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Sample records for tibial condyle valgus

  1. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increases in tibial force imbalance but not changes in tibiofemoral laxities are caused by varus-valgus malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned TKA.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-01-29

    malalignment did not significantly change varus, internal-external rotation, anterior-posterior, and compression-distraction laxities from 0° to 120° flexion. At only 30° of flexion, 4° of varus malalignment increased valgus laxity 1° (p = 0.0014). At 0° flexion, V-V malalignment of the femoral component caused the tibial force imbalance to increase significantly, whereas the laxities were relatively unaffected. Because tibial force imbalance has the potential to adversely affect patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction, surgeons should strive to limit errors in resecting the distal femoral condyles to within ± 0.5 mm which in turn limits the average increase in tibial force imbalance to 68 N. Because laxities were generally unaffected, instability resulting from large increases in laxity is not a clinical concern within the ± 4° range tested. Therapeutic, Level II.

  3. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Kara, Adnan; Adaş, Müjdat; Karslioğlu, Bülent; Bülbül, Murat; Beksaç, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening. PMID:25544899

  4. Tibial condylar valgus osteotomy (TCVO) for osteoarthritis of the knee: 5-year clinical and radiological results.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Ko; Yonekura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Takashi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Goji

    2017-03-01

    Tibial condylar valgus osteotomy (TCVO) is a type of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy for advanced medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) with subluxated lateral joint. We report the concept, the current surgical technique with a locking plate, and the short-term clinical and radiological results of this procedure. 11 knees with medial OA and a widened lateral joint were treated by TCVO (KL stage III: 6, IV: 5). In this procedure, by the L-shaped osteotomy from the medial side of the proximal tibia to the intercondylar eminence and the valgus correction, lateralization of the mechanical axis and reduction of the subluxated lateral joint are obtained with early postoperative weight-bearing. Before, 6 months, 1, and 5 years after the operation, a visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), alignment of the lower extremity, and congruency and stability of the femorotibial joint were investigated. The VAS improved from an average of 73 mm to 13 mm, and the total WOMAC score from 52 to 14 before to 5 years after the operation, respectively. The mechanical axis changed from 1 to 60%, and the FTA changed from 186° to 171°. The joint line convergence angle (JLCA) changed from 6° to 1°, and the angle difference of JLCA between varus and valgus stress improved from 8° to 4° after the procedure. Improvements in pain and activities of daily living were observed by TCVO along with valgus correction of the lower extremity and stabilization of the femorotibial joint.

  5. Case report: multifocal subchondral stress fractures of the femoral heads and tibial condyles in a young military recruit.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    Subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head may be either of the insufficiency-type with poor quality bone or the fatigue-type with normal quality bone but subject to high repetitive stresses. Unlike osteonecrosis, multiple site involvement rarely has been reported for subchondral stress fractures. We describe a case of multifocal subchondral stress fractures involving femoral heads and medial tibial condyles bilaterally within 2 weeks. A 27-year-old military recruit began having left knee pain after 2 weeks of basic training, without any injury. Subsequently, right knee, right hip, and left hip pain developed sequentially within 2 weeks. The diagnosis of multifocal subchondral stress fracture was confirmed by plain radiographs and MR images. Nonoperative treatment of the subchondral stress fractures of both medial tibial condyles and the left uncollapsed femoral head resulted in resolution of symptoms. The collapsed right femoral head was treated with a fibular strut allograft to restore congruity and healed without further collapse. There has been one case report in which an insufficiency-type subchondral stress fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle occurred within a 2-year interval. Because the incidence of bilateral subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head is low and multifocal involvement has not been reported, multifocal subchondral stress fractures can be confused with multifocal osteonecrosis. Our case shows that subchondral stress fractures can occur in multiple sites almost simultaneously.

  6. Triple management of cubitus valgus deformity complicating neglected nonunion of fractures of lateral humeral condyle in children: a case series.

    PubMed

    Abed, Yasser; Nour, Khaled; Kandil, Yasser Roshdy; El-Negery, Abed

    2018-02-01

    Long standing nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle (LHC) usually results in elbow pain and instability with progressive cubitus valgus and tardy ulnar neuritis. Surgical treatment of long standing nonunion is still a controversial issue due to the reported complications, such as stiffness, loss of elbow motion, and avascular necrosis of the LHC fragment. In this study, we reported the outcomes of treatment of cubitus valgus deformity in long standing nonunion of the LHC in children treated with combined triple management (fixation of the nonunion site, dome corrective osteotomy, and anterior transposition of ulnar nerve) through a modified para-triceptal approach. We evaluated ten patients with cubitus valgus deformity more than 20 degrees after neglected nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle more than 24 months. Only childern with post-operative follow up more than 24 months were included in this study. All patients were evaluated clinically, radio logically, and by pre- and post-operative functional evaluation using Mayo elbow performance score. For evaluation of ulnar nerve affection, the Akahori's system was used. There were six females and four males with the average age of 7.7 years at operation. The left elbow was affected in six patients and the right elbow was affected in four patients. The average time between fracture of the LHC and operation was 40.3 months with average post-operative follow up of 44.3 months. The average carrying angle of the healthy side was 5.5 degrees and pre-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 33.5 degrees. The average post-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 6.1 degrees. The improvement of the carrying angle at the last follow up was found statistically significant (p < 0.05). All six patients that had pre-operative various degrees of ulnar nerve affection had completely improved at last follow up. The osteotomy site united in an average time of 43 days, whereas the LHC nonunion site

  7. Trampoline fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus: a report of seven cases and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kakel, R

    2012-06-01

    Fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children is a rare injury but notorious for carrying the risk of subsequent valgus deformity of the tibia. Trampoline-caused fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus. We followed up six children who collectively sustained seven fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis while trampolining with other heavier and/or older children. Initial and follow-up x-rays were reviewed by an orthopaedic surgeons and two radiologists. None of the patients developed valgus deformity with follow-up. Trampoline is associated with a specific type of injury to the proximal tibia when children are trampolining with other heavier children even without falling off the trampoline. This fracture is linear and complete, often non-displaced. Unlike "other" proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures, trampoline-associated proximal tibial metaphysical fracture in children is not associated with a risk of subsequent valgus deformity. Level 4. case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Progressive valgus angulation of the ankle secondary to loss of fibular congruity treated with medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis and fibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Alex C; Esposito, Paul W

    2014-06-01

    The fibula is an important stabilizer of the lateral ankle. Discontinuity of the fibular shaft can lead to progressive pain and shortening of the fibula, ultimately causing loss of lateral support to the ankle. Two children, who sustained segmental bone loss of the shaft of the fibula, developed progressive symptomatic valgus of the ankle with widening of the mortice and lateral subluxation of the talus. Both patients were treated with fibular plating and grafting with tricalcium sulfate with acute reconstitution of fibular length. Distal medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis was simultaneously performed. One patient required revision plating and grafting 14 months after the index surgery because of plate failure. The valgus angulation and the widened medial mortice were corrected in the ankles of both patients, who returned to full activities. The patients were followed to maturity; the correction has been maintained, and they remain asymptomatic. The technique used in these cases can correct valgus angulation secondary to loss of fibular congruity rather than only halting progression of the deformity.

  9. Early proximal tibial valgus osteotomy as a very important prognostic factor in Thai children with infantile tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Tangsataporn, Suksan; Jatunarapit, Ratiporn

    2005-10-01

    To find the effectiveness of the early surgery (2-3 years of age)as a very important prognostic factor affecting the outcomes in Thai children with infantile tibia vara and all the prognostic factors including the usefulness of arthrographic study in correcting the deformity. From 1994 to 2004, sixteen children aged average 3.61 years old (2.08-7.0) were treated in Siriraj Hospital and diagnosed as infantile tibia vara by Langenskiold radiographic staging were included in the present study and retrospectively reviewed with an average of 6.4 years follow up (range 6 month - 11.1 years). All cases were initially treated by surgery because of low compliance for brace or brace failure. They consisted of 3 boys and 13 girls. There were 24 legs including the bilateral involvement in 8 cases (2 boy and 6 girls). After arihrography, the midshaft fibular osteotomy was performed then the proximal tibial dome-shaped valgus osteotomy was done and fixed with 2 pins. The desired position was 12 degree knee valgus . The patients were divided in two groups, 1)group A,the successful group with the knee becoming normal without any deformity after single osteotomy, 2)group B,the recurrent group with recurrence of the varus deformity required further corrective osteotomies to make normal axis of the knee. All variables were analyzed and compared between group A and group B. The general characteristics and radiographic findings were recorded in 1)age, 2)sex, 3)side, 4)weight in kilogram and in percentage of normal or overweight(obesity) compared with the standard Thai weight chart, 5)tibiofemoral angle (TFA) pre and postoperative treatment, 6) metaphyseal diaphyseal angle (MDA), 7)the medial physeal slope angle (MPS, 8)The preoperative arthrographic articulo-diaphyseal angle (ADA), 9.arthrographic articulo-medial physeal angle (AMPA). There were 14 legs in group A and the remaining 10 legs were in group B (average 2.4 operations). All cases healed in good alignment of the legs without

  10. A New Device for Percutaneous Elevation of the Depressed Fractures of Tibial Condyles

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, V.S.; Kumar, Madhusudan; Murthy, G.V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Monocondylar tibia plateau fractures with non-comminuted fragments can be treated using percutaneous screws. Currently indirect methods of reduction are used and thus the technique is limited to fragments with less than 5 mm depression. The first author has designed a device for direct elevation and reduction of the fragments thus potentially expanding the indications of percutaneous screws to fragments with >5mm depression Technical Note: A total of ten cases were treated by this method of percutaneous elevation of the depressed fractures of lateral condyles of the Tibia using this device. Device was inserted through a bony window on the anteromedial surface of tibia. The inner piston of the device in slowly hammered inside thus elevating the depressed fragment. Elevation of fragment could be achieved in all the cases. The fractures were fixed with cancellous screws applied percutaneously. There were no cases with loss of fixation or subsidence of the fragment. All cases achieved radiological union and have good knee function at follow up Conclusion: The new device is able to elevate unicondylar tibia plateau fragments with no subsidence or loss of fixation in our series. A longer follow up in a larger sample will be needed to establish the technique. PMID:27298860

  11. [Proximal tibial valgus osteotomy semi-invasive technique. A report on 66 cases].

    PubMed

    González Maza, Carlos; Moscoso López, Luis; Magaña García, Ignacio; Mejía Vargas, Gildardo; López Segundo, José Román

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to report sixty six high tibial lateral osteotomies (HTO) make on patients with osteoarthrosis of the medial compartment, using modified semi invasive technique. With this technique the incision is 5-6 mm, fibular head is not resect, biceps femoris tendon is not cut, no internal fixation is place; the median follow-up was 6.4 years. The status of the patient at the final follow-up was analyzed using Knee Society Score (KSS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). An average of 85 points was achieved after HTO compared to 55 points preoperative and 83 points after HTO compared to 51 points preoperative, was obtained at the evaluation with KSS. The only complication was superficial infections (4%). Serious complications did not appear. There was not pseudoarthrosis.

  12. Resection of Grade III cranial horn tears of the equine medial meniscus alter the contact forces on medial tibial condyle at full extension: an in-vitro cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Fowlie, Jennifer; Arnoczky, Steven; Lavagnino, Michael; Maerz, Tristan; Stick, John

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the magnitude and distribution of joint contact pressure on the medial tibial condyle after grade III cranial horn tears of the medial meniscus. Experimental study. Cadaveric equine stifles (n = 6). Cadaveric stifles were mounted in a materials testing system and electronic pressure sensors were placed between the medial tibial condyle and medial meniscus. Specimens were loaded parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tibia to 1800 N at 130°, 140°, 150°, and 160° stifle angle. Peak pressure and contact area were recorded from the contact maps. Testing was repeated after surgical creation of a grade III cranial horn tear of the medial meniscus, and after resection of the simulated tear. In the intact specimens, a significantly smaller contact area was observed at 160° compared with the other angles (P < .05). Creation of a grade III cranial horn tear in the medial meniscus did not significantly alter the pressure or contact area measurements at any stifle angle compared with intact specimens (P > .05). Resection of the tear resulted in significantly higher peak pressures in the central region of the medial tibial condyle at a stifle angle of 160° relative to the intact (P = .026) and torn (P = .012) specimens. Resection of grade III cranial horn tears in the medial meniscus resulted in a central focal region of increased pressure on the medial tibial condyle at 160° stifle angle. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Anatomical landmarks of the distal femoral condyles are not always parallel to the tibial bone cut surface in flexion during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Itokazu, Maki; Minoda, Yukihide; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Mizokawa, Shigekazu; Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Soft tissue balancing is crucial to the success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To create a rectangular flexion joint gap, the rotation of the femoral component is important. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not anatomical landmarks of the distal femoral condyles are parallel to the tibial bone cut surface in flexion. Forty-eight patients (three male and 45 female) with a mean age of 74years were examined. During the operation, we estimated the flexion joint gap with the following three techniques. 1) a three degree external cut to the posterior condylar line (MR1), 2) a parallel cut to the surgical transepicondylar axis (MR2), and 3) a parallel cut to the anatomical transepicondylar axis (MR3). The flexion joint gap was 1.1±3.0° (mean±standard deviation (SD)) in internal rotation in the case of MR1, 0.9±3.4° in internal rotation in the case of MR2, and 2.1±3.4° in external rotation in the case of MR3. An outlier (flexion joint gap >3.0°) was observed in 12 cases (25%) in MR1, 13 cases (27%) in MR2, and 15 cases (31%) in MR3. The anatomical landmarks of the distal femoral condyles are not always parallel to the tibial bone cut surface in flexion. To create a rectangular flexion joint gap, the rotation of the femoral component rotation is based not only on the anatomical landmarks but also on the ligament balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Utilization of a porous alumina ceramic spacer in tibial valgus open-wedge osteotomy: fifty cases at 16 months mean follow-up].

    PubMed

    Bové, J C

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behavior of an inert porous alumina ceramic spacer used with a plate fixation for open-wedge tibial valgus osteotomy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and genu varum. The population included 50 patients who underwent surgery between October 1994 and December 2000. There were 31 women and 19 men, mean age 55 years at surgery (26 right knees and 24 left knees). Patients were reviewed at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and one year, then every 2 years. Clinical and radiological data were available for all patients. Mean follow-up was 16 months. Two patients were lost to follow-up at 5 and 6 months. The results of the open-wedge tibial osteotomy were in agreement with the usual outcome reported in the literature concerning pain relief, functional recovery, joint motion, angle correction, and good preservation of the clinical and radiological result. Three fracture lines were observed on the lateral tibial plateau but did not affect final outcome or angle correction. There was however one case with loss of correction due to fracture of the screws. Radiographically, at 6 months, there were 9 thin lucent lines around the spacer (24%) which did not affect final outcome. Bone healing was achieved at 3 months on the average in all cases except 2 (4%) where healing was achieved at 8 and 13 months. The porous alumine spacer is a reliable biocompatible and mechanically stable element helpful for achieving bone healing. Integration into bone tissue was radiographically satisfactory. There were no specific complications related to use of the spacer.

  15. Effect of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the lateral tibiofemoral compartment in sheep. Part II: standard and overcorrection do not cause articular cartilage degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Raphaela; Goebel, Lars; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate whether medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in structural changes in the articular cartilage in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment of adult sheep. Three experimental groups received biplanar osteotomies of the right proximal tibiae: (a) closing wedge HTO (4.5° of tibial varus), (b) opening wedge HTO (4.5° tibial valgus; standard correction), and (c) opening wedge HTO (9.5° of valgus; overcorrection), each of which was compared to the contralateral knees that only received an arthrotomy. After 6 months, the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the articular cartilage of the lateral tibiofemoral compartment were assessed. The articular cartilage in the central region of the lateral tibial plateau in sheep had a higher safranin O staining intensity and was 4.6-fold thicker than in the periphery (covered by the lateral meniscus). No topographical variation in the type-II collagen immunoreactivity was seen. All lateral tibial plateaus showed osteoarthritic changes in regions not covered by the lateral meniscus. No osteoarthritis was seen in the peripheral submeniscal regions of the lateral tibial plateau and the lateral femoral condyle. Opening wedge HTO resulting in both standard and overcorrection was not associated with significant macroscopic and microscopic structural changes between groups in the articular cartilage of the lateral tibial plateau and femoral condyle after 6 months in vivo. Opening wedge HTO resulting in both standard and overcorrection is a safe procedure for the articular cartilage in an intact lateral tibiofemoral compartment of adult sheep at 6 months postoperatively.

  16. Load Sharing Among Collateral Ligaments, Articular Surfaces, and the Tibial Post in Constrained Condylar Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Malik, Aamer; Bartel, Donald L; Wright, Timothy M; Padgett, Douglas E

    2016-08-01

    The normal knee joint maintains stable motion during activities of daily living. After total knee arthroplasty (TKA), stability is achieved by the conformity of the bearing surfaces of the implant components, ligaments, and constraint structures incorporated in the implant design. The large, rectangular tibial post in constrained condylar knee (CCK) arthroplasty, often used in revision surgery, provides added stability, but increases susceptibility to polyethylene wear as it contacts the intercondylar box on the femoral component. We examined coronal plane stability to understand the relative contributions of the mechanisms that act to stabilize the CCK knee under varus-valgus loading, namely, load distribution between the medial and lateral condyles, contact of the tibial post with the femoral intercondylar box, and elongation of the collateral ligaments. A robot testing system was used to determine the joint stability in human cadaveric knees as described by the moment versus angular rotation behavior under varus-valgus moments at 0 deg, 30 deg, and 90 deg of flexion. The angular rotation of the CCK knee in response to the physiological moments was limited to ≤1.5 deg. The primary stabilizing mechanism was the redistribution of the contact force on the bearing surfaces. Contact between the tibial post and the femoral box provided a secondary stabilizing mechanism after lift-off of a condyle had occurred. Collateral ligaments provide limited stability because little ligament elongation occurred under such small angular rotations. Compressive loads applied across the knee joint, such as would occur with the application of muscle forces, enhanced the ability of the bearing surfaces to provide resisting internal varus-valgus moment and, thus, reduced the exposure of the tibial post to the external varus-valgus loads. Our results suggest that the CCK stability can be refined by considering both the geometry of the bearing surfaces and the contacting geometry

  17. [Stability, bone healing and loss of correction after valgus realignment of the tibial head. A roentgen stereometry analysis].

    PubMed

    Pape, D; Adam, F; Rupp, S; Seil, R; Kohn, D

    2004-02-01

    In high tibial closing-wedge osteotomies (HTO), closure of an osteotomy gap after resection of a bony wedge can be associated with a fissure of the medial cortex of the tibial head (MCT). The effect of a broken MCT on the recurrence of varus deformity is disputed. In this study, serial roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA) was used to determine the fixation stability of a rigid internal "L" plate after HTO. Full weight lower limb radiographs were used to determine the sagittal alignment in patients with varying degrees of varus malalignment and correction over time. Forty-two patients with varus gonarthrosis stage I-III (Ahlback) were treated with HTO and internal fixation with an L-shaped rigid plate. Patients were followed by serial RSA, conventional radiographs, and clinical evaluation (Hospital of Special Surgery score) over a 12-month period. In 19 of 42 successive patients, an average wedge size of 6.9 degrees was resected leaving the MCT intact (group 1). In 23 of 42 of patients, the MCT was unintentionally fissured during surgery when an average 10.3 degrees -wedge was resected (group 2). In group 2, RSA revealed a fivefold increase in lateral displacement of the distal tibial segment within 3 weeks after HTO. Twelve weeks after HTO, translations between tibial segments were below the accuracy of the RSA setup in the majority of patients. Group 1 patients demonstrated a higher initial fixation stability, less occurrence of varus deformity, and a higher HSS score compared to patients with larger wedge sizes and frequent fracture of the MCT (group 2). Before bone healing is achieved, the integrity of the MCT plays a crucial role for the clinical and radiological outcome after HTO.

  18. Strain measurements of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis using a knee motion simulator.

    PubMed

    Sera, Toshihiro; Iwai, Yuya; Yamazaki, Takaharu; Tomita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Naito, Hisahi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Masao

    2017-12-01

    The longevity of a knee prosthesis is influenced by the wear of the tibial insert due to its posture and movement. In this study, we assumed that the strain on the tibial insert is one of the main reasons for its wear and investigated the influence of the knee varus-valgus angles on the mechanical stress of the tibial insert. Knee prosthesis motion was simulated using a knee motion simulator based on a parallel-link six degrees-of-freedom actuator and the principal strain and pressure distribution of the tibial insert were measured. In particular, the early stance phase obtained from in vivo X-ray images was examined because the knee is applied to the largest load during extension/flexion movement. The knee varus-valgus angles were 0° (neutral alignment), 3°, and 5° malalignment. Under a neutral orientation, the pressure was higher at the middle and posterior condyles. The first and second principal strains were larger at the high and low pressure areas, respectively. Even for a 3° malalignment, the load was concentrated at one condyle and the positive first principal strain increased dramatically at the high pressure area. The negative second principal strain was large at the low pressure area on the other condyle. The maximum equivalent strain was 1.3-2.1 times larger at the high pressure area. For a 5° malalignment, the maximum equivalent strain increased slightly. These strain and pressure measurements can provide the mechanical stress of the tibial insert in detail for determining the longevity of an artificial knee joint.

  19. Internal-external malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty increases tibial force imbalance but does not change laxities of the tibiofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the increase in tibial force imbalance (i.e. magnitude of difference between medial and lateral tibial forces) and changes in laxities caused by  2° and 4° of internal-external (I-E) malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty. Because I-E malalignment would introduce the greatest changes to the articular surfaces near 90° of flexion, the hypotheses were that the tibial force imbalance would be significantly increased near 90° flexion and that primarily varus-valgus laxity would be affected near 90° flexion. Kinematically aligned TKA was performed on ten human cadaveric knee specimens using disposable manual instruments without soft tissue release. One 3D-printed reference femoral component, with unmodified geometry, was aligned to restore the native distal and posterior femoral joint lines. Four 3D-printed femoral components, with modified geometry, introduced I-E malalignments of 2° and 4° from the reference component. Medial and lateral tibial forces were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. Bidirectional laxities in four degrees of freedom were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom load application system. Tibial force imbalance increased the greatest at 60° flexion where a regression analysis against the degree of I-E malalignment yielded sensitivities (i.e. slopes) of 30 N/° (medial tibial force > lateral tibial force) and 10 N/° (lateral tibial force > medial tibial force) for internal and external malalignments, respectively. Valgus laxity increased significantly with the 4° external component with the greatest increase of 1.5° occurring at 90° flexion (p < 0.0001). With the tibial component correctly aligned, I-E malalignment of the femoral component caused significant increases in tibial force imbalance. Minimizing I-E malalignment lowers the increase in the tibial force imbalance. By keeping

  20. Osteochondral microdamage from valgus bending of the human knee.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Villwock, Mark R; Haut, Roger C

    2009-08-01

    Valgus bending of the knee is promoted as an anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism and is associated with a characteristic "footprint" of bone bruising. The hypothesis of this study was that during ligamentous failure caused by valgus bending of the knee, high tibiofemoral contact pressures induce acute osteochondral microdamage. Four knee pairs were loaded in valgus bending until gross injury with or without a tibiofemoral compression pre-load. The peak valgus moment and resultant motions of the knee joint were recorded. Pressure sensitive film documented the magnitude and location of tibiofemoral contact. Cartilage fissures were documented on the tibial plateau, and microcracks in subchondral bone were documented from micro-computed tomography scans. Injuries were to the anterior cruciate ligament in three knees and the medial collateral ligament in seven knees. The mean (standard deviation) peak bending moment at failure was 107 (64)Nm. Valgus bending produced regions of contact on the lateral tibial plateau with average maximum pressures of approximately 30 (8)MPa. Cartilage fissures and subchondral bone microcracks were observed in these regions of high contact pressure. Combined valgus bending and tibiofemoral compression produce slightly higher contact pressures, but do not alter the gross injury pattern from isolated valgus bending experiments. Athletes who sustain a severe valgus knee bending moment, may be at risk of acute osteochondral damage especially if the loading mechanism occurs with a significant tibiofemoral compression component.

  1. Factors Associated With Early Loss of Hallux Valgus Correction.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kyprios, Evangelos M; Panchani, Prakash N; Martin, Lanster R; Thorud, Jakob C; Jupiter, Daniel C

    Recurrence is common after hallux valgus corrective surgery. Although many investigators have studied the risk factors associated with a suboptimal hallux position at the end of long-term follow-up, few have evaluated the factors associated with actual early loss of correction. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the predictors of lateral deviation of the hallux during the postoperative period. We evaluated the demographic data, preoperative severity of the hallux valgus, other angular measurements characterizing underlying deformities, amount of hallux valgus correction, and postoperative alignment of the corrected hallux valgus for associations with recurrence. After adjusting for the covariates, the only factor associated with recurrence was the postoperative tibial sesamoid position. The recurrence rate was ~50% and ~60% when the postoperative tibial sesamoid position was >4 and >5 on the 7-point scale, respectively. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The effect of isolated valgus moments on ACL strain during single-leg landing: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Choongsoo S.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Valgus moments on the knee joint during single-leg landing have been suggested as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of isolated valgus moment on ACL strain during single-leg landing. Physiologic levels of valgus moments from an in vivo study of single-leg landing were applied to a three-dimensional dynamic knee model, previously developed and tested for ACL strain measurement during simulated landing. The ACL strain, knee valgus angle, tibial rotation, and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strain were calculated and analyzed. The study shows that the peak ACL strain increased nonlinearly with increasing peak valgus moment. Subjects with naturally high valgus moments showed greater sensitivity for increased ACL strain with increased valgus moment, but ACL strain plateaus below reported ACL failure levels when the applied isolated valgus moment rises above the maximum values observed during normal cutting activities. In addition, the tibia was observed to rotate externally as the peak valgus moment increased due to bony and soft-tissue constraints. In conclusion, knee valgus moment increases peak ACL strain during single-leg landing. However, valgus moment alone may not be sufficient to induce an isolated ACL tear without concomitant damage to the MCL, because coupled tibial external rotation and increasing strain in the MCL prevent proportional increases in ACL strain at higher levels of valgus moment. Training that reduces the external valgus moment, however, can reduce the ACL strain and thus may help athletes reduce their overall ACL injury risk. PMID:19100550

  3. Geometry of the Valgus Knee: Contradicting the Dogma of a Femoral-Based Deformity.

    PubMed

    Eberbach, Helge; Mehl, Julian; Feucht, Matthias J; Bode, Gerrit; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Realignment osteotomies of valgus knee deformities are usually performed at the distal femur, as valgus alignment is considered to be a femoral-based deformity. This dogma, however, has not been proven in a large patient population. Valgus malalignment may also be caused by a tibial deformity or a combined tibial and femoral deformity. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the coronal geometry of patients with valgus malalignment and identify the location of the underlying deformity and (2) to investigate the proportion of cases that require realignment osteotomy at the tibia, the femur, or both locations to avoid an oblique joint line. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The analysis included 420 standing full-leg radiographs of patients with valgus malalignment (mechanical femorotibial angle [mFTA], ≥4°). A systematic analysis of the coronal leg geometry was performed including the mFTA, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA), and joint-line convergence angle (JLCA). The localization of the deformity was determined according to the malalignment test described by Paley, and patients were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: femoral-based valgus deformity, tibial-based valgus deformity, femoral- and tibial-based valgus deformity, or intra-articular/ligamentary-based valgus deformity. Subsequently, the ideal osteotomy site was identified with the goal of a postoperative change of the joint line of two different maximum values, ±2° and ±4°, from its physiological varus position of 3°. Measurements of the coronal alignment revealed a mean (±SD) mFTA of 7.4° ± 4.3° (range, 4°-28.2°). The mean mLDFA and mean mMPTA were 84.8° ± 2.4° and 90.9° ± 2.6°, respectively. The mean JLCA was 1.2° ± 3.1°. The majority (41.0%) of valgus deformities were tibial based, 23.6% were femoral based, 26.9% were femoral and tibial based, and 8.6% were intra-articular/ligamentary based. To achieve a

  4. [High tibial osteotomy--fixation by means of external fixation--indication, technique, complications (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klems, H

    1976-02-01

    High tibial osteotomy has proved its value in the treatment of gonarthrosis with or without axis deformity. The thrust of weight-bearing and other stresses is lessened on the degenerated tibial condyle and transferred to the more normal condyle. The stable fixation by means of external fixation allows early movement of the knee joint.-R-ferences to operative technique, indication, complications and after-treatment.

  5. Bone morphotypes of the varus and valgus knee.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, E; Schwab, P E; Cornu, O; Bellemans, J; Victor, J

    2017-03-01

    Coronal deformity correction with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important feature in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). The hypothesis of this study was that bone morphology would be different in varus and valgus deformity, both before osteoarthritis development as well as during and after the disease process of OA. Retrospective study with measurements on preoperative and postoperative full leg standing radiographs of 96 patients who underwent TKA. The included patients were selected for this study because they had an OA knee on one side and a non-arthritic knee on the contralateral side presenting the same type of alignment as the to-be-operated knee (varus or valgus alignment on both sides). The control group of 46 subjects was a group of patients with neutral mechanical alignment who presented for ligamentous problems. A single observer measured mechanical alignment, anatomical alignment, anatomical-mechanical femoral angle and intra-articular bone morphology parameters with an accuracy of 1°. Varus OA group has less distal femoral valgus (mLDFA 89°) than control group (87°) and valgus OA group (mLDFA 85°). Varus OA group has same varus obliquity as control group (MPTA 87°) but more than valgus OA group (MPTA 90°). Joint Line Congruency Angle (JLCA) is 3°open on lateral side in varus and medially open in valgus OA group (2°). The non-arthritic valgus group presents a constitutional mechanical valgus of 184° Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle. Varus deformity in OA as measured with an HKA angle (HKA) <177° is a combination of distal femoral wear, tibial varus obliquity and lateral joint line opening. Valgus deformity in OA with an HKA > 183° is a combination of femoral distal joint line obliquity and wear combined with medial opening due to medial collateral ligament stretching. The clinical importance of bone morphotype analysis is that it shows the intra-articular potential of alignment correction when mechanical axis cuts are performed. Bone

  6. Hallux valgus (bunions)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus (bunions) are prominent and often inflamed metatarsal heads and overlying bursae. They are associated with valgus deviation of the great toe which moves towards the second toe. Hallux valgus is found in at least 2% of children aged 9 to 10 years, and almost half of adults, with greater prevalence in women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of conservative treatments for hallux valgus (bunions)? What are the effects of osteotomy for hallux valgus (bunions)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: chevron osteotomy plus adductor tenotomy; distal metatarsal osteotomy; minimally invasive surgery (percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy, SERI [Simple, Effective, Rapid, Inexpensive] distal metatarsal osteotomy); phalangeal (Akin) osteotomy plus distal chevron osteotomy; proximal osteotomy; night splints; and orthoses (including antipronatory orthoses in children).

  7. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  8. Knowledge of participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society (PFAS) Congress about the diagnosis and treatment of plano-valgus feet secondary to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Łukasz; Napiontek, Marek; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) ranks among the most common causes of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. The deformity develops gradually through characteristic stages and its early manifestations are often ignored or mis-diagnosed. The aim of the study was to gain an insight into what the participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society Congress knew about the diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot. An anonymous survey described the clinical presentation of a hypothetical patient with fixed stage III (according to the Johnson and Strom classification) acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed and 51 (78%) were completed and returned. The respondents included 40 orthopaedics consultants and 11 orthopaedics and traumatology resident doctors. The mean time of work experience of the specialists was 17.5 years and that of resident doctors, 3.5 years. The deformity was properly diagnosed by 36 respondents (71%), including 29 specialists (73%) and 7 resident doctors (63%). Proper operative treatment was selected by 28 respondents (52%): 24 specialists (60%) and 4 residents (36%). Overall, appropriate comprehensive diagnostic work-up and treatment was planned only by 19 respondents (35%), including 17 specialists (32%) and 2 residents (4%). Appropriate diagnostic work-up and treatment of acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD was planned by less than half of the respondents and their work experience did not have any relation with the management they suggested. 1. There is a significant lack of knowledge about PTTD among residents. 2. The majority of PFAS members surveyed selected the correct method of diagnostic work-up and treatment, but the differences with respect to non-PFAS respondents were not statistically significant.

  9. Finite element analysis of the valgus knee joint of an obese child.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Yan, Songhua; Jiang, Yan; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Ming; Zeng, Jizhou; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-12-28

    Knee valgus and varus morbidity is at the second top place in children lower limb deformity diseases. It may cause abnormal stress distribution. The magnitude and location of contact forces on tibia plateau during gait cycle have been indicated as markers for risk of osteoarthritis. So far, few studies reported the contact stress and force distribution on tibial plateau of valgus knee of children. To estimate the contact stresses and forces on tibial plateau of an 8-year old obese boy with valgus knee and a 7-year old healthy boy, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of their left knee joints were developed. The valgus knee model has 36,897 nodes and 1,65,106 elements, and the normal knee model has 78,278 nodes and 1,18,756 elements. Paired t test was used for the comparison between the results from the 3D FE analysis method and the results from traditional kinematic measurement methods. The p value of paired t test is 0.12. Maximum stresses shifted to lateral plateau in knee valgus children while maximum stresses were on medial plateau in normal knee child at the first peak of vertical GRF of stance phase. The locations of contact centers on medial plateau changed 3.38 mm more than that on lateral plateau, while the locations of contact centers on medial plateau changed 1.22 mm less than that on lateral plateau for healthy child from the first peak to second peak of vertical GRF of stance phase. The paired t test result shows that there is no significant difference between the two methods. The results of FE analysis method suggest that knee valgus malalignment could be the reason for abnormal knee load that may cause knee problems in obese children with valgus knee in the long-term. This study may help to understand biomechanical mechanism of valgus knees of obese children.

  10. Location of the Common Peroneal Nerve in Valgus Knees-Is the Reported Safe Zone for Well-Aligned Knees Applicable?

    PubMed

    Yang, Dejin; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin; Tang, Hao; Guo, Shengjie

    2017-11-01

    Lateral soft-tissue release can jeopardize the common peroneal nerve (CPN) in total knee arthroplasty for valgus knees. Previous studies reporting safe zones to protect the CPN were based on well-aligned knees. We conducted this study to compare the localization of the CPN in well-aligned knees and in valgus knees. We conducted a consecutive 3-dimensional radiographic study on magnetic resonance images of 58 well-aligned knees and 39 valgus knees. We measured the distance between the CPN and the tibia, as well as the mediolateral, anteroposterior, and angular location of the CPN. We compared the results between well-aligned knees and valgus knees. We found that there is an increased distance between the CPN and the tibia at the level of the tibial cut, but not at the joint line in valgus knees. It is safer to release the posterolateral capsule at the tibial side than at the level above this. The angular location and the mediolateral or anteroposterior location of the CPN in valgus knees are similar to those of well-aligned knees. The location of the CPN in valgus knees is similar to that in well-aligned knees. The previously reported safe zone in well-aligned knees is applicable in valgus knees to protect the CPN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Total knee arthroplasty by lateral parapatellar approach for valgus knee].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dian-ge; Zhang, Bin; Kou, Bo-long; Lü, Hou-shan

    2007-07-17

    To investigate the effect of lateral parapatellar approach in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) of valgus knee. Lateral parapatellar approach of total knee arthroplasty was applied in 8 patients (10 knees) with severe valgus osteoarthritis knee (bilateral in 2 cases and unilateral in 6 cases), with the valgus angle > 15 degrees , 1 male (1 knee) and 7 females (9 knee), aged 68.2 (58 - 79), 7 cases (9 knees) being of the Krackow type I and 1 case (1 knee) of the Krackow type I, I. After incision of the skin through lateral knee, ilio-tibial band was prolonged by apple pie arthroplasty. The joint capsule was cut open laterally 2 - 4 cm from the para-patellar edge. Soft tissue balance was performed by releasing I - T band in Gerdy tubercle, lateral collateral ligament and poster-lateral capsule from the femur and tibial side. Valgus angle of distal femur cutting were five degree. Whiteside line and trans-epicondylar line were used as AP rotational cutting reference. All patellar of the group were resurfaced. Capsule closure is completed with the knee flexed. The expanded deep lateral soft tissue sleeve (coronal Z-plasty) is sutured with the medial retinaculum sleeve (superficial layer). Follow-up was conducted for 19.6 months (1 - 51 months). Seven cases (9 knees) were replaced by posterior stabilized cemented prostheses (TC-Dynamic, PLUS), one case (1 knee) was replaced by RT prosthesis (RT-PLUS(TM) Solution, PLUS). After operation, the valgus deformity of all patients was corrected and all patients could walk 100 m with or without the help of walking holders. The average range of motion (ROM) was improved from the pre-operative. 95.6 degrees (85 degrees - 110 degrees ) to the post-operative 117.1 degrees (100 degrees - 125 degrees ). The average femorotibial angle (FTA) was corrected from the pre-operative. 27.6 degrees (20 degrees - 40 degrees ) to the post-operative 6.8 degrees (5 degrees - 9 degrees ). The Knee Score System (KSS) score and functional score were

  12. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  13. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  14. Gait analysis in hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, M; Turan, I; Agadir, M

    1991-01-01

    The solar pressure zones were analyzed in the feet of 66 patients suffering from hallux valgus, together with 60 normal subjects. The EMED Gait Analysis System was used. In the hallux valgus group, the maximum pressure was found to be increased significantly in the small toe region and more proximally situated, close to the metatarsophalangeal joint. In the normal subjects, the maximum pressure was increased significantly in the first, second, third, and fourth metatarsal and heel regions. In general, the hallux valgus group had smaller contact areas compared to the control group. The increased pressure in the small toe region, together with the smaller contact areas manifested by the hallux valgus group, were interpreted in this work as being the possible causes of the metatarsalgia seen in patients with the deformity.

  15. Paleopathological study of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Mays, S A

    2005-02-01

    Hallux valgus is the abnormal lateral deviation of the great toe. The principal cause is biomechanical, specifically the habitual use of footwear which constricts the toes. In this study, descriptions of the anatomical changes of hallux valgus from published cadaveric and clinical studies were used to generate criteria for identifying the condition in ancient skeletal remains. The value of systematic scoring of hallux valgus in paleopathology is illustrated using two British skeletal series, one dating from the earlier and one from the later Medieval period. It was found that hallux valgus was restricted to later Medieval burials. This appears consistent with archaeological and historical evidence for a rise in popularity, during the late Medieval period (at least among the richer social classes), of narrow, pointed shoes which would have constricted the toes. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Osteosynthesis in situ for lateral condyle nonunion in children.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoon; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kwon, Yong Uk; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of osteosynthesis in situ by evaluating the functional and cosmetic results in children with nonunion of lateral condyle fractures. Sixteen consecutive patients were treated with in situ fixation consisting of minimal curettage of fracture gap and screw compression of metaphyseal fragments without bone grafting. The mean age at the time of surgery was 5.6 years (range, 1 to 10 y). The mean interval between the initial lateral condylar fracture and surgery was 4.8 months (range, 3 to 12 mo). The average amount of displacement measured on radiographs was 6.6 mm medially and 7.4 mm laterally. Outcome was assessed by clinical and radiologic evaluation at the latest follow-up. All patients achieved bony union. The mean duration of follow-up was 45.4 months (range, 24 to 67 mo). The range of motion and flexion contracture improved postoperatively in all patients. There was no evidence of premature growth arrest, osteonecrosis, or fishtail deformity until last follow-up. The overall result was excellent in 5, good in 10, and fair in 1 patient. However, 3 patients developed valgus or varus deformities of >10 degrees. Osteosynthesis in situ can be an effective and safe treatment for achieving bone union and improved elbow motion and preventing avascular necrosis. However, valgus or varus deformities may occur after this procedure and corrective osteotomy may be necessary. Level IV - case series.

  17. Arthroscopic repair of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Su Chan; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Song, Moon Bok; Lee, Choon Key

    2009-07-01

    Simultaneous repair of a radial tear at the tibial attachment site of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus under special circumstances requiring tibial valgus osteotomy is technically difficult. First, most patients who need an osteotomy have a narrowed medial tibiofemoral joint space. In such a situation, the pull-out suture technique is more difficult to perform than in a normal joint space. Second, pulling out suture strands that penetrate the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the anterior tibial cortex increases the risk of transection during osteotomy. We performed a meniscus repair combined with an opening wedge tibial valgus osteotomy without complications and present our technique as a new method for use in selective cases necessitating both meniscus repair of a complete radial tear and opening wedge tibial osteotomy.

  18. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distal chevron osteotomy with distal soft tissue procedure for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long Bin; Lee, Keun Bae; Seo, Chang Young; Song, Eun Kyoo; Yoon, Taek Rim

    2010-08-01

    Distal chevron osteotomy has been widely employed to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. We reviewed 76 patients (86 feet) that underwent distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. At a mean followup of 31 months, all patients were evaluated using subjective, objective and radiographic measurements. Ninety-four percent of the patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Average AOFAS score improved from 54.7 points preoperatively to 92.9 at final followup. Average hallux valgus angle changed from 36.2 degrees preoperatively to 12.4 degrees at final followup, and average first-second intermetatarsal angle changed from 17.1 to 7.3 degrees. Average tibial sesamoid position changed from 2.4 preoperatively to 1.2 at final followup. Dorsal angulation of the head was observed in two feet, and plantaflexion of the head in four feet. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head. Our results indicate that distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure provides an effective and reliable means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity, and that it does so with high levels of patient satisfaction and low incidence of complications.

  20. Accuracy of estimating Unicondylar Knee Replacement implant varus/valgus angles from antero-posterior radiographs.

    PubMed

    Khare, Rahul; Jaramaz, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    Unicondylar Knee Replacement (UKR) is an orthopedic surgical procedure to reduce pain and improve function in the knee. Load-bearing long-standing antero-posterior (AP) radiographs are typically used postoperatively to measure the leg alignment and assess the varus/valgus implant orientation. However, implant out-of-plane rotations, user variability, and X-ray acquisition parameters introduce errors in the estimation of the implant varus/valgus estimation. Previous work has explored the accuracy of various imaging modalities in this estimation. In this work, we explored the impact of out-of-plane rotations and X-ray acquisition parameters on the estimation of implant component varus/valgus angles. For our study, we used a single CT scan and positioned femoral and tibial implants under varying orientations within the CT volume. Then, a custom software application was used to obtain digitally reconstructed radiographs from the CT scan with implants under varying orientations. Two users were then asked to manually estimate the varus/valgus angles for the implants. We found that there was significant inter-user variability (p < 0.05) in the varus/valgus estimates for the two users. However, the 'ideal' measurements, obtained using actual implant orientations, showed small errors due to variations in implant orientation. We also found that variation in the projection center does not have a statistically significant impact (p < 0.01) on the estimation of implant varus/valgus angles. We conclude that manual estimates of UKR implant varus/valgus orientations are unreliable.

  1. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  2. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  3. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  4. Tibiofemoral Osteoarthritis and Varus-Valgus Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Freisinger, Gregory M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Wanamaker, Andrea B.; Siston, Robert A.; Chaudhari, Ajit M. W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and synthesize the literature measuring varus-valgus laxity in individuals with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, we aimed to identify varus-valgus laxity differences between persons with OA and controls, by radiographic disease severity, by frontal plane knee alignment, and by sex. We also aimed to identify if there was a relationship between varus-valgus laxity and clinical performance and self-reported function. We systematically searched for peer-reviewed original research articles in PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL to identify all existing literature regarding knee OA and objective measurement of varus-valgus laxity in vivo. Forty articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria and data were extracted. Varus-valgus laxity was significantly greater in individuals with OA compared with controls in a majority of studies, while no study found laxity to be significantly greater in controls. Varus-valgus laxity of the knee was reported in persons with OA and varying degrees of frontal plane alignment, disease severity, clinical performance, and self-reported function but no consensus finding could be identified. Females with knee OA appear to have more varus-valgus laxity than males. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the subject populations and differences in laxity measurement devices, applied loading, and laxity definitions. Increased varus-valgus laxity is a characteristic of knee joints with OA. Large variances exist in reported varus-valgus laxity and may be due to differences in measurement devices. Prospective studies on joint laxity are needed to identify if increased varus-valgus laxity is a causative factor in OA incidence and progression. PMID:27680888

  5. Effect of various hallux valgus reconstruction on sesamoid location: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eddie H; Charlton, Timothy P; Ajayi, Samuel; Thordarson, David B

    2013-01-01

    The correction of sesamoid subluxation is an important component of hallux valgus reconstruction with some surgeons feeling that the sesamoids can be pulled back under the first metatarsal head when imbricating the medial capsule during surgery. The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess the effect of an osteotomy on sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. This is a retrospective radiographic study review of 165 patients with hallux valgus treated with reconstructive osteotomies. Patients were included if they underwent a scarf or basilar osteotomy for hallux valgus but were excluded if they had inflammatory arthropathy or lesser metatarsal osteotomy. A modified McBride soft tissue procedure was performed in conjunction with the basilar and scarf osteotomies. Each patient's preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal 1-2 angle, tibial sesamoid classification, and lateral sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. The greatest correction of both hallux valgus and intermetatrsal 1-2 angle was achieved in basilar osteotomies (20.6 degrees and 9.7 degrees, respectively), then scarf osteotomies (14.4 degrees and 8.7 degrees, respectively). Basilar and scarf osteotomies both corrected medial sesamoid subluxation relative to the first metatarsal head an average of 2-3 classification stages. All osteotomies had minimal lateral sesamoid location change relative to the second metatarsal. The majority of sesamoid correction correlated with the intermetatarsal 1-2 correction. The concept that medial capsular plication pulls the sesamoids beneath the first metatarsal (ie, changes the location of the sesamoids relative to the second metatarsal) was not supported by our results. Level III, retrospective case series.

  6. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  7. Posterior tibial slope in medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: 2-D versus 3-D navigation.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-10-01

    Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (Δ slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Tibial component alignment and risk of loosening in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a radiographic and radiostereometric study.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Ensini, A; Leardini, A; d'Amato, M; Feliciangeli, A; Timoncini, A; Amadei, F; Belvedere, C; Giannini, S

    2014-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has shown a higher rate of revision compared with total knee arthroplasty. The success of UKA depends on prosthesis component alignment, fixation and soft tissue integrity. The tibial cut is the crucial surgical step. The hypothesis of the present study is that tibial component malalignment is correlated with its risk of loosening in UKA. This study was performed in twenty-three patients undergoing primary cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Translations and rotations of the tibial component and the maximum total point motion (MTPM) were measured using radiostereometric analysis at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Standard radiological evaluations were also performed immediately before and after surgery. Varus/valgus and posterior slope of the tibial component and tibial-femoral axes were correlated with radiostereometric micro-motion. A survival analysis was also performed at an average of 5.9 years by contacting patients by phone. Varus alignment of the tibial component was significantly correlated with MTPM, anterior tibial sinking, varus rotation and anterior and medial translations from radiostereometry. The posterior slope of the tibial component was correlated with external rotation. The survival rate at an average of 5.9 years was 89%. The two patients who underwent revision presented a tibial component varus angle of 10° for both. There is correlation between varus orientation of the tibial component and MTPM from radiostereometry in unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Particularly, a misalignment in varus larger than 5° could lead to risk of loosening the tibial component. Prognostic studies-retrospective study, Level II.

  9. Femoral condyle curvature is correlated with knee walking kinematics in ungulates.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    The knee has been the focus of many studies linking mammalian postcranial form with locomotor behaviors and animal ecology. A more difficult task has been linking joint morphology with joint kinematics during locomotor tasks. Joint curvature represents one opportunity to link postcranial morphology with walking kinematics because joint curvature develops in response to mechanical loading. As an initial examination of mammalian knee joint curvature, the curvature of the medial femoral condyle was measured on femora representing 11 ungulate species. The position of a region of low curvature was measured using a metric termed the "angle to low curvature". This low-curvature region is important because it provides the greatest contact area between femoral and tibial condyles. Kinematic knee angles during walking were derived from the literature and kinematic knee angles across the gait cycle were correlated with angle to low curvature values. The highest correlation between kinematic knee angle and the angle to low curvature metric occurred at 20% of the walking gait cycle. This early portion of the walking gait cycle is associated with a peak in the vertical ground reaction force for some mammals. The chondral modeling theory predicts that frequent and heavy loading of particular regions of a joint surface during ontogeny will result in these regions being flatter than the surrounding joint surface. The locations of flatter regions of the femoral condyles of ungulates, and their association with knee angles used during the early stance phase of walking provides support for the chondral modeling theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  12. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human...

  13. Postoperative alignment of TKA in patients with severe preoperative varus or valgus deformity: is there a difference between surgical techniques?

    PubMed

    Rahm, Stefan; Camenzind, Roland S; Hingsammer, Andreas; Lenz, Christopher; Bauer, David E; Farshad, Mazda; Fucentese, Sandro F

    2017-06-21

    There have been conflicting studies published regarding the ability of various total knee arthroplasty (TKA) techniques to correct preoperative deformity. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative radiographic alignment in patients with severe preoperative coronal deformity (≥10° varus/valgus) who underwent three different TKA techniques; manual instrumentation (MAN), computer navigated instrumentation (NAV) and patient specific instrumentation (PSI). Patients, who received a TKA with a preoperative coronal deformity of ≥10° with available radiographs were included in this retrospective study. The groups were: MAN; n = 54, NAV; n = 52 and PSI; n = 53. The mechanical axis (varus / valgus) and the posterior tibial slope were measured and analysed using standing long leg- and lateral radiographs. The overall mean postoperative varus / valgus deformity was 2.8° (range, 0 to 9.9; SD 2.3) and 2.5° (range, 0 to 14.7; SD 2.3), respectively. The overall outliers (>3°) represented 30.2% (48 /159) of cases and were distributed as followed: MAN group: 31.5%, NAV group: 34.6%, PSI group: 24.4%. No significant statistical differences were found between these groups. The distribution of the severe outliers (>5°) was 14.8% in the MAN group, 23% in the NAV group and 5.6% in the PSI group. The PSI group had significantly (p = 0.0108) fewer severe outliers compared to the NAV group while all other pairs were not statistically significant. In severe varus / valgus deformity the three surgical techniques demonstrated similar postoperative radiographic alignment. However, in reducing severe outliers (> 5°) and in achieving the planned posterior tibial slope the PSI technique for TKA may be superior to computer navigation and the conventional technique. Further prospective studies are needed to determine which technique is the best regarding reducing outliers in patients with severe preoperative coronal deformity.

