were carried out of acoustic, seismic, electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic signals by a team from Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. Since anecdotal evidence and signal matching tests by the hearers implicated the frequencies between 30 to 100 Hz, special attention was given to that range. However, no signals were found matching the description, and in particular no airborne audio signals in this range were found other than background, even though the acoustical detector was capable of measuring signals less than [minus]50 dB SPL. Subsequent complaints of similar sounds from widely distributed areas in the U.S., and a long history of these in the U.K. [R. N. Vasudevan and C. G. Gordon, Appl. Acoust. [bold 10], 57--69 (1977)] have focused attention on human hearing in the 20--100 Hz range. New instruments are being developed and controlled clinical tests are planned with hearers and nonhearers in the Taos area.

  10. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever.

  11. [The first western style doctor in modern China - Guan Tao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    2000-04-01

    Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever. PMID:11624648

  12. Protracted Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Pilot Study of Clinical and Radiologic Response

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro de Deus Cardoso, Cejana; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Borri Wolosker, Angela Maria; Souhami, Luis; Gois Manso, Paulo; Souza Dias, Rodrigo; Comodo Segreto, Helena Regina; Araujo Segreto, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiologic response of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy given low-dose orbital radiotherapy (RT) with a protracted fractionation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients (36 orbits) received orbital RT with a total dose of 10 Gy, fractionated in 1 Gy once a week over 10 weeks. Of these, 9 patients received steroid therapy as well. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at 6 months after treatment. Clinical response assessment was carried out using three criteria: by physical examination, by a modified clinical activity score, and by a verbal questionnaire considering the 10 most common signs and symptoms of the disease. Radiologic response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Improvement in ocular pain, palpebral edema, visual acuity, and ocular motility was observed in all patients. Significant decrease in symptoms such as tearing (p < 0.001) diplopia (p = 0.008), conjunctival hyperemia (p = 0.002), and ocular grittiness (p = 0.031) also occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in ocular muscle thickness and in the intensity of the T2 sequence signal in the majority of patients. Treatments were well tolerated, and to date no complications from treatment have been observed. There was no statistical difference in clinical and radiologic response between patients receiving RT alone and those receiving RT plus steroid therapy. Conclusion: RT delivered in at a low dose and in a protracted scheme should be considered as a useful therapeutic option for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  13. Audiomagnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic framework of the Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, audiomagnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field. No interpretation of the data is included.

  14. Adjuvant Treatment of Graves' Disease with Diclofenac: Safety, Effects on Ophthalmopathy and Antibody Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lantz, Mikael; Calissendorff, Jan; Träisk, Frank; Tallstedt, Leif; Planck, Tereza; Törring, Ove; Hallengren, Bengt; Åsman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Orbital morphological changes are often present in patients with Graves' disease (GD) already at diagnosis, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Objective To investigate if adjuvant treatment of GD with the COX inhibitor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) antagonist diclofenac decreases the development of ophthalmopathy and if laboratory parameters are affected. Methods This is a multicenter trial where 61 subjects were randomized to methimazole (block and replace with l-thyroxine) either with or without diclofenac 50 mg 1 × 2 for 12 months. The primary end point development of GO after 24 months was evaluated. Smoking habits were registered and the thyroid parameters TSH, free T4, free T3, TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and anti-TPO were followed. Safety parameters (kidney, liver and blood) and adverse events were regularly registered. Results GO developed in 11% (n = 3) of the patients treated with diclofenac and in 21% (n = 6) of the controls (p = 0.273). The adverse event profile was acceptable without any severe events related to diclofenac. Both TRAb and anti-TPO concentrations decreased during treatment with methimazole, but the anti-TPO concentrations were lower in patients treated with diclofenac after 15 months (p = 0.031). The TRAb concentrations were not significantly changed between groups. Smokers had higher concentrations of TRAb than nonsmokers both at diagnosis of GD (p = 0.048) and after 15 months (p = 0.042). Conclusions Treatment with diclofenac had no significant influence on development of GO. Diclofenac reduces anti-TPO concentrations and seems to be safe to use in GD patients. PMID:27099839

  15. Meiotic Interactors of a Mitotic Gene TAO3 Revealed by Functional Analysis of its Rare Variant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saumya; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Nitin, Rachana; Raharja-Liu, Pandu; Lin, Gen; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the molecular consequences of rare genetic variants has the potential to identify novel and hitherto uncharacterized pathways causally contributing to phenotypic variation. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of a rare coding variant of TAO3, previously reported to contribute significantly to sporulation efficiency variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae During mitosis, the common TAO3 allele interacts with CBK1-a conserved NDR kinase. Both TAO3 and CBK1 are components of the RAM signaling network that regulates cell separation and polarization during mitosis. We demonstrate that the role of the rare allele TAO3(4477C) in meiosis is distinct from its role in mitosis by being independent of ACE2-a RAM network target gene. By quantitatively measuring cell morphological dynamics, and expressing the TAO3(4477C) allele conditionally during sporulation, we show that TAO3 has an early role in meiosis. This early role of TAO3 coincides with entry of cells into meiotic division. Time-resolved transcriptome analyses during early sporulation identified regulators of carbon and lipid metabolic pathways as candidate mediators. We show experimentally that, during sporulation, the TAO3(4477C) allele interacts genetically with ERT1 and PIP2, regulators of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways, respectively. We thus uncover a meiotic functional role for TAO3, and identify ERT1 and PIP2 as novel regulators of sporulation efficiency. Our results demonstrate that studying the causal effects of genetic variation on the underlying molecular network has the potential to provide a more extensive understanding of the pathways driving a complex trait. PMID:27317780

  16. Meiotic Interactors of a Mitotic Gene TAO3 Revealed by Functional Analysis of its Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saumya; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Nitin, Rachana; Raharja-Liu, Pandu; Lin, Gen; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Gagneur, Julien; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the molecular consequences of rare genetic variants has the potential to identify novel and hitherto uncharacterized pathways causally contributing to phenotypic variation. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of a rare coding variant of TAO3, previously reported to contribute significantly to sporulation efficiency variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During mitosis, the common TAO3 allele interacts with CBK1—a conserved NDR kinase. Both TAO3 and CBK1 are components of the RAM signaling network that regulates cell separation and polarization during mitosis. We demonstrate that the role of the rare allele TAO3(4477C) in meiosis is distinct from its role in mitosis by being independent of ACE2—a RAM network target gene. By quantitatively measuring cell morphological dynamics, and expressing the TAO3(4477C) allele conditionally during sporulation, we show that TAO3 has an early role in meiosis. This early role of TAO3 coincides with entry of cells into meiotic division. Time-resolved transcriptome analyses during early sporulation identified regulators of carbon and lipid metabolic pathways as candidate mediators. We show experimentally that, during sporulation, the TAO3(4477C) allele interacts genetically with ERT1 and PIP2, regulators of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways, respectively. We thus uncover a meiotic functional role for TAO3, and identify ERT1 and PIP2 as novel regulators of sporulation efficiency. Our results demonstrate that studying the causal effects of genetic variation on the underlying molecular network has the potential to provide a more extensive understanding of the pathways driving a complex trait. PMID:27317780

  17. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.

  18. Prediction of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the CLAES solid CO2/neon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, I. E.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a study initiated to investigate the possibility that the existence of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the Cryogenic Limb Atmospheric Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) neon plumbing system ground configuration could be the cause of higher-than-predicted heat rates measured during thermal ground testing. Tests were conducted between warm boundary temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 K, which simulated the actual test conditions of the CLAES CO2/neon system. TAOs were observed between 6 and 106 Torr, which agreed with the analytical predictions, and verified the possible existence of TAOs in the CLAES system during ground testing. The presence of TAOs was eventually confirmed in the CLAES system during a subsequent thermal test and were determined to have caused the higher heat rates measured during the prior thermal test.

  19. Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis-Related Genes Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kau, Hui-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Bei; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for the development or deterioration of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Smoke-induced increased generation of reactive oxygen species may be involved. However, it remains to be clarified how orbital fibroblasts are affected by cigarette smoking. Our study demonstrated that Graves' orbital fibroblasts have exaggerated response to cigarette smoke extract challenge along with increased oxidative stress, fibrosis-related genes expression, especially connective tissue growth factor, and intracellular levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-1β. The findings obtained in this study provide some clues for the impact of cigarette smoking on Graves' ophthalmopathy and offer a theoretical basis for the potential and rational use of antioxidants in treating Graves' ophthalmopathy. PMID:27340508

  20. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ... Home About the ATA Work of the ATA Leadership & Staff Governance Society Awards Society Committees Clark T. ...

  1. [Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, A; Dekowski, D; Führer-Sakel, D; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Esser, J

    2016-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease and the full clinical picture can impair the quality of life of the patients considerably. Active inflammation can often be effectively treated by intravenous steroids/immunosuppression, however does not lead to full remission, since inflammation rather quickly results in irreversible fibrosis and increase of orbital fat. Very important is the control of risk factors (smoking cessation, good control of thyroid function, selenium supplementation) to prevent progression to severe stages. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of activity and severity of GO. Rehabilitative surgery (orbital decompression, squint surgery, eyelid surgery) is needed in many patients to restore function and appearance. Anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies do specifically occur in these patients and correlate to the course of thyroid and eye disease. The levels of these antibodies can be used for treatment decisions at certain time points of the disease.

  2. Increased microRNA-155 and decreased microRNA-146a may promote ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaijun; Du, Yi; Jiang, Ben-Li; He, Jian-Feng

    2014-04-18

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the orbit, characterized by inflammation and proliferation of the orbital tissue caused by CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts. Despite recent substantial findings regarding its cellular and molecular foundations, the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy remains unclear. Accumulating data suggest that microRNAs play important roles in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and proliferation. Specifically, microRNA-155 (miR-155) can promote autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development. In contrast to miR-155, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) can inhibit the immune response by suppressing T cell activation. Furthermore, miR-155 and miR-146a are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and many other life processes. Thus, miR-155 and miR-146a, with opposite impacts on inflammatory responses carried out by T lymphocytes, appear to have multiple targets in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Our previous work showed that the expression of miR-146a was significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Graves' ophthalmopathy patients compared with normal subjects. Accordingly, we proposed that the expression of miR-155 increased and the expression of miR-146a decreased in the target cells (CD4+T cells and orbital fibroblasts), thus promoting ocular inflammation and proliferation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. The proposed hypothesis warrants further investigation of the function of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which may shed new light on the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy and lead to new strategies for its management.

  3. Evidence for Enhanced Adipogenesis in the Orbits of Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, SEEMA; COENEN, MICHAEL J.; SCHERER, PHILIPP E.; BAHN, REBECCA S.

    2014-01-01

    The signs and symptoms of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) result from increased volume of the orbital contents, including adipose, connective, and extraocular muscle tissues. We wanted to determine whether the expanded adipose tissue volume might be in part attributable to de novo adipogenesis. We measured levels of mRNA encoding leptin, adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), preadipocyte factor-1, and TSH receptor (TSHr) genes in orbital adipose tissues from GO patients (n = 22) and normal individuals (n = 18) and in orbital preadipocyte cultures derived from GO patients (n = 6) and normal subjects (n = 3) using quantitative real-time RT PCR. We found increased leptin, adiponectin, PPARγ, and TSHr expression in GO compared with normal orbital tissue samples, with positive correlations in the GO tissues between TSHr and leptin, adiponectin and PPARγ. In vitro differentiation of GO and normal preadipocytes resulted in enhanced adiponectin, leptin, and TSHr expression, with greater expression of the latter two genes in the GO cultures. These results suggest that de novo adipogenesis within orbital tissues with parallel enhanced expression of TSHr may be important in the pathogenesis of GO, and that potential therapies for GO might include inhibition of the adipogenic pathway. PMID:14764816

  4. Predictive Factors of Development of Graves' Ophthalmopathy for Patients with Juvenile Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Jasinskas, Vytautas; Jankauskiene, Jurate

    2016-01-01

    Background. Due to low incidence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) among children, the manifestation is poorly analyzed, posing a risk to late identification of insidious disease. Purposes. To identify predictive factors that may influence the development of GO in pediatric and young patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods. A cross-sectional study of patients newly diagnosed with pediatric or juvenile GD during 2002–2012 was conducted at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Ocular evaluation was based on European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy survey. The ocular manifestations were analyzed in relation to demographic, environmental, and clinical factors. Results. In total, 130 patients with juvenile GD were included; 29.2% had GO. Median age at GD onset was 17 yrs (IQR 4–29). Main symptoms of GO were eyelids retraction (73.7%), proptosis (65.8%), injection of conjunctiva (42.1%), and eyeball motility disturbance (21.1%). Major significant and independent risk factors for GO development were high initial concentration of FT4 (OR = 5.963), TTHAb (OR = 6.358), stress (OR = 6.030), and smoking (OR = 7.098). Conclusion. The major factors that could influence GO development were smoking, stress, and increased levels of initial TRAb, FT4. Slight proptosis, retraction of eyelids, and conjunctive injection were found as predominant ophthalmological symptoms in juvenile GO. PMID:27413373

  5. Clinical efficacy of combined rituximab treatment in a woman with severe Graves' ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Guo, Hui; Liu, Juan; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a female Chinese patient with Graves' disease (GD) and severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) in its active phase, who was treated with propylthiouracil and oral prednisolone for 2 months at a local hospital. However, a lack of improvement in symptoms meant that the patient was transferred to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China), whereupon the patient received high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, although with limited efficacy. Subsequently, rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) combined with orbital irradiation treatment was initiated. The patient responded positively to the combined treatment; the clinical symptoms and enlargement of the extraocular muscles were ameliorated, and there were marked decreases in the clinical activity and NOSPECS grading scores. Furthermore, the serum levels of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) were markedly decreased at 2 months following RTX therapy. The patient was maintained in a euthyroid state by treatment with methimazole during and following RTX therapy. It was concluded that RTX treatment may attenuate severe GO by depleting lymphocytes, and may promote the recovery of GD by reducing the serum levels of TRAb. PMID:27446325

  6. The relationship between serum adipocytokines and Graves' ophthalmopathy: A hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Yeon; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kang, Sung-Koo; Jang, Sun-Young; Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hee

    2016-05-31

    Adipocytokines are thought to be associated with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, limited information is available on the relationship between serum adipocytokine levels, Graves' disease (GD), and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The present study examined the relationship between serum adipocytokine levels and GD and GO. A total of 80 patients with GD participated in this study. The medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. GO activity was assessed using the clinical activity score (CAS). GO severity was assessed by the modified NOSPECS classification and included soft tissue involvement, proptosis, and extraocular muscle involvement. Serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The prevalence of GO was 36.3%. Serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with GO than in those without GO. The CAS was positively correlated with serum adiponectin and leptin levels. The total eye score was positively correlated with serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and RBP-4 levels. A multivariate analysis revealed that serum leptin and resistin levels were associated with the presence of GO after adjusting for clinical factors. Free thyroxine was negatively correlated with serum leptin level. These results suggest that adipocytokines, such as leptin and resistin, may play a role in inflammatory and autoimmune processes of GD and GO. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are required to establish relationships between serum adipocytokines levels and GO and ascertain the role of adipocytokines in GD and GO.

  7. Post-radioiodine De Novo Onset Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ruchika; Krishnasamy, Senthil Kumar; Buch, Harit; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2015-05-01

    New-onset Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine treatment (RAI) and worsening of existing GO are well-described in the endocrinology literature. These phenomena are recognized by ophthalmologists, yet poorly documented in the ophthalmology literature. Two male patients, aged 43 and 62 years, respectively, with Graves' disease without GO, received RAI. Four months later, one patient developed acute GO with unilateral reduction in visual acuity, conjunctival chemosis, lagophthalmos, bilateral severely restricted ocular motility, and lid retraction. High-dose intravenous steroids, followed by oral steroids, led to a dramatic clinical improvement. The second patient received a second dose of RAI for persistent hyperthyroidism and subsequently developed acute GO-comprising restricted ocular motility, peri-orbital swelling, and conjunctival chemosis. Symptoms gradually resolved on continued carbimazole treatment. Neither patient received pre-RAI prophylactic glucocorticoids, as currently they are only recommended for patients with pre-existing GO or multiple risk factors. We discuss the limitations of using this risk-based approach in preventing new-onset GO following RAI therapy.

  8. Predictive Factors of Development of Graves' Ophthalmopathy for Patients with Juvenile Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Jarusaitiene, Dalia; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Jasinskas, Vytautas; Jankauskiene, Jurate

    2016-01-01

    Background. Due to low incidence of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) among children, the manifestation is poorly analyzed, posing a risk to late identification of insidious disease. Purposes. To identify predictive factors that may influence the development of GO in pediatric and young patients with Graves' disease (GD). Methods. A cross-sectional study of patients newly diagnosed with pediatric or juvenile GD during 2002-2012 was conducted at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Ocular evaluation was based on European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy survey. The ocular manifestations were analyzed in relation to demographic, environmental, and clinical factors. Results. In total, 130 patients with juvenile GD were included; 29.2% had GO. Median age at GD onset was 17 yrs (IQR 4-29). Main symptoms of GO were eyelids retraction (73.7%), proptosis (65.8%), injection of conjunctiva (42.1%), and eyeball motility disturbance (21.1%). Major significant and independent risk factors for GO development were high initial concentration of FT4 (OR = 5.963), TTHAb (OR = 6.358), stress (OR = 6.030), and smoking (OR = 7.098). Conclusion. The major factors that could influence GO development were smoking, stress, and increased levels of initial TRAb, FT4. Slight proptosis, retraction of eyelids, and conjunctive injection were found as predominant ophthalmological symptoms in juvenile GO.

  9. Disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy: diagnosis with orbital MR imaging and correlation with clinical score.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Fabio; Cirillo, Mario; Ferrara, Marco; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Carella, Carlo; Caranci, Ferdinando; Cirillo, Sossio

    2013-10-01

    In Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) it is important to distinguish acute inflammation at an early stage, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from inactive fibrotic end stage disease, unresponsive to the same treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the most relevant signal intensities on orbital MR imaging with contrast administration both to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (defined by a cut-off value of 3) and to make a prediction of patient's CAS. Such threshold was considered as widely used in literature. Sixteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GO in different phases of thyroid disease based on clinical and orbital MR imaging signs, and six normal volunteers were examined. Orbital MR imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla MR Unit. MR scans were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist, blinded to the clinical examinations. We found a statistical correlation between CAS and both STIR and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences. There was also a statistically significant correlation between STIR and contrast-enhanced T1 images disclosing the possibility of avoiding the injection of contrast medium. Our study proved that signal intensity values on STIR sequence increase in the inflammatory oedematous phase of disease. We confirmed the correlation between signal intensities on this sequence and CAS, showing an increase in signal intensity proportional to the CAS value. So we validated MRI use to establish the activity phase of disease more sensitively than CAS alone.

  10. Associations of CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Graves' Ophthalmopathy: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengfei; Ma, Xiaojie; Wang, Changjiang

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have established that T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) is a susceptible gene for Graves' disease (GD). Also many studies showed the association between the CTLA4 exon-1 49A/G polymorphism and the risk of developing Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) in GD patients. But those results were inconsistent. In recent years many new studies were published which helped to shed light on the relationship of CTLA4 SNP49 with GO. So we performed the meta-analysis to explore the association between the SNP49 and GO susceptibility in GD patients. Studies up to February 29, 2012, were searched by using PubMed. The odds ratio was used to evaluate the strength of the association. Altogether 12 case-control studies involving 2,505 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that the G allele was related to the increased risk of GO compared with the A allele under allelic genetic model (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.14-1.72, P = 0.001) in European subgroup. No publication bias was detected. Our results showed that the SNP49 polymorphism of CTLA4 gene was related to increased risk of GO.

  11. Disease Activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Diagnosis with Orbital MR Imaging and Correlation with Clinical Score

    PubMed Central

    Tortora, Fabio; Cirillo, Mario; Ferrara, Marco; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Carella, Carlo; Caranci, Ferdinando; Cirillo, Sossio

    2013-01-01

    Summary In Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) it is important to distinguish acute inflammation at an early stage, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from inactive fibrotic end stage disease, unresponsive to the same treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the most relevant signal intensities on orbital MR imaging with contrast administration both to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (defined by a cut-off value of 3) and to make a prediction of patient's CAS. Such threshold was considered as widely used in literature. Sixteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GO in different phases of thyroid disease based on clinical and orbital MR imaging signs, and six normal volunteers were examined. Orbital MR imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla MR Unit. MR scans were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist, blinded to the clinical examinations. We found a statistical correlation between CAS and both STIR and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences. There was also a statistically significant correlation between STIR and contrast-enhanced T1 images disclosing the possibility of avoiding the injection of contrast medium. Our study proved that signal intensity values on STIR sequence increase in the inflammatory oedematous phase of disease. We confirmed the correlation between signal intensities on this sequence and CAS, showing an increase in signal intensity proportional to the CAS value. So we validated MRI use to establish the activity phase of disease more sensitively than CAS alone. PMID:24199816

  12. Implications of FoxP3-positive and -negative CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Okura, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Shoji, Kyoko; Nakamura, Risa; Sumi, Keisuke; Fujioka, Yohei; Yoshida, Akio; Shigemasa, Chiaki; Kato, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-31

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a common manifestation of Graves' disease (GD); however, its pathogenesis is not well understood. Recently, the dysregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been thought to be closely associated with the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of autoimmune disease. We therefore evaluated whether T cell subsets, including Tregs, are associated with GO pathogenesis and clinical symptoms. In this observational study we evaluated 35 GD patients with overt ophthalmopathy (GOs) and 28 patients without ophthalmopathy (non-GOs). Fifteen healthy euthyroid patients served as healthy controls (HCs). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from GOs, non-GOs and HCs were analyzed for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 expression using flow cytometry. We also evaluated their correlation with disease activity according to the clinical activity score (CAS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Disease severity was evaluated using the NOSPECS score, and clinical progression of GO was followed for 24 weeks. The main outcome measures were the frequencies of FoxP3-positive and -negative CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells at study outset, namely Tregs and effector T cells (Teffs), respectively. GOs had higher frequencies of Teffs (30.8±8.4%) than non-GOs (19.4±7.1%) and HCs (22.7±7.9%). Notably, patients with improved GOs had lower frequencies of Tregs (5.8±1.1%) than patients with stable or deteriorated GOs (7.3±1.2%), although ophthalmic and radiological parameters were not significantly different at the start of the study. In conclusion, an expanded Teff population may be associated with GO pathogenesis. Additionally, decreased Tregs in peripheral blood may predict a good clinical outcome. PMID:27349268

  13. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  14. Current perspectives on the role of orbital fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Dik, Willem A; Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an extra-thyroidal complication of Graves' disease (GD; Graves' hyperthyroidism) characterized by orbital tissue inflammation, expansion, remodeling and fibrosis. Although the initiating trigger of GO is still indistinct, excessive orbital fibroblast activity is at the heart of its pathogenesis. Orbital fibroblasts are activated by cellular interactions with immune cells and the soluble factors they secrete. Orbital fibroblasts, especially from GO patients, express the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-receptor; TSHR), and activation of the orbital fibroblast population by stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the TSHR may provide an important link between GD and GO. Furthermore, stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor have been proposed to contribute to orbital fibroblast activation in GO. Activated orbital fibroblasts produce inflammatory mediators thereby contributing to the orbital inflammatory process in GO. Moreover, orbital fibroblasts exhibit robust proliferative activity and extracellular matrix (especially hyaluronan) synthesizing capacity and can differentiate into adipocytes and myofibroblasts with disease progression, thereby contributing to tissue expansion/remodeling and fibrosis in GO. Orbital fibroblasts, especially those from GO patients, exhibit a hyper-responsive phenotype when compared to fibroblasts from other anatomical regions, which may further contribute to GO pathogenesis. Fibrocytes have been identified as additional source of orbital fibroblasts in GO, where they may contribute to orbital tissue inflammation, adipogenesis and remodeling/fibrosis. This review addresses our current view on the role that orbital fibroblasts fulfill in GO pathogenesis and both established as well as less established not fully crystallized concepts that need future studies will be discussed.

  15. Alteration of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and sometimes blinding disease, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of orbital tissues, with fibrosis and adipogenesis being predominant features. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes, especially that of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), are altered in orbital fibroblasts of patients with GO. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CTGF expression in GO orbital fibroblasts is also examined. By a SYBR Green-based real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR), we demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO were significantly higher than those of age-matched normal controls (p = 0.007, 0.037, and 0.002, respectively). In addition, the protein expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF analyzed by Western blot were also significantly higher in GO orbital fibroblasts (p = 0.046, 0.032, and 0.008, respectively) as compared with the control. Furthermore, after treatment of orbital fibroblasts with a sub-lethal dose of hydrogen peroxide (200 μM H2O2), we found that the H2O2-induced increase of CTGF expression was more pronounced in the GO orbital fibroblasts as compared with those in normal controls (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.007). Importantly, pre-incubation with antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin C, respectively, resulted in significant attenuation of the induction of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts in response to H2O2 (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the alteration of the expression of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of GO. Antioxidants may be used in combination with the therapeutic agents for effective treatment of GO. PMID:26599235

  16. The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

    2010-01-28

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

  17. 75 FR 66345 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Taos, NM. Decommissioning of the Ski non-directional...

  18. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  19. Non-spherical KBO shape identification in the TAOS-2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Chacón, Joel H.; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; García-Díaz, Teresa; Fox, Lester; Michel, Raul; Hernández, Benjamín; Alvarez, Fernando; Sánchez, Edilberto; Figueroa, Liliana; Lehner, Matthew; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alcock, Charles; Chen, Wen Ping; Chu, You-Hua; Cook, Kem H.; Geary, John C.; Huang, Chung-Kai; Kim, Dae-Won; Norton, Timothy; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Yen, WeiLing; TAOS-2

    2016-10-01

    We explore the possibility of determining a non-spherical shape for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) by analyzing diffraction effects in the context of the TAOS-2 occultation survey. We show how discrepancies between simulated diffraction patterns for spherical and irregular shapes, are related to the occulting KBO structure. Our results indicate that the possibility to constrain the KBO's shape is strongly related to the detectability of the diffraction pattern Poisson spot in the data. The consequence of this result is the restraint of size and distance for a KBO in order to detect a non-spherical shape. Since TAOS-2 will operate with three telescopes observing the same field simultaneously, the impact factor also plays an important role in shape detectability, since for non-spherical KBO occultations each telescope will have slightly different diffraction lightcurve. TAOS-2 will deliver a nominal photometry at 20 Hz, however in some cases it might be increased up to 40 Hz depending on the detector region and star brightness. This opens the possibility of improving the likelihood of measuring the Poisson spot, even in cases of maximum KBO relative motion, which diminishes the sampling resolution. In this context we propose the observation parameters that may lead to a better identification of the KBO occulting structure, in particular for the TAOS-2 survey.

  20. Methylprednisolone Pulse Treatment of Graves' Ophthalmopathy Is Not Associated with Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Sofie; Nygaard, Birte; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease in the orbital region. The first-line medical treatment is glucocorticoids. An important potential side effect of glucocorticoid treatment is suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with impairment of endogenous cortisol production, implicating symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, especially in the period after cessation of therapy with possible risks in cases of intercurrent illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis function before and after methylprednisolone pulse treatment of GO. Study Design HPA axis function was evaluated by measurements of plasma ACTH and an ACTH stimulation test with plasma cortisol measurements at 0 and 30 min after an intravenous bolus of synthetic ACTH (Synacthen® 250 µg). This was done in 12 patients with GO before and at cessation of methylprednisolone pulse treatment (500 mg i.v. per week for 6 weeks followed by 250 mg i.v. per week for an additional 6 weeks). Results All patients included fulfilled the criteria of intact HPA axis function before and at cessation of methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Data are given as medians (with ranges). Before glucocorticoid treatment basal plasma cortisol was 290 nM (196-579) and 786 nM (612-1,050) after ACTH stimulation. At cessation of therapy the corresponding values were 309 nM (88-718) and 852 nM (524-1,011), respectively. Thus, all patients passed a 30-min stimulated plasma cortisol of 500 nM. Before treatment plasma ACTH was 4.2 pmol/l (4-16) and at cessation of therapy the corresponding value was 4.8 pmol/l (2-9; p = 0.27). Conclusion Transient suppression of the HPA axis with secondary adrenocortical insufficiency does not seem to be a common phenomenon after intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy for GO. Therefore, routine precautions are not necessary. However, our results do not exclude that transient secondary adrenocortical insufficiency might occur occasionally. PMID

  1. Evaluation of quality of life in patients with Graves´ ophthalmopathy, before and after orbital decompression.

    PubMed

    Iacobæus, Lykke; Sahlin, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a potentially sight threatening orbital disease that can have a large negative impact on the quality of life of the patient. Studies on long-term effects of GO on the quality of life are few. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health-related quality of life in patients with GO, before and after orbital decompression surgery. This is a prospective, longitudinal, interventional study in which patients who had orbital decompression were given the Graves´ ophthalmopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL) before and after surgery. The GO-QOL is a disease specific instrument to measure health-related quality of life. The answers are transformed into scores from 0-100 on 2 subscales. Higher score indicates better health. An additional patient satisfaction questionnaire was also given post-surgery. A significant, long-term, improvement in quality of life after orbital decompression was noted (p < 0.001, paired t-test). 50 patients were included and follow-up time was 5.3 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD). The QOL-scores increased 28 ± 35 and 26 ± 31 points, respectively, on the two subscales, "visual functioning" and "appearance" (mean ± SD). The patient satisfaction questionnaire showed that 88% of the patients would recommend orbital decompression to a fellow patient. Persistent disturbing oscillopsia was seen in 2% and persistent disturbing infraorbital nerve hypoesthesia in 8% of the patients. Orbital decompression surgery has a positive effect on quality of life for patients with severe GO. The GO-QOL questionnaire showed significant improvement in QOL-scores even many years after surgery.

  2. The incidence of ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for Graves` disease: Prognostic factors and the role of methimazole

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, A.W.C.; Cheng, A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of development or exacerbation of Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO). This is thought to be associated with a surge of autoantibodies after RAI therapy. The role of methimazole (MMI), which possesses immunomodulatory action, in the prevention of GO was explored by studying 114 patients with Graves` disease. They were assigned randomly to receive either RAI alone or adjunctive antithyroid drugs, which consisted of MMI and L-T{sub 4} as a block-replacement therapy for 12 months and were followed for 2 yr. Thirty-five patients (30.7%) had GO at presentation. Twenty-one (18%) patients developed new GO, and six had worsening of preexisting GO. The development of hypothyroidism (P < 0.01) and an elevation of TSH (P < 0.05) were associated with increased risk of development or exacerbation of GO. The chance of development or exacerbation of GO is higher in those with no ophthalmopathy than in those with preexisting GO at presentation (P = 0.002). The incidence of development or exacerbation of GO was similar in the two treatment groups (RAI, 22.8%; adjunctive antithyroid drugs, 23.7%; P = NS). MMI was able to suppress the surge of TSH receptor antibody (TRAB) after RAI, but a surge in TRAB was not of prognostic significance for the development of GO after RAI. Patients who developed or had exacerbation of GO actually had lower TRAB at presentation (P = 0.02). The authors conclude that hypothyroidism with elevated TSH is an important adverse factor for the development or exacerbation of GO, and MMI was unable to prevent the development or exacerbation of GO after RAI. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico—A Possible Case of Anthropological Romanticism?

    PubMed Central

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Stewart, David

    1983-01-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  4. Curanderismo in Taos County, New Mexico--a possible case of anthropological romanticism?

    PubMed

    Scheper-Hughes, N; Stewart, D

    1983-12-01

    Interviews with 25 Spanish-Americans of Taos County, New Mexico, indicate that time and acculturation have greatly eroded the belief in and practice of curanderismo, the traditional folk medical system of the Southwest. Curanderismo in northern New Mexico today has moved from being a primary and important source of medical care to one used alternatively and very occasionally in cases of pediatric disorders, chronic illnesses and pain, and for those maladies still classified according to the traditional folk beliefs. PMID:6666104

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  6. Case 3. "Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China": Opinion by the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the decision of the People's Court in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province on the Jiang Tao v. Chengdu Branch, People's People's Bank of China case. Jiang Tao, the plaintiff, claimed that the defendant Chengdu Branch placed an announcement in the "Chengdu Business Daily" to "recruit tellers for Chengdu Branch" on…

  7. Report on the Taos round table: Oil and money in the next decade

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the content of the conference held May 8--10, 1992 in Taos, Mexico. The conference explored the topic ``what is required from the world oil and gas community and what does it cost?`` The topics included areas of growth potential, changing demand patterns for refined product, and cost of pollution regulations. The conference then explored the requirements from the oil exploration and production sector, the requirements from the financial community and the priorities which should be set, and finally what strategy should be developed for survival growth and profitability in the next decade.

  8. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population.

    PubMed

    Onimode, Yetunde A; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves' disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with RAI for primary hyperthyroidism at the National Centre for Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (NCRNM) from 2008-2013, and in the University College Hospital (UCH) from 2006-2013. Cure was defined as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism occurring at 6 months post-RAI. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 and Epi Info version, categorical data were evaluated with the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. 94 patients were studied, aged 20-74 years; 78 were females, and 16 were males. 38 were Ghanaian and 56 Nigerian. The presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) made cure less likely (χ(2) P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.118; 95% confidence interval, 0.027-0.518). Other factors assessed proved to be insignificant. Our findings suggest that hyperthyroid patients with TAO will benefit from a higher RAI dose than their counterparts without TAO. PMID:26912975

  9. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future. PMID:27649678

  10. Architectural elements of fan-delta complex in Pennsylvanian Taos Trough, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Soegaard, K.

    1989-03-01

    Identification of architectural elements within alluvial-fan and subaqueous fan-delta gravel units is fundamental to resolving depositional processes within fan-delta complexes of the Pennsylvanian Taos trough, New Mexico. Subaqueous fan-delta deposits consist of lenticular gravel-body complexes encased by black, basinal shales. Gravel-body complexes are composed of a series of stacked gravel lenses, each of which is enveloped by fifth-order bounding surfaces. The central portion of individual gravel lenses contains a channel complex. Channels are outlined by third- and fourth-order bounding surfaces and are infilled by high-density gravity flow deposits. The fringe of submarine gravel lenses consists of stacked, laterally continuous Bouma sequences separated by second-order bounding surfaces. Bouma sequences were deposited by dilute turbidity flows during evacuation of submarine channels. Subaqueous channel complexes within gravel lenses represent midfan channels, whereas the fringe of lenticular gravel lenses represent outer-fan lobes. Recognition of depositional processes and architectural elements of fan deltas in the Sandia Formation enables distinction between these and other types of coarse-grained deltas in the Taos trough. This, in turn, has implications for resolving evolution of the trough.

  11. Effects of electroacupuncture and electroacupuncture plus Tao Hong Si Wu Wan in treating primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Miao, Edwin Yong; Miao, Miranda Yi-mo; Kildea, Daniel George; Lao, Yi-Wen

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacies of electroacupuncture and electroacupuncture combined with Tao Hong Si Wu Wan in treating primary dysmenorrhea and compared the results with those obtained using conventional medical treatment. One treatment group, group 1, was administered Tao Hong Si Wu Wan (2625 mg) while the other, group 2, was administered a placebo (2625 mg) twice daily for 3 months. Electroacupuncture was used in both treatment groups: two sessions per menstrual cycle for three menstrual cycles. The reference group, group 3, was administered ibuprofen, 600 mg, twice daily, for five menstrual cycles. Uses of the herb, placebo and ibuprofen were blinded. A ridit analysis was used for testing and interpreting the effects of treatment. Pain intensity was determined using a qualitative grading method in a blinded manner. The ridit scores in groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than those in reference group immediately after treatment and three months later. Twelve months after the treatment, group 1 had a higher ridit score than group 2. In comparison to the reference group, groups 1 and 2 achieved better menstrual pain relief both immediately and 3 months after treatment. In addition, group 1 had better long-term pain relief than group 2. PMID:24513343

  12. TAOS: Taiwan-American Occultation Survey of Comet-Sized Objects in the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Several dozen minor planets with radii greater than 100 km have been detected beyond Neptune using large telescopes. The TAOS project is to measure directly the number of these KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects) down to the typical size of cometary nuclei (a few km) and out as far as approximately 100 AU from the Sun. Because of their large distance, small sizes and presumed low albedos, these target objects are extremely faint. Three 50 cm wide field robotic telescopes with 2048 x 2048 CCD cameras will be deployed along a 7 km east-west baseline in or near Jade Mountain National Park in Taiwan. They will monitor approximately 3000 stars for occultations by KBOs in a coincidence mode, so that the sequence and timing of the three separate blinkings can be used to distinguish real events from false alarms. Follow-up imaging observations using large telescopes will yield albedos and orbits for some of the larger objects detected by TAOS. A fourth telescope on a north-south spur to refine the size information on occulting GABON is also being contemplated.

  13. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future. PMID:27649678

  14. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-21

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future.

  15. A genomic point mutation in the extracellular domain of the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bahn, R.S.; Dutton, C.M.; Heufelder, A.E.; Sarkar, G. |

    1994-02-01

    Orbital and pretibial fibroblasts are targets of autoimmune attack in Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial dermopathy (PTD). The fibroblast autoantigen involved in these peripheral manifestations of Graves` disease and the reason for the association of GO and PTD with hyperthyroidism are unknown. RNA encoding the full-length extracellular domain of the TSH receptor has been demonstrated in orbital and dermal fibroblasts from patients with GO and normal subjects, suggesting a possible antigenic link between fibroblasts and thyrocytes. RNA was isolated from cultured orbital, pretibial, and abdominal fibroblasts obtained from patients with severe GO (n = 22) and normal subjects (n = 5). RNA was reverse transcribed, and the resulting cDNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using primers spanning overlapping regions of the entire extracellular domain of the TSH receptor. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an A for C substitution in the first position of codon 52 in 2 of the patients, both of whom had GO, PTD, and acropachy. Genomic DNA isolated from the 2 affected patients, and not from an additional 12 normal subjects, revealed the codon 52 mutation by direct sequencing and AciI restriction enzyme digestions. In conclusion, the authors have demonstrated the presence of a genomic point mutation, leading to a threonine for proline amino acid shift in the predicted peptide, in the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor in two patients with severe GO, PTD, acropachy, and high thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels. RNA encoding this mutant product was demonstrated in the fibroblasts of these patients. They suggest that the TSH receptor may be an important fibroblast autoantigen in GO and PTD, and that this mutant form of the receptor may have unique immunogenic properties. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Genetic Associations of Interleukin-related Genes with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kah Hie; Rong, Shi Song; Chong, Kelvin K. L.; Young, Alvin L.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is the commonest extra-thyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD). Associations between interleukin-related (IL) gene polymorphisms and GO have been reported in different populations. We aim to confirm such associations by conducting a meta-analysis. Totally 382 publications were retrieved in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 25/2/2015. After removing the duplicates and assessing the studies, we retrieved 16 studies that met the selection criteria for meta-analysis, involving 12 polymorphisms in 8 IL-related genes, and 1650 GO cases and 2909 GD controls. The summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. We found one polymorphism in IL1A (rs1800587, c.-889C>T) showing a suggestive association with GO in the meta-analysis (allelic model [T vs. C]: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.00–2.62, P = 0.050, I2 = 53.7%; recessive model [TT vs. TC + CC]: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.07–5.37, P = 0.039, I2 = 23.6%; heterozygous model [TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04–2.22, P = 0.034, I2 = 37.0%). No association with GO was detected for the other 7 genes (IL1B, IL1RA, IL4, IL6, IL12B, IL13 and IL23R). Our results thus indicate that IL1A is likely to be a genetic biomarker for GO. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the associations of IL1A and other IL-related genes with GO. PMID:26578206

  17. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene with Graves diseases and Graves ophthalmopathy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haibo; Wu, Mingxing; Yi, Hong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Qian; Nadirshina, Sophia; Zhou, Xiyuan; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is a common thyroid disease, and Graves ophthalmopathy(GO) is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation of GD. Genetic associations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene with GD and GO have been studied in different population groups for a long time. We aimed to obtain a more precise estimation of the effects of TSHR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on GD/GO using a meta-analysis. Publications were searched on Pub Med and EMBASE up to December 30, 2015. Eight studies involving three SNPs (rs179247, rs12101255, and rs2268458), which included 4790 cases and 5350 controls, met the selection criteria. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. SNPs rs179247 (dominant model [GG + GA vs. AA]: OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.61–0.73, P = 0.000, I2 = 0%) and rs12101255 (dominant model [TT + TC vs. CC]: OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.53–1.83, P = 0.000, I2 = 0%) were significantly associated with GD in all of the genetic models. TSHR rs12101255 and rs2268458 polymorphisms had no association between GO and GD (GD without GO). The results indicate that rs179247 and rs12101255 are likely to be genetic biomarkers for GD. Further studies with different population groups and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the genetic associations of the TSHR gene with GD/GO. PMID:27456991

  18. Comparison between Pt/TiO2/Pt and Pt/TaO X /TaO Y /Pt based bipolar resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Patrick W. C.; Odai Hatem, Firas; Almurib, Haider Abbas F.; Nandha Kumar, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nonvolatile memories have emerged in recent years and have become a leading candidate towards replacing dynamic and static random-access memory devices. In this article, the performances of TiO2 and TaO2 nonvolatile memristive devices were compared and the factors that make TaO2 memristive devices better than TiO2 memristive devices were studied. TaO2 memristive devices have shown better endurance performances (108 times more switching cycles) and faster switching speed (5 times) than TiO2 memristive devices. Electroforming of TaO2 memristive devices requires ∼4.5 times less energy than TiO2 memristive devices of a similar size. The retention period of TaO2 memristive devices is expected to exceed 10 years with sufficient experimental evidence. In addition to comparing device performances, this article also explains the differences in physical device structure, switching mechanism, and resistance switching performances of TiO2 and TaO2 memristive devices. This article summarizes the reasons that give TaO2 memristive devices the advantage over TiO2 memristive devices, in terms of electroformation, switching speed, and endurance.