  14. A Biomechanical Study of Posteromedial Tibial Plateau Fracture Stability: Do They All Require Fixation?

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Martinez, Danny; Immerman, Igor; Oh, Cheongeun; Walker, Peter S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-07-01

    Although the posteromedial fragment in tibial plateau fractures is often considered unstable, biomechanical evidence supporting this view is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the stability of the fragment in a cadaver model. Our hypothesis was that under the expected small axial force during rehabilitation and the combined effects of this force with shear force, internal rotation torque, and varus moment, the most common posteromedial tibial fragment morphology could maintain stability in early flexion. Axial compression force alone or combined with posterior shear, internal rotation torque, or varus moment was applied to the femurs of 5 fresh cadaveric knees. A Tekscan pressure mapping system was used to measure pressure and contact area between the femoral condyles, meniscus, and tibial plateau. A Microscribe 3D digitizer was used to define the 3-dimensional positions of the femur and tibia. A 10-mm and then a 20-mm osteotomy was created with a saw at an angle of 30 degrees in the axial plane with respect to the tangent of the posterior tibial plateau and 75 degrees in the sagittal plane, representing a typical posteromedial fracture fragment. At each flexion angle (15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees) and loading condition (axial compression only, compression with shear force, torque, and varus moment), distal displacement of the medial femoral condyle and the tibial fracture fragments was determined. For the 10-mm fragment, medial femoral condyle displacement was little affected up to approximately 30-degree flexion, after which it increased. For the 20-mm fragment, there was progressive medial femoral condyle displacement with increasing flexion from baseline. However, for the 10- and 20-mm fragments themselves, displacements were noted at every flexion angle, starting at 1.7 mm inferior displacement with 15 degrees of flexion and internal rotation torque and up to 10.2 mm displacement with 90 degrees of flexion and varus bending moment. In this cadaveric model of a

  15. Venous thrombosis after hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Kastner, Norbert; Aigner, Christian; Portugaller, Horst; Schreyer, Herbert; Windhager, Reinhard

    2003-07-01

    Although surgery for the treatment of hallux valgus is frequently performed, the exact rate of deep vein thrombosis following this procedure is unknown. We performed a single-center, prospective, phlebographically controlled study to quantify the rate of venous thrombosis following operative correction of hallux valgus. Consecutive patients undergoing chevron bunionectomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity were enrolled in the study. Patients with clinical or hematological risk factors for venous thrombosis were excluded. One hundred patients with a mean age of 48.9 years were operated on and did not receive medical prophylaxis against thrombosis. All patients were assessed with phlebography at a mean of twenty-nine days postoperatively. Venous thrombosis was found in four patients (4%). The mean age of these patients (and standard deviation) was 61.7 +/- 6.1 years compared with a mean age of 48.4 +/- 13.9 years for the patients in whom thrombosis did not develop (p = 0.034). Patients are at a low risk for venous thrombosis following surgical treatment of hallux valgus. The need for prophylaxis against thrombosis should be calculated individually for each patient according to his or her known level of risk. Routine medical prophylaxis against thrombosis might be justified for patients over the age of sixty years.

  16. Risk factors for tibial implant malpositioning in total knee arthrosplasty-consecutive series of one thousand, four hundred and seventeen cases.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romain; Cerciello, Simone; Lustig, Sebastien; Servien, Elvire; Neyret, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) malalignment may result in pain and limited range of motion. The present study assessed the influence of different surgeon's and patient's related factors on the post-operative tibial tray coronal alignment. The charts and the x-rays of a continuous prospective series of 1417 TKAs operated upon between 1987 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The long-leg AP views were performed at two months post-op and the tibial mechanical angle of the tibial tray was measured. Three groups were defined: varus (≤87° n = 167), valgus (≥93° n = 55) and well alignment (88° to 92° n = 1195). The influence of several pre-operative and peri-operative factors was investigated: surgeon handedness and experience (junior or senior), previous tibial osteotomies, Ahlbäck stage of osteoarthritits, pre-operative alignment, height and weight, age at surgery, approach (medial, lateral or tibial tubercle osteotomy), generation of implants, tray fixation, size of the tray and stem lenght. Univariate then multivariate analysis were performed to find out any correlation. Multivariate analysis showed a strong correlation between varus alignment of the tibial tray and pre-operative varus of the lower limb (p = 0.037), increased BMI (p = 0.016) and operated side opposite to the dominant surgeon's arm (p = 0.006). In a similar way a strong correlation was found between valgus alignment and pre-operative valgus of the limb (p = 0.026). Poor alignment of the tibial tray after TKA was associated with pre-operative malalignment of the lower limb, increased BMI and an index knee which was opposite to surgeon's dominant arm.

  17. Minimally Invasive and Open Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Kit; Lindisfarne, Edward; Akehurst, Harold; Farook, Usama; Shrier, Will; Palmer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques are increasingly being used in foot and ankle surgery but it is important that they are adopted only once they have been shown to be equivalent or superior to open techniques. We believe that the main advantages of MIS are found in the early postoperative period, but in order to adopt it as a technique longer-term studies are required. The aim of this study was to compare the 2-year outcomes of a third-generation MIS distal chevron osteotomy with a comparable traditional open distal chevron osteotomy for mild-moderate hallux valgus. Our null hypothesis was that the 2 techniques would yield equivalent clinical and radiographic results at 2 years. This was a retrospective cohort study. Eighty-one consecutive feet (49 MIS and 32 open distal chevron osteotomies) were followed up for a minimum 24 months (range 24-58). All patients were clinically assessed using the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Radiographic measures included hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, metatarsal phalangeal joint angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, tibial sesamoid position, shape of the first metatarsal head, and plantar offset. Statistical analysis was done using Student t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous data and Pearson chi-square test for categorical data. Clinical and radiologic postoperative scores in all domains were substantially improved in both groups (P < .001), but there was no statistically significant difference in improvement of any domain between open and MIS groups (P > .05). There were no significant differences in complications between the 2 groups ( > .5). The midterm results of this third-generation technique show that it was a safe procedure with good clinical outcomes and comparable to traditional open techniques for symptomatic mild-moderate hallux valgus. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the mandibular condyle during growth adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, T; Pirttiniemi, P; Tuominen, M; Poikela, A

    1994-01-01

    Condylar growth was studied after an operation simulating functional orthodontic appliances. Twenty-five rabbits underwent a surgical operation for the induction of premature synostosis to displace the glenoid fossa posteriorly during growth. Twenty-five control rabbits underwent sham operations. At the age of 15 days, 10 experimental and 10 control animals and, at the age of 20 days, 5 experimental and 5 control animals were killed. Their mandibular condyles were organ-cultured for 3 h in the presence of radiolabelled sulphur. The condyles were used for autoradiographic purposes. Digital image analysis of autoradiograms of histological sections showed synthesis of glycosaminoglycans to have increased from the anterior to the posterior direction. This increase was more marked in experimental animals than in the condyles of control animals. Ten experimental and 10 control animals were killed at the age of 15 days, and mandibular condyles were organ-cultured for 1, 4 and 7 days. Differentiation of proliferating prechondroblasts into hypertrophied chondrocytes continued under organ culture conditions. A marked decrease in the proliferating cell layer was noticed, especially in control condyles. Hypertrophy was faster and came closer to the surface of the condyle in the anterior region of the condyle. This was most marked in the condyles of experimental animals. The results indicate that a procedure carried out on the glenoid fossa with the same effect as functional appliances increases the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the posterosuperior region of the mandibular condyle.

  19. A modified surgical technique for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle in children.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Abdul Razak; Munajat, Ismail; Mohd, Emil Fazliq

    2011-11-01

    Operative treatment for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle (LHC) is difficult because of contracted muscle, fibrous tissue formation, and indistinct bony edges. Its success depends on the ability to preserve blood supply during the surgery. We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of neglected fracture of LHC in children treated with open reduction with selected multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle and internal fixation. The patients were between 3 and 8 years of age. The period of neglect was between 3 and 20 weeks. Four patients with displacement of more than 10 mm and neglect for 5 weeks or more required lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. The follow-up assessments were between 1 and 6.3 years with a mean of 4.4 years. All patients had union by 2 months. They gained improvement of flexion range of motion between 60° and 120° with a mean of 86.3°. Loss of final range of motion compared with the normal side was between 5° and 35° with a mean of 10°. No patient had limitation of activities or pain. Six cases had excellent and two cases had good Dillon functional score. All patients had lateral condyle prominent with different severities. There was one mild avascular necrosis and one fishtail deformity. Both of them had almost full range of motion. All patients had early physeal closure, except one, who had only 1 year follow-up. There was no case of progressive valgus deformity. Children with neglected fracture of LHC would benefit from anatomical reduction and internal fixation through a proper exposure and if indicated combined with multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. This is a level IV study.

  20. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Mobility of a polyethylene tibial insert in a mobile total knee prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Castel, E; Roger, B; Camproux, A; Saillant, G

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the mobility of a mobile tibial implant in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by a radiographical evaluation. We analyzed mobility of the polyethylene tibial insert of 15 "G2S" TKA implanted for one year or more. We established a dynamic radiographical evaluation. We used 3 weight-bearing radiographs: AP in extension and two lateral (one in extension and one at 90 degrees of flexion), two AP with femoral internal and external rotation, 2 strict lateral X-rays in neutral rotation in antero-posterior replacement with a 25 kilograms strength Telos, and 2 AP in varus and valgus with Telos. Wilcoxon's test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Our study demonstrated preservation of the polyethylene mobility in tibial TKA implant in all movements: in rotation, in antero-posterior translation with Telos, and even in antero-posterior translation during physiological condition with flexion-extension weight-bearing radiographs. Statistical tests were very significant. We noticed that flexion induced anterior translation of tibial polyethylene when PCL was preserved. This study answered to our question whether mobility of TKA tibial implant persists after implantation. This mobility should reduce loosening forces to the tibia and stress in the polyethylene component. Now we have to determine the amplitude of mobility required to reach this objective.

  2. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee : Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-03-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165° to 174°. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175° to 179°, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone.High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170° (10° valgus).

  3. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee. Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-01-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165 degrees to 174 degrees. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175 degrees to 179 degrees, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone. High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170 degrees (10 degrees valgus).

  4. History of surgical treatments for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Galois, Laurent

    2018-05-31

    In the nineteenth century, the prevalent understanding of the hallux valgus was that it was purely an enlargement of the soft tissue, first metatarsal head, or both, most commonly caused by ill-fitting footwear. Thus, treatment had varying results, with controversy over whether to remove the overlying bursa alone or in combination with an exostectomy of the medial head. Since 1871, when the surgical technique was first described, many surgical treatments for the correction of hallux valgus have been proposed. A number of these techniques have come into fashion, and others have fallen into oblivion. Progress in biomechanical knowledge, and improvements in materials and supports have allowed new techniques to be developed over the years. We have developed techniques that sacrifice the metatarsophalangeal joint (arthrodesis, arthroplasties), as well as conservative procedures, and one can distinguish those which only involve the soft tissues from those that are linked with a first ray osteotomy.

  5. Comparison of outcomes between proximal and distal chevron osteotomy, both with supplementary lateral soft-tissue release, for severe hallux valgus deformity: A prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, H-W; Lee, K-B; Chung, J-Y; Kim, M-S

    2013-04-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity is conventionally treated with proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Distal metatarsal osteotomy with an associated soft-tissue procedure can also be used in moderate to severe deformity. We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy in severe hallux valgus deformity with a soft-tissue release in both. A total of 110 consecutive female patients (110 feet) were included in a prospective randomised controlled study. A total of 56 patients underwent a proximal procedure and 54 a distal operation. The mean follow-up was 39 months (24 to 54) in the proximal group and 38 months (24 to 52) in the distal group. At follow-up the hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, tibial sesamoid position, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score, patient satisfaction level, and complications were similar in each group. Both methods showed significant post-operative improvement and high levels of patient satisfaction. Our results suggest that the distal chevron osteotomy with an associated distal soft-tissue procedure provides a satisfactory method for correcting severe hallux valgus deformity.

  6. Ceramic hemi-unicondylar arthroplasty in an adolescent patient with idiopathic tibial chondrolysis.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Derek; Garino, Jonathan; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in cartilage regeneration and restoration procedures, isolated, large, full-thickness cartilage lesions in young patients continue to pose significant challenges to patients and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment options for this difficult problem have traditionally included arthrodesis, osteotomy, osteochondral allograft, and prosthetic reconstruction. We present a case of an adolescent patient with isolated idiopathic lateral tibial chondrolysis treated with a custom ceramic hemi-unicondylar hemiarthroplasty. Preoperatively, a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patient's knee was obtained to begin manufacturing a conforming custom ceramic insert that would articulate between the tibial base plate and the patient's native lateral femoral cartilage. Through a lateral parapatellar approach, the tibial preparation was carried out using the Zimmer M/G unicompartmental knee system (Warsaw, Indiana), and the tibial base plate was cemented into position in the standard fashion. A custom, conforming, prefabricated ceramic insert (CeramTec, Memphis, Tennessee) was then inserted onto the tibial base plate. At 5-year follow-up, this salvage procedure was successful in relieving pain and restoring function in this young patient. There were no signs of implant loosening or lysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at last follow-up revealed that the cartilage thickness of the patient's lateral femoral condyle remained unchanged. Unicondylar hemiarthroplasty performed in patients with large unipolar lesions in the knee can provide durable and reliable pain relief. Ceramic is a viable material that can be considered for articulation with native cartilage.

  7. Discrepancy of alignment in different weight bearing conditions before and after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Shin, Jung Min; Kim, Hyun Ho; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in the amount of varus malalignment and valgus (over) correction in relation to three different weight bearing conditions from whole leg AP radiographs (single-limb (SL) stance, double-limb (DL) stance, supine position (S)) before and after high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and to evaluate which alignment parameters affect the changes for patients in three different weight bearing conditions. A total of 40 consecutive patients (43 knees) with varus osteoarthritis underwent navigation assisted open wedge HTO. Mechanical axis angle (MA) was measured before and after surgery from hip-to-ankle radiographs taken with patients in three different weight bearing conditions. To find significant factors that affect the alignment differences, several variables including patient demographics, soft tissue laxity, pelvic obliquity, and ground mechanical axis deviation of tibia (calculated by the angle between two lines, tibial anatomical axis and weight-bearing line) were evaluated. Pre-operatively, mean MA measured on SL stance radiographs was significantly more varus than on DL stance (10.1° ± 2.4° and 8.0° ± 2.6°, respectively, p < 0.001), which was significantly more varus than on supine position (6.6° ± 2.6°, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in patients with post-operatively valgus corrected knee, MA did not show the same pattern of change as with pre-operative varus knee. Mean MA measured on DL stance radiographs was more valgus than in supine position (-3.0 o  ± 2.4 o and -2.6 o  ± 3.1 o , p = 0.455), while mean MA on SL stance radiographs (-2.0 o  ± 2.1 o ) was significantly less valgus than on DL stance (p = 0.002). The ground mechanical axis deviation of tibia showed a significant correlation with MA difference between SL and DL stance radiographs before (β = -0.341, p = 0.045) and after surgery (β = -0.536, p = 0.001). In pre-operative varus knee, the mean MA on SL stance was changed to

  8. Total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. A comparison study in patients who had bilateral total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Meding, J B; Keating, E M; Ritter, M A; Faris, P M

    2000-09-01

    The outcome of total knee replacement after high tibial osteotomy remains uncertain. We hypothesized that the results of total knee replacement with or without a previous high tibial osteotomy are similar. The results of a consecutive series of thirty-nine bilateral total knee arthroplasties performed with cement at an average of 8.7 years after unilateral high tibial osteotomy were reviewed. There were twenty-seven men and twelve women. Preoperatively, the knee scores according to the system of the Knee Society were similar for all of the knees; however, valgus alignment and patella infera were more common in the knees with a previous high tibial osteotomy. Bilateral total knee replacement was staged in seven patients and was simultaneous in thirty-two patients. The results of the total knee arthroplasties were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the knee and function scores according to the system of the Knee Society, the radiographic findings, and the complications. Intraoperatively, no notable differences were identified in the number of medial, lateral, or lateral patellar releases required. However, less lateral tibial bone was resected in the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy (average, 3.3 millimeters) than in the group without a high tibial osteotomy (average, 7.5 millimeters). The average duration of follow-up was 7.5 years (range, three to sixteen years) in the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy and 6.8 years (range, two to ten years) in the group without a high tibial osteotomy. At the time of the final follow-up, the knee and function scores were similar for the two groups (89.0 and 81.0 points, respectively, for the group with a previous high tibial osteotomy, and 89.6 and 83.9 points, respectively, for the group without a high tibial osteotomy). Although more knees were free of pain in the group without a previous high tibial osteotomy (thirty-six) than in the group with a previous osteotomy (thirty-three), this difference was

  9. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 Section 872.3960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a...

  10. What are the bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement for finding the flexion-extension plane of the knee with five tibial reference lines?

    PubMed

    Brar, Abheetinder S; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2016-06-01

    Internal-external (I-E) malrotation of the tibial component is associated with poor function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematically aligned (KA) TKA uses a functionally defined flexion-extension (F-E) tibial reference line, which is parallel to the F-E plane of the extended knee, to set I-E rotation of the tibial component. Sixty-two, three-dimensional bone models of normal knees were analyzed. We computed the bias (mean), imprecision (±standard deviation), and limits of agreement (mean±2 standard deviations) of the angle between five anatomically defined tibial reference lines used in mechanically aligned (MA) TKA and the F-E tibial reference line (+external). The following are the bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement of the angle between the F-E tibial reference line and 1) the tibial reference lines connecting the medial border (-2°±6°, -14° to 10°), medial 1/3 (6°±6°, -6° to 18°), and the most anterior point of the tibial tubercle (9°±4°, -1° to 17°) with the center of the posterior cruciate ligament, and 2) the tibial reference lines perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis of the tibia (-3°±4°, -11° to 5°), and a line connecting the centers of the tibial condyles (1°±4°, -7° to 9°). Based on these in vitro findings, it might be prudent to reconsider setting the I-E rotation of the tibial component to tibial reference lines that have bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement that fall outside the -7° to 10° range associated with high function after KA TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aplasia of the mandibular condyle associated with some orthopaedic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Canger, E M; Çelenk, P

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of aplasia of mandibular condyle associated with some other orthopaedic problems is presented. A 5-year-old boy attended our clinic with a chief complaint of facial asymmetry and chewing difficulty. The mandible was deviated to the left. The occlusion also showed a deflection to the left of the mandibular midline. He also had walking difficulty owing to a hip abnormality. Panoramic radiographic examination of the patient revealed that the left mandibular condyl was totally absent. The right condyle was unremarkable. His history revealed neither trauma nor any significant disease. Aplasia is a rare anomaly and means the insufficient development of the mandibular condyle. True agnesis of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. Association of the manifestations of the patient with some orthopaedic problems makes this case interesting. PMID:22116127

  12. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  13. Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with a locked low-profile plate: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Werner; Guhlmann, Hanno; Windisch, Christoph; Koller, Heiko; Grützner, Paul; Kolb, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    High tibial osteotomy has been recognized as a beneficial treatment for osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the short-term results of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies with locked plate fixation. From September 2002 to November 2005, fifty-one consecutive medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies were performed. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index operation was forty-nine years. The preoperative and postoperative factors analyzed included the grade of arthritis of the tibiofemoral compartment (the Ahlbäck radiographic grade), the anatomic tibiofemoral angle, patellar height, the Hospital for Special Surgery rating system score, and the Lysholm and Gillquist knee score. Postoperatively, one superficial wound infection occurred. Fifty of the fifty-one osteotomies healed after an average period of 12.9 weeks (range, eight to sixteen weeks) without bone grafts. A nonunion developed in a sixty-two-year-old patient who was a cigarette smoker. The average postoperative tibiofemoral angle was 9° of valgus. Forty-nine patients were followed for a mean of fifty-two months. The average score on the Hospital for Special Surgery rating system was 86 points at the time of the most recent follow-up. The rating was excellent in twenty-eight patients (57%), good in twelve (24%), fair in four (8%), and poor in five (10%). The average score on the Lysholm and Gillquist knee-scoring scale was 83 points. According to these scores, the outcome was excellent in nine patients (18%), good in thirty-one (63%), fair in three (6%), and poor in six (12%). Four knees failed after an average of thirty-six months. Our results suggest that an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with locked plate fixation allows a correct valgus angle to be achieved with good short-term results.

  14. Does a conservative tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty violate the deep medial collateral ligament?

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Luyckx, Thomas; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Based on the anatomy of the deep medial collateral ligament (MCL), it was hypothesized that at least part of its cross-sectional insertion area is jeopardized while performing a standard tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether it is anatomically possible to preserve the tibial deep MCL insertion during conventional TKA. Thirty-three unpaired cadaveric knee specimens were used for this study. Knees with severe varus/valgus deformity or damage to the medial structures of the knee were excluded. In the first part of the study, the dimensions of the tibial insertion of the deep MCL and its relationship to the joint line were recorded. Next, the cross-sectional area of the deep MCL insertion was determined using calibrated digital photographic analysis. In the second part, the effect of a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut on the structural integrity of the deep MCL cross-sectional insertion area was determined using conventional instrumentation. The proximal border of the deep MCL insertion site on the tibia was located on average 4.7 ± 1.2 mm distally to the joint line. After performing a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut, on average 54% of the deep MCL insertion area was resected. In 29% of the cases, the deep MCL insertion area was completely excised. The deep MCL cannot routinely be preserved in conventional TKA. The deep MCL insertion is at risk and may be jeopardized in case of a tibial cut 9 mm below the native joint line. As the deep MCL is a distinct medial stabilizer and plays an important role in rotational stability, this may have implications in future designs of both unicondylar and total knee arthroplasty, but further research is necessary.

  15. Effect of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the lateral tibiofemoral compartment in sheep. Part III: analysis of the microstructure of the subchondral bone and correlations with the articular cartilage and meniscus.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Raphaela; Goebel, Lars; Seidel, Roland; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2015-09-01

    First, to evaluate whether medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) induces alterations of the microstructure of the lateral tibial subchondral bone plate of sheep. Second, to test the hypothesis that specific correlations exist between topographical structural alterations of the subchondral bone, the cartilage and the lateral meniscus. Three experimental groups received biplanar osteotomies of the right proximal tibiae: (a) closing wedge HTO (4.5° of tibial varus), (b) opening wedge HTO (4.5° tibial valgus; standard correction) and (c) opening wedge HTO (9.5° of valgus; overcorrection), each of which was compared to the non-osteotomised contralateral proximal tibiae. After 6 months, subchondral bone structure indices were measured by computed tomography. Correlations between the subchondral bone, the articular cartilage and the lateral meniscus were determined. Increased loading by valgus overcorrection led to an enlarged specific bone surface (BS/BV) in the subarticular spongiosa compared with unloading by varisation. The subchondral bone plate was 3.9-fold thicker in the central region of the lateral tibial plateau than in the submeniscal periphery. Its thickness in the central region significantly correlated with the thickness of the articular cartilage. In the submeniscal region, such correlation did not exist. In general, a higher degree of osteoarthritis (OA) correlated with alterations of the subchondral bone plate microstructure. OA of the submeniscal articular cartilage also correlated with worse matrix staining of the lateral meniscus. Osteoarthritis changes are associated with alterations of the subchondral bone plate microstructure. Specific topographical relationships exist in the central region between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone plate thickness, and in the submeniscal periphery between and the articular cartilage and lateral meniscus. From a clinical perspective, the combined follow-up data from this and the previous two

  16. Ankle joint pressure changes in high tibial and distal femoral osteotomies: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Krause, F; Barandun, A; Klammer, G; Zderic, I; Gueorguiev, B; Schmid, T

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of high tibial and distal femoral osteotomies (HTO and DFO) on the pressure characteristics of the ankle joint. Varus and valgus malalignment of the knee was simulated in human cadaver full-length legs. Testing included four measurements: baseline malalignment, 5° and 10° re-aligning osteotomy, and control baseline malalignment. For HTO, testing was rerun with the subtalar joint fixed. In order to represent half body weight, a 300 N force was applied onto the femoral head. Intra-articular sensors captured ankle pressure. In the absence of restriction of subtalar movement, insignificant migration of the centre of force and changes of maximal pressure were seen at the ankle joint. With restricted subtalar motion, more significant lateralisation of the centre of force were seen with the subtalar joint in varus than in valgus position. Changes in maximum pressure were again not significant. The re-alignment of coronal plane knee deformities by HTO and DFO altered ankle pressure characteristics. When the subtalar joint was fixed in the varus position, migration of centre of force after HTO was more significant than when the subtalar joint was fixed in valgus. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:59-65. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Distal tibial fractures are a poorly recognised complication with fibula free flaps.

    PubMed

    Durst, A; Clibbon, J; Davis, B

    2015-09-01

    The fibula free flap is ideal for complex jaw reconstructions, with low reported donor and flap morbidity. We discuss a distal tibial stress fracture two months following a vascularised fibula free flap procedure. Despite being an unrecognised complication, a literature review produced 13 previous cases; only two were reported in the reconstructive surgery literature, with the most recent claiming to be the first. The majority of these studies treated this fracture non-operatively; none reported their patient follow-up. Each case presented with ipsilateral leg pain, which has been cited as an early donor site morbidity in as many as 40% of fibula free flap cases. It is known that the fibula absorbs at least 15% of leg load on weight bearing. Studies have shown severe valgus deformities in up to 25% of patients with fibulectomies. We treated our patient operatively, first correcting his worsening valgus deformity with an external fixator, then reinforcing his healed fracture with a long distal tibial plate. We believe that this complication is underreported, unexpected and not mentioned during the consenting process. By highlighting the management of our case and the literature, we aim to increase awareness (and thus further reporting and appropriate management) of this debilitating complication.

  18. Do size, shape, and alignment parameters of the femoral condyle affect the trochlear groove tracking? A morphometric study based on 3D- computed tomography models in Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhe; Chen, Shichang; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2017-01-06

    Our study aimed to investigate whether geometrical features (size, shape, or alignment parameters) of the femoral condyle affect the morphology of the trochlear groove. Computed tomography models of 195 femurs (97 and 98 knees from male and female subjects, respectively) were reconstructed into three-dimensional models and categorised into four types of trochlear groove morphology based on the position of the turning point in relation to the mechanical axis (types 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°). Only subjects with healthy knees were included, whereas individuals with previous knee trauma or knee pain, soft tissue injury, osteoarthritis, or other chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system were excluded. The size parameters were: radius of the best-fit cylinder, anteroposterior dimension of the lateral condyles (AP), and distal mediolateral dimension (ML). The shape parameters were: aspect ratio (AP/ML), arc angle, and proximal- and distal- end angles. The alignment parameters were: knee valgus physiologic angle (KVPA), mechanical medial distal femoral angle (mMDFA), and hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA). All variables were measured in the femoral condyle models, and the means for each groove type were compared using one-way analysis of variance. No significant difference among groove types was observed regarding size parameters. There were significant differences when comparing type 45° with types 60°, 75°, and 90° regarding aspect ratio and distal-end angle (p < 0.05), but not regarding proximal-end angle. There were significant differences when comparing type 90° with types 45°, 60°, and 75° regarding KVPA, mMDFA, and HKA (p < 0.05). Among size, shape, and alignment parameters, the latter two exhibited partial influence on the morphology of the trochlear groove. Shape parameters affected the trochlear groove for trochlear type 45°, for which the femoral condyle was relatively flat, whereas alignment parameters affected the trochlear groove for trochlear

  19. 21 CFR 872.4770 - Temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device that is intended to stabilize mandibular bone and provide for temporary reconstruction of the... surgical procedures requiring removal of the mandibular condyle and mandibular bone. This device is not...

  20. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups ( p  < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p  = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p  = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint

  1. [Clinical effect of total knee arthroplasty on patients with knee osteoarthritis combined with mild to moderate valgus knee deformity].

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wang, Long; Su, Weiping; Hu, Yihe

    2016-09-28

    To investigate the clinical effect of total knee arthroplasty on patients with knee osteoarthritis combined with mild to moderate valgus knee deformity.
 A total of 15 patients received total knee arthroplasty for correcting mild (10°-15°) to moderate (15°-30°) valgus knee between January 2011 and February 2014 in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. We adopted a stable prosthesis surgery through patellar medial approach, osteophytes cleaning, conventional osteotomy, a selective soft tissue release and balance technical correcting of knee valgus deformity. Then conventional anticoagulation and symptomatic rehabilitation was utilized. Preoperative and postoperative X-ray was conducted in patients with measuring femor-tibial angle (FTA) and inspecting the prosthesis position. FTA, visual analog scale (VAS) standard, and parallel knee scoring system (KSS) were used to evaluate the clinical effect.
 Fifteen patients were followed up for 14 to 36 (22.40±11.88) months. The hospitalization time was 7-13 (7.73±1.58) d; operative time was 58-110 (81.8±16.85) min, the dominant blood loss was 140-600 (337.30±143.65) mL. Two cases had knee extension hysteresis, and the knee activity recovered after exercise. Leg power lines were normal. Three postoperative cases suffered anterior knee pain. They were subjected to celecoxib analgesic treatment and the pain gradually eased after 3 months. One postoperative case showed incision discharge and swelling, which was healed after change of dressing. During follow-up, review of X-ray film does not show prosthesis loose, subsidence and other complications. The knee valgus angle (8.1±1.8)°, knee motion range (107.33±9.61)°, KSS knee score (74.7±14.5, 75.3±2.7) and pain score (2.5±0.9) were significantly better than the preoperative (P<0.05). The clinical and function KSS scores showed that the improvement rate was 80%. 
 Total knee arthroplasty is an effective way to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis

  2. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a skeletally-immature child - a case report.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Kim, Young-Mo

    2011-01-01

    It has been theorized that a traumatic tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (MM) is the cause of the so-called meniscus ossicle (MO). We report the delayed appearance of a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM after a valgus, twisting injury in a 12-year-old boy with open physes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed 3 days after the injury did not demonstrate a definitive tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM; whereas, a repeat MRI for 3 months post-injury did. Medial extrusion of the MM was also noted on the 3 month MRI. Arthroscopic reattachment of the avulsed posterior root of the MM using a trans-physeal nonabsorbable suture tied over a proximal tibia staple was performed. Follow-up MRI at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated healing of the tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in an anatomic position. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms and there was no angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy at 2 years postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in a skeletally-immature patient successfully treated by a trans-physeal arthroscopic suture. This case also illustrates the development of the MO of the posterior root of the MM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Hindfoot valgus. Diagnosis and therapy of flatfoot].

    PubMed

    Radl, R; Fuhrmann, G; Maafe, M; Krifter, R-M

    2012-04-01

    The clinical finding of flatfoot is characterized by a flattening of the medial longitudinal arch and valgus deformity of the hindfoot. The differential diagnosis of flatfoot is the physiological, flexible, contracted flatfoot, which occurs as a congenital or acquired deformity. Congenital flatfoot deformity requires early intensive therapy, while a flexible flatfoot in children has a good prognosis and conservative treatment usually leads to a stable and sufficient load-bearing foot. Severe flatfoot in children can be corrected successfully by simple, minimally invasive procedures. In adults with symptomatic flatfoot, which usually occurs due to an insufficiency of the tendon of the tibialis posterior, conservative therapy with insoles, shoe modifications and physiotherapeutic measures can lead to significant improvement, otherwise surgical correction is recommended. Early, stage-appropriate therapy helps to prevent an impending decompensation of the hindfoot.

  4. Current surgical strategies for total arthroplasty in valgus knee

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Michos, Ioannis; Safos, George; Safos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The majority of orthopaedic surgeons even currently agree that primary total arthroplasty in valgus knees with a deformity of more than ten degrees may prove challenging. The unique sets of bone and soft tissue abnormalities that must be addressed at the time of the operation make accurate axis restoration, component orientation and joint stability attainment a difficult task. Understanding the specific pathologic anatomic changes associated with the valgus knee is a prerequisite so as to select the proper surgical method, to optimize component position and restore soft-tissue balance. The purpose of this article is to review the valgus knee anatomical variations, to assess the best pre-operative planning and to evaluate how to choose the grade of constraint of the implant. It will also be underlying the up-to-date main approaches and surgical techniques be proposed in the English literature both for bone cuts and soft tissue management of valgus knees. PMID:26191494

  5. Hallux valgus surgery affects kinematic parameters during gait

    PubMed Central

    Klugarova, J.; Janura, M.; Svoboda, Z.; Sos, Z.; Stergiou, N.; Klugar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to compare spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during the walking in patients with hallux valgus before and after surgery and in relation to a control group. Methods Seventeen females with hallux valgus, who underwent first metatarsal osteotomy, constituted our experimental group. The control group consisted of thirteen females. Kinematic data during walking were obtained using the Vicon MX system. Findings Our results showed that hallux valgus before surgery affects spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during walking. Hallux valgus surgery further increased the differences that were present before surgery. Specifically after hallux valgus surgery, the walking speed decreased even more (p=0.09, η2= 0.19) while step time increased (p=0.002, η2=0.44) on both legs. The maximum ankle plantar flexion of the operated leg during toe off decreased to a greater extend (p=0.03, η2=0.26). The asymmetry in the hip and the pelvis movements in the frontal plane (present preoperatively) persisted after surgery. Interpretation Hallux valgus is not an isolated problem of the first ray, which could be just surgically addressed by correcting the foot’s alignment. It is a long-term progressive malfunction of the foot affecting the entire kinematic chain of the lower extremity. PMID:27792950

  6. Evaluation of Fibular Fracture Type vs Location of Tibial Fixation of Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy; Israel, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Comminuted fibular fractures can occur with pilon fractures as a result of valgus stress. Transverse fibular fractures can occur with varus deformation. No definitive guide for determining the proper location of tibial fixation exists. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal plate location for fixation of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular fracture. One hundred two patients with 103 pilon fractures were identified who were definitively treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013. Pilon fractures were classified using the AO/OTA classification and included 43-A through 43-C fractures. Inclusion criteria were age of at least 18 years, associated fibular fracture, and definitive tibial plating. Patients were grouped based on the fibular component fracture type (comminuted vs transverse), and the location of plate fixation (medial vs lateral) was noted. Radiographic outcomes were assessed for mechanical failures. Forty fractures were a result of varus force as evidenced by transverse fracture of the fibula and 63 were due to valgus force with a comminuted fibula. For the transverse fibula group, 14.3% mechanical complications were noted for medially placed plate vs 80% for lateral plating ( P = .006). For the comminuted fibular group, 36.4% of medially placed plates demonstrated mechanical complications vs 16.7% for laterally based plates ( P = .156). Time to weight bearing as tolerated was also noted to be significant between groups plated medially and laterally for the comminuted group ( P = .013). Correctly assessing the fibular component for pilon fractures provides valuable information regarding deforming forces. To limit mechanical complications, tibial plates should be applied in such a way as to resist the original deforming forces. Level of Evidence Level III, comparative study.

  7. Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-01-01

    The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures.

  8. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  9. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  10. Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Gašpar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kovačić, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis.

  11. Comparison of Mechanical Axis and Dynamic Range Assessed with Weight Bearing Radiographs and Navigation System in Closed Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Lee, Jong Whan; Cho, Seong Jin; Song, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare navigation and weight bearing radiographic measurements of mechanical axis (MA) before and after closed wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and to evaluate post-osteotomy changes in MA assessed during application of external varus or valgus force. Materials and Methods Data from 30 consecutive patients (30 knees) who underwent computer-assisted closed-wedge HTO were prospectively analyzed. Pre- and postoperative weight bearing radiographic evaluation of MA was performed. Under navigation guidance, pre- and post-osteotomy MA values were measured in an unloaded position. Any change in the post-osteotomy MA in response to external varus or valgus force, which was named as dynamic range, was evaluated with the navigation system. The navigation and weight bearing radiographic measurements were compared. Results Although there was a positive correlation between navigation and radiographic measurements, the reliability of navigation measurements of coronal alignment was reduced after osteotomy and wedge closing. The mean post-osteotomy MA value measured with the navigation was 3.5°±0.8° valgus in an unloaded position. It was 1.3°±0.8° valgus under varus force and 5.8°±1.1° valgus under valgus force. The average dynamic range was >±2°. Conclusions Potential differences between the postoperative MAs assessed by weight bearing radiographs and the navigation system in unloaded position should be considered during computer-assisted closed wedge HTO. Care should be taken to keep the dynamic range within the permissible range of alignment goal in HTO. PMID:28854769

  12. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  13. Multiobjective optimization of cartilage stress for non-invasive, patient-specific recommendations of high tibial osteotomy correction angle - a novel method to investigate alignment correction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Keke; Scholes, Corey J; Chen, Junning; Parker, David; Li, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is a surgical procedure to treat knee osteoarthritis associated with varus deformity. However, the ideal final alignment of the Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle in the frontal plane, that maximizes procedural success and post-operative knee function, remains controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a subject-specific modeling procedure in determining the biomechanical effects of MOWHTO alignment on tibiofemoral cartilage stress distribution. A 3D finite element knee model derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a healthy participant was manipulated in-silico to simulate a range of final HKA angles (i.e. 0.2°, 2.7°, 3.9° and 6.6° valgus). Loading and boundary conditions were assigned based on subject-specific kinematic and kinetic data from gait analysis. Multiobjective optimization was used to identify the final alignment that balanced compressive and shear forces between medial and lateral knee compartments. Peak stresses decreased in the medial and increased in the lateral compartment as the HKA was shifted into valgus, with balanced loading occurring at angles of 4.3° and 2.9° valgus for the femoral and tibial cartilage respectively. The concept introduced here provides a platform for non-invasive, patient-specific preoperative planning of the osteotomy for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Treatment of Schatzker IV tibial plateau fractures with arthroscopy combined with MIPPO technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Wen; Ye, Feng; Bi, Da-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jian-Liang

    2018-02-25

    To discusses the clinical effects of arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis(MIPPO) technology in treating Schatzker IV tibial plateau fractures. From January 2012 to January 2016, 19 patients with Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive technique including 12 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.5 years old ranging from 19 to 78 years old. Patients were suffering knee pain, swelling, flexion and extension limited, and other symptoms preoperative. Patients were followed up and assessed by Rasmussen knee function score. No infection, traumatic arthritis, and knee joint valgus occurred after operation. Nineteen cases were followed up for 12 to 24 months with an average of 18.6 months. Fracture healing time was 3 to 5 months with an average of 3.8 months. The knee pain and limited mobility improved significantly. The range of autonomic movement of joints was from 90 to 136 degrees. According to Rasmussen functional score criteria, the total score was 27.00±2.49, the result was excellent in 16 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 1 case. Arthroscopic treatment for Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures combined with MIPPO can simultaneously treat internal structural injuries such as meniscus and other knee joints, with less trauma, fewer complications, and faster joint function recovery, but we must strictly grasp surgical indications and avoid expanding injuries. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  15. Relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and bony anatomical landmarks of the calf and foot as measured on radiographs obtained with a new laser-calibrated position.

    PubMed

    He, Peiheng; Zhu, Qi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zou, Xuenong; Xu, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and bony landmarks of the calf and foot by developing a new laser-calibrated position for radiography of the lower limb. A total of 120 volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. All subjects were marked with skin projection of the hypothetical axis of the calf on the frontal and sagittal planes. Radiographs of weight-bearing full-length lower-limb were obtained by the laser-calibrated positioning in the experimental group, and by the use of conventional technique in the control group. To consider the rotation of the calf, radiological features of the knee and ankle were investigated. The relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and the bony landmarks of the calf and foot were also measured. Anteroposterior view depicted a tangential projection on the superior/inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis and between lateral malleolus and talus in ankle mortise in the experimental group. Bony overlap on the superior/inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis and between lateral malleolus and talus was seen in control group. On the tangential projection, it also presented a clear wheel-like contour of the medial femoral condyle, but a partial overlap between medial femoral condyle and tibial plateau. The femoral joint angle between the connecting line at the lowest point of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the tibial mechanical axis was 83.6° ± 2.49° in the experimental group and 85.3° ± 2.18° in the control group (P < 0.001). The tibial tubercle-axis distance from the center of the medial and middle one-third of the tibial tubercle to the tibial mechanical axis was 1.5 mm in the experimental group and 3.7 mm in the control group (P < 0.05). The malleoli-axis distance from the midpoint of the bimalleolar line joining the tips of the medial and lateral malleoli to the tibial mechanical axis was 1.9 mm in the experimental group and 6.9 mm in the control group (P < 0.001). Lateral view showed no

  16. The relationship of abnormal foot pronation to hallux abducto valgus--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ross, F D

    1986-08-01

    Abnormal foot mechanics is the most common cause of hallux abducto valgus. To date no quantitative data regarding the relationship between abnormal foot mechanics and the degree of hallux abducto valgus has been presented. An outline of the abnormal foot mechanics responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with a technique for measuring the extent of abnormal function. A common intrinsic abnormality responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with its diagnosis and orthotic treatment.

  17. Valgus extension overload syndrome and stress injury of the olecranon.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; ElAttrache, Neal S

    2004-10-01

    Basic science studies have improved our understanding of the pathomechanics for valgus extension overload and olecranon stress fractures. These disorders result from repetitive abutment of the olecranon into the olecranon fossa combined with valgus torques, resulting in impaction and shear along the posteromedial olecranon. The patient history and physical examination are similar for each disorder. Imaging studies including plain radiographs, computed tomography, MRI or bone scan may be necessary for accurate diagnosis. Clinical and basic science support mandatory and careful assessment of the medial collateral ligament when valgus extension overload is identified and limited debridement of the olecranon when surgery is indicated. For stress fractures that fail nonoperative management, treatment with internal fixation provides good results.

  18. Arthroscopic Management of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures: Principles and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kaplan, Daniel James; Weinberg, Maxwell E; Egol, Jonathan; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2018-05-15

    Tibial spine fractures are uncommon injuries affecting the insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament on the tibia. They typically occur in skeletally immature patients aged 8 to 14 years and result from hyperextension of the knee with a valgus or rotational force. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and standard radiographs. The use of MRI can identify entrapped soft tissue that may prevent reduction. Open or arthroscopic repair is indicated in patients with partially displaced fractures (>5 mm) with one third to one half of the avulsed fragment elevated, in patients who have undergone unsuccessful nonsurgical reduction and long leg casting or bracing, and in patients with completely displaced fractures. Arthroscopy offers reduced invasiveness and decreased morbidity. Suture fixation and screw fixation have produced successful results. Suture fixation can eliminate the risk of fracture fragment comminution during screw insertion, the risk of neurovascular injury, and the need for hardware removal. Suture fixation is ideal in cases in which existing comminution prevents screw fixation.

  19. Elderly patients with maxillofacial trauma: study of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yamashita, Toshio; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Hirayama, Bunichi; Tanaka, Kenko; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trends and characteristic features of mandibular condyle fractures in elderly patients in terms of etiology, patterns, and treatment modalities. Records of 201 patients aged 65 years and older, who were treated for maxillofacial fractures at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University, and Tohoku University from January 2002 to December 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Patient records and radiographs were examined, with the following information: relevant medical history, cause of fracture, the presence and state of premolars and molars in the maxilla and mandible, number and location of mandible fracture, and method of treatment. As for the state of premolars and molars, premolars or molars in the mandible in contact with the maxilla were regarded as contacted. A fall was responsible for the majority of the fractures (173/201). With condyle fractures, there was a significant difference between the contacted and non-contacted group in regard to incidence. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater number of cases with symphysis and condyle combination fractures in the non-contacted group (70.9%) than in the contacted group (51.9%). As for the method of treatment, arthrocentesis was the most commonly employed. The present findings suggest that contacted molars in the maxilla and mandible have an influence on condyle fractures in elderly individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Plantar pressures determinants in mild Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Leal-Muro, Alejo; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2010-07-01

    While podobarometric techniques have been applied to the study of pressures in Hallux Valgus (HV), little is known about its clinical and radiological determinants. So, the aim of the present study was to determine the plantar pressure pattern in participants with mild HV, comparing to a control group, and their clinical and anthropometric determinants. Biofoot/IBV(®) in-shoe system was used to evaluate 79 participants with mild HV. Computerized measurements of the 1st intermetatarsal angle (IMA) and the hallux abductus angle (HAA) were made on antero-posterior radiographs. The clinical outcome was assessed using the AOFAS score. The dependent baropodometric variables and the independent clinical and anthropometric variables were subjected to a multiple regression analysis. In both groups, the highest average pressure was in the 2nd metatarsal head (MTH). The mean pressure under the Hallux was significantly higher in HV group (controls, 146.5±92.5kPa; HV, 328.5±113.2kPa; p<0.001). An 18.6% of average pressure under the 1st MTH was accounted for pain, first ray alignment and total AOFAS score. Variations of the HAA explained 26.8% of the mean Hallux pressure. Women with mild HV present with pathologically increased pressure under the Hallux, which is caused by the altered alignment of the first ray. Pain and clinical result were associated with the pressure under the 1st MTH and the remaining variables were only moderate predictors of dynamic plantar pressures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Incidence and Severity of Postoperative Radiographic Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus With Surgical Correction of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Alexis E; Lee, Lydia C; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has shown an increased radiographic prevalence and severity of hallux valgus interphalangeus (HVIP) after surgical correction of hallux valgus (HV) due to correction of pronation deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in pre- and postoperative HVIP deformity with correction of HV with multiple radiographic parameters. A retrospective chart review identified all bunion surgeries performed at a single center from July 1, 2009, to September 30, 2012. Exclusion criteria included prior bony surgery to the first ray, inadequate films, nonadult bunion, Akin osteotomy, or surgical treatment other than bunion correction. Pre- and postoperative films were reviewed for 2 HV angular measurements and 5 HVIP measurements, which were compared. The angles measured were hallux valgus angle (HVA), first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux interphalangeus angle (HIA), distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA), proximal to distal phalangeal articular angle (PDPAA), and total distal deformity (TDD). Prevalence of HVIP was analyzed in pre- and postoperative radiographs. A 1-sided Student t test was used to compare continuous data, and a chi-square test was used to compare categorical data. Ninety-two feet in 82 patients were eligible. The average preoperative HV improved with surgery. Preoperative HVA improved from 27 to 11 degrees (P < .001). Preoperative IMA improved from 13.6 to 6.1 degrees (P < .001). HVIP worsened after surgery. Preoperative HIA increased from 7.2 to 13.2 degrees (P < .001). DMAA worsened from 7.3 to 9.2 degrees (P = .001). PPAA worsened from 3.2 to 6.2 degrees. PDPAA worsened from 6.7 to 8.2 degrees (P < .001). The TDD increased from 14.6 to 17.9 degrees (P < .001). The prevalence of HVIP pre- and postoperatively as defined by HIA increased from 26% to 79% (P < .001) and by PPAA from 12% to 46% (P < .001). Initial assessment of preoperative radiographs underestimated HVIP

  2. [Distal osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus (Chevron osteotomy)].

    PubMed

    Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Claaßen, L; Ettinger, S; Yao, D; Lerch, M; Plaaß, C

    2017-05-01

    Distal osteotomies, like the Chevron osteotomy, is indicated for mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. Splayfoot, painful pseudoexostosis, and transfer metatasalgia are observed in the clinical examination. Radiographic examination should be done with weight bearing in two planes. Preoperatively the intermetatarsal (IM), hallux valgus, and distal metatarsal articular (DMAA) angles should be measured. The operative technique is based on soft tissue and bony correction. Modifications of the osteotomy allow a shortening, lengthening, or neutral correction of the first metatarsal. With a modified Chevron osteotomy, an increased DMAA can be also corrected.

  3. The Gibson and Piggott osteotomy for adult hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Rangrez, Arshad Bashir; Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Sharief Ahmed; Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mumtaz, Imran; Ahmed, Muzzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The Gibson and Piggott procedure for hallux valgus is based on sound surgical principles addressing the basic pathologies of this disorder. However, this procedure has not been studied extensively in the literature in comparison to the Mitchell and Chevron osteotomies. We report a prospective study conducted on 50 adult feet with hallux valgus. The Gibson and Piggot osteotomy was done on all the feet. We obtained 76% excellent and 18% good results with this procedure. The results bear out the fact that this procedure is a useful procedure for the management of this disorder.

  4. A comparison of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy, both with lateral soft-tissue release, for moderate to severe hallux valgus in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, K B; Cho, N Y; Park, H W; Seon, J K; Lee, S H

    2015-02-01

    Moderate to severe hallux valgus is conventionally treated by proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Several recent studies have shown that the indications for distal metatarsal osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure could be extended to include moderate to severe hallux valgus. The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the outcome of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. The original study cohort consisted of 50 female patients (100 feet). Of these, four (8 feet) were excluded for lack of adequate follow-up, leaving 46 female patients (92 feet) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.8 years (30.1 to 62.1) and the mean duration of follow-up 40.2 months (24.1 to 80.5). After randomisation, patients underwent a proximal Chevron osteotomy on one foot and a distal Chevron osteotomy on the other. At follow-up, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal (MTP-IP) score, patient satisfaction, post-operative complications, hallux valgus angle, first-second intermetatarsal angle, and tibial sesamoid position were similar in each group. Both procedures gave similar good clinical and radiological outcomes. This study suggests that distal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure is as effective and reliable a means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus as proximal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Impingement of the Mobile Bearing on the Lateral Wall of the Tibial Tray in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-07-01

    Tilting of the mobile bearing relative to the tibial tray in the flexion position may result from the implantation of femoral components more laterally relative to tibial components during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) using the Oxford Knee. The purpose of the present study was to compare femoral component positions after UKA using the phase 3 device and a novel device. We further evaluated the placement of the femoral components with the new device in the flexion position to determine the association with short-term prognosis. The location of femoral and tibial components in the flexion position of 38 knees implanted using the phase 3 device and 49 knees using a novel device was assessed at 1 year postoperatively using radiography of the proximal tibia and distal femur in the flexion position. The femoral component was implanted more laterally using the new device than using the phase 3 device in the flexion position (P = .012), which caused the impingement of the mobile bearing against the lateral wall of the tibial tray. After UKA using the new device, 10% of patients exhibited the tilting phenomenon of the mobile bearing because of the lateral implantation of the femoral implant. To prevent implantation of the femoral component too laterally using the new device during UKA, knee surgeons should set the drill guide more medially such that the center of the drill is aligned with the middle of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, R. D.; Manzotti, A.; Bhave, A.; Paley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications of tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail with treatment using the traditional Ilizarov method. Methods In this matched case study, 16 adult patients underwent 19 tibial lengthening over nails (LON) procedures. For the matched case group, 17 patients who underwent 19 Ilizarov tibial lengthenings were retrospectively matched to the LON group. Results The mean external fixation time for the LON group was 2.6 months and for the matched case group was 7.6 months. The mean lengthening amounts for the LON and the matched case groups were 5.2 cm and 4.9 cm, respectively. The radiographic consolidation time in the LON group was 6.6 months and in the matched case group 7.6 months. Using a clinical and radiographic outcome score that was designed for this study, the outcome was determined to be excellent in 17 and good in two patients for the LON group. The outcome was excellent in 14 and good in five patients in the matched case group. The LON group had increased blood loss and increased cost. The LON group had four deep infections; the matched case group did not have any deep infections. Conclusions The outcomes in the LON group were comparable with the outcomes in the matched case group. The LON group had a shorter external fixation time but experienced increased blood loss, increased cost, and four cases of deep infection. The advantage of reducing external fixation treatment time may outweigh these disadvantages in patients who have a healthy soft-tissue envelope. Cite this article: J. E. Herzenberg. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails: A matched case comparison with Ilizarov tibial lengthening. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:1–10. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000577 PMID:26764351

  7. Contact Kinematics Correlates to Tibial Component Migration Following Single Radius Posterior Stabilized Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Perry, Kevin I; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-03-01

    Contact kinematics between total knee arthroplasty components is thought to affect implant migration; however, the interaction between kinematics and tibial component migration has not been thoroughly examined in a modern implant system. A total of 24 knees from 23 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with a single radius, posterior stabilized implant were examined. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis at 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years to measure migration of the tibial component in all planes. At 1 year, patients also had standing radiostereometric analysis examinations acquired in 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of flexion, and the location of contact and magnitude of any condylar liftoff was measured for each flexion angle. Regression analysis was performed between kinematic variables and migration at 1 year. The average magnitude of maximum total point motion across all patients was 0.671 ± 0.270 mm at 1 year and 0.608 ± 0.359 mm at 2 years (P = .327). Four implants demonstrated continuous migration of >0.2 mm between the first and second year of implantation. There were correlations between the location of contact and tibial component anterior-posterior tilt, varus-valgus tilt, and anterior-posterior translation. The patients with continuous migration demonstrated atypical kinematics and condylar liftoff in some instances. Kinematics can influence tibial component migration, likely through alterations of force transmission. Abnormal kinematics may play a role in long-term implant loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: comparison between manual and computer-assisted techniques.

    PubMed

    Iorio, R; Pagnottelli, M; Vadalà, A; Giannetti, S; Di Sette, P; Papandrea, P; Conteduca, F; Ferretti, A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and radiological results of two groups of patients treated for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee with either conventional or computer-assisted open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Goals of surgical treatment were a correction of the mechanical axis between 2° and 6° of valgus and a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2°. Twenty-four patients (27 knees) affected by varus knee deformity and operated with HTO were prospectively followed-up. They were randomly divided in two groups, A (11 patients, conventional treatment) and B (13 patients, navigated treatment). The American Knee Society Score and the Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire were used for clinical assessment. All patients were radiologically evaluated with a comparative lower limb weight-bearing digital radiograph, a standard digital anteroposterior, a latero-lateral radiograph of the knee, and a Rosenberg view. Patients were followed-up at a mean of 39 months. Clinical evaluation showed no statistical difference (n.s.) between the two groups. Radiological results showed an 86% reproducibility in achieving a mechanical axis of 182°-186° in group B compared to a 23% in group A (p = 0.0392); furthermore, in group B, we achieved a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2° in 100% of patients, while in group A, this goal was achieved only in 24% of cases (p = 0.0021). High tibial osteotomy with navigator is more accurate and reproducible in the correction of the deformity compared to standard technique. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  9. Does Maximal External Tibial Component Rotation Influence Tibiofemoral Load Distribution in the Primary Knee Arthroplasty Setting: A Comparison of Neutral vs Maximal Anatomical External Rotatory States.

    PubMed

    Manning, William A; Ghosh, Kanishka M; Blain, Alasdair P; Longstaff, Lee M; Rushton, Steven P; Deehan, David J

    2017-06-01

    Tibial component rotation at time of knee arthroplasty can influence conformity, load transmission across the polyethylene surface, and perhaps ultimately determined survivorship. Optimal tibial component rotation on the cut surface is reliant on standard per operative manual stressing. This subjective assessment aims to balance constraint and stability of the articulation through a full arc of movement. Using a cadaveric model, computer navigation and under defined, previously validated loaded conditions mimicking the in vivo setting, the influence of maximal tibial component external rotation compared with the neutral state was examined for changes in laxity and tibiofemoral continuous load using 3D displacement measurement and an orthosensor continuous load sensor implanted within the polyethylene spacer in a simulated single radius total knee arthroplasty. No significant difference was found throughout arc of motion (0-115 degrees of flexion) for maximal varus and/or valgus or rotatory laxity between the 2 states. The neutral state achieved equivalence for mediolateral load distribution at each point of flexion. We have found that external rotation of the tibial component increased medial compartment load in comparison with the neutral position. Compared with the neutral state, external rotation consistently effected a marginal, but not significant reduction in lateral load under similar loading conditions. The effects were most pronounced in midflexion. On the basis of these findings, we would advocate for the midtibial tubercle point to determine tibial component rotation and caution against component external rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Femoral Component Varus Malposition is Associated with Tibial Aseptic Loosening After TKA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Sik; Cho, Hyun-Ik; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Jo, Byeong-Kyu

    2018-02-01

    The notion that neutral alignment is mandatory to assure long-term durability after TKA has been based mostly on short-film studies. However, this is challenged by recent long-film studies. We conducted this long-film study to know (1) whether the risk of aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons was greater among knees with greater than 3° varus or valgus (defined as "outliers") than those that were aligned within 3° of neutral on long-standing mechanical axis (hip to knee) radiographs; and (2) what the failure mechanisms were and whether the malalignment was femoral or tibial in origin, or both, among those in the outlier group. Between November 1998 and January 2009 we performed 1299 cemented, posterior cruciate ligament-substituting TKAs in 867 patients for primary osteoarthritis. We had inadequate long-standing radiographs to analyze postoperative alignment for 124 of those knees, and an additional 24 were excluded for prespecified reasons. Consequently, 1151 knees were enrolled in our study. Of these, 982 (85%) in 661 patients (620 women and 41 men) who had followup greater than 24 months were analyzed. The knees were divided according to whether the postoperative mechanical axis was neutral (0° ± 3°), varus (> 3°), or valgus (< -3°) alignment on long-standing radiographs. The survivorships free from aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons were compared among groups. The mechanical femoral and the tibial component alignment (MFCA and MTCA, respectively) were investigated to know the origin of overall mechanical malalignment of the outlier knees. The mean duration of followup was 8 ± 4 years (range, 2-17 years). Thirty-five knees (4%) showed aseptic loosening at 7 ± 4 years (range, 0.1-14 years) and five (1%) showed polyethylene wear at 12 ± 1 years (range, 10-13 years). Tibial loosening (73%) was the most common reason for aseptic revision followed by femoral loosening (30%). Of this cohort, 687 (70%), 250 (25%), and 45 (5%) knees had overall

  11. [Distal soft-tissue procedure in hallux valgus deformity].

    PubMed

    Arbab, D; Wingenfeld, C; Frank, D; Bouillon, B; König, D P

    2016-04-01

    Distal, lateral soft tissue release to restore mediolateral balance of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in hallux valgus deformity. Incision of the adductor hallucis tendon from the fibular sesamoid, the lateral capsule, the lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral metatarsosesamoid ligament. Hallux valgus deformities or recurrent hallux valgus deformities with an incongruent MTP joint. General medical contraindications to surgical interventions. Painful stiffness of the MTP joint, osteonecrosis, congruent joint. Relative contraindications: connective tissue diseases (Marfan syndrome, Ehler-Danlos syndrome). Longitudinal, dorsal incision in the first intermetatarsal web space between the first and second MTP joint. Blunt dissection and identification of the adductor hallucis tendon. Release of the adductor tendon from the fibular sesamoid. Incision of the lateral capsule, the lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral metatarsosesamoid ligament. Postoperative management depends on bony correction. In joint-preserving procedures, dressing for 3 weeks in corrected position. Subsequently hallux valgus orthosis at night and a toe spreader for a further 3 months. Passive mobilization of the first MTP joint. Postoperative weight-bearing according to the osteotomy. A total of 31 patients with isolated hallux valgus deformity underwent surgery with a Chevron and Akin osteotomy and a distal medial and lateral soft tissue balancing. The mean preoperative intermetatarsal (IMA) angle was 12.3° (range 11-15°); the hallux valgus (HV) angle was 28.2° (25-36°). The mean follow-up was 16.4 months (range 12-22 months). The mean postoperative IMA correction ranged between 2 and 7° (mean 5.2°); the mean HV correction was 15.5° (range 9-21°). In all, 29 patients (93%) were satisfied or very satisfied with the postoperative outcome, while 2 patients (7%) were not satisfied due to one delayed wound healing and one recurrent hallux valgus deformity. There were no

  12. Effect of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the lateral compartment in sheep. Part I: Analysis of the lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Ziegler, Raphaela; Orth, Patrick; Goebel, Lars; Ong, Mei Fang; Kohn, Dieter; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in structural and biochemical changes in the lateral meniscus in adult sheep. Three experimental groups with biplanar osteotomies of the right proximal tibiae were tested: (a) closing wedge HTO resulting in 4.5° of tibial varus, (b) open wedge HTO resulting in 4.5° of tibial valgus (standard correction) and (c) open wedge HTO resulting in 9.5° of valgus (overcorrection), each of which was compared to the contralateral knees with normal limb axes. After 6 months, the lateral menisci were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. The proteoglycan and DNA contents of the red-red and white-white zones of the anterior, middle and posterior third were determined. Semiquantitative macroscopic and microscopic grading revealed no structural differences between groups. The red-red zone of the middle third of the lateral menisci of animals that underwent overcorrection exhibited a significant 0.7-fold decrease in mean DNA contents compared with the control knee without HTO (P = 0.012). Comparative estimation of the DNA and proteoglycan contents and proteoglycan/DNA ratios of all other parts and zones of the lateral menisci did not reveal significant differences between groups. Open wedge HTO does not lead to significant macroscopic and microscopic structural changes in the lateral meniscus after 6 months in vivo. Overcorrection significantly decreases the proliferative activity of the cells in the red-red zone of the middle third in the sheep model.

  13. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  14. Occipital condyle syndrome secondary to bone metastases from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Marruecos, J; Conill, C; Valduvieco, I; Vargas, M; Berenguer, J; Maurel, J

    2008-01-01

    Skull-base metastases are very unfrequent. Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is usually underdiagnosed. Until now few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a 71-year-old woman with metastatic rectum adenocarcinoma, with right occipital headache and ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy, diagnosed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of OCS due to a skull-base metastasis and treated with radiation therapy.

  15. Fractured condyle in a 3-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Cambell, R L; Moore, R F

    1975-07-01

    A 3-month-old infant sustained trauma to the mandibular symphysis resulting in radiographic evidence of a fracture of the right condylar head. This presented the diffculty of performing a clinical examination and total reliance on history of a trauma and subsequent swelling. Multiple radiographs of the condyles were used to establish the diagnosis and rule out a film artifact. No definitive treatment was required other than muscle exercises and parental instruction as to potential problems.

  16. An Atypical Variant of Superolateral Dislocation of the Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Malik, Kapil; Debnath, Subhas C; Adhyapok, Apurba K; Hazarika, Kriti

    2017-10-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa can occur in anterior, posterior, lateral, and superior directions. Posterior, lateral, and superior dislocations are rare. Superolateral dislocation is seldom encountered in clinical practice. It is generally associated with fracture of the anterior or contralateral side of the mandible. The occurrence of superolateral dislocation of the condyle hooked above the zygomatic arch with an associated fracture of the medial pole of the condyle is rare and has been reported only once in the literature. This report describes another case in which the patient had superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle with a fractured medial pole without any associated fracture of the anterior or contralateral side of the mandible. The condyle was hooked laterally above the zygomatic arch. Open reduction of the dislocated condyle was performed and a good outcome was obtained. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteoarthritis of the patella, lateral femoral condyle and posterior medial femoral condyle correlate with range of motion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Motojima, Sayaka; Saito, Shu; Ishii, Takao; Ryu, Keinosuke; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2013-11-01

    The type of osteoarthritis and the degree of severity which causes restriction of knee range of motion (ROM) is still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyse the location and the degree of cartilage degeneration that affect knee range of motion and the connection, if any, between femorotibial angle (FTA) and knee ROM restriction. Four hundreds and fifty-six knees in 230 subjects with knee osteoarthritis undergoing knee arthroplasty were included. Articular surface was divided into eight sections, and cartilage degeneration was evaluated macroscopically during the operation. Cartilage degeneration was classified into four grades based on the degree of exposure of subchondral bone. A Pearson correlation was conducted between FTA and knee flexion angle to determine whether high a degree of FTA caused knee flexion restriction. A logistic regression analysis was also conducted to detect the locations and levels of cartilage degeneration causing knee flexion restriction. No correlation was found between FTA and flexion angle (r = -0.08). Flexion angle was not restricted with increasing FTA. Logistic regression analysis showed significant correlation between restricted knee ROM and levels of knee cartilage degeneration in the patella (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77; P = 0.01), the lateral femoral condyle (OR = 1.62; P = 0.03) and the posterior medial femoral condyle (OR = 1.80; P = 0.03). For clinical relevance, soft tissue release and osteophyte resection around the patella, lateral femoral condyle and posterior medial femoral condyle might be indicated to obtain a higher degree of knee flexion angle.

  18. Hallux valgus, ankle osteoarthrosis and adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a review of three common foot and ankle pathologies and their treatments

    PubMed Central

    Crevoisier, Xavier; Assal, Mathieu; Stanekova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity is multifactorial. Conservative treatment can alleviate pain but is unable to correct the deformity. Surgical treatment must be adapted to the type and severity of the deformity. Success of surgical treatment ranges from 80% to 95%, and complication rates range from 10% to 30%. Ankle osteoarthrosis most commonly occurs as a consequence of trauma. Ankle arthrodesis and total ankle replacement are the most common surgical treatments of end stage ankle osteoarthrosis. Both types of surgery result in similar clinical improvement at midterm; however, gait analysis has demonstrated the superiority of total ankle replacement over arthrodesis. More recently, conservative surgery (extraarticular alignment osteotomies) around the ankle has gained popularity in treating early- to mid-stage ankle osteoarthrosis. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a consequence of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction in 80% of cases. Classification is based upon the function of the tibialis posterior tendon, the reducibility of the deformity, and the condition of the ankle joint. Conservative treatment includes orthotics and eccentric muscle training. Functional surgery is indicated for treatment in the early stages. In case of fixed deformity, corrective and stabilising surgery is performed. Cite this article: Crevoisier X, Assal M, Stanekova K. Hallux valgus, ankle osteoarthrosis and adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a review of three common foot and ankle pathologies and their treatments. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:58–64. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000015. PMID:28461929

  19. Ideal tibial intramedullary nail insertion point varies with tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard M; Zdero, Rad; McKee, Michael D; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how superior entry point varies with tibial rotation and to identify landmarks that can be used to identify suitable radiographs for successful intramedullary nail insertion. The proximal tibia and knee were imaged for 12 cadaveric limbs undergoing 5° increments of internal and external rotation. Medial and lateral arthrotomies were performed, the ideal superior entry point was identified, and a 2-mm Kirschner wire inserted. A second Kirschner wire was sequentially placed at the 5-mm and then the 10-mm position, both medial and lateral to the initial Kirschner wire. Radiographs of the knee were obtained for all increments. The changing position of the ideal nail insertion point was recorded. A 30° arc (range, 25°-40°) provided a suitable anteroposterior radiograph. On the neutral anteroposterior radiograph, the Kirschner wire was 54% ± 1.5% (range, 51-56%) from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. For every 5° of rotation, the Kirschner wire moved 3% of the plateau width. During external rotation, a misleading medial entry point was obtained. A fibular bisector line correlated with an entry point that was ideal or up to 5 mm lateral to this but never medial. The film that best showed the fibular bisector line was between 0° and 10° of internal rotation of the tibia. The fibula head bisector line can be used to avoid choosing external rotation views and, thus, avoid medial insertion points. The current results may help the surgeon prevent malalignment during intramedullary nailing in proximal tibial fractures.

  20. Superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle into the temporal fossa: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divashree; Khasgiwala, Ankit; Maheshwari, Bharat; Singh, Charanpreet; Shakya, Neelam

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint dislocation refers to the dislodgement of mandibular condyle from the glenoid fossa. Anterior and anteromedial dislocations of the mandibular condyle are frequently reported in the literature, but superolateral dislocation is a rare presentation. This report outlines a case of superolateral dislocation of an intact mandibular condyle that occurred in conjunction with an ipsilateral mandibular parasymphysis fracture. A review of the clinical features of superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle and the possible techniques of its reduction ranging from the most conservative means to extensive surgical interventions is presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Correlation between the Condyle Position and Intra-Extraarticular Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Sevgi; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between different clinical findings and condyle position. Methods: Tenderness on masseter (MM), temporal (TM), lateral pyterigoid (LPM), medial pyterigoid (MPM) and posterior cervical (PSM) muscles, limitation, deviation and deflection in opening of mouth, clicking, crepitating, tenderness on lateral palpation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area for each side of 85 patients were evaluated. Each side of patients was categorized into the clinical findings: no sign and/or symptom of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs), only extraarticular findings and only intraarticular findings, extra and intraarticular findings. Condyle positions of 170 TMJs were determined the narrowest anterior (a) and posterior interarticular distance (p) on mid-sagittal MRIs of condyles and expressed as p/a ratio and these ratio were transformed into logarithmic base e. Spearman’s Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the condyle position and the clinical findings. The difference between the condyle positions of different groups was tested by T test. Reliability statistic was used to determine intra-observer concordance of two measurements of condylar position. Results: A significant relationship was found between the condyle position and tenderness of PSM. There was no significant difference between the groups in aspect of the condyle position. Occlusion and condyle position correlated with significantly. Conclusions: The inclination of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical angulations can cause the signs and symptoms of TMD and condyle position is not main cause of TMDs alone but it may be effective together with other possible etiological factors synergistically. PMID:21769281

  2. Relationship between tibial spine size and the occurrence of osteochondritis dissecans: an argument in favour of the impingement theory.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Perroncel, Geoffroy; Thépaut, Mathias; Vial, Julie; Accadbled, Franck; De Gauzy, Jérôme Sales

    2017-08-01

    Pathophysiology of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the medial femoral condyle remains uncertain. Specifically, the relationship between the size of the anterior tibial spine (ATS) and the presence of OCD has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ATS size and the occurrence of OCD. Seventy-nine children between 8 and 17 years of age were included in two groups: OCD (n = 37) and control (n = 42). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, BMI and weight. Two independent observers performed an MRI analysis of the size of the tibial spine and intercondylar notch relative to the size of the respective epiphyses. For this study, the "S ratio" was calculated by dividing the height of the tibial spine by the height of the tibial epiphysis. The "N ratio" was calculated by dividing the height of the notch by the height of the femoral epiphysis. These two ratios for both groups were compared using Student's t test. The mean value of the S ratio in the OCD group was 0.39 ± 0.06; the mean value of the S ratio in the control group was 0.32 ± 0.03 (P = 0.004). The mean value of the N ratio in the OCD group was 0.70 ± 0.08; the mean value of the N ratio in the control group was 0.70 ± 0.07 (n.s.). This study's findings confirm our hypothesis that patients with OCD have a more prominent tibial spine than in patients without OCD. IV.

  3. Indirect reduction technique using a distraction support in minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Wei; Shi, Zeng-Yuan; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Mao, Hai-Jiao

    2016-12-01

    To describe an indirect reduction technique during minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of tibial shaft fractures with the use of a distraction support. Between March 2011 and October 2014, 52 patients with a mean age of 48 years (16-72 years) sustaining tibial shaft fractures were included. All the patients underwent MIPPO for the fractures using a distraction support prior to insertion of the plate. Fracture angular deformity was assessed by goni- ometer measurement on preoperative and postoperative images. Preoperative radiographs revealed a mean of 7.6°(1.2°-28°) angulation in coronal plane and a mean of 6.8°(0.5°-19°) angulation in sagittal plane. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radio- graphs showed a mean of 0.8°(0°-4.0°) and 0.6°(0°-3.6°) of varus/valgus and apex anterior/posterior angulation, respectively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. This study suggests that the distraction support during MIPPO of tibial shaft fractures is an effective and safe method with no associated complications.

  4. Early weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lansdaal, Joris Radboud; Mouton, Tanguy; Wascher, Daniel Charles; Demey, Guillaume; Lustig, Sebastien; Neyret, Philippe; Servien, Elvire

    2017-12-01

    The need for a period of non-weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy remains controversial. It is hypothesized that immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy would have no difference in functional scores at one year compared to delayed weight bearing. Fifty patients, median age 54 years (range 40-65), with medial compartment osteoarthritis, underwent a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy utilizing a locking plate without bone grafting. Patients were randomized into an Immediate or a Delayed (2 months) weight bearing group. All patients were assessed at one-year follow-up and the two groups compared. The primary outcome measure was the IKS score. Secondary outcome measures included the IKDC score, the VAS pain score and rate of complications. The functional scores significantly improved in both groups. The IKS score increased from 142 ± 31 to 171 ± 26 in the Immediate group (p < 0.001) and from 148 ± 22 to 178 ± 23 in the Delayed group (p < 0.001). The IKDC score increased from 49 ± 17 pre-operatively to 68 ± 14 one-year post-operatively in the Immediate group (p < 0.0001) and from 44 ± 16 to 69 ± 19 in the Delayed group (p < 0.001). The average VAS for pain 2 months after surgery was 3 ± 3 in the Immediate group and 3 ± 2 in the Delayed (n.s.). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the outcome measures. The mean mechanical femorotibial angle changed from 6° of varus (0°-15° of varus, SD = 3°) to 4° of valgus (5°-11° of valgus, SD = 3°) in the Immediate group and from 5° of varus (0°-10° of varus, SD = 3°) to 3° of valgus (2° of varus to 8° of valgus, SD = 3°) in the Delayed group. No difference was seen between groups, and no loss of correction was observed in any patient. Two cases of non-union occurred, one in each group. One infection and one deep vein thrombosis occurred in the Immediate group. Immediate

  5. Bosch osteotomy and scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Oliva, Francesco; Denaro, Vincenzo; Coppola, Cristiano

    2009-10-01

    Minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomies are becoming broadly accepted for correction of hallux valgus. We compared the duration of surgery, the length of hospital stay, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) in 36 patients who underwent a minimal incision subcapital osteotomy of the first metatarsal with 36 matched patients who had hallux valgus corrected by a scarf technique. The minimum follow-up was 2.1 years (mean, 2.5 years; range, 2.1-3.2 years). Patients having the osteotomy had similar AOFAS and FAOS scores with less operating time and earlier discharge. Less operative time may benefit the patients, and earlier discharge has financial implications for the hospital.

  6. [A special soft tissue procedure for treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Waizy, H; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Abbara-Czardybon, M; Emmerich, J; Windhagen, H; Frank, D

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining the corrected position of the first metatasophalangeal axis. Reducing postoperative stiffness by forgoing a medial capsular shift. Hallux valgus deformities or recurrent hallux valgus deformities. Existing osteoarthritis, joint stiffness, large bone defects, osteonecrosis. General medical contraindications to surgical interventions and anesthesiological procedures. Operation under regional anesthesia (foot block) or general anesthesia. Tourniquet. Longitudinal skin incision medial over the pseudexostosis of the first metatarsal bone. Preparing the tendon of the Musculus abductor hallucis. Detaching the tendon from the capsule. Incision of the joint capsule with protection of the extensor hallucis longus tendon and the dorsal neurovascular bundle in an L-wise manner. Osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone. Lax sutures of the capsule in correct position and reattachment of the Musculus abductor hallucis tendon shifted toward distal and dorsal, regarding the rotation of the hallux. Postoperative elevation of the operated foot. Analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Postoperative weight-bearing according to the osteotomy. Passive mobilization of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Dressing for 4 weeks postoperatively in the corrected position. Radiologic control after 6 weeks. Hallux valgus orthosis at night and a toe spreader for a further 6 weeks. A total of 30 isolated hallux valgus deformities with a mean preoperative intermetatarsal (IMA) angle of 12.9° (range 11-15°) were operated with a chevron osteotomy. The mean follow-up was 14.4 (range 8-17) months. The mean dorsiflexion at the last follow-up was 44° (range 20-60°). Only 2 patients had a dorsiflexion <40°. The mean reduction of the IM angle was 5.6° (range 3-7°). One patient required wound revision. There was no infection or avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head observed in the patients. At follow-up, 20 (67%) patients were completely satisfied, 9 (30%) satisfied, and 1 (3

  7. Valgus-varus motion of the knee in normal level walking and stair climbing.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Stuart, M J; Kienbacher, T; Growney, E S; An, K-N

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The knee valgus-varus moment and the knee angles were compared between normal level walking and stair climbing. DESIGN: Ten healthy subjects were tested for ascent, descent, and level walking. BACKGROUND: An understanding of the normal valgus-varus motion of the knee during stair climbing is needed to apply biomechanical analysis of stair climbing as a evaluation tool for knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: A motion analysis system, three force plates, and a flight of stairs were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. The knee angles and moments were calculated from the collected kinematic and kinetic data. RESULTS: The knee varus angle for the maximum knee valgus moments in stair climbing was significantly greater than that in level walking. The knee valgus moment was significantly correlated to ground reaction forces and knee valgus-varus angle during stair climbing and level walking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a coupling between the knee valgus-varus motion and flexion-extension motion. Ground reaction forces are the major contributors to the within-subject variation in the knee valgus-varus moment during stair climbing and level walking. The knee valgus-varus angle is a major contributor to the between-subject variation in the knee valgus moment during stair climbing and level walking.

  8. High tibial closing wedge osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, SM; Kapoor, Varun

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most patients of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of knee are associated with varus malalignment that is causative or contributory to painful arthrosis. It is rational to correct the malalignment to transfer the functional load to the unaffected or less affected compartment of the knee to relieve symptoms. We report the outcome of a simple technique of high tibial osteotomy in the medial compartment osteoarthrosis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2004 we performed closing wedge osteotomy in 78 knees in 65 patients. The patients selected for osteotomy were symptomatic essentially due to medial compartment osteoarthrosis associated with moderate genu varum. Of the 19 patients who had bilateral symptomatic disease 11 opted for high tibial osteotomy of their second knee 1-3 years after the first operation. Preoperative grading of osteoarthrosis and postoperative function was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) rating scale. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 2-9 years) 6-10° of valgus correction at the site of osteotomy was maintained, there was significant relief of pain while walking, negotiating stairs, squatting and sitting cross-legged. Walking distance in all patients improved by two to four times their preoperative distance of 200-400 m. No patient lost any preoperative knee function. The mean JOA scoring improved from preoperative 54 (40-65) to 77 (55-85) at final follow-up. Conclusion: Closing wedge high tibial osteotomy performed by our technique can be undertaken in any setup with moderate facilities. Operation related complications are minimal and avoidable. Kirschner wire fixation is least likely to interfere with replacement surgery if it becomes necessary. PMID:19823659

  9. [ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH EPIPHYSEAL UNCLOSURE].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xuebin; Zhang, Keyuan; Li, Gang; Ni, Jiati

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fractures in adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure. Between January 2011 and October 2013, 35 knees with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures (35 patients with epiphyseal unclosure) were arthroscopically treated with suture fixation. There were 25 males and 10 females, aged 8-16 years (mean, 14.7 years). The causes included sports injury in 24 cases, traffic accident injury in 9 cases, and daily life injury in 2 cases. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 27 cases of type II and 8 cases of type III. Five cases had meniscus injury. The preoperative the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 48.7 ± 3.2, and Lysholm score was 51.2 ± 4.5. The time from injury to operation was 2-16 days (mean, 5 days). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 months (range, 12-32 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 28 cases and satisfactory reduction in 7 cases. X-ray films showed all fractures healing at last follow-up. There was no limb shortening deformity, varus knee, or valgus knee. Lachman test results were all negative. The other knees had normal range of motion except 1 knee with limited flexion, whose range of motion returned to 0-120° after treatment. At last follow-up, the IKDC score was significantly improved to 93.2 ± 4.1 (t = -53.442, P = 0.000), and the Lysholm score was significantly increased to 96.2 ± 2.5 (t = -56.242, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic fixation technique has satisfactory results for the reduction and fixation of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture in the adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure because of little trauma and quick recovery.

  10. Open versus closed reduction: diacapitular fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the evolution of current thoughts on management of diacapitular fractures (DFs) of the mandibular condyle. An electronic search in PubMed was undertaken in March 2012. The titles and abstracts from these results were read to identify studies within the selection criteria. Eligibility criteria included studies reporting clinical series of DFs, including both animal and human studies, without date or language restrictions. The search strategy initially yielded 108 references. Twenty-eight studies were identified without repetition within the selection criteria. Additional hand-searching of the reference lists of selected studies yielded three additional papers. The current indications for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of DFs described in the literature are: (a) fractures affecting the lateral condyle with reduction of mandibular height; (b) fractures in which the proximal fragment dislocates laterally out of the glenoid fossa, which cannot be reduced by closed or open treatment of another part of the mandibular fracture. The indications for conservative treatment are: (a) fractures that do not shorten the condylar height (a fracture with displacement of the medial parts of the condyle); (b) undisplaced fractures; (c) comminution of the condylar head, when the bony fragments are too small for stable fixation; and (d) fractures in children. As the temporomandibular joint disk plays an important role as a barrier preventing ankylosis, it is important to reposition the disk (if displaced/dislocated) during the surgical treatment of DFs. The lateral pterygoid muscle should never be stripped from the medially displaced fragment because its desinsertion disrupts circulation to the medial bony fragment, and also because this muscle helps to restore the muscle function after surgery. ORIF of selected DFs improves prognosis by anatomical bone and soft tissue recovery when combined with physical

  11. Anthropometric measurements of tibial plateau and correlation with the current tibial implants.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Sayar, Safak; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to make an anthropometric analysis at the resected surfaces of the proximal tibia in the Turkish population and to compare the data with the dimensions of tibial components in current use. We hypothesized that tibial components currently available on the market do not fulfil the requirements of this population and a new tibial component design may be required, especially for female patients with small stature. Anthropometric data from the proximal tibia of 226 knees in 226 Turkish subjects were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the mediolateral, middle anteroposterior, medial and lateral anteroposterior dimensions and the aspect ratio of the resected proximal tibial surface. All morphological data were compared with the dimensions of five contemporary tibial implants, including asymmetric and symmetric design types. The dimensions of the tibial plateau of Turkish knees demonstrated significant differences according to gender (P < 0.05). Among the different tibial implants reviewed, neither asymmetric nor symmetric designs exhibited a perfect conformity to proximal tibial morphology in size and shape. The vast majority of tibial implants involved in this study tend to overhang anteroposteriorly, and a statistically significant number of women (21 %, P < 0.05) had tibial anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available tibial component. Tibial components designed according to anthropometric measurements of Western populations do not perfectly meet the requirements of Turkish population. These data could provide the basis for designing the optimal and smaller tibial component for this population, especially for women, is required for best fit. II.

  12. Operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Wirmer, Johannes; Kruppa, Christian; Fitze, Guido

    2012-08-01

    The operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children remains controversial. The result of incorrectly treated fractures may lead to complications such as pseudoarthrosis and severe deformity, with considerable functional and cosmetic restrictions. The aim of this study was to determine whether operative treatment of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children using Screw-wires (Orthofix GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany) has any advantage over treatment with Kirschner wires ("K-wires") (aap-Implantate AG, Berlin, Germany). These results were then compared with operative treatment using lag-screw osteosynthesis. We treated surgically 76 cases of fracture of the lateral humeral condyle in children at the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Dresden between 1989 to 2002 and 2004 to 2008, from which 42 were available for follow-up examination. Within this group, there were seven children that were followed-up twice (in 1996 to 2002). Of these, 21 patients were treated with Screw-wires, and another 21 had K-wires inserted. The results were evaluated according to the Dhillon criteria. Only seven patients (17%) had a fair result in the overall grading according to the Dhillon criteria, four after K-wire and three after Screw-wire osteosyntheses. The remaining patients scored good to excellent results. There were no pseudoarthroses. Six patients (14%) had a varisation in the carrying angle between 10 and 16 degrees (three each procedure), and 15 patients (36%) had no difference in the carrying angle at all. Of these 15 patients, 10 were treated with Screw-wire osteosynthesis. Only one patient (2.4%) had a deficit of more than 10 degrees in elbow joint flexion, while only two (4.8%, one each procedure) had a deficit of more than 10 degrees in elbow joint extension, compared with the uninjured arm. Our results demonstrate that the employment of Screw-wire osteosynthesis is superior to the use of K-wires concerning the carrying angle while scoring alike on the

  13. Trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Develi, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    The tibial nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve and it terminates in the tarsal tunnel by giving lateral and medial plantar nerves. We present a rare case of trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. The variant nerve curves laterally after branching from the tibial nerve and courses deep to quadratus plantae muscle. Interestingly, posterior tibial artery was also terminating by giving three branches. These branches were accompanying the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

  14. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  15. The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Min; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyuk

    2013-07-06

    Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1-2 months. The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized.

  16. The application of the Risdon approach for mandibular condyle fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many novel approaches to mandibular condyle fracture have been reported, but there is a relative lack of reports on the Risdon approach. In this study, the feasibility of the Risdon approach for condylar neck and subcondylar fractures of the mandible is demonstrated. Methods A review of patients with mandibular condylar neck and subcondylar fractures was performed from March 2008 to June 2012. A total of 25 patients, 19 males and 6 females, had 14 condylar neck fractures and 11 subcondylar fractures. Results All of the cases were reduced using the Risdon approach. For subcondylar fractures, reduction and fixation with plates was done under direct vision. For condylar neck fractures, reduction and fixation was done with the aid of a trochar in adults and a percutaneous threaded Kirschner wire in children. There were no malunions or nonunions revealed in follow-up care. Mild transient neuropraxia of the marginal mandibular nerve was seen in 4 patients, which was resolved within 1–2 months. Conclusions The Risdon approach is a technique for reducing the condylar neck and subcondylar fractures that is easy to perform and easy to learn. Its value in the reduction of mandibular condyle fractures should be emphasized. PMID:23829537

  17. Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle.

    PubMed

    Shea, Kevin G; Carey, James L; Brown, Gregory A; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2016-09-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed the Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) document Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain the best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from patient indications that generally accompany osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature. The 64 patient scenarios and 12 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Lastly, a separate, multidisciplinary Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

  18. Measurement of first ray of foot with reference to hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Howale, Deepak S; Iyer, Kanaklata V; Shah, Jigesh V

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out on 58 healthy volunteers. None of the volunteeres had any foot complaints. This was done to study Indian feet, as foot is an important part of human anatomy and its certain deformities eg, hallux valgus, can be very disabling. We have studied anatomical angles between 1st and 2nd rays of foot eg, angle of hallux valgus and angle of slant of distal facet of medial cuneiform and have shown significant correlation between them and development of hallux valgus. The coefficient of correlation (r) calculated between these two angles is significant, showing that this angle influences the angle of hallux valgus and hence development of hallux valgus. These are anatomical angles and indicate shapes of medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal. Hence these seem to be inherited, making the feet anatomically predisposed to develop hallux valgus. This view is supported by Gray's Anatomy. The extrinsic factors such as narrow toes, closed, footwear worn for an extended period do increase the angle of hallux valgus. So, in predisposed feet, this is one of the extrinsic factor which can lead to development of hallux valgus. On studying these two angles, orthopaedicians should be on alert and should advise such individuals on wearing foot- friendly foot-wear.

  19. The effect of plate position and size on tibial slope in high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rubino, L Joseph; Schoderbek, Robert J; Golish, S Raymond; Baumfeld, Joshua; Miller, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomies are performed for degenerative changes and varus. Opening wedge osteotomies can change proximal tibial slope in the sagittal plane, possibly imparting stability in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of plate position and size on change in tibial slope. Eight cadaveric knees underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates of each different size. Plates were placed anterior, central, and posterior for each size used. Lateral radiographs were obtained. Tibial slope was measured and compared with baseline slope. Tibial slope was affected by plate position (P < 0.05) and size (P < 0.001). Smaller, posterior plates had less effect on tibial slope. However, anterior and central plates increased tibial slope over all plate sizes (P < 0.05). This study found that tibial slope increases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Larger corrections and anterior placement of the plate are associated with larger increases in slope.

  20. Using external and internal locking plates in a two-stage protocol for treatment of segmental tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yeh, Jih-Hsi; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2011-09-01

    The tibial segmental fractures usually follow high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. We designed a two-stage protocol for these complex injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of tibial segmental fractures treated according to this protocol. A prospective series of 25 consecutive segmental tibial fractures were treated using a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a low-profile locking plate was applied as an external fixator to temporarily immobilize the fractures after anatomic reduction had been achieved followed by soft-tissue reconstruction. The second stage involved definitive internal fixation with a locking plate using a minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique. The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 20-44 months). All fractures achieved union. The median time for the proximal fracture union was 23 weeks (range, 12-30 weeks) and that for distal fracture union was 27 weeks (range, 12-46 weeks; p = 0.08). Functional results were excellent in 21 patients and good in 4 patients. There were three cases of delayed union of distal fracture. Valgus malunion >5 degrees occurred in two patients, and length discrepancy >1 cm was observed in two patients. Pin tract infection occurred in three patients. Use of the two-stage procedure for treatment of segmental tibial fractures is recommended. Surgeons can achieve good reduction with stable temporary fixation, soft-tissue reconstruction, ease of subsequent definitive fixation, and high union rates. Our patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion, good functional outcomes, and a comfortable clinical course.

  1. The preclinical sheep model of high tibial osteotomy relating basic science to the clinics: standards, techniques and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To develop a preclinical large animal model of high tibial osteotomy to study the effect of axial alignment on the lower extremity on specific issues of the knee joint, such as in articular cartilage repair, development of osteoarthritis and meniscal lesions. Preoperative planning, surgical procedure and postoperative care known from humans were adapted to develop a HTO model in the adult sheep. Thirty-five healthy, skeletally mature, female Merino sheep between 2 and 4 years of age underwent a HTO of their right tibia in a medial open-wedge technique inducing a normal (group 1) and an excessive valgus alignment (group 2) and a closed-wedge technique (group 3) inducing a varus alignment with the aim of elucidating the effect of limb alignment on cartilage repair in vivo. Animals were followed up for 6 months. Solid bone healing and maintenance of correction are most likely if the following surgical principles are respected: (1) medial and longitudinal approach to the proximal tibia; (2) biplanar osteotomy to increase initial rotatory stability regardless of the direction of correction; (3) small, narrow but long implant with locking screws; (4) posterior plate placement to avoid slope changes; (5) use of bicortical screws to account for the brittle bone of the tibial head and to avoid tibial head displacement. Although successful high tibial osteotomy in sheep is complex, the sheep may--because of its similarities with humans--serve as an elegant model to induce axial malalignment in a clinically relevant environment, and osteotomy healing under challenging mechanical conditions.

  2. Patella height is not altered by descending medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) compared to ascending HTO.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Drenck, Tobias Claus; Korthaus, Alexander; Preiss, Achim; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Akoto, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to gain insight into geometric changes of the patellar height (PH) and posterior tibial slope (PTS) after a biplanar ascending medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) compared to biplanar descending medial open-wedge HTO in patients with genu varum. Sixty-four patients (mean age 45.2 ± 8.7 years, females n = 24, males n = 40) with varus malalignment and medial gonarthrosis were retrospectively studied. Patients received either a biplanar ascending or descending medial open-wedge HTO. Radiographic analysis included the assessment of standing total leg axis, PH, and PTS prior to and after surgery. In the ascending HTO group, PH decreased significantly by 4.0% (p = 0.037, Caton-Deschamps index) after an average leg axis valgus-producing correction of 7.1° ± 2.8°. In the descending HTO group, with an average leg axis correction of 7.0° ± 3.7°, there were no significant PH changes. There were no significant differences between the ascending and descending HTO groups regarding PTS or leg axis. The mean post-operative leg axis between ascending (1.6° ± 1.9°) and descending HTO (1.9° ± 2.4°) was not significantly different. Compared to the biplanar ascending medial open-wedge HTO, the descending HTO did not influence patella height or increase the posterior tibial slope. In order to respect patellofemoral and slope-related knee kinematics, a biplanar descending medial open-wedge HTO has proven useful to control patella height and posterior tibial slope. These findings underscore the importance of the preoperative patella height assessment in the osteotomy planning and subsequent choice of the biplanar osteotomy direction. IV.

  3. Total knee arthroplasty for severe valgus knee deformity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinhua; Wang, Min; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in severe valgus knees may prove challenging, and choice of implant depends on the severity of the valgus deformity and the extent of soft-tissue release. The purpose of this study was to review 8 to 11 years (mean, 10 years) follow-up results of primary TKA for varient-III valgus knee deformity with use of different type implants. Between January 2002 and January 2005, 20 women and 12 men, aged 47 to 63 (mean, 57.19 ± 6.08) years old, with varient-III valgus knees underwent primary TKA. Of the 32 patients, 37 knees had varient-III deformities. Pie crusting was carefully performed with small, multiple inside-out incisions, bone resection balanced the knee in lieu of soft tissue releases that were not used in the series. Cruciate-retaining knees (Gemini MKII, Link Company, Germany) were used in 13 knees, Genesis II (Simth & Nephew Company, USA) in 14 knees, and hinged knee (Endo-Model Company, Germany) in 10 knees. In five patients with bilateral variant-III TKAs, three patients underwent 1-stage bilateral procedures, and two underwent 2-stage procedures. All implants were cemented and the patella was not resurfaced. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score was assessed. Patients were followed up from 8 to 11 years. The mean HSS knee score were improved from 50.33 ± 11.60 to 90.06 ± 3.07 (P < 0.001). The mean tibiofemoral alignment were improved from valgus 32.72° ± 9.68° pre-operation to 4.89° ± 0.90° post-operation (P < 0.001). The mean range of motion were improved from 93.72° ± 23.69° pre-operation to 116.61 ± 16.29° post-operation (P < 0.001). No patients underwent revision. One patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation using femoral condylar plates for supracondylar femoral fractures secondary to a fall at three years. Three patients developed transient peroneal nerve palsies, which resolved within nine months. Two patients developed symptomatic deep vein thrombosis that was managed with

  4. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  5. A predictive factor for acquiring an ideal lower limb realignment after opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Bito, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Ryohei; Kumagai, Ken; Aratake, Masato; Saito, Izumi; Hayashi, Riku; Sasaki, Yohei; Aota, Yoichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2009-04-01

    Obtaining a correct postoperative limb alignment is an important factor in achieving a successful clinical outcome after an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). To better predict some of the aspects that impact upon the clinical outcomes following this procedure, including postoperative correction loss and over correction, we examined the changes in the frontal plane of the lower limb in a cohort of patients who had undergone OWHTO using radiography. Forty-two knees from 33 patients (23 cases of osteoarthritis and 10 of osteonecrosis) underwent a valgus realignment OWHTO procedure and were radiographically assessed for changes that occurred pre- and post-surgery. The mean femorotibial angle (FTA) was found to be 182.1 +/- 2.0 degrees (12 +/- 2.0 anatomical varus angulation) preoperatively and 169.6 +/- 2.4 degrees (10.4 +/- 2.4 anatomical valgus angulation) postoperatively. These measurements thus revealed significant changes in the weight bearing line ratio (WBL), femoral axis angle (FA), tibial axis angle (TA), tibia plateau angle (TP), tibia vara angle (TV) and talar tilt angle (TT) following OWHTO. In contrast, no significant change was found in the weight bearing line angle (WBLA) after these treatments. To assess the relationship between the correction angle and these indexes, 42 knees were divided into the following three groups according to the postoperative FTA; a normal correction group (168 degrees < or = FTA < or = 172 degrees ), an over-correction group (FTA < 168 degrees ), and an under-correction group (FTA > 172 degrees ). There were significant differences in the delta angle [DA; calculated as (pre FTA - post FTA) - (pre TV - post TV)] among each group of patients. Our results thus indicate a negative correlation between the DA and preoperative TA (R(2) = 0.148, p < 0.05). Hence, given that the correction errors in our patients appear to negatively correlate with the preoperative TA, postoperative malalignments are likely to be predictable

  6. Conservative management of pes valgus with plantar flexed talus, flexible.

    PubMed

    Bleck, E E; Berzins, U J

    1977-01-01

    The type of flat foot that we have called pes valgus with plantar flexed talus, flexible, was treated in children with the Helfet heel seat or the UCBL shoe insert. In follow-up examination of 71 cases for periods longer than one year, 79 per cent of the patients showed that the UCBL shoe insert and the Helfet heel seat improved the clinical and roentgenographic appearance of the foot. The Helfet heel seat is recommended in cases where the plantar flexion angle of the talus is 35 to 45 degrees and the UCBL shoe insert in those cases of plantar flexion of the talus greater than 45 degrees.

  7. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can tibial plateau fractures be reduced and stabilised through an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach?

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lucian B; Boopalan, P R J V C; Chakrabarty, Adhiraj; Callary, Stuart A

    2014-04-01

    Tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) are an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for surgical site infections (SSIs). Current antero-lateral approaches to the knee dissect through the anterior tibial angiosome (ATA), which may contribute to a higher rate of SSIs. The aim of this study was to develop an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to allow reduction and fixation of lateral TPFs and to investigate its feasibility in a consecutive cohort. Twenty cadaveric knees were dissected to define the position of the vessels supplying the ATA from the lateral tibial condyle to the skin perforators. Based on these results, an angiosome-sparing surgical approach to treat lateral TPFs was developed. Fifteen consecutive patients were subsequently treated through this approach. Clinical outcomes included assessment of SSI and Lysholm score. Fracture healing and stability were assessed using the Rasmussen score and radiostereometric analysis (RSA). At the latest follow-up between 1 and 4 years, there was no report of SSI. Nine patients (60%) had good or excellent Lysholm scores. The mean Rasmussen score at final follow-up was 17 (median 18, range 14-18) with 10 patients (66%) graded as excellent. Fracture fragment migration measured using RSA was below 2mm in all cases. This study has demonstrated that an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to the lateral tibial plateau is feasible. Adequate stability of these fracture types was achieved by positioning a buttress plate away from the bone and superficial to the regional fascial layer as an 'internal-external fixator'. The angiosome-sparing approach developed was able to be used in a prospective cohort and the clinical results to date are encouraging. Future clinical studies need to investigate the potential benefits of this surgical approach when compared with the previously described antero-lateral approaches. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Operative Treatment of Traumatic Hallux Valgus in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Covell, D Jeff; Lareau, Craig R; Anderson, Robert B

    2017-06-01

    Traumatic hallux valgus is an increasingly common injury in the athletic population and represents a unique variant of turf toe. Failure to appropriately recognize and treat these injuries can lead to continued pain, decreased performance, progressive deformities, and ultimately degeneration of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint. Limited literature currently exists to assist in the diagnosis, management, and operative treatment. Nineteen patients were reviewed in this series, including 12 National Football League, 6 college, and 1 high school player who was a college prospect. The average age for all patients at the time of surgery was 24.4 years (range, 19-33 years). Return to play and complications were evaluated. Overall, good operative results were obtained, with 74% of patients returning to their preinjury level of play at an average recovery time of 3.4 months. Traumatic hallux valgus is an increasingly common injury in the athletic population and represents a unique variant of turf toe. The impact of this injury cannot be overstated, as one-quarter of players were unable to return to play. Level IV, case series.

  10. New modified technique of osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Oh, I S; Kim, M K; Lee, S H

    2004-12-01

    To improve the technique of osteotomy for hallux valgus (bunion). 38 cases of a new modified osteotomy procedure for hallux valgus were performed for 22 patients (21 women and one man). During a 3-year (range, 2-5 years) follow-up, the patients underwent physical examination; and their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarso-phalangeal-interphalangeal scale scores and standard foot radiographic measurements were recorded. 20 of the 22 patients (38 cases) had no pain, achieved good cosmesis, and were completely satisfied with the results of the operation. The remaining 2 patients had occasional mild discomfort. The mean hallux-metatarso-phalangeal-interphalangeal scale score was 93 points (range, 78-100 points). The mean preoperative and postoperative metatarsophalangeal angles were 34 degrees and 11 degrees, respectively. The mean postoperative reduction of the intermetatarsal angle and metatarsophalangeal angle were 6 degrees and 23 degrees, respectively. The new technique of osteotomy achieved even greater stability and accurate correction of the deformity in our 38 cases. Furthermore, it was more effective than conventional 'chevron' osteotomy in terms of correction of the deformity. Therefore, it should be used more widely.

  11. [Biomechanical analysis on healing process of sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle after rigid fixation].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jie; Qu, Ai-li; Ding, Xiao-mei; Hei, Yu-na

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the biomechanical healing process on rigid fixation of sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle (SFMC), and to provide guidelines for surgical treatment. Three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEAM) of mandible and condyle was established. The right condyle was simulated as SFMC with 0.1 mm space across the condyle length ways. The 3D-FEAM of rigid fixation was established. The biomechanical factors such as stress distribution of condylar surface, displacement around fracture, stress on the plate and stress shielding were calculated during 0, 4, 8 and 12-week after rigid fixation. The maximum equivalent stress of normal condyle was located at the area of middle 1/3 of condylar neck. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week after fixation was 23 times than that on normal condyle. They were located at the condylar stump and the plate near inferior punctual areas of fracture line. There were little stress on the other areas. The maximum equivalent stress at 4, 8 and 12-week was approximately 6 times than that on normal condyle. They were located at the areas same as the area at 0-week. There were little stress on the other areas at the condyle. The maximum total displacement and maximum total corner were increased 0.57-0.75 mm and 0.01-0.09° respectively during healing process. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week on the condylar trump was 5-6 times compared with that at 4, 8, and 12-week. The maximum equivalent stress, maximum total displacement and maximum total corner on the fractured fragment were not changed significantly during healing process. The maximum equivalent stress at 0-week on the plate was 7-9 times compared with that at 4, 8, 12-week. The stress of the condyle and stress shielding of the plate may be the reasons of absorbing and rebuilding on the condyle in healing process of SFMC. The biomechanical parameters increase obviously at 4-week after fixation. Elastic intermaxillary traction is necessary to decrease total displacement

  12. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  13. Distal tibial tuberosity translation using TTA implants for the treatment of patella alta in large breed dogs. Surgical technique and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, L C; Pike, F S; Aiken, S W

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellar luxation frequently occurs in dogs resulting in lameness with increasing incidence in large breed dogs. Patella alta has been defined as a patellar ligament length to patellar length ratio that is greater than two and may predispose to patellar luxation. To describe the surgical technique for stabilization of the distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement plates and the clinical outcomes with follow-up for clinical cases of dogs. Dogs that were presented with the complaint of patellar luxation and that were concurrently diagnosed with patella alta and were greater than 20 kg in body weight underwent surgery using a tibial tuberosity advancement plate to stabilize the osteotomy. Radiographic assessment of A:PL distance (the ratio of the proximal aspect of the patella to the femoral condyle [A] to the patellar length [PL]), L:P ratio (ratio of the length of the patellar ligament to the diagonal length of the patella), and owner assessment were obtained. Eleven stifles in nine dogs underwent surgical correction with a mean preoperative L:P ratio of 2.47. There were no complications and the lameness resolved clinically. The mean A:PL ratios preoperatively (2.6 ± 0.22) and postoperatively (2.1 ± 0.25) were significantly different (p = 0.0003). All owners were satisfied with the outcome and all dogs had a resolution of lameness with no recurrence of patellar luxation. Stabilization of distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement implants to correct patella alta in large breed dogs was feasible and resulted in good clinical outcome.

  14. [Design and fabrication of the custom-made titanium condyle by selective laser melting technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyu; Luo, Chongdai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Gong; Qiu, Weiqian; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-10-01

    To design and fabricate the custom-made titanium mandibular condyle by the reverse engineering technology combined with selective laser melting (SLM) technology and to explore the mechanical properties of the SLM-processed samples and the application of the custom-made condyle in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstruction. The three-dimensional model of the mandibular condyle was obtained from a series of CT databases. The custom-made condyle model was designed by the reverse engineering software. The mandibular condyle was made of titanium powder with a particle size of 20-65 µm as the basic material and the processing was carried out in an argon atmosphere by the SLM machine. The yield strength, ultimate strength, bending strength, hardness, surface morphology and roughness were tested and analyzed. The finite element analysis (FEA) was used to analyze the stress distribution. The complex geometry and the surface of the custom-made condyle can be reproduced precisely by the SLM. The mechanical results showed that the yield strength, ultimate strength, bending strength and hardness were (559±14) MPa, (659±32) MPa, (1 067±42) MPa, and (212±4)HV, respectively. The surface roughness was reduced by sandblast treatment. The custom-made titanium condyle can be fabricated by SLM technology which is time-saving and highly digitized. The mechanical properties of the SLM sample can meet the requirements of surgical implant material in the clinic. The possibility of fabricating custom-made titanium mandibular condyle combined with the FEA opens new interesting perspectives for TMJ reconstruction.