  19. Bridging East and West--Or, a Bridge Too Far? Paulo Freire and the "Tao Te Ching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the "Tao Te Ching" (attributed to Lao Tzu), paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser (1997), who makes…

  20. Electrical responses and dielectric relaxations in giant permittivity NaCu3Ti3TaO12 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwong, Nuchjarin; Somphan, Weeraya; Thongbai, Prasit; Yamwong, Teerapon; Meansiri, Santi

    2012-08-01

    Dielectric relaxations and electrical responses in NaCu3Ti3TaO12 ceramics were investigated as a function of temperature. NaCu3Ti3TaO12 ceramics exhibit giant dielectric constants with values of ɛ'˜1.45-2.08×104. Two sets of thermally activated dielectric relaxations were observed in low and high temperature ranges. Sintering conditions have an insignificant influence on the microstructure of NaCu3Ti3TaO12 ceramics, and have a slight impact on their ɛ' values. Thermally activated electrical responses of grains and grain boundaries have been studied at different temperatures by using complex admittance and impedance spectroscopy analyses, respectively. The low temperature relaxation mechanism is found to correlate closely with electrical response of semiconducting grains; whereas the apparent high ɛ' values are attributed to electrical response of insulating grain boundaries. These results support the internal barrier layer capacitor model to explain the giant dielectric properties of NaCu3Ti3TaO12 ceramics. Additionally, high temperature relaxation may be attributed to the sample-electrode effect and/or defect ordering.

  1. 77 FR 31036 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Taos Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Taos Resource... availability. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Record of Decision... plan completed in 1988, provides updated management decisions regarding land tenure adjustments,...

  2. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1994-01-01

    accompanied GO in approximately 4% and 1% of patients, respectively. Myasthenia gravis occurred in less than 1% of patients. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis was documented in less than 4% of patients. The median age at the time of diagnosis of GO was 43 years (range, 8 to 88). Among patients with hyperthyroidism, 61% developed ophthalmopathy within 1 year of the onset of thyrotoxicosis. Symptoms and signs for which statistically significant changes occurred between the initial and final examinations included lacrimation, pain or ocular discomfort, photophobia, eyelid retraction, lid lag, eyelid fullness, conjunctival injection, chemosis, and exophthalmos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7886878

  3. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the calsequestrin-1 gene are associated with Graves’ ophthalmopathy and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Lahooti, Hooshang; Cultrone, Daniele; Edirimanne, Senarath; Walsh, John P; Delbridge, Leigh; Cregan, Patrick; Champion, Bernard; Wall, Jack R

    2015-01-01

    Background The eye disorder associated with Graves’ disease, called Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), greatly reduces the quality of life in affected patients. Expression of the calsequestrin (CASQ1) protein in thyroid tissue may be the trigger for the development of eye muscle damage in patients with GO. We determined the prevalence of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders, GO, Graves’ hyperthyroidism (GH), or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and control subjects with no personal or family history of autoimmune thyroid disorders. Furthermore, we measured the concentration of the CASQ1 protein in normal and Graves’ thyroid tissue, correlating levels with parameters of the eye signs, CASQ1 antibody levels, and the CASQ1 gene polymorphism rs74123279 and rs2275703. Methods High-quality genomic DNA was isolated from fresh blood samples, assayed for identification of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 SNPs in CASQ1 gene by MassARRAY SNP analysis using iPLEX technology of SEQUENOM. Results DNA samples from 300 patients and 106 control subjects (100 males, 306 females) with GO (n=74), GH (n=130), HT (n=96) and control subjects (n=106) were genotyped for the SNPs rs74123279, rs3747673 (n=405), and rs2275703 (n=407). The SNP rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 were identified as 1) common homozygous or wild type, 2) heterozygote, and 3) rare homozygous. Minor allele frequency for rs74123279, rs3747763, and rs2275703 were 21%, 40%, and 44%, respectively. Multiple comparisons of genotype frequency for rs74123279, rs3747763, and rs2275703 in the GO, GH, HT, and control groups showed P=0.06, 0.641, and 0.189, respectively. These results were substantiated by multiple comparison of alleles frequency for rs74123279, rs3838216, rs3747763, and rs2275703 in the GO, GH, HT, and control groups showed, P=0.36, 0.008, 0.66, and 0.05, respectively. Pairwise analysis of alleles frequency distribution in

  4. Search for Small Trans-Neptunian Objects by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wen-Ping; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F.B.; Byun, Y.I.; Chang, Y.H.; Cook, K.H.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Kim, D.W.; King, S.K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M.; Lin, C.C.; Lin, H.C.; Lissauer, J.J.; Marshall, S.; Meinshausen, N.; Mondal, S.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Arizona U. /Yonsei U. /LLNL, Livermore /Pennsylvania U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys. /NASA, Ames /SLAC /UC, Berkeley /Caltech

    2006-12-04

    The Taiwan-America Occultation Survey (TAOS) aims to determine the number of small icy bodies in the outer reach of the Solar System by means of stellar occultation. An array of 4 robotic small (D=0.5 m), wide-field (f/1.9) telescopes have been installed at Lulin Observatory in Taiwan to simultaneously monitor some thousand of stars for such rare occultation events. Because a typical occultation event by a TNO a few km across will last for only a fraction of a second, fast photometry is necessary. A special CCD readout scheme has been devised to allow for stellar photometry taken a few times per second. Effective analysis pipelines have been developed to process stellar light curves and to correlate any possible flux changes among all telescopes. A few billion photometric measurements have been collected since the routine survey began in early 2005. Our preliminary result of a very low detection rate suggests a deficit of small TNOs down to a few km size, consistent with the extrapolation of some recent studies of larger (30-100 km) TNOs.

  5. Electronic Properties of Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Studied by TAO-DFT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Shian; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2015-05-12

    Accurate prediction of the electronic properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) has been very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods due to the presence of strong static correlation effects. To meet the challenge, we study the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) of hydrogen-terminated ZGNRs with different widths and lengths using our recently developed thermally-assistedoccupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [Chai, J.-D. J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 136, 154104], a very efficient method for the study of large strongly correlated systems. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental and high-accuracy ab initio data. The ground states of ZGNRs are shown to be singlets for all the widths and lengths investigated. With the increase of ribbon length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy increase monotonically. On the basis of the calculated orbitals and their occupation numbers, the longer ZGNRs are shown to possess increasing polyradical character in their ground states, where the active orbitals are mainly localized at the zigzag edges. PMID:26894252

  6. Fabrication of a Ag/Bi3TaO7 Plasmonic Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bifu; Xu, Dongbo; Li, Di; Wu, Guoling; Wu, Miaomiao; Shi, Weidong; Chen, Min

    2015-08-12

    A novel Ag/Bi3TaO7 plasmonic photocatalyst has been prepared by a simple photoreduction process. The as-prepared Ag/Bi3TaO7 photocatalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline (TC) compared to that of a bare Bi3TaO7 catalyst. The 1 wt % Ag-loaded Bi3TaO7 sample showed the highest photocatalytic efficiency for TC degradation (85.42%) compared with those of the other samples. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the synergistic effect of the surface plasmon resonance caused by Ag nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles onto the Bi3TaO7 surface promoted the separation of photogenerated carriers. In addition, an electron spin resonance (ESR) and trapping experiment revealed that the photoinduced active species hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical were the main active species in the photocatalytic process of TC degradation. The photocatalytic reaction mechanism was discussed by active species trapping and ESR analysis. PMID:26167624

  7. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Lehner, M J; Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Alcock, C; Chen, W; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, L; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2009-11-13

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in lightcurves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS). We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar lightcurves obtained by our survey between 7 February 2005 and 31 December 2006 with a total of {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup 9} three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Taos, NM, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Town of Taos in New Mexico. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Severn Trent Services’ (STS) SORB 33™ ad...

  9. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and <11% false positives from all other aerosol particles. The most effective operations have consisted of thresholding TAOS patterns in order to reject defective ones

  10. Inhibitory Effects of α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress-Induced Adipogenesis in Orbital Fibroblasts From Patients With Graves Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sena; Byun, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jin Sook; Lee, Eun Jig

    2016-01-01

    A choice of the optimal treatment for Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is a challenge due to the complexity of the pathogenesis. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is well known as a multifunctional antioxidant, helping to protect cells against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and adipogenesis using primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO.Intracellular ROS levels and mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) were measured. After adipogenesis, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP)α and β, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were investigated.H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated ROS production and HO-1 expression. Addition of ALA strongly attenuated ROS production and further increased HO-1 expression. However, by pretreatment of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inhibitor, ALA inhibition of ROS generation by H2O2 was abolished. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES were inhibited by ALA treatment. In this context, TNFα-induced phosphorylation of P65 was also inhibited. In addition, ALA dose-dependently inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, and β, was also inhibited.ALA is a potential therapeutic agent for GO because of the inhibitory effects on ROS production and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in prevention of adipose-tissue expansion. PMID:26765462

  11. Increased TRAb and/or low anti-TPO titers at diagnosis of graves' disease are associated with an increased risk of developing ophthalmopathy after onset.

    PubMed

    Lantz, M; Planck, T; Asman, P; Hallengren, B

    2014-02-01

    Patients with low thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) and increased TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) at diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD) have been suggested to have an increased risk to develop Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim was to evaluate if GO development can be predicted.This is an observational study with registration of possible GD and GO risk factors.399 patients with GD were registered 2003-2008 in Malmö, Sweden and out of these 310 were retrospectively followed up to 6 years. The main outcome measures were anti-TPO titer, TRAb titer, smoking habits, radioiodine treatment and GO development.TRAb was assessed with a third generation assay at GD diagnosis in 231 patients. The proportion of patients with GO increased above the median 6.3 IU/L both at diagnosis of GD (p=0.001) and at follow-up (p=0.0001).The distribution of GO patients anti-TPO above or below 20 kIU/L at diagnosis of GD was similar between groups (p=0.239). However at follow-up anti-TPO<20 kIU/L was associated with an increased proportion of newly developed GO as compared to the cohort with anti-TPO>20 kIU/L (p=0.018).87% of patients who developed GO after GD diagnosis had TRAb above 6.3 IU/L and/or anti-TPO below 20 kIU/L. The proportion of GO was doubled in GD patients treated with radioiodine but could not explain the described findingsAnti-TPO<20 kIU/L and/or TRAb>6.3 IE/L at the time of GD diagnosis were associated with an increased risk to develop GO after diagnosis of GD.

  12. Enhanced 77 K vortex-pinning in Y Ba2Cu3O7-x films with Ba2Y TaO6 and mixed Ba2Y TaO6 + Ba2Y NbO6 nano-columnar inclusions with irreversibility field to 11 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, F.; Augieri, A.; Angrisani Armenio, A.; Galluzzi, V.; Mancini, A.; Pinto, V.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Bianchetti, M.; Kursumovic, A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Meledin, A.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Celentano, G.

    2016-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposited thin Y Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films with pinning additions of 5 at. % Ba2Y TaO6 (BYTO) were compared to films with 2.5 at. % Ba2Y TaO6 + 2.5 at. % Ba2Y NbO6 (BYNTO) additions. Excellent magnetic flux-pinning at 77 K was obtained with remarkably high irreversibility fields greater than 10 T (YBCO-BYTO) and 11 T (YBCO-BYNTO), representing the highest ever achieved values in YBCO films.

  13. Electrode-induced digital-to-analog resistive switching in TaO x -based RRAM devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi; Wu, Huaqiang; Bin Gao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Dong; Deng, Ning; Cai, Jian; Qian, He

    2016-07-29

    In RRAM devices, electrodes play a significant role during the switching process. In this paper, different top electrodes are used for TaO y /Ta2O5-x /AlO σ triple-oxide-layer devices. Top electrode-induced digital resistive switching to analog resistive switching was observed. For Pt top electrode (TE) devices, abrupt digital resistive switching behavior was observed, while Al TE devices showed gradual analog resistive switching behavior. Devices with various AlO σ thicknesses and sizes were fabricated and characterized to evaluate the reliability of the analog resistive switching. The physical mechanisms responsible for this electrode-induced resistive switching behavior were discussed. PMID:27302281

  14. Dietary shift in corallivorous Drupella snails following a major bleaching event at Koh Tao, Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; Scott, C.; True, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    The island Koh Tao in the western Gulf of Thailand suffered severe coral bleaching in 2010. Its mushroom coral fauna of 20 species was surveyed during the bleaching in 2010 and after the bleaching in 2011. Multi-species assemblages of free-living mushroom corals occurred around the island, two of which were invaded by corallivorous Drupella snails after the bleaching. Previously these gastropods were known to mainly consume branching corals and hardly any mushroom corals. The snails were found preying on four fungiid species, three of which were susceptible to bleaching. The dietary shift became apparent after populations of preferred prey species (Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae) had died during the bleaching event. It seems that bleaching mortality reduced the availability of preferred prey, causing the corallivores to switch to less preferred species that occur in dense aggregations.

  15. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    PubMed

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic's syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy.

  16. Autoimmune thyroiditis associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    PubMed

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Khorram, Hadi; Sepehrar, Mona; Gonivada, Jayadevappa; Noroozpour, Zahra; Prasad, Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or Devic's syndrome) is a rare relapsing demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves and shares many clinical and radiological features with multiple sclerosis. The association of NMO with other autoimmune diseases was reported, but very few reports described association with autoimmune thyroid disease. Early differentiation between NMO and multiple sclerosis is very important as the natural course and treatment regimens differ significantly. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted initially with vomiting, hiccups and paraesthesias but was not diagnosed with NMO and presented with a severe progression of the disease. The patient was also diagnosed to have autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid which progressed from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism. NMO diagnosis was established with seropositivity for NMO-IgG and MRI showing longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (3 or more spinal segments). In spite of treatment, the response was poor due to lack of early diagnosis and aggressive immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26633965

  17. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  18. Study of the substructure of the Morgagni and Brunescens cataract with the TAO non-coating technique. Part 1: Morgagni cataract.

    PubMed

    Jongebloed, W L; Kalicharan, D; Los, L I; Worst, J G

    1992-01-01

    Lens tissue from a Morgagni cataract was examined by SEM and TEM. For SEM, after prefixation with glutaraldehyde and postfixation with the tannic acid/arginine/OsO4 non-coating (TAO) technique, and for TEM, after prefixation with glutaraldehyde, postfixation with OsO4/K4Fe(CN)6 and poststaining with uranyl acetate/lead citrate. The TAO technique seems to be a particularly suitable postfixation method for the SEM investigation of cataract tissue because of the presence of the protein structures present. The cortical region showed areas of radially, instead of concentrically, arranged lens fibres, degenerated lens fibres with holes (vacuoles), broken ball and socket connections between the lens fibres, and oval or spherical structures varying in size from 0.5-20 microns, the largest resembling a golfball, arising from the cytoplasm of degenerating lens fibres. The smallest, 0.2-0.5 microns, appear to have been expelled from the furrowed lens epithelium.

  19. Coordination of Recombination with Meiotic Progression in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline by KIN-18, a TAO Kinase That Regulates the Timing of MPK-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yizhi; Donlevy, Sean; Smolikove, Sarit

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a tightly regulated process requiring coordination of diverse events. A conserved ERK/MAPK-signaling cascade plays an essential role in the regulation of meiotic progression. The Thousand And One kinase (TAO) kinase is a MAPK kinase kinase, the meiotic role of which is unknown. We have analyzed the meiotic functions of KIN-18, the homolog of mammalian TAO kinases, in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that KIN-18 is essential for normal meiotic progression; mutants exhibit accelerated meiotic recombination as detected both by analysis of recombination intermediates and by crossover outcome. In addition, ectopic germ-cell differentiation and enhanced levels of apoptosis were observed in kin-18 mutants. These defects correlate with ectopic activation of MPK-1 that includes premature, missing, and reoccurring MPK-1 activation. Late progression defects in kin-18 mutants are suppressed by inhibiting an upstream activator of MPK-1 signaling, KSR-2. However, the acceleration of recombination events observed in kin-18 mutants is largely MPK-1-independent. Our data suggest that KIN-18 coordinates meiotic progression by modulating the timing of MPK-1 activation and the progression of recombination events. The regulation of the timing of MPK-1 activation ensures the proper timing of apoptosis and is required for the formation of functional oocytes. Meiosis is a conserved process; thus, revealing that KIN-18 is a novel regulator of meiotic progression in C. elegans would help to elucidate TAO kinase's role in germline development in higher eukaryotes.

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous or oral glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy in the management of severe Graves' ophthalmopathy: results of a prospective, single-blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Marcocci, C; Bartalena, L; Tanda, M L; Manetti, L; Dell'Unto, E; Rocchi, R; Barbesino, G; Mazzi, B; Bartolomei, M P; Lepri, P; Cartei, F; Nardi, M; Pinchera, A

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe and active Graves' ophthalmopathy were randomly treated with orbital radiotherapy combined with either oral (prednisone; starting dose, 100 mg/d; withdrawal after 5 months) or iv (methylprednisolone; 15 mg/kg for four cycles and then 7.5 mg/kg for four cycles; each cycle consisted of two infusions on alternate days at 2-wk intervals) glucocorticoids. The two groups did not differ for age, gender, duration of hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, prevalence of smokers, thyroid volume, and pretreatment ocular conditions. Both groups of patients received radioiodine therapy shortly before treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy. Follow-up lasted for 12 months. A significant reduction in proptosis (from 23.2 +/- 3.0 to 21.6 +/- 1.2 mm in the iv glucocorticoid group, P < 0.0001; and from 23 +/- 1.8 to 21.7 +/- 1.8 mm in oral glucocorticoid group, P < 0.0001) and in lid width (from 13.3 +/- 2.5 to 11.8 +/- 2.2 mm, and from 13.6 +/- 2.0 to 11.5 +/- 1.9 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 in both cases) occurred, with no difference between the two groups. Diplopia significantly improved in both groups: it disappeared in 13 of 27 (48.1%) iv glucocorticoid patients (P < 0.005) and in 12 of 33 (36.4%) oral glucocorticoid patients (P < 0.03). The degree of amelioration of diplopia did not significantly differ between the two groups (P = 0.82). Optic neuropathy improved in 11 of 14 iv glucocorticoid (P < 0.01) and only in 3 of 9 oral glucocorticoid (P = 0.57) patients, with no significant difference in these outcomes. The Clinical Activity Score decreased from 4.5 +/- 1.2 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 (P < 0.0001) in the iv glucocorticoid group and from 4.2 +/- 1.1 to 2.2 +/- 1.2 (P < 0.0001) in the oral glucocorticoid group; final Clinical Activity Score was significantly lower in iv glucocorticoid than in oral glucocorticoid patients (P < 0.01). By self-assessment evaluation, 35 (85.3%) iv glucocorticoid and 30 (73.2%) oral glucocorticoid patients

  1. Origin of stratiform sediment-hosted manganese carbonate ore deposits: Examples from Molango, Mexico, and TaoJiang, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okita, P.M.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonate and sulfide minerals from the Molango, Mexico, and TaoJiang, China, Mn deposits display similar and distinctive ??34S and ??13C patterns in intervals of manganese carbonate mineralization. ??13C-values for Mn-bearing carbonate range from -17.8 to +0.5??? (PDB), with the most negative values occurring in high-grade ore zones that are composed predominantly of rhodochrosite. In contrast, calcite from below, within and above Mn-carbonate zones at Molango has ??13C???0??? (PDB). Markedly negative ??13C data indicate that a large proportion of the carbon in Mn-carbonates was derived from organic matter oxidation. Diagenetic reactions using MnO2 and SO2-4 to oxidize sedimentary organic matter were the principle causes of such 12C enrichment. Pyrite content and sulfide ?? 34S-values also show distinctive variations. In unmineralized rocks, very negative ??34S-values (avg. < -21??? CDT) and abundant pyrite content suggest that pyrite formed from diagenetic, bacteriogenic sulfate reduction. In contrast, Mn-bearing horizons typically contain only trace amounts of pyrite (e.g., <0.5 wt% S with ??34S-values 34S-enriched, in some cases to nearly the value for contemporaneous seawater. 34S-enriched pyrite from the Mn-carbonate intervals indicates sulfide precipitation in an environment that underwent extensive SO2-4 reduction, and was largely a closed system with regard to exchange of sulfate and dissolved sulfide with normal seawater. The occasional occurrence of 34S-depleted pyrite within Mn-carbonate zones dominated by 34S-enriched pyrite is evidence that closed-system conditions were intermittent and limited to local pore waters and did not involve entire sedimentary basins. Mn-carbonate precipitation may have occluded porosity in the surficial sediments, thus establishing an effective barrier to SO2-4 exchange with overlying seawater. Similar isotopic and mineralogic characteristics from both the Molango and TaoJiang deposits, widely separated in geologic time and

  2. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  3. (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3:Mn lead-free single crystal with high piezoelectric properties

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Limei; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Junjun; Sang, Shijing; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    Lead-free single crystal, (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3:Mn, was successfully grown using top-seeded solution growth method. Complete matrix of dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic constants for [001]C poled single crystal was determined. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 measured by the resonance method was 545 pC/N, which is almost three times that of its ceramic counterpart. The values measured by the Berlincourt meter ( d33∗=630pC/N) and strain-field curve ( d33∗∗=870pm/V) were even higher. The differences were assumed to relate with the different extrinsic contributions of domain wall vibration and domain wall translation during the measurements by different approaches, where the intrinsic contribution (on the order of 539 pm/V) was supposed to be the same. The crystal has ultrahigh electromechanical coupling factor (k33 ~ 95%) and high ultrasound velocity, which make it promising for high frequency medical transducer applications. PMID:27594704

  4. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  5. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  6. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection.

  7. Analysis of meteorological data and water chemistry of Latir Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.; Roybal, R.G.; Risser, D.W.; Somers, Georgene

    1994-01-01

    Data were analyzed to determine the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and water of the Latir Lakes in Taos County New Mexico, from 1985 to 1988. The Latir Lakes consist of a series of nine paternoster lakes that range in altitude from 11,061 to 11,893 feet above sea level. The pH of wet precipitation generally ranged from 4.6 to 5.5 and the specific conductance of wet precipitation ranged from 1 to 18 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius from December 1985 through September 1988. Snowpack chemistry data indicate a change in the specific conductance, pH, and alkalinity of the snowpack from month to month. The dominant cation in the snowpack is calcium, and the dominant anions are nitrate and sulfate. The samples having the smallest values of specific conductance generally did not contain measurable alkalinity. When the snowpack starts to melt in the spring, specific conductance of the entire snowpack decreases, consistent with the hypothesis that the initial fluid draining from the snowpack transports a large amount of dissolved material out of the snowpack. Water chemistries in the Latir Lakes are similar although specific conductance increases downstream from lake 9 to lake 1. Calcium is the dominant cation and the ions that produce alkalinity are the dominant anions. Concentrations of sodium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate do not vary substantially from year to year or during the year in a particular lake. Alkalinity and calcium concentration, however, do vary from year to year and during the year. The pH of outflow from the Latir Lakes varies from lake to lake and from year to year. In 1986, the range in pH in the lakes was less than 1 unit in mid-June, but was greater than 2.5 units by late October. The pH generally was larger than 7.0 in all of the lakes and was as large as 9.9 in several of the lakes during the period of study. The pH of outflow water generally increases from early spring to late summer in the Latir Lakes, and snowmelt does

  8. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2

  9. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  10. The Tao of SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tony C.

    This paper describes a comprehensive framework aiming to facilitate the effective adoption and operationalization of SOA in large enterprise computing environments, which consists of the Strategy, Automation, Methodology, Patterns, Lifecycle, and Engineering (SAMPLE) aspects. The major pain points in SOA are analyzed, such as the increasing dynamics, growing integration, proliferation of techniques, more heterogeneous platforms, disparate visual notations, intricate processes, disjointed operating models, and fragmented activities of WS-* specifications. The overarching SAMPLE model is designed to provide a sophisticated integration of appropriate capabilities and knowledge to filter the inessential from the essential. In the Strategy aspect, a metamodel, technology architecture planning, and strategy roadmapping are presented. The Automation aspect deals with tools, service lifecycle, and COTS mapping. The Methodology aspect covers a hybrid method, SOA principles, and a methodical process. The prominent elements of the Patterns aspect include data caching patterns, a reference model, and open source reference implementation. The Lifecycle aspect contains a methodical means to mature IT systems: review, refactoring, reengineering, and rearchitecting (R4). Finally, the Engineering aspect evolves the traditional software engineering and systems engineering practices to the service engineering discipline. Moreover, a 10-point list of SOA guidance is introduced from a practitioner’s standpoint, which gives best-practice guidelines to adopt and execute SOA practically in big organizations.

  11. Role of Kekulé and Non-Kekulé Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Nan; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the role of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character.

  12. Role of Kekulé and Non-Kekulé Structures in the Radical Character of Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A TAO-DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Nan; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures in the radical character of alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), an efficient electronic structure method for the study of large ground-state systems with strong static correlation effects. Our results reveal that the studies of Kekulé and non-Kekulé structures qualitatively describe the radical character of alternant PAHs, which could be useful when electronic structure calculations are infeasible due to the expensive computational cost. In addition, our results support previous findings on the increase in radical character with increasing system size. For alternant PAHs with the same number of aromatic rings, the geometrical arrangements of aromatic rings are responsible for their radical character. PMID:27457289

  13. Protective Effects of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu Decoction on Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lan; Ji, Zhaojie; Chen, Weidong; Yin, Dengke; Xu, Fan; Li, Shanshan; Chen, Fangfang; Zhu, Guangyu; Peng, Daiyin

    2015-01-01

    Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction (TSD) as a traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed to treat thrombotic diseases for hundreds of years, and vascular dementia (VD) is a cognitive dysfunction syndrome caused by cerebral embolism. In this study, the protective effect of TSD on memory impairment and brain damage in rat model of VD induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. The study showed that rats in MCAO treatment with TSD for 14 days significantly improved behavioral function, increased densities of neuron, and induced angiogenesis in the brain compared with model rats. TSD also adjusted the neurotransmitter levels, reduced the content of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and induced the activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hippocampus. Moreover, the immunohistochemical staining and western blotting results also revealed that TSD decreased apoptosis via upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) ratio. These results demonstrated TSD possesses neuroprotective and antidementia properties by preventing the loss of neural cells, adjusting brain neurotransmitter, promoting cerebral blood circulation, and decreasing apoptosis. These results suggested that TSD might be developed as an effective drug for the prevention of VD. PMID:25821478

  14. Effect of Li Adsorption on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Acenes: A Dispersion-Corrected TAO-DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-09-09

    Due to the presence of strong static correlation effects and noncovalent interactions, accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of Li-adsorbed acenes with n linearly fused benzene rings (n = 3-8) has been very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our recently developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) with dispersion corrections. In contrast to pure acenes, the binding energies of H2 molecules on Li-adsorbed acenes are in the ideal binding energy range (about 20 to 40 kJ/mol per H2). Besides, the H2 gravimetric storage capacities of Li-adsorbed acenes are in the range of 9.9 to 10.7 wt%, satisfying the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) ultimate target of 7.5 wt%. On the basis of our results, Li-adsorbed acenes can be high-capacity hydrogen storage materials for reversible hydrogen uptake and release at ambient conditions.

  15. Effect of Li Adsorption on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Acenes: A Dispersion-Corrected TAO-DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-09-01

    Due to the presence of strong static correlation effects and noncovalent interactions, accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of Li-adsorbed acenes with n linearly fused benzene rings (n = 3–8) has been very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our recently developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) with dispersion corrections. In contrast to pure acenes, the binding energies of H2 molecules on Li-adsorbed acenes are in the ideal binding energy range (about 20 to 40 kJ/mol per H2). Besides, the H2 gravimetric storage capacities of Li-adsorbed acenes are in the range of 9.9 to 10.7 wt%, satisfying the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) ultimate target of 7.5 wt%. On the basis of our results, Li-adsorbed acenes can be high-capacity hydrogen storage materials for reversible hydrogen uptake and release at ambient conditions.

  16. Validating satellite altimeter measurements of internal tides with long-term TAO/TRITON buoy observations at 2°S-156°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Dong-Ping; Chen, Dake

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is regularly used to map the global distribution of mode-1 internal tides. Validating altimeter measurements of internal tides with in situ data is difficult as the mooring observations typically are too short compared with the altimetry. Here taking advantage of the long-term (since 1999) Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) buoy observations at 2°S-156°E located at a TOPEX/Poseidon crossover in a region of strong internal tides, direct comparisons are made between altimeter and in situ measurements over a common 15 year period. The hourly buoy data are decimated every 9.9 day to emulate altimeter measurements. The altimeter and decimated buoy data are highly coherent at the aliased semidiurnal period (~60 day), and they agree well for the stationary semidiurnal internal tide. For the nonstationary internal tide, which consists of a significant annual cycle, the demodulated amplitude from the altimeter appears to be contaminated by nontidal signals. The demodulated amplitude from the decimated buoy data, on the other hand, is capable of resolving the temporal variability. This suggests the potential of mapping nonstationary internal tides from satellites.

  17. Massively Parallel Assimilation of TOGA/TAO and Topex/Poseidon Measurements into a Quasi Isopycnal Ocean General Circulation Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Borovikov, Anna Y.; Suarez, Max

    1999-01-01

    A massively parallel ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)is used to assimilate temperature data from the TOGA/TAO array and altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON into a Pacific basin version of the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. The EnKF is an approximate Kalman filter in which the error-covariance propagation step is modeled by the integration of multiple instances of a numerical model. An estimate of the true error covariances is then inferred from the distribution of the ensemble of model state vectors. This inplementation of the filter takes advantage of the inherent parallelism in the EnKF algorithm by running all the model instances concurrently. The Kalman filter update step also occurs in parallel by having each processor process the observations that occur in the region of physical space for which it is responsible. The massively parallel data assimilation system is validated by withholding some of the data and then quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The distributions of the forecast and analysis error covariances predicted by the ENKF are also examined.

  18. Effect of Li Adsorption on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Acenes: A Dispersion-Corrected TAO-DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-01-01

    Due to the presence of strong static correlation effects and noncovalent interactions, accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of Li-adsorbed acenes with n linearly fused benzene rings (n = 3–8) has been very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our recently developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) with dispersion corrections. In contrast to pure acenes, the binding energies of H2 molecules on Li-adsorbed acenes are in the ideal binding energy range (about 20 to 40 kJ/mol per H2). Besides, the H2 gravimetric storage capacities of Li-adsorbed acenes are in the range of 9.9 to 10.7 wt%, satisfying the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) ultimate target of 7.5 wt%. On the basis of our results, Li-adsorbed acenes can be high-capacity hydrogen storage materials for reversible hydrogen uptake and release at ambient conditions. PMID:27609626

  19. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Vermejo Peak area, Colfax and Taos Counties, New Mexico and Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Pillmore, Charles L.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map covers four 7.5-minute quadrangles-The Wall, NM-CO (New Mexico-Colorado), Vermejo Park, NM-CO, Ash Mountain, NM, and Van Bremmer Park, NM. The study area straddles the boundary between the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the western margin of the Raton Basin, with about two-thirds of the map area in the basin. The Raton Basin is a foreland basin that formed immediately eastward of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains during their initial uplift, in the Late Cretaceous through early Eocene Laramide orogeny. Subsequently, these mountains have been extensively modified during formation of the Rio Grande rift, from late Oligocene to present. The map area is within that part of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains that is called the Culebra Range. Additionally, the map covers small parts of the Devil's Park graben and the Valle Vidal half-graben, in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the map area, respectively. These two grabens are small intermontaine basins, that are satellitic to the main local basin of the Rio Grande rift, the San Luis Basin, that are an outlying, early- formed part of the rift, and that separate the Culebra Range from the Taos Range, to the southwest.

  20. Effect of Li Adsorption on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Acenes: A Dispersion-Corrected TAO-DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2016-01-01

    Due to the presence of strong static correlation effects and noncovalent interactions, accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of Li-adsorbed acenes with n linearly fused benzene rings (n = 3-8) has been very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our recently developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) with dispersion corrections. In contrast to pure acenes, the binding energies of H2 molecules on Li-adsorbed acenes are in the ideal binding energy range (about 20 to 40 kJ/mol per H2). Besides, the H2 gravimetric storage capacities of Li-adsorbed acenes are in the range of 9.9 to 10.7 wt%, satisfying the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) ultimate target of 7.5 wt%. On the basis of our results, Li-adsorbed acenes can be high-capacity hydrogen storage materials for reversible hydrogen uptake and release at ambient conditions. PMID:27609626

  1. CD40 Expression in Fibrocytes Is Induced by TSH: Potential Synergistic Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mester, Tünde; Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Gillespie, Erin F.; Chen, Hong; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Fibrocytes appear to participate in inflammation and tissue remodeling in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). These patients have increased frequencies of circulating TSH receptor (TSHR)- and CD40-positive fibrocytes, suggesting TSHR and CD40 may play roles in proinflammatory cytokine production, which ultimately leads to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling. Objective To investigate the potential interactions between the TSHR and CD40 signaling pathways and their roles in IL-6 and TNF-α production. Design and Outcome Measures CD40 expression on fibrocytes was assessed using flow cytometry; IL-6 and TNF-α protein release using Luminex technology; increased IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA abundance, using real-time PCR; TSH- and CD40 ligand (CD40L)-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in fibrocytes, by western blot analysis; TSHR-CD40 protein-protein interaction, using co-immunoprecipitation, and CD40-TSHR co-localization, using immunocytochemistry. Results TSH enhances CD40 expression at a pre-translational level in fibrocytes. Production of IL-6 and TNF-α after costimulation with TSH and CD40L was greater than that after TSH or CD40L stimulation alone. TSH and CD40L costimulation also resulted in greater Akt phosphorylation. Akt and nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors significantly reduced cytokine production after TSH and CD40L costimulation. TSHR and CD40L are colocalized on the cell surface and form a complex. Conclusions TSHR and CD40 in fibrocytes appear to be physically and functionally related. TSH stimulates CD40 production on the fibrocyte surface. Cytokine expression upon simultaneous stimulation of TSHR and CD40 is greater than levels achieved with TSH or CD40L alone. Increased expression of CD40 by TSH is a potential mechanism for this process. PMID:27631497

  2. Structures and magnetic properties of new fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=rare earths)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) and LaLn2RuO7 (Ln=Eu-Tb) have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space groups C2221 and Cmcm, respectively. The results of the Rietveld analysis for LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) indicate that there exists no structural ordering of the Ln and Y ions at the eight-coordinate 4b site and the seven-coordinate 8c site, but the larger Ln ions occupy the eight-coordinate 4b site rather than the seven-coordinate 8c site, with increasing the Ln ionic radius. On the other hand, the results of the Rietveld analysis for the X-ray diffraction profiles of LaTb2RuO7 showed that La and Tb atoms are almost situated at the eight-coordinated site (4a site) and seven-coordinated site (8g site), respectively, i.e., cation ordering occurs on the 4a and 8g sites. All compounds LnY2TaO7 (Ln=La-Dy) are paramagnetic down to 1.8 K. On the other hand, LaTb2RuO7 shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 17 K. In addition, another magnetic anomaly has been found at 10 K. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat for LaTb2RuO7 indicates that the magnetic transitions at 10 and 17 K are due to the magnetic ordering of Tb3+ and Ru5+ ions, respectively.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine formula tao hong si wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Na; Nin, Ling; Zhao, Zhilong; Chen, Lu; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Zhuyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Zeng, Daiwen; Qi, Hongyi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of phase II enzymes and is known as the major mechanism of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of THSWD on the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the consequent effect during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that THSWD reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function in a rat stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a key endogenous antioxidant enzyme regulated by Nrf2, was significantly further induced by THSWD in this in vivo model. In neuronal-like PC12 cells, THSWD remarkably up-regulated HO-1 expression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase was found to be involved in the upstream of Nrf2 regulation. In an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model, THSWD treatment significantly reduced cell death induced by OGD-Rep insult. Importantly, the protective action was attenuated while PI3K activity was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, LY294002, and the Nrf2 signaling pathway was blocked by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides. Collectively, these results demonstrated that THSWD exhibited notable neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo and activation of PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway may be, at least in part, responsible for the protection. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD.

  4. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  5. Drug-induced graves disease from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary; Hinkle, David M; Cia, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, useful for treatment of metastatic melanoma, blocks CTLA-4 mediated T-cell suppression and can also cause a Graves ophthalmopathy like syndrome. Epidemiologic study has linked variant polymorphisms of CTLA-4 receptor gene to the presence of thyroid eye disease. The combination of these observations suggests CTLA-4 mediated T-cell functions are important to the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated eye disease. PMID:21242854

  6. Drug-induced graves disease from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary; Hinkle, David M; Cia, Yihong

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, useful for treatment of metastatic melanoma, blocks CTLA-4 mediated T-cell suppression and can also cause a Graves ophthalmopathy like syndrome. Epidemiologic study has linked variant polymorphisms of CTLA-4 receptor gene to the presence of thyroid eye disease. The combination of these observations suggests CTLA-4 mediated T-cell functions are important to the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated eye disease.

  7. Reconstruction of the 1997/1998 El Nino from TOPEX/POSEIDON and TOGA/TAO Data Using a Massively Parallel Pacific-Ocean Model and Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, C. L.; Rienecker, M.; Borovikov, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two massively parallel data assimilation systems in which the model forecast-error covariances are estimated from the distribution of an ensemble of model integrations are applied to the assimilation of 97-98 TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and TOGA/TAO temperature data into a Pacific basin version the NASA Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP)ls quasi-isopycnal ocean general circulation model. in the first system, ensemble of model runs forced by an ensemble of atmospheric model simulations is used to calculate asymptotic error statistics. The data assimilation then occurs in the reduced phase space spanned by the corresponding leading empirical orthogonal functions. The second system is an ensemble Kalman filter in which new error statistics are computed during each assimilation cycle from the time-dependent ensemble distribution. The data assimilation experiments are conducted on NSIPP's 512-processor CRAY T3E. The two data assimilation systems are validated by withholding part of the data and quantifying the extent to which the withheld information can be inferred from the assimilation of the remaining data. The pros and cons of each system are discussed.