  15. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  17. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  18. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures.

  19. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  20. Proximal tibial osteotomy. A survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Fechtman, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy is generally accepted as a treatment for the patient with unicompartmental arthritis. However, a few reports of the long-term results of this procedure are available in the literature, and none have used the technique known as survivorship analysis. This technique has an advantage over conventional analysis because it does not exclude patients for inadequate follow-up, loss to follow-up, or patient death. In this study, survivorship analysis was applied to 78 proximal tibial osteotomies, performed exclusively by the senior author for the correction of a preoperative varus deformity, and a survival curve was constructed. It was concluded that the reliable longevity of the proximal tibial osteotomy is approximately 6 years.

  1. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  2. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  3. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  4. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  5. The biomechanical effect of increased valgus on total knee arthroplasty: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Brandon J; Tilan, Justin U; McGarry, Michelle H; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Kim, William C; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-04-01

    The effects of valgus load on cadaveric knees following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were investigated using a custom testing system. TKAs were performed on 8 cadaveric knees and tested at 0°, 30°, and 60° knee flexion in both neutral and 5° valgus. Fuji pressure sensitive film was used to quantify contact areas and pressures and MCL strain was determined using a Microscribe digitizing system. Lateral tibiofemoral pressures increased (P < 0.05) at all knee flexion angles with valgus loading. Patellofemoral contact characteristics did not change significantly (P > 0.05). Significant increases in strain were observed along the anterior and posterior border of the MCL at all knee flexion angles. These findings suggest that valgus loading increases TKA joint contact pressures and MCL strain with increasing knee flexion which may increase implant instability. © 2014.

  6. Morphometric Analysis of the Occipital Condyle and Its Surgical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushant Swaroop; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Occipital Condyle (OC) is an integral component of craniovertebral region which is predisposed to a wide array of traumatic, degenerative and neoplastic diseases. Frequent surgical interventions of OC are required for successful management of these conditions. Hence a meticulous anatomical knowledge of the OC is vital but variability in morphometric dimensions exist amongst different races and hinder the standardization of measurements. Aim The aim of this study was to present a morphometric reference database for OC of the Indian population and enable comparisons with other populations. Materials and Methods The study was performed on 228 OC of 114 adult human skulls. Linear measurements of the OC were taken with the help of digital Vernier’s Calliper and angular measurements were determined with software Image J. Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation of the morphometric parameters taken into account were analysed. The comparison of morphometric dimensions of the right and left sides was carried out using Student’s t-test and p-value was calculated. Results The morphometric analysis of the OC established that mean width was larger (12.97 mm) in Indians population when compared to other races. The anterior and posterior intercondylar distances as well as the distances between the tips of OC and opisthion and basion were observed to be shorter in Indians. We found a significant difference (p=0.01) among the distance between Posterior tip of Occipital Condyle (POC) and basion of the right and left sides. The sagittal condylar angle and sagittal intercondylar angle were found to be greater in our study when compared to other researchers. There existed a highly significant difference (p=0.001) between the sagittal condylar angles of the right and left sides. Conclusion The present morphometric study would be valuable for the successful instrumentation of the OC as wider and ventrally oriented OC as well as smaller intercondylar distances

  7. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Jill; Higgins, Julian Pt; Prior, Trevor D

    2009-04-15

    Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauama Group trials register (2003/1), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2003) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2003). No language restrictions were applied. Hand searching of specific foot journals was also undertaken.Date of the most recent search: 31st March 2003. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of both conservative and surgical treatments of hallux valgus. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery not specific to the control of the deformity such as use of anaesthetics or tourniquet placement. Methodological quality of trials which met the inclusion criteria was independently assessed by two reviewers. Data extraction was undertaken by two reviewers. The trials were grouped according to the interventions being compared, but the dissimilarity in the comparisons prevented pooling of results. The methodological quality of the 21 included trials was generally poor and trial sizes were small.Three trials involving 332 participants evaluated conservative treatments versus no treatment. There was no evidence of a difference in outcomes between treatment and no treatment.One good quality trial involving 140 participants compared surgery to conservative treatment. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving orthoses. The same trial also compared surgery to no treatment in 140 participants. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving no treatment.Two trials involving 133 people with hallux valgus compared Keller's arthroplasty with other surgical techniques

  8. Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J; Higgins, J P T; Prior, T D

    2004-01-01

    Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group trials register (2003/1), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2003) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2003). No language restrictions were applied. Hand searching of specific foot journals was also undertaken. Date of the most recent search: 31st March 2003. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of both conservative and surgical treatments of hallux valgus. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery not specific to the control of the deformity such as use of anaesthetics or tourniquet placement. Methodological quality of trials which met the inclusion criteria was independently assessed by two reviewers. Data extraction was undertaken by two reviewers. The trials were grouped according to the interventions being compared, but the dissimilarity in the comparisons prevented pooling of results. The methodological quality of the 21 included trials was generally poor and trial sizes were small. Three trials involving 332 participants evaluated conservative treatments versus no treatment. There was no evidence of a difference in outcomes between treatment and no treatment. One good quality trial involving 140 participants compared surgery to conservative treatment. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving orthoses. The same trial also compared surgery to no treatment in 140 participants. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving no treatment. Two trials involving 133 people with hallux valgus compared Keller's arthroplasty with other surgical techniques. In

  9. Outcomes of proximal chevron osteotomy for moderate versus severe hallux valgus deformities.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae-Young; Lee, Keun-Bae; Seon, Jong Keun; Moon, Eun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Taek

    2012-08-01

    Proximal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure has been widely used to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus deformities. However, there have been no studies comparing the results of proximal chevron osteotomy between patients with moderate and severe hallux valgus. We compared the results of this procedure among these groups. A retrospective review of 95 patients (108 feet) that underwent proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for moderate and severe hallux valgus was conducted. The 108 feet were divided into two groups: moderate hallux valgus (Group A) and severe hallux valgus (Group B). Group A was composed of 57 feet (52 patients) and Group B of 51 feet (43 patients). Average followup was 45 months. Mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were 54.1 points in Group A and 53.0 points in Group B preoperatively, and these improved to 90.8 and 92.6, respectively, at the last followup. Mean hallux valgus angles in Groups A and B reduced from 32.3 and 40.8 degrees, preoperatively to 10.7 and 13.2 degrees, postoperatively. Similarly, mean first intermetatarsal angles in Groups A and B reduced from 15.0 and 19.2 degrees, preoperatively to 9.0 and 9.2 degrees, postoperatively. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of proximal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure were found to be comparable for moderate and severe hallux valgus. Accordingly, our results suggest that this procedure provides an effective and reliable means of correcting hallux valgus regardless of severity of deformity.

  10. Unicompartmental knee prostheses: in vitro wear assessment of the menisci tibial insert after two different fixation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affatato, S.; Spinelli, M.; Zavalloni, M.; Carmignato, S.; Lopomo, N.; Marcacci, M.; Viceconti, M.

    2008-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a complex clinical scenario where many biological and mechanical factors influence the severity of articular degenerative changes. Minimally invasive knee prosthetic surgery, with only a compartment replacement (unicompartmental knee replacement), might be a good compromise between osteotomy and total knee prosthesis. The focus of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to assess the fixation method of the femoral components in mechanical simulation, for pre-clinical validation; the wear behaviour of two different fixation frames was quantified and compared. In particular, two different wear tests were conducted using the same knee simulator, the same load profiles and the same kinematics; two different fixation methods were applied to the femoral sleds (synthetic femur and metal block). Surface characterization on both articulating bearings was performed by a roughness measuring machine and coordinate measuring machine. The wear produced by the tibial inserts using the synthetic femur was considerably higher than the wear registered by the metal-block holder. Roughness measurements on femoral sleds showed a limited number of scratches with high Rt values for the metal-block set-up; the damaged surface broadened in the case of femoral condyles and tibial inserts mounted on composite bone, but lower Rt and linear penetration values were measured. The two holding frames showed different wear activities as a consequence of dissimilar dynamic performance. Further observations should be made in vivo to prove the actual importance of synthetic bone simulations and specific material behaviour.

  11. Osteogenic capacity of nanocrystalline bone cement in a weight-bearing defect at the ovine tibial metaphysis.

    PubMed

    Harms, Christoph; Helms, Kai; Taschner, Tibor; Stratos, Ioannis; Ignatius, Anita; Gerber, Thomas; Lenz, Solvig; Rammelt, Stefan; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic material Nanobone(®) (hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines embedded in a porous silica gel matrix) was examined in vivo using a standardized bone defect model in the ovine tibial metaphysis. A standardized 6 × 12 × 24-mm bone defect was created below the articular surface of the medial tibia condyles on both hind legs of 18 adult sheep. The defect on the right side was filled with Nanobone(®), while the defect on the contralateral side was left empty. The tibial heads of six sheep were analyzed after 6, 12, and 26 weeks each. The histological and radiological analysis of the defect on the control side did not reveal any bone formation after the total of 26 weeks. In contrast, the microcomputed tomography analysis of the defect filled with Nanobone(®) showed a 55%, 72%, and 74% volume fraction of structures with bone density after 6, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histomorphological analysis after 6, and 12 weeks revealed an osteoneogenesis of 22%, and 36%, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated multinucleated giant cells on the surface of the biomaterial and resorption lacunae, indicating osteoclastic resorptive activity. Nanobone(®) appears to be a highly potent bone substitute material with osteoconductive properties in a loaded large animal defect model, supporting the potential use of Nanobone(®) also in humans.

  12. Osteogenic capacity of nanocrystalline bone cement in a weight-bearing defect at the ovine tibial metaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Christoph; Helms, Kai; Taschner, Tibor; Stratos, Ioannis; Ignatius, Anita; Gerber, Thomas; Lenz, Solvig; Rammelt, Stefan; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic material Nanobone® (hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines embedded in a porous silica gel matrix) was examined in vivo using a standardized bone defect model in the ovine tibial metaphysis. A standardized 6 × 12 × 24-mm bone defect was created below the articular surface of the medial tibia condyles on both hind legs of 18 adult sheep. The defect on the right side was filled with Nanobone®, while the defect on the contralateral side was left empty. The tibial heads of six sheep were analyzed after 6, 12, and 26 weeks each. The histological and radiological analysis of the defect on the control side did not reveal any bone formation after the total of 26 weeks. In contrast, the microcomputed tomography analysis of the defect filled with Nanobone® showed a 55%, 72%, and 74% volume fraction of structures with bone density after 6, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histomorphological analysis after 6, and 12 weeks revealed an osteoneogenesis of 22%, and 36%, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated multinucleated giant cells on the surface of the biomaterial and resorption lacunae, indicating osteoclastic resorptive activity. Nanobone® appears to be a highly potent bone substitute material with osteoconductive properties in a loaded large animal defect model, supporting the potential use of Nanobone® also in humans. PMID:22745551

  13. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  14. [Evaluation of the clinical results of non-surgical treatment for pediatric sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-kui; Tan, Xin-ying; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-wei; Liu, San-xia; Hu, Min

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the clinical results of occlusal splint in the treatment of sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) in children. Thirty-nine patients (48 condyles)aged 3-8 years with sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle were included in this study. All the patients were treated by occlusal splint.Slight open occlusion was maintained by occlusal splint for 3-6 months. Clinical and radiological examination was performed six mouths and every year after treatment. Good mandibular function was observed in 39 patients. Maximal mouth opening over 35 mm was achieved at 6 months. But 11 of the 39 patients presented with deviation on mouth opening at 6 months. The radiology showed an complete remodeling in 32 condyles (28 patients) and partial remodeling in 16 condyles (11 patients). Poor remodelling was not observed in any patients. Good clinical results can be obtained by using occlusal splint in the treatment of pediatric sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle.

  15. [The Akin procedure as closing wedge osteotomy for the correction of a hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity].

    PubMed

    Arnold, Heino

    2008-12-01

    Realignment of the great toe in the case of a hallux valgus interphalangeus by means of a medially based closing wedge osteotomy. Hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity, characterized by an enlarged distal articular surface angle (> 10 degrees). Correction of a hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity as an additional procedure in the case of hallux valgus surgery. Incongruent first metatarsophalangeal joint with lateral subluxation of the proximal phalanx. Isolated procedure to correct hallux valgus deformity. Lack of patient compliance. Neurovascular disturbance of the forefoot. Medially based closing wedge osteotomy of the proximal phalanx to reduce the distal articular surface angle. Fixation with a lag screw, cannulated Herbert screw, memory cramp, threaded Kirschner wire, or interosseous suture. Wound dressing to assure the position of the great toe. Radiographic documentation of the forefoot in two planes. Strict elevation of the operated foot to prevent postoperative swelling. Mobilization of the patient with a forefoot relief orthosis, until consolidation of the osteotomy is verified radiologically (4-5 weeks). Low-molecular-weight heparin for at least 1 week. Hallux valgus bandage or functional taping for 6 weeks postoperatively in patients with additional metatarsal osteotomy. Clinical and radiologic follow-up based on 32 patients showed good results. The postoperative Hallux Score of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society improved to 89 points.

  16. The hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis as an alternative to the measurement of the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus angle.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Kinz, Wieland; Zembsch, Alexander; Groll-Knapp, Elisabeth; Kundi, Michael

    2014-04-21

    Currently, the metatarsophalangeal angle (hallux valgus angle) is measured based on radiographic images. However, using X-ray examinations for epidemiological or screening purposes would be unethical, especially in children. For this reason it is discussed to measure the hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis (medial border of the foot) documented on foot outline drawings or foot scans. As a first step on the way to prove the validity of those approaches this study assesses the hallux valgus angle measured on the margo medialis pedis based on the same x-ray pictures as the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus. Radiographic images of the foot were obtained from patients with symptomatic hallux valgus malformation. Twelve sets of contact copies of the 63 originals were made, and were marked and measured according to three different methods, each one performed by two observers and with two repeated measurements. Thus, data sets from 756 individual assessments were entered into the multifactorial statistical analysis.Comparisons were made between the angle of the margo medialis pedis and the metatarsophalangeal angle, which was determined by two different methods. To determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the different methods, each assessment was conducted by two independent experts and repeated after a period of several weeks. The correlations between the hallux valgus angles determined by the three different methods were all above r=0.89 (p<0.001) and thus highly significant. The values obtained by measuring the margo medialis pedis angle, however, were on average 4.8 degrees smaller than the metatarsophalangeal angles. No significant differences were found between the observers. No systematic deviations for any observer between repeated measurements were detected. Measurements of the radiographic hallux angle of the margo medialis pedis are reliable and show high correlation with the metatarsophalangeal angle. Because the hallux valgus angles

  17. The hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis as an alternative to the measurement of the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus angle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, the metatarsophalangeal angle (hallux valgus angle) is measured based on radiographic images. However, using X-ray examinations for epidemiological or screening purposes would be unethical, especially in children. For this reason it is discussed to measure the hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis (medial border of the foot) documented on foot outline drawings or foot scans. As a first step on the way to prove the validity of those approaches this study assesses the hallux valgus angle measured on the margo medialis pedis based on the same x-ray pictures as the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus. Methods Radiographic images of the foot were obtained from patients with symptomatic hallux valgus malformation. Twelve sets of contact copies of the 63 originals were made, and were marked and measured according to three different methods, each one performed by two observers and with two repeated measurements. Thus, data sets from 756 individual assessments were entered into the multifactorial statistical analysis. Comparisons were made between the angle of the margo medialis pedis and the metatarsophalangeal angle, which was determined by two different methods. To determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the different methods, each assessment was conducted by two independent experts and repeated after a period of several weeks. Results The correlations between the hallux valgus angles determined by the three different methods were all above r = 0.89 (p < 0.001) and thus highly significant. The values obtained by measuring the margo medialis pedis angle, however, were on average 4.8 degrees smaller than the metatarsophalangeal angles. No significant differences were found between the observers. No systematic deviations for any observer between repeated measurements were detected. Conclusions Measurements of the radiographic hallux angle of the margo medialis pedis are reliable and show high correlation with the

  18. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  19. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagnik; Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-04-01

    Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed. There was no difference between the two modalities

  20. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. Aim To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. Materials and Methods A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Results Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed

  1. Changes in coronal alignment of the ankle joint after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Won; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Park, Jung Ho; Yun, Ho Hyun; Lee, Yong In; Chae, Jin Eon; Yoon, Jung Ro

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in coronal alignment of the ankle joint after HTO. Our hypothesis was that ankle joint orientation may become more parallel or less parallel to the ground after HTO, and this change may affect ankle symptoms. Eighty-six knees were retrospectively analysed after HTO for varus osteoarthritis. Preoperative and follow-up whole-leg radiographs were taken. The hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) were measured to evaluate coronal alignment of the knee. Tibial plafond inclination (TPI), talar inclination (TI), talar tilt (TT), and lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA) were measured to evaluate coronal alignment of the ankle. Patients were divided into two groups: those who exhibited a decrease in the absolute value of TPI and TI after HTO (group A) and those who exhibited an increase in the absolute value of TPI or TI after HTO (group B). Clinical outcomes of the knee and ankle were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Mean TPI and TI changed from 6.9° ± 3.6° and 8.0° ± 3.8° to 2.8° ± 3.1° and 3.9° ± 3.0° in group A (P < 0.001 for both) and from -1.3° ± 3.7° and 0.6° ± 4.5° to -6.0° ± 4.2° and -4.6° ± 5.9° in group B (P = 0.018 for both). VAS for ankle pain did not change significantly after HTO (n.s.) in group A, whereas those of group B increased significantly after HTO (P = 0.014). Ankle joint orientation becomes more parallel or less parallel to the ground after HTO. Smaller preoperative HKA and LDTA result in a more valgus ankle joint orientation after HTO. Ankle symptoms were affected by coronal alignment changes of the ankle after HTO. III.

  2. [Particular posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Lobenhoffer, P; Gerich, T; Bertram, T; Lattermann, C; Pohlemann, T; Tscheme, H

    1997-12-01

    bicondylar posterior fracture situations. 168 cases with tibial plateau fractures had ORIF in the authors' institution from 1988 to 1994. 26 of these patients had a total of 29 posterior exposures to treat their fractures (9 posteromedial, 12 posterolateral, 3 combined posteromedial/posterolateral and 2 posterior/anterior exposures). No specific complications occurred related to these exposures, i.e. no skin slough, no infection, no nerve palsy. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years. Twenty-one cases healed uneventfully: 12 were excellent in Rasmussen's clinical score, 8 were good and 1 was fair. Seven patients were excellent in the radiological score, 13 good and 1 fair. Five of the 26 cases had revision surgery: 3 patients developed valgus or retrocurvatum deformity and were successfully treated by an osteotomy. They obtained a good result at follow-up. Two fractures in elderly patients were revised to an endoprosthesis.

  3. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  4. Rate of displacement for Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures treated with a cast.

    PubMed

    Zale, C; Winthrop, Z A; Hennrikus, W

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report the rate of displacement of Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures that were initially treated in a cast. We performed a retrospective review of all patients that were treated for a non-displaced (Jakob Type 1 < 2 mm) lateral condyle fracture of the humerus at our institution between 2002 and 2015. A total of 59 patients were initially treated with casting. Five fractures displaced and were converted to a closed pinning treatment plan with a conversion rate of 8.5%. There was a mean of 13.2 days (4 to 21) between treatment by initial casting and closed pinning. This study demonstrates an 8.5% displacement and conversion rate from cast treatment to closed pinning for initially non-displaced Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures of the humerus. The internal oblique radiograph is most accurate to determine displacement. We recommend obtaining an internal oblique view at initial evaluation and at follow-up in the cast for lateral condyle fractures. To minimize movement at the fracture site, we recommend treating Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures with a long arm cast with the elbow at 90° and the forearm in the supine position with a sling-loop design. IV - retrospective therapeutic study.

  5. Subchondral impaction fractures of the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Depasquale, Ruben; Fotiadou, Anastasia; Kumar, Dalavaye Suresh; Lalam, Radhesh; Tins, Bernhard; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Singh, Jaspreet; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N

    2013-02-01

    To document the first report of intra-articular, non-weight-bearing, impaction fractures of the lateral femoral condyle. Institutional Review Board and Regional Ethics Committee approval for this study was obtained and patient informed consent deemed unnecessary. We prospectively documented all potential cases of non-weight-bearing posterior subchondral impaction fractures of the femoral condyles diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee performed at our institution between January 2006 and December 2011. The cases were reviewed and discussed by three experienced musculoskeletal radiologists and only cases satisfying pre-defined MRI criteria were included. Sixteen cases of intra-articular impaction fractures in a posterior, non-weight-bearing area of the lateral femoral condyle were diagnosed in patients with a mean age of 40. Eight were associated with recreational sports activities and 4 with repeated kneeling. There were no fractures documented in the non-weight-bearing aspect of the medial femoral condyles. Proposed underlying mechanisms for development of this type of fracture are presented. Awareness, along with a high level of suspicion, that non-specific knee pain, especially in patients involved in athletic activities, could be due to intra-articular impaction fractures of the non-weight-bearing posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle is essential and MRI is the mainstay of diagnosis.

  6. Primary and coupled motions of the native knee in response to applied varus and valgus load.

    PubMed

    Gladnick, Brian P; Boorman-Padgett, James; Stone, Kyle; Kent, Robert N; Cross, Michael B; Mayman, David J; Pearle, Andrew D; Imhauser, Carl W

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the complex kinematics of the native knee is a prerequisite for a successful reconstructive procedure. The aim of this study is to describe the primary and coupled motions of the native knee throughout the range of knee flexion, in response to applied varus and valgus loads. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver knees were affixed to a six degree of freedom robotic arm with a universal force-moment sensor, and loaded with a 4Nm moment in varus and valgus at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 90° of knee flexion. The resulting tibiofemoral angulation, displacement, and rotation were recorded. For each parameter investigated, the knee joint demonstrated more laxity at higher flexion angles. Varus angulation increased progressively from zero (2.0° varus) to 90 (5.2° varus) degrees of knee flexion (p<0.001). Valgus angulation also increased progressively, from zero (1.5° valgus) to 90 (3.9° valgus) degrees of knee flexion (p<0.001). At all flexion angles, the magnitude of tibiofemoral angle deviation was larger with varus than with valgus loading (p<0.05). We conclude that the native knee exhibits small increases in coronal plane laxity as the flexion angle increases, and that the knee has generally more laxity under varus load than with valgus load throughout the Range of Motion (ROM). Larger differences in laxity of more than 2 to 3°, or peak laxity specifically during the range of mid-flexion, were not found in our cadaver model and are not likely to represent normal coronal plane kinematics. Level V, biomechanical cadaveric study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability of Two Smartphone Applications for Radiographic Measurements of Hallux Valgus Angles.

    PubMed

    Mattos E Dinato, Mauro Cesar; Freitas, Marcio de Faria; Milano, Cristiano; Valloto, Elcio; Ninomiya, André Felipe; Pagnano, Rodrigo Gonçalves

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reliability of 2 smartphone applications compared with the traditional goniometer technique for measurement of radiographic angles in hallux valgus and the time required for analysis with the different methods. The radiographs of 31 patients (52 feet) with a diagnosis of hallux valgus were analyzed. Four observers, 2 with >10 years' experience in foot and ankle surgery and 2 in-training surgeons, measured the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using a manual goniometer technique and 2 smartphone applications (Hallux Angles and iPinPoint). The interobserver and intermethod reliability were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and the time required for measurement of the angles among the 3 methods was compared using the Friedman test. A very good or good interobserver reliability was found among the 4 observers measuring the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using the goniometer (ICC 0.913 and 0.821, respectively) and iPinPoint (ICC 0.866 and 0.638, respectively). Using the Hallux Angles application, a very good interobserver reliability was found for measurements of the hallux valgus angle (ICC 0.962) and intermetatarsal angle (ICC 0.935) only among the more experienced observers. The time required for the measurements was significantly shorter for the measurements using both smartphone applications compared with the goniometer method. One smartphone application (iPinPoint) was reliable for measurements of the hallux valgus angles by either experienced or nonexperienced observers. The use of these tools might save time in the evaluation of radiographic angles in the hallux valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-Term Radiographic Outcome After Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Using Intramedullary Plates With an Amended Algorithm for the Surgical Management of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Selene G

    2018-03-01

    Distal Chevron osteotomy is a well-established surgical procedure for mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Many methods have been described for fixation of osteotomy site; secure fixation, enabling large displacement of the metatarsal head, is one of the essentials of this procedure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the short-term radiographic outcome of a distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate for the correction of hallux valgus deformity. The present study evaluated 37 patients (40 feet) who underwent distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate by periodic radiographs obtained preoperatively and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Correction of the hallux valgus angle averaged 17.8°, intermetatarsal angle 7.4°, distal metatarsal articular angle 2.7°, and sesamoid position 1.4 stages at 3 months postoperatively. The average lateral shift of the capital fragment was 6.5 mm. All patients achieved bone union, and there were no cases of dislocation, displacement, or avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head fragment. In conclusion, a distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate was a favorable method for the correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Level IV: Case series.

  9. Analysis of patterns and treatment strategies for mandibular condyle fractures: review of 175 condyle fractures with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Viveka V; Reddy, P Bhaskar; Rajan, Ritesh; Ganti, Srinivas; Jhawar, D K; Potturi, Abhinand; Pradeep

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate incidence, patterns and epidemiology of mandibular condylar fractures (MCF) to propose a treatment strategy for managing MCF and analyze the factors which influence the outcome. One hundred and seventy-five MCF's were evaluated over a four year period and their pattern was recorded in terms of displacement, level of fracture, age of incidence and dental occlusion. Of the 2,718 facial bone fractures, MCF incidence was the third most common at 18.39 %. Of 175 MCF 58.8 % were unilateral and 41.12 % were bilateral. 67 % of bilateral fractures and 43.8 % of unilateral fractures were associated with midline symphysis and contralateral parasymphysis fractures respectively. Most of the MCF was seen in the age group of above 16 years and 50 % of them were at subcondylar level (below the neck of the condyle). Majority of MCF sustained due to inter personal violence were undisplaced (72.7 %) and contrary to this majority of MCF sustained during road traffic accident were displaced. 62.9 % of total fractures required open reduction and rigid fixation and 37.1 % were managed with closed reduction. 80 % of MCF managed with closed reduction were in the age group of below 16 years. From this study it can be concluded that the treatment algorithm proposed for managing MCF is reliable and easy to adopt. We observed that absolute indication for open reduction of MCF is inability to achieve satisfactory occlusion by closed method and absolute contraindication for open reduction is condylar head fracture irrespective of the age of the patient.

  10. Lateral sesamoid position in hallux valgus: correlation with the conventional radiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yuvraj; Desai, Aravind; Mehta, Jaysheel

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to quantify the severity of the hallux valgus based on the lateral sesamoid position and to establish a correlation of our simple assessment method with the conventional radiological assessments. We reviewed one hundred and twenty two dorso-plantar weight bearing radiographs of feet. The intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles were measured by the conventional methods; and the position of lateral sesamoid in relation to first metatarsal neck was assessed by our new and simple method. Significant correlation was noted between intermetatarsal angle and lateral sesamoid position (Rho 0.74, p < 0.0001); lateral sesamoid position and hallux valgus angle (Rho 0.56, p < 0.0001). Similar trends were noted in different grades of severity of hallux valgus in all the three methods of assessment. Our method of assessing hallux valgus deformity based on the lateral sesamoid position is simple, less time consuming and has statistically significant correlation with that of the established conventional radiological measurements. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hallux valgus in a historical French population: paleopathological study of 605 first metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Mafart, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hallux valgus in a historical population in France, to identify associated skeletal abnormalities, and to look for an influence of footwear changes through time. We studied the 605 first metatarsals found in the necropolis of the Notre-Dame-du-Bourg cathedral in Digne in the Alpes-de-Hautes-Provence region of southern France. The necropolis contains remains from the 5th to the 17th century. Hallux valgus was identified only in individuals older than 30years at death, and its prevalence increased significantly with age. Exostosis at the medial and dorsal aspects of the head of the first metatarsal were common in advanced forms. The prevalence was comparable in males and females in the Middle Ages but was significantly higher in males in the 16th and 17th centuries, whereas in contemporary populations females are selectively affected. The increase in the prevalence of hallux valgus over time suggests an influence of changes in footwear. The heeled shoes and boots made of stiff leather that men wore in premodern times probably promoted the development of hallux valgus. However, the prevalence of hallux valgus in women in western industrialized countries today is even higher than that in our historical population of older premodern individuals, suggesting an extremely deleterious effect of contemporary female footwear.

  12. Preoperative radiological factors correlated to long-term recurrence of hallux valgus following distal chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Pentikainen, Ilkka; Ojala, Risto; Ohtonen, Pasi; Piippo, Jouni; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to analyze the long-term radiologic results after distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus treatment and to determine the preoperative radiographic factors correlating with radiological recurrence of the deformity. The study included 100 consecutive patients who received distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus. The osteotomy included fixation with an absorbable pin in 50 cases, and no fixation in the other 50. For 6 weeks postoperatively, half of each group used a soft cast and half had a traditional elastic bandage. Weight-bearing radiographs were evaluated at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and a mean of 7.9 (range, 5.8-9.4) years postoperatively. At the final follow-up, radiological recurrence of hallux valgus deformity (HVA > 15 degrees) was observed in 56 feet (73%). Eleven feet (14%) had mild recurrence (HVA < 20 degrees), 44 (57%) moderate (20 degrees ≥ HVA < 40 degrees), and 1 (1%) severe (HVA ≥ 40 degrees). All recurrences were painless, and thus no revision surgery was required. Long-term hallux valgus recurrence was significantly affected by preoperative congruence, DMAA, sesamoid position, HVA, and I/II IMA. Radiological recurrence of hallux valgus deformity of 15 degrees or more was very common at long-term follow-up after distal chevron osteotomy. Preoperative congruence, DMAA, sesamoid position (LaPorta), HVA, and I/II IMA significantly affected recurrence. Level III, comparative case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Comparative study of scarf and extended chevron osteotomies for correction of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Lareau, Craig R; Johnson, Julie; Reinert, Steven E; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2013-12-01

    Scarf and chevron osteotomies are two described treatments for the correction of hallux valgus deformity, but they have traditionally been employed for different levels of severity. We hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant difference between the results of these two treatments. This study is a retrospective review of 70 consecutive patients treated operatively for moderate and severe hallux valgus malalignment. The two groups based on their operative treatment: scarf osteotomy (Group A) and extended chevron osteotomy (Group B). Preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) were measured at final follow-up. Charts were also assessed to determine the postoperative rate of satisfaction, stiffness, and pain. There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B with regard to the HVA preoperatively and postoperatively. The DMAA was statistically significantly higher for Group B both preoperatively (p=0.0403) and postoperatively (p<0.0001). The differences in HVA correction and IMA correction were not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to post-operative stiffness, pain, and satisfaction. The scarf and extended chevron osteotomies are capable of adequately reducing the HVA and IMA in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. These two techniques yielded similar patient outcomes in terms of stiffness, pain and satisfaction. Based on these results, we recommend both the scarf and extended chevron osteotomy as acceptable forms of correction for moderate to severe hallux valgus.

  14. [A cadaveric study of a new capsulorrhaphy for the surgical treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Villaseñor, S L; Monzó-Planella, M; Martín-Oliva, X; Vázquez-Escamilla, J; Mayagoitia-Vázquez, J J; Frías-Chimal, J E

    2017-01-01

    There are many surgical options for the treatment of hallux valgus in combination with capsular repairs for the correction of hallux valgus. This report corresponds to a descriptive study where a new capsulorrhaphy technique in hallux valgus is proposed. Six dissections were performed on cadavers with hallux valgus deformity using the following surgical technique: medial approach on the first toe longitudinally, dissecting by planes and locating the metatarsophalangeal joint capsule; it was incised longitudinally. The capsule was separated and an exostectomy of the first metatarsal head was done, the edges were regularized and a release of the abductor hallucis was performed. Later, the capsular remnant was resected and repaired. Six cadaveric feet with hallux valgus were studied, five with mild deformity, one with moderate deformity, one foot with the 2nd finger on supraductus. Many capsular repairs have been reported in the literature, including «L», triangular, «V-Y», rectangular, with satisfactory results, along with osteotomy of the first metatarsal. In this report, a new capsular repair was described. Applying this new capsular repair, we reduced the metatarsophalangeal and intermetatarsal angles and achieved a capsular closure with suitable tension; the metatarsophalangeal joint mobility was preserved.

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  16. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  17. Evaluation of surgical treatment in mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Vesnaver, Aleš; Ahčan, Uroš; Rozman, Janez

    2012-12-01

    In the past, fractures of the mandibular condylar process were, as a rule, treated conservatively. At the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia, our doctrine was changed in 2002 on the basis of preliminary results and reports in the literature, and these fractures were started to be treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates and screws, which led to good results and a shorter rehabilitation period. The goal of this study was to determine the safety and efficiency of surgical treatment, as well as to compare long-term results of surgical and conservative treatment, as objectively as possible. Two groups of patients, which had all sustained a unilateral, extra-articular mandibular condyle fracture, were compared. In the test group, there were 42 surgically treated patients, and in the control group, 20 conservatively treated patients. Clinical parameters and X-ray images were assessed in both groups and compared by the two tailed Student t test, and in case of attributive variables by the χ(2) test. Within the surgically treated group, postoperative and intraoperative complications were noted: temporary facial nerve palsy, development of a parotid salivary fistula, disturbance of auricle sensibility due to injury of the greater auricular nerve, miniplate fracture, as well as intraoperative bleeding, postoperative haematoma formation, infection, reoperation due to fragment malposition and other complications. Postoperative scars were also assessed. Statistically significant differences between the surgically and conservatively treated patients were found when comparing clinical parameters as well as X-ray images, the results being better in the surgically treated group. Complications of surgical treatment were also noted, the most important among them temporary paresis of facial nerve branches, which occurred in 10 patients (24%). Plate fractures occurred in five patients (12

  18. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  19. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery. PMID:25477542

  20. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  1. Hallux abductus interphalangeus in normal feet, early-stage hallux limitus, and hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, Jose M; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Reina-Bueno, Maria; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C; Munuera, Pedro V

    2014-03-01

    Excessive deviation of the distal phalanx in abduction frequently occurs in advanced stages of hallux rigidus but not in hallux valgus. Therefore, theoretically there should be no significant differences in the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIPA) between individuals with normal feet, those with hallux valgus, and those with mild hallux limitus. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if significant differences in HIPA exist in the early stages of hallux valgus or hallux limitus deformities. The hallux interphalangeal angle was measured in three groups of participants: a control group with normal feet (45 participants), a hallux valgus group (49 participants), and a hallux limitus group (48 participants). Both of the pathologies were at an early stage. A dorsoplantar radiograph under weightbearing conditions was taken for each individual, and measurements (HIPA and hallux abductus angle [HAA]) were taken using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, California) software. Intergroup comparisons of HIPA, and correlations between HIPA, HAA, and hallux dorsiflexion were calculated. The comparisons revealed no significant differences in the values of HIPA between any of the groups (15.2 ± 5.9 degrees in the control group, 15.5 ± 3.9 degrees in the hallux valgus group, and 16.15 ± 4.3 in the hallux limitus group; P  =  0.634). The Pearson correlation coefficients in particular showed no correlation between hallux dorsiflexion, HAA, and HIPA. For the study participants, there were similar deviations of the distal phalanx of the hallux with respect to the proximal phalanx in normal feet and in feet with the early stages of the hallux limitus and hallux valgus deformities.

  2. Evaluating the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Resources Pertaining to Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Jason P; Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Abousayed, Mostafa; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; DiPreta, John A

    2016-02-01

    The Internet is one of the most widely utilized resources for health-related information. Evaluation of the medical literature suggests that the quality and accuracy of these resources are poor and written at inappropriately high reading levels. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online resources pertaining to hallux valgus. Two search terms ("hallux valgus" and "bunion") were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing. With the use of scoring criteria specific to hallux valgus, the quality and accuracy of online information related to hallux valgus was evaluated by 3 reviewers. The Flesch-Kincaid score was used to determine readability. Statistical analysis was performed with t tests and significance was determined by P values <.05. Sixty-two unique websites were evaluated. Quality was significantly higher with use of the search term "bunion" as compared to "hallux valgus" (P = .045). Quality and accuracy were significantly higher in resources authored by physicians as compared to nonphysicians (quality, P = .04; accuracy, P < .001) and websites without commercial bias (quality, P = .038; accuracy, P = .011). However, the reading level was significantly more advanced for websites authored by physicians (P = .035). Websites written above an eighth-grade reading level were significantly more accurate than those written at or below an eighth-grade reading level (P = .032). The overall quality of online information related to hallux valgus is poor and written at inappropriate reading levels. Furthermore, the search term used, authorship, and presence of commercial bias influence the value of these materials. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to become familiar with patient education materials, so that appropriate recommendations can be made regarding valuable resources. Level IV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Preliminary Results and Learning Curve of the Minimally Invasive Chevron Akin Operation for Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Charlie R J; Bedi, Harvinder S

    Minimally invasive surgery is increasing in popularity. It is relevant in hallux valgus surgery owing to the potential for reduced disruption of the soft tissues and improved wound healing. We present our results and assess the learning curve of the minimally invasive Chevron Akin operation for hallux valgus. A total of 120 consecutive feet underwent minimally invasive Chevron Akin for symptomatic hallux valgus, of which 14 were excluded. They were followed up for a mean of 25 (range 18 to 38) months. The patients were clinically assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score. Complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. The radiographs were analyzed and measurements recorded for hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The mean age of the patients undergoing surgery was 55 (range 25 to 81) years. Of the 78 patients, 76 (97.4%) were female and 2 (2.6%) were male; 28 (35.9%) cases were bilateral. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 56 (range 23 to 76) preoperatively to 87 (range 50 to 100) postoperatively (p < .001). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles preoperatively were 29.7° (range 12° to 46°) and 14.0° (range 8° to 20°). The corresponding postoperative angles were 10.3° (range 0° to 25°) and 7.6° (range 3° to 15°; p < .001). The patients were satisfied with the results of surgery in 87% of cases (92 of 106). The incidence of reoperation was 14% (15 of 106). These are the only reported results for this technique. They display a steep associated learning curve. However, the results are promising, and the learning curve is comparable to that for open hallux valgus surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A geometric analysis of hallux valgus: correlation with clinical assessment of severity

    PubMed Central

    Piqué-Vidal, Carlos; Vila, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background Application of plane geometry to the study of bunion deformity may represent an interesting and novel approach in the research field of hallux valgus. For the purpose of contributing to development of a different perspective in the assessment of hallux valgus, this study was conducted with three objectives: a) to determine the position on the intersection point of the perpendicular bisectors of the longitudinal axes of the first metatarsal and proximal phalanx (IP), b) to correlate the location of this point with hallux valgus deformity according to angular measurements and according to visual assessment of the severity carried out by three independent observers, and c) to assess whether this IP correlated with the radius of the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference. Methods Measurements evaluated were intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux valgus angle (HVA), and proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA). The Autocad® program computed the location of the IP inside or outside of the foot. Three independent observers rated the severity of hallux valgus in photographs using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Measurements of all angles except PPAA showed significantly lower values when the IP was located out of the foot more distantly and vice versa, significantly higher values for severe deformities in which the IP was found inside the foot (p < 0.001). The IP correlated significantly with VAS scores and with the length of the radius of the circle that included the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference (p < 0.001) Conclusion The IP is a useful indicator of hallux valgus deformity because correlated significantly with IMA and HVA measurements, VAS scores obtained by visual inspection of the degree of deformity, and location of the center of the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference. PMID:19442286

  5. Hallux Valgus, By Nature or Nurture? A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Shannon E; Menz, Hylton B; Wark, John D; Christie, Jemma J; Scurrah, Katrina J; Bui, Minh; Erbas, Bircan; Hopper, John L; Wluka, Anita E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the contributions of shared but unmeasured genetic and environmental factors to hallux valgus (HV). Between 2011 and 2012, 74 monozygotic (MZ) and 56 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs self-reported HV and putative risk factors, including footwear use across their lifespan. Estimates of casewise concordance (P C ), correlation (ρ), and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated, adjusting for age and other risk factors, and compared between MZ and DZ pairs using logistic regression, generalized estimating equations, and a maximum likelihood-based method, respectively. A total of 70 participants (27%) reported HV, with 12 MZ and 7 DZ pairs being concordant. After adjusting for age, twins were correlated (ρ = 0.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.08, 0.46]) and concordant (P C  = 0.45 [95% CI 0.29, 0.61]; mean age 58 years), with no difference between MZ and DZ pairs (P = 0.7). HV was associated with regularly wearing footwear with a constrictive toe-box during the fourth decade (adjusted OR 2.73 [95% CI 1.12, 6.67]). This risk factor was correlated in MZ (ρ = 0.38 [95% CI 0.15, 0.60]) but not DZ (ρ = -0.20 [95% CI -0.43, 0.03]) pairs. These correlations were significantly different (P = 0.002). Twins are correlated for HV, but we found no evidence that correlation was due to shared genetic factors. We identified an environmental risk factor, footwear with a constrictive toe-box, that is not shared to the same extent by MZ and DZ pairs, contrary to the assumption of the classic twin model. Footwear, and possibly genetic factors and unknown shared environmental factors, could contribute to developing HV. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. The Thrower's Elbow: Arthroscopic Treatment of Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Altchek, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Injury to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow (MCL) can be a career-threatening injury for an overhead athlete without appropriate diagnosis and treatment. It has been considered separately from other athletic injuries due to the unique constellation of pathology that results from repetitive overhead throwing. The past decade has witnessed tremendous gains in understanding of the complex interplay between the dynamic and static stabilizers of the athlete's elbow. Likewise, the necessity to treat these problems in a minimally invasive manner has driven the development of sophisticated techniques and instrumentation for elbow arthroscopy. MCL injuries, ulnar neuritis, valgus extension overload with osteophyte formation and posteromedial impingement, flexor pronator strain, medial epicondyle pathology, and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum have all been described as sequelae of the overhead throwing motion. In addition, loose body formation, bony spur formation, and capsular contracture can all be present in conjunction with these problems or as isolated entities. Not all pathology in the thrower's elbow is amenable to arthroscopic treatment; however, the clinician must be familiar with all of these problems in order to form a comprehensive differential diagnosis for an athlete presenting with elbow pain, and he or she must be comfortable with the variety of open and arthroscopic treatments available to best serve the patient. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the thrower's elbow is critical to the care of this population. The preoperative evaluation should focus on a thorough history and physical examination, as wellas on specific diagnostic imaging modalities. Arthroscopic setup, including anesthesia, patient positioning, and portal choices will be discussed. Operative techniques in the anterior and posterior compartments will bereviewed, as well as postoperative rehabilitationandsurgical results. Lastly, complications will

  7. Bilateral Carpus Valgus with Cranial Bowing of the Distal Radius in a Foal

    PubMed Central

    Caron, J. P.; Fretz, P. B.; Pharr, J. W.; Bailey, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Bilateral carpus valgus with concomitant outward rotation and cranial bowing of the distal radii was diagnosed in a crossbred foal. The foal was not lame on admission and showed no radiographic evidence of carpal bone abnormalities. Surgery was limited to the most severely affected leg, and consisted of a combination of growth promotion (periosteal transection and stripping) and temporary physeal retardation (transphyseal bridging) procedures. Correction of the valgus deformity was nearly complete in the operated limb and substantial improvement was observed in the cranial bowing and outward rotation in both limbs, five months postoperatively. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422668

  8. Anatomic tibial component design can increase tibial coverage and rotational alignment accuracy: a comparison of six contemporary designs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Scuderi, Giles R; Bischoff, Jeffrey E; Bertin, Kim; Tarabichi, Samih; Rajgopal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate contemporary tibial component designs against global tibial anatomy. We hypothesized that anatomically designed tibial components offer increased morphological fit to the resected proximal tibia with increased alignment accuracy compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs. Using a multi-ethnic bone dataset, six contemporary tibial component designs were investigated, including anatomic, asymmetric, and symmetric design types. Investigations included (1) measurement of component conformity to the resected tibia using a comprehensive set of size and shape metrics; (2) assessment of component coverage on the resected tibia while ensuring clinically acceptable levels of rotation and overhang; and (3) evaluation of the incidence and severity of component downsizing due to adherence to rotational alignment and overhang requirements, and the associated compromise in tibial coverage. Differences in coverage were statistically compared across designs and ethnicities, as well as between placements with or without enforcement of proper rotational alignment. Compared to non-anatomic designs investigated, the anatomic design exhibited better conformity to resected tibial morphology in size and shape, higher tibial coverage (92% compared to 85-87%), more cortical support (posteromedial region), lower incidence of downsizing (3% compared to 39-60%), and less compromise of tibial coverage (0.5% compared to 4-6%) when enforcing proper rotational alignment. The anatomic design demonstrated meaningful increase in tibial coverage with accurate rotational alignment compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs, suggesting its potential for less intra-operative compromises and improved performance. III.

  9. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Condyle fossa relationship associated with functional posterior crossbite, before and after rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Caltabiano, Mario; Cavallini, Costanza; Sicurezza, Edoardo; Barbato, Ersilia; Spampinato, Concetto; Giordano, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    To investigate condylar symmetry and condyle fossa relationships in subjects with functional posterior crossbite comparing findings before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment through low-dose computed tomography (CT). Twenty-six patients (14 girls and 12 boys, mean age 9.6 ± 1.4 years) with functional posterior crossbite (FPXB) diagnosis underwent rapid palatal expansion with a Hyrax appliance. Patients' temporomandibular joints (TMJ) underwent multislice CT scans before rapid palatal expansion (T0) and after (T1). Joint spaces were compared with those of a control sample of 13 subjects (7 girls and 5 boys, mean age 11 ± 0.6 years). Anterior space (AS), superior space (SS), and posterior space (PS) joint space measurements at T0 between the FPXB side and contralateral side demonstrated no statistically significant differences. After RME treatment (T1), all three joint spaces increased on both the FPXB side and the non-crossbite side. However, differences were statistically significant only for the SS when comparing the two sides at T1. SS increased more than AS and PS in the non-crossbite condyle (0.28 mm) and FPXB condyle (0.37 mm), and PS increased only on the FPXB side (0.34 mm). There were no statistically significant differences in condyle position within the glenoid fossa between the FPXB and non-crossbite side before treatment. Increases in joint spaces were observed after treatment with RME on both sides. These changes were, however, of small amounts.

  11. 78 FR 79308 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 872 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1239] Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis AGENCY... delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 872 is amended as follows: PART 872--DENTAL...

  12. A new condyle implant design concept for an alloplastic temporomandibular joint in bone resorption cases.

    PubMed

    Ramos, António; Mesnard, Michel

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present and evaluate an innovative intramedullary implant concept developed for total alloplastic reconstruction in bone resorption cases. The main goal of this innovative concept is to avoid the main problems experienced with temporomandibular (TMJ) devices on the market, associated with bone fixation and changes in kinematics. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on computed tomography (CT) scan images, before and after implantation of the innovative implant concept. To validate the numerical model, a clean cadaveric condyle was instrumented with four rosettes and loaded before and after implantation with the innovative concept TMJ implant. The experimental results validate the numerical models comparing the intact and implanted condyles, as they present good correlation. They show that the most critical region is around rosette #1, with an increase in strains in the proximal region of the condyle of 140%. The maximum principal strain and stress generated with the implant is less than 2200 με and 75 MPa in the posterior region of the cortical bone. Shortly after insertion of this press-fit implant, stress and strain results appear to be within the normal limits and show some similarities with the intact condyle. If these responses do not change over time, the screw fixation used at present could be avoided or replaced. This solution reduces bone resection and lessens surgical damage to the muscles. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurovascular structures of the mandibular angle and condyle: a comprehensive anatomical review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Won, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hu, Kyung-Seok

    2015-11-01

    Various surgical interventions including esthetic surgery, salivary gland excision, and open reduction of fracture have been performed in the area around the mandibular angle and condyle. This study aimed to comprehensively review the anatomy of the neurovascular structures on the angle and condyle with recent anatomic and clinical research. We provide detailed information about the branching and distributing patterns of the neurovascular structures at the mandibular angle and condyle, with reported data of measurements and proportions from previous anatomical and clinical research. Our report should serve to help practitioners gain a better understanding of the area in order or reduce potential complications during local procedures. Reckless manipulation during mandibular angle reduction could mutilate arterial branches, not only from the facial artery, but also from the external carotid artery. The transverse facial artery and superficial temporal artery could be damaged during approach and incision in the condylar area. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve can be easily damaged during submandibular gland excision or facial rejuvenation treatment. The main trunk of the facial nerve and its upper and lower distinct divisions have been damaged during parotidectomy, rhytidectomy, and open reductions of condylar fractures. By revisiting the information in the present study, surgeons will be able to more accurately prevent procedure-related complications, such as iatrogenic vascular accidents on the mandibular angle and condyle, complete and partial facial palsy, gustatory sweating (Frey syndrome), and traumatic neuroma after parotidectomy.

  14. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  15. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases

  16. Intramedullary nailing in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy-in vitro test for validation of a method of fixation.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Rene; Katerla, Denise; Hammer, Marina; Pahlkötter, Anke; Soost, Christian; Dietrich, Gerhard; Ohrndorf, Arne; Richter, Wolfgang; Lengsfeld, Markus; Christ, Hans-Jürgen; Graw, Jan Adriaan; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2018-02-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) as a treatment in unicompartimental osteoarthritis of the knee can significantly relieve pain and prevent or at least delay an early joint replacement. The fixation of the osteotomy has undergone development and refinements during the last years. The angle-stable plate fixator is currently one of the most commonly used plates in HTOs. The angular stable fixation between screws and the plate offers a high primary stability to retain the correction with early weight-bearing protocols. This surgical technique is performed as a standard of care and generally well tolerated by the patients. Nevertheless, some studies observed that many patients complained about discomfort related to the implant. Therefore, the stability of two different intramedullary nails, a short implant used in humeral fractures and a long device used in tibial fractures for stabilization in valgus HTOs, was investigated as an alternative fixation technique. The plate fixator was defined as reference standard. Nine synthetic tibia models were standardly osteotomized and stabilized by one of the fixation devices. Axial compression was realized using a special testing machine and two protocols were performed: a multi-step fatigue test and a load-to-failure test. Overall motion, medial, and lateral displacements were documented. Fractures always occurred at the lateral cortex. Axial cyclic loading up to 800 N was tolerated by all implants without failure. The tibia nail provided highest fatigue strength under the load-to-failure conditions. The results suggest that intramedullary nailing might be used as an alternative concept in HTO.

  17. Normal Development and Measurements of the Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval in Children and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, P; Linscott, L L; Vadivelu, S; Zhang, B; Leach, J L

    2016-05-01

    Widening of the occipital condyle-C1 interval is the most specific and sensitive means of detecting atlanto-occipital dislocation. Recent studies attempting to define normal measurements of the condyle-C1 interval in children have varied substantially. This study was performed to test the null hypothesis that condyle-C1 interval morphology and joint measurements do not change as a function of age. Imaging review of subjects undergoing CT of the upper cervical spine for reasons unrelated to trauma or developmental abnormality was performed. Four equidistant measurements were obtained for each bilateral condyle-C1 interval on sagittal and coronal images. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups to calculate the mean, SD, and 95% CIs for the average condyle-C1 interval in both planes. The prevalence of a medial occipital condyle notch was calculated. Two hundred forty-eight joints were measured in 124 subjects with an age range of 2 days to 22 years. The condyle-C1 interval varies substantially by age. Average coronal measurements are larger and more variable than sagittal measurements. The medial occipital condyle notch is most prevalent from 1 to 12 years and is uncommon in older adolescents and young adults. The condyle-C1 interval increases during the first several years of life, is largest in the 2- to 4-year age range, and then decreases through late childhood and adolescence. A single threshold value to detect atlanto-occipital dissociation may not be sensitive and specific for all age groups. Application of this normative data to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury is needed to determine clinical utility. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  19. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  20. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  1. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  3. Open wedge high tibial osteotomies: Calcium-phosphate ceramic spacer versus autologous bonegraft.

    PubMed

    Gouin, F; Yaouanc, F; Waast, D; Melchior, B; Delecrin, J; Passuti, N

    2010-10-01

    Valgus tibial osteotomy (VTO) is a well-known procedure for the treatment of medial compartment femoro-tibial osteoarthritis. Good and very good results have been reported with calcium phosphate wedges, which avoid the inconveniences of autologous grafts use. The hypothesis of this study is that with equivalent results in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, the use of calcium phosphate wedges (BMCaPh) to fill the bone defect created by osteotomy would result in fewer specific complications and less pain associated with autologous grafts (AUTO) harvesting. This prospective, controlled, randomised study included one arm that received a macroporous, biphasic calcium phosphate wedge (BMCaPh group) and one arm that received an autologous tricortical graft (AUTO group) for filling. The same plate with locked screws was used for fixation in all cases. All patients underwent at least two years of clinical and radiographic post-operative follow-up. Forty patients were included. Loss of correction occurred in six of the twenty-two patients in the BMCaPh group (27%), resulting in three early surgical revisions, compared to one loss of correction in the AUTO group. Lateral cortical hinge tears were a risk factor for loss of correction for the entire cohort and in the BMCaPh group. (relative risk 13.3 [1.9-92]. Moreover, union took significantly longer and pain lasted significantly longer in the BMCaPh group, although results were comparable at 6 months. A significant number of undesirable events (loss of correction) occurred in this study, limiting the number of included patients. Nevertheless, the results show that although there was no difference in the two groups for overall complications, number of revisions all causes combined, or clinical results, filling with BMCaPh was less tolerated and increased the risk of loss of correction when local mechanical conditions of the knee were unfavourable (lateral cortical hinge tears). Moreover, although it is not possible

  4. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  5. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  6. Application of Normative Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval Measurements to Detect Atlanto-Occipital Injury in Children.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, B; Linscott, L L; Leach, J L; Vadivelu, S

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that widening or asymmetry of the occipital condyle-C1 interval on CT is a sensitive and specific marker for atlanto-occipital dislocation. Previously reported abnormal occipital condyle-C1 interval values are not age-specific, possibly leading to false-positive findings in younger children, in whom this joint space is normally larger than that in adults. This study assesses the utility of applying age-specific normative occipital condyle-C1 interval ranges to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury compared with previously reported abnormal cutoff values. Retrospective review of CT and MR imaging of 14 subjects with atlanto-occipital injury was performed, and occipital condyle-C1 interval measurements were made for each subject. Sensitivities and specificities of proposed occipital condyle-C1 interval cutoffs of 2 and 3 SDs above the mean and previously published occipital condyle-C1 interval cutoffs for atlanto-occipital injury were then calculated on the basis of occipital condyle-C1 interval measurements for each subject. An occipital condyle-C1 interval 2 SDs above the age-specific mean has a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 89%-100%, depending on the age group. An occipital condyle-C1 interval 3 SDs above the age-specific mean has a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 95%-100%. A 4.0-mm occipital condyle-C1 interval has a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 100% in all age groups. A 2.5-mm occipital condyle-C1 interval has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 18%-100%. Occipital condyle-C1 interval widening cutoffs used to establish atlanto-occipital injury lack both sensitivity and specificity in children and young teenagers. MR imaging is necessary to establish a diagnosis of atlanto-occipital injury in children and young teenagers when the appropriate mechanism of injury is present. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release with distal chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Jeong, Jae Jung; Kim, Sang Woo; Jeon, In-Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Woo Chun

    2012-10-01

    Transarticular lateral release through a medial incision can avoid a dorsal incision. This study investigated outcomes following hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision. Between June 2004 and May 2009, a single surgeon performed a transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision for hallux valgus on a total of 103 feet of 68 patients. The average patient age at the time of surgery was 51 years, and the average followup was 27 months. The average preoperative and final followup results were: 1) hallux valgus angle improvement from 29 degrees to 5 degrees, 2) intermetatarsal angle from 13 degrees to 5 degrees and 3) medial sesamoid bone position from 3 to 1 (p < 0.05 for each variable). The average AOFAS scores were improved from 49 to 92, and the VAS pain scores were improved from 7 to 1 (p < 0.05 for both variables). No patient had a serious complication such as infection, avascular necrosis, nonunion, transfer-metatarsalgia, or first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision was found to be effective and safe. The advantages include that the procedure is simple, early ambulation is possible, and there is no dorsal scarring.

  8. Perioperative analgesia with a buprenorphine transdermal patch for hallux valgus surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Li, Mingqing; Wang, Chenggong; Li, Hui; Liu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Hallux valgus surgery often results in significant postoperative pain. Adequate control of pain is essential for patient satisfaction and improves the outcome of the procedure. This study aimed to investigate the perioperative analgesic effect of a buprenorphine transdermal patch in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery. Patients and methods A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into the following three groups based on the perioperative analgesic method: flurbiprofen axetil intravenous injection (Group F), oral celecoxib (Group C), and buprenorphine transdermal delivery system (BTDS) (Group BTDS). The pain status, degree of satisfaction, adverse effects, and administration of tramadol hydrochloride for uncontrolled pain were recorded on the night before surgery, postoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and postoperative day 3. Results The BTDS could effectively control perioperative pain for patients undergoing hallux valgus surgery. The analgesic effect of the BTDS was better than that of oral celecoxib. In addition, statistically significant differences were not observed in the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, adverse effects, and rescue analgesia between the patients who received the BTDS and the patients who received the flurbiprofen axetil intravenous injection. However, the degree of patient satisfaction of the BTDS group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the other two groups. Conclusion The BTDS (a preemptive analgesia regimen) could exert an analgesic effect during the perioperative period for patients who had received hallux valgus surgery, and this effect is beneficial for sustaining postoperative physiological and psychological states and promoting functional rehabilitation. PMID:29731664

  9. Patient-Directed Valgus Stress Radiograph of the Knee: A New and Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Mauerhan, David R; Cook, Kyle D; Botts, Tonia D; Williams, Sherita T

    2016-01-01

    The radiographic investigation of patients with medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee is a critical element in the decision-making process of determining whether the patient is a candidate for unicompartmental or total knee arthroplasty. A valgus stress radiograph of the affected knee is an essential part of this radiographic investigation. Historically, this has been performed with manual stress applied by the surgeon or the radiologic technologist; thus, this examination requires 2 individuals to complete. In addition to being inefficient, 1 individual is exposed to radiation, which can be undesirable over many exposures and in a long career. For these reasons, we instituted a quality improvement project to develop a method of obtaining the valgus stress view with 1 technologist that would obviate these concerns. Of 78 examinations performed, 5 studies did not show complete correction of the varus deformity. Of these, 3 showed complete correction on a manual valgus stress radiograph, and 2 did not. Three patients displayed collapse of the lateral compartment, indicating a nonfunctional lateral compartment. The remaining 70 patients had identical radiographic results with both the manual and patient-directed valgus stress.

  10. Is intramedullary nailing applicable for distal tibial fractures with ankle joint extension?

    PubMed

    Beytemür, Ozan; Albay, Cem; Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Güleç, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and radiographic results and treatment complications of AO/OTA (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association) type 43C1 and C2 fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We retrospectively evaluated 35 AO/OTA type 43C1 and C2 patients (26 males, 9 females; mean age 39.8±16.9 years; range 19 to 82 years) treated with intramedullary nailing. Two interfragmentary screws out of nail were applied in 10 patients (29%), while one interfragmentary screw out of nail was applied in 17 patients (49%). Intramedullary nailing was applied in eight patients (23%) without external screws. Fracture union, union time, alignment problems, and complications were evaluated. Clinical evaluation of patients was conducted using the Olerud and Molander score and by measuring the ankle joint range of motion. Union was achieved in all 35 patients. Mean union time was 16.5±2.8 weeks (range 12 to 24 weeks) and mean Olerud and Molander score was 88±8.24. Varus deformity was detected in one patient, valgus deformity was detected in two patients, and rotation deformity was detected in one patient. Superficial infection was detected in three patients (9%). Deep infection was not detected in any patient. Intramedullary nailing is not contraindicated for simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures. In these fractures, intramedullary nailing performed in accordance with its technique, with an additional percutaneous screw if necessary, is a successful treatment option with high fracture union rates, high functional results, and low complication rates.

  11. Knee joint distraction compared with high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, J A D; Wiegant, K; van Heerwaarden, R J; Spruijt, S; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; Mastbergen, S C; Lafeber, F P J G

    2017-03-01

    Both, knee joint distraction as a relatively new approach and valgus-producing opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), are knee-preserving treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The efficacy of knee joint distraction compared to HTO has not been reported. Sixty-nine patients with medial knee joint OA with a varus axis deviation of <10° were randomized to either knee joint distraction (n = 23) or HTO (n = 46). Questionnaires were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Joint space width (JSW) as a surrogate measure for cartilage thickness was determined on standardized semi-flexed radiographs at baseline and 1-year follow-up. All patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) improved significantly over 1 year (at 1 year p < 0.02) in both groups. At 1 year, the HTO group showed slightly greater improvement in 4 of the 16 PROMS (p < 0.05). The minimum medial compartment JSW increased 0.8 ± 1.0 mm in the knee joint distraction group (p = 0.001) and 0.4 ± 0.5 mm in the HTO group (p < 0.001), with minimum JSW improvement in favour of knee joint distraction (p = 0.05). The lateral compartment showed a small increase in the knee joint distraction group and a small decrease in the HTO group, leading to a significant increase in mean JSW for knee joint distraction only (p < 0.02). Cartilaginous repair activity, as indicated by JSW, and clinical outcome improvement occurred with both, knee joint distraction and HTO. These findings suggest that knee joint distraction may be an alternative therapy for medial compartmental OA with a limited mechanical leg malalignment. Randomized controlled trial, Level I.

  12. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  13. [Excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    PubMed

    Cao, Honghui; Tang, Kanglai; Deng, Yinshuan; Tan, Xiaokang; Zhou, Binghua; Tao, Xu; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qianbo

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular and to evaluate its effectiveness. Between May 2006 and June 2011, 33 patients (40 feet) with flatfoot related with accessory navicular were treated. There were 14 males (17 feet) and 19 females (23 feet) with an average age of 30.1 years (range, 16-56 years). All patients had bilateral accessory navicular; 26 had unilateral flatfoot and 7 had bilateral flatfeet. The disease duration ranged from 7 months to 9 years (median, 24 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-midfoot score was 47.9 +/- 7.3. The X-ray films showed type II accessory navicular, the arch height loss, and heel valgus in all patients. All of them received excision of accessory navicular and reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular with anchor. All patients got primary wound healing without any complication. Thirty patients (36 feet) were followed up 6-54 months with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved complete pain relief at 6 months after surgery and had good appearance of the feet. The AOFAS ankle-midfoot score was 90.4 +/- 2.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=29.73, P=0.00). X-ray films showed that no screw loosening or breakage was observed. There were significant differences in the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar-first metatarsal angle between pre-operation and last follow-up (P < 0.01). The excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular is a good choice for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular, with correction of deformity, excellent effectiveness, and less complications.

  14. Radiographic Shape of Foot With Second Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dislocation Associated With Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Suda, Yasunori; Waseda, Akeo; Ikezawa, Hiroko

    2017-12-01

    Second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dislocation is associated with hallux valgus, and the treatment of complete dislocation can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to radiographically clarify the characteristic foot shape in the presence of second MTP joint dislocation. Weight-bearing foot radiographs of the 268 patients (358 feet) with hallux valgus were examined. They were divided into 2 groups: those with second MTP joint dislocation (study group = 179 feet) and those without dislocation (control group = 179 feet). Parameters measured included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), first-second intermetatarsal angle (IMA), second MTP joint angle, hallux interphalangeal angle (IPA), second metatarsal protrusion distance (MPD), metatarsus adductus angle (MAA), and the second metatarsal declination angle (2MDA). Furthermore, the dislocation group was divided into 3 subgroups according to second toe deviation direction: group M (medial type), group N (neutral type), and group L (lateral type). The IPA and the 2MDA were significantly greater in the study group than in the control group. By multiple comparison analysis, the IMA was greatest in group M and smallest in group L. The IPA was smaller and 2MDA greater in group N than in group L. The HVA and MAA in group L were greatest, and MPD in group L was smallest. The patients with second MTP joint dislocation associated with hallux valgus had greater hallux interphalangeal joint varus and a second metatarsal more inclined than with hallux valgus alone. The second toe deviated in a different direction according to the foot shape. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  15. Z-osteotomy in hallux valgus: clinical and radiological outcome after Scarf osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; Schmidt, Michael; Wild, Alexander; Bittersohl, Bernd; Courtois, Susanne; Schmidt, Troy G.; Rüdiger, Krauspe

    2009-01-01

    Correction osteotomies of the first metatarsal are common surgical approaches in treating hallux valgus deformities whereas the Scarf osteotomy has gained popularity. The purpose of this study was to analyze short- and mid-term results in hallux valgus patients who underwent a Scarf osteotomy. The subjective and radiological outcome of 131 Scarf osteotomies (106 hallux valgus patients, mean age: 57.5 years, range: 22–90 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Mean follow-up was 22.4 months (range: 6 months–5 years). Surgical indications were: intermetatarsal angle (IMA) of 12–23°; increased proximal articular angle (PAA>8°), and range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion and extension >40°. Exclusion criteria were severe osteoporosis and/or osteoarthritis. The mean subjective range of motion (ROM) of the great toe post-surgery was 0.8±1.73 points (0: full ROM, 10: total stiffness). The mean subjective cosmetic result was 2.7±2.7 points (0: excellent, 10: poor). The overall post-operative patient satisfaction with the result was high (2.1±2.5 points (0: excellent, 10: poor). The mean hallux valgus angle improvement was 16.6° (pre-operative mean value: 37.5°) which was statistically significant (p<0.01). The IMA improved by an average of 5.96° from a pre-operative mean value of 15.4° (p<0.01). Neither osteonecrosis of the distal fragment nor perioperative fractures were noted during the follow-up. In keeping with our follow-up results, the Scarf osteotomy approach shows potential in the therapy of hallux valgus. PMID:21808668

  16. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  17. Do modern total knee replacements improve tibial coverage?

    PubMed

    Meier, Malin; Webb, Jonathan; Collins, Jamie E; Beckmann, Johannes; Fitz, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of the present study is to compare newer designs of various symmetric and asymmetric tibial components and measure tibial bone coverage using the rotational safe zone defined by two commonly utilized anatomic rotational landmarks. Computed tomography scans (CT scans) of one hundred consecutive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were obtained pre-operatively. A virtual proximal tibial cut was performed and two commonly used rotational axes were added for each image: the medio-lateral axis (ML-axis) and the medial 1/3 tibial tubercle axis (med-1/3-axis). Different symmetric and asymmetric implant designs were then superimposed in various rotational positions for best cancellous and cortical coverage. The images were imported to a public domain imaging software, and cancellous and cortical bone coverage was computed for each image, with each implant design in various rotational positions. One single implant type could not be identified that provided the best cortical and cancellous coverage of the tibia, irrespective of using the med-1/3-axis or the ML-axis for rotational alignment. However, it could be confirmed that the best bone coverage was dependent on the selected rotational landmark. Furthermore, improved bone coverage was observed when tibial implant positions were optimized between the two rotational axes. Tibial coverage is similar for symmetric and asymmetric designs, but depends on the rotational landmark for which the implant is designed. The surgeon has the option to improve tibial coverage by optimizing placement between the two anatomic rotational alignment landmarks, the medial 1/3 and the ML-axis. Surgeons should be careful assessing intraoperative rotational tibial placement using the described anatomic rotational landmarks to optimize tibial bony coverage without compromising patella tracking. III.

  18. Oral-motor and electromyographic characterization of patients submitted to open a nd closed reductions of mandibular condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda Pagliotto da; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    To characterize the oral-motor system of adults with mandibular condyle facture comparing the performance of individuals submitted to open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction with mandibulomaxillary fixation (CRMMF). Study participants were 26 adults divided into three groups: G1 - eight individuals submitted to ORIF for correction of condyle fracture; G2 - nine individuals submitted to CRMMF for correction of condyle fracture; CG - nine healthy volunteers with no alterations of the orofacial myofunctional system. All participants underwent the same clinical protocol: assessment of the orofacial myofunctional system; evaluation of the mandibular range of motion; and surface electromyography (sEMG) of the masticatory muscles. Results indicated that patients with condyle fractures from both groups presented significant differences compared with those from the control group in terms of mobility of the oral-motor organs, mastication, and deglutition. Regarding the measures obtained for mandibular movements, participants with facial fractures from both groups showed significant differences compared with those from the control group, indicating greater restrictions in mandibular motion. As for the analysis of sEMG results, G1 patients presented more symmetrical masseter activation during the task of maximal voluntary teeth clenching. Patients with mandibular condyle fractures present significant deficits in posture, mobility, and function of the oral-motor system. The type of medical treatment does not influence the results of muscle function during the first six months after fracture reduction. Individuals submitted to ORIF of the condyle fracture present more symmetrical activation of the masseter muscle.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome post open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation of a humeral lateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuen; Selvaratnam, Veenesh; Garg, Neeraj

    2015-08-11

    Use of Kirschner wires (K-wires) is the most common method of fracture stabilisation in lateral condyle fracture fixation in children. We report a case of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) following an open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires for a humeral lateral condyle fracture in a 5-year-old girl. TSS is a toxin-mediated multisystem illness. It typically presents with shock and it is most often attributed to toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. It can lead to multiorgan failure and, ultimately, death. It is important to be aware of TSS, as it can present within any setting. Patients often have non-specific symptoms and their condition can worsen rapidly. TSS postorthopaedic surgery is rare; however, due to the serious nature of this disease, it is important to promptly recognise and diagnose TSS, and to ensure appropriate treatment is started without delay. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Subchondral Impaction Fractures of the Medial Femoral Condyle in Weightlifters: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał Tomasz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Krochmalski, Marek; Domżalski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Although subchondral impaction fractures have already been reported in the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle, this study reveals the presence of an intra-articular impaction fracture of the postero-superior region of the non-weight-bearing portion of the medial femoral condyle recognized in 5 of a group of 22 representatives of the Polish national Olympic weightlifting team, who underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging examination. Articular cartilage lesions varied with regard to the type of injury and its severity ranging from healed or subchronic injuries to acute trauma. All described individuals had no clinical history of acute knee trauma and only 3 of them had minor pain symptoms. The accumulation of microtraumas occurring during participation in particular activities associated with weightlifting training seems to be responsible for the development of this type of contusion. This is the first description of impaction fracture observed in this location in professional weightlifters.

  1. Changed morphology and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the mandibular condyles of edentate people.

    PubMed

    Giesen, E B W; Ding, M; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, T M G J

    2004-03-01

    Since edentate subjects have a reduced masticatory function, it can be expected that the morphology of the cancellous bone of their mandibular condyles has changed according to the altered mechanical environment. In the present study, the morphology of cylindrical cancellous bone specimens of the mandibular condyles of edentate subjects (n = 25) was compared with that of dentate subjects (n = 24) by means of micro-computed tomography and by the application of Archimedes' principle. Stiffness and strength were determined by destructive mechanical testing. Compared with dentate subjects, it appeared that, in edentate subjects, the bone was less dense and the trabecular structure was less plate-like. The regression models of stiffness and strength built from bone volume fraction and the trabecular orientation relative to the axis of the specimen were similar for both dentate and edentate subjects. This indicates that, under reduced mechanical load, the fundamental relationship between bone morphology and mechanical properties does not change.

  2. Toxic shock syndrome post open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation of a humeral lateral condyle fracture

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuen; Selvaratnam, Veenesh; Garg, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Use of Kirschner wires (K-wires) is the most common method of fracture stabilisation in lateral condyle fracture fixation in children. We report a case of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) following an open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires for a humeral lateral condyle fracture in a 5-year-old girl. TSS is a toxin-mediated multisystem illness. It typically presents with shock and it is most often attributed to toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. It can lead to multiorgan failure and, ultimately, death. It is important to be aware of TSS, as it can present within any setting. Patients often have non-specific symptoms and their condition can worsen rapidly. TSS postorthopaedic surgery is rare; however, due to the serious nature of this disease, it is important to promptly recognise and diagnose TSS, and to ensure appropriate treatment is started without delay. PMID:26264942

  3. Bifid condyle of the mandible with associated polythelia and manual anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Y; Laurian, N

    1987-12-01

    Syndromes of oro-mandibular-skeletal anomalies are confusing by their ambiguous and overlapping components. It is our purpose to bring attention to a case comprising a group of anomalies: bifid mandibular condyle, asymmetric contralateral ascending ramus of the mandible, supernumerary nipples (polythelia), supernumerary-rudimentary postaxial sixth fingers and clinodactyly. The associated malformations presented do not correspond to any previous report. The case may therefore represent a new malformation syndrome.

  4. Endoscope-Assisted Transoral Fixation of Mandibular Condyle Fractures: Submandibular Versus Transoral Endoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver.

  5. Outcomes in chevron osteotomy for Hallux Valgus in a large cohort.

    PubMed

    van Groningen, Bart; van der Steen, M C Marieke; Reijman, Max; Bos, Janneke; Hendriks, Johannes G E

    2016-12-01

    Clinical and radiological related outcomes have been reported for Chevron osteotomy as correction for mild to moderate hallux valgus, but only for relatively small patient series. Moreover, evaluation of the patient's point of view has mostly been conducted by means of more physician-based outcome measures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus on patients' daily lives using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) as a validated and a hallux valgus specific patient reported outcome measure (PROM). Secondary outcome measures were radiological correction, complication rate, and re-operations. All 438 Chevron procedures (336 patients), at two surgical hospital sites in the period between January 2010 and October 2014, were retrospectively evaluated with a follow-up of at least 6 months. Patients were invited to fill in a cross-sectional online FAOS. For the FAOS, a total response of 60% was achieved. The FAOS ranged between 71 and 88 with a follow-up of on average 36 months. Patients with an undercorrection of their hallux valgus (11.6% of the procedures) scored significantly lower on three subscales of the FAOS (range between 61 and 77 versus 72-84). Patients who had a reoperation (12.6% of the procedures) also scored significantly lower on four subscales: 58-100 versus 73-89. Postoperative radiological measurements improved significantly with a mean difference of 6.1 (5.9; 6.4) degrees for the intermetatarsal angle and 13.7 (13.0; 14.5) degrees for the hallux valgus angle. In this large study cohort, Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus offers good PROM scores on FAOS. These scores were significantly lower in patients with radiological undercorrection or with a reoperation. Results of the FAOS appear to modulate with physician based outcomes and therapeutic incidents. Improvement of outcome may therefore well be possible by increased attention on these surgical details. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses.

  7. Strength of titanium intramedullary implant versus miniplate fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Howell, Rebecca J; Joshi, Arjun S

    2012-07-01

    To test the strength of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures repaired with titanium miniplates versus titanium intramedullary implants. Prospective laboratory experimentation in urethane mandible models and human cadaveric mandibles. Materials testing laboratory at an academic medical center. Osteotomies of the mandibular condyle were created in 40 urethane hemimandible models and 24 human cadaveric specimens. Half of the samples in each group were repaired with traditional miniplates, and the other half were repaired with intramedullary titanium implants. Anteroposterior and mediolateral loads were applied to the samples, and the displacement was measured with reference to the applied force. Titanium intramedullary implants demonstrated statistically significant improved strength and stiffness versus miniplates in the urethane model experimental groups. Despite frequent plastic deformation and mechanical failures of the miniplates, a 1.6-mm-diameter titanium intramedullary pin did not mechanically fail in any of the cases. Intramedullary implantation failures were due to secondary fracture of the adjacent cortical bone or experimental design limitations including rotation of the smooth pin implant. Mechanical implant failures that were encountered with miniplate fixation were not seen with titanium intramedullary implants. These intramedullary implants provide stronger and more rigid fixation of mandibular condyle fractures than miniplates in this in vitro model.

  8. Condyle and mandibular bone change after unilateral condylar neck fracture in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Yang, H-f; Li, S; Chen, J-z; Luo, Y-w; Yang, C

    2012-08-01

    Unilateral fracture of the condylar neck in immature subjects might lead to mandible asymmetry and condyle remodelling. A rat model was used to investigate mandibular deviation and condylar remodelling associated with condyle fracture. 72 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group (unilateral transverse condylar fracture induced surgically), a sham operation group (surgical exposure but no fracture), and a non-operative control group (no operation). The rats were killed at intervals up to 9weeks after surgery, and outcomes were assessed using various measures of mandible deviation, histological and X-ray observation, and immunohistochemical measures of expression levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and type II collagen (Col II). The fracture led to the degeneration of mandibular size, associated with atrophy of fractured condylar process. Progressive remodelling of cartilage and increasing expression levels of CTGF and Col II were found. The authors conclude that condylar fracture can lead to asymmetries in mandible and condyle remodelling and expression of CTGF and Col II in condylar cartilage on both the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced mechanical load decreases the density, stiffness, and strength of cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Giesen, E B W; Ding, M; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, T M G J

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the influence of decreased mechanical loading on the density and mechanical properties of the cancellous bone of the human mandibular condyle. Destructive compressive mechanical tests were performed on cancellous bone specimens.Background. Reduced masticatory function in edentate people leads to a reduction of forces acting on the mandible. As bone reacts to its mechanical environment a change in its material properties can be expected. Cylindrical bone specimens were obtained from dentate and edentate embalmed cadavers. Mechanical parameters were determined in the axial and in the transverse directions. Subsequently, density parameters were determined according to a method based on Archimedes' principle. The apparent density and volume fraction of the bone were about 18% lower in the edentate group; no age-related effect on density was found. The decrease of bone in the edentate group was associated with a lower stiffness and strength (about 22% and 28%, respectively). The ultimate strain, however, did not differ between the two groups. Both groups had similar mechanical anisotropy; in axial loading the bone was stiffer and stronger than in transverse loading. Reduced mechanical load had affected the density and herewith the mechanical properties of condylar cancellous bone, but not its anisotropy. The change in material properties of the cancellous bone after loss of teeth indicate that the mandibular condyle is sensitive for changes in its mechanical environment. Therefore, changes in mechanical loading of the condyle have to be accounted for in surgical procedures of the mandible.

  10. Mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the human mandibular condyle are anisotropic.

    PubMed

    Giesen, E B; Ding, M; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, T M

    2001-06-01

    The objective of the present study was (1) to test the hypothesis that the elastic and failure properties of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle depend on the loading direction, and (2) to relate these properties to bone density parameters. Uniaxial compression tests were performed on cylindrical specimens (n=47) obtained from the condyles of 24 embalmed cadavers. Two loading directions were examined, i.e., a direction coinciding with the predominant orientation of the plate-like trabeculae (axial loading) and a direction perpendicular to the plate-like trabeculae (transverse loading). Archimedes' principle was applied to determine bone density parameters. The cancellous bone was in axial loading 3.4 times stiffer and 2.8 times stronger upon failure than in transverse loading. High coefficients of correlation were found among the various mechanical properties and between them and the apparent density and volume fraction. The anisotropic mechanical properties can possibly be considered as a mechanical adaptation to the loading of the condyle in vivo.

  11. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  12. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  13. Equivalent correction in scarf and chevron osteotomy in moderate and severe hallux valgus: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Deenik, Axel; van Mameren, Henk; de Visser, Enrico; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten; Draijer, Frits; de Bie, Rob

    2008-12-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus.(18) Algorithms were developed to overcome the limitations of distal osteotomies. Scarf osteotomy has become popular as a versatile procedure that should be able to correct most cases of acquired hallux valgus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients with moderate or severe hallux valgus have better correction with a scarf osteotomy as compared to chevron osteotomy. After informed consent, 136 feet in 115 patients were randomized to 66 scarf and 70 chevron osteotomies. Deformities of patients were classified as mild, moderate and severe according to IMA, and both groups were compared with independent t-tests. The results were measured using radiographic HVA, IMA and DMAA measurements. There were no statistical differences in HVA, IMA and DMAA between scarf and chevron osteotomy in mild to moderate hallux valgus. In severe hallux valgus, chevron osteotomy corrected HVA better than scarf osteotomy, although this group consisted of twelve patients only. Five patients in the chevron group and seven in the scarf group developed recurrent subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. In patients with moderate and severe hallux valgus, the results of chevron osteotomy were at least as effective as a scarf osteotomy. Recurrent subluxation of the first metatatarsophalangeal joint was the main cause for insufficient correction. We favor the chevron osteotomy because it is less invasive, without sacrificing correction of HVA and IMA.

  14. Condyle-Specific Matching Does Not Improve Midterm Clinical Outcomes of Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in the Knee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean; Jones, Kristofer J; Eliasberg, Claire D; Pais, Mollyann D; Rodeo, Scott A; Williams, Riley J

    2017-10-04

    Condyle-specific matching for osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) pairs donor and recipient condyles in an attempt to minimize articular incongruity. While the majority of cartilage defects are located on the medial femoral condyle, lateral femoral condyles are more commonly available as a graft source. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with non-orthotopic (lateral-to-medial condyle or medial-to-lateral condyle) OCA with those treated with traditional orthotopic (medial-to-medial condyle or lateral-to-lateral condyle) OCA. We hypothesized that clinical outcomes would be similar between groups at midterm follow-up. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients treated with OCA from 2000 to 2014 was conducted. Seventy-seven patients with a full-thickness cartilage defect of a femoral condyle were treated with either orthotopic (n = 50) or non-orthotopic (n = 27) OCA. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was required for analysis. Patients in each group were matched according to sex, age, and total chondral defect size. Reoperations and patient responses to validated outcome measures were reviewed. Failure was defined as any revision cartilage procedure or conversion to knee arthroplasty. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.0 years (range, 2 to 16 years). The orthotopic and non-orthotopic OCA groups were comparable in terms of demographics, the mean number of prior ipsilateral knee operations, and the percentage of concomitant procedures at baseline. Reoperation (p = 0.427) and failure (p = 0.917) rates did not differ significantly between groups. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in the Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical functioning and pain, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living (KOS-ADL) scores compared with baseline (p < 0.004). Outcome scores (baseline and postoperative) and change scores did not differ significantly

  15. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  16. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  17. Histological Analysis of the Tibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Rainer; Oka, Shinya; Traut, Ulrike; Schuhmacher, Peter; Kirsch, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion by histological assessment in the sagittal plane. Methods: For histology the native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into 4 sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. The slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analyzed at a magnification of ×20. Results: From medial to lateral the anterior-posterior lengths of the ACL insertion were an average of 10.2, 9.3, 7.6 and 5.8 mm. The anterior margin of the tibial ACL insertion raised from an anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibers rose along with a peak of the anterior part of the medial tibial spine in which the direct insertion was adjacent to the articular cartilage. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact to the lateral ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the tibial ACL insertion. There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibers in the area intercondylaris anterior. Conclusion: The functional intraligamentous midsubstance ACL fibers arose from the most posterior part of its bony tibial insertion in a flat and “C-shape” way. The anterior border of this functional ACL started from a bony ‘anterior ridge’ and the medial border was along with a peak of the medial tibial spine.

  18. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  19. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  20. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  1. Footwear modification following hallux valgus surgery: The all-or-none phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cal; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-06-26

    To define footwear outcomes following hallux valgus surgery, focusing on patient return to comfortable and heeled footwear and patterns of post-operative footwear selection. Surgical intervention is indicated for symptomatic cases of hallux valgus unresponsive to conservative methods, with favourable reported outcomes. The return to various types of footwear post-operatively is reflective of the degree of correction achieved, and corresponds to patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively without significant residual symptoms. Many female patients will additionally attempt to return to high-heeled, narrow toe box shoes. However, minimal evidence exists to guide their expectations. Sixty-five female hallux valgus patients that had undergone primary surgery between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using our hospital surgical database. Patients were reviewed using a footwear-specific outcome questionnaire at a mean 18.5 mo follow-up. Eighty-six percent of patients were able to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively with minimal discomfort. Of those intending to resume wearing heeled footwear, 62% were able to do so, with 77% of these patients wearing these as or more frequently than pre-operatively. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-operative heel size. Mean time to return to heeled footwear was 21.4 wk post-operation. Cosmetic outcomes were very high and did not adversely impact footwear selection. We report high rates of return to both comfortable and heeled shoes in female patients following primary hallux valgus surgery. We observed an "all-or-none phenomenon" where patients rejected a return to heeled footwear unless able to tolerate them at the same frequency and heel size as pre-operatively. A minority of patients were unable to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively, which had adverse ramifications on their quality-of-life. We recommend that the

  2. A modified Austin/chevron osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Vasso, Michele; Del Regno, Chiara; D'Amelio, Antonio; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this brief paper is to present the preliminary results of a modified Austin/chevron osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. In this procedure, the dorsal arm of the osteotomy is performed orthogonal to the horizontal plane of the first metatarsal, the main advantage being that this allows much easier and more accurate multiplanar correction of first metatarsal deformities. From 2010 to 2013, 184 consecutive patients with symptomatic hallux valgus and 48 patients with hallux rigidus without severe metatarsophalangeal joint degeneration underwent such modified chevron osteotomy. Mean patient age was 54.9 (range 21-70) years, and mean follow-up duration was 41.7 (range 24-56) months. Ninety-three percent of patients were satisfied with the surgery. Mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.6 preoperatively to 90.6 at last follow-up, and mean visual analog scale (VAS) pain score decreased from 5.7 preoperatively to 1.6 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). In patients treated for hallux valgus, mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 34.1° preoperatively to 6.2° at final follow-up, and mean intermetatarsal angle decreased from 18.5° preoperatively to 4.1° at final follow-up (p < 0.05). One patient developed postoperative transfer metatarsalgia, treated successfully with second-time percutaneous osteotomy of the minor metatarsals, whilst one patient had wound infection that resolved with systemic antibiotics. Level IV.

  3. Impact of Podiatry Resident Experience Level in Hallux Valgus Surgery on Postoperative Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Adam E.; Yorath, Martin C.; Joseph, Robert; Baron, Adam; Nordquist, Thomas; Moore, Braden; Robinson, Richmond; Reilly, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite modern advancements in transosseous fixation and operative technique, hallux valgus (i.e., bunion) surgery is still associated with a higher than usual amount of patient dissatisfaction, and is generally recognized as a complex and nuanced procedure requiring precise osseous and capsulotendon balancing. It stands to reason then that familiarity and skill level of trainee surgeons might impact surgical outcomes in this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether podiatry resident experience level influences mid-term outcomes in hallux valgus surgery. Methods Consecutive adults who underwent isolated hallux valgus surgery via distal metatarsal osteotomy at a single US metropolitan teaching hospital from January 2004 to January 2009 were contacted and asked to complete a validated outcome measure of foot health (Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire) regarding their operated foot. Resident experience level was quantified using the surgical logs for the primary resident of record at the time of each case. Associations were assessed using simple, multiple and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 102 adult patients (n=102 feet) agreed to participate with a mean age of 46.8 (SD 13.1 years, range 18-71) and average length of follow-up 6.2 years (SD 1.4, range 3.6-8.6). Level of trainee experience was not associated with postoperative outcomes in either the univariate (odds ratio 0.99 [95% CI 0.98-1.01], p = 0.827) or multivariate analyses (odds ratio 1.00 [95% CI 0.97-1.02], p = 0.907). Conclusions We conclude that podiatry resident level of experience in hallux valgus surgery does not contribute appreciably to postoperative clinical outcomes. PMID:24726058

  4. Reliability and Validity of Observational Risk Screening in Evaluating Dynamic Knee Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ekegren, Christina L.; Miller, William C.; Celebrini, Richard G.; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Nonexperimental methodological study. Objectives To determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and validity of using observational risk screening guidelines to evaluate dynamic knee valgus. Background A deficiency in the neuromuscular control of the hip has been identified as a key risk factor for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in post pubescent females. This deficiency can manifest itself as a valgus knee alignment during tasks involving hip and knee flexion. There are currently no scientifically tested methods to screen for dynamic knee valgus in the clinic or on the field. Methods Three physiotherapists used observational risk screening guidelines to rate 40 adolescent female soccer players according to their risk of ACL injury. The rating was based on the amount of dynamic knee valgus observed on a drop jump landing. Ratings were evaluated for intrarater and interrater agreement using kappa coefficients. Sensitivity and specificity of ratings were evaluated by comparing observational ratings with measurements obtained using 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. Results Kappa coefficients for intrarater and interrater agreement ranged from 0.75 to 0.85, indicating that ratings were reasonably consistent over time and between physiotherapists. Sensitivity values were inadequate, ranging from 67–87%. This indicated that raters failed to detect up to a third of “truly high risk” individuals. Specificity values ranged from 60–72% which was considered adequate for the purposes of the screen. Conclusion Observational risk screening is a practical and cost-effective method of screening for ACL injury risk. Rater agreement and specificity were acceptable for this method but sensitivity was not. To detect a greater proportion of individuals at risk of ACL injury, coaches and clinicians should ensure that they include additional tests for other high risk characteristics in their screening protocols. PMID:19721212

  5. Biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moyer, R F; Birmingham, T B; Bryant, D M; Giffin, J R; Marriott, K A; Leitch, K M

    2015-02-01

    To review and synthesize the biomechanical effects of valgus knee bracing for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic databases were searched from their inception to May 2014. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, rated study quality and extracted data. Where possible, data were combined into meta-analyses and pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Thirty studies were included with 478 subjects tested while using a valgus knee brace. Various biomechanical methods suggested valgus braces can decrease direct measures of medial knee compressive force, indirect measures representing the mediolateral distribution of load across the knee, quadriceps/hamstring and quadriceps/gastrocnemius co-contraction ratios, and increase medial joint space during gait. Meta-analysis from 17 studies suggested a statistically significant decrease in the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking, with a moderate-to-high effect size (SMD = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.83; P < 0.001). Meta-regression identified a near-significant association for the KAM effect size and duration of brace use only (β, -0.01; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.0001; P = 0.06); with longer durations of brace use associated with smaller treatment effects. Minor complications were commonly reported during brace use and included slipping, discomfort and poor fit, blisters and skin irritation. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggests valgus knee braces can alter knee joint loads through a combination of mechanisms, with moderate-to-high effect sizes in biomechanical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of the iPhone for radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Koca, Kenan; Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the measurements made using a smartphone accelerometer and computerized measurements as a reference in a series of 32 hallux valgus patients. Two observers used an iPhone to measure the hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and distal metatarsal articular angle (of anteroposterior foot radiographs in 32 patients with symptomatic hallux valgus on a computer screen. Digital angular measurements on the computer were set as the reference standard for analysis and comparison. The difference between computerized measurements and all iPhone measurements, and the difference between the first and second iPhone measurements for each observer were calculated. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the smartphone measurement method was also tested. The variability of all measurements was similar for the iPhone and the computer-assisted techniques. The concordance between iPhone and computer-assisted angular measurements was excellent for the HVA, IMA, and DMAA. The maximum mean difference between the two techniques was 1.25 ± 1.02° for HVA, 0.92 ± 0.92° for IMA, and 1.10 ± 0.82° for DMAA. The interobserver reliability was excellent for HVA, IMA, and DMAA. The maximum mean difference between observers was 1.31 ± 0.89° for HVA, 0.90 ± 0.92° for IMA, and 0.78 ± 0.87° for DMAA. The intraobserver reliability was excellent for HVA, IMA, and DMAA. We conclude that the Hallux Angles software for the iPhone can be used for measurement of hallux valgus angles in clinical practice and even for research purposes. It is an accurate and reproducible method.

  7. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alison H.; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The study objectives were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08 ± 0.59° vs. 0.69 ± 0.49°, p < 0.05), decreased normalized varus muscle strength (1.31 ± 0.75% vs. 1.79 ± 0.84% body weight, p < 0.05), a trend toward decreased valgus strength (1.29 ± 0.67% vs. 1.88 ± 0.99%, p = 0.054), and impaired ability to actively stabilize the knee in the frontal plane during external perturbation (4.67 ± 2.86 vs. 8.26 ± 5.95 Nm/degree, p < 0.05). The knee frontal plane sensorimotor control system is compromised in persons with medial KOA. Our findings suggest varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). PMID:24321442

  8. The degeneration and destruction of femoral articular cartilage shows a greater degree of deterioration than that of the tibial and patellar articular cartilage in early stage knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hada, S; Kaneko, H; Sadatsuki, R; Liu, L; Futami, I; Kinoshita, M; Yusup, A; Saita, Y; Takazawa, Y; Ikeda, H; Kaneko, K; Ishijima, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the degenerative and morphological changes of articular cartilage in early stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) occurred equally for both femoral- and tibial- or patellar- articular cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based analyses. This cross-sectional study was approved by the ethics committee of our university. Fifty patients with early stage painful knee OA were enrolled. The patients underwent 3.0 T MRI on the affected knee joint. Healthy volunteers who did not show MRI-based OA changes were also recruited as controls (n = 19). The degenerative changes of the articular cartilage were quantified by a T2 mapping analysis, and any structural changes were conducted using Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) technique. All patients showed MRI-detected OA morphological changes. The T2 values of femoral condyle (FC) (P < 0.0001) and groove (P = 0.0001) in patients with early stage knee OA were significantly increased in comparison to those in the control, while no significant differences in the T2 values of patellar and tibial plateau (TP) were observed between the patients and the control. The WORMS cartilage and osteophyte scores of the femoral articular cartilage were significantly higher than those in the patellar- (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively) and tibial- (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) articular cartilage in the patients with early stage knee OA. The degradation and destruction of the femoral articular cartilage demonstrated a greater degree of deterioration than those of the tibial- and patellar- articular cartilage in patients with early stage knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in passive knee biomechanical properties in tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Soon; Wilson, Nicole A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament with the highest incidence of injury in female athletes who participate in pivoting sports. Noncontact ACL injuries commonly occur with both internal and external tibial rotation. ACL impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch during tibial external rotation and abduction has been proposed as an injury mechanism, but few studies have evaluated in vivo gender-specific differences in laxity and stiffness in external and internal tibial rotations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these differences. The knees of 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects were rotated between internal and external tibial rotation with the knee at 60 degrees of flexion. Joint laxity, stiffness, and energy loss were compared between male and female subjects. Women had higher laxity (p = 0.01), lower stiffness (p = 0.038), and higher energy loss (p = 0.008) in external tibial rotation than did men. The results suggest that women may be at greater risk of ACL injury resulting from impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch, which has been shown to be associated with external tibial rotation and abduction.

  11. No midterm benefit from low intensity pulsed ultrasound after chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter H; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted method for correction of symptomatic hallux valgus deformity. Full weight bearing in regular shoes is not recommended before 6 weeks after surgery. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is known to stimulate bone formation leading to more stable callus and faster bony fusion. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study on 44 participants (52 feet) who underwent chevron osteotomy to evaluate the influence of daily transcutaneous low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment at the site of osteotomy. Follow-up at 6 weeks and 1 year included plain dorsoplantar radiographs, hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale and a questionnaire on patient satisfaction. There was no statistical difference in any pre- or postoperative clinical features, patient satisfaction or radiographic measurements (hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, sesamoid index and metatarsal index) except for the first distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). The DMAA showed statistically significant (p = 0.046) relapse in the placebo group upon comparison of intraoperative radiographs after correction and fixation (5.2 degrees) and at the 6-week follow-up (10.6 degrees). Despite potential impact of LIPUS on bone formation, we found no evidence of an influence on outcome 6 weeks and 1 year after chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity.

  12. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist.

  13. Scarf versus chevron osteotomy in hallux valgus: a randomized controlled trial in 96 patients.

    PubMed

    Deenik, A R; Pilot, P; Brandt, S E; van Mameren, H; Geesink, R G T; Draijer, W F

    2007-05-01

    The degree of correction of hallux valgus deformity using a distal chevron osteotomy is reported as limited. The scarf osteotomy is reported to correct large intermetatarsal angles (IMA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if one technique gave greater correction of the IMA and hallux valgus angle (HVA) than the other. After informed consent, 96 feet in 83 patients were randomized into two treatment groups (49 scarf and 47 chevron osteotomies). The results were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hallux Valgus Scale and radiographic HVA and IMA measurements. At 27 (range 23-31) months followup both groups improved. The AOFAS score in the chevron group improved from 48 to 89 points and in the scarf group from 47 to 91 points. In the chevron group the HVA corrected from 30 to 17 degrees, and in the scarf group the HVA corrected from 29 to 18 degrees. In both groups, the IMA was corrected from 13 to 10 degrees. The differences were not statistically significant. Three patients in the chevron group developed a partial metatarsal head necrosis. In the scarf group, four patients developed grade 1 complex regional pain syndrome compared to one patient in the chevron group. No differences of statistical significance could be measured between the two groups with respect to the AOFAS score, HVA, and IMA. Although both groups showed good to excellent results, we favor the chevron osteotomy because the procedure is technically less demanding.

  14. [The retrocapital osteotomy ("chevron") for correction of splayfoot with hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Gabel, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Surgical treatment of hallux valgus deformity with a distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal to address an increased intermetatarsal angle (IMA) I-II. This procedure is combined with a soft-tissue procedure at the first metatarsophalangeal joint: realignment of the first ray, lateral displacement of the first metatarsal head above the sesamoids, rebalancing of the soft tissues at the metatarsophalangeal joint. Pain and soft-tissue inflammation at the bunion, impaired function of the metatarsophalangeal joint, and lateral deviation of the hallux. IMA I-II valgus angle (HVA) 10 degrees. Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, assessed clinically or radiographically. Acute inflammation of the forefoot, osteoporosis of the first metatarsal. Vascular disturbance. Cosmetic indication only. Relative: hypermobility of the first ray, valgus malalignment of the hindfoot, previous retrocapital osteotomy. Lateral soft-tissue release. Resection of the medial pseudoexostosis. V-shaped osteotomy of the distal metatarsal I. Exostosectomy. Lateral displacement of the first metatarsal head. Screw fixation. Realignment of the metatarsophalangeal joint by tightening of the medial soft tissues. Postoperative shoe with full weight bearing. Active exercises of the foot and hallux. Physiotherapy. Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis depending on the degree of mobility. Radiographic control after 6 weeks. Bandage or orthosis to maintain toe alignment. IMA I-II was reduced from 13.6 degrees preoperatively to 6.6 degrees postoperatively. HVA decreased from 29.8 degrees to 8.2 degrees postoperatively.

  15. Tensile Properties of the Deep Transverse Metatarsal Ligament in Hallux Valgus: A CONSORT-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed; Elshaarawy, Ehab A A; Khalid, Bahaa E A

    2016-02-01

    The deep transverse metatarsal ligament (DTML) connects the neighboring2 metatarsal heads and is one of the stabilizers connecting the lateral sesamoid and second metatarsal head. In this study, we aimed to determine the tensile properties of the DTML in normal specimens and to compare these results with hallux valgus specimens. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the DTML would be different between the 2 groups of specimens.The DTML in the first interspace was dissected from 12 fresh frozen human cadaveric specimens. Six cadavers had bilateral hallux valgus and the other 6 cadavers had normal feet. The initial length (L0) and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML were measured using a digital caliper, and tensile tests with load failure were performed using a material testing machine.There were significant between-groups differences in the initial length (L0) P = 0.009 and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML P = 0.007. There were also significant between-groups differences for maximum force (N) P = 0.004, maximum distance (mm) P = 0.005, maximum stress (N/mm) P = 0.003, and maximum strain (%) P = 0.006.The DTML is an anatomical structure for which the tensile properties differ in hallux valgus.

  16. Radiographic angles in hallux valgus: Comparison between protractor and iPhone measurements.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Wei-Lin; Li, Xiu-Cheng; Yang, Mao-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Radiographic angles are used to assess the severity of hallux valgus deformity, make preoperative plans, evaluate outcomes after surgery, and compare results between different methods. Traditionally, hallux valgus angle (HVA) has been measured by using a protractor and a marker pen with hardcopy radiographs. The main objective of this study is to compare HVA measurements performed using a smartphone and a traditional protractor. The secondary objective was to compare the time taken between those two methods. Six observers measured major HVA on 20 radiographs of hallux valgus deformity with both a standard protractor and an Apple iPhone. Four of the observers repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements. The mean absolute difference between pairs of protractor and smartphone measurements was 3.2°. The 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were ±3.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±3.2° for the protractor method. The 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were ±9.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±9.6° for the protractor measurement. We conclude that the smartphone is equivalent to the protractor for the accuracy of HVA measurement. But, the time taken in smartphone measurement was also reduced. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. First metatarsal length change after basilar closing wedge osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Day, Thomas; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2011-05-01

    Hallux valgus deformities with large intermetatarsal angles require a more proximal metatarsal procedure to adequately correct the deformity. Due to the relative ease of a closing wedge osteotomy, this technique was adopted but with concern over first metatarsal shortening. In this study, we primarily evaluated angular correction and first metatarsal shortening. We evaluated 70 feet in 57 patients (average age, 54 years) with 52 female and five male. The average followup was 14 (range, 6 to 45) months. The charts were reviewed for the presence of metatarsalgia. Digital radiographic measurements were made for pre- and postoperative hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles, dorsiflexion angle of the first metatarsal, and absolute and relative shortening of the first metatarsal. The average hallux valgus angle improved from 31 to 11 degrees (p < 0.0001) and intermetatarsal angle from 13.2 to 4.4 angles (p < 0.0001). The absolute shortening of the first metatarsal was 2.2 mm and relative shortening was 0.6 mm. There was 1.3 degrees of dorsiflexion on average. Excellent correction of the deformity with minimal dorsiflexion or new complaints of metatarsalgia was found with this technique. The new method of assessing the relative shortening found to be less than the absolute shortening, which we feel more accurately reflects the functional length of the first metatarsal.