  8. The Tao of Teaching: Romance and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stefan

    1991-01-01

    Because college teaching aims to elevate, not entertain, it must be nourished and appreciated as a pedagogical alchemy mixing facts and feelings, ideas and skills, history and mystery. The current debate on educational reform should focus more on quality of learning experience, and on how to create and sustain it. (MSE)

  9. Taos Pueblo Indian Water Rights Settlement Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lujan, Ben Ray [D-NM-3

    2009-07-17

    02/01/2010 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 266. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Taos Pueblo Indian Water Rights Settlement Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-05-04

    01/20/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 257. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4783, which became Public Law 111-291 on 12/8/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 17. Geomorphology of the Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, and Influence on Ground-Water Flow in the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, Kirk R.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north-central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The bedrock of the Taos Range surrounding the Red River is composed of Proterozoic rocks of various types, which are intruded and overlain by Oligocene volcanic rocks associated with the Questa caldera. Locally, these rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity. The alteration zones that contain sulfide minerals are particularly important because they constitute the commercial ore bodies of the region and, where exposed to weathering, form sites of rapid erosion referred to as alteration scars. Over the past thousand years, if not over the entire Holocene, erosion rates were spatially variable. Forested hillslopes eroded at about 0.04 millimeter per year, whereas alteration scars eroded at about 2.7 millimeters per year. The erosion rate of the alteration scars is unusually rapid for naturally occurring sites that have not been disturbed by humans. Watersheds containing large alteration scars delivered more sediment to the Red River Valley than the Red River could remove. Consequently, large debris fans, as much as 80 meters thick, developed within the valley. The geomorphology of the Red River Valley has had several large influences on the hydrology of the shallow alluvial aquifer, and those influences were in effect before the onset of mining within the watershed. Several reaches where alluvial ground water emerges to become Red River streamflow were observed by a tracer dilution study conducted in 2001. The aquifer narrows

  12. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD. PMID:26052139

  13. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  14. Branchial-like cysts of the thyroid associated with solid cell nests.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michal; Mukensnabl, Petr; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2006-03-01

    Presented herein is the case of a 65-year-old man with a 20 year history of thyroid hypofunction. On sonography a cystic lesion 4 x 4 x 5 cm in largest diameter was found, replacing most of the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of labyrinth-like cystic structures (LCS) lined by a few layers of benign-appearing squamous cells and filled by mucinous material. Adjacent to the cyst walls were discontinuous patches of a lymphoid tissue, composed of haloed centrocyte-like cells or germinal centers mostly depleted of germinal cells. Additionally, there were numerous squamous cell nests equivalent to solid cell nests (SCN), all of which were surrounded by a similar-looking lymphoid tissue. Rare SCN were thus cystically changed and contained a small amount of mucus. The SCN communicated with the LCS: the former represented the most distal outpouchings of the latter. The epithelial structures were surrounded by a loose collagenous adipocytic stroma with plump fibroblasts, which resembled the stroma often seen in lateral neck cysts associated with structures such as cartilage, accessory salivary gland tissues, cysts and accessory thyroid and thymus. Immunohistochemically, all lesional elements were negative for calcitonin and thyroglobulin. The results of the paper suggest that branchial cleft-like cyst have an origin in the ultimobranchial body.

  15. Management plan and delivery of care in Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Morgan; Perros, Petros

    2012-06-01

    Most patients with Graves' orbitopathy have mild disease that requires no or minimal intervention. For the minority of patients with moderate or severe disease, multiple medical and surgical treatments may be required at different stages. It is crucial that such patients are monitored closely and treatments applied with care in the right sequence. Medical treatments should be used as early as possible and only during the active phase of the disease. Rehabilitative surgery is indicated in the inactive phase of the disease and should follow the sequence: surgical decompression followed by eye muscle surgery, followed by lid surgery. Delivery of care in a coordinated fashion that makes use of best available expertise is important and best implemented through a Combined Thyroid Eye clinic. PMID:22632367

  16. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., a full length parallel taxiway, runway lighting, navigational aids, runway safety areas (RSA... shift of the RSA Runway Object Free Area (ROFA), and Runway Protection Zone (RPZ), establishment of...

  17. Acute transverse myelitis and subacute thyroiditis associated with dengue viral infection: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Zhiming; Dong, Yaxian; Chen, Xiaolian; Yao, Huiyan; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. To the best of our knowledge, only 6 cases of acute transverse myelitis as a manifestation of dengue infection have been reported thus far. The present study described a case of acute transverse myelitis complicated with subacute thyroiditis 6 days after the onset of dengue viral infection. In addition, the available literature was searched to identify similar previous cases. Treatment with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone immunoglobulin plasmapheresis and physiotherapy resulted in partial recovery at 3 months post-infection. In conclusion, the involvement of dengue infection should be considered in patients who develop central nervous system manifestations during or after the recovery period of dengue infection. Furthermore, since methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin are effective during the active phase of the infection, prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are crucial. PMID:27703498

  18. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonio C.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Burman, Kenneth D.; Cappola, Anne R.; Celi, Francesco S.; Cooper, David S.; Kim, Brian W.; Peeters, Robin P.; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Sawka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Methods: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. Results: We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non–levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. Conclusions: We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine–liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile. PMID:25266247

  19. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bartalena, Luigi; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Eckstein, Anja; Kahaly, George J.; Marcocci, Claudio; Perros, Petros; Salvi, Mario; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Adamidou, Fotini; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Ayvaz, Goksun; Azzolini, Claudio; Boschi, Antonella; Bournaud, Claire; Clarke, Lucy; Currò, Nicola; Daumerie, Chantal; Dayan, Colin; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Konuk, Onur; Marinò, Michele; Morris, Daniel; Nardi, Marco; Pearce, Simon; Pitz, Susanne; Rudovsky, Gottfried; Vannucchi, Guia; Vardanian, Christine; von Arx, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27099835

  20. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Eckstein, Anja; Kahaly, George J; Marcocci, Claudio; Perros, Petros; Salvi, Mario; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2016-03-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27099835

  1. [Pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease - does autoimmunity against the TSH receptor explain all cases?].

    PubMed

    Wall, Jack R; Lahooti, Hooshang

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, or thyroid eye disease (TED), is a complex inflammatory disorder of the eye that, as its name implies, is usually associated with thyroid disease. Clinical observation supports the existence of three main TED subtypes, namely ocular myopathy, congestive myopathy, and mixed congestive and myopathic ophthalmopathy. Although the precise pathophysiology of TED remains unclear, it is likely to reflect an autoimmune reaction involving sensitised T lymphocytes and autoantibodies directed against a specific orbital or thyroid-and-orbital shared antigen(s). One well-studied candidate in this immune reaction is the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which is also expressed in the orbital fibroblast and preadipocyte. Most patients with ophthalmopathy have associated Graves' disease, 10% have Hashimoto's thyroiditis in which the eye changes are often mild and expressed mainly as upper eyelid retraction (UER), and 10% have no apparent associated thyroid disease - so-called "euthyroid Graves' disease". Ophthalmopathy can also occur in some patients with transient thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, and Graves' disease many years after treatment of the hyperthyroidism - situations where TSHR antibodies are not expected to be present, suggesting that the relationship between TSHR antibodies and the eye disorder has not been established for all cases. In our studies of TED we have investigated the nature and significance of antibodies targeting other eye muscle and orbital connective tissue (OCT) antigens, in particular the calcium binding protein calsequestrin (CASQ1) and the orbital fibroblast membrane antigen collagen XIII. Our working hypotheses for the pathogenesis of TED are: i) the initial reaction in the orbit is antibody and T lymphocyte targeting of the TSHR in the OCT compartment, and ii) the associated extra ocular and upper eyelid muscle inflammation reflects either autoimmunity against primary skeletal muscle antigens such as CASQ

  2. 75 FR 81437 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taos, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (75 FR 66345) Docket No. FAA-2010-0842. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  3. Trouble in Paradise: Self-Assessment and the Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I outline how and why I have established a self-assessment system for class participation scores in an English-speaking skills course at a Japanese university. I explain how my experience with one particular student, who personally admitted to having abused the system, led me to realize that elements from Yin and Yang have been…

  4. A Tao of Narrative: Dynamic Splicing of Teacher Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I explore a cross-cultural narrative inquiry method through a narrative inquiry about the process of reconstruction of five teacher stories. With dramatic, different cultural backgrounds, the five narrative inquirers -- four teacher-researchers and myself -- recovered and reconstructed our teacher stories by telling and living,…

  5. Tao Rising: Sexism and Feminist/Transpersonal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Llewlee L.

    This report presents a dialectical model of identity development which is based on observations of how the self evolves within the context of feminist/transpersonal therapy. Developmental stages which are identified include fusion (Stage I), differentiation (Stage II), and integration (Stage III) of the Child (asserting) and Parent (nurturing)…

  6. Action Learning Guided by Tao for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Sam Kong

    2006-01-01

    Information Technology brings about rapid changes in working environment, quickly rendering skills and knowledge gained in formal learning institutions obsolete. Even as they prepare students for their first career, institutions also need to equip students with skills necessary for lifelong learning. The Nanyang Technological University (NTU),…

  7. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal to...). The proposed projects include: Adding new lifts to serve terrain that is currently only accessible by hiking; replacing old lifts; creating new gladed terrain; improving traffic circulation throughout...

  8. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... proposed projects include: Adding new lifts to serve terrain that is currently only accessible by hiking; replacing old lifts; creating new gladed terrain; improving traffic circulation throughout the day parking... intermediate and expert terrain. 2. Access to heavily treed portions of the existing permit area. 3....

  9. 77 FR 36994 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Intent (75 FR 71414-71415, November 23, 2010) to prepare an environmental impact statement for a proposal... corrected notice of intent was published in the Federal Register on September 29, 2011 (76 FR 60451... (NOA) for the draft EIS in the Federal Register on January 13, 2012 (77 FR 2060). Revised Dates:...

  10. Clinical evaluation of Graves ophthalmopathy in north-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, M E; Abotoraby, R B; Kakhki, R D; Ghanavati, S Z; Layegh, P; Taghavi, M; Rajabian, M T

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of ophthalmic manifestations in all Graves disease patients (n = 68) presenting to endocrine clinics at Mashad University of Medical Sciences between December 2002 and September 2005. The mean age of patients was 38.0 (SD 14.0) years, range 15 to 71 years. The most common complaints were foreign body sensation (54.0%) and puffy eyelids (48.4%). The most common apparent abnormality was lid retraction in 64.2% of patients (bilateral in 95.3% of cases). The patients had a mean modified Werner's NO SPECS classification score of 3.00 (SD 1.46). The score was significantly higher in males than females [3.58 (SD 1.44) versus 2.63 (SD 1.35)] and was positively correlated with age.

  11. Localization of the human 64kD autoantigen D1 to myofibrils in a subset of extraocular muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fowler, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the tissue-specific expression pattern of the 64kD human autoantigen D1, a tropomodulin-related protein that may be involved in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. METHODS. Recombinant 64kD human autoantigen D1 was generated in a bacterial expression system and used to immunize rabbits. Specific antibodies were affinity-purified and used for Western blots on normal and hyperthyroid rat and rabbit tissue, and immunofluorescence localization on cryosections of rat tissue. RESULTS. Anti-64kD human autoantigen D1 antibodies recognize specifically a approximately 70kD polypeptide in western blots of extraocular muscle, sternothyroid muscle, and smooth muscle. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrates that the 64kD human autoantigen D1 localizes to myofibrils in slow fibers from rat extraocular and sternothyroid muscle. The level of this protein is not altered in extraocular muscles from hyperthyroid rabbits. CONCLUSIONS. The 64kD human autoantigen D1 is expressed in slow fibers of extraocular and sternothyroid muscles as a component of myofibrils, and is not upregulated in conditions of hyperthyroidism.

  12. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  13. Materials Data on TaO (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on Sm3TaO7 (SG:20) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-10-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Geologic map of the Ojo Caliente Quadrangle, Rio Arriba and Taos Counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1986-11-01

    The Ojo Caliente area forms part of the western limb of the Espanola basin within the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico (Manley, 1979; May, 1979). The geology consists of Miocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on, or are faulted against, Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks. The Miocene rocks dip gently to the southeast, except where the attitudes are controlled by faulting or by the underlying basement topography. The Precambrian and Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by Quaternary pediment and river gravels, loess, travertine, landslide debris, and alluvium. The Precambrian rocks are faulted into horsts in several areas by north - northeast - trending normal faults.

  16. Materials Data on Na3Ca2TaO6 (SG:70) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Li3TaO4 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Geologic map of the Sunshine 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens and is preserved as poorly exposed fault scarps that cut lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano, north of the map area. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in relatively young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as “certain” either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations.

  19. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease. PMID:26361258

  20. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease.

  1. Behaviour of telocytes during physiopathological activation.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Goméz, Miriam González; Sáez, Francisco J; Madrid, Juan F

    2016-07-01

    We consider CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (CD34+ SC/TCs) in normal and pathological conditions. These cells are involved in organisation and control of the extracellular matrix, structural support, creation of microenvironments, intercellular communication, neurotransmission, immunomodulation and immunosurveillance, inhibition of apoptosis, and control, regulation and source of other cell types. CD34+ SC/TCs are widely reported in the origin of interstitial cells of Cajal and in regeneration in the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, respiratory tree, liver, urinary system and the eye. In addition, we contribute CD34+ SC/TC hyperplasia associated with several processes, including neurogenous hyperplasia (neuroma of the appendix), hyperplasia of Leydig cells in undescended testes (Cryptorchidism), peripheral areas of inflammatory/repair processes (pericicatricial tissue and transitional zones between diseased segments in Crohn's disease and normal bowel), benign tumours (neurofibromas, Antoni-B zones of neurilemmomas, granular cell tumours, and melanocytic nevi) and in some lesions with myxoid, oedematous and degenerative changes (Reinke's oedema, myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and basophilic degenerative changes of the collagen in the dermis). We pay particular attention to the role of CD34+ SC/TCs during repair through granulation tissue, including morphologic changes, loss of CD34 expression and gain of αSMA expression with myofibroblast transformation, and interactions with pericytes, endothelial and inflammatory cells. Finally, we consider CD34 or αSMA expression in stromal cells of malignant epithelial tumours, and the role of CD34+ SC/TCs in the origin of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and myofibroblasts. In conclusion, CD34+ SC/TCs play an important role in the maintenance and modulation of tissue homeostasis and in morphogenesis/renewal/repair. PMID:26826526

  2. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  3. Tris(dimethylamino)oxosulfonium difluorotrimethylsilicate, (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) (TAOS Fluoride).

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jens; Behrens, Ulrich; Lork, Enno; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-Dieter; Mews, Rüdiger

    2002-09-01

    In the OSF(4)/Me(2)NSiMe(3) system besides the long known Me(2)NS(O)F(3) only the trisubstituted derivative is isolated as (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) (3). Similar to (Me(2)N)(3)S(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) compound 3 is an excellent fluoride ion donor. With AsF(5) and HF the corresponding hexafluoroarsenate (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)AsF(6)(-) (4) and the hydrogen bifluoride (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)HF(2)(-) (5) are formed in almost quantitative yield. X-ray structure determinations of 3-5 surprisingly showed two different types of structures for the cation. In 3 and 5 this cation has C(3) symmetry, while in the hexafluoroarsenate 4 a (Me(2)N)(3)S(+)-like structure with C(s)() symmetry is determined. The experimental results for (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+) and (Me(2)N)(3)S(+) are compared with theoretical calculations for these cations and their isoelectronic neutral counterparts, the phosphorus amides (Me(2)N)(3)PO and (Me(2)N)(3)P, respectively.

  4. Insights from SMPY's Greatest Former Child Prodigies: Drs. Terence ("Terry") Tao and Lenhard ("Lenny") Ng Reflect on Their Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Michelle C.; Stanley, Julian C.; Ng, Lenhard; Ng, Jack; Gross, Miraca U. M.; Tao, Terence; Tao, Billy

    2006-01-01

    If the academic needs of the most profoundly gifted students can be met through the use of existing educational practices, specialists in gifted education can assume that the educational needs of less able, but still academically talented, students can also be met by using some combination of these strategies as well. This paper illustrates the…

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Pecos Wilderness, Santa Fe, San Miguel, Mora, Rio Arriba, and Taos counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Lane, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This map is based on geologic and geochemical studies and mine and prospect investigations that were done principally in 1977 and 1979-80 (U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau of Mines, and New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, 1980; Lane, 1980; Moench and Robertson, 1980; Moench, Robertson, and Sutley, 1980; Moench and Erickson, 1980; Moench, Grambling, and Robertson, 1988; Moench, Sutley, and Erickson, 1988; Erickson, Sutley, and Moench, 1986). An aeromagnetic survey covering almost all of the Pecos Wilderness was flown in 1970. The resulting aeromagnetic map was published by Moench and others (1980) and interpreted in that report by Lindreth Cordell. Cordell found no correlation between magnetic features and geologic terraines having mineral resource potential.

  6. 77 FR 38375 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Taos Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    .... All comments on the FEIS are to be submitted to Mr. Dean McMath of the FAA, at the address shown in... COMMENTS: Dean McMath, ASW-613, Regional Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Aviation...

  7. Movement as a Metaphor: How Persistence, the Tao, and the Wisdom of the Ostrich Helped Build School Dance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Those who advocate for dance in education inevitably face many roadblocks, including ignorance of how dance can contribute to education, implementation of standardized performance assessments, lack of funding, entrenched issues of politics and power, and fear and discomfort about the body. It is dance teachers' responsibility to enlighten,…

  8. Corneal biomechanical changes and intraocular pressure in patients with thyroid orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pniakowska, Zofia; Klysik, Anna; Gos, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the relevance of the objective parameters addressing the altered biomechanical properties of cornea for glaucoma monitoring in patients with mild or moderate thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO), and in healthy individuals. METHODS Twenty-five patients with TAO (group 1) and 25 healthy adults (group 2) were included to the study. Both groups were of a similar age and the ratio women:man. For each patient, the following parameters of both eyes were measured with ocular response analyzer (ORA): corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc). In both groups participating in our study, all measurements were performed within minutes to reduce the diurnal effects. RESULTS The mean age in group 1 was 56±11y and 76% were women, 24% were men. The mean age in group 2 was 64±11y and 68% were women, 32% were men. CH correlated negatively with IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.10, P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was positive correlation between CRF and IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.12, P<0.05) and in group 2 (r2=0.31, P<0.0001). Statistical analysis revealed no significant correlation between CRF and IOPcc in group 1 (r2=0.009, P>0.05) and also no significant correlation in group 2 (r2=0.04, P>0.05). CRF mean value in group 2 (11.51±1.72 mm Hg) was higher than in group 1 (10.85±1.45 mm Hg) (P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was also strong correlation between CRF and CH in both populations: group 1: (r2=0.58, P<0.0001), group 2: (r2=0.41, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION Biomechanical parameters of cornea, as quantified by CH and CRF, and measured together with IOPcc, precisely reveal glaucoma staging in TAO and thus are reliable for diagnosing and follow-up in clinical practice. PMID:27158617

  9. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn occurred as a result of chemical precipitation of these metals from ground water upstream in the Red River. Comparisons of the geochemistry of the post-1979 sediment core with both mine wastes and with premining sediment from the vicinity of the Questa mine indicate that both are possible sources for this new component of sediment. Existing data have not resolved this enigma.

  10. The effect of local dipole moments on the structure and lattice dynamics of K0.98Li0.02TaO3

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, G; Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Boatner, Lynn A; Venturini, E. L.; Samara, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present high energy x-ray (67 keV) and neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal of K1−xLixTaO3 for which the Li content (x = 0.02) is less than xc = 0.022, the critical value below which no structural phase transitions have been reported in zero field. While the crystal lattice does remain cubic down to T = 10K under both zero-field and field-cooled (E 4 kV/cm) conditions, indications of crystal symmetry lowering are seen at TC = 63K where the Bragg peak intensity changes significantly. A strong and frequencydependent dielectric permittivity is observed at ambient pressure, a defining characteristic of relaxors. However an extensive search for static polar nanoregions, which is also widely associated with relaxor materials, detected no evidence of elastic neutron diffuse scattering between 300 K and 10 K. Neutron inelastic scattering methods were used to characterize the transverse acoustic and optic phonons (TA1 and TO1 modes) near the (200) and (002) Bragg peaks. The zone center TO1 mode softens monotonically with cooling but never reaches zero energy in either zero field or in external electric fields of up to 4 kV/cm. These results are consistent with the behavior expected for a dipolar glass in which the local polar moments are frozen and exhibit no long-range order at low temperatures.

  11. Digital data from the Questa-San Luis and Santa Fe East helicopter magnetic surveys in Santa Fe and Taos Counties, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; ,

    2006-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in December, 2005. One survey covers the eastern edge of the San Luis basin, including the towns of Questa, New Mexico and San Luis, Colorado. A second survey covers the mountain front east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, including the town of Chimayo and portions of the Pueblos of Tesuque and Nambe. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  12. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001]C. In addition, material constants of [001]C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4 mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ∼20%. PMID:25489119

  13. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-11-24

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001] C . In addition, material constants of [001] C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4 mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ∼20%.

  14. Complete set of material constants of single domain (K, Na)(Nb, Ta)O3 single crystal and their orientation dependence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Limei; Li, Shiyang; Sang, Shijing; Wang, Junjun; Huo, Xiaoqing; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-11-24

    A self-consistent complete set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for single domain Ta modified (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) crystal was determined. This full set constant for single domain KNN-based crystals allowed the prediction of orientation dependence of the longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic coefficients, and electromechanical coupling factors. The maximum piezoelectric and electromechanical properties were found to exist near [001] C . In addition, material constants of [001] C poled domain engineered single crystal with 4 mm symmetry were experimentally measured and compared with the calculated values. Based on this, extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectricity was estimated to be ∼20%. PMID:25489119

  15. [Role of TSH receptor autoantibodies for the diagnosis of Graves' disease and for the prediction of the course of hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy. Recommendations of the Thyroid Section of the German Society of Endocrinology].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Anja; Mann, Klaus; Kahaly, George J; Grussendorf, Martin; Reiners, Christoph; Feldkamp, Joachim; Quadbeck, Beate; Bockisch, Andreas; Schott, Matthias

    2009-05-15

    Graves' disease (GD) is the only autoimmune disease where autoantibodies stimulate the target organs. Among the most common clinical manifestations are hyperthyroidism and orbitopathy (GO). To ensure the diagnosis of autoimmune hyperthyroidism, activity of TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) should be determined. Because of their significantly improved sensitivity and equal specificity, second-generation TRAb assays (activity given in IU/l) should be preferred over first-generation assays (activity given in U/l). During follow-up of antithyroid drug therapy it is possible to predict outcome for some patients with high chances if TRAb levels are high. On this basis, thyreoablative treatment (operation or radioiodine) can already be indicated before the 1st year of antithyroid drug treatment has passed. If TRAb antibody titers are > 10 IU/l, it is possible to predict outcome as early as 6 months after initiation of antithyroid drug therapy. Below a certain threshold, depending on the time point of measurement, no representative risk analyses are available for TRAbs. TRAb measurement is also helpful to determine the course of GO. This may guide the physician through crucial treatment decisions, especially if the patient is at risk of deterioration.

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August 1936 VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CAMPO SANTO WALL (RESTORED) - Chapel of Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, Garden of Irving Couse, Taos, Taos County, NM

  17. 18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  18. 14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  19. 16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  20. 15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  1. 17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

  2. Taoism and Its Implications for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Hsiao-Peng; Chang, Chun-Yen; MacRaven, Maggie Maeve

    As one of the major schools of thought in ancient China, Taoism centers on the concept of "Tao", the Way, which has two distinct characteristics: (1) Tao itself can be deemed as a final "reality" that is equivalent to the ontology of the Universe; and (2) Tao itself cannot be defined directly by human language. Taoism posits a holistically…

  3. Who Goes There? Linking Remote Cameras and Schoolyard Science to Empower Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn; Ernst, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Taking Action Opportunities (TAO) is a curriculum that combines guided reflection, a focus on the local environment, and innovative use of wildlife technology to empower student action toward improving the environment. TAO is experientially based and uses remote cameras as a tool for schoolyard exploration. Through TAO, students engage in research…

  4. A-SITE-AND/OR B-SITE-MODIFIED PBZRTIO3 MATERIALS AND (PB, SR, CA, BA, MG) (ZR, TI,NB, TA)O3 FILMS HAVING UTILITY IN FERROELECTRIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES AND HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN FILM MICROACTUATORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  5. Precursor effects and ferroelectric macroregions in KTa sub 1 minus x Nb sub x O sub 3 and K sub 1 minus y Li sub y TaO sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Toulouse, J.; DiAntonio, P.; Vugmeister, B.E.; Wang, X.M.; Knauss, L.A. )

    1992-01-13

    In the present paper, dielectric, polarization, and Raman results have been combined to identify the existence of a ferroelectric phase transition in the substitutionally disordered dipolar system, KTa{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Nb{sub {ital x}}O{sub 3}, for low Nb concentrations ({ital x}=1.2%). A detailed study of the first-order TO{sub 2} and TO{sub 3} Raman lines reveals (1) the existence of polar microregions well above {ital T}{sub {ital c}} and (2) the structural transition at {ital T}{sub {ital c}} with the appearance of ferroelectric macroregions. Similar results are obtained in K{sub 1{minus}{ital y}}Li{sub {ital y}}TaO{sub 3} with a quantitative difference due to the slow reorientation of Li. These results can be explained by a random-field model which predicts the coexistence of both dipolar glass and ferroelectric behavior.

  6. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  8. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water was sampled periodically from 2001 to 2004 at the down stream end of surface drainage near the point at which it disappeared into the debris fan. This water has a minimal range in pH (2.7 to 3.2) but a substantial concentration range in many solutes; for example, sulfate concentrations varied from 525 to 2,660 mg/L. Many elements covary with sulfate suggesting that dilution is the primary control of the range in solute concentrations. A transect of water samples higher in the scar area were collected in October of 2003. They had a lower range in pH (2.44 to 3.05) and higher solute concentrations than those collected periodically from lower in the catchment. Water isotopes for the upper transect samples indicated slight evaporation, and in part, may account for the higher solute concentrations. Drainage waters also were collected from Hottentot, Junebug, Hansen, Little Hansen, and Goat Hill Gulch drainages. Most constituents from other scar drainage waters showed ranges of concentration similar to those of the Straight Creek waters. An exception was water collected from Goat Hill Gulch, which has some of the highest concentrations of any surface-water sample collected but also contained waste-rock leachates.

  9. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake-sediment chemistry; geomorphology and its effect on ground-water flow; geophysical studies on depth to ground-water table and depth to bedrock; bedrock fractures and their potential influence on ground-water flow; leaching studies of scars and waste-rock piles; mineralogy and mineral chemistry and their effect on ground-water quality; debris-flow hazards; hydrology and water balance for the Red River Valley; ground-water geochemistry of selected wells undisturbed by mining in the Red River Valley; and quality assurance and quality control of water analyses. Studies aimed specifically at the Straight Creek natural-analog site include electrical surveys; high-resolution seismic survey; age-dating with tritium/helium; water budget; ground-water hydrology and geochemistry; and comparison of mineralogy and lithology to that of the mine site. The highly mineralized and hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks of the Red River Valley contain several percent pyrite in the quartz-sericite-pyrite (QSP) alteration zone, which weather naturally to acid-sulfate surface and ground waters that discharge to the Red River. Weathering of waste-rock piles containing pyrite also contributes acid water that eventually discharges into the Red River. These acid discharges are neutralized by circumneutral-pH, carbonate-buffered surface and ground waters of the Red River. The buffering capacity of the Red River, however, decreases from the town of Red River to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station near Questa. During short, but intense, storm events, the buffering capacity is exceeded and the river becomes acid from the rapid flushing of acidic materials from natural scar areas. The lithology, mineralogy, elevation, and hydrology of the Straight Creek proximal analog site were found to closely approximate those of the mine site with the exception of the mine site?s Sulphur Gulch catchment. Sulphur Gulch contains three subcatchments?upper Sulphur Gulch, Blind Gulch, and Spring Gulc

  10. Interaction of Ta-O and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ta/Pd (0-2.4 nm)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta structured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C. Y.; Fu, H. R.; Zhang, X.; Tian, N.; Wang, P. W.

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was realized by inserting Pd layer into the stack of Ta/Pd (0-2.4 nm)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta. The realization of PMA is accompanied by the (Co, Fe)-O reduction at Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO interface under annealing. Without inserting Pd layer, the annealed Ta/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Ta film presents an in-plane magnetization. Through X-ray photoelectron spectrometry analyzes, it was found that the oxygen was enriched at the interface of Ta/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5. This work clarifies that the inserted Pd layer effectively blocks the diffusion of interfacial oxygen to Ta layer, achieving the beneficial redox reaction at Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO interface to realize PMA.

  11. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  12. Optic Neuropathy in Thyroid Eye Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Wong Hon; Isa, Hazlita Dato' Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In patients with thyroid disease, ocular involvement or thyroid ophthalmopathy is common, irrespective of their thyroid status. A common feature of thyroid eye disease is eyelid retraction, which leads to a classical starry gaze (Kocher sign). Treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) is a known therapy for hyperthyroidism. However, this treatment may lead to or worsen thyroid ophthalmopathy. We report a case series of two patients with thyrotoxicosis, who presented with an atypical and subtle occurrence of thyroid eye disease (TED) soon after RAI therapy. One of the patients was initially diagnosed and treated for dry eyes; however, over a period of time, the patient's vision progressively deteriorated. Clinical and radiological investigations confirmed thyroid ophthalmopathy with low serum thyroid hormone levels. Both patients recovered well after immediate intensive intravenous steroid treatment. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing partial ptosis as one of the presenting signs of active TED among general practitioners and physicians. PMID:27274392

  13. Activation of cytokines corroborate with development of inflammation and autoimmunity in thromboangiitis obliterans patients

    PubMed Central

    Dellalibera-Joviliano, R; Joviliano, E E; Silva, J S; Evora, P R B

    2012-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is a segmental inflammatory occlusive disorder that affects the arm and leg arteries of young smokers. The immune system seems to play a critical role in the aetiology of TAO; however, knowledge of the aspects involved in the progression of vascular tissue inflammation and, consequently, the evolution of this disease is still limited. This study was carried out to investigate the cytokine levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-23 in the plasma of TAO patients presenting with acute clinical manifestations. The study included 20 TAO patients (n = 10 women; n = 10 men) aged 38–59 years under clinical follow-up, classified into two groups: (i) TAO former smokers (n = 11) and (ii) TAO active smokers (n = 9); the control groups included normal volunteer non-smokers (n = 10, active smokers (n = 10) and former smokers (n = 10). Patients' plasma samples were measured using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test, with parameters significant at P < 0·05. The activities of all cytokines were different in groups of TAO patients when compared with normal controls, and decreased for control smokers. Increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-23 were significant in patients with TAO when compared to the controls (P < 0·005, all parameters). The results presented here indicate an increased production of cytokines in TAO, possibly contributing to the inflammatory response observed in the patients' vascular levels. In addition, the increased levels of IL-17 and IL-23 suggest that the disturbance of TAO is involved with mechanisms of autoimmunity. Thus, the discovery of IL-17 and its association with inflammation and autoimmune pathology has reshaped our viewpoint regarding the pathogenesis of TAO, which was based previously on the T helper type 1 (Th1)–Th2 paradigm. PMID:22943198

  14. Michael Naranjo, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary Carroll

    Michael Naranjo is a Pueblo Indian who, after much searching, has become a talented sculptor. The son of a Baptist minister, Michael grew up observing nature and exploring the countryside around Santa Clara (New Mexico), his birthplace. When he was nine, his family moved to Taos, where he watched the ceremonies of the Taos Pueblos with…

  15. TOOLKIT FOR ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION

    2000-10-13

    The TAO project focuses on the development of software for large scale optimization problems. TAO uses an object-oriented design to create a flexible toolkit with strong emphasis on the reuse of external tools where appropriate. Our design enables bi-directional connection to lower level linear algebra support (for example, parallel sparse matrix data structures) as well as higher level application frameworks. The Toolkist for Advanced Optimization (TAO) is aimed at teh solution of large-scale optimization problemsmore » on high-performance architectures. Our main goals are portability, performance, scalable parallelism, and an interface independent of the architecture. TAO is suitable for both single-processor and massively-parallel architectures. The current version of TAO has algorithms for unconstrained and bound-constrained optimization.« less

  16. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, L

    1996-09-15

    Antithyroid drugs induce sustained remission in only 55% of cases. Radioiodine, the overwhelming choice of specialists, may pose risks, including aggravation of ophthalmopathy. Surgical ablation should be considered only if a highly skilled surgeon is available. Thyroid storm requires aggressive management, and definitive treatment is needed for toxic adenoma or toxic multinodular goiter.

  17. Exophthalmos: A Forgotten Clinical Sign of Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giugni, Aldo Schenone; Mani, Shylaja; Kannan, Subramanian; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2013-01-01

    Exophthalmos is typically associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Although originally described by Harvey Cushing, exophthalmos is an underappreciated sign of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case of a 38-year-old female who presented with severe bilateral proptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with Cushings disease. We discuss the possible mechanisms causing exophthalmos in patients with either endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolemia. PMID:23555062

  18. Analysis of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles in Graves' disease by oligonucleotide probing of enzymatically amplified DNA.

    PubMed

    Weetman, A P; Zhang, L; Webb, S; Shine, B

    1990-07-01

    We have tested the possible association of HLA-DQB and HLA-DPB alleles with Graves' thyrotoxicosis, with or without severe ophthalmopathy, by polymerase chain amplification of genomic DNA and allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. There was no significantly abnormal distribution of DQB alleles compared to 50 control subjects except for a reduced prevalence of DQw 3.1 in the Graves' patients with severe ophthalmopathy (X2 = 6.23, P less than 0.02). HLA-DPB 2.1/8 was found in only 1 of 40 of these patients compared with 15 of the controls (X2 = 11.49, P less than 0.001). Ten of 48 patients with Graves' disease but without clinically significant eye involvement were HLA-DPB 2.1/8 positive, not significantly different from controls, but significantly different from the ophthalmopathy group (X2 = 6.70, P less than 0.01). The other DPB alleles in both groups of Graves' disease patients were the same as controls. These results suggest that HLA-DPB 2.1/8 may confer a protective effect in Graves' disease with respect to ophthalmopathy. PMID:2401099

  19. Exophthalmos: A Forgotten Clinical Sign of Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giugni, Aldo Schenone; Mani, Shylaja; Kannan, Subramanian; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2013-01-01

    Exophthalmos is typically associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Although originally described by Harvey Cushing, exophthalmos is an underappreciated sign of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case of a 38-year-old female who presented with severe bilateral proptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with Cushings disease. We discuss the possible mechanisms causing exophthalmos in patients with either endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolemia.

  20. Exophthalmos: A Forgotten Clinical Sign of Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Aldo Schenone; Mani, Shylaja; Kannan, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Exophthalmos is typically associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Although originally described by Harvey Cushing, exophthalmos is an underappreciated sign of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case of a 38-year-old female who presented with severe bilateral proptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with Cushings disease. We discuss the possible mechanisms causing exophthalmos in patients with either endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolemia. PMID:23555062

  1. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  2. A-site- and/or B-site-modified PbZrTiO3 materials and (Pb, Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg) (Zr, Ti, Nb, Ta)O3 films having utility in ferroelectric random access memories and high performance thin film microactuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, Jeffrey F. (Inventor); Chen, Ing-Shin (Inventor); Bilodeau, Steven (Inventor); Baum, Thomas H. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modified PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material thin film, wherein the PbZrTiO.sub.3 perovskite crystal material includes crystal lattice A-sites and B-sites at least one of which is modified by the presence of a substituent selected from the group consisting of (i) A-site substituents consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba and Mg, and (ii) B-site substituents selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta. The perovskite crystal thin film material may be formed by liquid delivery MOCVD from metalorganic precursors of the metal components of the thin film, to form PZT and PSZT, and other piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin film materials. The thin films of the invention have utility in non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices (NV-FeRAMs), and in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as sensor and/or actuator elements, e.g., high speed digital system actuators requiring low input power levels.

  3. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. PMID:26355261

  4. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies.

  5. 78 FR 55075 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...- 20130724AGJ, From TAOS PUEBLO, NM, To SPRINGER, NM; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station WKRH, Facility ID 56996, BPH-20130708ABZ, From MINETTO, NY, To FAIR HAVEN, NY; GALAXY SYRACUSE LICENSEE LLC, Station...

  6. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; California; and Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada October 31 June 30. All Colorado counties except Kit Carson...; all Nevada counties except Clark and Nye Counties; Taos County, New Mexico; and all other...

  7. 77 FR 37941 - Order Granting a Limited Exemption From Exchange Act Rule 10b-17 to Certain Actively Managed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... 9192 (Jun. 7, 1971); 36 FR 11513 (Jun. 15, 1971). \\4\\ See id. \\5\\ Id. We find that it is appropriate in.... Tao, Assistant Director to Jack P. Drogin, Schiff Hardin regarding WisdomTree Emerging...

  8. [Perioperative treatment for the urgent orbital decompression surgery in a 30-weeks pregnant woman with Graves' orbitopathy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; López-Herrera-Rodríguez, D; Domínguez-Blanco, A; Medina-de Moya, I; Sánchez-Carrillo, F

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a rare extra-thyroid complication usually associated with Graves' disease. This disease can occur in the euthyroid pregnant patient. Graves' orbitopathy is characterized by eyelid retraction, proptosis, extraocular muscle dysfunction, and periorbital edema. In some cases an emergency surgical repair may be required to avoid irreversible vision loss. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman in her 30th gestational week, who suffered from Graves' ophthalmopathy, severe exophthalmia, and visual acuity decrease. Following consultations among anesthesiologists, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, endocrinologists, obstetricians and the patient, it was decided to perform a surgical orbital wall decompression. The anesthetic and perioperative implications associated with gestational age and the considerations for this surgical procedure, and how to avoid increasing intraocular pressure are discussed. PMID:23835254

  9. Radiotherapy in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy—to do it or not?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To the objective of this study is to evaluate the role and toxicity of radiotherapy in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy. In the years 2000–2003, 121 patients with malignant exophthalmos were treated with radiotherapy of the retrobulbar area to the total dose of 20 Gy in ten fractions with a 6 MeV photon beam. The treatment was performed by the team of the Clinic of Oncology of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Cracow. The radiotherapy was preceded by intravenous steroid therapy: methylprednisolone acetate administered at the dose of 2 g/week for four consecutive weeks. The highest efficacy, expressed as improvement of all ocular symptoms, was observed for the combined treatment. Female and non-diabetic patients responded positively to the combined treatment. Radiotherapy combined with steroid therapy in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy seems to be an effective treatment for strictly defined indications. In the treatment of Graves–Basedow disease, radiotherapy is a well-tolerated treatment modality. Diabetes is a factor that worsens prognosis in Graves ophthalmopathy and female sex is a favourable factor for this condition. PMID:20835395

  10. Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alexandria, VA 22314–2857 Phone: 703–836–4444 Internet: www. entnet. org American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ... Phone: 904–353–7878 Fax: 904–353–8185 Internet: www. aace. com American Thyroid Association 6066 Leesburg ...

  11. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alexandria, VA 22314–2857 Phone: 703–836–4444 Internet: www.entnet.org American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ... Phone: 904–353–7878 Fax: 904–353–8185 Internet: www.aace.com American Thyroid Association 6066 Leesburg ...

  12. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  13. In situ biodegradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands tailings pond water using indigenous algae-bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Hamed; Prasad, Vinay; Liu, Yang; Ulrich, Ania C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biodegradation of total acid-extractable organics (TAOs), commonly called naphthenic acids (NAs), was investigated. An indigenous microbial culture containing algae and bacteria was taken from the surface of a tailings pond and incubated over the course of 120days. The influence of light, oxygen and the presence of indigenous algae and bacteria, and a diatom (Navicula pelliculosa) on the TAO removal rate were elucidated. The highest biodegradation rate was observed with bacteria growth only (without light exposure) with a half-life (t(1/2)) of 203days. The algae-bacteria consortium enhanced the detoxification process, however, bacterial biomass played the main role in toxicity reduction. Principal component analysis (PCA) conducted on FT-IR spectra, identified functional groups and bonds (representing potential markers for biotransformation of TAOs) as follows: hydroxyl, carboxyl and amide groups along with CH, arylH, arylOH and NH bonds.