  18. Mid-term survival analysis of closed wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comparative study of computer-assisted and conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hur, Dong; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results and survival rates between computer-assisted and conventional closing wedge high tibial osteotomies (HTOs). Data from a consecutive cohort comprised of 75 computer-assisted HTOs and 75 conventional HTOs were retrospectively reviewed. The Knee Society knee and function scores, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and femorotibial angle (FTA) were compared between the two groups. Survival rates were also compared with procedure failure. The knee and function scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better in the computer-assisted group than those in conventional group (90.1 vs. 86.1) (82.0 vs. 76.0). The HSS scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better for the computer-assisted HTOs than those of conventional HTOs (89.5 vs. 81.8). The inlier of the postoperative FTA was wider in the computer-assisted group than that in the conventional HTO group (88.0% vs. 58.7%), and mean postoperative FTA was greater in the computer-assisted group that in the conventional HTO group (valgus 9.0° vs. valgus 7.6°, p<0.001). The five- and 10-year survival rates were 97.1% and 89.6%, respectively. No difference was detected in nine-year survival rates (p=0.369) between the two groups, although the clinical and radiographic results were better in the computer-assisted group that those in the conventional HTO group. Mid-term survival rates did not differ between computer-assisted and conventional HTOs. A comparative analysis of longer-term survival rate is required to demonstrate the long-term benefit of computer-assisted HTO. III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional differences of tibial and femoral cartilage in the chondrocyte gene expression, immunhistochemistry and composite in different stages of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lahm, A; Dabravolski, D; Spank, H; Merk, H; Esser, J; Kasch, R

    2017-04-01

    The function of articular cartilage as an avascular tissue is mainly served by collagen type II and proteoglycan molecules. Within this matrix homeostasis between production and breakdown of the matrix is exceptionally sensitive. The current study was conducted to identify regional differences in specific alterations in cartilage composition during the osteoarthritic process of the human knee joint. Therefor the changes in the expression of the key molecules of the extracellular matrix were measured in dependence of the anatomical side (femoral vs tibial) and associated with immunohistochemistry and quantitative measurement. 60 serial osteochondral femoral condyle and the tibial plateau samples of patients undergoing implantation of total knee endoprosthesis of areas showing mild (Group A, macroscopically ICRS grade 1b) respectively advanced (Group B, macroscopically ICRS grade 3a/3b) (30 each) osteoarthritis according to the histological-histochemical grading system (HHGS) were compared with 20 healthy biopsies with immunohistochemistry and histology. We quantified our results on the gene expression of collagen type I and II and aggrecan with the help of real-time (RT)-PCR. Proteoglycan content was measured colorometrically. In group A slightly increased colour intensity was found for collagen II in deeper layers, suggesting a persisting but initially still intact repair process. But especially on the medial tibia plateau the initial Col II increase in gene expression is followed by a decrease leading to the lowest over all Col II expression on the medial plateau, here especially in the central part. There in late stage diseases the collagen type I expression was also more pronounced. Markedly decreased safranin O staining intensity was observed in the radial zone and less reduced intensity in the transitional zone with loss of zonal anatomy in 40% of the specimens in group A and all specimens in group B. Correlation between colorometrically analysed proteoglycan

  20. Increased revision rate with posterior tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree tibial guide in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Raknes, Sveinung; Østvold, Thomas; Solheim, Eirik; Strand, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To map knee morphology radiographically in a population with a torn ACL and to investigate whether anatomic factors could be related to outcomes after ACL reconstruction at mid- to long-term follow-up. Further, we wanted to assess tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree "anti-impingement" tibial tunnel guide and investigate any relation between tunnel placement and revision surgery. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction involving the 70-degree tibial guide from 2003 to 2008 were included. Two independent investigators analysed pre- and post-operative radiographs. Demographic data and information on revision surgery were collected from an internal database. Anatomic factors and post-operative tibial tunnel placements were investigated as predictors of revision. Three-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the study. A large anatomic variation with significant differences between men and women was seen. None of the anatomic factors could be related to a significant increase in revision rate. Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement, defined as 50 % or more posterior on the Amis and Jakob line, did, however, have a higher risk of revision surgery compared to patients with an anterior tunnel placement (P = 0.03). Use of the 70-degree tibial guide did result in a high incidence (47 %) of posterior tibial tunnel placements associated with an increased rate of revision surgery. The current study was, however, not able to identify any anatomic variation that could be related to a higher risk of revision surgery. Avoiding graft impingement from the femoral roof in anterior tibial tunnel placements is important, but the insight that overly posterior tunnel placement can lead to inferior outcome should also be kept in mind when performing ACL surgery. IV.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Kinesiotaping on Pain and Joint Alignment in Conservative Treatment of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Bek, Nilgun; Tiftikci, Ugur

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to measure short-term effects of kinesiotaping on pain and joint alignment in the conservative treatment of hallux valgus. Twenty-one female patients diagnosed with a total of 34 feet with hallux valgus (13 bilateral, 6 right, and 2 left) participated in this study. Kinesiotaping was implemented after the first assessment and renewed in days 3, 7, and 10. The main outcome measures were pain, as assessed using visual analog scale, and hallux adduction angle, as measured by goniometry. Secondary outcome measure was patients' functional status, as measured by Foot Function Index and the hallux valgus scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). The radiographic results were also measured before and after 1 month of treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the differences between initial and final scores of AOFAS, as well as FFI scales and hallux valgus angle assessment scores. There was a significant reduction in goniometric measurement of hallux valgus angle (P = .001). There was a significant reduction in pain intensity (P = .001) and AOFAS and Foot Function Index scores at the end of the treatment (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). There was a significant difference between radiographic results in 1-month control (P = .009). For this group of female patients, pain and joint alignment were improved after a 10-day kinesiotape implementation in patients with hallux valgus. The findings showed short-term decreased pain and disability in hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiographic angles in hallux valgus: differences between measurements made manually and with a computerized program.

    PubMed

    Piqué-Vidal, Carlos; Maled-García, Ignaci; Arabi-Moreno, Juanjo; Vila, Joan

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare angular measurements in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformities using a goniometer and a computerized program to assess degree of concordance between the two methods and determine the reliability of manual measurements. Angles measured included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), and the proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA), also called the hallux valgus interphalangeus angle or interphalangeal angle. Measurements were made on preoperative weightbearing radiographs in 176 patients with symptomatic hallux valgus. Manual measurements were made with a goniometer by an orthopaedic surgeon. An independent experienced technician used digitized images to perform angular measurements with the Autocad software program (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA). HVA values obtained with the two techniques were similar. However, significantly higher mean values were obtained with the Autocad for the IMA and PPAA measurements, and higher mean values were obtained for the DMAA measurement with the manual technique. Whereas differences were more or less randomly distributed for the HVA, in the remaining patients, measurements were clearly related to the measurement technique, i.e., for the DMAA, the manual technique had a tendency to show higher values, and for the IMA and PPAA the manual technique showed lower values than the computer. Correlations between both techniques for the different angular measurements were as follows: HVA, -0.179 (p = 0.018); DMMA, -0.294 (p < 0.001); PPAA, -0.876 (p < 0.001); and IMA, -0.661 (p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the concordance between manual and Autocad angular measurements was excellent for the HVA (ICC = 0.89) and DMAA (ICC = 0.80) and very poor for the PPAA (ICC = 0.11) and IMA (ICC = 0.42). Angular measurements made on weightbearing radiographs with the Autocad in patients with hallux

  3. Evaluation of reference gene suitability for quantitative expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the mandibular condyle of sheep.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Hongzhi; Li, Shouhong; Zhang, Zongmin; Hou, Rui; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin

    2015-10-01

    Reference genes are commonly used as a reliable approach to normalize the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and to reduce errors in the relative quantification of gene expression. Suitable reference genes belonging to numerous functional classes have been identified for various types of species and tissue. However, little is currently known regarding the most suitable reference genes for bone, specifically for the sheep mandibular condyle. Sheep are important for the study of human bone diseases, particularly for temporomandibular diseases. The present study aimed to identify a set of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data from the mandibular condyle of sheep. A total of 12 reference genes belonging to various functional classes were selected, and the expression stability of the reference genes was determined in both the normal and fractured area of the sheep mandibular condyle. RefFinder, which integrates the following currently available computational algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, was used to compare and rank the candidate reference genes. The results obtained from the four methods demonstrated a similar trend: RPL19, ACTB, and PGK1 were the most stably expressed reference genes in the sheep mandibular condyle. As determined by RefFinder comprehensive analysis, the results of the present study suggested that RPL19 is the most suitable reference gene for studies associated with the sheep mandibular condyle. In addition, ACTB and PGK1 may be considered suitable alternatives.

  4. The role of the lateral pterygoid muscle in the sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) healing process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chng-Kui; Liu, Ping; Meng, Fan-Wen; Deng, Bang-Lian; Xue, Yang; Mao, Tian-Qiu; Hu, Kai-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of the lateral peterygoid muscle in the reconstruction of the shape of the condyle during healing of a sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle. Twenty adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: all had a unilateral operation on the right side when the anterior and posterior attachments of the discs were cut, and an oblique vertical osteotomy was made from the lateral pole of the condyle to the medial side of the condylar neck. Ten sheep had the lateral pterygoid muscle cut, and the other 10 sheep did not. Sheep were killed at 4 weeks (n=2 from each group), 12 weeks (n=4), and 24 weeks (n=4) postoperatively. Computed tomograms (CT) were taken before and after operations. We dissected the joints, and recorded with the naked eye the shape, degree of erosion, and amount of calcification of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In the group in which the lateral peterygoid muscle had not been cut the joints showed overgrowth of new bone and more advanced ankylosis. Our results show that the lateral pterygoid muscle plays an important part in reconstructing the shape of the condyle during the healing of a sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle, and combined with the dislocated and damaged disc is an important factor in the aetiology of traumatic ankylosis of the TMJ. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effect of extracapsular injuries on growth and development of the mandible condyle: an experimental study in growing dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siying; Tian, Lei; Ding, Mingchao; Liu, Yanpu; Li, Guiyu; Chen, Jinwu; Ding, Yin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of condylar extracapsular injuries on the development of the mandibular condyle and try to find a way to treat condylar hyperplasia by electively using such injuries to restrict the overdeveloped mandibular condyle. Sixty 6-month-old beagle puppies were divided randomly into five groups: blank control; unilateral fracture to the condylar neck; unilateral fracture to the condylar neck treated with rigid internal fixation; unilateral periosteum injury; unilateral decortication of the condylar neck. Computed tomography, 99 m Tc single-photon emission computed tomography, and tetracycline-calcein double-labeling were performed after surgery. The puppies were sacrificed 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. Morphologic analyses and examination of growth activity were done. Unilateral fracture of the condylar neck without fixation caused local morphologic changes during the early postoperative period, but compensatory growth of the condyle altered such changes after healing. The other types of injury failed to inhibit the growth of the condyle and the mandible, whereas functional deviation of the chin was found after unilateral fracture of the condylar neck with or without fixation. The four types of extracapsular injury described here failed to inhibit the growth of the mandibular condyle and could not be selected as alternatives to treat condylar hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of flexor-pronator muscle loading on valgus stability of the elbow with an intact, stretched, and resected medial ulnar collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Udall, John H; Fitzpatrick, Michael J; McGarry, Michelle H; Leba, Thu-Ba; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) is an important passive stabilizer to the valgus stresses that athletes experience during overhead throwing motion. However, the role of the flexor-pronator muscles as active stabilizers to valgus stress is not well defined in the literature. The objectives of this study were to quantify the relative contribution of the individual flexor-pronator muscles to valgus stability of the elbow and how this relationship was affected by ligament status. A custom elbow testing system and Microscribe 3DLX were used for biomechanical testing. Flexor-pronator muscles were loaded to simulate contraction, and the valgus angle of the elbow was measured in eight cadaveric specimens at 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of elbow flexion with 3 different valgus torques applied to the forearm. Loads based on muscle cross-sectional area were applied to the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and pronator teres (PT). The effect of each muscle was evaluated by unloading the individual muscle while the other 2 remained loaded, resulting in 5 loading conditions: no muscles loaded, all muscles loaded, unloaded FCU, unloaded FDS, and unloaded PT. Valgus angle was measured for 3 MUCL ligament conditions: intact, stretched, and cut. The effect of muscle loading on valgus angle was similar for each ligament condition. Loading the flexor-pronator muscles significantly decreased valgus angle of the elbow in all testing conditions (P < .01). Unloading the FDS significantly increased valgus angle compared to all muscles loaded in all testing conditions (P < .016). Unloading the FCU and PT significantly increased valgus angle in less than half of the testing conditions. The FDS, PT, and FCU are all active stabilizers of the elbow to valgus stress. The FDS is the biggest contributor amongst the flexor-pronator muscles.

  7. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  8. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  9. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  10. Paediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures: internal oblique radiographs alter the course of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Sağlam, Necdet; Saka, Gursel; Avcı, Cem Coşkun; Uğurlar, Meriç; Türker, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    At first presentation of paediatric humeral lateral condyle fractures, radiological methods such as computerised tomography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, arthrography, and internal oblique radiography are used to determine stability. Very few studies show which radiological method should be used to evaluate displacement at follow-up for conservatively treated patients. This study aimed to show that internal oblique radiography is a simple, effective method to determine the subsequent development of fracture displacement in patients with an initially non-displaced or minimally displaced fracture. In this retrospective study, 27 paediatric patients with non-displaced or minimally displaced (<2 mm) humerus lateral condyle fracture were evaluated by elbow anteroposterior radiograph. The degree of fracture displacement was evaluated by anteroposterior then by internal oblique radiographs. The first follow-up was made between the 5th and 8th day and thereafter at intervals of 7-10 days. Of the 27 patients identified with non-displaced or minimally displaced (<2 mm) fracture from the initial anteroposterior radiograph, 16 were accepted as displacement >2 mm as a result of the evaluation of the internal oblique radiography and underwent surgery. At follow-up, 2 of 11 patients were defined with displacement from anteroposterior and internal oblique radiographs and 4 from the internal oblique radiographs and underwent surgery. Conservative treatment was applied to 5 patients. Internal oblique radiography is the best imaging showing subsequent fracture displacement in initially non-displaced or minimally displaced humerus lateral condyle fractures. At the first week follow-up, anteroposterior and particularly internal oblique radiographs should be taken of conservatively treated patients.

  11. Regional Variation of Bone Tissue Properties at the Human Mandibular Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kosel, Erin; Agnew, Amanda M.; McComb, David W.; Bodnyk, Kyle; Hart, Richard T.; Kim, Min Kyung; Han, Sang Yeun; Johnston, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bears different types of static and dynamic loading during occlusion and mastication. As such, characteristics of mandibular condylar bone tissue play an important role in determining the mechanical stability of the TMJ under the macro-level loading. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine regional variation of the elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic mechanical properties of human mandibular condylar bone tissue using nanoindentation. Cortical and trabecular bone were dissected from mandibular condyles of human cadavers (9 males, 54 to 96 years). These specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography to obtain bone tissue mineral distribution. Then, nanoindentation was conducted on the surface of the same specimens in hydration. Plastic hardness (H) at a peak load, viscoelastic creep (Creep/Pmax), viscosity (η), and tangent delta (tan δ) during a 30 second hold period, and elastic modulus (E) during unloading were obtained by a cycle of indentation at the same site of bone tissue. The tissue mineral and nanoindentation parameters were analyzed for the periosteal and endosteal cortex, and trabecular bone regions of the mandibular condyle. The more mineralized periosteal cortex had higher mean values of elastic modulus, plastic hardness, and viscosity but lower viscoelastic creep and tan δ than the less mineralized trabecular bone of the mandibular condyle. These characteristics of bone tissue suggest that the periosteal cortex tissue may have more effective properties to resist elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic deformation under static loading, and the trabecular bone tissue to absorb and dissipate time-dependent viscoelastic loading energy at the TMJ during static occlusion and dynamic mastication. PMID:25913634

  12. Facilitation of bone resorption activities in synovial lavage fluid patients with mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Takano, H; Takahashi, T; Nakata, A; Nogami, S; Yusa, K; Kuwajima, S; Yamazaki, M; Fukuda, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bone resorption effect of the mediators delivered in joint cavity of patients with mandibular condyle fractures by detecting osteoclast markers using cellular biochemistry methods, and by analysing bone resorption activities via inducing osteoclast differentiation of the infiltrated cells from arthrocentesis. Sixteen joints in 10 patients with mandibular condyle fractures were evaluated. The control group consisted of synovial fluid (SF) samples from seven joints of four volunteers who had no clinical signs or symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or disc displacement. We collected SF cells from all patients during therapeutic arthrocentesis. The infiltrating cells from TMJ SF were cultured, differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and examined bone resorption activities. We also investigated factors related to osteoclast induction of SF, using ELISA procedures. Osteoclast-like cells were induced from the SF cells obtained from all patients with condylar fractures. These multinucleated giant cells were positive for TRAP and actin, and had the ability to absorb dentin slices. The levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), soluble form of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in SF samples from the patients, were significantly higher than in the controls. These findings indicate that bone resorption activities in SF from patients with mandibular condyle fractures were upregulated and may participate in the pathogenesis and wound healing. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surgical treatment of sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle using long-screw osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shufang; Li, Bo; Long, Xing; Deng, Mohong; Cai, Hengxing; Cheng, Yong

    2011-07-01

    The retrospective study evaluated long-screw (bicortical screw) osteosynthesis used in the surgical treatment of sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle and compared it with titanium plates and removal of the condylar fragment. Ninety-five patients with sagittal fracture of the mandibular condyle received open surgical treatment from 1997 to 2008. Among these patients, the condylar fragments were fixed with long screws in 56 cases (group A), were fixed with titanium plates in 12 cases (group B), and were completely removed in 24 cases (group C). Follow-up was carried out clinically and radiologically. The clinical features included limitation of mandibular mobility, occlusion disturbance, lateral deviation on mouth opening, joint pain, clicking, facial asymmetry, and patient's subjective evaluation. The radiologic parameters consisted of degree of bony resorption, bony change, change of osteosynthesis material, and shortening of mandibular ramus height. Anatomic reduction and functional restoration were obtained and no severe complication was detected in group A. However, 3 of 14 patients had severe osteoarthrosis and 2 of 14 patients had ankylosis in group B. In group C 3 of 24 patients had mandibular retrusion, 4 of 24 patients had front teeth open bite, 4 of 24 patients had severe osteoarthrosis, and 1 of 24 patients had ankylosis. The long-screw fixation group had a more favorable prognosis than the titanium plate group and the group in which removal of the condylar fragment was performed. The long-screw fixation technique might be suitable for use in the surgical treatment of sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of two different surgical approaches for fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, S; Thambiah, L J

    2012-01-01

    Fractures of the condyle account for one third of all the mandibular fractures. Different surgical approaches to the condyle described hitherto testify to the advantages and disadvantages of the different surgical techniques used for approaching the condyle in such cases of fractures. We have described and compared two of such surgical techniques in this study. The aim of this study is to compare the outcome of dealing with condylar fractures by two different surgical techniques: the mini retromandibular approach, and the preauricular approach. A prospective study of 31 patients who had suffered with mandibular condylar fractures was carried out. Of these, 26 patients had unilateral condylar fractures, and 5 patients had a bilateral fracture. Further, 19 of these patients were treated by the mini retromandibular approach and 12 by the preauricular approach. The treated patients were followed up and evaluated for a minimum period of 1 year and assessed for parameters such as the maximum mouth opening, lateral movement on the fractured side, mandibular movements such as protrusion, dental occlusion, scar formation, facial nerve weakness, salivary fistula formation and time taken for the completion of the surgical procedure. t- test was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained in the study. Dental occlusion was restored in all the cases, and good anatomical reduction was achieved. The mean operating time was higher 63.53 (mean) ± 18.12 minutes standard deviation (SD) in the preauricular approach compared to 45.22 (mean) ± 18.86 minutes SD in the mini retromandibular approach. Scar formation was satisfactory in almost all the cases.

  15. Displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children: should we bury the pins?

    PubMed

    Das De, Soumen; Bae, Donald S; Waters, Peter M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if leaving Kirschner wires exposed is more cost-effective than burying them subcutaneously after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of humeral lateral condyle fractures. A retrospective cohort study of all lateral condyle fractures treated over a 10-year period at a single institution was performed. Data on surgical technique, fracture healing, and complications were analyzed, as well as treatment costs. A decision analysis model was then constructed to compare the strategies of leaving the pins exposed versus buried. Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed, assessing cost-effectiveness when infection rates and costs of treating deep infections were varied. A total of 235 children with displaced fractures were treated with ORIF using Kirschner wires. Pins were left exposed in 41 cases (17.4%) and buried in 194 cases (82.6%); the age, sex, injury mechanisms, and fracture patterns were similar in both the groups. The median time to removal of implants was shorter with exposed versus buried pins (4 vs. 6 wk, P<0.001), although there was no difference in fracture union or loss of reduction rates. The rate of superficial infection was higher with exposed pins (9.8% vs. 3.1%), but this was not statistically significant (P=0.076). There were no deep infections with exposed pins, whereas the rate of deep infection was 0.5% with buried pins (P=1.00). Buried pins were associated with additional complications, including symptomatic implants (7.2%); pins protruding through the skin (16%); internal pin migration necessitating additional surgery (1%); and skin necrosis (1%). The decision analysis revealed that leaving pins exposed resulted in an average cost savings of $3442 per patient. This strategy remained cost-effective even when infection rates with exposed pins approached 40%. Leaving the pins exposed after ORIF of lateral condyle fractures is safe and more cost-effective than burying the pins subcutaneously

  16. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  17. A paediatric case of bilateral mandibular condyle fracture presenting with bloody otorrhoea following trauma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yat Chun; Au-Yeung, Kwan Leong

    2017-04-22

    A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral bloody otorrhoea after falling from his scooter. Skull base fracture was suspected. CT showed no evidence of skull base fracture but bilateral mandibular condyle and external acoustic canals fractures. We report this case to illustrate a rare possibility of bilateral external acoustic canal fracture associated with condylar fracture in trauma patients presented with bloody otorrhoea. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Management of fractures of the condyle, condylar neck, and coronoid process.

    PubMed

    Kisnisci, Reha

    2013-11-01

    Proper anatomic reduction of the fracture and accelerated complete recovery are desirable goals after trauma reconstruction. Over the recent decades, significant headway in craniomaxillofacial trauma care has been achieved and advancements in the management for the injuries of the mandibular condyle have also proved to be no exception. A trend in operative and reconstructive options for proper anatomic reduction and internal fixation has become notable as a result of newly introduced technology, surgical techniques, and operative expertise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  20. Fractures of the Tibial Plateau Involve Similar Energies as the Tibial Pilon but Greater Articular Surface Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B.; Higgins, Thomas F.; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated if clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and fifty-two tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2 to 33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6 to 32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0 to 493.0 mm and 56.1 to 288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p<0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Clinical Significance Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. PMID:27381653

  1. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury.

  2. Can the tibial slope be measured on lateral knee radiographs?

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, M; Sgroi, M; Juchems, M; Reichel, H; Kappe, T

    2014-12-01

    The posterior tibial slope influences both the natural knee stability as well as the stability and kinematics after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Exact definition of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) requires lateral radiographs of the lower limb. Only lateral knee radiographs are routinely obtained after TKA, however. The purpose of the present study therefore was to analyse the relationship between PTS measurement results on short and expanded lateral knee radiographs. The PTS was measured on 100 consecutive lateral radiographs of the lower limb using the mechanical and three diaphyseal axes with various distances below the tibial plateau. Significant differences between PTS results were found for all three diaphyseal axes, with the smallest differences and the strongest correlation for a diaphyseal axis at 16 and 20 cm below the tibial plateau. Using short distances below the tibial plateau (6 and 10 cm) resulted in an overestimation of the PTS of 3°, on average. The PTS measurements in long lateral knee radiographs are more accurate compared to short radiographs. On short lateral knee radiographs, only a estimation of the PTS can be carried out. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  3. Comparison of tibial shaft ski fractures in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tomo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ishimaru, Daichi; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms at Sumi Memorial Hospital. This study analyzed information obtained from 276 patients with tibial fractures sustained during skiing between 2004 and 2012. We focused on 174 ski-related tibial shaft fractures with respect to the following factors: age, gender, laterality of fracture, skill level, mechanism of fracture (fall vs collision), scene of injury (steepness of slope), snow condition, and weather. Fracture pattern was graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification and mechanical direction [external (ER) or internal rotation (IR)]. Tibial shaft fractures were the most common in both children (89.3%) and adults (47.4%). There were no significant differences in gender, side of fracture, mechanism of fracture, snow condition, or weather between children and adults. Skill levels were significantly lower in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Type A fractures were more dominant in children (73 cases, 72.3%) than in adults (39 cases, 53.4%). There was significantly more ER in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Among children, female patients had significantly more IR than ER; in contrast, among adults, women were injured by ER. We found significant differences in some of these parameters, suggesting that child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures.

  4. Investigating the relationship between internal tibial torsion and medial collateral ligament injury in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Guler, Olcay; Isyar, Mehmet; Karataş, Dilek; Ormeci, Tugrul; Cerci, Halis; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury and degree of internal tibial torsion in patients who had undergone arthroscopic resection due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus. Seventy-one patients were allocated into two groups with respect to foot femur angle (FFA) and transmalleolar angle (TMA) (Group 1 31 patients with FFA<8° and Group 2 40 patients with FFA≥8°). The groups were compared in terms of valgus instability, Lysholm score, magnetic resonance view, FFA, and TMA, both before and after the operation. Lysholm scores were higher in Group 2 at both postoperative week 1 (p<0.001) and month 1 (p=0.045) relative to Group 1. Preoperative cartilage injury was encountered more frequently in Group 1 (p=0.037) than in Group 2. MCL injury was detected more frequently in Group 1 compared to Group 2 postoperatively at week 1 (p=0.001). We conclude that FFA and TFA, indicators of internal tibial torsion, may serve as markers for foreseeing clinical improvement and complications following arthroscopic surgery. level III retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimally invasive fixation in tibial plateau fractures using an pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Silvio; Bizzotto, Nicola; Stancati, Andrea; Santucci, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the outcome after minimally invasive reconstruction and internal fixation with and without the use of pre- and intra-operative real size 3D printing for patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures (TPFs). We prospectively followed up 40 consecutive adult patients with closed TPF who underwent surgical treatment of reconstruction of the tibial plateau with the use of minimally invasive fixation. Sixteen patients (group 1) were operated using a pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D-model, while 24 patients (group 2) were operated without 3D-model printing, but using only pre-operative and intra-operative 3D Tc-scan images. The mean operating time was 148.2±15.9min for group 1 and 174.5±22.2min for group 2 (p=0.041). In addition, the mean intraoperative blood loss was less in group 1 (520mL) than in group 2 (546mL) (p=0.534). After discharge, all patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 1year and then every year post surgically and radiographic evaluation was carried out each time using clinical and radiological Rasmussen's score, with no significant differences between the two groups. Two patients (group 2) developed infection which resolved within 3 weeks after usage of antibiotics. Neither superficial nor deep infections were present in group 1. In all patients, no non-union occurred. No intraoperative, perioperative, or postoperative complications, such as loss of valgus correction, bone fractures, or metallic plate failures were detected at follow-up. In patients operated with the use of 3D-model printing, we found a significant reduction in surgical time. Moreover, the technique without a 3D-model increased the patient's and the surgeon's exposure to radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and radiographic outcomes of medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy with Anthony-K plate: prospective minimum five year follow-up data.

    PubMed

    Altay, Mehmet Akif; Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Nuray; Mercan, Ahmet Şükrü; Sipahioğlu, Serkan; Kalender, Ali Murat; Işıkan, Uğur Erdem

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complication rates, after a minimum of five years of follow-up after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) using an Anthony-K plate. MOWHTO was performed on 35 knees of 34 consecutive patients. A visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and Lysholm scores, were used in clinical evaluation. Upon radiographic assessment, alignment was expressed as the femorotibial angle (FTA). The posterior tibial slope (PTS) and the Insall-Salvati Index (ISI) were also measured. VAS, WOMAC, and Lysholm scores improved significantly upon follow-up (p < 0.001 for all). The overall mean FTA was 4.68 ± 4.39° varus pre-operatively; at the last post-operative follow-up, the value was 8.43 ± 2.02° valgus. The mean correction angle was 13.1 ± 2.7°. A significant increase in PTS was evident (p < 0.01), as was a significant decrease in the ISI (p < 0.01). The overall complication rate was 8.6 %. The Anthony-K plate affords accurate correction, initially stabilises the osteotomy after surgery, and maintains such stability until the osteotomy gap is completely healed, without correction loss. The plate survival rate was 97.2 % after a minimum of five years of follow-up. The plate increased the PTS, as do other medial osteotomy fixation plates.

  7. Shape and Site Dependent in Vivo Degradation of Mg-Zn Pins in Rabbit Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pei; Tan, Moyan; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Ji, Weiping; Li, Jianan; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Yufeng; Chai, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics. PMID:24566138

  8. Shape and site dependent in vivo degradation of Mg-Zn pins in rabbit femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei; Tan, Moyan; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Ji, Weiping; Li, Jianan; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Yufeng; Chai, Yimin

    2014-02-20

    A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits' femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics.

  9. Lateral Condyle Fracture of the Humerus in Children Treated with Bioabsorbable Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tercier, Stéphane; Bregou-Bourgeois, Aline; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcome of lateral condyle fracture of the elbow in children treated with bioabsorbable or metallic material. From January 2008 to December 2009, 16 children with similar fractures and ages were grouped according to the fixation material used. Children were seen at 3, 6, and 12 months and more than 4 years (mean 51.8 months) postoperatively. The clinical results were compared using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Radiographic studies of the fractured and opposite elbow were assessed at last follow-up control. Twelve children had a sufficient followup and could be included in the study. Seven could be included in the traditional group and 5 in the bioabsorbable group. At 12 months, the MEPS was 100 for every child in both groups. Asymptomatic bony radiolucent visible tracks and heterotopic ossifications were noted in both groups. There were no significant differences in terms of clinical and radiological outcome between the two groups. The use of bioabsorbable pins or screws is a reasonable alternative to the traditional use of metallic materials for the treatment of lateral condyle fracture of the elbow in children. PMID:24228016

  10. Occipital Condyle Syndrome: A Red Flag for Malignancy. Comprehensive Literature Review and New Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Jorge; Lara-Lara, Manuel; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja E; Fuentes, Blanca; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2017-05-01

    To perform a literature review of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical course of occipital condyle syndrome, including a new case report. Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is a rare clinical syndrome, consisting of unilateral occipital headache accompanied by ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy. This headache typically radiates to the temporal region, and is triggered by contralateral head rotation. It is usually associated with skull base metastasis, often unrevealed in basic neuroimaging studies. OCS might be the first manifestation of malignancy, and its unfamiliarity can lead to a delay in the diagnosis. We performed a systematic literature review using PubMed and Embase for OCS, along with a new case report. A total of 35 cases (mean age 59 years, range 25-77), 24 (70%) men, presented typical unilateral headache followed by ipsilateral hypoglossal palsy from 0 to 150 days after headache presentation. In 16 patients (46%), initial neuroimaging studies were normal. OCS was due to skull base metastasis in 32 cases (91%). In 18 patients (51%), OCS was the first symptom of disease. OCS represents a warning sign and requires an exhaustive search for underlying neoplasm. An appropriate clinical evaluation can lead to an earlier diagnosis in patients with consistent headache. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  11. Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa causing an epidural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni

    2012-07-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology and treatment outcome of surgically treated mandibular condyle fractures. A five years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zrounba, Hugues; Lutz, Jean-Christophe; Zink, Simone; Wilk, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Surgical management of mandibular condyle fractures is still controversial. Although it provides better outcome than closed treatment questions still remain about the surgical approach and the osteosynthesis devices to be used. Between 2005 and 2010, we managed 168 mandibular condyle fractures with open treatment. Two surgical approaches were used in this study, a pre-auricular and a high submandibular approach (one or the other or as a combined approach). Internal fixation was performed using TCP(®) plates (Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) or with two lag screws (15 and 17 mm). Delta plates were used in 15 cases (8.9%). We report the epidemiology of these fractures and the outcomes of the surgical treatment. We assessed the complications related to the surgical procedure and those related to the osteosynthesis material. The facial nerve related complication rate was very low and the osteosynthesis materials used proved to be strong enough to realize a stable fixation. The two approaches used in this study appeared to be safe with good aesthetic results. Most of the surgical procedure failures occurred in high subcondylar fractures especially when bilateral. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Adoption of the condyle position of patients with extensive tooth wear during occlusal rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Hai-lan; Zhou, Chong-yang

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the adoption of the condyle position of patients with extensive tooth wear during occlusal rehabilitation, and the correlation between increased vertical dimensions and the changes of joint spaces. Twenty-seven patients (five from Beifang hospital, others from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology) with extensive tooth wear were selected and received occlusal rehabilitation treatment. The radiographs of standard Schüllers position were taken before treatment (stage 1), 1 month following delivery of temporary restoration (stage 2), and 1 month following delivery of permanent restoration (stage 3). The superior, anterior and posterior joint spaces were (3.24 ± 0.16), (2.06 ± 0.11), (1.89 ± 0.13) mm at stage 1; (3.61 ± 0.15), (1.94 ± 0.10), (2.52 ± 0.11) mm at stage 2; (3.49 ± 0.19), (1.93 ± 0.10), (2.40 ± 0.13) mm at stage 3. The posterior joint spaces at stage 2 and stage 3 were significantly larger than that at stage 1(P < 0.01). The superior spaces at stage 2 were significantly larger than that at stage 1 (P < 0.05). No correlations between the increased vertical dimensions and the changes of joint spaces were found in the three stages (P > 0.05). The condyle positions in the patients with extensive tooth wear changed after occlusal rehabilitation.

  14. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part II: Open Reduction Versus Closed Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture, conservative treatment using closed reduction or surgical treatment using open reduction can be used. Management of mandibular condylar fractures remains a source of ongoing controversy in oral and maxillofacial trauma. For each type of condylar fracture,the treatment method must be chosen taking into consideration the presence of teeth, fracture height, patient'sadaptation, patient's masticatory system, disturbance of occlusal function, and deviation of the mandible. In the past, closed reduction with concomitant active physical therapy conducted after intermaxillary fixation during the recovery period had been mainly used, but in recent years, open treatment of condylar fractures with rigid internal fixation has become more common. The objective of this review was to evaluate the main variables that determine the choice of an open or closed method for treatment of condylar fractures, identifying their indications, advantages, and disadvantages, and to appraise the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions that are used in the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle. PMID:22872831

  15. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a classification system based on computed tomographic appearances.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-jie; Yang, Chi; Qiu, Ya-ting; Zhou, Qin; Huang, Dong; Shi, Hui-min

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce the classification of osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle based on computed tomographic images and to present our treatment experiences. From January 2002 and December 2012, a total of 61 patients with condylar osteochondroma were treated in our division. Both clinical and radiologic aspects were reviewed. The average follow-up period was 24.3 months with a range of 6 to 120 months. Two types of condylar osteochondroma were presented: type 1 (protruding expansion) in 50 patients (82.0%) and type 2 (globular expansion) in 11 patients (18.0%). Type 1 condylar osteochondroma presented 5 forms: anterior/anteromedial (58%), posterior/posteromedial (6%), medial (16%), lateral (6%), and gigantic (14%). Local resection was performed on patients with type 1 condylar osteochondroma. Subtotal condylectomy/total condylectomy using costochondral graft reconstruction with/without orthognathic surgeries was performed on patients with type 2 condylar osteochondroma. During the follow-up period, tumor reformation, condyle absorption, and new deformity were not detected. The patients almost reattained facial symmetry. Preoperative classification based on computed tomographic images will help surgeons to choose the suitable surgical procedure to treat the condylar osteochondroma.

  16. Treatment of a Femur Nonunion with Microsurgical Corticoperiosteal Pedicled Flap from the Medial Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Guzzini, Matteo; Guidi, Marco; Civitenga, Carolina; Ferri, Germano; Ferretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The vascularized corticoperiosteal flap is harvested from the medial femoral condyle and it is nourished by the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and the superomedial genicular artery. This flap is usually harvested as a free flap for the reconstruction of bone defects at forearm, distal radius, carpus, hand, and recently at lower limb too. Case Report. A 50-year-old Caucasian man referred to our department for hypertrophic nonunion of the distal femur, refractory to the conservative treatments. The first surgical choice was the revision of the nail and the bone reconstruction with a corticoperiosteal pedicled flap from the medial femoral condyle. We considered union to have occurred 3.5 months after surgery when radiographs showed bridging of at least three of the four bony cortices and clinically the patient was able to walk with full weight bearing without any pain. At the last follow-up (25 months), the patient was completely satisfied with the procedure. Discussion. The corticoperiosteal flap allows a faster healing of fractures with a minimal morbidity at the donor site. We suggest that the corticoperiosteal pedicled flap graft is a reliable and effective treatment for distal femur nonunion. PMID:27064589

  17. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Giesen, E B W; Ding, M; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, T M G J

    2003-09-01

    As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Cylindrical specimens (n = 24) were obtained in different orientations from embalmed mandibular condyles; the angle of the first principal direction and the axis of the specimen, expressing the orientation of the trabeculae, ranged from 10 degrees to 87 degrees. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning, and the mechanical properties were obtained by mechanical testing. The principal components analysis was used to obtain a set of independent components to describe the morphology. This set was entered into linear regression analyses for explaining the variance in mechanical properties. The principal components analysis revealed four components: amount of bone, number of trabeculae, trabecular orientation, and miscellaneous. They accounted for about 90% of the variance in the morphological variables. The component loadings indicated that a higher amount of bone was primarily associated with more plate-like trabeculae, and not with more or thicker trabeculae. The trabecular orientation was most determinative (about 50%) in explaining stiffness, strength, and failure energy. The amount of bone was second most determinative and increased the explained variance to about 72%. These results suggest that trabecular orientation and amount of bone are important in explaining the anisotropic mechanical properties of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle.

  18. [Intramedullary nailing combined with cannulated screw in treating femoral condyles fractures].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Long, Da-Fu; Li, Zheng-Wen; Tan, Ying-Dong

    2017-07-25

    To observe the clinical effects of retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws in the treatment of femoral condylar fracture. From June 2009 to June 2015, 13 patients with femoral condyles fracture were treated by retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screws including 6 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.1 years old ranging from 16 to 76 years old. There were 10 cases of closed fractures, 3 cases of open fraetures. According to AO classification criteriam, 4 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2, 2 cases were type C3. Postoperative reduction of fracture and the knee joint function recovery were observed. All patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months with a mean of 24 months. X-ray examination showed that the union time of fracture was 18 to 24 weeks, 21 weeks on average. There were no cases of loosening, breakage of internal fixators and re-fracture. Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS) knee score was 90.07±4.99 at 1 year after the operation. The clinical efficacy for retrograde intramedullary nailing and cannulated screw for the treatment of femoral condyles fracture was excellent. It can improve the anatomical reattachment rate and reduce the complications and promote the knee functional recovery.

  19. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  1. Models of tibial fracture healing in normal and Nf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schindeler, Aaron; Morse, Alyson; Harry, Lorraine; Godfrey, Craig; Mikulec, Kathy; McDonald, Michelle; Gasser, Jürg A; Little, David G

    2008-08-01

    Delayed union and nonunion are common complications associated with tibial fractures, particularly in the distal tibia. Existing mouse tibial fracture models are typically closed and middiaphyseal, and thus poorly recapitulate the prevailing conditions following surgery on a human open distal tibial fracture. This report describes our development of two open tibial fracture models in the mouse, where the bone is broken either in the tibial midshaft (mid-diaphysis) or in the distal tibia. Fractures in the distal tibial model showed delayed repair compared to fractures in the tibial midshaft. These tibial fracture models were applied to both wild-type and Nf1-deficient (Nf1+/-) mice. Bone repair has been reported to be exceptionally problematic in human NF1 patients, and these patients can also spontaneously develop tibial nonunions (known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia), which are recalcitrant to even vigorous intervention. pQCT analysis confirmed no fundamental differences in cortical or cancellous bone in Nf1-deficient mouse tibiae compared to wild-type mice. Although no difference in bone healing was seen in the tibial midshaft fracture model, the healing of distal tibial fractures was found to be impaired in Nf1+/- mice. The histological features associated with nonunited Nf1+/- fractures were variable, but included delayed cartilage removal, disproportionate fibrous invasion, insufficient new bone anabolism, and excessive catabolism. These findings imply that the pathology of tibial pseudarthrosis in human NF1 is complex and likely to be multifactorial.

  2. Relationships Between Varus–Valgus Laxity of the Severely Osteoarthritic Knee and Gait, Instability, Clinical Performance, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Freisinger, Gregory M.; Hutter, Erin E.; Lewis, Jacqueline; Granger, Jeffrey F.; Glassman, Andrew H.; Beal, Matthew D.; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C.; Siston, Robert A.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Increased varus–valgus laxity has been reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared to controls. However, the majority of previous investigations may not report truly passive joint laxity, as their tests have been performed on conscious participants who could be guarding against motion with muscle contraction during laxity evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a measure of passive knee laxity, recorded when the participant is under anesthesia, is related to varus–valgus excursion during gait, clinical measures of performance, perceived instability, and self-reported function in participants with severe knee OA. We assessed passive varus–valgus knee laxity in 29 participants (30 knees) with severe OA, as they underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Participants also completed gait analysis, clinical assessment of performance (6-min walk (6 MW), stair climbing test (SCT), isometric knee strength), and self-reported measures of function (perceived instability, Knee injury, and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) a median of 18 days before the TKA procedure. We observed that greater passive varus–valgus laxity was associated with greater varus–valgus excursion during gait (R2 =0.34, p =0.002). Significant associations were also observed between greater laxity and greater isometric knee extension strength (p =0.014), farther 6 MW distance (p =0.033) and shorter SCT time (p =0.046). No relationship was observed between passive varus–valgus laxity and isometric knee flexion strength, perceived instability, or any KOOS subscale. The conflicting associations between laxity, frontal excursion during gait, and functional performance suggest a complex relationship between laxity and knee cartilage health, clinical performance, and self-reported function that merits further study. PMID:27664972

  3. Is Double Metatarsal Osteotomy Superior to Proximal Chevron Osteotomy in Treatment of Hallux Valgus With Increased Distal Metatarsal Articular Angle?

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hyun; Lee, Woo-Chun

    We compared the results of proximal chevron osteotomy and double metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). From October 2008 to December 2012, first metatarsal osteotomies were performed in 64 patients (69 feet) with symptomatic hallux valgus associated with an increased DMAA. Proximal chevron with Akin osteotomy and lateral soft tissue release was performed in 46 feet (PCO group); double metatarsal osteotomy and Akin osteotomy without lateral soft tissue release was performed in 23 feet (DMO group). Clinical assessments were performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale and visual analog scale (VAS). The hallux valgus angles, intermetatarsal angles, sesamoid positions, metatarsus adductus angles, and DMAAs were compared at different postoperative times. Postoperative shortening of first the metatarsal and complications were compared. The mean AOFAS scale and VAS scores showed significant improvement in both groups after surgery; however, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. The immediate postoperative hallux valgus angle and sesamoid position were significantly larger in DMO group; however, no intergroup difference was observed at the last follow-up visit, with the hallux valgus angle gradually increasing in the PCO group. The postoperative DMAA was significantly smaller in the DMO group. The mean shortening of the first metatarsal after surgery was significantly larger in the DMO group than in the PCO group. Transfer metatarsalgia developed in 1 foot (2.2%) in the PCO group and 2 feet (8.7%) in the DMO group. Partial avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head with advanced arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint developed in 1 foot (4.3%) in the DMO group. In conclusion, no differences in the clinical and radiographic results were observed between the 2 groups for hallux valgus deformity with an increased DMAA. Copyright © 2017 The American

  4. [Treatment of Hallux Valgus: Current Diagnostic Testing and Surgical Treatment Performed by German Foot and Ankle Surgeons].

    PubMed

    Arbab, Dariusch; Schneider, Lisa-Maria; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Eysel, Peer; König, Dietmar Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most prevalent foot deformities, and surgical treatment of Hallux valgus is one of the most common procedures in foot and ankle surgery. Diagnostic and treatment standards show large variation despite medical guidelines and national foot and ankle societies. The aim of this nationwide survey is a description of the current status of diagnostics and therapy of Hallux valgus in Germany. A nationwide online questionnaire survey was sent to two German foot and ankle societies. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire of 53 questions with four subgroups (general, diagnostics, operation, preoperative management). Surgical treatment for three clinical cases demonstrating a mild, moderate and severe Hallux valgus deformity was inquired. 427 foot and ankle surgeons answered the questionnaire. 388 participants were certified foot and ankle surgeons from one or both foot and ankle societies. Medical history (78%), preoperative radiographs (100%) and preoperative radiographic management (78%) are of high or very high importance for surgical decision pathway. Outcome scores are used by less than 20% regularly. Open surgery is still the gold standard, whereas minimally invasive surgery is performed by only 7%. Our survey showed that diagnostic standards are met regularly. There is a wide variation in the type of procedures used to treat Hallux valgus deformity. TMT I arthrodesis is preferred in severe Hallux valgus, but also used to treat moderate and mild deformities. Minimally invasive surgery is still used by a minority of surgeons. It remains to be seen, to what extent minimally invasive surgery will be performed in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Long-term results of total knee arthroplasty for valgus knees: soft-tissue release technique and implant selection.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Ashok; Dahiya, Vivek; Vasdev, Attique; Kochhar, Hemanshu; Tyagi, Vipin

    2011-04-01

    To report long-term results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for valgus knees. 34 women and 19 men aged 39 to 84 (mean, 74) years with valgus knees underwent primary TKA by a senior surgeon. Of the 78 knees, 43, 29, and 6 had type-I, type-II, and type-III valgus deformities, respectively. A preliminary lateral soft-tissue release was performed, and the tibia and femur were prepared. The tight lateral structures were released using the pie-crusting technique. In 92% of the knees, cruciate-retaining implants were used. In knees with severe deformity and medial collateral ligament insufficiency, the posterior cruciate ligament was sacrificed and constrained implants were used. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score was assessed, as were tibiofemoral alignment, range of motion, stability, and evidence of loosening or osteolysis. Patients were followed up for 8 to 14 (mean, 10) years. All knees had a good patellar position and were clinically stable in both mediolateral and anteroposterior planes. No radiolucency was noted. The mean HSS knee score improved from 48 to 91 (p<0.001). The mean tibiofemoral alignment improved from valgus 20 to 5 degrees (p<0.001). The mean range of motion improved from 65 to 110 degrees (p<0.001). One patient developed a deep infection at year 4, and 2 had periprosthetic fractures at years 6 and 8. Adequate lateral soft-tissue release is the key to successful TKAs in valgus knees. The choice of implant depends on the severity of the valgus deformity and the extent of soft-tissue release needed to obtain a stable, balanced flexion and extension gap, in order to achieve minimal constraint with maximum stability.

  6. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  7. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chevron osteotomy with lateral release and adductor tenotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto; Farsetti, Pasquale; Forconi, Fabrizio; Savarese, Eugenio; Nicoletti, Simone; Ippolito, Ernesto

    2009-06-01

    Distal chevron osteotomy is a procedure widely performed for the surgical treatment of painful hallux valgus. The risks and benefits of a lateral capsular release and adductor tenotomy combined with chevron osteotomy are still debated. The aim of our study was to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this combined procedure in mild and moderate incongruent bunion deformities, with a hallux valgus angle (HVA) up to 40 degrees and an intermetatarsal angle (IMA) up to 20 degrees. Forty-two patients (52 feet) who consecutively underwent chevron osteotomy combined with lateral release and adductor tenotomy were reviewed 24-36 months after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 53.5 (range, 43 to 64) years. All the deformities were mild to moderate, with a mean preoperative value of 28 degrees in the HVA (range, 16 degrees to 40 degrees) and of 13 degrees in the IMA (range, 9 degrees to 20 degrees). At followup, the AOFAS hallux score improved from an average of 46 to an average of 88. The HVA and IMA had an average postoperative decrease respectively of 12 degrees and 6 degrees; lateral sesamoid displacement decreased by a mean of 15%. In no case did we observe infection or nonunion of the osteotomy. In one case, painless avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head developed. Our short-term results show that distal chevron osteotomy combined with lateral release and adductor tenotomy is a feasible surgical option to address mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity, even with an IM angle between 15 and 20 degrees. Clinical and radiographic outcomes are generally good and patient satisfaction is generally high.

  9. Hallux Valgus Correction Comparing Percutaneous Chevron/Akin (PECA) and Open Scarf/Akin Osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moses; Walsh, James; Smith, Margaret M; Ling, Jeff; Wines, Andrew; Lam, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is being used increasingly, including for hallux valgus surgery. Despite the growing interest in minimally invasive procedures, there have been few publications on percutaneous chevron/akin (PECA) procedures, and no studies have been published comparing PECA to open scarf/akin osteotomies (SA). This was a prospective, randomized study of 50 patients undergoing operative correction of hallux valgus using one of 2 techniques (PECA vs open SA). Data were collected preoperatively and on 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Outcome measures include the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hallux-Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (AOFAS-HMI) Score, visual analog pain score, hallux valgus angle (HVA), and 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Twenty-five patients underwent PECA procedures and 25 patients received SA procedures. Both groups showed significantly improved AOFAS-HMI scores after surgery (PECA group: 61.8 to 88.9, SA group: 57.3 to 84.1, P = .560) with comparable final scores. HVA and IMA also presented similar outcomes at final follow-up ( P = .520 and P = .270, respectively). However, the PECA group showed significantly lower pain level (VAS) in the early postoperative phase (postoperative day 1 to postoperative week 6, P < .001 and P = .004, respectively). No serious complications were observed in either group. Both groups showed comparable good to excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes at final follow-up. However, the PECA group had significantly less pain in the first 6 weeks following surgery. Level of Evidence Level II, prospective comparative study.

  10. Treatment of moderate hallux valgus by percutaneous, extra-articular reverse-L Chevron (PERC) osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lucas y Hernandez, J; Golanó, P; Roshan-Zamir, S; Darcel, V; Chauveaux, D; Laffenêtre, O

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report a single surgeon series of consecutive patients with moderate hallux valgus managed with a percutaneous extra-articular reverse-L chevron (PERC) osteotomy. A total of 38 patients underwent 45 procedures. There were 35 women and three men. The mean age of the patients was 48 years (17 to 69). An additional percutaneous Akin osteotomy was performed in 37 feet and percutaneous lateral capsular release was performed in 22 feet. Clinical and radiological assessments included the type of forefoot, range of movement, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle (AOFAS) score, a subjective rating and radiological parameters. The mean follow-up was 59.1 months (45.9 to 75.2). No patients were lost to follow-up. The mean AOFAS score increased from 62.5 (30 to 80) pre-operatively to 97.1 (75 to 100) post-operatively. A total of 37 patients (97%) were satisfied. At the last follow up there was a statistically significant decrease in the hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle and the proximal articular set angle. The range of movement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint improved significantly.. There was more improvement in the range of movement in patients who had fixation of the osteotomy of the proximal phalanx. Preliminary results of this percutaneous approach are promising. This technique is reliable and reproducible. Its main asset is that it maintains an excellent range of movement. The PERC osteotomy procedure is an effective approach for surgical management of moderate hallux valgus which combines the benefits of percutaneous surgery with the versatility of the chevron osteotomy whilst maintaining excellent first MTPJ range of motion. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Management of pain on hallux valgus with percutaneous intra-articular Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Calabria, Eros; Raguso, Mario; de Vivo, Dominique; Cuzzolino, Alessandro; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of intra-articular pulse-dose radiofrequency in management of painful hallux valgus refractory to conservative therapies. Between November 2010 and April 2012, 51 patients (15 male, 36 female) with a median age of 71.4 years were included in our clinical trial. Under fluoroscopic guidance we introduced a 22 gauge 10 cm length cannula by a percutaneous access in the first metatarsophalangeal joint and its tip was placed intra-articularly. After removing the spindle, a radiofrequency needle with a 5 mm active tip was introduced. The following parameters were used: 1200 pulses at high voltage (45 V) with 20 msec duration followed by 480 msec silent phases. A great reduction in pain intensity was documented at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after procedures. Pain intensity increased between 5 and 8 months after treatments, so we performed a second procedure in all patients between 7 months and 9 months since the first treatment. Also in this case we obtained a great reduction of pain intensity in the first 3 months after the procedure. Pain intensity returned at preprocedural values after 9 months after second procedure. No complications were observed. Our experience shows pulse-dose radiofrequency is a safe, repeatable and effective technique for managing patients with symptomatic hallux valgus in the short and medium term. Pulse-dose radiofrequency may improve pain control and quality of life in patients with hallux valgus refractory to conservative therapies. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. [Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in hallux valgus one-day surgery].

    PubMed

    Gądek, Artur; Liszka, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of hallux valgus deformity is connected with significant postoperative pain. Spinal and general anesthesia as well as peripheral blocks are successfully used in foot surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of local anesthetic infiltration before hallux valgus one-day surgery on postoperative pain and the need for analgesics. 134 patients underwent chevron or miniinvasive Mitchell-Kramer osteotomy of the first distal metatarsal. After general anesthesia each patient randomly received an infiltration of 7ml of local anesthetic (4 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 3 ml of 2% lidocaine) or the same amount of normal saline 15 minutes before the skin incision. Both the patient and the surgeon were blinded. The patient was discharged after approximately 2 hours of observation. 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 72 hours after the release of the tourniquet the level of pain was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Rescue analgesia, side effects and the use of painkillers were noted. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration significantly decreased pain during the first 24 hours after the surgery. None of the patients from the injected group and 38 from the placebo group received 100 mg of ketoprofen intravenously for rescue analgesia in the first 2 hours after the release of the tourniquet. During the first 24 hours we noted significantly decreased use of 1000 mg of paracetamol and 100 mg mg of ketoprofen orally in the injected group. No systemic adverse effects were noted. One patient from placebo group had allergic rush after use of 100 mg ketoprofen. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in one-day hallux valgus surgery significantly decreases postoperative pain. It is safe, efficient and allows fast discharge.

  13. Footwear modification following hallux valgus surgery: The all-or-none phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cal; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To define footwear outcomes following hallux valgus surgery, focusing on patient return to comfortable and heeled footwear and patterns of post-operative footwear selection. METHODS: Surgical intervention is indicated for symptomatic cases of hallux valgus unresponsive to conservative methods, with favourable reported outcomes. The return to various types of footwear post-operatively is reflective of the degree of correction achieved, and corresponds to patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively without significant residual symptoms. Many female patients will additionally attempt to return to high-heeled, narrow toe box shoes. However, minimal evidence exists to guide their expectations. Sixty-five female hallux valgus patients that had undergone primary surgery between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using our hospital surgical database. Patients were reviewed using a footwear-specific outcome questionnaire at a mean 18.5 mo follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of patients were able to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively with minimal discomfort. Of those intending to resume wearing heeled footwear, 62% were able to do so, with 77% of these patients wearing these as or more frequently than pre-operatively. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-operative heel size. Mean time to return to heeled footwear was 21.4 wk post-operation. Cosmetic outcomes were very high and did not adversely impact footwear selection. CONCLUSION: We report high rates of return to both comfortable and heeled shoes in female patients following primary hallux valgus surgery. We observed an “all-or-none phenomenon” where patients rejected a return to heeled footwear unless able to tolerate them at the same frequency and heel size as pre-operatively. A minority of patients were unable to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively, which had adverse ramifications on their quality

  14. Injury tolerance and moment response of the knee joint to combined valgus bending and shear loading.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi S; Untaroiu, Costin D; Ivarsson, B Johan; Crandall, Jeff R; Hurwitz, Shepard

    2008-06-01

    Valgus bending and shearing of the knee have been identified as primary mechanisms of injuries in a lateral loading environment applicable to pedestrian-car collisions. Previous studies have reported on the structural response of the knee joint to pure valgus bending and lateral shearing, as well as the estimated injury thresholds for the knee bending angle and shear displacement based on experimental tests. However, epidemiological studies indicate that most knee injuries are due to the combined effects of bending and shear loading. Therefore, characterization of knee stiffness for combined loading and the associated injury tolerances is necessary for developing vehicle countermeasures to mitigate pedestrian injuries. Isolated knee joint specimens (n=40) from postmortem human subjects were tested in valgus bending at a loading rate representative of a pedestrian-car impact. The effect of lateral shear force combined with the bending moment on the stiffness response and the injury tolerances of the knee was concurrently evaluated. In addition to the knee moment-angle response, the bending angle and shear displacement corresponding to the first instance of primary ligament failure were determined in each test. The failure displacements were subsequently used to estimate an injury threshold function based on a simplified analytical model of the knee. The validity of the determined injury threshold function was subsequently verified using a finite element model. Post-test necropsy of the knees indicated medial collateral ligament injury consistent with the clinical injuries observed in pedestrian victims. The moment-angle response in valgus bending was determined at quasistatic and dynamic loading rates and compared to previously published test data. The peak bending moment values scaled to an average adult male showed no significant change with variation in the superimposed shear load. An injury threshold function for the knee in terms of bending angle and shear

  15. Weightbearing CT in normal hindfoot alignment - Presence of a constitutional valgus?

    PubMed

    Burssens, A; Van Herzele, E; Leenders, T; Clockaerts, S; Buedts, K; Vandeputte, G; Victor, J

    2017-02-16

    The normal hindfoot angle is estimated between 2° and 6° of valgus in the general population. These results are solely based on clinical findings and plain radiographs. The purpose of this study is to assess the hindfoot alignment using weightbear CT. Forty-eight patients, mean age of 39.6±13.2 years, with clinical and radiological absence of hindfoot pathology were included. A weightbear CT was obtained and allowed to measure the anatomical tibia axis (TAx) and the hindfoot alignment (HA). The HA was firstly determined using the inferior point of the calcaneus (HA IC ). A density measurement of this area was subsequently performed to analyze if this point concurred with an increased ossification, indicating a higher load exposure. Secondly the HA was determined by dividing the calcaneus in the long axial view (HALA) and compared to the (HA IC ) to point out any possible differences attributed to the measurement method. Reliability was assessed using an intra class correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean HA IC equaled 0.79° of valgus±3.2 (ICC HA IC =0.73) with a mean TAx of 2.7° varus±2.1 (ICCTA=0.76). The HALA equaled 9.1° of valgus±4.8 (ICCHA LA=0.71) and differed significantly by a P<0.001 from the HA IC , which showed a more neutral alignment. Correlation between both was shown to be good by a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.74. The mean density of the inferior calcaneal area equaled 271.3±84.1 and was significantly higher than the regional calcaneal area (P<0.001). These results show a more neutral alignment of the hindfoot in this group of non-symptomatic feet as opposed to the generally accepted constitutional valgus. This could have repercussion on hindfoot position during fusion or in quantifying the correction of a malalignment. The inferior calcaneus point in this can be used during pre-operative planning of a hindfoot correction as an anatomical landmark due to its shown influence on load transfer. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and

  16. Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravijot; Chauhan, Vijendra; Chauhan, Neena; Sharma, Sansar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100%) and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25%) had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75%) had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100%) at

  17. [Double-sided juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle in a 15-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Nordkamp, R A G; van Rensen, I H T; Sala, H A G M; van Mourik, J B A

    2007-07-21

    A 15-year-old boy of Turkish origin presented with a painful swollen left knee. An X-ray revealed osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle. Arthrotomy was performed and the fragment was fixated with tissue glue and 2 absorbable pins. Eight months later, a large recurrent osteochondral fragment of the lateral femoral condyle was seen on X-ray. The patient was re-operated, during which operation the fragment was found and fixated with three compression screws. One year after the first operation the patient developed similar complaints in the contralateral knee; this knee also contained osteochondral fragments necessitating surgery. Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is a multifactorial disease in which part of the cartilage of the femoral condyle becomes unattached from the subchondral stratum, usually on the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle. Initially, an inflammatory reaction was thought to be the cause of osteochondritis dissecans. Because of the lack of white blood cells, a previous trauma is a better explanation for the ultimate loosening of the cartilage. The treatments that are described for osteochondritis dissecans are conservative treatment, operative fixation, with or without subsequent chondrocyte transplantation or osteochondral autograft transplantation, and finally microfracturing.

  18. Clinical and radiological outcomes after treatment of sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) by using occlusal splint in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Kui; Meng, Fan-Wen; Tan, Xin-Ying; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hua-Wei; Liu, San-Xia; Huang, Hai-Tao; Yan, Rong-Zeng; Hu, Min; Hu, Kai-Jin

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of occlusal splints in the treatment of sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in children. From January 1995 to December 2011, 37 sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in 30 patients aged 4-8 years old were included in this study. All the patients were treated with 1-2mm occlusal splints in the molar region. The mouths of the patients were kept slightly open by the occlusal splints for 3-6 months, and we reviewed the clinical and radiological remodelling of the affected condyles after treatment. Excellent (n=20) and good (n=10) clinical outcomes were achieved with full radiological remodelling seen in 19 and partial remodelling in 11. Treatment with occlusal splints is effective in delivering good results and function with minimal morbidity in children with sagittal fractures of the condyle, while permitting ongoing remodelling and growth in the short term. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regeneration of subcutaneous tissue-engineered mandibular condyle in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feiyu; Hu, Yihui; He, Dongmei; Zhou, Guangdong; Yang, Xiujuan; Ellis, Edward

    2017-06-01

    To explore the feasibility of regenerating mandibular condyles based on cartilage cell sheet with cell bone-phase scaffold compared with cell-biphasic scaffolds. Tissue-engineered mandibular condyles were regenerated by the following: 1) cartilage cell sheet + bone-phase scaffold (PCL/HA) seeded with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) from minipigs (cell sheet group), and 2) cartilage phase scaffold (PGA/PLA) seeded with auricular chondrocytes + bone-phase scaffold seeded with BMSCs from minipigs (biphasic scaffold group). They were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice after being cultured in vitro for different periods of time. After 12 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and the specimens were harvested and evaluated based on gross appearance and histopathologic observations with hematoxylin and eosin, safranin O-fast green and immumohistochemical staining for collagen I and II. The histopathologic assessment score of condylar cartilage and bone density were compared between the 2 groups using SPSS 17.0 software. The 2 groups' specimens all formed mature cartilage-like tissues with numerous chondrocytes, typical cartilage lacuna and abundant cartilage-specific extracellular matrix. The regenerated cartilage was instant, continuous, homogeneous and avascular. In the biphasic scaffold group, there were still a few residual PGA fibers in the cartilage layer. The cartilage and bone interface was established in the 2 groups, and the microchannels of the bone-phase scaffolds were filled with bone tissue. The score of cartilage regeneration in the cell sheet group was a little higher than that in the biphasic scaffold group, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in bone tissue formation between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). Both the cartilage cell sheet group and the biphasic scaffold group of nude mice underwent regeneration of condyle-shaped osteochondral composite. Without residual PGA fibers, the cell sheet group might

  20. Surgical treatment on displaced and dislocated sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jie; Han, Yu; Song, Yu; Wan, Yingbiao

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical treatment on displaced and dislocated sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle (SFMC). Twenty-four patients with 28 displaced and dislocated SFMCs were distinguished into type M, type C, and type L fractures according the location of the fracture line. The fractured fragment was reduced and fixated with two 0.6-mm 4-hole micro-plates via a preauricular temporal incision. The fragment was extirpated when it was too small to be fixated. The postoperative position and profile of the fragment was examined by orthopantomogram radiograph or computed tomography (CT). The function of the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve was inspected. The occluding relation was surveyed, the interincisal distance at maximum mouth opening was measured, and the deviation from the midline during mouth opening was recorded. Twenty-three condyles (82%) suffered dislocated fractures with the condylar fragment out of the glenoid fossa. Five condyles (18%) were displaced, but not dislocated. There were 2 (7%) type M, 19 (68%) type C (3 comminuted), and 7 (25%) type L fractures (1 comminuted), respectively. Twenty-one (75%) fractured fragments received free-graft procedures with 2 micro-plates. Four (14%) fragments were reduced and fixated without being dissected free of their attachments. Three (11%) fragments were extirpated. There were no permanent facial never branch injuries. Micro-plate removal was necessary because of postoperative infection and necrosis of the fractured fragment in 1 condylar process. No other patients could be found with obvious postoperative bone resorption. The average postoperative maximum mouth opening and deviation at 6 months were improved significantly. The postoperative occlusion was good in 22 cases. Access with the preauricular incision, and the dislocated and displaced fragment can be reduced and fixated to its normal position easily. Free-graft procedure is a suitable

  1. Modified preauricular approach and rigid internal fixation for intracapsular condyle fracture of the mandible.

    PubMed

    He, Dongmei; Yang, Chi; Chen, Minjie; Bin, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohu; Qiu, Yating

    2010-07-01

    This article reports a modified preauricular approach for intracapsular condyle fracture (ICF) of the mandible and evaluates the stability of various internal fixation methods in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) division of the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital. One hundred fifty-one patients with 208 ICFs diagnosed by panoramic radiograph and computed tomographic (CT) scan received open treatment in the TMJ division from 1999 to 2008. Their charts were reviewed. Classification of the fracture was based on coronal CT scan. Forty-three patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging before the operation to check displacement of the disc. A modified preauricular approach was used for all patients. Various internal fixation methods from wire, to screw, to plate were evaluated for stability. There were 110 ICFs of type A fracture, 60 of type B fracture, 9 of type C fracture, 25 of type M fracture, and 4 fractures without displacement. A modified preauricular approach was used for open treatment, which can better expose and protect the TMJ and superficial temporal vessels. Wire and plate is the commonly used stable fixation method for type A, B, and M fractures, which accounted for 56.7% (101/178). Small fracture fragments were removed with disc repositioning for all type C fractures (n = 9) and some type B (n = 9) and M fractures (n = 5). Three type M fracture and 3 nondisplaced ICFs were treated closed. Eighty-nine patients with 115 ICFs had postoperative CT scan, which showed anatomic and nearly anatomic fracture reduction rates of 95.6%. Thirty-five patients with 44 ICFs had long-term follow-ups from 3 months to 5 years. Among them, 63.2% (n = 12/19) pediatric ICFs had continuous condyle growth after open reduction and rigid fixation; 92% adults had ICFs that healed well (n = 23/25). Postoperative complications were facial nerve injury (n = 3), TMJ clicking (n = 1), and condyle resorption that required plate removal (n = 4). A modified preauricular approach

  2. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  3. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. RESULTS Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. CONCLUSION We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau. PMID:28660141

  4. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  5. Varus and valgus stress tests after total knee arthroplasty with and without anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective studies demonstrated inadequate soft tissue balance is associated with the long-term outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, most of these studies have evaluated the joint laxity only postoperatively without anesthesia. Therefore information about the effect of anesthesia on knee laxity is important for soft tissue balancing at the time of surgery. This study was conducted to determine how anesthesia affects the varus and valgus stress tests after TKA. A consecutive series of 26 patients undergoing staged bilateral TKA was evaluated. Varus and valgus laxity of the knee with the TKA implant was measured a few days before the contralateral TKA without anesthesia and again immediately after the contralateral TKA under spinal anesthesia. The laxity was significantly increased from 3.0° to 3.6° (p = 0.005) and from 4.7° to 5.7° (p = 0.007) in medial and lateral side, respectively, when the stress tests were performed under anesthesia in comparison to the laxity measured without anesthesia. The major change in laxity (≥3°) was measured in 6 (23%) patients tested without anesthesia. Anesthesia significantly influenced knee joint laxity after TKA. The findings of this study suggest that muscular forces impart a stabilizing force across the joint.

  6. The influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of operative hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Leithner, Andreas; Zacherl, Maximilian; Lackner, Ursula; Egger, Josef; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-10-01

    We studied prospectively the influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of a chevron osteotomy in 42 patients with hallux valgus. The mean age of patients was 48.3 (20-70) years. Personality traits were evaluated by the means of the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). Three months postoperatively 37 patients were satisfied, and five patients not satisfied with the operative procedure. The preoperative AOFAS Score improved from an average of 48.7 (30-65) points to 87.9 (50-100) points. A comparison of satisfied and dissatisfied patients revealed statistically significant differences in the personality traits aggressiveness (p=0.003), extraversion (p=0.001) and health worries (p=0.04). The postoperative hallux valgus angle was 12.2+/-7.8 degrees and 13.4+/-8.3 degrees (p=0.74) among satisfied and not satisfied patients, respectively, and the intermetatarsal angle (I-II) was 7.4+/-2.5 degrees and 7.6+/-4 degrees (p=0.89), respectively. The results suggest that the patient's subjective result after the operative correction may be influenced by some individual, personality profiles.

  7. Chevron versus Mitchell osteotomy in hallux valgus surgery: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, F O; Verburg, H; Reininga, I H F; van Raaij, T M

    2015-01-01

    Good clinical results have been reported for chevron and Mitchell osteotomies in mild hallux valgus (HV). The primary aim of the present study was to compare first metatarsal shortening after chevron and Mitchell osteotomies in HV. The secondary outcome measures were the degree of valgus correction, metatarsalgia, and patient satisfaction. A total of 84 patients were included in the present study and were treated from 2005 to 2007; 42 patients were in each group. The outcome measurements-first metatarsal length, HV angle, 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, satisfaction, and metatarsalgia-were taken preoperatively and at follow-up. The Mitchell osteotomy resulted in a significantly larger decrease in the first metatarsal length. No significant difference in transfer metatarsalgia was found. Approximately 30% of patients were mildly or not satisfied after HV surgery. Mitchell osteotomy leads to a larger decrease in the first metatarsal length. Patients with metatarsalgia performed poorly, and no significant differences in metatarsalgia were found. Preventing postoperative metatarsalgia is important for a successful outcome after HV surgery. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy for the correction of moderate hallux valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Park, C-H; Jang, J-H; Lee, S-H; Lee, W-C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy in patients with moderate hallux valgus. We retrospectively reviewed 34 proximal chevron osteotomies without lateral release (PCO group) and 33 distal chevron osteotomies (DCO group) performed sequentially by a single surgeon. There were no differences between the groups with regard to age, length of follow-up, demographic or radiological parameters. The clinical results were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system and the radiological results were compared between the groups. At a mean follow-up of 14.6 months (14 to 32) there were no significant differences in the mean AOFAS scores between the DCO and PCO groups (93.9 (82 to 100) and 91.8 (77 to 100), respectively; p = 0.176). The mean hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid position were the same in both groups. The metatarsal declination angle decreased significantly in the PCO group (p = 0.005) and the mean shortening of the first metatarsal was significantly greater in the DCO group (p < 0.001). We conclude that the clinical and radiological outcome after a DCO is comparable with that after a PCO; longer follow-up would be needed to assess the risk of avascular necrosis.

  9. [Clinical and radiographic evaluation of a new percutaneous technique for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity].

    PubMed

    Vélez-de Lachica, J C; Valdez-Jiménez, L A; Inzunza-Sánchez, J M

    2017-01-01

    Hallux valgus is considered the most common musculoskeletal deformity, with a prevalence of 88%. There are more than 130 surgical techniques for its treatment; currently, percutaneous ones are popular; however, they do not take into account the metatarsal-phalangeal correction angle. The aim of this study is to propose a modified technique for the correction of the percutaneous metatarsal-phalangeal and inter-metatarsal angles and to evaluate its clinical and radiological results. An experimental, prospective and longitudinal study in 10 patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus according to the classification of Coughlin and Mann were collected; the results were evaluated with the AOFAS scale at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The McBride technique and the technique of percutaneous anchor with the proposed amendment were performed. The AOFAS scale was applied as described, finding a progressive increase of the rating; the average correction of the inter-metatarsal angle was 8.8 degrees and of the metatarsal-phalangeal, 9.12. The modified technique of percutaneous anchor showed clear clinical and radiographic improvements in the short term. Our modified technique is proposed for future projects, including a large sample with long-term follow-up.

  10. [Dynamic plantar pressure distribution after percutaneous hallux valgus correction using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; López-Gavito, Eduardo; Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín; Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Parra-Téllez, Patricia; Vázquez-Escamilla, Jesús; Quiñones-Urióstegui, Ivett

    2014-07-01

    Percutaneous surgical techniques are suitable for the correction of the hallux valgus deformity. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results obtained with the Reverdin- Isham osteotomy have been reported. The aim of this study was to describe dynamic plantar pressure redistribution after the correction of the deformity using this technique. A sample of 20 feet with mild or moderate hallux valgus was conformed and surgically treated using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy. Clinical, radiological, surface and pressure assessments were performed pre and postoperatively. Postoperative mean (± SD) values of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, metatarsophalangeal, first intermetatarsal and proximal articular sect angles were 95.7 (3.3), 15.5° (5.4), 9.5° (1.5) y 5.3° (3.0), respectively. A significant decrease was observed in surface values of both lateral (P = 0.003) and medial (P = 0.001) masks of the forefoot. Mean pressure values of the lateral forefoot region denoted a significant increase (P < 0.001) while the medial forefoot region showed no change (P = 0.137). There is evidence that this particular surgical technique promotes a new plantar pressure pattern in the foot that might significantly favour the increase of the pressure observed under the lesser metatarsal heads and might not induce meaningful changes in the mean pressure registered under the first metatarsal head and hallux.

  11. Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

  12. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  13. Anatomy, function, and pathophysiology of the posterior tibial tendon.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    The posterior tibial tendon is vital for the structure and function of the foot and ankle. Dysfunction of the tendon can be debilitating and devastating. In recent years, much attention had been directed toward the diagnosis and treatment of PTTD. To properly diagnose and devise an appropriate treatment regimen, the anatomy, function, and pathophysiology associated with PTTD need to be thoroughly understood.

  14. Tibial and fibular nerves evaluation using intraoperative electromyography in rats.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, André Coelho; Politani, Elisa Landucci; Silva, Eduardo Guandelini da; Salomone, Raquel; Longo, Marco Vinicius Losso; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Faria, José Carlos Marques de; Gemperli, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.

  15. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  16. Treatment of Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using a Modified Transparotid Approach via the Parotid Mini-Incision: Experience with 31 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Surgery for mandibular condyle fractures must allow direct vision of the fracture, reduce surgical trauma and achieve reduction and fixation while avoiding facial nerve injury. This prospective study was conducted to introduce a new surgical approach for open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures using a modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. The modified transparotid approach via the parotid mini-incision was applied and rigid internal fixation using a small titanium plate was carried out for 36 mandibular condyle fractures in 31 cases. Postoperative follow-up of patients ranged from 3 to 26 months; in the first 3 months after surgery, outcomes for all patients were analyzed by evaluating the degree of mouth opening, occlusal relationship, facial nerve function and results of imaging studies. The occlusal relationships were excellent in all patients and none had symptoms of intraoperative ipsilateral facial nerve injury. The mean degree of mouth opening was 4.0 (maximum 4.8 cm, minimum 3.0 cm). No mandibular deviations were noted in any patient during mouth opening. CT showed complete anatomical reduction of the mandibular condyle fracture in all patients. The modified transparotid approach via the smaller, easily concealed parotid mini-incision is minimally invasive and achieves anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation with a simplified procedure that directly exposes the fracture site. Study results showed that this procedure is safe and feasible for treating mandibular condyle fracture, and offers a short operative path, protection of the facial nerve and satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. PMID:24386221

  17. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  18. Posterior tibial slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Senişik, Seçkin; Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Cetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key pointsDominant legs' tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001).Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer.

  19. Comparative study of manufacturing condyle implant using rapid prototyping and CNC machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanampati, S.; Karthikeyan, R.; Islam, MD; Venugopal, S.

    2018-04-01

    Injuries to the cranio-maxillofacial area caused by road traffic accidents (RTAs), fall from heights, birth defects, metabolic disorders and tumors affect a rising number of patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and require maxillofacial surgery. Mandibular reconstruction poses a specific challenge in both functionality and aesthetics, and involves replacement of the damaged bone by a custom made implant. Due to material, design cycle time and manufacturing process time, such implants are in many instances not affordable to patients. In this paper, the feasibility of designing and manufacturing low-cost, custom made condyle implant is assessed using two different approaches, consisting of rapid prototyping and three-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining. Two candidate rapid prototyping techniques are considered, namely fused deposition modeling (FDM) and three-dimensional printing followed by sand casting The feasibility of the proposed manufacturing processes is evaluated based on manufacturing time, cost, quality, and reliability.

  20. Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Apaydin, F Demir; Görür, Kemal; Apa, Duygu Düşmez

    2005-03-01

    Preauricular mass is a common symptom for patients presenting to the otorhinolaryngologist with parotid disease. Some rare extraparotid lesions, originating from the temporomandibular joint and the mandible itself, also share the same localization and therefore are to be taken into consideration for the differential diagnosis with parotid lesions. Giant cell granuloma (GCG) was first described by Jaffe in 1953. Peripheral GCG (PGCG) is an exophytic soft tissue lesion originating from the periodontal ligament and periosteum. It is located only within the oral cavity. Central GCG (CGCG) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion generally presenting as an expansible mass with cortical bone defect. It is generally located in the mandible. The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and giant cell tumor must be ruled out because of the microscopic similarities of these lesions. The first case of PGCG of the mandible condyle is presented, and attention is drawn to mandibular diseases for the differential diagnosis of the preauricular mass.

  1. Measurement of bone adjacent to tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S C; Eastell, R; Ingle, B M

    2002-12-01

    Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); (2) compare values for fractured versus non-fractured leg to determine the duration of decrement in bone measurements; and (3) calculate short-term precision in DXA, QUS and pQCT in order to calculate the ratio of decrement to precision (response ratio, RR) to determine the optimal test for monitoring changes after tibial fracture. The biggest decrement in bone measurements at the ipsilateral limb of 28 patients with tibial shaft fracture was observed at the pQCT tibial trabecular sites (distal = 19%, p<0.0001; proximal 5% = 21%, p<0.001; proximal 10% = 28%, p<0.001) and the ultradistal tibia/fibula measured by DXA (19%, p<0.0001). When comparing Z-scores, the magnitude of decrements at the ipsilateral limb was bigger for variables measured directly at the tibia, both proximal and distal to the fracture. The magnitude of the decrement in ultradistal tibia/fibula BMD decreased as the time since fracture increased ( r = 0.55). When response ratios are considered, pQCT measurements at the distal tibia (RR 6-8) and proximal 5% and 10% trabecular sites (RR 5 and 9 respectively) were found to be the most sensitive to change. Therefore, pQCT of the trabecular regions of either the proximal or distal tibia should prove the most sensitive measurement for monitoring changes in bone adjacent to a tibial shaft fracture.

  2. Pathomorphism of spiral tibial fractures in computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Spiral fractures of the tibia are virtually homogeneous with regard to their pathomorphism. The differences that are seen concern the level of fracture of the fibula, and, to a lesser extent, the level of fracture of the tibia, the length of fracture cleft, and limb shortening following the trauma. While conventional radiographs provide sufficient information about the pathomorphism of fractures, computed tomography can be useful in demonstrating the spatial arrangement of bone fragments and topography of soft tissues surrounding the fracture site. Multiple cross-sectional computed tomography views of spiral fractures of the tibia show the details of the alignment of bone chips at the fracture site, axis of the tibial fracture cleft, and topography of soft tissues that are not visible on standard radiographs. A model of a spiral tibial fracture reveals periosteal stretching with increasing spiral and longitudinal displacement. The cleft in tibial fractures has a spiral shape and its line is invariable. Every spiral fracture of both crural bones results in extensive damage to the periosteum and may damage bellies of the long flexor muscle of toes, flexor hallucis longus as well as the posterior tibial muscle. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage that are otherwise invisible on standard radiographs. Moreover, CT images provide useful information about the spatial location of the bone chips as well as possible threats to soft tissues that surround the fracture site. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum. 1. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage otherwise invisible on standard radiographs, 2. The sharp end of the distal tibial chip can damage the tibialis posterior muscle, long flexor muscles of the toes and the flexor hallucis longus, 3. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum.

  3. Modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in female athletes. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Zampeli, Franceska; Giannoulis, Dionisios; Gantsos, Apostolos; Mantellos, George

    2016-09-01

    Hallux valgus is an increasingly common deformity in young female athletes that constricts their daily athletic activities and influences foot cosmesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in this specific population. Forty-two cases of modified Chevron osteotomies were carried out in 33 patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Each participant was evaluated for AOFAS score, pain, range of motion, cosmetic and radiological outcome. Mean AOFAS score improved to 96.3 (p<0.001) while the mean range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint was maintained (p=0.138). The cosmetic result was excellent/good in 40 cases (95%). Mean metatarsophalangeal and intermetatarsal angles were decreased from 29.8° and 14.2° preoperatively to 12.2° and 8.1° postoperatively (p<0.001 and p<0.036), respectively. Modified Chevron osteotomy could offer substantial correction of hallux valgus deformity in young female athletes, with excellent clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P < .01). For the 2 stress methods, ulnohumeral joint space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P < .01). Strong significant correlations were found between the 2 methods for measurement of medial elbow joint space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P < .01). Gravity stress and 30 N valgus stress may produce different effects with respect to medial elbow joint space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preauricular transmasseteric anteroparotid approach for extracorporeal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Gali, Rajasekhar; Devireddy, Sathya Kumar; Venkata, Kishore Kumar Rayadurgam; Kanubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Nemaly, Chaithanyaa; Dasari, Mallikarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Free grafting or extracorporeal fixation of traumatically displaced mandibular condyles is sometimes required in patients with severe anteromedial displacement of condylar head. Majority of the published studies report the use of a submandibular, retromandibular or preauricular incisions for the access which have demerits of limited visibility, access and potential to cause damage to facial nerve and other parotid gland related complications. This retrospective clinical case record study was done to evaluate the preauricular transmasseteric anteroparotid (P-TMAP) approach for open reduction and extracorporeal fixation of displaced and dislocated high condylar fractures of the mandible. This retrospective study involved search of clinical case records of seven patients with displaced and dislocated high condylar fractures treated by open reduction and extracorporeal fixation over a 3-year period. The parameters assessed were as follows: a) the ease of access for retrieval, reimplantation and fixation of the proximal segment; b) the postoperative approach related complications; c) the adequacy of anatomical reduction and stability of fixation; d) the occlusal changes; and the e) TMJ function and radiological changes. Accessibility and visibility were good. Accurate anatomical reduction and fixation were achieved in all the patients. The recorded complications were minimal and transient. Facial nerve (buccal branch) palsy was noted in one patient with spontaneous resolution within 3 months. No cases of sialocele or Frey's syndrome were seen. The P-TMAP approach provides good access for open reduction and extracorporeal fixation of severely displaced condylar fractures. It facilitates retrieval, transplantation, repositioning, fixing the condyle and also reduces the chances of requirement of a vertical ramus osteotomy. It gives straight-line access to condylar head and ramus thereby permitting perpendicular placement of screws with minimal risk of damage to the facial

  6. Preauricular transmasseteric anteroparotid approach for extracorporeal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Rajasekhar; Devireddy, Sathya Kumar; Venkata, Kishore Kumar Rayadurgam; Kanubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Nemaly, Chaithanyaa; Dasari, Mallikarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Free grafting or extracorporeal fixation of traumatically displaced mandibular condyles is sometimes required in patients with severe anteromedial displacement of condylar head. Majority of the published studies report the use of a submandibular, retromandibular or preauricular incisions for the access which have demerits of limited visibility, access and potential to cause damage to facial nerve and other parotid gland related complications. Purpose: This retrospective clinical case record study was done to evaluate the preauricular transmasseteric anteroparotid (P-TMAP) approach for open reduction and extracorporeal fixation of displaced and dislocated high condylar fractures of the mandible. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study involved search of clinical case records of seven patients with displaced and dislocated high condylar fractures treated by open reduction and extracorporeal fixation over a 3-year period. The parameters assessed were as follows: a) the ease of access for retrieval, reimplantation and fixation of the proximal segment; b) the postoperative approach related complications; c) the adequacy of anatomical reduction and stability of fixation; d) the occlusal changes; and the e) TMJ function and radiological changes. Results: Accessibility and visibility were good. Accurate anatomical reduction and fixation were achieved in all the patients. The recorded complications were minimal and transient. Facial nerve (buccal branch) palsy was noted in one patient with spontaneous resolution within 3 months. No cases of sialocele or Frey's syndrome were seen. Conclusion: The P-TMAP approach provides good access for open reduction and extracorporeal fixation of severely displaced condylar fractures. It facilitates retrieval, transplantation, repositioning, fixing the condyle and also reduces the chances of requirement of a vertical ramus osteotomy. It gives straight-line access to condylar head and ramus thereby permitting

  7. Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. New technological methods.

    PubMed

    Voudouris, John C; Woodside, Donald G; Altuna, Gurkan; Kuftinec, Mladen M; Angelopoulos, Gerassimos; Bourque, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human controls from the Burlington Growth Center. The 8 nonhuman primates in the middle mixed dentition were the focus of this study. Mandibular advancement was obtained progressively in 5 animals by adding stops to the telescopic arms of fixed functional Herbst appliances with occlusal coverage; activations of 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 8.0 mm were achieved. Two primates served as controls, and the third was a sham control. Two experimental animals and the 2 controls also wore surgically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the superior and inferior heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles and in the superficial masseter and anterior digastric muscles. Changes in condylar growth direction and amount were assessed with the Björk method from measurements made on serial cephalometric tracings superimposed on metallic implants. Undecalcified sections, treated with intravenous tetracycline vital staining, were viewed with fluorescence microscopy to examine histologic changes in the condyle and the glenoid fossa. New bone formation in the fossa associated with continuous mandibular protrusion was quantified by using computerized histomorphometric analysis of decalcified histological sections and polarized light. The unique combination of permanently implanted electromyographic electrodes, tetracycline vital staining, and histomorphometry represents a significant technological advancement in methods and materials. Together, they demonstrated different muscle-bone interaction results for functional appliances than those reported in previous studies. In Part 1 of this study, we

  8. Cartilage can be thicker in advanced osteoarthritic knees: a tridimensional quantitative analysis of cartilage thickness at posterior aspect of femoral condyles.

    PubMed

    Omoumi, Patrick; Babel, Hugo; Jolles, Brigitte M; Favre, Julien

    2018-04-16

    To test, through tridimensional analysis, whether (1) cartilage thickness at the posterior aspect of femoral condyles differs in knees with medial femorotibial osteoarthritis (OA) compared to non-OA knees; (2) the location of the thickest cartilage at the posterior aspect of femoral condyles differs between OA and non-OA knees. CT arthrograms of knees without radiographic OA (n = 30) and with severe medial femorotibial OA (n = 30) were selected retrospectively from patients over 50 years of age. The groups did not differ in gender, age and femoral size. CT arthrograms were segmented to measure the mean cartilage thickness, the maximal cartilage thickness and its location in a region of interest at the posterior aspect of condyles. For the medial condyle, mean and maximum cartilage thicknesses were statistically significantly higher in OA knees compared to non-OA knees [1.66 vs 1.46 mm (p = 0.03) and 2.56 vs 2.14 mm (p = 0.003), respectively]. The thickest cartilage was located in the half most medial aspect of the posterior medial condyle for both groups, without significant difference between groups. For the lateral condyle, no statistically significant difference between non-OA and OA knees was found (p ≥ 0.17). Cartilage at the posterior aspect of the medial condyle, but not the lateral condyle, is statistically significantly thicker in advanced medial femorotibial OA knees compared to non-OA knees. The thickest cartilage was located in the half most medial aspect of the posterior medial condyle. These results will serve as the basis for future research to determine the histobiological processes involved in this thicker cartilage. Advances in knowledge: This study, through a quantitative tridimensional approach, shows that cartilage at the posterior aspect of the medial condyles is thicker in severe femorotibial osteoarthritic knees compared to non-OA knees. In the posterior aspect of the medial condyle, the thickest cartilage is located in the vicinity

  9. Medial Elbow Joint Space Increases With Valgus Stress and Decreases When Cued to Perform A Maximal Grip Contraction.

    PubMed

    Pexa, Brett S; Ryan, Eric D; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Participants were 22 healthy males with no history of elbow dislocation or UCL injury (age, 21.25 ± 1.58 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight, 79.43 ± 18.50 kg). Medial elbow joint space was measured by use of ultrasonography during 3 separate conditions: at rest (unloaded), under valgus load (loaded), and with a maximal grip contraction under a valgus load (loaded-contracted) in both limbs. Participants lay supine with their arm abducted 90° and elbow flexed 30° with the forearm in full supination. A handgrip dynamometer was placed in the participants' hand to grip against during the contracted condition. Images were reduced in ImageJ to assess medial elbow joint space. A 2-way (condition × limb) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess changes in medial elbow joint space. Post hoc testing was performed with a Bonferroni adjustment to assess changes within limb and condition. The medial elbow joint space was significantly larger in the loaded condition (4.91 ± 1.16 mm) compared with the unloaded condition (4.26 ± 1.23 mm, P < .001, d = 0.712) and the loaded-contracted condition (3.88 ± 0.94 mm, P < .001, d = 1.149). No significant change was found between the unloaded and loaded-contracted conditions ( P = .137). Medial elbow joint space increases under a valgus load and then

  10. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  11. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  12. Long-term Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Scarf to Chevron Osteotomy in Hallux Valgus Correction.

    PubMed

    Jeuken, Ralph M; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P; Deenik, Axel; Jong, Bob; Hendrickx, Roel P M

    2016-07-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. This long-term follow-up study compared the results of 2 widely used operative treatments for hallux valgus: the scarf and chevron osteotomy. Conventional weight bearing anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the foot were made for evaluating the intermetatarsal angle and hallux valgus angle. For clinical evaluation, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) rating system for the hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale was used together with physical examination of the foot. These data were compared with the results from the original study. The Short Form 36 questionnaire, the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), and a general questionnaire including a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were used for subjective evaluation. The primary outcome measures were the radiologic recurrence of hallux valgus and reoperation rate of the same toe. Secondary outcome measures were the results from the radiographs and subjective and clinical evaluation. The response rate was 76% at the follow-up of 14 years; in the chevron group, 37 feet were included compared with 36 feet in the scarf group. Twenty-eight feet in the chevron group and 27 in the scarf group developed recurrence of hallux valgus (P = .483). One patient in the scarf group had a reoperation of the same toe compared with none in the chevron group (P = .314). Current VAS pain scores and results from the SF-36, MOXFQ, and AOFAS did not significantly differ between groups. Both techniques showed similar results after 2 years of follow-up. At 14 years of follow-up, neither technique was superior in preventing recurrence. Level II, randomized controlled trial. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Effects of foot rotation positions on knee valgus during single-leg drop landing: Implications for ACL injury risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Teng, P S P; Kong, P W; Leong, K F

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to measure lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Knee valgus angles at initial contact (KVA) and maximum knee valgus moments (KVM), which were known risk factors associated with ACL injury, were measured. A one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance was conducted (α=0.05) to compare among the three foot positions. Foot rotation positions were found to have a significant effect on KVA (p<0.001, η 2 =0.66) but the difference between conditions (about 1°) was small and not clinically meaningful. There was a significant effect of foot position on KVM (p<0.001, η 2 =0.55), with increased moment observed in the toe-out position as compared to toe-forward (p=0.012) or toe-in positions (p=0.002). When landing with one leg, athletes should avoid extreme toe-out foot rotation positions to minimise undesirable knee valgus loading associated with non-contact ACL injury risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proximal Intermetatarsal Divergence in Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus: An Overlooked Finding.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Evren; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Cetinkaya, Engin; Gursu, Sarper; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Albayrak, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The goal of distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus is to restore proper first-toe joint alignment by performing lateral translation of the distal first metatarsal fragment (the metatarsal head). We hypothesized that in some patients this procedure might also result in involuntary medial translation of the proximal first metatarsal fragment, which we called proximal intermetatarsal divergence. The aim of the present study was to compare the pre- and postoperative radiographs of patients with hallux valgus to determine whether we could identify proximal intermetatarsal divergence. We retrospectively compared the pre- and postoperative radiographs of 29 feet in 28 patients treated with distal chevron osteotomy. Two different methods were used to measure the intermetatarsal angles: the anatomic intermetatarsal angle (aIMA) and the mechanical intermetatarsal angle (mIMA). The maximum intermetatarsal distance (MID) was also measured. We defined proximal intermetatarsal divergence as a postoperative increase in the aIMA or MID, coupled with a decrease in the mIMA. For data analysis, we divided the patients into low-angle (mild deformity) and high-angle (severe deformity) groups, according to their preoperative mIMA. The mean ± standard deviation patient age was 41 ± 14 years. In the low-angle group, the mean mIMA decreased (from 10.91° to 7.00°), the mean aIMA increased (from 11.80° to 13.55°), and the mean MID increased (from 17.97 mm to 20.60 mm; p = .001, for all). In the high-angle group, the mean mIMA decreased (from 14.30° to 6.90°; p = .001), the mean aIMA decreased (from 14.77° to 13.54°; p = .06), and the mean MID decreased (from 20.74 mm to 20.37 mm; p = .64). The results of our study suggest that proximal intermetatarsal divergence might occur after distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus, primarily in patients with a low preoperative mIMA. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. Case Report: A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. Conclusion: A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients. PMID:29181350

  17. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients.

  18. Bilateral carpal valgus deformity in hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; van Zyl, Malan; Ugarte, Claudia E; Hartman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Four hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) exhibited progressively severe bilateral valgus deformity of the carpi (CV) during the weaning period. Radiographs of the thoracic limbs suggested normal bone ossification, and serum chemistry was unremarkable. All affected cubs developed CV shortly after the onset of gastroenteritis, which was treated medically, and included use of a prescription diet. A sudden decrease in growth rate was associated with gastrointestinal disease. Before gastroenteritis and CV, affected cubs had higher growth rates than unaffected cubs, despite similar mean daily energy intake. Return to normal thoracic limb conformation was consequent to dietary manipulation (including a reduction in energy intake and vitamin and mineral supplementation), as well as decreased growth rates and recovery from gastroenteritis. The cause of the CV is likely to have been multi-factorial with potentially complex physiological interactions involved. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Lengthening of the shortened first metatarsal after Wilson's osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Dudkiewicz, I

    2009-12-01

    Metatarsalgia is a recognised complication following iatrogenic shortening of the first metatarsal in the management of hallux valgus. The traditional surgical treatment is by shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals. We describe the results of lengthening of iatrogenic first brachymetatarsia in 16 females. A Scarf-type osteotomy was used in the first four cases and a step-cut of equal thicknesses along the axis of the first metatarsal was performed in the others. The mean follow-up was 21 months (19 to 26). Relief of metatarsalgia was obtained in the six patients in whom 10 mm of lengthening had been achieved, compared to only 50% relief in those where less than 8 mm of lengthening had been gained. One-stage step-cut lengthening osteotomy of the first metatarsal may be preferable to shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals in the treatment of metatarsalgia following surgical shortening of the first metatarsal.

  20. Hallux Valgus Deformity and Treatment: A Three-Dimensional Approach: Modified Technique for Lapidus Procedure.

    PubMed

    Santrock, Robert D; Smith, Bret

    2018-06-01

    In a hallux valgus deformity, the problem is deviation of the hallux at the metatarsophalangeal joint and of the first metatarsal at the tarsometatarsal joint. Although anterior-posterior radiograph findings have been prioritized, deviation in the other planes can substantially change visible cues. The modified technique for Lapidus procedure procedure, uses all 3 planes to evaluate and correct the deformity, making radiographic measurements less useful. Using a triplane framework and focusing on the apex of the deformity, all bunions become the same modified technique for Lapidus procedure can be performed regardless of the degree of deformity, always includes triplane correction, and deformity size becomes irrelevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of 3D Printed Bone Plate in Novel Technique to Surgically Correct Hallux Valgus Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Safranski, David L.; Blair, Jeremy; Buratti, Dawn; Zeetser, Vladimir; Callahan, Ryan; Lin, Jason; Gall, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing offers many potential advantages in designing and manufacturing plating systems for foot and ankle procedures that involve small, geometrically complex bony anatomy. Here, we describe the design and clinical use of a Ti-6Al-4V ELI bone plate (FastForward™ Bone Tether Plate, MedShape, Inc., Atlanta, GA) manufactured through 3-D printing processes. The plate protects the second metatarsal when tethering suture tape between the first and second metatarsals and is a part of a new procedure that corrects hallux valgus (bunion) deformities without relying on doing an osteotomy or fusion procedure. The surgical technique and two clinical cases describing the use of this procedure with the 3-D printed bone plate are presented within. PMID:28337049

  2. Effects of Corrective Taping on Balance and Gait in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Gur, Gozde; Ozkal, Ozden; Dilek, Burcu; Aksoy, Songul; Bek, Nilgun; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-05-01

    Taping is an effective temporary therapy for improving hallux valgus (HV) in adults. Although HV has been demonstrated to impair postural balance, there is a lack of information about how corrective taping affects balance and gait patterns in adults with HV deformity. Eighteen middle-aged female patients (average age, 53.5 years) with HV were included. Corrective tape was applied to correct HV angulation. A series of balance and gait stability tests were performed before applying tape and 1 hour after the tape was applied with a Balance Master computerized posturography device. The study involved the following tests: modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance (mCTSIB), unilateral stance (US), limit of stability (LoS), step up/over (SUO), and walk across (WA) tests. No significant difference was found between the no-tape and taped condition in the static balance mCTSIB and US tests ( P > .05). The taping intervention resulted in significant improvement in the dynamic balance measures for the LoS test's backward reaction time and left maximum excursion ( P < .05), a significantly higher impact index bilaterally in the SUO assessment ( P < .05), and an increase in step width mean and variability in the WA test ( P < .05). Taping for correcting HV angulation had negative acute effects on dynamic balance in the SUO and WA tests and positive effects in the LoS test. Corrective taping, although a form of conservative treatment for hallux valgus, has been insufficiently studied in terms of effects on balance. Our results show that taping, as an acute effect, may impair balance in middle-aged adults when walking or ascending and descending stairs.

  3. Impact of podiatry resident experience level in hallux valgus surgery on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Adam E; Yorath, Martin C; Joseph, Robert M; Baron, Adam; Nordquist, Thomas; Moore, Braden J; Robinson, Richmond C O; Reilly, Charles H

    2014-06-15

    Despite modern advancements in transosseous fixation and operative technique, hallux valgus (i.e., bunion) surgery is still associated with a higher than usual amount of patient dissatisfaction and is generally recognized as a complex and nuanced procedure requiring precise osseous and capsulotendon balancing. It stands to reason then that familiarity and skill level of trainee surgeons might impact surgical outcomes in this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether podiatry resident experience level influences midterm outcomes in hallux valgus surgery (HVS). Consecutive adults who underwent isolated HVS via distal metatarsal osteotomy at a single US metropolitan teaching hospital from January 2004 to January 2009 were contacted and asked to complete a validated outcome measure of foot health (Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire) regarding their operated foot. Resident experience level was quantified using the surgical logs for the primary resident of record at the time of each case. Associations were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses. A total of 102 adult patients (n = 102 feet) agreed to participate with a mean age of 46.8 years (standard deviation 13.1, range 18-71) and average length of follow-up 6.2 y (standard deviation 1.4, range 3.6-8.6). Level of trainee experience was not associated with postoperative outcomes in either the univariate (odds ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.01], P = 0.827) or multivariate analyses (odds ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.02], P = 0.907). We conclude that podiatry resident level of experience in HVS does not contribute appreciably to postoperative clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical relevance of valgus deformity of proximal femur in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Kang, Jong Yeol; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2010-01-01

    Proximal femoral deformity related to physis has not been studied in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This study was performed to investigate the clinical relevance of neck shaft angle (NSA), head shaft angle (HSA), and proximal femoral epiphyseal shape in patients with CP, which represent the deformities of metaphysis, physis, and epiphysis, respectively. Three hundred eighty-four patients with CP (mean age 9.1 y, 249 males and 135 females) were included. Extent of involvement and functional states [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level] were obtained. Radiographic measurements including NSA, HSA, and qualitative shape of the proximal femoral epiphysis were evaluated and analyzed according to extent of involvement and GMFCS level. Reliability and correlation with each measurement were assessed. Multiple regression test was performed to examine the significant contributing factors to migration percentage (MP) that represents hip instability. NSA showed excellent interobserver reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.976. Correlation with the MP was higher in the NSA (r=0.419, P<0.001) than in the HSA (r=0.256, P<0.001). NSA, HSA, and MP tended to increase with increasing GMFCS level, and proportion of valgus deformed proximal femoral epiphysis also increased with increasing GMFCS level, which means valgus deformity and unstable hips in the less favorable functional states. Multiple regression analysis revealed NSA, GMFCS level, and shape of the proximal femoral epiphysis to be significant factors affecting MP. NSA appeared to be more clinically relevant than HSA in evaluating proximal femoral deformity in patients with CP. Shape of proximal femoral epiphysis is believed to have clinical implications in terms of hip instability. Diagnostic level II.

  5. Change in First Metatarsal Length After Proximal and Distal Chevron Osteotomies for Hallux Valgus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Yeon Soo; Song, Kyoung Chul; Choi, Kwi Youn

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the changes in the length of the first metatarsal bone after performing proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (PCMO) or distal Chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) for patients with hallux valgus deformity. A total of 60 patients with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformity from July 2009 to July 2011 were randomly divided into the PCMO and DCMO groups, with 30 patients in each group. The distal soft tissue procedure was performed in the same method for both groups. Measurements were performed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the last follow-up visit at 6.1 ± 0.8 months. The postoperative length change with respect to the preoperative length was 0.7 ± 2.5 mm and -0.7 ± 5.1 mm for the PCMO and DCMO groups, respectively, with a slight lengthening of the first metatarsal bone in the PCMO group and a shortening in the DCMO group (p < .01). The follow-up length change with respect to the preoperative length was -2.1 ± 3.0 mm and -4.4 ± 2.2 mm for the PCMO and DCMO groups, respectively, demonstrating a clear shortening of the first metatarsal length at the last follow-up point in the DCMO group (p < .01).When DCMO and the distal soft tissue procedure were performed, significant shortening was found at 6 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  7. Wound healing complications in patients with and without systemic diseases following hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Kromuszczyńska, Justyna; Kołodziej, Łukasz; Jurewicz, Alina

    2018-01-01

    There are many defined risk factors for wound healing. Comorbidities and their treatment are identified to be one of them. The aim of this study is to verify whether there are significant differences in wound healing between patients with and without systemic diseases, who underwent hallux valgus correction with Scarf osteotomy. A total of 155 consecutive patients were included into this prospective study. All of the patients underwent Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. In 60,6% of patients comorbidities were present, most often hypertension (57 patients, 36,8%), hypothyroidism (19 patients 12,3%) and diabetes (7 patients, 4,5%) occurred. Most of the patients were women (96,1%). During the study complication rate was noted. Patients underwent follow-up: 1,2, 3, 6 and 12 weeks and 6 months after the surgery. Preoperatively and during the last visit treatment results were assessed with AOFAS HMI scale. Scar assessment was performed by independent observer with VAS followed by patient scar assessment with VSS. In 30 patients complications were noted (19,4%). Surgical site infection was found in 6 patients (3,9%). In 13 patients (8,4%) partial wound dehiscence occurred, in 5 of them (3,2%) additional skin closure (Steri-Strips) was applied. Treatment results assessed with AOFAS HMI scale were good and very good in both healthy and comorbidity group, and the results improved significantly after surgical procedure. Scar assessment with VAS was on the average 1,5 pts. Average result in VSS was 2 pts. Results in both scales were rated as very good. No statistically significant differences were found in both healthy and comorbidity group in scar assessment. Based on the results of the study authors believe there are no significant differences between patients with and without comorbidities in aspects like: complication rate, surgery result and scar assessment as long as foot surgery is concerned.