  14. Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Houtz, Erika F; Yi, Shan; Field, Jennifer A; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate. PMID:26042823

  15. Isolation of a Gene Responsible for the Oxidation of trans-Anethole to para-Anisaldehyde by Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 and Its Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfei; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A plasmid, pTA163, in Escherichia coli contained an approximately 34-kb gene fragment from Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 that included the genes responsible for the metabolism of trans-anethole to protocatechuic acid. Three Tn5-disrupted open reading frame 10 (ORF 10) mutants of plasmid pTA163 lost their abilities to catalyze trans-anethole. Heterologously expressed ORF 10 (1,047 nucleotides [nt]) under a T7 promoter in E. coli catalyzed oxidative cleavage of a propenyl group of trans-anethole to an aldehyde group, resulting in the production of para-anisaldehyde, and this gene was designated tao (trans-anethole oxygenase). The deduced amino acid sequence of TAO had the highest identity (34%) to a hypothetical protein of Agrobacterium vitis S4 and likely contained a flavin-binding site. Preferred incorporation of an oxygen molecule from water into p-anisaldehyde using 18O-labeling experiments indicated stereo preference of TAO for hydrolysis of the epoxide group. Interestingly, unlike the narrow substrate range of isoeugenol monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida IE27 and Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1, TAO from P. putida JYR-1 catalyzed isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole, all of which contain the 2-propenyl functional group on the aromatic ring structure. Addition of NAD(P)H to the ultrafiltered cell extracts of E. coli (pTA163) increased the activity of TAO. Due to the relaxed substrate range of TAO, it may be utilized for the production of various fragrance compounds from plant phenylpropanoids in the future. PMID:22610435

  16. Simultaneous two-color, two-dimensional angular optical scattering patterns from airborne particulates: Scattering results and exploratory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Stephen; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.; Skelsey, Charles R.

    2016-07-01

    Light scattering from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibits complex structure that is revealed only when observed in two angular dimensions (θ, ϕ). However, due to variations in shape, packing, and orientation of such aerosols, the structure of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns varies among particles. The spectral dependence of scattering contributes further to the observed complexity, but offers another facet to consider. By leveraging multispectral TAOS data from flowing aerosols, we have identified novel morphological descriptors that may be employed in multivariate statistical algorithms for "unknown" particle classification.

  17. [Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].

    PubMed

    Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology.

  18. Structural and electronic investigations of PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 constructed from α-U3O8 types of layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul A.

    2015-09-01

    The PbTa4O11 and BiTa7O19 phases were prepared by ion-exchange and solid-state methods, respectively, and their structures were characterized by neutron time-of-flight diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods (PbTa4O11, R 3 (No. 146), a=6.23700(2) Å, c=36.8613(1) Å; BiTa7O19, P 6 bar c 2 (No. 188), a=6.2197(2) Å, c=20.02981(9) Å). Their structures are comprised of layers of TaO6 octahedra surrounded by three 7-coordinate Pb(II) cations or two 8-coordinate Bi(III) cations. These layers alternate down the c-axis with α-U3O8 types of single and double TaO7 pentagonal bipyramid layers. In contrast to earlier studies, both phases are found to crystallize in noncentrosymmetric structures. Symmetry-lowering structural distortions within PbTa4O11, i.e. R 3 bar c →R3, are found to be a result of the displacement of the Ta atoms within the TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra, towards the apical and facial oxygen atoms, respectively. In BiTa7O19, relatively lower reaction temperatures leads to an ordering of the Bi/Ta cations within a lower-symmetry structure, i.e., P63/mcm→ P 6 bar c 2 . In the absence of Bi/Ta site disorder, the Ta-O-Ta bond angles decrease and the Ta-O bond distances increase within the TaO7 double layers. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal two particle morphologies for PbTa4O11, hexagonal rods and finer irregularly-shaped particles, while BiTa7O19 forms as aggregates of irregularly-shaped particles. Electronic-structure calculations confirm the highest-energy valence band states are comprised of O 2p-orbitals and the respective Pb 6s-orbital and Bi 6s-orbital contributions. The lowest-energy conduction band states are composed of Ta 5d-orbital contributions that are delocalized over the TaO6 octahedra and layers of TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The symmetry-lowering distortions in the PbTa4O11 structure, and the resulting effects on its electronic structure, lead to its relatively higher photocatalytic activity compared to similar structures without

  19. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease).

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, Peter F; Richter, Jutta G

    2014-09-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting small and medium sized arteries and veins. It is characterized by segmental thrombotic occlusions by highly mononuclear cellular thrombi. Its occurrence and re-occurrence is closely related to tobacco use. Immunohistological examinations and the detections of various autoantibodies led to the new paradigm of an immunopathogenesis of TAO. Clinically it is characterized by distal ischemia syndromes in young people and high amputation rates. This article summarizes the disease characteristics, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and focuses on new therapeutic options, i.e. stem cell derived therapies, immunoadsorption, and the endothelin-receptor-blocking agent bosentan.

  20. Recurrent oculomotor neuritis related to autoimmune hypothyroidism. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Yeon; Rhee, Hak Young; Shin, Hae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmopathy related to thyroid disease is due mainly to diffuse periorbital or eye muscle inflammation. It is more common in Grave's hyperthyroidism and rare in Hashimoto's hypothyroidism. Here we report a case of recurrent oculomotor nerve palsy associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. Brain MRI revealed enhancement of the oculomotor nerves. Despite thyroid hormone replacement therapy, oculomotor nerve palsy recurred at the side contralateral to the initially involved nerve and the autoimmune antibody titer remained high. The symptom was responsive to high-dose steroid therapy. PMID:26454483

  1. Evidence-Based Workflows for Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Charles; Budayr, Amer; Chavez, Annette; Dlott, Richard; Greif, William; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak; Klonecke, Andrew; Lando, Matthew; Leary, Joyce; Nayak, Sundeep; Niederkohr, Ryan; Park, Judith; Savitz, Alison; Schwartz, Henry

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to reduce care variations by standardizing the practice of thyroid and parathyroid surgery. During the course of a year, a task force developed algorithms representing decision points and workflows based on American Thyroid Association guidelines and three internal studies of surgical practices in the Northern and Southern California Regions of Kaiser Permanente conducted in collaboration with Health Information Technology Transformation & Analytics (HITTA). PMID:27479948

  2. Evidence-Based Workflows for Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Charles; Budayr, Amer; Chavez, Annette; Dlott, Richard; Greif, William; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak; Klonecke, Andrew; Lando, Matthew; Leary, Joyce; Nayak, Sundeep; Niederkohr, Ryan; Park, Judith; Savitz, Alison; Schwartz, Henry

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to reduce care variations by standardizing the practice of thyroid and parathyroid surgery. During the course of a year, a task force developed algorithms representing decision points and workflows based on American Thyroid Association guidelines and three internal studies of surgical practices in the Northern and Southern California Regions of Kaiser Permanente conducted in collaboration with Health Information Technology Transformation & Analytics (HITTA). PMID:27479948

  3. Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors in a Dynamic Model of Relapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Relapse Prevention Needs More Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors" by Stanton which is a comment on the original article "Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao" by Katie Witkiewitz and G. Alan Marlatt. In the current comment the authors of the original article respond to…

  4. Relapse Prevention Needs More Emphasis on Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao," by Katie Witkiewitz and G.A. Marlatt. Stanton notes that the recent reconceptualization of relapse prevention by Witkiewitz and Marlatt enhances the model by "synthesizing recent empirical findings into a unified theory", but it does…

  5. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

  6. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  7. Single crystalline tantalum oxychloride microcubes: controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hao; Xu, Leilei; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-08-11

    Single crystalline microcubes of a new tantalum compound, tantalum oxychloride (TaO2.18Cl0.64), have been fabricated hydrothermally in a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. They contain a superstructure and exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production due to the improved light harvest and facilitated charge transport.

  8. THE TAIWANESE-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. II. DETECTION OF 15 VARIABLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lin, H.-C.; Alcock, C.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data-covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days-are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17{sup h}30{sup m}6.{sup s}7, decl. = 27{sup 0}17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg{sup 2} field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  9. To Help My People: The Evolution of a Paraprofessional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Carlos

    Half Pueblo and half white, a young man grew up in the Taos Pueblo, made contributions to his Indian people, and decided to work as a mental health professional. Having grown up learning the Indian ways, the young man accepted his heritage and pursued a college education in Social Work after working as a teacher's aide at the Pueblo Day School,…

  10. Remarkable charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device with (TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1} composite charge-storage dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, K.; Ou, X.; Cao, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Lu, W.; Xu, B.; Li, A. D.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J. Liu, Z. G.; Lan, X. X.; Gong, C. J.

    2014-06-30

    A memory device p-Si/SiO{sub 2}/(TiO{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.1}(TAO-81)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt was fabricated, in which a composite of two high-k dielectrics with a thickness of 1 nm was employed as the charge-trapping layer to enhance the charge-trapping efficiency of the memory device. At an applied gate voltage of ±9 V, TAO-81 memory device shows a memory window of 8.83 V in its C-V curve. It also shows a fast response to a short voltage pulse of 10{sup −5} s. The charge-trapping capability, the endurance, and retention characteristics of TAO-81 memory device can be improved by introducing double TAO-81 charge-trapping layers intercalated by an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The charge-trapping mechanism in the memory device is mainly ascribed to the generation of the electron-occupied defect level in the band gap of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced by the inter-diffusion between TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  11. Harbor in the Storm: Institutional Research in the Age of Accountability. NEAIR 36th Annual Conference Proceedings (Baltimore, Maryland, November 7-10, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The NEAIR 2009 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Baltimore, Maryland conference. Papers in this document include: (1) A Principle Components Analysis of The Determinants of Student Satisfaction at a Historically Black Institution (Tao Gong and Jacqueline V. Parham); (2) Assessing and Enhancing Graduates'…

  12. Curing the Medical Manpower Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1973-01-01

    The OEO-funded Sangre de Cristo Comprehensive Health System in Costilla and Conejos Counties, Colorado, and northern Taos County, New Mexico, utilizes medical practitioners who are certified to practice a variety of medical techniques under the supervision of licensed physicians. (JM)

  13. We Shared the Same Chapter: Collaboration, Learning, and Transformation from the 2008 Subsistence, the Environment, and Community Well-Being Native Youth Exchange in Old Harbor, Alaska Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Laurie; Di Piero, Daniela; Espinoza, Flowers; Simeonoff, Teacon; Faraday, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    On a small island belonging to the Alutiiq people of Old Harbor, 11 people sat around a campfire. Two community leaders, a nonprofit organizer, an academic scholar, a native filmmaker, and six young people from the Indian reservation of Taos Pueblo in New Mexico gathered after a day of interacting with Old Harbor residents--fishing, hunting and…

  14. 76 FR 70120 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Taos Highway 68, San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico 87566. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice...

  15. 78 FR 49739 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  16. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.…

  17. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Notice of Inventory Completion in the Federal Register (66 FR 10906-10909, Tuesday, February 20, 2001... Register (76 FR 58037-58038, Monday, September 19, 2011). At an unknown date prior to 2002, human remains... Taos, New Mexico; and the Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. For one case, identified as Office of...

  18. Management of thromboangiitis obliterans using distraction osteogenesis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sunil; Kulkarni, GS; Shyam, Ashok K; Kulkarni, Milind; Kulkarni, Ruta; Kulkarni, Vidisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by thrombosis in medium-sized arteries and veins along with a marked inflammatory response. TAO can be managed by using the principle of distraction osteogenesis to induce neoangiogenesis. We report thirty patients of TAO in the age-group of 20–50 years were treated with the Ilizarov method. Materials and Methods: Patients with severe rest pain (n=30), absent distal pulsation (n=30) and ulcer (n=6) and/or gangrene of the toes (n=4), who had failed the conservative pharmacological modalities of treatment were included. A lateral tibial corticotomy was performed and distraction applied by use of olive wire. A two-ring frame was used for all cases. Results: Of the 30 cases, 25 patients became pain free while 1 had partial relief of pain. The four patients worsened on treatment and developed frank infection were amputed. The average distraction was 1.8±0.3 mm (range: 1.5–2.2 cm). The mean consolidation period was 98±11 days, after which the fixator was removed. The total duration of treatment was 122±23 days. There were two cases of osteomyelitis in our series; both healed after debridement and both patients had good result, with relief of pain. The ulcers started healing by 4–6 weeks. Conclusion: The principle of the distraction osteogenesis including neoangiogenesis can be used for treatment of TAO and has an acceptable complication rate. PMID:21886930

  19. Cultural Issues of School Dropouts in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yuk King; Tsang, Bill Y. P.; Kwok, Diana K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the 150 years of British colonial governance in Hong Kong, Chinese collectivist culture continues to be a dominant source of influence in the learning context of students (Cheng, 1998; Salili, Lai and Leung, 2004; Tao and Hong, 2000), placing a great emphasis on education and effort (Salili and Lai, 2003). Education is viewed as the…

  20. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The…

  1. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two…

  2. Killing Mosquitoes and Keeping Practice: Teacher Education as Sustaining Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, David Lee

    2013-01-01

    The moral and ethical charge of teaching and teacher education includes sustaining equanimity and paradox, and maintaining poise amongst contradicting policies and interests. This paper draws upon the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching to address some paradoxes in education and teacher preparation. Specifically, the article looks at four chapters of the…

  3. An Inventory of Natural, Human, and Social Overhead Capital Resources in North-Central New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey; Eastman, Clyde

    Concerned with the north-central area of New Mexico (Rio Arriba, Taos, Colfax, Mora, Santa Fe, and San Miguel counties), this inventory describes the situation and delineation of the region, the natural resources (physical characteristics, land, land-ownership patterns, land-use patterns, land-title problems, water resources, and minerals); human…

  4. The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on The Moon Beyond 2002: Next Steps in Lunar Science and Exploration, September 12-14, 2002, in Taos, New Mexico. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  5. The Role of Discursive Resources in Science Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper addresses a debate between two hypotheses of children's development of conceptual understandings of the Earth. The authors aim to investigate whether culture influences students' conceptions of the Earth. However, one questionable assumption shared among conception and conceptual change studies is that researchers…

  6. 75 FR 53280 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  7. 75 FR 2889 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 28, 1996 (61 FR 33774... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 12, 2008 (73 FR 75772). Patricia A. Brink... REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Lenovo, Quarry Bay, HONG KONG- CHINA; and Quanta Computer Inc., Tao Yuan Shien,...

  8. 78 FR 42976 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... 28, 1996 (61 FR 33774). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 15, 2009. A... FR 2889). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11.... Also, Foxconn, Taipei Hsien, TAIWAN; and Quanta Computer, Tao Yuan Shine, TAIWAN, have withdrawn...

  9. 78 FR 5480 - Draft Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances and Draft Environmental Assessment; Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 27900), indicating that listing of the Rio Grande cutthroat trout was warranted but... Environmental Assessment; Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout, New Mexico and Colorado AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...) and Vermejo Park Ranch for the Rio Grande cutthroat trout in Taos County, New Mexico, and...

  10. A Study on the Application of Laozi's Thoughts on Educational Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Lian-shiung; Hwang, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply historical methods to help understand the relationship between the philosophy espoused in the works of Laozi or Tao De Ching and educational leadership. The objective is to study the thought of Laozi regarding leadership, to identify ideas and solutions that can be applied in modern educational management, as well as…

  11. A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumitani, Yukihiro

    In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

  12. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  13. Ground-based Measurements of Vertical Profiles and Columns of Atmospheric Trace Gases Over Toronto Using a New High-Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiacek, A.; Yashcov, D.; Strong, K.; Boudreau, L.; Rochette, L.; Roy, C.

    2002-12-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO) has recently been established at Toronto, Canada. TAO includes several instruments, with a DA8 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (DA8 FTS, manufactured by ABB Bomem Inc., Québec, Canada) serving as the primary instrument at the facility. The geographic position of TAO (43.66°N, 79.40°W) makes it well suited for long-term measurements of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone and related species, while its urban setting enables measurements of tropospheric pollution. The DA8 FTS is based on a Michelson interferometer with a maximum optical path difference of 250 cm, providing a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.0026 cm-1. It is currently equipped with KBr and CaF2 beamsplitters, and InSb and HgCdTe detectors, for coverage of the spectral range from 700 to 4100 cm-1. A new heliostat (manufactured by Aim Controls Inc., California, USA) provides active solar tracking, collecting the incoming solar radiation and directing it into the FTS. The TAO DA8 FTS incorporates a new optical design recently developed by ABB Bomem Inc., which results in a fixed optical axis through the beamsplitter (and a fixed focal point on the detector) as well as a more stable modulation efficiency. The new instrument optics will be discussed. Next, the performance of the instrument will be examined in the context of standard NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) trace gas column and vertical profile retrieval techniques, which use least squares fitting algorithms (SFIT, SFIT2). TAO has been operational (weather permitting) since October 2001. We have been retrieving columns and vertical profiles of HCl, HF, CH4, OCS, C2H6, CO, N2O and NO2 since May 2002. A detailed error analysis of retrieved columns and vertical profiles has been undertaken for the above species. Future plans for the TAO FTS include comparing our measurements with satellite measurements made by MOPITT, OSIRIS, and the upcoming ACE and MAESTRO instruments

  14. Direct determination of gold in rock samples using collision cell quadrupole ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Yim, Seong A; Choi, Man Sik; Chae, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determination of Au in rock samples using collision cell quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is essential to remove various interferents using a collision cell because polyatomic ions such as (181)Ta(16)O(+) and (180)Hf(16)O(1)H(+) can interfere with the direct determination of monoisotopic (197)Au when using ICP-MS. The addition of oxygen as a reaction gas removed isobaric interferents by transforming TaO(+) and HfOH(+) to TaO(2)(+), TaO(3)(+), and HfO(2)H(+), HfO(3)H(+), respectively, in the cell without significant Au(+) loss. The ion kinetic energy effect (IKEE) due to the potential difference between the plasma and the hexapole affected the reactions in the cell. Au and interfering ions were very sensitive to cell bias voltage (Vc) at constant plasma potential (Vp) and quadrupole bias voltage (Vq). Under the condition of hot plasma, the transmission of ions was promoted, and the maximum Au signal intensity was 50% greater than under normal conditions. At Vc > 7 V, TaO(+) ions were removed to background level. Optimized conditions for real sample analysis were obtained by introducing He as an additional collision gas in hot plasma. TaO(+) ions were removed to background level at He flow rates above 0.6 mL min(-1), and the Au signal remained high. The detection limit (three times the standard deviation of the blank) of this method was 3.06 pg g(-1). The results for reference materials (STM-1 and DGPM-1) and spiked samples showed good agreement between specified and measured concentrations.

  15. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687

  16. The Role of Oxidative Stress on the Pathogenesis of Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Žarković, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Graves' disease is a most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is an autoimmune disease, and autoimmune process induces an inflammatory reaction, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are among its products. When balance between oxidants and antioxidants is disturbed, in favour of the oxidants it is termed “oxidative stress” (OS). Increased OS characterizes Graves' disease. It seems that the level of OS is increased in subjects with Graves' ophthalmopathy compared to the other subjects with Graves' disease. Among the other factors, OS is involved in proliferation of orbital fibroblasts. Polymorphism of the 8-oxoG DNA N-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) involved in repair of the oxidative damaged DNA increases in the risk for developing Grave's disease. Treatment with glucocorticoids reduces levels of OS markers. A recent large clinical trial evaluated effect of selenium on mild Graves' ophthalmopathy. Selenium treatment was associated with an improved quality of life and less eye involvement and slowed the progression of Graves' orbitopathy, compared to placebo. PMID:22175033

  17. Cigarette smoking and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, J B; Hegedüs, L

    1994-01-01

    Relevant English language articles published from 1970 through 1993 regarding the possible influence of cigarette smoking on the thyroid were identified through a MEDLINE search and manual searches of identified articles. Thiocyanate in tobacco smoke influences the thyroid by a competitive inhibition of iodine uptake and organification in the gland. Also the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by cigarette smoke and benzpyrene, another constituent of tobacco, is thought to influence thyroid gland function. The thyroid hormones and TSH receptor autoantibodies are not affected by smoking, but serum TSH levels have been found to be slightly reduced. Smokers have a higher frequency of goiter and increased serum thyroglobulin levels, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Graves' ophthalmopathy is strongly associated with cigarette smoking; the more severe the eye disease the stronger the association. Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy is also associated with smoking, though this association is weaker. Thiocyanate level in cord blood equilibrates completely with the level in the mother, and a reverse correlation has been demonstrated between birth weight and thiocyanate level in cord blood. Cigarette smoking induces similar changes in thyroid function in the adult and the fetus. No separate study has elucidated the effects of cessation of smoking, but there seems to be longstanding effects induced by smoking, some probably irreversible.

  18. A secure and reliable monitor and control system for remote observing with the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Gary; Souccar, Kamal; Malin, Daniella

    2004-09-01

    Remote access to telescope monitor and control capabilities necessitates strict security mechanisms to protect the telescope and instruments from malicious or unauthorized use, and to prevent data from being stolen, altered, or corrupted. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) monitor and control system (LMTMC) utilizes the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware technology to connect remote software components. The LMTMC provides reliable and secure remote observing by automatically generating SSLIOP enabled CORBA objects. TAO, the ACE open source Object Request Broker (ORB), now supports secure communications by implementing the Secure Socket Layer Inter-ORB Protocol (SSLIOP) as a pluggable protocol. This capability supplies the LMTMC with client and server authentication, data integrity, and encryption. Our system takes advantage of the hooks provided by TAO SSLIOP to implement X.509 certificate based authorization. This access control scheme includes multiple authorization levels to enable granular access control.

  19. The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of R3MO7 and R2Ti2O7 (R=Y, Gd, La; M=Nb, Ta) for water splitting into H2 and O2.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryu; Higashi, Masanobu; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Abe, Yoshimoto; Sugihara, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    The photocatalytic activities of R3MO7 and R2Ti2O7 (R=Y, Gd, La; M=Nb, Ta) strongly depended on the crystal structure. Overall, photocatalytic water splitting into H2 and O2 proceeded over La3TaO7 and La3NbO7, which have an orthorhombic weberite structure, Y2Ti2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7, which have a cubic pyrochlore structure, and La2Ti2O7, which has a monoclinic perovskite structure. All of these materials are composed of a network of corner-shared octahedral units of metal cations (TaO6, NbO6, or TiO6); materials without such a network were inactive. The octahedral network certainly increased the mobility of electrons and holes, thereby enhancing photocatalytic activity.

  1. Color tunable electroluminescence and resistance switching from a ZnO-nanorod-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. L.; Teo, K. L.; Zheng, K.; Sun, X. W.

    2016-03-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared on p-GaN-sapphire using a vapor phase transport (VPT) technique. A thin sputtered layer of TaO x is employed as the intermediate layer and an n-ZnO-TaO x -p-GaN heterojunction device has been achieved. The current transport of the heterojunction exhibited a typical resistance switching behavior, which originated from the filament forming and breaking in the TaO x layer. Color controllable electroluminescence (EL) was observed from the biased heterojunction at room temperature. Bluish-white wide band emission is achieved from the forward biased device in both the high resistance and low resistance states, while red emission can only be observed for the reverse biased device in the low resistance state. The correlation between the EL and resistance switching has been analyzed in-depth based on the interface band diagram of the heterojunction.

  2. Characterizing xBa(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3+(1-x )Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 microwave ceramics using extended x-ray absorption fine structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P.-J.; Chia, C.-T.; Lin, I.-N.; Lee, J.-F.; Lin, C. M.; Wu, K. T.

    2006-06-01

    The structures of TaO6 and NbO6 oxygen octahedra in xBa(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3+(1-x )Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 perovskite ceramics with x =0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 were investigated by the extended x-ray absorption fine structure method. The decline in the microwave dielectric constant as x increases is caused mainly by the decrease of the mean volume of the oxygen octahedra, regardless of the 1:2 ordered structure and the distortion of the oxygen octahedron. The low Qf values of the TaO6 and NbO6 mixed samples are caused by not only the degrading of the 1:2 ordered structure but also the distortion of oxygen octahedral cages.

  3. Real-time detection and characterization of individual flowing airborne biological particles: fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongle; Holler, Stephen; Chang, Richard K.; Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Niles, Stanley; Bottiger, Jerold R.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Real-time methods which is reagentless and could detect and partially characterize bioaerosols are of current interest. We present a technique for real-time measurement of UV-excited fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) from individual flowing biological aerosol particles. The fluorescence spectra have been observed from more than 20 samples including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, allergens, dust, and smoke. The S/N and resolution of the spectra are sufficient for observing small lineshape differences among the same type of bioaerosol prepared under different conditions. The additional information from TAOS regarding particle size, shape, and granularity has the potential of aiding in distinguishing bacterial aerosols from other aerosols, such as diesel and cigarette smoke.

  4. Insights and clinical questions about the active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [Review].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Over 20 years ago, two Japanese institutions initiated an active surveillance policy for papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) without high-risk features (such as clinical lymph node and distant metastases) and suspected trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion. Since the most recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines adopt active surveillance as a therapy option for low-risk PMCs, the number of institutions worldwide carrying out this policy can be expected to increase. However, before adopting an active surveillance strategy, some important clinical questions must be considered. In this review, conceivable clinical questions with our answers based on the present accumulation of low-risk PMC surveillance data are presented. PMID:26632168

  5. Radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients who have well differentiated thyroid cancer. We review definitions; staging; the two-principal methods for selection of a dosage of 131-I for ablation and treatment; the objectives of ablation and treatment; the indications for ablation and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I for ablation and treatment contained in the Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, the European Consensus, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage for 131-I by the these organizations; and the Washington Hospital Center approach.

  6. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 10-month-old child with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B].

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Døssing, Helle; Bender, Lars; Godballe, Christian

    2014-01-27

    In infants at risk of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) the American Thyroid Association recommends genetic testing as soon as possible after birth and that thyroidectomy should be performed in MEN2B RET-mutation positive individuals as soon as possible and if possible within the first year of life. We present a ten-month-old girl with MEN2B who had prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical specimen showed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and prophylactic thyroidectomy in MEN2B patients. PMID:27498810

  7. Use of Ocean Remote Sensing Data to Enhance Predictions with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Surface height, sea surface temperature and surface wind observations from satellites have given a detailed time sequence of the initiation and evolution of the 1997/98 El Nino. The data have beet complementary to the subsurface TAO moored data in their spatial resolution and extent. The impact of satellite observations on seasonal prediction in the tropical Pacific using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model will be presented.

  8. Leadership: can it be holistic?

    PubMed

    Barnum, B S

    1994-10-01

    The article looks at new trends toward holistic leadership as opposed to older models focused on the tasks of managers. Transformational leadership and Heider's leadership by Tao are given as illustrations, as is the recent upsurge of interest in the spiritual aspect of care. It is noted that leadership is provided in many settings among persons with and without organizational managerial positions. The need for holistic leadership in a time of environmental flux and unpredictability is discussed.

  9. Geologic map of the Latir Volcanic Field, and adjacent areas, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Reed, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Development of the Rio Grande Rift beginning at about 15 Ma was accompanied by development of the north-south trending normal faults along the western foot of the Taos Range. The rift is filled with thousands of meters of clastic sediments interleaved with basalt flows, some as young as 3.6 Ma. The bounding faults of the rift cut the Questa Caldera so that the western part of the original structure is now deeply buried beneath the rift fill.

  10. Switching Kinetic of VCM-Based Memristor: Evolution and Positioning of Nanofilament.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The filament in aAu/Ta2 O5 /Au system is analyzed and determined to be a nanoscaled TaO2-x filament. A shrunken anode localizes the filament formation and the defect boundary leads to faster accumulation of oxygen vacancies. The defect changes the switching domination between electron transport and oxygen-vacancy migration. The migration of oxygen vacancies limits the filament dynamics, indicating the crucial role played by oxygen defects.

  11. Anatomy of a nanoscale conduction channel reveals the mechanism of a high-performance memristor.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng; Strachan, John Paul; Yang, J Joshua; Zhang, Min-Xian; Goldfarb, Ilan; Torrezan, Antonio C; Eschbach, Peter; Kelley, Ronald D; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R Stanley

    2011-12-15

    By employing a precise method for locating and directly imaging the active switching region in a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device, a nanoscale conducting channel consisting of an amorphous Ta(O) solid solution surrounded by nearly stoichiometric Ta(2) O(5) is observed. Structural and chemical analysis of the channel combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements indicate a unique resistance switching mechanism.

  12. Enantioselective copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click cycloaddition to desymmetrization of maleimide-based bis(alkynes).

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Li, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Zhan-Jiang; Deng, Yuan; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Li-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A copper catalyst system derived from TaoPhos and CuF2 was used successfully for catalytic asymmetric Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes to give optically pure products containing succinimide- and triazole-substituted quaternary carbon stereogenic centers. The desired products were obtained in good yields (60-80 %) and 85:15 to >99:1 enantiomeric ratio (e.r.) in this click cycloaddition reaction. PMID:25388524

  13. Topological insulators on a Mobius Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lang-Tao; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2012-02-01

    We study the two dimensional Chern insulator and spin Hall insulator on a non-orientable Riemann surface, the Mobius strip, where the usual bandstructure topological invariant is not defined. We show that while the flow pattern of edge currents can detect the twist of the Mobius strip in the case of Chern insulator, it can not do so in spin Hall insulator [1]. [4pt] [1] Lang-Tao Huang and Dung-Hai Lee, Phys. Rev. B 84, 193106 (2011)

  14. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Mac-Dowell, Karina; Leza, Juan Carlos; Giraldez, Marisa; Bailón, Concepción; Castro, Carmen; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Fraguas, David; Arango, Celso

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification capacity and may suffer from chronic oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAOS), non-enzymatic (glutathione and homocysteine) and enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma or erythrocyte lysates in a group of adolescent patients with Asperger syndrome, a group of adolescents with a first episode of psychosis, and a group of healthy controls at baseline and at 8-12 weeks. TAOS was also analyzed at 1 year. TAOS was reduced in Asperger individuals compared with healthy controls and psychosis patients, after covarying by age and antipsychotic treatment. This reduced antioxidant capacity did not depend on any of the individual antioxidant variables measured. Psychosis patients had increased homocysteine levels in plasma and decreased copper and ceruloplasmin at baseline. In conclusion, Asperger patients seem to have chronic low detoxifying capacity. No impaired detoxifying capacity was found in the first-episode psychosis group in the first year of illness.

  15. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times). PMID:26436832

  16. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  17. Status report of Virtual Observatory at the National Central University of China Taipei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. K.; Ko, C. M.; Kinoshita, D.

    2007-08-01

    The idea of virtual observatory (VO) has started to get some attention in Taiwan. However, in order to join the VO community with minimum resources, we identify ourselves as a VO user instead of a developer. We implement the JVO skynode package to create a 2MASS star count map. According to level 6 Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM), the sky was divided into 32768 leaves with approximately 1 square degree resolution. We can study Galactic structure and initial mass function with this map. Our next goal is to publish a rather unique light curve data. National Central University is part of Taiwan-America Occultation Survey (TAOS) team. TAOS project will conduct a census of the number of Kuiper belt objects down to a few km size by monitoring chance stellar occultations by these cometary nuclei. Owing to a special observation strategy, called Zipped mode observation, TAOS can have sub-second photometry. We would like to publish this rather unique light curve database to the VO world.

  18. Noninvasive Transcutaneous Monitoring in Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Thromboangiitis Obliterans Treated With Intravenous Iloprost.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Elio; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Sanctis, Francesco De; Spontoni, Paolo; Nuti, Marco; Dell'Omodarme, Matteo; Ferrari, Mauro; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous iloprost (IVI) in outpatients with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and lower limb noninvasive transcutaneous monitoring (TCM) at follow-up (FU). Ten consecutive patients with TAO underwent IVI therapy. Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo 2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco 2) determination and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed before and after IVI at 3, 6, and 12 months of FU. Clinical response was positive in 7 patients, whereas 3 nonresponders underwent a second IVI cycle with 1 showing a late positive clinical response. After 12 months of FU, all patients were alive without amputations. Supine and dependent TcP2 levels significantly improved (P < .005). Hallux LDF values showed significant change with the maximal hyperemic test at 44°C (P < .005). Forefoot maximal hyperemic test at 44°C LDF (P < .005) and improved venous arterial reflex (P < .05) showed statistically significant time evolution. We demonstrated some degree of IVI effectiveness and evaluated TCM in patients with TAO.

  19. The Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory: Cloud-based Mock Galaxy Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren J.; Tonini, Chiara; Hodkinson, Luke; Hassan, Amr H.; Garel, Thibault; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Hegarty, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    We introduce the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO), an online virtual laboratory that houses mock observations of galaxy survey data. Such mocks have become an integral part of the modern analysis pipeline. However, building them requires expert knowledge of galaxy modeling and simulation techniques, significant investment in software development, and access to high performance computing. These requirements make it difficult for a small research team or individual to quickly build a mock catalog suited to their needs. To address this TAO offers access to multiple cosmological simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models from an intuitive and clean web interface. Results can be funnelled through science modules and sent to a dedicated supercomputer for further processing and manipulation. These modules include the ability to (1) construct custom observer light cones from the simulation data cubes; (2) generate the stellar emission from star formation histories, apply dust extinction, and compute absolute and/or apparent magnitudes; and (3) produce mock images of the sky. All of TAO’s features can be accessed without any programming requirements. The modular nature of TAO opens it up for further expansion in the future.

  20. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  1. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  2. Buerger’s disease: providing integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Weigel, Peter; Volz, Theresa Sophie; Zange, Leonora; Richter, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Buerger’s disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), is a segmental inflammatory disease affecting small- and medium-sized vessels, which is strongly associated with tobacco use. Although the etiology is still unknown, recent studies suggest an immunopathogenesis. Diagnosis is based on clinical and angiomorphologic criteria, including age, history of smoking, clinical presentation with distal extremity ischemia, and the absence of other risk factors for atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, hypercoagulable states, or embolic disease. Until now, no causative therapy exists for TAO. The most important therapeutic intervention is smoking cessations and intravenous prostanoid infusions (iloprost). Furthermore, effective analgesia is crucial for the treatment of ischemic and neuropathic pain and might be expanded by spinal cord stimulation. Revascularization procedures do not play a major role in the treatment of TAO due to the distal localization of arterial occlusion. More recently, immunoadsorption has been introduced eliminating vasoconstrictive G-protein-coupled receptor and other autoantibodies. Cell-based therapies and treatment with bosentan were also advocated. Finally, a consequent prevention and treatment of wounds and infections are essential for the prevention of amputations. To achieve better clinical results, integrated care in multidisciplinary and trans-sectoral teams with emphasis on smoking cessation, pain control, wound management, and social care by professionals, social workers, and family members is necessary. PMID:27785045

  3. Bilateral extraocular muscles enlargement from Kimura's disease of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Allan Christian Pieroni; Moritz, Rodrigo B; Aldred, Vera L.; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Kimura's disease (KD) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unclear etiology, characterized by subcutaneous nodules, mainly in the head and neck region, frequently associated with regional lymphadenopathy. Orbital involvement is infrequent and when it occurs, usually affects the eyelid or the lacrimal gland. We report a case of a 44-year-old man that presented with bilateral slowly progressive proptosis that was initially misdiagnosed as Graves’ Ophthalmopathy. 15 months of worsening proptosis and the development of facial and temporal swelling led to further investigation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed enlargement of all recti muscles and diffuse orbital infiltration. An orbital biopsy was performed and was consistent with the diagnosis of KD. Long term oral corticosteroid showed marked improvement of proptosis and facial swelling. This case serves to emphasize that KD should be included in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the orbit, even when characterized by predominant involvement of the extraocular muscles. PMID:24088630

  4. [Zheng Yu-lin, a founder of the acupuncture and moxibustion cause of new China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-zhe; Liu, Jun-chi; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Jun-jiang

    2007-07-01

    Mr. ZHENG Yu-lin is one of the most outstanding acupuncture scientists in the modern times in our country. He inherits the learning handed down in a family and is bold in making innovations, successfully combines the exercises to benefit the internal organs with Chinese traditional acupuncture needling methods, forming a set of unique Zheng's needling methods, which is used for treatment of severe ophthalmopathy with excellent therapeutic effects, and is famed the world over. Main achievements: took on scientific researches of acupuncture and moxibustion, teaching and clinical works in the first stage of establishment of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicinel trains a large number of famous specificities of acupuncture and moxibustion for new China; advocates study on channel essence; cures stubborn diseases for leaders of friend countries undertaking the great trust of the central leaders for many times, becoming an important ties of Chinese political foreign affairs. PMID:17722840

  5. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  6. Cine magnetic resonance imaging of eye movements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Kabala, J; Laitt, R; Weston, M; Goddard, P; Hoh, H B; Potts, M J; Harrad, R A

    1993-01-01

    Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique in which multiple sequential static orbital MRI films are taken while the patient fixates a series of targets across the visual field. These are then sequenced to give a graphic animation to the eyes. The excellent soft tissue differentiation of MRI, combined with the dynamic imaging, allows rapid visualisation, and functional assessment of the extraocular muscles. Good assessment of contractility can be obtained, but the technique does not allow study of saccadic or pursuit eye movements. We have used this technique in 36 patients with a range of ocular motility disorders, including thyroid-related ophthalmopathy, blow-out fracture, post-operative lost or slipped muscle, and Duane's syndrome.

  7. Stickler syndrome, ocular-only variants and a key diagnostic role for the ophthalmologist

    PubMed Central

    Snead, M P; McNinch, A M; Poulson, A V; Bearcroft, P; Silverman, B; Gomersall, P; Parfect, V; Richards, A J

    2011-01-01

    The entity described by Gunnar Stickler, which included hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy associated with retinal detachment, has recently been recognised to consist of a number of subgroups, which might now more correctly be referred to as the Stickler syndromes. They are the most common clinical manifestation of the type II/XI collagenopathies and are the most common cause of inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. This review article is intended to provide the ophthalmologist with an update on current research, subgroups, and their diagnosis together with a brief overview of allied conditions to be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis. We highlight the recently identified subgroups with a high risk of retinal detachment but with minimal or absent systemic involvement—a particularly important group for the ophthalmologist to identify. PMID:21921955

  8. Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Nonstrenuous Exercise in a Patient with Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Summachiwakij, Sarawut

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism can result in several musculoskeletal conditions such as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic myopathy, and thyroid ophthalmopathy. Rhabdomyolysis has been rarely reported to be associated with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 33-year-old man who presented with bilateral thigh pain and dark brown urine after regular squatting. He had a past medical history of hyperthyroidism but stopped taking it 2 months prior to admission. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and thyrotoxicosis. Presence of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) and high radioiodine uptake confirmed a diagnosis of Graves' disease. He received aggressive fluid resuscitation and sodium bicarbonate intravenously along with monitoring fluid and electrolyte. Methimazole was also resumed. The patient responded to treatment and rhabdomyolysis gradually resolved. Therefore, nonstrenuous exercise can potentially induce rhabdomyolysis in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although hyperthyroidism is not widely recognized as a cause of rhabdomyolysis, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24716006

  9. Wernicke's encephalopathy after total parenteral nutrition in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In Seub; Seok, Hyeri; Eun, Yeong Hee; Lee, You-Bin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are not uncommon and usually result in a combination of reduced dietary intake, disease-related malabsorption, and a catabolic state. Decreased serum thiamine levels are often reported in patients with CD. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe form of thiamine deficiency that can cause serious neurologic complications. Although WE is known to occur frequently in alcoholics, a number of non-alcoholic causes have also been reported. Here, we report two cases of non-alcoholic WE that developed in two severely malnourished CD patients who were supported by prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation. These patients complained of sudden-onset ophthalmopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed definitive diagnosis for WE despite poor sensitivity. The intravenous administration of thiamine alleviated the symptoms of WE dramatically. We emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation for malnourished patients even if they are not alcoholics, especially in those with CD. PMID:27175122

  10. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with a heterozygous deactivating LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutation and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cook, Fiona J; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that usually presents with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) within 6 months of a first pregnancy and delivery. Spontaneous improvement is typical. There is no known genetic basis for PAO. A 26-year-old primagravida with a neonatal history of unilateral blindness attributable to hyperplastic primary vitreous sustained postpartum VCFs consistent with PAO. Her low bone mineral density (BMD) seemed to respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy, with no fractures after her next successful pregnancy. Investigation of subsequent fetal losses revealed homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated both with fetal loss and with osteoporosis (OP). Because her neonatal unilateral blindness and OP were suggestive of loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), LRP5 exon and splice site sequencing was also performed. This revealed a unique heterozygous 12-bp deletion in exon 21 (c.4454_4465del, p.1485_1488del SSSS) in the patient, her mother and sons, but not her father or brother. Her mother had a normal BMD, no history of fractures, PAO, ophthalmopathy, or fetal loss. Her two sons had no ophthalmopathy and no skeletal issues. Her osteoporotic father (with a family history of blindness) and brother had low BMDs first documented at ages ∼40 and 32 years, respectively. Serum biochemical and bone turnover studies were unremarkable in all subjects. We postulate that our patient's heterozygous LRP5 mutation together with her homozygous MTHFR polymorphism likely predisposed her to low peak BMD. However, OP did not cosegregate in her family with the LRP5 mutation, the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism, or even the combination of the two, implicating additional genetic or nongenetic factors in her PAO. Nevertheless, exploration for potential genetic contributions to PAO may explain part of the pathogenesis of this

  11. [Results of serological reactions in patients with presumptive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Castro, M; Contreras, M C; Salinas, P

    1991-01-01

    Even though Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous parasite that can effect most of human structures and organs, not all clinical manifestations suggestive of being produced by it are caused by this protozoon. For these reasons sera samples of patients suspected of having toxoplasmosis are sent to the laboratory for detecting specific antibodies which would facilitate the differential diagnosis. Thus, 716 sera from suspected patients, mainly from the Metropolitan Region of Chile, were sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of Chile University in order to carry out in them, specific serological tests for toxoplasmosis: indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), Sabin Feldman reaction (SFT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Were considered positive: IHAT and/or SFT with titers > or = 1:16 and CFT with titer > or = 1:5. The pathologies for demanding these serological tests were obstetrical problems 210 (29.3%), congenital problems 193 (27.0%), ophthalmopathies 81 (11.3%), adenopathies 77 (10.8%), AIDS 67 (9.4%), myocardiopathies 46 (6.4%) and miscellaneous 42 (5.9%). The positivity found in these sera was higher in ophthalmopathies (61.7%), followed by obstetrical problems, miscellaneous problems, myocardiopathies and AIDS (50.7-52.4%), less frequent was the positivity in adenopathies (35.1%) and congenital problems (23.1%). In general, the 43.7% of positivity for toxoplasmosis found in these patients is higher than the 37.0% found in the general population. High titers of IHAT and SFT plus positive CFT was found in 13-fold higher proportion than in the general population.

  12. Flashing lights in thyroid eye disease: a new symptom described and (possibly) explained

    PubMed Central

    Danks, J.; Harrad, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Some patients with restrictive thyroid ophthalmopathy, referred for consideration of extraocular muscle surgery, complained of flashing lights in the superior visual field on upgaze. The frequency was assessed and the pathogenesis of this previously unreported symptom explored.
METHODS—30 patients were recruited, all of whom had tight inferior recti and were in the burnt out phase of thyroid eye disease. They were directly questioned regarding any symptoms of photopsia and their records were examined with respect to disease status and treatment, ocular motility, intraocular pressure, retinal status, and surgical intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cine MRI scans were reviewed for evidence of globe compression. The frequency of symptoms was compared with an age and sex matched control group.
RESULTS—Three patients spontaneously complained of flashing lights. A further nine patients had this symptom when directly questioned. 18 patients had no symptoms. None of the 33 control patients had symptoms on direct questioning. Sagittal MRI and cine MRI failed to demonstrate globe compression by the inferior rectus muscle even in cases that showed an intraocular pressure rise in upgaze.
CONCLUSION—A new symptom of flashing lights in upgaze has been identified in thyroid eye disease patients with tight inferior recti. It is suggested that the lights are likely to be phosphenes as a result of either compression of the globe by a tight inferior rectus or traction on the insertion of the inferior rectus. The small amount of globe compression required to produce phosphenes seems to be beyond the resolution limit of MRI.

 Keywords: thyroid eye disease; restrictive ophthalmopathy; phosphenes; inferior rectus; cine magnetic resonance imaging PMID:9924339

  13. Investigation of the Etiology of Anemia in Thromboangiitis Obliterans.

    PubMed

    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Ravari, Hassan; Rajabnejad, Ataollah; Valizadeh, Narges; Fazeli, Bahare

    2016-09-01

    During a review of patients admitted with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), there was evidence of normochromic normocytic anemia and abrupt changes in hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in patients with several hospital admissions. Therefore, the evidence of hemolytic anemia was evaluated based on 37 banked plasma samples taken from Caucasian male TAO patients during disease exacerbation between 2012 and 2014. The patients' hospital records, including clinical manifestations and complete blood count, were evaluated. The following tests were performed on all samples: indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), C-reactive protein (CRP), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), haptoglobin, indirect bilirubin, d-aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and d-alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The mean age of the patients was 40 ± 7 years. Two patients underwent below-knee amputation. The mean hospital-documented Hgb of the patients was 12.9 ± 2.6 g/dL. CRP and IAT were positive in 75.6 and 70.2% of the samples, respectively. The tests and corresponding results were as follows: hsCRP, 14.07 ± 2.37 µg/mL; LDH, 2,552 ± 315 u/L; haptoglobin, 2.27 ± 1.1 g/L; indirect bilirubin, 0.09 ± 0.04 mg/dL; AST, 67 ± 7 u/L; and ALT, 26 ± 3 u/L. There was a significant inverse correlation between hsCRP and hospital-documented Hgb level (p = 0.03). Anemia with the positive IAT in most of the samples, high LDH and AST, and normal ALT are suggestive of hemolytic anemia. Normal indirect bilirubin is consistent with intravascular hemolysis. The positive CRP and elevated haptoglobin levels could be due to systemic inflammation in TAO. However, it is not known if an autoantigen or an infectious antigen is responsible for TAO systemic inflammation and induction hemolytic anemia. As such, the underlying mechanism of anemia in TAO could be part of the footprint of its main etiology. PMID:27574381

  14. A LATE BRITTLE COMPONENT OF MOTION WITHIN THE DUCTILE EASTERN SIERRA CREST SHEAR ZONE (ESCSZ) ALONG THE EASTERN BOUNDARY OF THE TOLUMNE BATHOLITH IN THE SADDLEBAG LAKE, CA AREA. WHITESIDES, Andrew1, ENRIQUEZ, Marcus2 , HARDY, Jill1 , EHRET, Philip1, IANNONE, Monika1, CULBERT, Kristan1 GROSS, Ben3, LODEWYK, Jessica3, CAO, Wenrong1 , ZHANG, Tao1, MEMETI, Valbone3, PATERSON, Scott1 SCHMIDT, Keegan4. (1) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0740, awhitesi@usc.edu , (2) Department of Geological Sciences, Cal State L.A., 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, (3) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1169, 1 Brookings Dr, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, (4) Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Lewis-Clark State College, 500 8th Ave., Lewiston, ID 83501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, A. S.; Enriquez, M.; Hardy, J.; Ehret, P.; Iannone, M.; Culbert, K. N.; Gross, M. B.; Lodewyk, J.; Cao, W.; Zhang, T.; Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.; Schmidt, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    During mapping (by the Undergraduate Team Research program, University of Southern California) in the Saddlebag Lake pendant just along the eastern margin of the Tuolumne batholith we have discovered a brittle slip component in the ESCSZ that juxtaposes largely metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock packages. The metasedimentary package is dominated by bedded sandstones and siltstones and local conglomerates whereas the metavolcanics show a large range of volcanic and volcaniclastic units. All of the units dip steeply and have an average N-NW strike. Dextral oblique ductile shear is distributed in domains in both rock packages with varying width from ~2 km in the South to ~1 km in the North. Shear sense in planes at high angles to a steep to SW plunging mineral lineation include S-C structures, shear bands, asymmetrical folding, sigma and delta clasts, and asymmetrical boudins. Partitioning of shear is common with the metarhyolites and metasediments showing higher non-coaxial strain than in the metaandesite and metadacite units. Map-scale “z-shaped” asymmetrical folds within the shear zone are also consistent with dextral shearing. Folded and sheared dikes of the 88-85 Ma Cathedral Peak phase of the Tuolumne batholith are common in the shear zone. A newly discovered brittle slip surface with breccias, gouge, and local pseudotachylite and large quartz veins was also mapped in the center of the ductile shear zone typically along the contact between the western metasedimentary and eastern metavolcanics (often a metarhyolite at the contact) on the east. Local slickenlines, steps, and offset dikes indicate that the brittle fault also had oblique dextral movement, similar to the ductile shear zone. In the mapped area no dikes originating from the TB cross the brittle fault and some are terminated at the brittle fault surface We interpret these observations to indicate northward displacement of the metasedimentary package by first ductile then brittle faulting during cooling and possibly uplift of this region with the youngest motion post 82 Ma.

  15. First-principles density functional calculation of electrochemical stability of fast Li ion conducting garnet-type oxides.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kotobuki, Masashi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Nogami, Masayuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-28

    The research and development of rechargeable all-ceramic lithium batteries are vital to realize their considerable advantages over existing commercial lithium ion batteries in terms of size, energy density, and safety. A key part of such effort is the development of solid-state electrolyte materials with high Li(+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability; lithium-containing oxides with a garnet-type structure are known to satisfy the requirements to achieve both features. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the electrochemical stability of garnet-type Li(x)La(3)M(2)O(12) (M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi; x = 5 or 7) materials against Li metal. We found that the electrochemical stability of such materials depends on their composition and structure. The electrochemical stability against Li metal was improved when a cation M was chosen with a low effective nuclear charge, that is, with a high screening constant for an unoccupied orbital. In fact, both our computational and experimental results show that Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12) and Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) are inert to Li metal. In addition, the linkage of MO(6) octahedra in the crystal structure affects the electrochemical stability. For example, perovskite-type La(1/3)TaO(3) was found, both experimentally and computationally, to react with Li metal owing to the corner-sharing MO(6) octahedral network of La(1/3)TaO(3), even though it has the same constituent elements as garnet-type Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) (which is inert to Li metal and features isolated TaO(6) octahedra).

  16. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    PubMed Central

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For comparison, another group received 300 mg of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) per kg, which is equivalent to the 226-mg/kg tiamulin group. Subsequently, microsomal P-450 contents, P-450 enzyme activities, metabolic intermediate complex spectra, and P-450 apoprotein concentrations were assessed. In addition, effects on individual microsomal P-450 activities were studied in control microsomes at different tiamulin and substrate concentrations. In the rats treated with tiamulin, a dose-dependent complex formation as evidenced by its absorption spectrum and an increase in cytochrome P-4503A1/2 contents as assessed by Western blotting (immunoblotting) were found. The effects were comparable to those of TAO. Tiamulin induced microsomal P-450 content, testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate, erythromycin N-demethylation rate, and the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. Other activities were not affected or decreased. When tiamulin was added to microsomes of control rats, the testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate and the erythromycin N-demethylation were strongly inhibited. It is concluded that tiamulin is a potent and selective inducer-inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. Though not belonging to the macrolides, the compound produces an effect on P-450 similar to those of TAO and related compounds. PMID:8787878

  17. Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length with Oxidative Stress in Yoga Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Keerthi, Gorantla Shravya; Kumar, Chintala Kiran; Reddy, Natham Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Yoga is a mind-body modulation technique that has been shown to have beneficial effects on various diseases related to various systems in the body. However, the molecular basis of mechanism of action is not clear. Hence, this study was designed to study the leukocyte telomere biology and its relation with homocysteine and oxidative stress in yoga practitioners. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving Yoga practitioners aged 30–40 y with minimum of two years yoga practice (Yoga group) and age, gender and body mass index matched sedentary healthy general population with no medical problems (Control group). Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), fasting plasma homocysteine was measured by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography assay and the oxidative stress was assessed with total antioxidant status (TAOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) measured by calorimetry. Results: The LTL was shorter in control group than in yoga group (p<0.001). The TAOS was more in yoga group when compared to control group (p=0.008), MDA and homocysteine was high in control group when compared to Yoga group (p<0.001). Further, the LTL was positively correlated with TAOS (r=0.841, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with MDA (r=-0.931, p<0.001) and Homocysteine (r=-0.756, p<0.001). Conclusion: The LTL is well-preserved in people who practice Yoga regularly with lower systemic oxidative stress compared to those who have a relatively sedentary lifestyle despite lack of any medical disorders. The habitual yoga practice seems to inhibit replicative cellular senescence. PMID:25954614

  18. The I Ching and the psyche-body connection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shirley S Y

    2005-04-01

    Carl G. Jung's fateful meeting with Richard Wilhelm in 1929 has helped to build a bridge of depth psychological understanding between the East and the West. When Jung emerged from his 'confrontation with the unconscious', he felt validated by Wilhelm in his discovery of the healing power of medieval alchemical symbolism for the European psyche. Analytical psychology however offers a scientific, psychological understanding of Chinese wisdom as contained in the I Ching and Taoist alchemy. The Taoist alchemical tradition (also known as the Inner Elixir tradition of which 'The Secret of the Golden Flower' is a sample text) is based on the premise that psychological experience of the Tao can be achieved through mental and physiological means such as breathing and meditative techniques, gymnastics, dietary regimens such as fasting, consumption of medicinal herbs and minerals, and special sexual practices. This tradition incorporates the I Ching and traditional Chinese medicine in the alchemical opus. Taoist alchemy assumes the primacy of the physical body in the process of self-realization. The psychological and cosmic forces of the trigrams of the I Ching are stored in the internal organs of the body and are the basic material for the experience of Tao. The internal organs are the foundation of the material and subtle bodies and through cultivation, the body becomes spiritualized as the spirits are embodied. The body as a reflection of the entire cosmos becomes the residence of the gods. The realization of a new consciousness is symbolized by the hexagram Fu, meaning rebirth. The Chinese notion of Tao coincides with Jung's postulation of the unus mundus, the unity of existence which underlies the duality of psyche and matter, the psycho-physical background of existence. In this light, in the world of inner experience, East and West follow similar paths symbolically.

  19. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  20. Substitutional mechanism of Ni into the wide-band-gap semiconductor InTaO4 and its implications for water splitting activity in the wolframite structure type.

    PubMed

    Malingowski, Andrew C; Stephens, Peter W; Huq, Ashfia; Huang, Qingzhen; Khalid, Syed; Khalifah, Peter G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism of Ni substitution into the oxide semiconductor InTaO(4) has been studied through a combination of structural and spectroscopic techniques, providing insights into its previously reported photoactivity. Magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements demonstrate that nickel is divalent within the host lattice. The combined refinement of synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data indicates that the product of Ni doping has the stoichiometry of (In(1-x)Ni(2x/3)Ta(x/3))TaO(4) with a solubility limit of x ≈ 0.18, corresponding to 12% Ni on the In site. Single-phase samples were only obtained at synthesis temperatures of 1150 °C or higher due to the sluggish reaction mechanism that is hypothesized to result from small free energy differences between (In(1-x)Ni(2x/3)Ta(x/3))TaO(4) compounds with different x values. Undoped InTaO(4) is shown to have an indirect band gap of 3.96 eV, with direct optical transitions becoming allowed at photon energies in excess of 5.1 eV. Very small band-gap reductions (less than 0.2 eV) result from Ni doping, and the origin of the yellow color of (In(1-x)Ni(2x/3)Ta(x/3))TaO(4) compounds instead results from a weak (3)A(2g) → (3)T(1g) internal d → d transition not associated with the conduction or valence band that is common to oxide compounds with Ni(2+) in an octahedral environment. PMID:22530995

  1. An Extended Kalman Filter to Assimilate Altimetric Data into a Non-Linear Model of the Tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourdeau, L.; Verron, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    A new implementation of the extended Kaman filter is developed for the purpose of assimilating altimetric observations into a primitive equation model of the tropical Pacific. Its specificity consists in defining the errors into a reduced basis that evolves in time with the model dynamic. Validation by twin experiments is conducted and the method is shown to be efficient in quasi real conditions. Data from the first 2 years of the Topex/Poseidon mission are assimilated into the Gent & Cane [1989] model. Assimilation results are evaluated against independent in situ data, namely TAO mooring observations.

  2. Zonal and Meridional Mass Redistribution in the Tropical Pacific During El Nino Southern Oscillation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcroix, Thierry; Gourdeau, Lionel; Rual, Pierre; Murtugudde, Raghuram

    1997-01-01

    This note aims at documenting the ENSO-related sea level changes for the whole tropical Pacific, and for the 1979-1996 period which covers numerous El Nino and La Nina events. For this purpose, we rely on (a) 0/450 dbar surface dynamic height anomaly (an alias for sea level) derived from XBT and TOGA-TAO measurements during 1979-1996, (b) TOPEX/Poseidon derived sea level anomaly during 1993-1996, and (c) Murtugudde et al. [1996] model sea level output during 1979-1995.

  3. Schistosome resistance to praziquantel: Fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Fallon, P G; Tao, L F; Ismail, M M; Bennett, J L

    1996-08-01

    Praziquantel is the current drug of choice for human schistosomiasis. Recent reports from laboratory and field studies concerning reduced praziquantel efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni have generated some controversy. The prevailing question is whether the emergence of strains of schistosome resistant to praziquantel is a fact, or an artifact resulting from erroneous field or laboratory experimentation. In this article, Padraic Fallon, Liang-feng Tao, Magdi Ismail and James Bennett examine the available evidence for schistosome resistance to praziquantel. Contributory factors to the schistosomicidal activity of praziquantel, which may interfere with evaluation of drug efficacy or resistance, are also considered.

  4. Phase stability of cubic pyrochlore rare earth tantalate pinning additives in YBa2Cu3O7- superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Sung Hun; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Specht, Eliot D; Goyal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Phase stability of cubic-pyrochlore-structured RE3TaO7 (RTO, where RE = rare earth elements) pinning additives in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) superconductor and the pinning properties influenced by RTO addition into YBCO films were investigated. RTO completely reacts with YBCO and is converted to cubic-double-perovskite-structured Ba2RETaO6 (BRETO), a more thermodynamically stable tantalate phase within YBCO. In RTO-doped YBCO films, BRETO self-assembled nanocolumnns align along the c-axis of the film and play a major role in the improvement of flux pinning and Jc performance over wide magnetic field and angular ranges.

  5. Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System

    1996-06-04

    TAOS is a general-purpose software tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom point-mass, high-speed trajectory. Input files contain aerodynamic coefficients, propulsion data, and a trajectory description. The trajectory description divides the trajectory into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user describe how the trajectory is computed. Output files contain tabulated trajectory information such as position, velocity, and acceleration. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints,more » and trajectories involving more than one vehicle can be computed within a single problem.« less

  6. Flux-mediated syntheses, structural characterization and low-temperature polymorphism of the p-type semiconductor Cu2Ta4O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nacole; Sullivan, Ian; Watkins-Curry, Pilanda; Chan, Julia Y.; Maggard, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low-temperature polymorph of the copper(I)-tantalate, α-Cu2Ta4O11, has been synthesized in a molten CuCl-flux reaction at 665 °C for 1 h and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements (space group Cc (#9), a=10.734(1) Å, b = 6.2506(3) Å, c=12.887(1) Å, β = 106.070(4)°). The α-Cu2Ta4O11 phase is a lower-symmetry monoclinic polymorph of the rhombohedral Cu2Ta4O11 structure (i.e., β-Cu2Ta4O11 space group R 3 ̅ c (#167), a = 6.2190(2) Å, c=37.107(1) Å), and related crystallographically by ahex=amono/√3, bhex=bmono, and chex=3cmonosinβmono. Its structure is similar to the rhombohedral β-Cu2Ta4O11 and is composed of single layers of highly-distorted and edge-shared TaO7 and TaO6 polyhedra alternating with layers of nearly linearly-coordinated Cu(I) cations and isolated TaO6 octahedra. Temperature dependent powder X-ray diffraction data show the α-Cu2Ta4O11 phase is relatively stable under vacuum at 223 K and 298 K, but reversibly transforms to β-Cu2Ta4O11 by at least 523 K and higher temperatures. The symmetry-lowering distortions from β-Cu2Ta4O11 to α-Cu2Ta4O11 arise from the out-of-center displacements of the Ta 5d0 cations in the TaO7 pentagonal bipyramids. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum of the monoclinic α-Cu2Ta4O11 shows an indirect bandgap transition of ∼2.6 eV, with the higher-energy direct transitions starting at ∼2.7 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements on polycrystalline films of α-Cu2Ta4O11 show strong cathodic photocurrents of ∼1.5 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 G solar irradiation.

  7. Exceptionally long-ranged lattice relaxation in oxygen-deficient Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Sugino, Osamu; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-10-01

    The lattice relaxation in oxygen-deficient Ta2O5 is investigated using first-principles calculations. The presence of a charge-neutral oxygen vacancy can result in a long-ranged lattice relaxation which extends beyond 18 Å from the vacancy site. The lattice relaxation has significant effects on the vacancy formation energy as well as the electronic structures. The long-ranged behavior of the lattice relaxation is explained in terms of the Hellmann-Feynman forces and the potential energy surface related to the variation of Ta-O bond lengths.

  8. Trace Perchlorate in Background Ground Water and Local Precipitation, Northern Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, M.; Longmire, P.; Granzow, K. P.; Englert, D.; Yanicak, S.; Larson, T.; Rearick, M.; Heikoop, J.; Perkins, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate occurs at detectable concentrations of 0.07 to 0.45 parts per billion (ppb) in ground water of background quality within the northern Rio Grande basin, New Mexico. Ground-water samples were collected from 47 wells and springs near Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Taos, New Mexico. Analytical methods consisted of liquid and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS). An upper tolerance limit (mean plus two standard deviations) of 0.40 ppb was calculated from 184 analytical results for the background samples. Six distinguishable ground-water zones were sampled based on location, age, and hydrochemistry. In the Los Alamos area, ground water within the mountain-front and mountain-block region is mostly young or modern (less than 50 years). The regional aquifer including the White Rock Canyon springs are of sub-modern age (greater than 50 years). Tritium data from springs north of Taos indicate ground water of modern and sub-modern ages. Background perchlorate concentrations within the Los Alamos area were consistently higher than those measured in the Taos area. Ground water from the Taos area contains less perchlorate and has lower δ18O and δ2H values than ground water from the Los Alamos area. The elevation at which precipitation occurs with respect to recharge and/or the amount of evapotranspiration may play a role in perchlorate concentration in ground water. Natural variability, hydrogeology, and atmospheric inputs may also affect perchlorate concentration in ground water. A linear regression through perchlorate and chloride concentrations for all stations resulted in an r2 = 0. However, the r2 value of the Los Alamos regional aquifer for perchlorate versus chloride was 0.66. Thirteen precipitation samples were collected in the Los Alamos area. Results from eleven of these samples showed no perchlorate greater than 0.05 and 0.009 ppb, the method detection limit (MDL). Two precipitation samples analyzed using the IC

  9. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCE): Improvements and Applications for Studying Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Zeng, Xiping; Li, Xiaowen; Matsui, Toshi; Mohr, Karen; Posselt, Derek; Chern, Jiundar; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Norris, Peter M.; Kang, In-Sik; Choi, Ildae; Hou, Arthur; Lau, K.-M.; Yang, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Convection is the primary transport process in the Earth's atmosphere. About two-thirds of the Earth's rainfall and severe floods derive from convection. In addition, two-thirds of the global rain falls in the tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have been used to improve our understanding of cloud and precipitation processes and phenomena from micro-scale to cloud-scale and mesoscale as well as their interactions with radiation and surface processes. CRMs use sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes and can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems. CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past three decades. It is amulti-dimensional non-hydrostatic CRM that can simulate clouds and cloud systems in different environments. Early improvements and testing were presented in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003a). A review on the application of the GCE to the understanding of precipitation processes can be found in Simpson and Tao (1993) and Tao (2003). In this paper, recent model improvements (microphysics, radiation and land surface processes) are described along with their impact and performance on cloud and precipitation events in different geographic locations via comparisons with observations. In addition, recent advanced applications of the GCE are presented that include understanding the physical processes responsible for diurnal variation, examining the impact of aerosols (cloud condensation nuclei or CCN and ice nuclei or IN) on

  10. Power signatures of electric field and thermal switching regimes in memristive SET transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickel, Patrick R.; Hughart, David; Lohn, Andrew J.; Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the ‘snap-back’ regime of resistive switching hysteresis in bipolar TaO x memristors, identifying power signatures in the electronic transport. Using a simple model based on the thermal and electric field acceleration of ionic mobilities, we provide evidence that the ‘snap-back’ transition represents a crossover from a coupled thermal and electric-field regime to a primarily thermal regime, and is dictated by the reconnection of a ruptured conducting filament. We discuss how these power signatures can be used to limit filament radius growth, which is important for operational properties such as power, speed, and retention.

  11. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  12. Perovskite oxide nanosheets with tunable band-edge potentials and high photocatalytic hydrogen-evolution activity.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Miharu; Oshima, Takayoshi

    2014-11-24

    Perovskite nanosheets of HCa(2-x)Sr(x)Nb3O10 and HCa2Nb(3-y)Ta(y)O10 with controlled band-edge potentials were prepared. They worked as highly efficient heterogeneous photocatalysts for H2 evolution from a water/methanol mixture under band-gap irradiation. The activity was found to depend on the composition. The highest activity was obtained with HCa2Nb2TaO10 nanosheets, recording an apparent quantum yield of approximately 80% at 300 nm, which is the highest value for a nanosheet-based photocatalyst reported to date.

  13. Two Types of Maximally Entangled Bases and Their Mutually Unbiased Property in Cd⊗ C^{d^' }}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Laizhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yuanhong

    2016-08-01

    We first construct a new maximally entangled basis in bipartite systems Cd ⊗ C^{kd} (kin Z+) which is diffrent from the one in Tao et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 14, 2291 (2015)), then we generalize such maximally entangled basis into arbitrary bipartite systems Cd ⊗ C^{d^' }}. We also study the mutual unbiased property of the two types of maximally entangled bases in bipartite systems Cd ⊗ C^{kd}. In particular, explicit examples in C2 ⊗ C4, C2 ⊗ C8 and C3 ⊗ C3 are presented.

  14. Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium with random phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Kaya; Akcasu, A. Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Neutron diffusion in a randomly inhomogeneous multiplying medium is studied. By making use of a random phase assumption we show that the average neutron density approximately satisfies an integral equation in Fourier space, which is solved using Kummer functions. We used multi-dimensional formulation. In the case of one dimension, we obtain the result of Rosenbluth and Tao for the mean total density for large t. In the three-dimensional case, a closed form of solution is derived for the mean total neutron density. Its asymptotic behavior is also investigated for large t.

  15. Composite Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Columnar Cell Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Taconet, Sarah; Bosq, Jacques; Hartl, Dana; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Al-Ghuzlan, Abir

    2016-06-01

    Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid and columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PCT) are uncommon neoplasms. We report the first case of composite MEC and columnar cell variant of PCT. An 86-year-old man consulted for a 47-mm thyroid nodule, cytologically compatible with PCT. Total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis, with support of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, was mixed primary carcinoma of the thyroid, associating an MEC component with predominantly columnar cell variant of PCT. Sixteen months after surgery and external beam radiation therapy, the patient was free of recurrence or distant metastasis. This case report offers an opportunity to highlight the potential pitfalls concerning the interpretation of mucin histochemistry in thyroid tumors. PMID:26755714

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  17. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Berbel, Pere; Obregón, María Jesús; Bernal, Juan; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella

    2007-11-01

    Iodine deficiency remains the most frequent cause worldwide, after starvation, of preventable mental retardation in children. It causes maternal hypothyroxinemia, which affects pregnant women even in apparently iodine-sufficient areas, and often goes unnoticed because L-thyroxine (T4) levels remain within the normal range, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is not increased. Even a mild hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and experimental data clearly demonstrate that it damages the cortical cytoarchitecture of the fetal brain. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends a supplement of 150 microg iodine/day during pregnancy and lactation, in addition to the use of iodized salt. We discuss the importance of iodine supplementation to ensure adequate T4 levels in all women who are considering conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. PMID:17962037

  18. Severe TSH Elevation and Pituitary Enlargement After Changing Thyroid Replacement to Compounded T4/T3 Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pappy, Adlai L; Oyesiku, Nelson; Ioachimescu, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case of iatrogenic hypothyroidism as a result of compounded thyroid hormone (T4/T3) therapy. The thyroid replacement was changed from 175 µg levothyroxine (LT4) to 57/13.5 µg compounded T4/T3 daily in order to improve the T3 level, despite normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This resulted in clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism and high TSH level (150 µIU/mL). Six months later, the patient was referred to our clinic for abnormal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. On reinitiating a physiologic dose of LT4, clinical and biochemical abnormalities resolved and the pituitary gland size decreased. Our case emphasizes the importance of using TSH level to gauge dose adjustments in primary hypothyroidism. Also, it underscores the current American Thyroid Association recommendation against routine use of compounded thyroid hormone therapy. PMID:27540557

  19. Severe TSH Elevation and Pituitary Enlargement After Changing Thyroid Replacement to Compounded T4/T3 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pappy, Adlai L.; Oyesiku, Nelson; Ioachimescu, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case of iatrogenic hypothyroidism as a result of compounded thyroid hormone (T4/T3) therapy. The thyroid replacement was changed from 175 µg levothyroxine (LT4) to 57/13.5 µg compounded T4/T3 daily in order to improve the T3 level, despite normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This resulted in clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism and high TSH level (150 µIU/mL). Six months later, the patient was referred to our clinic for abnormal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. On reinitiating a physiologic dose of LT4, clinical and biochemical abnormalities resolved and the pituitary gland size decreased. Our case emphasizes the importance of using TSH level to gauge dose adjustments in primary hypothyroidism. Also, it underscores the current American Thyroid Association recommendation against routine use of compounded thyroid hormone therapy. PMID:27540557

  20. The Delayed Risk Stratification System in the Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walczyk, Agnieszka; Pałyga, Iwona; Gąsior-Perczak, Danuta; Gadawska-Juszczyk, Klaudia; Szymonek, Monika; Trybek, Tomasz; Lizis-Kolus, Katarzyna; Szyska-Skrobot, Dorota; Mikina, Estera; Hurej, Stefan; Słuszniak, Janusz; Mężyk, Ryszard; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Context There has been a marked increase in the detection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) over the past few years, which has improved the prognosis. However, it is necessary to adjust treatment and monitoring strategies relative to the risk of an unfavourable disease course. Materials and Methods This retrospective study examined data from 916 patients with DTC who received treatment at a single centre between 2000 and 2013. The utility of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) recommended systems for early assessment of the risk of recurrent/persistent disease was compared with that of the recently recommended delayed risk stratification (DRS) system. Results The PPV and NPV for the ATA (24.59% and 95.42%, respectively) and ETA (24.28% and 95.68%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for the DRS (56.76% and 98.5%, respectively) (p<0.0001). The proportion of variance for predicting the final outcome was 15.8% for ATA, 16.1% for ETA and 56.7% for the DRS. Recurrent disease was rare (1% of patients), and was nearly always identified in patients at intermediate/high risk according to the initial stratification (9/10 cases). Conclusions The DRS showed a better correlation with the risk of persistent disease than the early stratification systems and allows personalisation of follow-up. If clinicians plan to alter the intensity of surveillance, patients at intermediate/high risk according to the early stratification systems should remain within the specialized centers; however, low risk patients can be referred to endocrinologists or other appropriate practitioners for long-term follow-up, as these patients remained at low risk after risk re-stratification. PMID:27078258

  1. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  2. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  3. Urinary cadmium level in children between nine to fifteen years old in three Sub-districts of Tak Province in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwong, S.; Sthiannopkao, S.; Kim, K. W.; Chuenchoojit, S.; Poopatpiboon, K.; Poodendean, C.; Supanpaiboon, W.

    2009-07-01

    Urinary cadmium (UCd) is an indicator of the long term exposure of human health. The objective of this research was to study UCd of people aged between 9 to 12 and 13 to 15 years old in both sexes in Prathadpadeang, in Mae Tao and Mae Ku. 849 urines were collected, and determined by using the ICP-MS. The results revealed that 64.30% had UCd less than 1 μg/gCr. XUCd in 3 Sub-districts were 0.132 μg/gCr in Prathadpadeang, 0.141 μg/gCr in Mae Tao, and 0.105 μg/gCr in Mae Ku. The difference in the 3 Sub-districts was significant. XUCd were 0.125 μg/gCr and 0.129 μg/gCr in boys and girls, and 0.119 μg/gCr and 0.135 μg/gCr in age group 9-12 and 13-15 years old.

  4. United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099

  5. [Buerger's disease or thromboangiitis obliterans].

    PubMed

    Léger, P; Pathak, A; Hajji, L; Faivre-Carrere, C; Boccalon, H

    2001-03-01

    The Buerger's disease or thromboangiitis obliterants (TAO) is a non atheromatous inflammatory disease which alters medium and small-sized arteries and veins. It can be found world-wide, but it is more frequent in Eastern Europe, Middle East, Asia and Southeast Asia. Young men and smokers are the most affected. The incidence of this disease is increasing among women. The cause of this disease is unknown yet. The most striking fact is the relationship between TAO and tobacco. The diagnostic is most often late in front of a digital leg ischemia. Complementary exams help to its diagnostic and management but none of them are specific out of the pathology. The affection is evolving towards distal gangrene with amputation in 5 to 10% of cases. Prostacyclin demonstrated its efficiency. Revascularization surgery is difficult but sometimes possible. Sympathectomy, medular stimulation must be suggested. The patient survival is not at stake and the prognosis is above all functional. The most important element in the treatment is stop smoking definitively. PMID:12555498

  6. Colloidal metal oxide nanoparticle systems: the new promising way to prevent antibiotic resistance during treatment of local infectious processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasenkov, Y.; Frolov, G.; Pogorelsky, I.; Latuta, N.; Gusev, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Leont'ev, V.

    2015-11-01

    New bactericidal containing nanoparticles colloids for application in dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, urology, obstetrics, gynaecology, ENT, proctology have been developed. The various water colloidal nanodispersive systems of metals and oxides have been obtained by means of electric impulse - condensation (electroerosion) method. These systems are based pure elements and alloys of argentum (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3), tantalum oxide (TaO), vanadium oxide (VO2), cobalt oxide (CoO), tantalum dioxide TaO2, zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO) and mixed suspensions of titanium, aluminium and molybdenum oxides. The research has been made on culture of dentobacterial plaque and mixed culture issued from gingival spaces. The composition of culture was identified with S.aureus, S.epidermidis and nonfermentable kinds of E.coli. The observation period lasted more than nineteen days. All solutions showed highly prolonged bactericidal activity in dilutions from the whole solution 1-20 mg/L. The bactericidal activity of powder specimen of silica containing Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles used as dental filling material and disintegrates of composite materials (produced by “StomaDent” CJSC) have been studied. Tested materials have long (up to 19 days and more) bactericidal activity.

  7. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  8. [A Chinese Philosophical Foundation for the Sacred Mission of Nurses: The Ways of Heaven and Life are Correlated].

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hsiu

    2016-08-01

    Clinical nursing practice uses professional nursing techniques, empathy, and moral judgment to help relieve the pain of patients who are suffering physically or mentally from trauma or illness. Thus, nursing involves sacred tasks. According to Confucian reasoning, morality is expressed through everyday actions. Providing care to patients arouses concern and sympathy in the caregiver, which induces him or her to fully apply professional knowledge to this task. This conduct demonstrates the moral conscience of nurses. The Chinese adage "Tian-tao hsing-ming hsiang kuan tung" (the way of heaven and life are correlated), attributed to Northern Song dynasty scholar Zhang Tsai, aptly explains the sacred mission of the nursing profession. Zhang held that all humans are born with a conscience that is given by heaven. However, human senses and desires may suppress this conscience. As Zhang Tsai suggested, the conscience must be cultivated in order to be manifested. The increase in recent years of international academic discussion / research related to the value and meaning of nursing and of exploration into how to promote the moral competence of nurses, not only provide support to Zhang's argument that "tian-tao" and "hsing-ming" are correlated but also provide positive momentum toward enhancing the self-worth of nurses and enabling patients to receive better care. PMID:27492300

  9. First-principles study of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Sun, Honggang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Zhao, Xian; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-08-01

    First-principles calculations of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride are performed with the density functional theory plane-wave pseudopotential method. The analysis of the electronic structure shows a covalent nature in Ta-N bonds and Ta-O bonds. The hybridization of anion 2p and Ta 5d states results in enhanced dispersion of the valence band, raising the top of the valence band and leading to the visible-light response in TaON. It has a high dielectric constant, and the anisotropy is displayed obviously in the lower energy region. Our calculation indicated that TaON has excellent dielectric properties along [010] direction. Various optical properties, including the reflectivity, absorption coefficient, refractive index, and the energy-loss spectrum are derived from the complex dielectric function. We also present phonon dispersion relation, zone-center optical mode frequency, density of phonon states, and some thermodynamic properties. The experimental IR modes (B(u) at 808 cm(-1) and A(u) at 863 cm(-1)) are reproduced well and assigned to a combination of stretching and bending vibrations for the Ta-N bond and Ta-O bond. The thermodynamic properties of TaON, such as heat capacity and Debye temperature, which were important parameters for the measurement of crystal physical properties, were first given for reference. Our investigations provide useful information for the potential application of this material.

  10. Electronics for the pulsed rubidium clock: design and characterization.

    PubMed

    Calosso, Claudio E; Micalizio, Salvatore; Godone, Aldo; Bertacco, Elio K; Levi, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Pulsing the different operation phases of a vapor-cell clock (optical pumping, interrogation, and detection) has been recognized as one of the most effective techniques to reduce light shift and then to improve the stability perspectives of vapor cell clocks. However, in order to take full advantage of the pulsed scheme, a fast-gated electronics is required, the times involved being of the order of milliseconds. In this paper we describe the design and the implementation of the electronics that synchronizes the different phases of the clock operation, as well as of the electronics that is mainly devoted to the thermal stabilization of the clock physics package. We also report some characterization measurements, including a measurement of the clock frequency stability. In particular, in terms of Allan deviation, we measured a frequency stability of 1.2 x 10(-12) tao(-1/2) for averaging times up to tao = 10(5) s, a very interesting result by itself and also for a possible space application of such a clock.

  11. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Feiqing; Pan, Song; Wu, Zujian; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Shifang

    2012-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (Z1 and Z3) collected from peach in Henan Province, China, were determined. The genomes of both Z1 and Z3 were found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis showed that genomic sequences of Z1 and Z3 isolates shared 67.4%-82.9% and 67.2%-82.6% identity, respectively, with the other eight isolates of ACLSV that have been reported previously. Based on the putative amino acid sequences of the products of the three ORFs, Z1 and Z3 isolates showed the greatest identity to isolate PBM1 (GenBank accession number AJ243438) from plum and the least identity with isolate Ta Tao5 (GenBank Accession Number: EU223295) from peach. Considering the low level of sequence identity between Z1/Z3 isolate and Ta Tao5 isolate, two types of ACLSV may exist in peach.

  13. Early Observations in the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, C.; Bianco, F.; Lehner, M.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Schwamb, M.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Rice, J.; Lissauer, J.; Lee, T.; King, S. K.; Wang, A.; Wang, S. Y.; Wen, C. Y.; Chen, W. P.; Ip, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Kinoshita, D.; Lin, H. C.; Mondal, S.; Zhang, Z. W.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y. I.

    2005-12-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) is a program dedicated to performing a survey of the size and number distribution for small bodies (< 10km) in the Kuiper Belt. These objects are too faint to be detected through traditional means, but can be observed via their occultations of background stars. This technique is challenging due to the low event rate, the short event duration (< 200ms), marginal signal to noise of detections, and the possibility of a high false detection rate due to atmospheric fluctuations or other terrestrial phenomena. TAOS overcomes these obstacles with a four robotic telescope array (50cm) located in Lulin, Taiwan. Each telescope is equipped with a 2048 x 2048 pixel CCD camera. All four telescopes synchronously monitor up to 2000 stars autonomously at 5 Hz. We discuss the current state of the survey and the overall performance of the system during predicted asteroid occultations. In particular, we discuss our two telescope response to the occultation by (1723) Klemola of HIP 050535 (V = 8.46), with a maximal duration of 1.3 seconds and 7.2 magnitude drop.

  14. United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze.

  15. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  16. Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

    1989-01-01

    The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle.

  17. Radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease: case selection and restrictions recommended to patients in North America.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, L

    1997-04-01

    Each of the three major therapies for Graves' disease has its own advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications. Today, radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is the most commonly employed means of therapy for Graves' disease in the United States, with approximately 70% of patients so treated after initial presentation and an additional fraction of arguably 10-15% treated with RAI after failure of antithyroid drugs or surgery. RAI therapy is acknowledged to have the clear-cut advantage of being safe, with low morbidity and cost. The indications for RAI therapy are clear and noncontroversial for most patients with Graves' disease. Moreover, RAI treatment is employed by some thyroidologists for subclinical thyrotoxicosis (normal T4 or T3 but immeasurable TSH), particularly in patients > age 45 due to risks of atrial fibrillation. RAI therapy is not considered indicated or is contraindicated during breast feeding and in pregnancy, subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, struma ovarii, pituitary (TSH-driven) hyperthyroidism, euthyroid, hyperthyroxinemia, and thyroid hormone resistance. Opinions vary on the use of RAI therapy in children with Graves' disease; generally, a lower age cutoff of 17 years is acceptable in most clinics. Even more controversial is whether RAI therapy in the presence of Graves' ophthalmology constitutes a risk for worsening ophthalmopathy. Resolution of this latter issue awaits more definitive studies, but RAI therapy is likely to remain the first choice for most patients with Graves' disease.

  18. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake by Positron Emission Tomography in Extraocular Muscles of Patients with and without Graves' Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    García-Rojas, Leonardo; Adame-Ocampo, Gloria; Alexánderson, Erick; Tovilla-Canales, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET) in extraocular muscles (EOMs) of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) versus patients without GO. Design. Prospective, observational, comparative, and cross-sectional study. Participants. Thirty-two eyes of patients with GO and seventy eyes of patients without GO. Methods. We prospectively included patients older than 18 years of age with and without GO. FDG-PET imaging study was performed; standardized unit value (SUVmax) was quantified in EOMs. Standard deviation and significant statistical difference (P < 0.05) were calculated. Results. Thirty-two eyes of sixteen patients of the GO group were included, with a mean age of 44.31 (20–71) years. Seventy eyes of thirty-five patients of the group without GO were included, with a mean age of 49.20 (24–77) years. EOMs average uptake of the groups with and without GO were 3.38 ± 1.31 and 1.89 ± 0.51 SUVmax (P < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion. FDG uptake was significantly increased in EOMs of patients with GO. PET gives valuable information and may be a helpful tool in detecting, localizing, and quantifying GO inflammation. Further research is needed to define the role of PET in detecting, grading, and following up GO in order to optimize treatment in the inflammatory stage. PMID:23476741

  19. Mutation in collagen II alpha 1 isoforms delineates Stickler and Wagner syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Soler, Vincent; Quiette, Valencia; Powell, Caldwell; Yanovitch, Tammy; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Luo, Xiaoyan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Nading, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy with phenotypic overlap with Wagner syndrome. The common Stickler syndrome type I is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with causal mutations in collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1). Wagner syndrome is associated with mutations in versican (VCAN), which encodes for a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. A three-generation Caucasian family variably diagnosed with either syndrome was screened for sequence variants in the COL2A1 and VCAN genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples derived from saliva were collected from all family members (six affected and four unaffected individuals). Complete sequencing of COL2A1 and VCAN was performed on two affected individuals. Direct sequencing of remaining family members was conducted if the discovered variants followed segregation. Results A base-pair substitution (c.258C>A) in exon 2 of COL2A1 cosegregated with familial disease status. This known mutation occurs in a highly conserved site that causes a premature stop codon (p.C86X). The mutation was not seen in 1,142 ethnically matched control DNA samples. Conclusions Premature stop codons in COL2A1 exon 2 lead to a Stickler syndrome type I ocular-only phenotype with few or no systemic manifestations. Mutation screening of COL2A1 exon 2 in families with autosomal dominant vitreoretinopathy is important for accurate clinical diagnosis. PMID:23592912

  20. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  1. The non tumour uptake of (111)In-octreotide creates new clinical indications in benign diseases, but also in oncology.

    PubMed

    Cascini, G L; Cuccurullo, V; Mansi, L

    2010-02-01

    The use of somatostatin (SS) analogues in humans takes advantage by the availability of many related chemical forms that can be used for receptor therapy and, after radiolabelling, for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy. The first proposed radiocompound, yet clinically widely diffuse, has been (111)In-octreotide (OCT), followed by positron emission tomography (PET) and beta emitter tracers. The main field of clinical applications is in neuroendocrine tumours (NET), starting by the demonstration of SS receptors (SSR) on the majority of NET, particularly on gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumours. Uptake of SS analogues can also be due to a SSR expression on non malignant cells when activated, as lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts , vascular cells. Because of this uptake clinical indications can be found also in active benign diseases, as Grave's ophthalmopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, histiocitosis, sarcoidosis, idiopatic pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, these cells can also determine the OCT in vivo uptake in tumours non expressing in vitro SSR, as non-snall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because of a different kinetic respect to SCLC a differential histotype diagnosis could be obtained. Starting from this premise OCT can also allows radioguided surgery in tumours non expressing SSR. Finally a relevant clinical role can be defined in the a priori recruitment and as marker of therapeutic efficacy in all the therapeutic strategies utilizing SSR, both in malignant and benign diseases.

  2. Graves Opthalmopathy and Psychoendocrinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Asaad A.; Amr, Mostafa A.; Araafa, Lamiaa F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the psychiatric and endocrinological changes in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO). Design: A prospective, controlled, University Hospital based study Subjects and Methods: The current study comprised 60 patients diagnosed with GO at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center. Thirty five patients of them with moderate to severe GO formed the study group and twenty five patients with negligible to very mild GO formed the control group in the euthyroid state. The study group was further subdivided based on their predominant clinical signs into a proptosis subgroup and a muscle restriction subgroup. Psychiatric changes were assessed with the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ). Biochemical analyses included serum-free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) activity and anti-thyroglobulin particle agglutination (TGPA) and antithyroid microsomal particle agglutination (MCPA). Results: The proptosis group reported significantly higher scores on anxiety, depression, and phobia than the muscle restriction group (P<0.0001). The proptosis and muscle restriction subgroups reported significantly higher scores on all subscales compared to the control group (P<0.05). The scale scores of depression and phobia showed a positive correlation with scores of anxiety (P<0.0001). The serum TRAb activity showed a significant correlation with anxiety, phobia and hysteria (P<0.0001). Conclusion: The psychiatric aspect of GO should be evaluated during routine follow-up and should be considered when making management decisions. Thyroid specific antibodies may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of GO. PMID:20616926

  3. Autoimmune thyroid disease: an expanding spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D A; Pandian, M R; Carlton, E

    1987-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease classically has included Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis probably also includes focal thyroiditis, fibrous thyroiditis, primary myxedema, and Hashitoxicosis as variants. Graves' disease is associated with ophthalmopathy and dermopathy, and recent evidence suggests that these manifestations are autoimmune phenomena as well. Other associated autoimmune disorders include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and antigen-antibody complex nephritis. Nonthyroid endocrine autoimmune deficiency disorders also have been classified as part of the spectrum of thyroid autoimmune disease. With the recent recognition of the spectrum of autoimmune mechanisms and antibody types and methods to distinguish antibody functions or types, our understanding of postpartum and neonatal thyroid disorders has been advanced considerably. The spectrum of neonatal thyroid disorders in the infants of women with autoimmune disease relates to the levels and types of antithyroid antibodies acquired from the mother. Finally, there is suggestive evidence that nonspecific goiter, including simple adolescent goiter and multinodular goiter as well as some cases of sporadic cretinism, may be part of an even more expanded spectrum of autoimmune thyroid disease.

  4. The diagnostic criteria of Graves' disease and especially the thyrotropin receptor antibody; our own experience.

    PubMed

    Paunkovic, Nebojsa; Paunkovic, Jane

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) has a stimulating activity and is the major pathogenic factor in Graves' disease (GD). In spite of that, TRAb is not routinely examined in clinical practice. The aim of this article is to briefly review the subject and suggest protocols for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with GD based on our own studies and referring especially to TRAb. Clinical symptoms and signs and thyroid hormones may have poor sensitivity or specificity, especially in cases of endocrine ophthalmopathy and subclinical hyperthyroidism. In these cases the TRAb test is 98% sensitive and specific with a diagnostic accuracy of almost 99%. By this test it is possible to differentiate between autoimmune and other forms of thyrotoxicosis such as autonomous hyperthyroidism, destructive thyroiditis, iodine induced hyperthyroidism etc. Antithyroid drugs decrease serum TRAb levels and also induce immune remission. If after treatment TRAb remains increased as in about 30%of our cases, patients will relapse. In pregnant women with GD the follow-up of serum TRAb levels is also important as predictive of immune thyroid disease in the newborn. Data presented in this article confirm that the determination of serum TRAb levels in some rare hyperthyroid disorders, such as associated autoimmune and autonomous forms and in epidemiological studies, is also justified.

  5. Volume measurements of normal orbital structures by computed tomographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.; Gehring, D.G.; Gorman, C.A.; Brennan, M.D.; Jackson, I.T.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic digital data and special off-line computer graphic analysis were used to measure volumes of normal orbital soft tissue, extraocular muscle, orbital fat, and total bony orbit in vivo in 29 patients (58 orbits). The upper limits of normal for adult bony orbit, soft tissue exclusive of the globe, orbital fat, and muscle are 30.1 cm/sup 3/, 20.0 cm/sup 3/, 14.4 cm/sup 3/, and 6.5 cm/sup 3/, respectively. There are small differences in men as a group compared with women but minimal difference between right and left orbits in the same person. The accuracy of the techniques was established at 7%-8% for these orbit structural volumes in physical phantoms and in simulated silicone orbit phantoms in dry skulls. Mean values and upper limits of normal for volumes were determined in adult orbital structures for future comparison with changes due to endocrine ophthalmopathy, trauma, and congenital deformity.

  6. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  7. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  8. Stickler syndrome: further mutations in COL11A1 and evidence for additional locus heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Richards, A J; Yates, J R; Scott, J D; Pope, M; Snead, M P

    1999-01-01

    Stickler syndrome (hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy) is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with ocular, oro-facial, auditory and skeletal manifestations. It is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with the majority of families having mutations in the gene encoding type II collagen (COL2A1) and exhibiting a characteristic 'membranous' or type 1 vitreous phenotype. More recently a novel mutation in the gene encoding the alpha1 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A1) was reported in a Stickler syndrome pedigree with a different 'beaded' or type 2 vitreous phenotype. In the present study five more families with the type 2 vitreous phenotype were examined for linkage to four candidate genes: COL2A1, COL5A2, COL11A1 and COL11A2. Two families were linked to COL11A1 and sequencing identified mutations resulting in shortened alphal(XI) collagen chains, one via exon skipping and the other via a multiexon deletion. One of the families showed weak linkage to COL5A2 but sequencing the open reading frame failed to identify a mutation. In the remaining two families all four loci were excluded by linkage analysis. These data confirm that mutations in COL11A1 cause Stickler syndrome with the type2 vitreous phenotype and also reveal further locus heterogeneity.

  9. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    PubMed

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years.

  10. Psoriasis and uveitis: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Naiara Abreu de Azevedo; de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Paim; Follador, Ivonise; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Rêgo, Vitória Regina

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a systemic, chronic, immunologically mediated disease, with significant genetic and environmental influences. It affects from 1 to 3% of the world population. Recently, the relation between psoriasis and different comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome, has become extremely relevant. Uveitis is characterized by a process of intraocular inflammation resulting from various causes. Considering psoriasis and uveitis as immune-mediated diseases, this study aims to evaluate the possible association of psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis with uveitis and its subtypes. Few studies have evaluated the association of uveitis and psoriasis without joint involvement. It seems that psoriasis without arthropathy is not a risk factor for the development of uveitis. Uveitis tends to develop more frequently in patients with arthropathy or pustular psoriasis than in patients with other forms of psoriasis. Ophthalmic examination should be performed periodically in patients with psoriasis and uveitis. If ophthalmopathy is diagnosed, the patient should receive adequate treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs or immunomodulators to prevent vision loss. PMID:23197207

  11. Distributions of landslides, vegetation, and related sediment yields during typhoon events in northwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Hongey; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    This study examined landslides caused by typhoon events in the upstream area of the Tao-Cheng River in northwestern Taiwan during a 13-year period, 1996 to 2008. Data from six typhoon events were compiled to analyze the relevant characteristics of landslides, vegetation, and changes in sediment discharge with particulate carbon in rivers in this area. The landslide ratio, the ratio of the landslide area to the total study area, was determined to be between 0.60% and 1.29%, and a high new generation ratio and low reactivated ratio of landslides were noted. Analysis of different bands of satellite images taken over a 10-year period disclosed that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the upstream area of the Tao-Cheng River ranged from 0.47 to 0.63 before typhoon events and from 0.38 to 0.46 after typhoon events. The low landslide ratio and high new generation ratio in this area indicated that sporadic landslides tend to occur in new areas and do not have a great impact on vegetation conditions. Thus, the decrease in NDVI after typhoon events was caused by the seasonal effect with withering of vegetation. On the other hand, landslides in this area tend to occur on nonforest land because of the interventions of external forces, such as human developments and reclamation. Geological materials produced by landslides and vegetation flushed by heavy rainfall during typhoon periods have a great effect on the amount of sediment discharge and particulate carbon discharge in the rivers. Furthermore, during typhoon periods, the amount of accumulated rainfall has a greater impact than the peak rainfall intensity on the increase of sediment and particulate carbon in rivers and on the decrease in the NDVI. Analysis of the particulate carbon from the rivers in this area revealed that in the rainy season, high strength and accumulated rainfall will lead to more sediment discharge and particulate carbon discharge in rivers. However, the particulate carbon is limited

  12. An Improved Method for TIMS High Precision Nd Isotopic Analysis of Very Small Aliquots (1- 10ng) With Example Application in Garnet Sm/Nd Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, E. F.; Harvey, J.; Mehl, L. Y.; Peterman, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Technological and scientific developments have demonstrated both the attainability and the utility of very high precision (i.e. 5-20ppm 2 σ) Nd isotopic measurements with TIMS. However such high precision has been limited to relatively large aliquots of Nd, on the order of several hundred nanograms. Several potential applications of precise Nd isotopic measurements, including garnet Sm/Nd geochronology, do not always permit such large samples, instead yielding only a few nanograms of Nd. We have explored and tested an improved method for Nd isotopic analysis of such small (1-10ng) aliquots of Nd using the NdO+ method with a Triton TIMS at Boston University. Analyzing Nd isotopes as the oxide is a well known technique, frequently involving an oxygen bleed valve. Instead, we forego the bleed valve and load samples with a TaO slurry which provides the oxygen source. Using an in-house Nd isotopic standard solution, 4ng loads easily yield stable 2.0-2.5 volt beams resulting in internal precisions of 10ppm 2 σ RSE. Within barrel external precision of 4ng loads of the Nd standard is 13ppm 2 σ RSD (n=20). Long term (6 months, six analysts) external precision of 4ng loads of the standard is currently 23ppm 2 σ RSD (n=55) suggesting that further improvements are possible. As a further test of this method, we dissolved a natural rock sample (a metapelite), separated the Nd using TRU- spec and MLA column chemistry, and loaded nineteen 4ng loads in one barrel. Within barrel external precision was 21ppm 2 σ RSD (n=18). This precision represents a significant advance over previous NdO+ analyses of small samples using an oxygen bleed valve. The TaO loading method for small Nd aliquots is useful in Sm/Nd garnet geochronology as exemplified by two case studies. Garnets from eclogite facies gneisses from Norway ran very well with 2.4-18ng loads and yielded age precision as good as 0.8 million years 2 σ. Conversely, garnets from blueschist facies rocks from Sifnos, Greece, ran

  13. Improvements to our Understanding of Toronto-Area Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Cynthia

    Using eleven years of trace gas column measurements at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), along with data from complementary sources, such as satellites, surface in situ measurements, and nearby rural column measurements, this thesis aims to improve our understanding of the sources of air pollution and the causes of variability in atmospheric composition over the Toronto area. The relative influence of chemical production and direct emissions on Toronto-area O3 and CO were determined using GEOS-Chem model simulations. 28 pollution events (defined as enhanced O3 or CO lower-tropospheric (0-5 km) columns that coincided with surface O3 exceedances) were found in the TAO dataset between 2002 and 2010. O3 columns over Toronto during pollution events are influenced by urban and industrial anthropogenic NOx emissions, biogenic isoprene emissions from the eastern United States, and soil NOx emissions from the mid- and western United States. During pollution events, Toronto CO columns are greatly influenced by nearby fossil fuel emissions and isoprene oxidation. C2H6 columns are often enhanced during pollution events, as the sources of C2H6 are similar to those of O3 and CO. HCN columns are assumed to be enhanced in biomass burning plumes, and thus, aid in identifying transport of biomass burning emissions over Toronto. Sensitivity to meteorological conditions was examined as well, and five case studies were presented in detail. Passage of the polar vortex over the Toronto area was determined by increases in scaled potential vorticity (PV) that coincide with outliers in the HF stratospheric time series. Confirmed with polar PV maps and reductions in N2O stratospheric columns, 53 polar intrusion events were identified in the 2002 to 2013 TAO time series. The effect on HF, HCl, O3, and N 2O was studied, and we found these events caused a significant increase in HF-column winter/spring variability, and a small increase (on average) in stratospheric O3

  14. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2015-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  15. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of perovskite oxynitride SrTaO2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Y.-G.; Jeong, I.-K.

    2016-09-01

    Perovskite oxynitrides exhibit emergent physical properties driven by a substitution of nitrogen for oxygen. The nitrogen substitution distorts the octahedra and induces octahedral tilting which are responsible for a relaxor-like temperature-insensitive dielectric response. To study the local structural evolution of oxynitride SrTaO2N under pressure, we performed in-situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopy measurements with a diamond anvil cell up to a pressure of P = 19 GPa. We find that forbidden modes were active, indicating a lowering of local symmetry from non-polar I4/mcm due to the octahedral distortion. Under pressure, a mode associated with TaO4N2 exhibits a negative wavenumber shift and merges with a nearby mode at a pressure of P ≃ 4.2 GPa. This result indicates a suppression of octahedral tilting under pressure.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Nakamurella multipartita type strain (Y-104T)

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Hope; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Sims, David; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Meincke, Linda; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Detter, John C.; Brettin, Thomas; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Nakamurella multipartita (Yoshimi et al. 1996) Tao et al. 2004 is the type species of the monospecific genus Nakamurella in the actinobacterial suborder Frankineae. The nonmotile, coccus-shaped strain was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing synthetic wastewater, and is capable of accumulating large amounts of polysaccharides in its cells. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Nakamurellaceae. The 6,060,298 bp long single replicon genome with its 5415 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21304699

  17. Rotational properties of ten main belt asteroids - Analysis of the results obtained by photoelectric photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Burchi, R.; D'Ambrosio, V.

    1985-01-01

    The results of photoelectric light curve observations of 10 asteroids are reported. The observations were carried out using the 50-cm telescope of the Teramo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and the 91-cm telescope of the Catania Astronomical Observatory during the 1983-1984 oppositions. The reduced data indicate the following main belt asteroids: 11 Partenope; 129 Antigone; and 20 Massalia. The asteroids 41 Daphne, 344 Desiderata, and 31 Euphrosyne were also identified. The rotation period of 11 Partenope was P = 7.83 hours, and that of 34 Desiderata P = 10,53 hours. The shape and the pole coordinates of 20 Massalia, 31 Euphrosyne, and 29 Antigone were derived, and those of 41 Daphne were confirmed. The lightcurves of the remaining asteroids are given, and some of their rotational properties and morphological features are discussed.

  18. Pressure and disenchantment in physicians-Part I: Developing an approach to reconnect with what is noble about medicine.

    PubMed

    Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-01-01

    Physicians are faced with many stressors today that place them at risk of disenchantment, depression, and burnout. Although this is costly to the individual physician, it is equally costly to society, because physician stress can lead to exercise of poor judgment and medical errors. It also threatens to exacerbate physician shortages, as more physicians opt to retire or, in some cases, change careers altogether. In this essay, suggestions are made as to how to deal with these stressors that, if used, can ameliorate them at least to some degree. In a companion essay, a Chinese spiritual text, the Tao Te Ching, will be explored in depth as yet another tool that physicians can use as a guide for living with less stress. PMID:27638446

  19. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  20. Damping of thermal acoustic oscillations in hydrogen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Youfan; Timmerhaus, Klaus D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic waves initiated by a large temperature gradient along a tube are defined as thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs). These oscillations have been damped by introducing such sound absorbing techniques as acoustic filters, resonators, etc.. These devices serve as an acoustic sink that is used to absorb or dissipate the acoustic energy thereby eliminating or damping such oscillations. Several empirical damping techniques, such as attaching a resonator as a side branch or inserting a wire in the tube, have been developed in the past and have provided reasonable success. However, the effect of connecting tube radius, length, and resonator volume on the damping of thermal acoustic oscillations has not been evaluated quantitatively. Further, these methods have not been effective when the oscillating tube radius was relatively large. Detailed theoretical analyses of these techniques including a newly developed method for damping oscillations in a tube of relatively large radius are provided in this presentation.

  1. First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze. Western Science Meets Eastern Wisdom. Experiences of Scientists and Intellectuals for the Creation of a New Paradigm of Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Conference was organized and supported by: Nei Dan School (European School of Internal Martial Arts), NIB (Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Bioengineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Institute of Cardiology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna), WACIMA (Worldwide Association Chinese Internal Martial Arts), Arti D’Oriente (Magazine of Eastern culture and traditions), Nuovo Orizzonte (Taiji Quan School in Florence), Samurai (Journal on Martial Arts), and Pinus (First National Institute for the Unification of Medical Strategies). Nei Dan School (www.taichineidan.com, neidan@libero.it) was in charge of the organization. Future meetings of the Centro studi ‘Tao and Science’ will take place in spring 2007 in Firenze and in October 2007 in Bologna. For information: E-mail: neidan@libero.it; web site: www.taichineidan.com, www.taoandscience.com PMID:18317548

  2. First-principles study on phase transition and ferroelectricity in lithium niobate and tantalate

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoura, Kazuaki Ohta, Masataka; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki

    2015-08-14

    The phase transitions and ferroelectricity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} have been investigated theoretically from first principles. The phonon analyses and the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ferroelectric phase transition is not conventional displacive type but order-disorder type with strong correlation between cation displacements. According to the evaluated potential energy surfaces around the paraelectric structures, the large difference in ferroelectricity between the two oxides results from the little difference in short-range interionic interaction between Nb-O and Ta-O. As the results of the crystal orbital overlap population analyses, the different short-range interaction originates from the difference in covalency between Nb4d-O2p and Ta5d-O2p orbitals, particularly d{sub xz}-p{sub x}/d{sub yz}-p{sub y} orbitals (π orbitals), from the electronic point of view.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  4. Dynamics of Li+ dipoles at very low concentration in quantum paraelectric potassium tantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dec, J.; Miga, S.; Trybuła, Z.; Kaszyńska, K.; Kleemann, W.

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of Li+ dipoles distributed in the quantum paraelectric matrix of potassium tantalate is investigated via linear and nonlinear dielectric response. It is found that the highly diluted solid solution K0.995Li0.005TaO3, KLT(005), reveals nearly ideal Debye-type dipolar relaxation with conventional frequency dispersion at intermediate temperatures, 30

  5. Installation and commissioning of a cryogen distribution system for the TPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. H.; Hsiao, F. Z.; Li, H. C.; Lin, M. C.; Wang, C.; Liao, W. R.; Lin, T. F.; Chiou, W. S.; Chang, S. H.; Chuang, P. S. D.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned to transfer liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid helium (LHe) from storage dewars to superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities for the 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) project. The cryogen distribution system comprises one distribution valve box (DVB), four control valve boxes (CVB) and seven sections of multichannel transfer line (MCL). The DVB distributes the LHe and LN2 to the CVB, and then to the SRF cavities through independent vacuum-jacketed transfer lines. The vaporized GHe and GN2 from the cryomodules are collected via the MCL. The cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned from October 2014 to the end of March 2015. This paper presents the installation, pre-commissioning and commissioning of the cryogen distribution system, and describes the heat load test. Thermal acoustic oscillation (TAO) was found in the GHe process line; this phenomenon and its solution are also presented and discussed.

  6. Thermal stability of oxide particles in 12Cr ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiaodong; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Jang, Jinsung

    2012-09-01

    12Cr ferritic ODS steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and hot rolling processes. Thermal stability of the oxide particles in the ODS steel sample was evaluated by isothermal annealing at 1250 °C for 500 h. High density YTaO4 particles with a mean size of about 9 nm were observed in the as hipped sample. A significant coarsening of the YTaO4 particles was observed after hot rolling at 1200 °C. Additional coarsening, as well as phase transformation from monoclinic YTaO4 to cubic Y3TaO7 was detected after isothermal annealing at 1250 °C. These results imply that heat treatment temperatures of the ODS steel during fabrication processes should be controlled as low as possible to avoid the undesirable coarsening of oxide precipitates.

  7. An enhanced Whipple Bumper system - Impact resistance of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J.; Mount, A.; Herren, K.; Nettles, A.; Semmel, C.; Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    For long-duration space flights where human occupation is expected, micrometeroid and debris shields are necessary to prevent puncture of the pressure vessels. Current 'Whipple Bumper' designs range from single thin sheets of aluminum to complicated structures of many energy absorbing layers. This paper details the results of an experimental program tao determine the increased protection afforded by intermediate bumpers made of composite material structures. Various configurations of honeycomb support structures sandwiched between layers of materials such as Kevlar, Spectra, aluminum, and others are inserted between the bumper and pressure shell. The areal densities of each new material structure are maintained constant so that the results compare directly with single-sheet aluminum intermediate bumpers.

  8. The New Physics and Cosmology - Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajonc, Arthur; Houshmand, Zara

    2004-03-01

    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics , this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

  9. Deep-reaching thermocline mixing in the equatorial pacific cold tongue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Fan; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-05-12

    Vertical mixing is an important factor in determining the temperature, sharpness and depth of the equatorial Pacific thermocline, which are critical to the development of El Ninõ and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Yet, properties, dynamical causes and large-scale impacts of vertical mixing in the thermocline are much less understood than that nearer the surface. Here, based on Argo float and the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere (TAO) mooring measurements, we identify a large number of thermocline mixing events occurring down to the lower half of the thermocline and the lower flank of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), in particular in summer to winter. The deep-reaching mixing events occur more often and much deeper during periods with tropical instability waves (TIWs) than those without and under La Niña than under El Niño conditions. We demonstrate that the mixing events are caused by lower Richardson numbers resulting from shear of both TIWs and the EUC.

  10. Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, G.; Amans, D.; Dujardin, C.; Masenelli-Varlot, K.

    2009-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of pulsed laser ablation in liquids as a fast screening synthesis method able to prepare even complex compositions at the nanoscale. Nanoparticles of Y2O3:Eu3+, Lu2O2S:Eu3+, Gd2SiO5:Ce3+, Lu3TaO7:Gd3+ and Tb3+ are successfully synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The phase and stoichiometries of the original materials are preserved while the sizes are reduced down to 5-10 nm. The optical properties of the materials are also preserved but show some small variations and some additional structures which are attributed to the specificities of the nanoscale (internal pressure, inhomogeneous broadening, surface states, etc).

  11. Structure of Aqueous Solutions of Acetonitrile Investigated by Acoustic and Positron Annihilation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerie, K.; Baranowski, A.; Koziol, S.; Burakowski, A.

    2005-05-01

    We report the results of acoustic and positron annihilation measurements in aqueous solutions of acetonitrile (CH3CN). Hydrophobicity of the solute is discussed, as well as the possibility of describing the title system in terms of hydrophobic solvation. The concept of Levay et al. of calculating the "ideal positronium lifetimes is applied, basing on the mean volume of cavities (holes) in liquid structure available for positronium pseudoatom. The same calculations performed using the Tao model of annihilation yield very different results. It can be concluded that either acetonitrile forms with water clathrate-like hydrates of untypical architecture, or it is too weak hydrophobic agent to form clathrate-like hydrates at all. The former interpretation seems to be more probable.

  12. [Exploration of nursing art and aesthetic experiences: cross-disciplinary links and dialogues].

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shuh-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Interdisciplinary understanding is crucial for readers today. This article integrates the ideas of four care-aesthetics-column writers in order to illustrate and discuss nursing art and aesthetic care experiences in a cross-disciplinary conversation. This article reflects critically on the art, culture, and nature of nursing in the five themes of: 1) the shape of nursing knowledge, "science" or "art"?; 2) the caring arts: passively regulative or consciously creative labor?; 3) busy hospital workers: a landscape of persons and objects or the creators of the scenery?; 4) nursing skills, arts, and the Tao; and 5) art liberation: is the nursing profession in need of a revolution or fundamental reform? This article utilizes diverse and occasionally contradictory points of view together with practical examples in order to encourage readers to interlink their disparate professional nursing skills and draw aesthetic knowledge from multiple sources and experiences.

  13. The September 1996 outbursts of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S. M.; Samarasinha, N.; Tao, J.; Hergenrother, C.

    2000-10-01

    Digitally enhanced pre-perihelion groundbased images of Comet Hale-Bopp taken in September 1996 show intersting morphology resulting from at least two outbursts. During that apparition, the coma was dominated by radial ``porcupine" morphology. However, a 2 magnitude outburst starting on 1996 September 9.5 UT (Tao et al., 2000, Plan. Sp. Sci. 48, 153-161) resulted in two expanding dust shells with apparent expansion speeds of 112 and 225 m/s and an arc in the NW quadrant. This morphology is very similar to that seen in post-perihelion NICMOS images of a similar outburst on 1997 August 27 (see Campins et al., DPS 2000 abstract). Similar, but less pronounced outburst activity can be seen later in the month and include evidence for ejection of discrete fragments. We explore the possible mechanisms for the observed morphology. This work is supported in part by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  14. Web applications meet astronomical archives . Because astronomers are experienced internet users too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, L.; Ricci, D.; Sprimont, P. G.

    We present here the most modern internet and web technologies which we have tested and verified to be very suitable for the development of innovative, web-based tools for observational astronomy and archival data exploitation. Nothing but an updated browser is required to the user. This approach can boost the exploitation of huge data archives such as those that will be produced by projects like GAIA and TAOS-II, and will allow to easily manage heterogeneous data, like those of the IPERCOOL project. In spite these technologies are still not fully mature, they are already accepted standards in the browsers of our laptops, tablets and cellphones. We discuss the impact of these new technologies in astronomy and present test examples to show their capabilities.

  15. Deep-reaching thermocline mixing in the equatorial pacific cold tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Fan; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    Vertical mixing is an important factor in determining the temperature, sharpness and depth of the equatorial Pacific thermocline, which are critical to the development of El Ninõ and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Yet, properties, dynamical causes and large-scale impacts of vertical mixing in the thermocline are much less understood than that nearer the surface. Here, based on Argo float and the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere (TAO) mooring measurements, we identify a large number of thermocline mixing events occurring down to the lower half of the thermocline and the lower flank of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), in particular in summer to winter. The deep-reaching mixing events occur more often and much deeper during periods with tropical instability waves (TIWs) than those without and under La Niña than under El Niño conditions. We demonstrate that the mixing events are caused by lower Richardson numbers resulting from shear of both TIWs and the EUC.

  16. The impact of room temperature polymorphism in K doped NaTaO3 on structural phase transition behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulnesan, Shamanthini William; Kayser, Paula; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Knight, Kevin S.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent high resolution neutron diffraction studies demonstrate that the sequence and temperatures of the crystallographic phase transitions in NaTaO3 are not impacted by doping with 1% K to form Na0.99K0.01TaO3. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data shows the structural transitions to be: Pbnm ↔ 723       K Cmcm ↔ 803   K P 4 / nbm ↔ 893   K Pm 3 bar m . The two orthorhombic polymorphs, Pbnm and Cmcm, differ fundamentally in the distortion and tilting of the octahedra, such that they cannot be obtained from each other via a continuous phase transition resulting in their co-existence between RT and 723 K. Chemical doping, does however, dramatically impact on the amount of the metastable Cmcm phase observed at room temperature.

  17. Laboratory shock emplacement of noble gases, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide into basalt, and implications for trapped gases in shergottite EETA 79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Pepin, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Basalts from the Servilleta flows, Taos, NM, described by Lofgren (1983) were analyzed by mass spectrometry for shock-implanted noble gases, N2, and CO2 (which were isotopically labeled) after an exposure to 20-60 GPa shock in the presence of 0.0045-3.0 atm of ambient gas. The results were compared with data available on the constituents of the EETA 79001 meteorite. As expected, the samples shocked in this study attained emplacement efficiencies significantly lower than those apparent for lithology C of EETA 79001. Possible explanations for this difference include atmospheric overpressure at the time of EETA 79001 exposure to shock, the trapping of gas already in vugs by the intruding melt material, or the collapse of gas-filled vugs to form gas-laden glass inclusions.

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Eu:Y2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai; Xu, Guo Qin; Shong Chin, Wee; Gan, Leong Ming; Har Chew, Chwee

    2002-06-01

    The red-emitting nanophosphor Eu:Y2O3 was synthesized using the the microemulsions method. The microemulsion system was composed of petroleum ether (60-80 °C), nonionic surfactants NP5/NP9, aqueous yttrium nitrate/europium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide solution. The nanoparticles were studied by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The size of the nanoparticles was in the range 10-100 nm, and showed a narrow size distribution, high crystallinity and special luminescent properties. Compared with the phosphors prepared by the conventional method, the quenching concentration of Eu was raised remarkably. For this type of nanophosphor, quenching starts at a Eu concentration of 10% (mol%), while a value of 6-8% was obtained for the conventional one (Tao Y 1996 Mater. Lett. 28 137-40). Based on this study, we have successfully prepared some promising nanophosphors.

  20. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  1. Tuning quantum properties in bilayer ruthenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianglin

    The mutual coupling among spin, charge, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxide materials often leads to the competition of various types of energetic states. This makes such materials dramatically susceptible to external parameters, giving rise to novel physical properties and rich phase diagrams. In this talk, I shall use a bilayer ruthenate, Ca3Ru2O7, as an example to discuss the emergent phenomena achieved by systematically tuning materials magnetic and electronic properties via chemical doping, magnetic field, and pressure. I shall show that this system provides a rare opportunity to investigate the interplay between correlated metal and Mott insulator. This work was done in collaboration with M. Zhu, T. Tao, S. D. Mahanti, Z. Q. Mao, J. Peng, T. Hong, W. Tian, H. Cao, C. R. dela Cruz, D. Singh, and K. Prokes.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Nakamurella multipartita type strain (Y-104T)

    SciTech Connect

    Tice, Hope; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Sims, David; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Meincke, Linda; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Detter, J. Chris; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Nakamurella multipartita (Yoshimi et al. 1996) Tao et al. 2004 is the type species of the small one-species genus Nakamurella in the actinomycetal suborder Frankineae. The nonmotile, coccus-shaped strain was isolated from activated sludge acclimated with sugar-containing synthetic wastewater, and is able of accumulating large amounts of polysaccharides in its cells. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Nakamurellaceae. The 6,060,298 bp long single replicon genome with its 5415 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  4. The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Chlorophyll Dynamics: Update of the `Equatorial Box' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberry, T.; Wang, X.; Murtugudde, R.; Behrenfeld, M.; Roesler, C.

    2006-12-01

    The `Equatorial Box' Project utilizes the mooring observations along the 125 and 140 TAO lines to provide carbon component data, including chlorophyll, primary production, POC and DOC. These parameters together with other oceanographic properties can be used to validate ocean circulation-ecosystem models. In turn, a validated model can offer considerable promise for not only filling the gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage from the available observations, but also enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the variability. Here, we present both measured and simulated vertical-meridional chlorophyll distributions and primary production along 125W and 140W. While there is a permanent layer of deep chlorophyll maximum at 30-60 m, there is no deep maximum in phytoplankton carbon biomass or primary production. Our analyses focus on impact of nutrient stress and light conditions on chlorophyll dynamics in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We also compare modeled primary productivity with ocean color derived rates.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas; fish communities at selected sites, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Fish communities at 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin were sampled during low-flow periods between 1993 and 1995 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The ecology of fish communities is one of several lines of evidence used to characterize water-quality conditions. This report describes the fish communities at selected sites in the Rio Grande Basin and relates the structure of these fish communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Twenty-nine species of fish representing 10 families were identified in 25 samples collected during this study. Species richness ranged from 1 to 13. Cluster analysis of the 25 samples collected during this study delineated four groups of sites that were based on the similarity of the fish communities. The first two groups were individual sites with low species richness. The third group contained the most samples, and the fourth group consisted of samples from the Rio Grande at Isleta, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The shift in community structure of samples from group 3 to group 4 reflects changes from predominantly coldwater fishes to warmwater fishes. Four metrics of biotic integrity (percentages of introduced individuals, omnivores, tolerant individuals, and anomalies) were used in this study to provide a broad overview of the community structure. The relative percentages of introduced species at the Rio Grande near Del Norte, Colorado; Saguache Creek near Saguache, Colorado; Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos, New Mexico; and Rio Grande at Isleta are indicative of biological stress on the communities at these sites. The dominance of omnivores in samples from the Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos; Rio Chama near Chamita, New Mexico; Rio Grande at Isleta; and Rio Grande at El Paso is an indication of environmental stress at these sites. In 1995, tolerant species accounted for the entire fish community at the Rio

  6. Voids in mixed-cation silicate glasses: Studies by positron annihilation lifetime and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Reben, M; Golis, E; Filipecki, J; Sitarz, M; Kotynia, K; Jeleń, P; Grelowska, I

    2014-08-14

    PALS in comparison with FTIR studies have been applied to investigate the structure of different oxide glasses. Three components of the positron lifetime τ (τ1 para- and τ3 ortho-positronium and τ2 intermediate lifetime component) and their intensities were obtained. The results of the calculation of mean values of positron lifetimes for the investigated glasses showed the existence of a long-living component on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra. From the Tao-Eldrup formula we can estimate the size of free volume. On the basis of the measurements we can conclude that the size and fraction of free volume reaches the biggest value for the fused silica glass. The degree of network polymerisation increases void size.

  7. [Exploration of nursing art and aesthetic experiences: cross-disciplinary links and dialogues].

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shuh-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Interdisciplinary understanding is crucial for readers today. This article integrates the ideas of four care-aesthetics-column writers in order to illustrate and discuss nursing art and aesthetic care experiences in a cross-disciplinary conversation. This article reflects critically on the art, culture, and nature of nursing in the five themes of: 1) the shape of nursing knowledge, "science" or "art"?; 2) the caring arts: passively regulative or consciously creative labor?; 3) busy hospital workers: a landscape of persons and objects or the creators of the scenery?; 4) nursing skills, arts, and the Tao; and 5) art liberation: is the nursing profession in need of a revolution or fundamental reform? This article utilizes diverse and occasionally contradictory points of view together with practical examples in order to encourage readers to interlink their disparate professional nursing skills and draw aesthetic knowledge from multiple sources and experiences. PMID:23922088

  8. Positron annihilation characterization of free volume in micro- and macro-modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Solntsev, V.; Hotra, O.; Popov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Free volume and pore size distribution size in functional micro and macro-micro-modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics are characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy in comparison with Hg-porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy technique. Positron annihilation results are interpreted in terms of model implication positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying. It is shown that free volume of positron traps are the same type for macro and micro modified Cu0.4Co0.4Ni0.4Mn1.8O4 ceramics. Classic Tao-Eldrup model in spherical approximation is used to calculation of the size of nanopores smaller than 2 nm using the ortho-positronium lifetime.

  9. Nailfold capillaroscopy in Buerger’s disease: A useful tool?

    PubMed Central

    Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Bardelli, Marco; Fioravanti, Antonella; Selvi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, or Buerger’s disease) is a rare inflammatory vasculitis that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries of the extremities of tobacco smokers between the ages of 25 and 50 years. Although the diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and angiographic findings, we studied the microvascular involvement by nailfold capillaroscopy. We evaluated by nailfold capillaroscopy 2 patients with Buerger’s disease, at baseline and after 6 months of tobacco discontinuation and therapy with prostanoids. Both patients presented similar capillaroscopic abnormalities, resembling a scleroderma-like pattern. The microvascular rearrangement was significantly reduced after 6 months of evaluation. The capillaroscopic abnormalities shown in the two patients could be related to thromboangiitis obliterans, and nailfold capillaroscopy could be a useful tool to evaluate disease progression and the response to treatment.

  10. Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V-1 s-1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities in Using Automatic Differentiation with Object-Oriented Toolkits for Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Hovland, P; Lee, S; McInnes, L; Norris, B; Smith, B

    2001-04-17

    The increased use of object-oriented toolkits in large-scale scientific simulation presents new opportunities and challenges for the use of automatic (or algorithmic) differentiation (AD) techniques, especially in the context of optimization. Because object-oriented toolkits use well-defined interfaces and data structures, there is potential for simplifying the AD process. Furthermore, derivative computation can be improved by exploiting high-level information about numerical and computational abstractions. However, challenges to the successful use of AD with these toolkits also exist. Among the greatest challenges is balancing the desire to limit the scope of the AD process with the desire to minimize the work required of a user. They discuss their experiences in integrating AD with the PETSc, PVODE, and TAO toolkits and the plans for future research and development in this area.

  12. A jump-start for astronomy education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Ping

    Spurred by the leaping developments of research activities (SMA, TAOS, AMIBA), Taiwan is catching up its education in astronomy in virtually all aspects. The first astronomy research institute was established by the Academia Sinica about 10 years ago, which catalyzed within 2 years the first graduate school of astronomy, as well as an elaborative astronomy museum. Since then the astronomy education at all levels, from colleges to primary schools, has been booming. More than a dozen universities are offering astronomy courses, and two more graduate schools will soon be instituted. Textbooks get written, and books on popular sciences, either translated or composed by local authors, have mushroomed on the market. I will outline these ongoing activities along with plans in the horizon.

  13. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  14. Damping of thermal acoustic oscillations in hydrogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Youfan; Timmerhaus, Klaus D.

    Acoustic waves initiated by a large temperature gradient along a tube are defined as thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs). These oscillations have been damped by introducing such sound absorbing techniques as acoustic filters, resonators, etc.. These devices serve as an acoustic sink that is used to absorb or dissipate the acoustic energy thereby eliminating or damping such oscillations. Several empirical damping techniques, such as attaching a resonator as a side branch or inserting a wire in the tube, have been developed in the past and have provided reasonable success. However, the effect of connecting tube radius, length, and resonator volume on the damping of thermal acoustic oscillations has not been evaluated quantitatively. Further, these methods have not been effective when the oscillating tube radius was relatively large. Detailed theoretical analyses of these techniques including a newly developed method for damping oscillations in a tube of relatively large radius are provided in this presentation.

  15. Thromboangiitis obliterans in two brothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-Lin; He, Dan-Hua; Huang, Yong-Hua; Niu, Mu

    2013-08-01

    Two brothers (case 1 and case 2) with erythema nodosum were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). The patients were treated with compounds including Danshen Dripping Pills, Fufang Danshen Diwan and Salvia tetramethylpyrazine. The patients were also treated with fibro-blast growth factor to promote epidermal growth and Bayaspirin enteric-coated tablets to reduce platelet aggregation. The polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and compound glycyrrhizin tablets were taken to improve immune function. Following treatment, case 2 had reduced pain levels in the left foot. The ulcer on the first toe of the left foot had decreased in size, with a reduction in pus secretions and inflammation. Case 1 demonstrated a reduction in pus secretion from the ulcer. However, the area of the ulcer had increased, spreading to the fifth toe with gangrene. A tendon had become exposed on the right foot, which was broken and induced severe pain. PMID:24137181

  16. Estimation of vegetation cover at subpixel resolution using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the various approaches relevant to estimating canopy cover at subpixel resolution. The approaches are based on physical models of radiative transfer in non-homogeneous canopies and on empirical methods. The effects of vegetation shadows and topography are examined. Simple versions of the model are tested, using the Taos, New Mexico Study Area database. Emphasis has been placed on using relatively simple models requiring only one or two bands. Although most methods require some degree of ground truth, a two-band method is investigated whereby the percent cover can be estimated without ground truth by examining the limits of the data space. Future work is proposed which will incorporate additional surface parameters into the canopy cover algorithm, such as topography, leaf area, or shadows. The method involves deriving a probability density function for the percent canopy cover based on the joint probability density function of the observed radiances.

  17. Thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by diabetic ketoacidosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thyroid storm is a condition in which multiple organ dysfunction results from failure of the compensatory mechanisms of the body owing to excessive thyroid hormone activity induced by some factors in patients with thyrotoxicosis. While diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an important trigger for thyroid storm, simultaneous development of DKA and thyroid storm is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman with no history of either diabetes mellitus or thyroid disease presented to our hospital because of developing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for 2 days. Physical examination showed mild disturbance of consciousness, fever, and tachycardia. There were no other signs of thyrotoxicosis. Laboratory studies revealed elevation of random blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, strongly positive of urine acetone, and metabolic acidosis. Since DKA was diagnosed, we initiated the patient on treatment with administration of insulin and adequate fluid replacement. Although the hyperglycemia and acidosis were immediately relieved, the disturbance of consciousness and tachycardia remained persistent. Levels of FT3 and FT4 were extremely high and TSH was below the detectable limit. TRAb was positive. The thyroid storm score of Burch & Wartofsky was 75/140, and the thyroid storm diagnostic criteria of the Japan Thyroid Association were satisfied. Oral administration of thiamazole, potassium iodide and propranolol resulted in immediate relief of the tachycardia. Discussion We encountered a case of thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by DKA. Thyroid storm and DKA are both potentially fatal, and the prognosis varies depending on whether or not these conditions are detected and treated sufficiently early. The thyroid storm diagnostic criteria prepared in 2008 by the Japan Thyroid Association are very simple as compared to the Burch & Wartofsky scoring system for thyroid storm. The Japanese criteria may be useful in the diagnosis of this condition since they

  18. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  19. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  20. Critical analysis of dimension reduction by a moment closure method in a population density approach to neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ly, Cheng; Tranchina, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Computational techniques within the population density function (PDF) framework have provided time-saving alternatives to classical Monte Carlo simulations of neural network activity. Efficiency of the PDF method is lost as the underlying neuron model is made more realistic and the number of state variables increases. In a detailed theoretical and computational study, we elucidate strengths and weaknesses of dimension reduction by a particular moment closure method (Cai, Tao, Shelley, & McLaughlin, 2004; Cai, Tao, Rangan, & McLaughlin, 2006) as applied to integrate-and-fire neurons that receive excitatory synaptic input only. When the unitary postsynaptic conductance event has a single-exponential time course, the evolution equation for the PDF is a partial differential integral equation in two state variables, voltage and excitatory conductance. In the moment closure method, one approximates the conditional kth centered moment of excitatory conductance given voltage by the corresponding unconditioned moment. The result is a system of k coupled partial differential equations with one state variable, voltage, and k coupled ordinary differential equations. Moment closure at k = 2 works well, and at k = 3 works even better, in the regime of high dynamically varying synaptic input rates. Both closures break down at lower synaptic input rates. Phase-plane analysis of the k = 2 problem with typical parameters proves, and reveals why, no steady-state solutions exist below a synaptic input rate that gives a firing rate of 59 s(1) in the full 2D problem. Closure at k = 3 fails for similar reasons. Low firing-rate solutions can be obtained only with parameters for the amplitude or kinetics (or both) of the unitary postsynaptic conductance event that are on the edge of the physiological range. We conclude that this dimension-reduction method gives ill-posed problems for a wide range of physiological parameters, and we suggest future directions. PMID:17571938

  1. Super-resolution restoration applied to the characterisation of dynamic surface changes on the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-10-01

    Higher spatial resolution imaging data is always desirable to the international community of planetary scientists interested in improving understanding of surface formation processes. We have previously developed a novel Super-resolution restoration (SRR) technique using Gotcha sub-pixel matching [Shin & Muller, PR, 2012], orthorectification, segmentation, and 4th order PDE-TV, called GPT SRR [Tao & Muller, PSS, 2016]. This technique is able to restore 5cm-12.5cm near rover scale images (Navcam at a range of ≥5m) from multi-angle repeat-pass 25cm resolution MRO HiRISE images [Tao & Muller, ISPRS, 2016].We have successfully applied the GPT-SRR to the MER and MSL missions (http://www.progisweb.eu), as well as the alleged site of the Beagle-2 spacecraft (https://www.flickr.com/photos/uclnews/albums/72157667609698345). In this work, we further apply GPT-SRR on areas with known dynamic changes, including Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Gullies, and Polar Dune Flows. We restore static surface and meanwhile track the dynamic features to characterise the "change", including directions and speed of the changes. We also demonstrate that such repeat images can be used to image the MER-A rover stuck in the sands.AcknowledgementsThe research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement no. 607379 as well as partial funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1.

  2. Acclerator R&D for a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.L.; Dugan, G.; Gibbons, L.; Palmer, M.; Patterson, R.; Sagan, D.; Smith, J.C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; Fields, J.; Urban, J.

    2008-11-26

    The goal of this project was to perform simulations of beam transport in linear colliders, with an emphasis on emittance dilution, spin polarization transport, and development and testing of beam based tuning algorithms. Our simulations are based on an existing object-oriented particle-tracking library, Bmad. To facilitate the efficient development of simulations, an accelerator design and analysis program based on Bmad has been developed called Tao (Tool for Accelerator Optics). The three beam-based alignment algorithms, Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment (BA), and the Kubo Method have been implemented in Tao. We have studied the effects of magnet misalignments, BPM resolution, beam jitter, stray fields, BPM and steering magnet failure and the effects of various cavity shape wakefields. A parametric study has been conducted in the presence of the above types of errors for all three alignment algorithms. We find that BPM resolution has only modest impact on the effectiveness of beam based alignment. The DFS correction algorithm was found to be very robust in situations where there were BPM and/or steering magnet failures. The wakefields in the main linac are very weak and cause negligible emittance growth. Spin tracking was extended to study all accelerator components between the damping ring and the interaction point, including RF cavities and the helical undulator. We find that there is no significant depolarization in the RTML, main linac or beam delivery system and that the polarization is relatively insensitive to misalignment. We have developed an effective spin rotator. During the final year of the grant we exploited the computing power of our new linux cluster, along with the modeling codes that we had developed, to investigate damping ring physics and design, specifically as it relates to the CESR Test Accelerator project.

  3. Structure and thermodynamic stability of UTa3O10, aU(v)-bearing compound

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Lipp, Christian; Tiferet, Eitan; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Di; Ilton, Eugene S.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Xu, Hongwu; et al

    2016-09-09

    Heating a mixture of uranyl(VI) nitrate and tantalum(V) oxide in the molar ratio of 2 : 3 to 1400 °C resulted in the formation of a new compound, UTa3O10. The honey colored to yellow brown crystals of UTa3O10 crystallize in an orthorhombic structure with the space group Fddd (no. 70), lattice parameters a = 7.3947(1), b = 12.7599(2), c = 15.8156(2) Å, and Z = 8. Vertex sharing [TaO6]7– octahedra of two crystallographically distinct Ta cations form a three dimensional tantalate framework. Within this framework, six membered rings of [TaO6]7– octahedra are formed within the (001) plane. The center ofmore » these rings is occupied by the uranyl cations [UO2]+, with an oxidation state of +5 for uranium. The pentavalence of U and Ta was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy. The enthalpy of formation of UTa3O10 from Ta2O5, β-U3O7, and U3O8 has been determined to be 13.1 ± 18.1 kJ mol–1 using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry with sodium molybdate as the solvent at 700 °C. As a result, the close to zero enthalpy of formation of UTa3O10 can be explained by closely balanced structural stabilizing and destabilizing factors, which may also apply to other UM3O10 compounds.« less

  4. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress: a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mvitu Muaka, Moise; Masamba, Wayiza; Muizila Kini, Lucien; Longo Phemba, Igor; Kibokela Ndembe, Dalida; Tulomba Mona, Doris

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR), associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS), zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB). RESULTS The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66) and 10% (n=5), respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls), T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR. CONCLUSION Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM. PMID:24790873

  5. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakashima, Asami; and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  6. Optical properties of metal oxynitride thin films grown with atmospheric plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovish, Michael Q.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of tantalum oxynitride (TaO x N y ) and titanium oxynitride (TiO x N y ) are deposited using atmospheric plasma deposition and a suite of optical properties are reported. Tantalum and titanium ethoxide are introduced into the afterglow of a radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma, facilitating the growth of oxynitride films on silicon and polycarbonate at temperatures below 180 °C. The plasma power and nitrogen flow within the plasma are varied between 60 and 120 W and between 0.1 and 0.3 LPM respectively. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the optical properties of the metal oxynitride films grown in this study are comparable to those synthesized with sol-gel methods. Measurement of both the extinction coefficient and the transmission on polycarbonate substrates indicates good transparency in the visible wavelengths of light. Additionally, the refractive index increases when increasing the number of reactive nitrogen species within the discharge. We use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to correlate the higher indexes observed at large secondary gas flows to the presence of metal oxynitride bonding. Single layer anti-reflection coatings are deposited on silicon, with a five-fold and seven-fold reduction in reflection for TaO x N y and TiO x N y coatings, respectively. In total, we have found that the modulation of nitrogen concentration within the plasma discharge results in good control over optical constants. In addition, we observe similarities between films deposited with atmospheric plasma and those reported for sol-gel, indicating an alternative processing route where solution chemistries are currently applied.

  7. Harnessing the meta-generalized gradient approximation for time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jefferson E.; Furche, Filipp

    2012-10-01

    Density functionals within the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA) are widely used for ground-state electronic structure calculations. However, the gauge variance of the kinetic energy density τ confounds applications of MGGAs to time-dependent systems, excited states, magnetic properties, and states with strong spin-orbit coupling. Becke and Tao used the paramagnetic current density to construct a gauge invariant generalized kinetic energy density hat{τ }. We show that τ _W ≤ hat{τ }, where τW is the von Weizsäcker kinetic energy density of a one-electron system. Thus, replacing τ by hat{τ } leads to current-dependent MGGAs (cMGGAs) that are not only gauge invariant but also restore the accuracy of MGGAs in iso-orbital regions for time-dependent and current-carrying states. The current dependence of cMGGAs produces a vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential in the time-dependent adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) equations. While MGGA response properties of current-free ground states become manifestly gauge-variant to second order, linear response properties are affected by a new XC kernel appearing in the cMGGA magnetic orbital rotation Hessian. This kernel reflects the first-order coupling of KS orbitals due to changes in the paramagnetic current density and has apparently been ignored in previous MGGA response implementations. Inclusion of the current dependence increases total computation times by less than 50%. Benchmark applications to 109 adiabatic excitation energies using the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) MGGA and its hybrid version TPSSh show that cMGGA excitation energies are slightly lower than the MGGA ones on average, but exhibit fewer outliers. Similarly, the optical rotations of 13 small organic molecules show a small but systematic improvement upon inclusion of the magnetic XC kernel. We conclude that cMGGAs should replace MGGAs in all applications involving time-dependent or current-carrying states.

  8. Harnessing the meta-generalized gradient approximation for time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jefferson E; Furche, Filipp

    2012-10-28

    Density functionals within the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA) are widely used for ground-state electronic structure calculations. However, the gauge variance of the kinetic energy density τ confounds applications of MGGAs to time-dependent systems, excited states, magnetic properties, and states with strong spin-orbit coupling. Becke and Tao used the paramagnetic current density to construct a gauge invariant generalized kinetic energy density τ. We show that τ(W)≤τ, where τ(W) is the von Weizsäcker kinetic energy density of a one-electron system. Thus, replacing τ by τ leads to current-dependent MGGAs (cMGGAs) that are not only gauge invariant but also restore the accuracy of MGGAs in iso-orbital regions for time-dependent and current-carrying states. The current dependence of cMGGAs produces a vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential in the time-dependent adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) equations. While MGGA response properties of current-free ground states become manifestly gauge-variant to second order, linear response properties are affected by a new XC kernel appearing in the cMGGA magnetic orbital rotation Hessian. This kernel reflects the first-order coupling of KS orbitals due to changes in the paramagnetic current density and has apparently been ignored in previous MGGA response implementations. Inclusion of the current dependence increases total computation times by less than 50%. Benchmark applications to 109 adiabatic excitation energies using the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) MGGA and its hybrid version TPSSh show that cMGGA excitation energies are slightly lower than the MGGA ones on average, but exhibit fewer outliers. Similarly, the optical rotations of 13 small organic molecules show a small but systematic improvement upon inclusion of the magnetic XC kernel. We conclude that cMGGAs should replace MGGAs in all applications involving time-dependent or current-carrying states.

  9. Harnessing the Meta-Generalized Gradient Approximation for Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jefferson Earl

    Density functionals within the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA) are widely used for ground-state electronic structure calculations. However, the gauge variance of the kinetic energy density tau confounds applications of MGGAs to time-dependent systems, excited states, magnetic properties, and states with strong spin-orbit coupling. Becke and Tao used the paramagnetic current density to construct a gauge invariant generalized kinetic energy density t̂ . We show that tauW ≤ t̂ , where tauW is the von Weizsacker kinetic energy density of a one-electron system. Thus, replacing tau by t̂ leads to current-dependent MGGAs (cMGGAs) that are not only gauge invariant, but also restore the accuracy of MGGAs in iso-orbital regions for time-dependent and current-carrying states. The current dependence of cMGGAs produces a vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential in the time-dependent adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) equations. While response properties of current-free ground states become manifestly gauge-variant to second order, linear response properties are affected by a new XC kernel appearing in the cMGGA magnetic orbital rotation Hessian. Inclusion of the current dependence increases total computation times by less than 50%. Benchmark applications to 109 adiabatic excitation energies using the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) MGGA and its hybrid version TPSSh show that cMGGA excitation energies are slightly lower than the MGGA ones on average, but exhibit fewer outliers. Similarly, the optical rotations of 13 small organic molecules show a small but systematic improvement upon inclusion of the magnetic XC kernel. We conclude that cMGGAs should replace MGGAs in all applications involving time-dependent or current-carrying states.

  10. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs.

  11. Inflammation-induced thrombosis: mechanisms, disease associations and management.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Kenan; Donmez, Ayhan; Keser, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    Although inflammation-induced thrombosis is a well-known entity, its pathogenesis remains complicated. There are complex interactions between inflammation and hemostasis, involving proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, tissue factor expression, platelet and endothelial activation, and microparticles. Inflammation increases procoagulant factors, and also inhibits natural anticoagulant pathways and fibrinolytic activity, causing a thrombotic tendency. Besides, chronic inflammation may cause endothelial damage, resulting in the loss of physiologic anticoagulant, antiaggregant and vasodilatory properties of endothelium. However, inflammation- induced venous thrombosis may develop even in the absence of vessel wall damage. On the other hand, coagulation also augments inflammation, causing a vicious cycle. This is mainly achieved by means of thrombin-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Platelets may also trigger inflammation by activating the dendritic cells. There are many systemic inflammatory diseases characterized by thrombotic tendency, including Behçet disease (BD), antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, Takayasu arteritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphosholipid syndrome, familial Mediterranean fever, thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammation-induced thrombosis may respond to immunosuppressive (IS) treatment, as in the case of BD. However effectiveness of this treatment can not be generalized to all other inflammatory diseases. For instance, IS agents do not have any beneficial role in the management of TAO. Heparin, antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and clopidogrel, colchicine and statins also have some antiinflammatory activity. However, decreased responsiveness to aspirin and clopidogrel treatments may be observed in inflammatory diseases, due to antiplatelet resistance caused by systemic inflammation. In the present

  12. APEmille: a parallel processor in the teraflop range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzi, E.

    1997-02-01

    APEmille is a SIMD parallel processor under development at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). It is the third machine of the APE family, following Ape and Ape100 and delivering peak performance in the Tflops range. APEmille is very well suited for Lattice QCD applications, both for its hardware characteristics and for its software and language features. APEmille is an array of custom arithmetic processors arranged on a tridimensional torus. The replicated processor is a pipelined VLIW device performing integer and single/double precision IEEE floating point operations. The processor is optimized for complex computations and has a peak performance of 528Mflop at 66MHz. Each replica has 8 Mbytes of locally addressable RAM. In principle an array of 2048 nodes is able to break the Tflops barrier. Two other custom processors are used for program flow control, global addressing and inter node communications. Fast nearest neighbour communications as well as longer distance communications and data broadcast are available. APEmille is interfaced to the external world by a PCI interface and a HIPPI channel. A network of PCs act as the host computer. The APE operating system and the cross compiler run on it. A powerful programming language named TAO is provided and is highly optimized for QCD. A C++ compiler is foreseen. The TAO language is as simple as Fortran but as powerful as object oriented languages. Specific data structures, operators and even statements can be defined by the user for each different application. Effort has been made to define the language constructs for QCD.

  13. Exploring the thermal expansion of fluorides and oxyfluorides with rhenium trioxide-type structures: From negative to positive thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Benjamin K.

    heat treatments. This material readily pyrohydrolyizes at low temperatures (≈350 K). It was also observed that TiOF does not adopt the cubic ReO 3 structure; at room temperature it adopts a rhombohedrally distorted variant of the ReO3 structure. Positive thermal expansion was observed for TiOF2 from 120 K through decomposition into TiO2. At ≈400 K, TiOF2 undergoes a structural phase transition from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry. High pressure diffraction studies revealed a cubic to rhombohedral phase transition for Tix(O/OH/F) 3 between 0.5-1 GPa. No phase transitions were observed for TiOF 2 on compression. In Chapter 4, an in situ variable pressure-temperature diffraction experiment examining the effects of pressure on the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) for ScF3 and TaO2F is presented. In the manufacture and use of composites, which is a possible application for low and NTE materials, stresses may be experienced. Pressure was observed to have a negligible effect on cubic ScF3's CTE; however, for TaO 2F the application of modest pressures, such as those that might be experienced in the manufacture or use of composites, has a major effect on its CTE. This effect is associated with a pressure-induced phase transition from cubic to rhombohedral symmetry upon compression. TaO2F was prepared from the direct reaction of Ta2O5 with TaF 5 and from the digestion of Ta2O5 in hot hydrofluoric acid. The effects of pressure on the two samples of TaO2F were qualitatively similar. The slightly different properties for the samples are likely due to differences in their thermal history leading to differing arrangements of oxide and fluoride in these disordered materials. In Chapter 5, the local structures of TiOF2 and TaO2 F are examined using pair distribution functions (PDFs) obtained from X-ray total scattering experiments. In these materials, the anions (O/F) are disordered over the available anion positions. While traditional X-ray diffraction provides detailed

  14. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Unilateral Orbital Lymphoma and Orbital Pseudo-Tumors: A Planning Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Kazumi Tanyi, James A.; Stea, Baldassarre

    2009-04-01

    Orbital lymphoma and Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) are successfully treated with radiation therapy. The lenses are blocked to prevent cataract formation. However, blocking of the lens by traditional methods can be difficult for tumors located anteriorly and extending into the retrobulbar space. We present a series of 3 patients with orbital lymphoma and 1 with GO treated with stereotactic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to spare normal structures, including the lens. Three patients with orbital lymphomas and 1 with unilateral GO were treated with IMRT using a linac with stereotactic capabilities. Avoidance structures included the ipsilateral lens and globe, the contralateral lens and globe, the chiasm, and the brainstem. Two patients with orbital lymphoma were treated with 24 Gy in 12 fractions, and 1 patient was treated with 30.6 Gy in 17 fractions. The patient with GO was treated with 20 Gy in 10 fractions. The dosimetry was analyzed to determine the dose to normal tissues. Patient follow-up varies between 8 and 24 months. The mean minimal dose to the ipsilateral lens was 13.6% of the total dose, the mean maximal dose was 33.5%, and the mean median dose was 19.3%. The mean median dose to the contralateral eye was 1.1% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the chiasm was 14.9% of the total dose. The mean median dose to the brainstem was 1.9% of the total dose. No cataracts or other complications were noted in the 4 patients treated with this technique so far. IMRT gives a more conformal treatment to the orbital contents while sparing normal tissues such as the ipsilateral lens and adjacent critical structures. This should result in fewer complications such as cataracts.

  15. Analysis of four families with the Stickler syndrome by linkage studies. Identification of a new premature stop codon in the COL2A1 gene in a family

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaventure, J.; Lasselin, C.; Toutain, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy which associates progressive myopia with vitreal degeneration and retinal detachment. Cleft palate, cranio-facial abnormalities, deafness and osteoarthritis are often associated symptoms. Genetic heterogeneity of this autosomal dominant disease was consistent with its large clinical variability. Linkage studies have provided evidence for cosegregation of the disease with COL2A1, the gene coding for type II collagen, in about 50% of the families. Four additional families are reported here. Linkage analyses by using a VNTR located in the 3{prime} region of the gene were achieved. In three families, positive lod scores were obtained with a cumulative maximal value of 3.5 at a recombination fraction of 0. In one of these families, single strand conformation analysis of 25 exons disclosed a new mutation in exon 42. Codon for glutamic acid at position a1-803 was converted into a stop codon. The mutation was detected in DNA samples from all the affected members of the family but not in the unaffected. This result confirms that most of the Stickler syndromes linked to COL2A1 are due to premature stop codons. In a second family, an abnormal SSCP pattern of exon 34 was detected in all the affected individuals. The mutation is likely to correspond to a splicing defect in the acceptor site of intron 33. In one family the disease did not segregate with the COL2A1 locus. Further linkage studies with intragenic dimorphic sites in the COL10A1 gene and highly polymorphic markers close to the COL9A1 locus indicated that this disorder did not result from defects in these two genes.

  16. A{sup -2} {yields} G transition at the 3{prime} acceptor splice site of IVS17 characterizes the COL2A1 gene mutation in the original Stickler syndrome kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Ganguly, A.; Considine, E.

    1996-06-14

    Hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, or {open_quotes}Stickler syndrome,{close_quotes} is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of ocular and skeletal anomalies which frequently lead to retinal detachment and precocious osteoarthritis. A variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene have been identified in {open_quotes}Stickler{close_quotes} families; in most cases studied thus far, the consequence of mutation is the premature generation of a stop codon. We report here the characterization of a COL2A1 gene mutation in the original kindred described by Stickler et al. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used to screen for mutations in the entire COL2A1 gene in an affected member from the kindred. A prominent heteroduplex species was noted in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from a region of the gene including exons 17 to 20. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA resulted in the identification of a base substitution at the A{sup -2} position of the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of IVS17. Sequencing of DNA from affected and unaffected family members confirmed that the mutation segregated with the disease phenotype. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of poly A+ RNA demonstrated that the mutant allele utilized a cryptic splice site in exon 18 of the gene, eliminating 16 bp at the start of exon 18. This frameshift eventually results in a premature termination codon. These findings are the first report of a splice site mutation in classical Stickler syndrome and they provide a satisfying historical context in which to view COL2A1 mutations in this dysplasia. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A pilot study evaluating 99mTc-anti-TNF-alpha scintigraphy in graves' ophtalmopathy patients with different clinical activity score.

    PubMed

    Rebelo Pinto, E dos S; Lopes, F P P L; de Souza, S A L; da Fonseca, L M B; Vaisman, M; Gutfilen, B; dos Santos Teixeira, P de F

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the preliminary results of the use of 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy as a new diagnostic approach to evaluate patients presenting with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Patients (n=25) presenting at different inflammatory stages of GO and 10 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy. Images were obtained 15 min after the intravenous injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 99mTc-anti-TNF-α. Planar images were obtained in a 256×256 matrix (each lasting 5 min) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan lasting 13 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn on the orbit and cerebral hemispheres. The uptake of 99m Tc-anti-TNF-α in these regions was compared and positive scintigraphy established when the ROI was >2.5. In addition, uptake for each positive exam was scored as either slight (2.6-5.1), moderate (5.2-7.6), or high (>7.6). In this pilot study, 69 orbits were evaluated (1 patient had only 1 eye), and 27 had a positive CAS (≥3/7). Scintigraphies were positive in 38 orbits. Comparing the results of the exams with CAS, a high sensitivity and negative predictive values were determined for scintigraphy (96.3% and 96.7%, respectively). However, the specificity and the positive predictive values were 71.4% and 68.4%, respectively, with an accuracy of 81.2%. The exclusion of examinations that were slightly positive from the analysis resulted in an improvement in test accuracy (95.5%). The preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy is a promising procedure for the evaluation of active orbital inflammation in GO. PMID:23918686

  18. Anti-CD38 autoimmunity in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, A; Fallahi, P; Nesti, C; Pupilli, C; Marchetti, P; Takasawa, S; Okamoto, H; Ferrannini, E

    2001-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against human CD38 (an enzyme catalysing the interconversion of NAD+ and cyclic ADP-ribose) have been demonstrated recently in patients with type 2 diabetes. We tested 220 consecutive Caucasian patients with autoimmune chronic thyroiditis, 104 patients with Graves' disease, 220 subjects from the general population (control I) and 78 healthy control subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (control II) for the presence of anti-CD38 autoimmunity. Using Western blot analysis and optical densitometry, a specific band corresponding to human recombinant CD38 was identified in the serum of several subjects. By defining anti-CD38 positivity as a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of control I, 10·4% of patients with thyroiditis and 7·7% of Graves' patients were anti-CD38 positive (P = 0·0009 versus 1·8% of control I). Similarly, 13·1% of patients with thyroiditis and 10·5% of Graves' patients had a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of the subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (P = 0·002 versus 1·2% of control II). Anti-CD38 autoimmunity did not differ between euthyroid, hyperthyroid or hypothyroid patients or between patients with or without thyroid hypoechogenicity. Anti-CD38 autoantibodies were associated with higher levels of circulating antithyroid-peroxidase antibodies (P = 0·03) and they were more frequent in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy (P < 0·05). Anti-CD38 autoantibodies are a new autoimmune marker in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease. The specific role of CD38 and its autoantibodies in the modulation of thyroid cell function or growth remains to be investigated. PMID:11737057

  19. Corneal biomechanical properties in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Altan, Cıgdem; Ozturker, Can; Aksoy, Ebru Funda; Demirok, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of thyroid eye disease (TED) on the measurement of corneal biomechanical properties and the relationship between these parameters and disease manifestations. A total of 54 eyes of 27 individuals with TED and 52 eyes of 30 healthy control participants were enrolled. Thyroid ophthalmopathy activity was defined using the VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance/exposure) classification for TED. The intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), axial length (AL), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were taken from each patient. Corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) and noncontact IOP measurements, Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) using the standard technique. Parameters such as best corrected visual acuity, axial length, central corneal thickness, and corneal curvature were not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). IOP measured with GAT was higher in participants with TED (p < 0.001). The CH of TED patients was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the corneal resistance factor between groups. However, IOPg and IOPcc were significantly higher in TED patients. CH and VISA grading of TED patients showed a negative correlation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, TED affects the corneal biomechanical properties by decreasing CH. IOP with GAT and IOPg is found to be increased in these patients. As the severity of TED increases, CH decreases in these patients.

  20. Association Studies of the GPR103 and BCL2L15 Genes in Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tozaki, Teruaki; Nakano, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    While the past genome-wide association study (GWAS) for autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) was done in Caucasians, a recent GWAS in Caucasian patients with both AITD and type 1 diabetes [a variant of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS3v)] identified five non-HLA genes: BCL2L15, MAGI3, PHTF1, PTPN22, and GPR103. The aim of our study was to replicate these associations with AITD in a Japanese population. Since analyzing the rs2476601 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the PTPN22 gene revealed no polymorphism in the Japanese, we analyzed four SNPs, rs2358994 (in BCL2L15), rs2153977 (in MAGI3), rs1111695 (in PHTF1), and rs7679475 (in GPR103) genotypes in a case–control study based on 447 Japanese AITD patients [277 Graves’ disease (GD) and 170 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) patients] and 225 matched Japanese controls using the high-resolution melting and unlabeled probe methods. Case–control association studies were performed using the χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests with Yates correction. The G allele of rs7679475 (A/G) was associated with HT compared with controls [P = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69]. GD showed no significant associations with any SNPs. However, when patients with GD were stratified according to Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), the G allele of rs2358994 (A/G) was associated with GO vs. controls (P = 0.018, OR = 1.52). These findings suggest that in the Japanese population the GPR103 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of HT. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the SNP rs2358994 within BCL2L15 gene is associated with GO in the Japanese population. PMID:27486433

  1. Levels of regulatory T cells CD69(+)NKG2D(+)IL-10(+) are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ana; Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). New subsets of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes that behave as regulatory cells have been recently reported. The role of these immunoregulatory lymphocytes has not been previously explored in AITD. We analyzed by multi-parametric flow cytometry different Treg cell subsets in peripheral blood from 32 patients with AITD and 19 controls, and in thyroid tissue from seven patients. The suppressive activity was measured by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. We found a significant increased percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+), CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+), and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells, in peripheral blood from GD patients compared to controls. The increase in CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) T cells was especially remarkable in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and a significant positive correlation between GO activity and CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+) or CD4(+)CD69(+)IL-10(+)NKG2D(+) cells was also found. In addition, these cells were increased in patients with a more severe and/or prolonged disease. Thyroid from AITD patients showed an increased proportion of CD69(+) regulatory T cells subpopulations compared to autologous peripheral blood. The presence of CD69(+), NKG2D(+), and IL-10(+) cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro functional assays showed that CD69(+) Treg cells exerted an important suppressive effect on the activation of T effector cells in controls, but not in AITD patients. Our findings suggest that the levels of CD69(+) regulatory lymphocytes are increased in AITD patients, but they are apparently unable to down-modulate the autoimmune response and tissue damage.

  2. Matrix Expansion and Syncytial Aggregation of Syndecan-1+ Cells Underpin Villous Atrophy in Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salvestrini, Camilla; Lucas, Mark; Lionetti, Paolo; Torrente, Franco; James, Sean; Phillips, Alan D.; Murch, Simon H.

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied the expression of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in coeliac disease (CD) mucosa, as they are critical determinants of tissue volume, which increases in active disease. We also examined mucosal expression of IL-6, which stimulates excess GAG synthesis in disorders such as Grave's ophthalmopathy. Methods We stained archival jejunal biopsies from 5 children with CD at diagnosis, on gluten-free diet and challenge for sulphated GAGs. We then examined duodenal biopsies from 9 children with CD compared to 9 histological normal controls, staining for sulphated GAGs, heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG), short-chain HSPG (Δ-HSPG) and the proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138), which is expressed on epithelium and plasma cells. We confirmed findings with a second monoclonal in another 12 coeliac children. We determined mucosal IL-6 expression by immunohistochemistry and PCR in 9 further cases and controls, and used quantitative real time PCR for other Th17 pathway cytokines in an additional 10 cases and controls. Results In CD, HSPG expression was lost in the epithelial compartment but contrastingly maintained within an expanded lamina propria. Within the upper lamina propria, clusters of syndecan-1+ plasma cells formed extensive syncytial sheets, comprising adherent plasma cells, lysed cells with punctate cytoplasmic staining and shed syndecan ectodomains. A dense infiltrate of IL-6+ mononuclear cells was detected in active coeliac disease, also localised to the upper lamina propria, with significantly increased mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-17A but not IL-23 p19. Conclusions Matrix expansion, through syndecan-1+ cell recruitment and lamina propria GAG increase, underpins villous atrophy in coeliac disease. The syndecan-1+ cell syncytia and excess GAG production recapitulate elements of the invertebrate encapsulation reaction, itself dependent on insect transglutaminase and glutaminated early response proteins. As in other matrix expansion disorders

  3. Celastrol inhibits IL-1β-induced inflammation in orbital fibroblasts through the suppression of NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yuan, Yifei; Zhang, Yali; He, Qianwen; Xu, Rongjuan; Ge, Fangfang; Wu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland, which is characterized by hyperthyroidism, diffuse goiter and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Although several therapeutic strategies for the treatment of GO have been developed, the effectiveness and the safety profile of these therapies remain to be fully elucidated. Therefore, examination of novel GO therapies remains an urgent requirement. Celastrol, a triterpenoid isolated from traditional Chinese medicine, is a promising drug for the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. CCK‑8 and apoptosis assays were performed to investigate cytotoxicity of celastrol and effect on apoptosis on orbital fibroblasts. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISAs were performed to examine the effect of celastrol on interleukin (IL)‑1β‑induced inflammation in orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO. The results demonstrated that celastrol significantly attenuated the expression of IL‑6, IL‑8, cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2 and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), and inhibited IL‑1β‑induced increases in the expression of IL‑6, IL‑8, ICAM‑1 and COX‑2. The levels of prostaglandin E2 in orbital fibroblasts induced by IL‑1β were also suppressed by celastrol. Further investigation revealed that celastrol suppressed the IL‑1β‑induced inflammatory responses in orbital fibroblasts through inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. Taken together, these results suggested that celastrol attenuated the IL‑1β‑induced pro‑inflammatory pathway in orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO, which was associated with the suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:27484716

  4. Reflections on the theory of "silver bullet" octreotide tracers: implications for ligand-receptor interactions in the age of peptides, heterodimers, receptor mosaics, truncated receptors, and multifractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The classical attitude of Nuclear Medicine practitioners on matters of peptide-receptor interactions has maintained an intrinsic monogamic character since many years. New advances in the field of biochemistry and even in clinical Nuclear Medicine have challenged this type of thinking, which prompted me to work on this review. The central issue of this paper will be the use of somatostatin analogs, i.e., octreotide, in clinical imaging procedures as well as in relation to neuroendocirne tumors. Newly described characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors such as the formation of receptor mosaics will be discussed. A small section will enumerate the regulatory processes found in the cell membrane. Possible new interpretations, other than tumor detection, based on imaging procedures with somatostatin analogs will be presented. The readers will be taken to situations such as inflammation, nociception, mechanosensing, chemosensing, fibrosis, taste, and vascularity where somatostatin is involved. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy will be used as a model for the development of multi-agent therapeutics. The final graphical summary depicts the multifactorial properties of ligand binding. PMID:22214590

  5. [A case of membranous nephropathy with ANCA-associated necrotizing glomerulonephritis during oral administration of PTU for Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Kawamata, Toyotaka; Ueda, Shiro; Akikusa, Bunshiro; Hasegawa, Shigeru; Tsukahara, Tsunemichi; Iesato, Kenji; Ogawa, Makoto; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    We experienced a coincidental case of two types of glomerulopathy associated with Graves' disease. A 64-year-old man, who had been treated with propylthiouracil(PTU) for Graves' disease for 15 years, was admitted to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria and rapidly progressive deterioration of renal function. Although his thyroid function had been within the normal range during treatment, the level of thyrotropin receptor antibody(TRAb) gradually increased from a year before admission. Serological tests revealed that he was positive for myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(MPO-ANCA). The renal biopsy specimen showed necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis(GN) superimposed on membranous nephropathy(MN). This is a rare case of MN complicated with ANCA associated crescentic GN in a Graves' disease patient. Association of these two renal alterations was not clearly defined. MN involved with Graves' disease also has been rarely reported. Some reports demonstrated deposition of thyroglobulin and other thyroid related antigens in the glomeruli. In the present case, long-term impairment of Graves' disease and elevation of TRAb might have been responsible for the formation and deposition of thyroid-associated immune complex in the glomeruli. As for crescentic GN, PTU might have induced ANCA-associated GN independently of MN. This case is instructive for considering the relation between Graves' disease and renal injury.

  6. Is radioiodine administration in patients with papillary thyroid multifocal microcarcinoma unnecessary?

    PubMed Central

    Kudlej, Lubomír; Rousková, Viera; Michlová, Blanka; Vyhnánková, Irena; Doležal, Jiří; Malý, Jaroslav; Žák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Radioiodine (RAI) has played a crucial role in differentiated thyroid cancer treatment for more than 60years. However, the use of RAI administration in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (even multifocal) is now being widely discussed and often not recommended. In accordance with European consensus, and contrary to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, we recently performed RAI thyroid remnant ablation in a patient with differentiated papillary multifocal microcarcinoma. The post-therapeutic whole-body scan and SPECT/CT revealed the real and unexpected extent of disease, with metastases to upper mediastinal lymph nodes. This finding led to the patient’s upstaging from stage I to stage IVa according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer criteria. Learning points 131I is a combined beta–gamma emitter, thus allowing not only residual thyroid tissue ablation but also metastatic tissue imaging. RAI remnant ablation omission also means post-treatment whole-body scan omission, which may lead to disease underestimation, due to incorrect nodal and metastatic staging. RAI should be considered also in “low-risk” patients, especially when the lymph node involvement is not reliably documented. Lower administered RAI activity (30mCi, 1.1GBq) may be a workable compromise in low-risk patients, not indicated for RAI remnant ablation according to ATA guidelines. PMID:27252861

  7. DYSMICROBISM, INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE AND THYROIDITIS: ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, G; Tralongo, P; Amoroso, F; Damiani, P; Sinagra, E; Noto, M; Arculeo, V M; Jurjus Zein, R; Saad, W; Jurjus, A; Gerbino, A; Leone, A

    2015-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a large number of microbes that are collectively referred to as the microbiota. They interact with the hosting organism and some do contribute to the physiological maintenance of the general good health thru regulation of some metabolic processes while some others are essential for the synthesis of vitamins and short-chain fatty acids. The abnormal variation, in the quality and/or quantity of individual bacterial species residing in the gastro-intestinal tract, is called “dysmicrobism”. The immune system of the host will respond to these changes at the intestinal mucosa level which could lead to Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). This inflammatory immune response could subsequently extend to other organs and systems outside the digestive tract such as the thyroid, culminating in thyroiditis. The goal of the present study is to review and analyze data reported in the literature about thyroiditis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). It was reported that similarities of some molecular bacterial components with molecular components of the host are considered among the factors causing IBD through an autoimmune reaction which could involve other non-immune cell types. The axis dysmicrobism-IBD-autoimmune reaction will be investigated as a possible etiopathogenic mechanism to Autoimmune Thyroiditis. If such is the case, then the employment of specific probiotic strains may represent a useful approach to moderate the immune system. PMID:26122213

  8. Ultrasoundelastography: Can it provide valid information for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules?

    PubMed

    Raggiunti, B; Capone, F; Franchi, A; Fiore, G; Filipponi, S; Colagrande, V; Di Nicola, M; Mangifesta, R; Ballone, E

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasoundelastography (USE) is a new imaging technique that is performed with a normal ultrasound transducer. It provides improved characterization of a tissue or nodule based on the latter's elasticity and stiffness. The aim of the present, prospective study was to assess the validity of USE in characterizing thyroid nodules. USE patterns were analyzed in light of nodule cytology (British Thyroid Association classification) to determine whether these patterns can be used to decide whether or not fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is indicated. We examined a consecutive series of 617 thyroid nodules in patients referred for the first time to the Endocrinology Unit of Atri Hospital (Atri, [TE]). Patients underwent ultrasonographic and USE examinations of their thyroid nodules, which were then subjected to FNAC. All nodules with Thy 1 cytology were excluded, leaving 567 nodules for analysis. USE findings were classified on the basis of the degree and distribution of elasticity within the lesion: four patterns were identified (1, 2, 3a, 3b, or 4).None of the nodules with Thy 4 cytology (malignant) had USE pattern 1 or 2; patterns 3 and 4 were associated with higher cytologic grades. In conclusion, USE provides additional information on thyroid nodules, which can be used with ultrasound features of the nodules, to decide whether FNAC is indicated. In fact, patterns 1 and 2 do not seem to be associated with Thy 4 cytology.

  9. Recent Updates on the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor derived from the thyroid C cells producing calcitonin. MTC accounts for 0.6% of all thyroid cancers and incidence of MTC increased steadily between 1997 and 2011 in Korea. It occurs either sporadically or in a hereditary form based on germline rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations. MTC can be cured only by complete resection of the thyroid tumor and any loco-regional metastases. The most appropriate treatment is still less clear in patients with residual or recurrent disease after initial surgery or those with distant metastases because most patients even with metastatic disease have indolent courses with slow progression for several years and MTC is not responsive to either radioactive iodine therapy or thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression. Recently, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vandetanib and cabozantinib, are approved for use in patients with advanced, metastatic or progressive MTC. In this review, we summarize the current approach according to revised American Thyroid Association guidelines and recent advances in systemic treatment such as TKIs for patients with persistent or recurrent MTC after surgery. PMID:27586449

  10. Should We Treat for Subclinical Hypothyroidism?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Burns, Risa B; Bates, Carol K; Hartzband, Pamela; Smetana, Gerald W

    2016-06-01

    In May 2015, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a guideline on screening for thyroid disease that included a systematic evidence review and an update of its 2004 recommendations. The review assessed the effect of treating screen-detected subclinical thyroid dysfunction on health outcomes. It found adequate evidence that treating subclinical hypothyroidism does not provide clinically meaningful improvements in blood pressure, body mass index, bone mineral density, lipid levels, or quality-of-life measures. The review also concluded that evidence was inadequate to determine whether screening for thyroid dysfunction reduced cardiovascular disease or related morbidity and mortality. In separate guidelines, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Thyroid Association advocated aggressive case-finding and recommended screening persons with certain clinical conditions or characteristics rather than the general population. These societies argue that subclinical hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular outcomes and thus merits case-finding. Here, 2 experts discuss their perspectives on whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism reduces morbidity and mortality, whether there are harms of treatment, and how they would balance the benefits and harms of treatment both in general and for a specific patient. PMID:27270659

  11. High Body Mass Index Is an Indicator of Maternal Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroxinemia, and Thyroid-Peroxidase Antibody Positivity during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy complications and neurocognitive deficiencies in the developing fetus. Currently, some researchers demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) is associated with thyroid function in nonpregnant population. Hence, the American Thyroid Association recommended screening thyroid function in obese pregnant women; however, the evidence for this is weak. For this purpose, our study investigated the relationship between high BMI and thyroid functions during early pregnancy in Liaoning province, an iodine-sufficient region of China. Methods. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) concentration, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and BMI were determined in 6303 pregnant women. Results. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 may act as an indicator of hypothyroxinemia and TPOAb positivity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with increases in the odds of hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia, and TPOAb positivity. The prevalence of isolated hypothyroxinemia increased among pregnant women with BMI > 24 kg/m2. Conclusions. High BMI during early pregnancy may be an indicator of maternal thyroid dysfunction; for Asian women whose BMI > 24 kg/m2 and who are within 8 weeks of pregnancy, thyroid functions should be assessed especially. PMID:26273610

  12. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms.

  13. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THYROID DYSFUNCTION CASE FINDING.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, James V; Garber, Jeffrey R; Woeber, Kenneth A; Cobin, Rhoda; Klein, Irwin

    2016-02-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily diagnosed and can be treated in a safe, cost-effective manner. Professional organizations have given guidance on how and when to employ thyroid-stimulating hormone testing for the detection of thyroid dysfunction. Most recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force did not endorse screening for thyroid dysfunction based on a lack of proven benefit and potential harm of treating those with thyroid dysfunction, which is mostly subclinical disease. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is concerned that this may discourage physicians from testing for thyroid dysfunction when clinically appropriate. Given the lack of specificity of thyroid-associated symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis of thyroid disease requires biochemical confirmation. The Thyroid Scientific Committee of the AACE has produced this White Paper to highlight the important difference between screening and case-based testing in the practice of clinical medicine. We recommend that thyroid dysfunction should be frequently considered as a potential etiology for many of the nonspecific complaints that physicians face daily. The application and success of safe and effective interventions are dependent on an accurate diagnosis. We, therefore, advocate for an aggressive case-finding approach, based on identifying those persons most likely to have thyroid disease that will benefit from its treatment. PMID:26848631

  14. From One Extreme to Another: Tsunami, Hurricane, and El Niño Observations from the NDBC Ocean Observing Systems of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Henderson, D.; Locke, L.

    2008-05-01

    NOAA`s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) operates a system of ocean observing systems (NOOSS) to provide critical information in real-time during extreme events, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, and El Niños. NDBC recently completed the 39-station array of tsunameters that employ the second-generation Deep-ocean and Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART II) technology. The tsunameter array spans the Pacific Ocean and the western Atlantic Ocean providing real-time water-level measurements and tsunami detection times. At depths down to 6000 meters the tsunameters can send information in less than 3 minutes to the Tsunami Warning Centers in Hawaii and Alaska and to the international tsunami community. The tsunameters have provided data for the Kuril tsunamis of November 2006 and January 2007, the Peru tsunamis of August and September 2007, and the southern Sumatra tsunami of September 2007. In 2006, NDBC assumed operations of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array (TAO), the "crown jewel" of the Global Climate Observation System. TAO provides real-time data for improved detection, understanding, and prediction of El Niño and La Niña. The 55-buoy TAO array spans the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Real-time and post-deployment recovery data support climate analysis and forecasts. For more than 30 years, NDBC has operated a system of buoys and coastal automated stations for meteorological and oceanographic observations that support real-time weather analysis, forecasting, and warnings. These "traditional" NDBC stations measure winds, waves, temperature, and humidity routinely. Some stations are augmented with ocean current and temperature and salinity (conductivity) sensors. In recent years, among the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean hurricanes passing in proximity to NDBC stations include Ivan in 2004, Cindy, Emily, Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005, Ernesto in 2006, and Dean and Felix in 2007 as well as numerous tropical storms. Not confined to tropical

  15. Toward a high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesko, G. T.; Song, S.; Chang, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Turrin, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group [TVG] consists of five volcanic subgroups of which ~30 edifices have been identified, all in close proximity to the densely populated Taipei Basin to its south (Song et al., 2000, Journal of the Geological Society of China, in Chinese). Evidence of eruptions is in the form of mostly lava flows, with pyroclastic flows, and ash deposition (Tsai et al., 2010, TAO), consistent with vulcanian and plinian eruptions that are only minimally preserved because of the region’s high weathering rate (Belousov et al., 2010, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research). The TVG is made up of calc-alkaline andesite, with few interspersed basaltic lava flows that bear geochemical signatures consistent with subduction volcanism, yet due to tectonic location Teng (1996, Geology) describes it as Ryukyu back-arc basin volcanism, and still others attribute volcanism here to post-collisional collapse of the Taiwan orogen (Wang et al., 1999, Tectonophysics and 2004, Journal of Petrology). Various TVG samples were previously K-Ar dated by Juang and Chen (1989, Bulletin of Central Geological Survey, in Chinese), Tsao (1994, Bulletin of Central Geological Survey, in Chinese), and 40Ar/39Ar whole rock analyses by Lee (1996, masters thesis, National Taiwan University) to suggest volcanism from 2.8-2.5Ma and then from 1.5-.22Ma after which volcanic events ceased. In contrast, radiocarbon dates obtained from charcoal in related sediment by Chen et al. (2010, TAO) and Belousov et al. (2010, Journal of Volcanology Geothermal Research) suggest volcanic activity was present at 20ka and 6ka respectively. The andesite samples are microcrystalline; therefore hand picked aliquots of groundmass from the hand magnetic fraction were subjected to several iterations of sonic rinse in glycine-based soap, then 4N HNO3, then quartz-distilled water in a preparation modified from Nicolaysen et al. (2000, EPSL). Samples were co-irradiated at the USGS facility in Denver using Alder

  16. Streamflow and water-quality trends of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, water years 1985 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Nolan, Emma O.

    2005-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque plans to divert San Juan-Chama Project water from the Rio Grande for potable water use. This report examines streamflow and water-quality trends in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande for water years 1985 to 2002 following the implementation of reservoir storage agreements in northern and central New Mexico. Streamflow/water-quality stations used for this study include the Rio Grande stations of Taos, Otowi, San Felipe, and Albuquerque and the Rio Chama station of Chamita. Water years 1985 to 2002 were a period of larger than average precipitation and streamflow compared to the stations. historical averages. Annual precipitation and streamflow trended downward during the study period because of a drought during 1999 to 2002. Streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande was divided into three distinct seasonal periods that corresponded to natural and anthropogenic influences: fall/winter baseflow (November through February), snowmelt runoff (March through June), and the irrigation/monsoon (July through October) seasons. A calcium bicarbonate water type was evident at all study area stations on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. Specific conductance increased downstream, but alkalinity and pH did not substantially change in the downstream direction. Nearly all nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were less than 1 milligram per liter for all stations. Median trace-element concentrations and maximum radionuclide concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds were infrequently detected in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, and concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande varied spatially and temporally during water years 1985 to 2002. Specific conductance increased downstream in the Rio Grande during the fall/winter baseflow and snowmelt runoff seasons but was similar at the Taos, Otowi, and San Felipe stations during the irrigation/monsoon season. This similarity was a

  17. Interference removals on Pd, Ru and Au with ICP-QQQ-MS in PGE RM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem Hussain Bokhari, Syed; Meisel, Thomas; Walkner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Gold and platinum group elements (PGE) are essential industrial precious metals with high world demand due to their unique properties. Struggle for natural exploration of PGE is on great pace and recycling from industrial wastes, electronics and catalytic convertor is on the rise for PGE supply chain. Along with these developments it is becoming more challenging for analytical chemists to determine gold and PGE out of complex matrix which causes severe interferences. The current state of art is online analysis coupled with chromatographic separation of interferences. The ICP-QQQ-MS Agilent 8800 has the capability of using multi tunes and mass shifts. We aim to remove interferences on Pd+ (for direct and isotope dilution analysis) Au+ and Ru+ in lieu of chemical separations. YO+, SrOH+, ZnAr+, NiAr+, ZrO+, CuAr+, MoO+ , Ru+and Cd+ are expected interferences on Pd+ while Au+ is interfered by TaO+, HfOH+, GdAr+ and 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ by 102Pd+ ,104Pd+ etc. Initial test were performed on pure solutions of 1mg/l (interfering elements): 1 ng/l (Pd, Ru & Au) respectively. The outcomes of initial tests were applied on PGE reference material (RM) WMG-1 and SARM-7 (digested with Na2O2 sintering). The results obtained show that YO+, SrOH+ interfere (104Pd,105Pd), 104 Ru+ on (104Pd), ZnAr+ has slight interference on (104Pd and106Pd), ZrO+, NiAr+, CuAr+ interferences are negligible, MoO+ has severe interference on (108Pd, 110Pd) and that Cd+ has severe isobaric interference on (106Pd,108Pd, 110Pd). These interference have been removed by formation of Pd(NH3)3+complex. The TaO+, HfOH+ and GdAr+ interferences on Au+ are best removed by formation of Au(NH3)+ and Au(NH3)2+ complexes. 102Pd+,104Pd+interference on 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ can be removed by formation of Ru(NH3)4+ and RuO+ compounds. The results obtained comply with certified values of RM. The developed method is being tested on low concentration PGE reference materials. References: Sugiyama, N. " Removal of complex spectral

  18. A seismic anisotropy study of the Dragon Flag hydrothermal field (49°39'E ) on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhao, M.; Tong, V. C. H.; Qiu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Dragon Flag hydrothermal field located at 49°39'E on the Southwest Indian Ridge contains the active hydrothermal vents firstly discovered on the ultraslow spreading ridge (Tao et al, 2012). Anisotropic study in this area will provide important information tectonic activities. 65634 traveltime residuals from the three-dimensional isotropic inversion (Zhao et al., 2013), were divided into three groups, which correspond to quasi ocean crustal Layer 2 (qL2), quasi ocean crustal Layer 3 (qL3) and quasi uppermost mantle (qUM), respectively. Traveltime residuals at different depths show that there are obvious cosine relationships between traveltime residuals and azimuth of qL2, qL3 and qUM, indicating anisotropy existed in both crust and mantle beneath Dragon Flag hydrothermal field. The best fitted cosine curves indicate that the fast directions (negative traveltime residuals) corresponding to the general trend of ridge axis of N104°E. According to these results, we propose that there may be prevalent cracks penetrating into lower crust or even uppermost mantle. We argue that the hydrothermal convection of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field not only occurs perpendicular to ridge axis, but also occurs parallel to ridge axis. We reveal for the first time anisotropic characteristics of the ultraslow spreading ridge, which has profound scientific significance for the future research on global ocean lithospheric anisotropy. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 41176053, 91428204). Keywords: ultraslow spreading ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Dragon Flag hydrothermal field, P wave traveltime residuals, anisotropy References: Tao C H, Lin J, Guo S, et al. First active hydrothermal vents on an ultraslow-spreading center: Southwest Indian Ridge. Geology, 2012, 40(1): 47~50. Zhao M H, Qiu X L, Li J B, et al. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39

  19. Seismic tomography of the Colorado Rocky Mountains upper mantle from CREST: Lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions and mantle support of topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, J. K.; Aster, R. C.; Dueker, K.; Hansen, S.; Schmandt, B.; Karlstrom, K.

    2014-09-01

    The CREST experiment (Colorado Rocky Mountains Experiment and Seismic Transects) integrated the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array with portable and permanent stations to provide detailed seismic imaging of crust and mantle properties beneath the highest topography region of the Rocky Mountains. Inverting approximately 14,600 P- and 3600 S-wave arrival times recorded at 160 stations for upper mantle Vp and Vs structure, we find that large Vp perturbations relative to AK135 of 7% and Vs variations of 8% take place over very short (approaching tens of kilometers) lateral distances. Highest heterogeneity is observed in the upper 300 km of the mantle, but well resolved low velocity features extend to the top of the transition zone in portions of these images. The previously noted low velocity upper mantle Aspen Anomaly is resolved into multiple features. The lowest Vp and Vs velocities in the region are found beneath the San Juan Mountains, which is clearly distinguished from other low velocity features of the northern Rio Grande Rift, Taos/Latir region, Aspen region, and below the Never Summer Mountains. We suggest that the San Juan anomaly, and a similar feature below the Taos/Latir region of northern New Mexico, are related to delamination and remnant heat (and melt) beneath these sites of extraordinarily voluminous middle-Cenozoic volcanism. We interpret a northeast-southwest grain in velocity structure that parallels the Colorado Mineral belt to depths near 150 km as being reflective of control by uppermost mantle Proterozoic accretionary lithospheric architecture. Further to the north and west, the Wyoming province and northern Colorado Plateau show high velocity features indicative of thick (∼150 km) preserved Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere, respectively. Overall, we interpret the highly heterogeneous uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath the southern Rocky Mountains as reflecting interfingered chemical Proterozoic lithosphere that has been, is

  20. Visual Resource Analysis for Solar Energy Zones in the San Luis Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robert; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.; Zvolanek, Emily; Brown, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Environmental Science Division for the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The study analyzed the regional effects of potential visual impacts of solar energy development on three BLM-designated solar energy zones (SEZs) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) in Colorado, and, based on the analysis, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation to compensate residents and other stakeholders for the potential visual impacts to the SEZs. The analysis was conducted as part of the solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) task conducted by BLM Colorado with assistance from Argonne. Two separate analyses were performed. The first analysis, referred to as the VSA Analysis, analyzed the potential visual impacts of solar energy development in the SEZs on nearby visually sensitive areas (VSAs), and, based on the impact analyses, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation. VSAs are locations for which some type of visual sensitivity has been identified, either because the location is an area of high scenic value or because it is a location from which people view the surrounding landscape and attach some level of importance or sensitivity to what is seen from the location. The VSA analysis included both BLM-administered lands in Colorado and in the Taos FO in New Mexico. The second analysis, referred to as the SEZ Analysis, used BLM visual resource inventory (VRI) and other data on visual resources in the former Saguache and La Jara Field Offices (FOs), now contained within the San Luis Valley FO (SLFO), to determine whether the changes in scenic values that would result from the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities in the SEZs would affect the quality and quantity of valued scenic resources in the SLV region as a whole. If the regional effects were judged to be significant, regional

  1. Latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene evolution of the ancestral Rio Grande at the Española-San Luis Basin boundary, northern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel J. Koning,; Scott Aby,; Grauch, V. J.; Matthew J. Zimmerer,

    2016-01-01

    We use stratigraphic relations, paleoflow data, and 40Ar/39Ar dating to interpret net aggradation, punctuated by at least two minor incisional events, along part of the upper ancestral Rio Grande fluvial system between 5.5 and 4.5 Ma (in northern New Mexico). The studied fluvial deposits, which we informally call the Sandlin unit of the Santa Fe Group, overlie a structural high between the San Luis and Española Basins. The Sandlin unit was deposited by two merging, west- to southwest-flowing, ancestral Rio Grande tributaries respectively sourced in the central Taos Mountains and southern Taos Mountains-northeastern Picuris Mountains. The river confluence progressively shifted southwestward (downstream) with time, and the integrated river (ancestral Rio Grande) flowed southwards into the Española Basin to merge with the ancestral Rio Chama. Just prior to the end of the Miocene, this fluvial system was incised in the southern part of the study area (resulting in an approximately 4–7 km wide paleovalley), and had sufficient competency to transport cobbles and boulders. Sometime between emplacement of two basalt flows dated at 5.54± 0.38 Ma and 4.82±0.20 Ma (groundmass 40Ar/39Ar ages), this fluvial system deposited 10–12 m of sandier sediment (lower Sandlin subunit) preserved in the northern part of this paleovalley. The fluvial system widened between 4.82±0.20 and 4.50±0.07 Ma, depositing coarse sand and fine gravel up to 14 km north of the present-day Rio Grande. This 10–25 m-thick sediment package (upper Sandlin unit) buried earlier south- to southeast-trending paleovalleys (500–800 m wide) inferred from aeromagnetic data. Two brief incisional events are recognized. The first was caused by the 4.82±0.20 Ma basalt flow impounding south-flowing paleodrainages, and the second occurred shortly after emplacement of a 4.69±0.09 Ma basalt flow in the northern study area. Drivers responsible for Sandlin unit aggradation may include climate

  2. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the

  3. Radioiodine Thyroid Ablation in Graves’ Hyperthyroidism: Merits and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Nwatsock, J. F.; Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mancini, J.; Dong-A-Zok, F.; Mundler, O.

    2012-01-01

    Ablative approaches using radioiodine are increasingly proposed for the treatment of Graves′ disease (GD) but their ophthalmologic and biological autoimmune responses remain controversial and data concerning clinical and biochemical outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO) occurrence after radioiodine thyroid ablation in GD. We reviewed 162 patients treated for GD by iodine-131 (131I) with doses ranging from 370 to 740 MBq, adjusted to thyroid uptake and sex, over a 6-year period in a tertiary referral center. Collected data were compared for outcomes, including effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT) as primary endpoint, evolution of TRAb, and occurrence of GO as secondary endpoints. The success rate was 88.3% within the first 6 months after the treatment. The RIT failure was increased in the presence of goiter (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4–12.0, P = 0.010). The TRAb values regressed with time (r = −0.147; P = 0.042) and patients with a favorable outcome had a lower TRAb value (6.5 ± 16.4 U/L) than those with treatment failure (23.7 ± 24.2 U/L, P < 0.001). At the final status, 48.1% of patients achieved normalization of serum TRAb. GO occurred for the first time in 5 patients (3.7%) who were successfully cured for hyperthyroidism but developed early and prolonged period of hypothyroidism in the context of antithyroid drugs (ATD) intolerance (P = 0.003) and high TRAb level (P = 0.012). On the basis the results of this study we conclude that ablative RIT is effective in eradicating Graves’ hyperthyroidism but may be accompanied by GO occurrence, particularly in patients with early hypothyroidism and high pretreatment TRAb and/or ATD intolerance. In these patients, we recommend an early introduction of LT4 to reduce the duration and the degree of the radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism. PMID:22942775

  4. Radioiodine thyroid ablation in graves' hyperthyroidism: merits and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nwatsock, J F; Taieb, D; Tessonnier, L; Mancini, J; Dong-A-Zok, F; Mundler, O

    2012-01-01

    Ablative approaches using radioiodine are increasingly proposed for the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) but their ophthalmologic and biological autoimmune responses remain controversial and data concerning clinical and biochemical outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) occurrence after radioiodine thyroid ablation in GD. We reviewed 162 patients treated for GD by iodine-131 ((131)I) with doses ranging from 370 to 740 MBq, adjusted to thyroid uptake and sex, over a 6-year period in a tertiary referral center. Collected data were compared for outcomes, including effectiveness of radioiodine therapy (RIT) as primary endpoint, evolution of TRAb, and occurrence of GO as secondary endpoints. The success rate was 88.3% within the first 6 months after the treatment. The RIT failure was increased in the presence of goiter (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4-12.0, P = 0.010). The TRAb values regressed with time (r = -0.147; P = 0.042) and patients with a favorable outcome had a lower TRAb value (6.5 ± 16.4 U/L) than those with treatment failure (23.7 ± 24.2 U/L, P < 0.001). At the final status, 48.1% of patients achieved normalization of serum TRAb. GO occurred for the first time in 5 patients (3.7%) who were successfully cured for hyperthyroidism but developed early and prolonged period of hypothyroidism in the context of antithyroid drugs (ATD) intolerance (P = 0.003) and high TRAb level (P = 0.012). On the basis the results of this study we conclude that ablative RIT is effective in eradicating Graves' hyperthyroidism but may be accompanied by GO occurrence, particularly in patients with early hypothyroidism and high pretreatment TRAb and/or ATD intolerance. In these patients, we recommend an early introduction of LT4 to reduce the duration and the degree of the radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism. PMID:22942775

  5. Thyrotoxicosis--surgical management in the era of evidence-based medicine: experience in western India with 752 cases.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, S K; Chandalia, H B

    2002-10-01

    The three modalities of treatment of thyrotoxicosis, antithyroid therapy (ATT), radio-iodine (I131) therapy and surgery are not cause-specific. In this paper, we describe our evolving experience with 752 thyrotoxic patients who underwent surgery during the last 40 years and discuss the current scenario with evidence-based data and observations wherever possible. Thyroidectomy was performed in 428 patients with Grave's disease (GD), 299 patients with toxic multinodular goitre, and 25 with toxic solitary nodules (TSN). Whereas 289 patients with GD had surgery for failed ATT, the other 139 had primary surgery for controversial or debatable indications such as poor socio-economic status, desire for early pregnancy, poor drug compliance and severe ophthalmopathy. Preoperatively, all patients were administered carbimazole or propylthiouracil. Non-selective b-blocker propranolol and Lugol's iodine were routinely given. In the 25 patients with TSN, hemithyroidectomy was performed. In all others, subtotal thyroidectomy (STT), was performed leaving behind 4 to 8 g of thyroid tissue: a larger amount was left behind in those with higher antithyroid antibody titres. During the last decade, 80 patients received near total thyroidectomy (NTT), mainly to minimize recurrence of thyrotoxicosis and to ameliorate severe eye signs. Because of our increasing experience, no significant increase in postoperative morbidity was encountered with NTT compared to STT. Transient hoarseness was observed in 53 patients with STT and only in two patients with NTT. Three patients with STT and one with NTT developed permanent hoarseness due to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy; voice in these four was normalized by intraglottic injection of Teflon paste 6 months after the operation. In patients undergoing STT, transient hypoparathyroidism was encountered in 63, and permanent hypoparathyroidism in five. The corresponding figures for NTT were 12 and one, respectively. Of the 500 patients monitored for 1

  6. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  7. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waguespack, Steven G.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M.; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D.; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. Methods: A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Results: These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. Conclusions: In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the

  8. Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

    2014-04-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations.

  9. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia.

  10. SERIAL NECK ULTRASOUND IS MORE LIKELY TO IDENTIFY FALSE-POSITIVE ABNORMALITIES THAN CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT DISEASE IN LOW-RISK PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Bach, Ariadne M.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Fish, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective American Thyroid Association (ATA) low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients without structural evidence of disease on initial posttreatment evaluation have a low risk of recurrence. Despite this, most patients undergo frequent surveillance neck ultrasound (US). The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of routine neck US in ATA low-risk PTC patients with no structural evidence of disease after their initial thyroid surgery. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 171 ATA low-risk PTC patients after total thyroidectomy, with or without radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, who had a neck US without suspicious findings after therapy. The main outcome measure was a comparison of the frequency of finding false-positive US abnormalities and the frequency of identifying structural disease recurrence. Results Over a median follow-up of 8 years, 171 patients underwent a median of 5 neck US (range 2–17). Structural recurrence with low-volume disease (≤1 cm) was identified in 1.2% (2/171) of patients at a median of 2.8 years (range 1.6–4.1 years) after their initial diagnosis. Recurrence was associated with rising serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in 1 of the 2 patients and was detected without signs of biochemical recurrence in the other patient. Conversely, false-positive US abnormalities were identified in 67% (114/171) of patients after therapy, leading to additional testing without identifying clinically significant disease. Conclusion In ATA low-risk patients without structural evidence of disease on initial surveillance evaluation, routine screening US is substantially more likely to identify false-positive results than clinically significant structural disease recurrence. PMID:26372300

  11. Thyroid Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2012-01-01

    Background A special report, ‘The Fukushima Accident’, was delivered at the 35th Annual Meeting of the European Thyroid Association in Krakow on September 11, 2011, and this study is the follow-up of the special report. Objectives To present a preliminary review of potential thyroid consequences of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear reactor accident. Methods Numerous new data have been presented in Japanese, and most of them are available on the website from each research institute and/or from each municipality. The review was made using these data from the website. Results When individual radiation doses were expressed as values in more than 99% of residents, radiation doses by behavior survey in evacuation and deliberate evacuation areas were less than 10 mSv in the first 4 months, and internal radiation doses measured by whole body counters were less than 1 mSv/year. Individual thyroid radiation doses were less than 50 mSv (intervention levels) even in evacuation areas. As for health consequences, no one died and no one suffered from acute effects. The thyroid ultrasound examination is in progress and following examination of almost 40,000 children, 35% of them have nodules and/or cysts but no cancers. Conclusions Countermeasures against radiation must consider current individual measured values, although every effort must be taken to reconstruct radiation doses as precisely as possible. At present, the difference of thyroid radiation dose between Chernobyl and Fukushima appears to be due to the strict control of milk started within a week after the accident in Fukushima. Since the iodine-131 plume moved around in wide areas and for a long time, the method of thyroid protection must be reconsidered. PMID:24783014

  12. Managing Terrorism or Accidental Nuclear Errors, Preparing for Iodine-131 Emergencies: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world’s leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15–30 mg or 1–2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  13. Trimester- and Assay-Specific Thyroid Reference Intervals for Pregnant Women in China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinfang; Yuan, Enwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yuchao; Meng, Xiangying; Zhang, Xia; Rong, Shouhua; Lv, Zhongxing; Tian, Yuan; Jia, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The guidelines of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommend an upper limit reference interval (RI) of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester of pregnancy and 3.0 mIU/L in subsequent trimesters, but some reported ranges in China are significantly higher. Our study aimed to establish trimester- and assay-specific RIs for thyroid hormones in normal pregnant Chinese women. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 2540 women with normal pregnancies (first trimester, n = 398; second trimester, n = 797; third trimester, n = 1345) and 237 healthy nonpregnant control subjects were recruited. Serum TSH, free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) levels were determined by automated chemiluminescence with an Immulite 2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). After outliers were excluded, the 2.5–97.5th percentiles were used to define the RIs. Results. The RIs of thyroid function in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and in nonpregnant controls were 0.07–3.96, 0.27–4.53, 0.48–5.40, and 0.69–5.78 mIU/L for TSH and 9.16–18.12, 8.67–16.21, 7.80–13.90, and 8.24–16.61 pmol/L for FT4, respectively. Conclusion. The trimester- and assay-specific RIs of thyroid function during pregnancy differed between trimesters, which suggests that it is advisable to detect and avoid misclassification of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy for women in Henan, China. PMID:27087808

  14. β1-Adrenergic and M2 Muscarinic Autoantibodies and Thyroid Hormone Facilitate Induction of Atrial Fibrillation in Male Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Murphy, Taylor; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Bing; Veitla, Vineet; Scherlag, Benjamin J; Kem, David C; Yu, Xichun

    2016-01-01

    Activating autoantibodies to the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors are present in a very high percentage of patients with Graves' disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible animal model and thereby to examine the impact of these endocrine-like autoantibodies alone and with thyroid hormone on induction of thyroid-associated atrial tachyarrhythmias. Five New Zealand white rabbits were coimmunized with peptides from the second extracellular loops of the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors to produce both sympathomimetic and parasympathomimetic antibodies. A catheter-based electrophysiological study was performed on anesthetized rabbits before and after immunization and subsequent treatment with thyroid hormone. Antibody expression facilitated the induction of sustained sinus, junctional and atrial tachycardias, but not AF. Addition of excessive thyroid hormone resulted in induced sustained AF in all animals. AF induction was blocked acutely by the neutralization of these antibodies with immunogenic peptides despite continued hyperthyroidism. The measured atrial effective refractory period as one parameter of AF propensity shortened significantly after immunization and was acutely reversed by peptide neutralization. No further decrease in the effective refractory period was observed after the addition of thyroid hormone, suggesting other cardiac effects of thyroid hormone may contribute to its role in AF induction. This study demonstrates autonomic autoantibodies and thyroid hormone potentiate the vulnerability of the heart to AF, which can be reversed by decoy peptide therapy. These data help fulfill Witebsky's postulates for an increased autoimmune/endocrine basis for Graves' hyperthyroidism and AF. PMID:26517045

  15. Managing terrorism or accidental nuclear errors, preparing for iodine-131 emergencies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Loeffke, Bernard; Baker, Robert; Kreuk, Florian; Yang, Samantha Peiling; Hurley, James R

    2014-04-01

    Chernobyl demonstrated that iodine-131 (131I) released in a nuclear accident can cause malignant thyroid nodules to develop in children within a 300 mile radius of the incident. Timely potassium iodide (KI) administration can prevent the development of thyroid cancer and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a number of United States governmental agencies recommend KI prophylaxis. Current pre-distribution of KI by the United States government and other governments with nuclear reactors is probably ineffective. Thus we undertook a thorough scientific review, regarding emergency response to 131I exposures. We propose: (1) pre-distribution of KI to at risk populations; (2) prompt administration, within 2 hours of the incident; (3) utilization of a lowest effective KI dose; (4) distribution extension to at least 300 miles from the epicenter of a potential nuclear incident; (5) education of the public about dietary iodide sources; (6) continued post-hoc analysis of the long-term impact of nuclear accidents; and (7) support for global iodine sufficiency programs. Approximately two billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD), the world's leading cause of preventable brain damage. Iodide deficient individuals are at greater risk of developing thyroid cancer after 131I exposure. There are virtually no studies of KI prophylaxis in infants, children and adolescents, our target population. Because of their sensitivity to these side effects, we have suggested that we should extrapolate from the lowest effective adult dose, 15-30 mg or 1-2 mg per 10 pounds for children. We encourage global health agencies (private and governmental) to consider these critical recommendations. PMID:24739768

  16. Multiple-factor analysis of the first radioactive iodine therapy in post-operative patients with differentiated thyroid cancer for achieving a disease-free status

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Meng, Zhaowei; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Wang, Sen

    2016-01-01

    131I treatment is an important management method for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Unsuccessful 131I ablation drastically affects the prognosis of the patients. This study aimed to analyze potential predictive factors influencing the achievement of a disease-free status following the first 131I therapy. This retrospective review included 315 DTC patients, and multiple factors were analyzed. Tumor size, pathological tumor stage, lymph node (LN) metastasis, distant metastasis, American Thyroid Association recommended risks, pre-ablation thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) displayed significant differences between unsuccessful and successful group. Cutoff values of Tg and TSH to predict a successful outcome were 3.525 ng/mL and 99.700 uIU/ml by receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that tumor stage T3 or T4, LN metastasis to N1b station, intermediate and high risks, pre-ablation Tg ≥ 3.525 ng/ml and TSH <99.700 μIU/mL were significantly associated with unsuccessful outcomes. Logistic regression equation for achieving a disease-free status could be rendered as: y (successful treatment) = −0.270–0.503 X1 (LN metastasis) −0.236 X2 (Tg) + 0.015 X3 (TSH). This study demonstrated LN metastasis, pre-ablation Tg and TSH were the most powerful predictors for achieving a disease-free status by the first 131I therapy. PMID:27721492

  17. Effects of low-carbohydrate diet therapy in overweight subjects with autoimmune thyroiditis: possible synergism with ChREBP

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Teresa; Lobaccaro, Jean Marc; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Varriale, Bruno; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs) in patients with high amounts of Abs. In a diet devoid of carbohydrates (bread, pasta, fruit, and rice), free from goitrogenic food, and based on body mass index, the distribution of body mass and intracellular and extracellular water conducted for 3 weeks gives the following results: patients treated as above showed a significant reduction of antithyroid (−40%, P<0.013), anti-microsomal (−57%, P<0.003), and anti-peroxidase (−44%, P<0,029) Abs. Untreated patients had a significant increase in antithyroid (+9%, P<0.017) and anti-microsomal (+30%, P<0.028) Abs. Even the level of anti-peroxidase Abs increased without reaching statistical significance (+16%, P>0064). With regard to the body parameters measured in patients who followed this diet, reduction in body weight (−5%, P<0.000) and body mass index (−4%, P<0.000) were observed. Since 83% of patients with high levels of autoantibodies are breath test positive to lactase with a lactase deficit higher than 50%, this fact led us to hypothesize a correlation with carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein and therefore a possible role of carbohydrate metabolism in the development and maintenance of autoimmune thyroiditis associated with body weight increase and slower basic metabolism.

  18. Effects of low-carbohydrate diet therapy in overweight subjects with autoimmune thyroiditis: possible synergism with ChREBP

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Teresa; Lobaccaro, Jean Marc; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Varriale, Bruno; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs) in patients with high amounts of Abs. In a diet devoid of carbohydrates (bread, pasta, fruit, and rice), free from goitrogenic food, and based on body mass index, the distribution of body mass and intracellular and extracellular water conducted for 3 weeks gives the following results: patients treated as above showed a significant reduction of antithyroid (−40%, P<0.013), anti-microsomal (−57%, P<0.003), and anti-peroxidase (−44%, P<0,029) Abs. Untreated patients had a significant increase in antithyroid (+9%, P<0.017) and anti-microsomal (+30%, P<0.028) Abs. Even the level of anti-peroxidase Abs increased without reaching statistical significance (+16%, P>0064). With regard to the body parameters measured in patients who followed this diet, reduction in body weight (−5%, P<0.000) and body mass index (−4%, P<0.000) were observed. Since 83% of patients with high levels of autoantibodies are breath test positive to lactase with a lactase deficit higher than 50%, this fact led us to hypothesize a correlation with carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein and therefore a possible role of carbohydrate metabolism in the development and maintenance of autoimmune thyroiditis associated with body weight increase and slower basic metabolism. PMID:27695291

  19. Complex-Mediated Synthesis of Tantalum Oxyfluoride Hierarchical Nanostructures for Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leilei; Gong, Haotian; Deng, Li; Long, Fei; Gu, Yu; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-04-13

    In this work, we have, for the first time, developed a facile wet-chemical route to obtain a novel photocatalytic material of tantalum oxyfluoride hierarchical nanostructures composed of amorphous cores and single crystalline TaO2F nanorod shells (ACHNs) by regulating the one-step hydrothermal process of TaF5 in a mixed solution of isopropanol (i-PrOH) and H2O. In this approach, elaborately controlling the reaction temperature and volume ratio of i-PrOH and H2O enabled TaF5 to transform into intermediate coordination complex ions of [TaOF3·2F](2-) and [TaF7](2-), which subsequently produced tantalum oxyfluoride ACHNs via a secondary nucleation and growth due to a stepwise change in hydrolysis rates of the two complex ions. Because of the unique chemical composition, crystal structure and micromorphology, the as-prepared tantalum oxyfluoride ACHNs show a more negative flat band potential, an accelerated charge transfer, and a remarkable surface area of 152.4 m(2) g(-1) contributing to increased surface reaction sites. As a result, they exhibit a photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production up to 1.95 mmol h(-1) g(-1) under the illumination of a simulated solar light without any assistance of co-catalysts, indicating that the as-prepared tantalum oxyfluoride ACHNs are a novel promising photocatalytic material for hydrogen production.

  20. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue; Dai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns. PMID:27519059