  8. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas B; Roos, Ewa M; Wrigley, Tim V; Hall, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Within-participant design. Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition for forward lunge (mean difference [95% CI]) 0.54 [0.27-0.82] (Nm/(BW×HT)%), p<0.001 and one-leg rise (mean difference 0.45 [95% CI 0.08-0.82] (Nm/(BW×HT)%), p=0.022). No other significant differences were found between conditions in any of the included tasks. A significant effect of the knee brace was detected in terms of an increase in peak knee flexion moment during the more demanding tasks such as forward lunge and one-leg rise. This increase implies enhanced stability of the knee provided by the brace, which may induce increased knee function and knee-related confidence during strenuous tasks. Future research is required to explore the structural implications. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postoperative pain and preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Gądek, Artur; Liszka, Henryk; Wordliczek, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Several techniques of anesthesia are used in foot surgery. Preemptive analgesia helps to prevent the development of hypersensitivity in the perioperative period. The aim of our study was to assess the role of preemptive local anesthetic infiltration and postoperative pain after hallux valgus surgery. We evaluated 118 patients who underwent modified chevron and mini-invasive Mitchell-Kramer bunionectomy of the first distal metatarsal. After spinal anesthesia each patient randomly received an infiltration of local anesthetic or the same amount of normal saline 10 minutes before the skin incision. We measured the intensity of pain 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 72 hours after the release of the tourniquet using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Rescue analgesia and all other side effects were noted. Preemptive analgesia resulted in less pain during the first 24 hours after surgery. The decrease of VAS score was significantly lower in the study group during all the short postoperative periods measured. The rescue analgesia was administered in 11.9% of patients in the injected group and 42.4% in the placebo group (P < .05). In the injected group we did not observe significant difference in VAS score between patients post-chevron and miniinvasive Mitchell-Kramer osteotomy of the first distal metatarsal. No systemic adverse effects were noted. One persistent injury of dorsomedial cutaneous nerve was observed. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration was an efficient and safe method to reduce postoperative pain after hallux valgus surgery. The analgesic effect was satisfactory in both traditional and minimally invasive techniques. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Open Tibial Inlay PCL Reconstruction: Surgical Technique and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vellios, Evan E; Jones, Kristofer J; McAllister, David R

    2018-06-01

    To review the current literature on clinical outcomes following open tibial inlay posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction and provide the reader with a detailed description of the author's preferred surgical technique. Despite earlier biomechanical studies which demonstrated superiority of the PCL inlay technique when compared to transtibial techniques, recent longitudinal cohort studies have shown no significant differences in clinical or functional outcomes at 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, no significant clinical differences have been shown between graft types used and/or single- versus double-bundle reconstruction methods. The optimal treatment for the PCL-deficient knee remains unclear. Open tibial inlay PCL reconstruction is safe, reproducible, and avoids the "killer turn" that may potentially lead to graft weakening and failure seen in transtibial reconstruction methods. No significant differences in subjective outcomes or clinical laxity have been shown between single-bundle versus double-bundle reconstruction methods.

  12. Posterior tibial vein aneurysm presenting as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells and platelet gel improve bone deposition within CAD-CAM custom-made ceramic HA scaffolds for condyle substitution.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, L; Donati, D; Ragazzini, S; Dozza, B; Rossi, F; Fantini, M; Spadari, A; Romagnoli, N; Landi, E; Tampieri, A; Piattelli, A; Iezzi, G; Scotti, R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Gel Improve Bone Deposition within CAD-CAM Custom-Made Ceramic HA Scaffolds for Condyle Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, L.; Donati, D.; Ragazzini, S.; Dozza, B.; Rossi, F.; Fantini, M.; Spadari, A.; Romagnoli, N.; Landi, E.; Tampieri, A.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G.; Scotti, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of a regenerative approach using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CAD-CAM customized pure and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds to replace the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. Methods. Pure HA scaffolds with a 70% total porosity volume were prototyped using CAD-CAM technology to replace the two temporomandibular condyles (left and right) of the same animal. MSCs were derived from the aspirated iliac crest bone marrow, and platelets were obtained from the venous blood of the sheep. Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Sheep were sacrificed 4 months postoperatively. The HA scaffolds were explanted, histological specimens were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Results. Analysis of the porosity reduction for apposition of newly formed bone showed a statistically significant difference in bone formation between condyles loaded with MSC and condyles without (P < 0.05). The bone ingrowth (BI) relative values of split-mouth comparison (right versus left side) showed a significant difference between condyles with and without MSCs (P < 0.05). Analysis of the test and control sides in the same animal using a split-mouth study design was performed; the condyle with MSCs showed greater bone formation. Conclusion. The split-mouth design confirmed an increment of bone regeneration into the HA scaffold of up to 797% upon application of MSCs. PMID:24073409

  15. Distraction of the temporomandibular joint condyle in patients with unilateral non-reducing disc displacement: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Melih; Çağatay Dayan, Süleyman; Şakar, Olcay; Sülün, Tonguç

    2017-07-24

    This study investigated the distractive effect of a unilateral pivot splint on patients with unilateral disc displacement without reduction. The study group was comprised of 18 patients who had no history of treatment with removable prosthetic restorations of molars, premolars, or canine teeth, and no previous treatment for temporomandibular disorder. Joint spaces measurements made on magnetic resonance images indicated the affected side to be narrower than the healthy side. Unilateral distraction splints were made for all patients. An ultrasonic motion analyzer was used to measure the vertical shift occurring on the affected side as patients closed their mouths with maximal force with the splint in their mouths. Closing with maximal force on the unilateral distraction splint led to a noticeable downward movement of the affected condyle. The findings of this study indicate that the TMJ condyle of patients with unilateral disc displacement without reduction may be unilaterally distracted if the articular space is narrowed.

  16. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    relative risk of forefoot versus heel- strike running. In summary, there is no evidence in the literature that either study arm is at more risk than...tested in TSF, or even studied in runners. These basic validation studies will determine if modulators of tibial stress, .such as heel- strike mechanics...the other for acute injuries, although it was agreed that forefoot runners will be periodically evaluated for injuries to the Achilles tendon. After

  17. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    controlling for age and sex was used. However, there were no statistically significant differences between NF1 individuals with and without tibial...Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski (The Salk Institute) presented a different model of glioblastoma in which tumors were induced from fully differentiated...a driver of Schwann cell tumorigenesis. Induction ofWnt signaling was sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype in human Schwann cells, while

  19. Multiple Tibial Insufficiency Fractures in the Same Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, Saartje; Mertens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures were first described by Briethaupt in 1855. Since then, there have been many discussions in the literature concerning stress fractures, which have been described in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. Currently, the tibia is the most frequent location, but multiple stress fractures in the same tibia are rare. This paper presents an unusual case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple tibial stress fractures of spontaneous onset. PMID:23569673

  20. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0-C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0-C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under fluoroscopic guidance.

  1. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. Purpose To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Overview of Literature Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Methods Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0–C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. Results The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0–C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. Conclusions There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under

  2. Comparison of the Modified McBride Procedure and the Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Taik Seon; Chun, Sung Kwang; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Yong In; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Distal metatarsal osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure have each been used for the treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus. However, few studies have compared the results of these 2 procedures for mild to moderate hallux valgus. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of distal chevron osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure for treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus according to the severity of the deformity. We analyzed the data from 45 patients (49.5%; 48 feet [49.0%]), who had undergone an isolated modified McBride procedure (McBride group), and 46 patients (50.5%; 50 feet [51.0%]), who had a distal chevron osteotomy (chevron group). We subdivided each group into those with mild and moderate deformity and compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the groups in relation to the severity of the deformity. The improvements in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score and the visual analog scale for pain were significantly better for the chevron group for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced significantly greater correction in the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced a significantly greater decrease in the grade of sesamoid displacement for patients with moderate deformity. The McBride group had a greater risk of recurrence than did the chevron group for moderate deformity (odds ratio 14.00, 95% confidence interval 3.91 to 50.06, p < .001). The results of the present study have demonstrated the superiority of the distal chevron osteotomy over the modified McBride procedure for mild to moderate deformity. For patients with moderate deformity, the McBride group had a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than did the distal chevron group. Therefore, we recommend distal chevron osteotomy rather than a modified McBride procedure for the treatment of mild and moderate hallux valgus. Copyright

  3. Proximal reverse chevron metatarsal osteotomy, lateral soft tissue release, and akin osteotomy through a single medial incision for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Tae; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Scarring on the dorsal first web space after lateral soft tissue release can be a major contributor to patient dissatisfaction following hallux valgus surgery. We hypothesized that performing distal soft tissue procedure (DSTP), proximal reverse chevron metatarsal osteotomy (PCMO), and Akin osteotomy through a single medial incision would provide better clinical and radiographic results with improved patient satisfaction compared with bunion corrections performed through 2 incisions. The study included 117 feet (of 98 patients) with moderate to severe hallux valgus. Clinically, the preoperative and final follow-up visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, the preoperative and final follow-up American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP)-interphalangeal (IP) scores, first MTP joint range of motion (ROM), and patient satisfaction after the surgery were evaluated. Radiographically, the hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux valgus interphalangeal angle (HIA), medial sesamoid position (MSP), and first to fifth metatarsal width (1-5MTW) were analyzed before and after surgery. The mean AOFAS hallux score improved from 56.3 preoperatively to 90.6 at the final follow-up, and the mean VAS pain score decreased from 6.8 preoperatively to 1.5 at the final follow-up (P < .001). Ninety-five percent of the patients were satisfied with the surgery. Radiographically, the mean HVA decreased from 36.1 degrees (range, 16.0 to 44.0 degrees) preoperatively to 5.4 degrees (range, -12.4 to 29.7 degrees) at the final follow-up (P < .001), and the mean IMA decreased from 19.0 degrees (range, 9.0 to 28.0 degrees) preoperatively to 4.5 degrees (range, -5.0 to 14.2 degrees) at the final follow-up (P < .001). The mean 1-5MTW also decreased by 16% (16 mm) from 97.3 mm (range, 85.0 to 110.0 mm) preoperatively to 81.3 mm (range, 70.0 to 95.0 mm) at the final follow-up (P < .001). We achieved very favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes

  4. Biomechanical analysis of posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Min; Luo, Cong-Feng; Putnis, Sven; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of four different fixation methods for a posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture. Twenty-eight tibial plateau fractures were simulated using right-sided synthetic tibiae models. Each fracture model was randomly instrumented with one of the four following constructs, anteroposterior lag-screws, an anteromedial limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP), a lateral locking plate, or a posterior T-shaped buttress plate. Vertical subsidence of the posteromedial fragment was measured from 500 N to 1500 N during biomechanical testing, the maximum load to failure was also determined. It was found that the posterior T-shaped buttress plate allowed the least subsidence of the posteromedial fragment and produced the highest mean failure load than each of the other three constructs (P=0.00). There was no statistical significant difference between using lag screws or an anteromedial LC-DCP construct for the vertical subsidence at a 1500 N load and the load to failure (P>0.05). This study showed that a posterior-based buttress technique is biomechanically the most stable in-vitro fixation method for posteromedial split tibial plateau fractures, with AP screws and anteromedial-based LC-DCP are not as stable for this type of fracture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

  6. Therapeutic objectives and surgical treatment of mandibular condyle fractures. Personal experience.

    PubMed

    Burlini, D

    2004-10-01

    A review of condylar fractures treated ''non-surgically'' and ''surgically'' over the last 5 years (1996-2001) at the Maxillofacial Surgery Division of the Brescia Civil Hospital (Italy) is presented. The non surgical and surgical treatments carried out, as well as their effectiveness and therapeutic aims, are illustrated. From June 1996 to June 2001, at the Maxillofacial Surgery Division of the Brescia Civil Hospital, 179 fractures of the mandibular condyle were treated. Of the 179 cases treated, a distinction was immediately made between ''non-surgical'' (103 cases) and ''surgical'' cases (76 cases). The 76 ''surgical'' cases were all treated with the same surgical technique. Out-patient follow-up was at days 20, 60, 90, and 1 year, together with a radiographic check-up at 60 days. Of the 76 condylar fractures treated surgically, 15 patients selected at random were re-examined; the medical history was investigated and clinical and radiological examinations performed. For each patient, the type of condylar fracture and whether this was associated with other mandibular fractures were recorded. The following data were also recorded: age of the patient; pain at the surgical site or at the mandible at the time of check-up; presence of normal occlusion and laterodeviation; any surgical sequelae at the facial nerve on the operated side; maximum mouth opening; any radiological defect; time since surgery. Then, the patient was asked to give his/her own evaluation of the surgical outcome, by expressing adequate, good or excellent result. In patients treated surgically the indication is almost absolute in the following cases: condylar fractures types II and IV of the Spiessl/Schroll classification, low or high condylar fractures with medial dislocation of the condyle; non-surgical treatment cannot be applied for reasons of patient's health; condylar fracture associated with other open fractures of the face. The use of rigid fixation also may help in the success of the

  7. Comparative outcomes of open-wedge high tibial osteotomy with platelet-rich plasma alone or in combination with mesenchymal stem cell treatment: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yong-Gon; Kwon, Oh-Ryong; Kim, Yong-Sang; Choi, Yun-Jin

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the clinical results and second-look arthroscopic findings of patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for varus deformity, with or without mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. This prospective, comparative observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of MSC therapy. The patients were divided into 2 groups: HTO with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection only (n = 23) or HTO in conjunction with MSC therapy and PRP injection (n = 21). Prospective evaluations of both groups were performed using the Lysholm score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and a visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain. Second-look arthroscopy was carried out in all patients at the time of metal removal. The patients in the MSC-PRP group showed significantly greater improvements in the KOOS subscales for pain (PRP only, 74.0 ± 5.7; MSC-PRP, 81.2 ± 6.9; P < .001) and symptoms (PRP only, 75.4 ± 8.5; MSC-PRP, 82.8 ± 7.2; P = .006) relative to the PRP-only group. Although the mean Lysholm score was similarly improved in both groups (PRP only, 80.6 ± 13.5; MSC-PRP, 84.7 ± 16.2; P = .357), the MSC-PRP group showed a significantly greater improvement in the VAS pain score (PRP only, 16.2 ± 4.6; MSC-PRP, 10.2 ± 5.7; P < .001). There were no differences in the preoperative (PRP only, varus 2.8° ± 1.7°; MSC-PRP, varus 3.4° ± 3.0°; P = .719) and postoperative (PRP only, valgus 9.8° ± 2.4°; MSC-PRP, valgus 8.7° ± 2.3°; P = .678) femorotibial angles or weight-bearing lines between the groups. Arthroscopic evaluation, at plate removal, showed that partial or even fibrocartilage coverage was achieved in 50% of the MSC-PRP group patients but in only 10% of the patients in the PRP-only group (P < .001). MSC therapy, in conjunction with HTO, mildly improved cartilage healing and showed good clinical results in some KOOS subscores and the VAS pain score compared with PRP only. Level II, prospective comparative study

  8. Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle: our first experiences.

    PubMed

    Vesnaver, Ales

    2008-10-01

    Treatment of intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle head is conservative at most institutions dealing with facial fractures. Recently, reports had been published about benefits of surgical treatment in these fractures. From July 2004 until the end of June 2006, 13 patients with 16 displaced intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle were treated with open reduction and internal fixation at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Ljubljana, Slovenia, using the preauricular approach and the lag screw technique. Twelve of the 13 patients could open their mouths for 40 mm or more, and 10 had a deflection of the chin of less than 2 mm upon maximal opening. None of the patients experienced pain upon rest, palpation, or chewing. Occlusion was not noted as altered in any of the cases, neither subjectively, nor on examination. There were no cases of postoperative weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Surgical treatment of intra-articular condyle fractures using the preauricular approach achieves a good exposure and enables proper reduction. Stable fixation of fractured bony fragments can be achieved using the lag screw technique. Another benefit of open exposure is revision and repair of TMJ soft tissues. With the appropriate surgical technique, the surgical procedure is safe and leads to good results.

  9. Impacted mandibular third molars and their influence on mandibular angle and condyle fractures--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gaddipati, Rajasekhar; Ramisetty, Sudhir; Vura, Nandagopal; Kanduri, Rajeev Reddy; Gunda, Vinay Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Previous retrospective analyses prove that impacted mandibular third molars (M3s) increase the risk of angle fractures and decrease the risk of concomitant fractures to the condyle. A retrospective cohort was designed for patients reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from January 2011 till June 2013. The study variables are presence or absence of third molar, if it is present, their position, classified using the Pell and Gregory system; angulation, classified using Shiller's method. The outcome variables were angle and condyle fractures. Hospital records and panoramic radiographs were used to determine and classify these variables. The study sample comprised of 118 mandibular angle and condyle fractures in 110 patients. Database was constructed and analysed using SPSS version 10.0. This present retrospective study concluded that the presence of impacted third molar predisposes the angle to fracture and reduces the risk of a concomitant condylar fracture. However absence of impacted third molar increases the risk of condylar fracture. The highest incidence of angle fracture was observed in position A impacted mandibular third molars. And there is no significant relationship, concerning ramus position and angulation of impacted mandibular third molars with the angle fracture. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomical and Functional Recovery of Intracapsular Fractures of the Mandibular Condyle: Analysis of 124 Cases after Closed Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sung; Jeon, Eun-Gyu; Seol, Guk-Jin; Choi, So-Young; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Paeng, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of intracapsular fracture lines of the mandibular condyle on the anatomical and functional recovery after non-surgical closed treatment. Methods: Clinical and radiological follow-up of 124 patients with intracapsular fractures of the mandibular condyle was performed after closed treatment between 2005 and 2012. The intracapsular fractures were classified into three categories: type A (medial condylar pole fracture), type B (lateral condylar pole fracture with loss of vertical height) and type M (multiple fragments or comminuted fracture). Results: By radiological finding, fracture types B and M lost up to 24% vertical height of the mandibular condyle compared to the height on the opposite side. In Type M, moderate to severe dysfunction was observed in 33% of the cases. Bilateral fractures were significantly associated with the risk of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction in fracture types A and B. Bilateral fracture and TMJ dysfunction were not statistically significantly associated in type M fractures. Conclusion: Most of the mandibular intracapsular condylar fractures recovered acceptably after conservative non-surgical treatment with functional rehabilitation, even with some anatomical shortening of the condylar height. The poor functional recovery encountered in type M fractures, especially in cases with additional fracture sites and bilateral fractures, points up the limitation of closed treatment in such cases. PMID:27489844

  11. Shaft-Condylar Angle for surgical correction in neglected and displaced lateral humeral condyle fracture in children.

    PubMed

    Mulpruek, Pornchai; Angsanuntsukh, Chanika; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Sa-Ngasoongsong, Paphon; Tawonsawatruk, Tulyapruek; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn

    2015-09-01

    To assess the outcome after using the Shaft-Condylar angle (SCA) as intraoperative reference for sagittal plane correction in displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures in children presented 3-weeks after injury. Ten children, with delayed presentation of a displaced lateral humeral condyle fracture and undergoing surgery during 1999-2011, were reviewed. The goal was to obtain a smooth articular surface with an intraoperative SCA of nearly 40° and nearest-anatomical carrying angle. They were allocated into two groups according to the postoperative SCA [Good-reduction group (SCA=30-50°), and Bad-reduction group (SCA<30°, >50°)] and the final outcomes were then compared. All fractures united without avascular necrosis. The Good-reduction group (n=7) showed a significant improvement in final range of motion and functional outcome compared to the Bad-reduction group (n=3) (p=0.02). However, there was no significant difference in pain, carrying angle and overall outcome between both groups. SCA is a possible intraoperative reference for sagittal alignment correction in late presented displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures.

  12. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-04-21

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Occipital Condyle Syndrome as an Initial Presentation of Lung Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Ta; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Cheng, Chun-An; Chen, Ming-Hua; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-03-01

    Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is a rare cause of headache. This study herein reports a case in which a unique headache and tongue deviation appear as symptoms of the first presentation of a malignant tumor. A healthy 67-year-old male presented with a unilateral shooting pain in the occipital region, accompanied by slurred speech and difficulty swallowing. Neurological examinations later revealed atrophy and mild fasciculation of the tongue. The clinical symptoms and MRI results suggested OCS. Screening for tumor markers showed an elevated CEA. The chest CT revealed a lobulated soft-tissue mass in the lower left lobe, and a CTguided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. A whole body bone scan found multiple foci. The adenocarcinoma was graded pT2bN3M1b, stage IV. The headache improved with a prescription of prednisone, 60 mg to be taken daily. With three months of treatment, clinical examinations showed that the patient was free of pain and that there had been no progression of the atrophy or deviation of the tongue. The possible etiology of OCS includes a primary tumor or metastatic lesion that directly invades the base of the skull. Determining the underlying causes of OCS can be challenging, but MR imaging is currently the diagnostic tool of choice. An awareness of the features of OCS in healthy adults may be able to lead to earlier diagnosis of the underlying etiology and efficient relief of the symptoms.

  14. Diagnostic index: an open-source tool to classify TMJ OA condyles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Pascal, Laura; Prieto, Juan; Vimort, Jean Baptiste; Gomes, Liliane; Yatabe, Marilia; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos; Budin, Francois; Pieper, Steve; Styner, Martin; Benavides, Erika; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of temporomandibular joints (TMJ) occurs in about 40% of the patients who present TMJ disorders. Despite its prevalence, OA diagnosis and treatment remain controversial since there are no clear symptoms of the disease, especially in early stages. Quantitative tools based on 3D imaging of the TMJ condyle have the potential to help characterize TMJ OA changes. The goals of the tools proposed in this study are to ultimately develop robust imaging markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. This work proposes to identify differences among asymptomatic controls and different clinical phenotypes of TMJ OA by means of Statistical Shape Modeling (SSM), obtained via clinical expert consensus. From three different grouping schemes (with 3, 5 and 7 groups), our best results reveal that that the majority (74.5%) of the classifications occur in agreement with the groups assigned by consensus between our clinical experts. Our findings suggest the existence of different disease-based phenotypic morphologies in TMJ OA. Our preliminary findings with statistical shape modeling based biomarkers may provide a quantitative staging of the disease. The methodology used in this study is included in an open source image analysis toolbox, to ensure reproducibility and appropriate distribution and dissemination of the solution proposed.

  15. Finite element analysis of three patterns of internal fixation of fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip D; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for fractures of the mandibular condyle is a matter for ongoing discussion. In this study we investigated the stability of three commonly used patterns of plate fixation, and constructed finite element models of a simulated mandibular condylar fracture. The completed models were heterogeneous in the distribution of bony material properties, contained about 1.2 million elements, and incorporated simulated jaw-adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. This model was considerably larger and more complex than previous finite element models that have been used to analyse the biomechanical behaviour of differing plating techniques. The use of two parallel 2.0 titanium miniplates gave a more stable configuration with lower mean element stresses and displacements over the use of a single miniplate. In addition, a parallel orientation of two miniplates resulted in lower stresses and displacements than did the use of two miniplates in an offset pattern. The use of two parallel titanium plates resulted in a superior biomechanical result as defined by mean element stresses and relative movement between the fractured fragments in these finite element models. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental panoramic image analysis for enhancement biomarker of mandibular condyle for osteoporosis early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprijanto; Azhari; Juliastuti, E.; Septyvergy, A.; Setyagar, N. P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Currently, a BMD level is determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Previous studies reported that dental panoramic radiography image has potential information for early osteoporosis detection. This work reported alternative scheme, that consists of the determination of the Region of Interest (ROI) the condyle mandibular in the image as biomarker and feature extraction from ROI and classification of bone conditions. The minimum value of intensity in the cavity area is used to compensate an offset on the ROI. For feature extraction, the fraction of intensity values in the ROI that represent high bone density and the ROI total area is perfomed. The classification will be evaluated from the ability of each feature and its combinations for the BMD detection in 2 classes (normal and abnormal), with the artificial neural network method. The evaluation system used 105 panoramic image data from menopause women which consist of 36 training data and 69 test data that were divided into 2 classes. The 2 classes of classification obtained 88.0% accuracy rate and 88.0% sensitivity rate.

  17. Optimizing Functional Outcomes in Mandibular Condyle Reconstruction With the Free Fibula Flap Using Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z-Hye; Avraham, Tomer; Monaco, Casian; Patel, Ashish A; Hirsch, David L; Levine, Jamie P

    2018-05-01

    Mandibular defects involving the condyle represent a complex reconstructive challenge for restoring proper function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) because it requires precise bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap without the need for additional adjuncts. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical and functional outcomes after reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects using only a free fibula graft with the help of virtual surgery techniques. A retrospective review was performed to identify all patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction with only a free fibula flap without any TMJ adjuncts after a total condylectomy. Three-dimensional modeling software was used to plan and execute reconstruction for all patients. From 2009 through 2014, 14 patients underwent reconstruction of mandibular defects involving the condyle with the aid of virtual surgery technology. The average age was 38.7 years (range, 11 to 77 yr). The average follow-up period was 2.6 years (range, 0.8 to 4.2 yr). Flap survival was 100% (N = 14). All patients reported improved facial symmetry, adequate jaw opening, and normal dental occlusion. In addition, they achieved good functional outcomes, including normal intelligible speech and the tolerance of a regular diet with solid foods. Maximal interincisal opening range for all patients was 25 to 38 mm with no lateral deviation or subjective joint pain. No patient had progressive joint hypomobility or condylar migration. One patient had ankylosis, which required release. TMJ reconstruction poses considerable challenges in bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of CAD/CAM technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap through precise

  18. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  19. Proximal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus: an audit of radiologic outcome after single screw fixation and full postoperative weightbearing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proximal metatarsal osteotomy combined with a distal soft-tissue procedure is a common treatment for moderate to severe hallux valgus. Secure stabilisation of the metatarsal osteotomy is necessary to avoid complications such as delayed union, nonunion or malunion as well as loss of correction. The aim of this study was to report our results using a single screw for stabilisation of the osteotomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 151 patients with severe hallux valgus who were treated by the above mentioned way with full postoperative weightbearing in a stiff soled shoe. Mean age of patients at time of surgery was 54 years, 19 patients were male and 132 female. Assessment of clinical and radiographic results was performed after 2 days and 6 weeks. Results were also correlated to the experience of the performing surgeon. Results Mean preoperative HVA (hallux valgus angle) was 36.4 degrees, and then 3.5 degrees 2 days and 13.4 degrees 6 weeks after the procedure (p < 0.001). Mean preoperative IMA (intermetarsal angle) was 16.8 degrees, and then 6.4 degrees after 2 days and 9.8 degrees after 6 weeks (p < 0.001). Mean preoperative first metatarsal length of 56.4 mm decreased to 53.6 mm after 6 weeks. Possible non-union of the osteotomy was observed in 4 patients (2.6%) after 6 weeks. Performing residents (n = 40) operated in 65 minutes and attending surgeons (n = 111) in 45 minutes, with no significant differences in radiographic measurements between both groups. Conclusions Single screw stabilisation of proximal chevron osteotomy is a reliable method for treating severe hallux valgus deformities with satisfactory results. PMID:23725485

  20. Distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus decided using intraoperative varus stress radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyong-Nyun; Park, Yoo-Jung; Kim, Gab-Lae; Park, Yong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus. The patients were selected using criteria that included the degree of lateral soft tissue contracture and metatarsocuneiform joint flexibility. The contracture and flexibility were determined from intraoperative varus stress radiographs. From April 2007 to May 2009, 56 feet in 51 consecutive patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus had undergone distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release. This was done when the lateral soft tissue contracture was not so severe that passive correction of the hallux valgus deformity was not possible and when the metatarsocuneiform joint was flexible enough to permit additional correction of the first intermetatarsal angle after lateral soft tissue release. The mean patient age was 45.2 (range 23 to 54) years, and the duration of follow-up was 27.5 (range 24 to 46) months. The mean hallux abductus angle decreased from 33.5° ± 3.1° to 11.6° ± 3.3°, and the first intermetatarsal angle decreased from 16.4° ± 2.7° to 9.7° ± 2.1°. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-interphalangeal scores increased from 66.6° ± 10.7° to 92.6° ± 9.4° points, and 46 of the 51 patients (90%) were either very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. No recurrence of deformity or osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head occurred. When lateral soft tissue contracture is not severe and when the metatarsocuneiform joint is flexible enough, distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release can be a useful and effective choice for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of knee confidence with pain, knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and pain, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 100 participants with symptomatic and radiographic medial tibiofemoral compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment recruited for a randomized controlled trial. The extent of knee confidence, assessed using a 5-point Likert scale item from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, was set as the dependent variable in univariable and multivariable ordinal regression, with pain during walking, self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking as independent variables. One percent of the participants were not troubled with lack of knee confidence, 17% were mildly troubled, 50% were moderately troubled, 26% were severely troubled, and 6% were extremely troubled. Significant associations were found between worse knee confidence and higher pain intensity, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion. The multivariable model consisting of the same variables significantly accounted for 24% of the variance in knee confidence (P < 0.001). Worse knee confidence is associated with higher pain, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps muscle strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. Since previous research has shown that worse knee confidence is predictive of functional decline in knee OA, addressing lack of knee confidence by treating these modifiable impairments could represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Distal Femoral Osteotomy for the Valgus Knee: Medial Closing Wedge Versus Lateral Opening Wedge: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Jones, Daniel L; Hartley, Melissa K; Kapron, Ashley L; Krych, Aaron J; Aoki, Stephen K; Maak, Travis G

    2016-10-01

    (1) To determine the radiographic correction/healing rate, patient-reported outcomes, reoperation rate, and complication rate after distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) for the valgus knee with lateral compartment pathology. (2) To summarize the reported results of medial closing wedge and lateral opening wedge DFO. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL to identify studies reporting outcomes of DFOs for the valgus knee. Keywords included "distal femoral osteotomy," "chondral," "cartilage," "valgus," "joint restoration," "joint preservation," "arthritis," and "gonarthrosis." Two authors first reviewed the articles; our study exclusion criteria were then applied, and the articles were included on the basis relevance defined by the aforementioned criteria. The Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies scale judged the quality of the literature. Sixteen studies were relevant to the research questions out of 191 studies identified by the original search. Sixteen studies were identified reporting on 372 osteotomies with mean follow-up of 45 to 180 months. All studies reported mean radiographic correction to a near neutral mechanical axis, with 3.2% nonunion and 3.8% delayed union rates. There was a 9% complication rate and a 34% reoperation rate, of which 15% were converted to arthroplasty. There were similar results reported for medial closing wedge and lateral opening wedge techniques, with a higher conversion to arthroplasty in the medial closing wedge that was confounded by longer mean follow-up in this group (mean follow-up 100 v 58 months). DFOs for the valgus knee with lateral compartment disease provide improvements in patient-reported knee health-related quality of life at midterm follow-up but have high rates of reoperation. No evidence exists proving better results of either the lateral opening wedge or medial closing wedge techniques. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North

  3. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer.

  4. Extended plantar limb (modified) chevron osteotomy versus scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Lines, Stephen; Hepple, Stephen; Winson, Ian; Harries, William

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this RCT was to compare the extended plantar limb (modified) chevron osteotomy with the scarf osteotomy in correcting hallux valgus deformity and improving functional scores and patient satisfaction. Patients were randomly assigned and kept blind to surgical allocation. Cases requiring additional procedures including the Akin osteotomy were excluded. Outcomes were measured at 1 year following surgery. 84 patients (109 feet) were analysed (60 modified chevron; 49 Scarf). The mean age was 50.7 years (75F: 9M). Post-operative intermetatarsal angle (IMA) was significantly lower in the modified chevron group (5.8° versus 6.9°, p=0.045). Hallux valgus angle and distal metatarsal articular angle were similar. The magnitude of IMA correction with the modified chevron was also significantly greater (9.1° versus 7.1°, p=0.007). Both osteotomies produced comparable MOxFQ scores and satisfaction ratings. The modified chevron was superior to the scarf osteotomy in correcting IMA in hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of distal chevron osteotomy with and without lateral soft tissue release for the treatment of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Chung, Jin-Wha; Chu, In-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2010-04-01

    A lateral soft tissue release is often performed with distal chevron osteotomy for the correction of hallux valgus deformities. However, many complications of lateral soft tissue release have been reported. To define the necessity of lateral soft tissue release, the authors compared the clinical and radiographic results of distal chevron osteotomy with and without it. 86 consecutive patients (152 feet) were enrolled in this prospective study. In Group A, 45 patients (74 feet) underwent a chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release. In Group B, 41 patients (78 feet) underwent a chevron osteotomy without it. Mean followup was 1.7 years and 2.1 years, respectively. The hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and AOFAS score were measured preoperatively, and 1-year followup postoperatively and complications were evaluated. The change in HVA, IMA and AOFAS score were insignificant (p > 0.05) between Group A and Group B, however, the range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was significantly less in Group A (p < 0.05). Complications of digital neuritis and cosmetically dissatisfied scarring of the dorsal web space were seen only in Group A. No cases had avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head, malunion or nonunion. Lateral soft tissue release may not be needed for mild or moderate hallux valgus deformities which may prevent decreased range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, neuritis of dorsal or plantar lateral digital nerve and cosmetic dissatisfaction of a dorsal scar.

  6. Ninety-Degree Chevron Osteotomy for Correction of Hallux Valgus Deformity: Clinical Data and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Bougas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Saridis, Alkis; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Hallux valgus is a very common foot disorder, with its prevalence estimated at 33% in adult shoe-wearing populations. Conservative management is the initial treatment of choice for this condition, but surgery is sometimes needed. The 600 angle Chevron osteotomy is an accepted method for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus in adults less than 60 years old. A modified 900 angle Chevron osteotomy has also been described; this modified technique can confer some advantages compared to the 600 angle method, and reported results are good. In the current work we present clinical data from a cohort of fifty-one female patients who had surgery for sixty-two hallux valgus deformities. In addition, in order to get a better physical insight and study the mechanical stresses along the two osteotomies, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also conducted. FEA indicated enhanced mechanical bonding with the modified 900 Chevron osteotomy, because the compressive stresses that keep the two bone parts together are stronger, and the shearing stresses that tend to slide the two bone parts apart are weaker, compared to the typical 600 technique. Follow-up data on our patient cohort show good or excellent long-term clinical results with the modified 900 angle technique. These results are consistent with the FEA-based hypothesis that a 900 Chevron osteotomy confers certain mechanical advantages compared to the typical 600 procedure. PMID:20648223

  7. Ninety-degree chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity: clinical data and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Bougas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Saridis, Alkis; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris

    2010-04-22

    Hallux valgus is a very common foot disorder, with its prevalence estimated at 33% in adult shoe-wearing populations. Conservative management is the initial treatment of choice for this condition, but surgery is sometimes needed. The 60(0) angle Chevron osteotomy is an accepted method for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus in adults less than 60 years old. A modified 90(0) angle Chevron osteotomy has also been described; this modified technique can confer some advantages compared to the 60(0) angle method, and reported results are good. In the current work we present clinical data from a cohort of fifty-one female patients who had surgery for sixty-two hallux valgus deformities. In addition, in order to get a better physical insight and study the mechanical stresses along the two osteotomies, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also conducted. FEA indicated enhanced mechanical bonding with the modified 90(0) Chevron osteotomy, because the compressive stresses that keep the two bone parts together are stronger, and the shearing stresses that tend to slide the two bone parts apart are weaker, compared to the typical 60(0) technique. Follow-up data on our patient cohort show good or excellent long-term clinical results with the modified 90(0) angle technique. These results are consistent with the FEA-based hypothesis that a 90(0) Chevron osteotomy confers certain mechanical advantages compared to the typical 60(0) procedure.

  8. Radiographic assessment of knee-ankle alignment after total knee arthroplasty for varus and valgus knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    There are unanswered questions about knee-ankle alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for varus and valgus osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess knee-ankle alignment after TKA. The study consisted of 149 patients who had undergone TKA due to varus and valgus knee OA. The alignment and angles in the selected knees and ankles were measured on full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs, both pre-operatively and post-operatively. The paired t-test and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that ankle alignment correlated with knee alignment both pre-operatively and postoperatively (P<0.05). The pre-operative malalignment of the knee was corrected (P<0.05), and the ankle tilt angle was accordingly improved in the operative side after TKA (P<0.05). In addition, TKA had little effect on knee-ankle alignment on the non-operative side (P>0.05). These findings indicated that routine TKA could correct the varus or valgus deformity of a knee, and improve the tilt of the ankle. Ankle alignment correlated with knee alignment both pre-operatively and postoperatively. Both pre-operative knee and ankle malalignment can be simultaneously corrected following TKA. Level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of intraoperative anthropometric measurements of the proximal tibia and tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Naohisa; Sugita, Takehiko; Aizawa, Toshimi; Sasaki, Akira; Maeda, Ikuo; Kamimura, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Precise matching of the tibial component and resected bony surfaces and proper rotational implanting of the tibial component are crucial for successful total knee arthroplasty. We aimed to analyze the exact anthropometric proximal tibial data of Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and correlate the measurements with the dimensions of current total knee arthroplasty systems. A total of 703 knees in 566 Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were included. The bone resection in the proximal tibia was performed perpendicular to the tibial axis in the frontal plane. Measurements of the proximal tibia were intraoperatively obtained after proximal tibial preparation. There were significant positive correlations between the lateral anteroposterior and medial anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions. A progressive decrease in the mediolateral/lateral anteroposterior ratio with an increasing lateral anteroposterior dimension or the mediolateral/anteroposterior ratio with an increasing anteroposterior dimension was observed. The lateral anteroposterior dimension was smaller than the medial anteroposterior dimension by a mean of 4.8 ± 2.0 mm. The proximal tibia exhibited asymmetry between the lateral and medial plateaus. A comparison of the morphological data and dimensions of the implants, one of which was a symmetric tibial component (NexGen) and the others were asymmetric (Genesis II and Persona), indicated that an asymmetric tibial component could be beneficial to maximize tibial plateau coverage. This study provided important reference data for designing a proper tibial component for Japanese people. The proximal tibial cut surface was asymmetric. There was wide dispersion in the lateral anteroposterior, medial anteroposterior, and mediolateral dimensions depending on the patient. Our data showed that the tibial components of the Genesis II and Persona rather than that of the NexGen may be preferable for

  10. Comparative study of the prognosis of an extracorporeal reduction and a closed treatment in mandibular condyle head and/or neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Min; Jang, Yong-Wook; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Rotaru, Horatiu; Baciut, Grigore; Hurubeanu, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was a comparison of the prognosis between an extracorporeal reduction technique and closed treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture. The relationship between condylar resorption and several clinical variables was also studied. Seventy-one patients who had a mandibular condyle fracture took part in this study. Thirty-five patients (female: 7, male: 28, age: 30.46 ± 14.27 years) were treated by extracorporeal reduction, and 36 patients (male: 24, female: 12, age: 24.28 ± 9.99 years) were treated using a closed treatment. The presence of complications such as condylar resorption, malocclusion, nerve disorder, and disc displacement was evaluated with panoramic radiographs and clinical examinations 12 months after treatment. The relationships between the complications and other clinical variables were evaluated statistically. The anatomic site and fracture type were closely related to condyle resorption in the bivariate analysis. Condylar head fractures showed significantly higher condyle resorption than condylar neck fractures (P = .023). A complex or compound fracture showed significantly higher condyle resorption compared with a simple fracture (P = .006). Patients who had a complex/compound fracture were 34.366 times more likely to have condyle resorption compared with those who had a simple fracture (P = .002). The patient's age and treatment method were also significant predictors for condyle resorption. Fracture type was the strongest predictor of condylar resorption. Because treatment method and patient age were also related to the prognosis, the optimal treatment for mandibular condylar head and/or neck fractures should be individualized according to the patient's condition. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences between the chewing and non-chewing sides of the mandibular first molars and condyles in the closing phase during chewing in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kwon, Sangho; Kuninori, Takaharu; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess differences between the closing paths of the chewing and non-chewing sides of mandibular first molars and condyles during natural mastication, using standardized model food in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy young adults (age: 19-25 years; 22 men, 10 women) with normal occlusion and function chewed on standardized gummy jelly. Using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with six degrees of freedom, we recorded the path of the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides for 10 strokes during unilateral chewing. Variables were compared between the chewing side and the non-chewing side of first molars and condyles on frontal, sagittal, and horizontal views during the early-, middle- and late-closing phases. On superior/inferior displacements, the chewing side first molar and condyle were positioned superior to those on the non-chewing side during the early- and middle-closing phases. Conversely, the first molar and condyle on the non-chewing side were positioned significantly superior to those on the chewing side during the late-closing phase. On anterior/posterior displacements, the chewing side mandibular first molar and condyle were positioned significantly posterior to those on the non-chewing side throughout all closing phases. Our results showed the differences between the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides with respect to masticatory path during natural chewing of a model food. These differences can be useful for informing initial diagnostic tests for impaired masticatory function in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the primary stability of different tibial baseplate concepts to retain both cruciate ligaments during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrej M; Stangel, Melanie; Grupp, Thomas M; Valderrabano, Victor

    2013-10-01

    A novel tibial baseplate design (Transversal Support Tibial Plateau) as a new treatment concept for bi-cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty is evaluated for mechanical stability and compared to other tibial baseplate designs. This concept should provide better primary stability and thus, less subsidence, than implantation of two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates. Different baseplates were implanted into synthetic bone specimens (Sawbones® Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Washington, USA), all uncemented. Using a standardized experimental setup, subsidence was achieved, enabling comparison of the models regarding primary stability. Overall implant subsidence was significantly increased for the two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates versus the new Transversal Support Tibial Plateau concept, which showed comparable levels to a conventional tibial baseplate. Reduced subsidence results in better primary stability. Linking of two separate baseplates appears to provide increased primary stability in terms of bony fixation, comparable to that of a conventional single tibial baseplate. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  14. Preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern throughout flexion persists more strongly after cruciate-retaining than after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kazunori; Oonishi, Yoshio; Kutsuna, Tatsuhiko; Watamori, Kunihiko; Iseki, Yasutake; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Miura, Hiromasa

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal knee kinematics is key to improving patient satisfaction and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of preoperative varus-valgus kinematics due to knee osteoarthritis on the postoperative kinematics is unclear. The function of the knee ligament contributes to both knee stability and kinematics. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in varus-valgus kinematics before and after TKA using a navigation system, in addition to comparing the pre- and postoperative changes in kinematic patterns between cruciate-retaining (CR)- and posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKAs. Forty knees treated with TKA were evaluated (CR-TKA 20; PS-TKA 20). Manual mild passive knee flexion was applied while moving the leg from full extension to flexion. The varus-valgus angle was automatically measured by a navigation system at every 10° of the flexion angle, and the kinematics were evaluated. Kinematic patterns throughout flexion can be classified into five types. The pre- and postoperative kinematic patterns were similar in 60% of patients who underwent CR-TKA, whereas they were similar in only 25% of those who underwent PS-TKA. The mean change in the size of the varus-valgus angle throughout flexion did not differ between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. However, the distribution of changes in the size of the varus-valgus angle differed between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. We obtained the following results: 1) some patterns of varus-valgus kinematics are noted under unloading conditions despite recovery of neutral alignment in extension and 2) the preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern persisted more strongly after CR-TKA than after PS-TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [PERSONALIZED DISTAL FEMORAL VALGUS RESECTION ANGLE IN PRIMARY TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xilong; Shang, Xifu; Ll, Guoyuan; He, Rui; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a personalized distal femoral valgus resection angle for improving postoperative coronal alignment of lower limb in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 50 patients who received primary TKA between January 2013 and February 2013. There were 11 male and 39 female patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis. The patients were divided into 2 groups. In test group (n=25), the resection angle was adjusted to the femoral mechanical anatomical angle (FMA); in control group (n=25), a fixed distal valgus resection angle of 5° was used. There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, disease duration, sides, grade, preoperative FMA, mechanical femorotibial angle (MFT), and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Whole long X-ray film was taken to measure FMA and MFT at 3 days after operation, postoperative KSS was used to evaluate the knee function after 6 and 15 months. MFT was (-0.20 ± 1.87)° in test group and was (1.71 ± 3.67)° in control group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t = 2.32, P = 0.02). The ideal MFT angle (0 ± 3)° was achieved in 22 patients (88%) of test group and in 16 patients (64%) of control group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 2.32, P = 0.02). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients of 2 groups. No deep venous thrombosis occurred. The patients of 2 groups were followed up 15 months after operation. There was significant difference in KSS between test and control groups at 6 months (88.23 ± 2.57 vs. 82.92 ± 2.59) (t = 7.26, P = 0.00) and at 15 months (90.76 ± 2.77 vs. 88.65 ± 1.77) (t = 3.20, P = 0.02). No sign of prosthesis loosening was observed by X-ray examination. Compared with using of a fixed distal femoral resection angle, an individual FMA can significantly improve the postoperative MFT and promote early recovery of the knee

  16. Ankle joint pressure changes in a pes cavovarus model: supramalleolar valgus osteotomy versus lateralizing calcaneal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Timo; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Zderic, Ivan; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Weber, Martin; Krause, Fabian G

    2013-09-01

    A fixed cavovarus foot deformity can be associated with anteromedial ankle arthrosis due to elevated medial joint contact stresses. Supramalleolar valgus osteotomies (SMOT) and lateralizing calcaneal osteotomies (LCOT) are commonly used to treat symptoms by redistributing joint contact forces. In a cavovarus model, the effects of SMOT and LCOT on the lateralization of the center of force (COF) and reduction of the peak pressure in the ankle joint were compared. A previously published cavovarus model with fixed hindfoot varus was simulated in 10 cadaver specimens. Closing wedge supramalleolar valgus osteotomies 3 cm above the ankle joint level (6 and 11 degrees) and lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomies (5 and 10 mm displacement) were analyzed at 300 N axial static load (half body weight). The COF migration and peak pressure decrease in the ankle were recorded using high-resolution TekScan pressure sensors. A significant lateral COF shift was observed for each osteotomy: 2.1 mm for the 6 degrees (P = .014) and 2.3 mm for the 11 degrees SMOT (P = .010). The 5 mm LCOT led to a lateral shift of 2.0 mm (P = .042) and the 10 mm LCOT to a shift of 3.0 mm (P = .006). Comparing the different osteotomies among themselves no significant differences were recorded. No significant anteroposterior COF shift was seen. A significant peak pressure reduction was recorded for each osteotomy: The SMOT led to a reduction of 29% (P = .033) for the 6 degrees and 47% (P = .003) for the 11 degrees osteotomy, and the LCOT to a reduction of 41% (P = .003) for the 5 mm and 49% (P = .002) for the 10 mm osteotomy. Similar to the COF lateralization no significant differences between the osteotomies were seen. LCOT and SMOT significantly reduced anteromedial ankle joint contact stresses in this cavovarus model. The unloading effects of both osteotomies were equivalent. More correction did not lead to significantly more lateralization of the COF or more reduction of peak pressure but a trend was

  17. Characteristics of postoperative weight bearing and management protocols for tibial plateau fractures: Findings from a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Arnold, John B; Tu, Chen Gang; Phan, Tri M; Rickman, Mark; Varghese, Viju Daniel; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-12-01

    To identify and describe the characteristics of existing practices for postoperative weight bearing and management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs), identify gaps in the literature, and inform the design of future research. Seven electronic databases and clinical trial registers were searched from inception until November 17th 2016. Studies were included if they reported on the surgical management of TPFs, had a mean follow-up time of ≥1year and provided data on postoperative management protocols. Data were extracted and synthesized according to study demographics, patient characteristics and postoperative management (weight bearing regimes, immobilisation devices, exercises and complications). 124 studies were included involving 5156 patients with TPFs. The mean age across studies was 45.1 years (range 20.8-72; 60% male), with a mean follow-up of 34.9 months (range 12-264). The most frequent fracture types were AO/OTA classification 41-B3 (29.5%) and C3 (25%). The most commonly reported non-weight bearing time after surgery was 4-6 weeks (39% of studies), with a further 4-6 weeks of partial weight bearing (51% of studies), resulting in 9-12 weeks before full weight bearing status was recommended (55% of studies). Loading recommendations for initial weight bearing were most commonly toe-touch/<10kg (28%), 10kg-20kg (33%) and progressive (39%). Time to full weight bearing was positively correlated with the proportion of fractures of AO/OTA type C (r=0.465, p=0.029) and Schatzker type IV-VI (r=0.614, p<0.001). Similar rates of rigid (47%) and hinged braces were reported (58%), most frequently for 3-6 weeks (43% of studies). Complication rates averaged 2% of patients (range 0-26%) for abnormal varus/valgus and 1% (range 0-22%) for non-union or delayed union. Postoperative rehabilitation for TPFs most commonly involves significant non-weight bearing time before full weight bearing is recommended at 9-12 weeks. Partial weight bearing protocols and brace use were

  18. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  19. ß-TCP bone substitutes in tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism following circular frame treatment for tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Vollans, S; Chaturvedi, A; Sivasankaran, K; Madhu, T; Hadland, Y; Allgar, V; Sharma, H K

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following tibial fractures. The risk is as high as 77% without prophylaxis and around 10% with prophylaxis. Within the current literature there are no figures reported specifically for those individuals treated with circular frames. Our aim was to evaluate the VTE incidence within a single surgeon series and to evaluate potential risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive single surgeon series of 177 patients admitted to a major trauma unit with tibial fractures. All patients received standardised care, including chemical thromboprophylaxis within 24h of injury until independent mobility was achieved. We comprehensively reviewed our prospective database and medical records looking at demographics and potential risk factors. Seven patients (4.0% ± 2.87%) developed symptomatic VTE during the course of frame treatment; three deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and four pulmonary embolisms (PEs). Those with a VTE event had significantly increased body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) when compared to those without symptomatic VTE. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups in age, gender, smoking status, fracture type (anatomical allocation or open/closed), delay to frame treatment, weight bearing status post-frame, inpatient stay or total duration of frame treatment. This study suggests that increased BMI is a statistically significant risk factor for VTE, as reported in current literature. In addition, we calculated the true risk of VTE following circular frame treatment for tibial fracture in our series is from 1.13% to 6.87%, which is at least comparable to other forms of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULT