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Sample records for tibial inlay reconstruction

  1. Open Tibial Inlay PCL Reconstruction: Surgical Technique and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vellios, Evan E; Jones, Kristofer J; McAllister, David R

    2018-06-01

    To review the current literature on clinical outcomes following open tibial inlay posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction and provide the reader with a detailed description of the author's preferred surgical technique. Despite earlier biomechanical studies which demonstrated superiority of the PCL inlay technique when compared to transtibial techniques, recent longitudinal cohort studies have shown no significant differences in clinical or functional outcomes at 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, no significant clinical differences have been shown between graft types used and/or single- versus double-bundle reconstruction methods. The optimal treatment for the PCL-deficient knee remains unclear. Open tibial inlay PCL reconstruction is safe, reproducible, and avoids the "killer turn" that may potentially lead to graft weakening and failure seen in transtibial reconstruction methods. No significant differences in subjective outcomes or clinical laxity have been shown between single-bundle versus double-bundle reconstruction methods.

  2. Tibial Inlay Press-fit Fixation Versus Interference Screw in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Max; Büermann, Sarah; Calliess, Tilman; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Hurschler, Christof; Jagodzinski, Michael; Petri, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) by a tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with an accessory bone plug is a promising approach because no foreign materials are required. Until today, there is no data about the biomechanical properties of such press-fit fixations. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical qualities of a bone plug tibial inlay technique with the commonly applied interference screw of patellar tendon PCL grafts. Twenty patellar tendons including a bone block were harvested from ten human cadavers. The grafts were implanted into twenty legs of adult German country pigs. In group P, the grafts were attached in a press-fit technique with accessory bone plug. In group S, the grafts were fixed with an interference screw. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. The constructs were biomechanically analyzed in cyclic loading between 60 and 250 N for 500 cycles recording elongation. Finally, ultimate failure load and failure mode were analyzed. Ultimate failure load was 598.6±36.3 N in group P and 653.7±39.8 N in group S (not significant, P>0.05). Elongation during cyclic loading between the 1(st) and the 20(th) cycle was 3.4±0.9 mm for group P and 3.1±1 mm for group S. Between the 20(th) and the 500(th) cycle, elongation was 4.2±2.3 mm in group P and 2.5±0.9 mm in group S (not significant, P>0.05). This is the first study investigating the biomechanical properties of tibial press-fit fixation of the patellar tendon with accessory bone plug in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The implant-free tibial inlay technique shows equal biomechanical characteristics compared to an interference screw fixation. Further in vivo studies are desirable to compare the biological behavior and clinical relevance of this fixation device.

  3. Collagen matrix as an inlay in endoscopic skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Oakley, G M; Christensen, J M; Winder, M; Jonker, B P; Davidson, A; Steel, T; Teo, C; Harvey, R J

    2018-03-01

    Multi-layer reconstruction has become standard in endoscopic skull base surgery. The inlay component used can vary among autografts, allografts, xenografts and synthetics, primarily based on surgeon preference. The short- and long-term outcomes of collagen matrix in skull base reconstruction are described. A case series of patients who underwent endoscopic skull base reconstruction with collagen matrix inlay were assessed. Immediate peri-operative outcomes (cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, ventriculitis, intracranial bleeding, epistaxis, seizures) and delayed complications (delayed healing, meningoencephalocele, prolapse of reconstruction, delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak, ascending meningitis) were examined. Of 120 patients (51.0 ± 17.5 years, 41.7 per cent female), peri-operative complications totalled 12.7 per cent (cerebrospinal fluid leak, 3.3 per cent; meningitis, 3.3 per cent; other intracranial infections, 2.5 per cent; intracranial bleeding, 1.7 per cent; epistaxis, 1.7 per cent; and seizures, 0 per cent). Delayed complications did not occur in any patients. Collagen matrix is an effective inlay material. It provides robust long-term separation between sinus and cranial cavities, and avoids donor site morbidity, but carries additional cost.

  4. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases

  6. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  7. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  8. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  10. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  11. Increased revision rate with posterior tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree tibial guide in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Raknes, Sveinung; Østvold, Thomas; Solheim, Eirik; Strand, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To map knee morphology radiographically in a population with a torn ACL and to investigate whether anatomic factors could be related to outcomes after ACL reconstruction at mid- to long-term follow-up. Further, we wanted to assess tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree "anti-impingement" tibial tunnel guide and investigate any relation between tunnel placement and revision surgery. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction involving the 70-degree tibial guide from 2003 to 2008 were included. Two independent investigators analysed pre- and post-operative radiographs. Demographic data and information on revision surgery were collected from an internal database. Anatomic factors and post-operative tibial tunnel placements were investigated as predictors of revision. Three-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the study. A large anatomic variation with significant differences between men and women was seen. None of the anatomic factors could be related to a significant increase in revision rate. Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement, defined as 50 % or more posterior on the Amis and Jakob line, did, however, have a higher risk of revision surgery compared to patients with an anterior tunnel placement (P = 0.03). Use of the 70-degree tibial guide did result in a high incidence (47 %) of posterior tibial tunnel placements associated with an increased rate of revision surgery. The current study was, however, not able to identify any anatomic variation that could be related to a higher risk of revision surgery. Avoiding graft impingement from the femoral roof in anterior tibial tunnel placements is important, but the insight that overly posterior tunnel placement can lead to inferior outcome should also be kept in mind when performing ACL surgery. IV.

  12. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  13. Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Mahajan, Vivek; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2011-05-01

    Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In our patient the tibial plateau fracture occurred after a torsional injury to the involved extremity. The fracture occurred 4.5 years after the ACL reconstruction. The fracture was intra-articular Schatzker type IV and had a significant displacement. The patient was treated operatively by open reduction-internal fixation. He recovered well. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The fixation strength of tibial PCL press-fit reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, M; Wehrhahn, T; Petri, M; Liodakis, E; Olender, G; Albrecht, U-V; Hurschler, C; Krettek, C; Jagodzinski, M

    2012-02-01

    A secure tibial press-fit technique in posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, a few press-fit procedures have been published. Up to the present point, no biomechanical data exist for a tibial press-fit posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize a press-fit procedure for PCL reconstruction that is biomechanically equivalent to an interference screw fixation. Quadriceps and hamstring tendons of 20 human cadavers (age: 49.2 ± 18.5 years) were used. A press-fit fixation with a knot in the semitendinosus tendon (K) and a quadriceps tendon bone block graft (Q) were compared to an interference screw fixation (I) in 30 porcine femora. In each group, nine constructs were cyclically stretched and then loaded until failure. Maximum load to failure, stiffness, and elongation during failure testing and cyclical loading were investigated. The maximum load to failure was 518 ± 157 N (387-650 N) for the (K) group, 558 ± 119 N (466-650 N) for the (I) group, and 620 ± 102 N (541-699 N) for the (Q) group. The stiffness was 55 ± 27 N/mm (18-89 N/mm) for the (K) group, 117 ± 62 N/mm (69-165 N/mm) for the (I) group, and 65 ± 21 N/mm (49-82 N/mm) for the (Q) group. The stiffness of the (I) group was significantly larger (P = 0.01). The elongation during cyclical loading was significantly larger for all groups from the 1st to the 5th cycle compared to the elongation in between the 5th to the 20th cycle (P < 0.03). All techniques exhibited larger elongation during initial loading. Load to failure and stiffness was significantly different between the fixations. The Q fixation showed equal biomechanical properties compared to a pure tendon fixation (I) with an interference screw. All three fixation techniques that were investigated exhibit comparable biomechanical properties

  15. Outcome of limb reconstruction system in open tibial diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Anand; Verma, Ankit; Agrawal, Mukul; Jain, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Arunangshu

    2015-01-01

    Management of open tibial diaphyseal fractures with bone loss is a matter of debate. The treatment options range from external fixators, nailing, ring fixators or grafting with or without plastic reconstruction. All the procedures have their own set of complications, like acute docking problems, shortening, difficulty in soft tissue management, chronic infection, increased morbidity, multiple surgeries, longer hospital stay, mal union, nonunion and higher patient dissatisfaction. We evaluated the outcome of the limb reconstruction system (LRS) in the treatment of open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss as a definative mode of treatment to achieve union, as well as limb lengthening, simultaneously. Thirty open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss of at least 4 cm or more with a mean age 32.5 years were treated by using the LRS after debridement. Distraction osteogenesis at rate of 1 mm/day was done away from the fracture site to maintain the limb length. On the approximation of fracture ends, the dynamized LRS was left for further 15-20 weeks and patient was mobilized with weight bearing to achieve union. Functional assessment was done by Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Illizarov (ASAMI) criteria. Mean followup period was 15 months. The mean bone loss was 5.5 cm (range 4-9 cm). The mean duration of bone transport was 13 weeks (range 8-30 weeks) with a mean time for LRS in place was 44 weeks (range 24-51 weeks). The mean implant index was 56.4 days/cm. Mean union time was 52 weeks (range 31-60 weeks) with mean union index of 74.5 days/cm. Bony results as per the ASAMI scoring were excellent in 76% (19/25), good in 12% (3/25) and fair in 4% (1/25) with union in all except 2 patients, which showed poor results (8%) with only 2 patients having leg length discrepancy more than 2.5 cm. Functional results were excellent in 84% (21/25), good in 8% (2/25), fair in 8% (2/25). Pin tract infection was seen in 5 cases, out of which 4

  16. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  17. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter.

    PubMed

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  18. Transurethral ventral buccal mucosa graft inlay urethroplasty for reconstruction of fossa navicularis and distal urethral strictures: surgical technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Abouelleil, Mourad; Daneshvar, Michael

    2016-11-01

    To introduce a novel surgical technique for the reconstruction of distal urethral strictures using buccal mucosal graft (BMG) through a transurethral approach. A retrospective institution chart review was conducted of all the patients who underwent a transurethral ventral BMG inlay urethroplasty from March 2014 to March 2016. Patients with greater than one-year follow-up were included. Steps of the procedure: transurethral ventral wedge resection of the stenosed segment and transurethral delivery and spread fixation of appropriate BMG inlay into the resultant urethrotomy. The patients were followed for post-operative complications and stricture recurrence with uroflow, PVR, cystoscopy and outcome questionnaires. Three patients with a minimum of 12-month follow-up are included in this case series. The mean age of the patients was 42 years (35-53); mean stricture length was 2.1 cm (1-4). All patients had at least 2 previous failed procedures. Mean follow-up was 18 months (12-24). There were no stricture recurrences or fistula. Mean pre- and post-operative uroflow values were 4.3 (0-8) and 19 (16-26), respectively. Neither penile chordee nor changes in sexual function were noted in patients on follow-up. Transurethral ventral BMG inlay urethroplasty is a feasible option for treatment of fossa navicularis strictures. This single-stage technique allows for avoiding skin incision or urethral mobilization. It helps to prevent glans dehiscence, fistula formation and avoids the use of genital skin flaps in all patients, especially those affected with LS. This novel surgical technique is an effective treatment alternative for men with distal urethral strictures.

  19. Delayed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young Patients With Previous Anterior Tibial Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Justin J; Mayo, Meredith H; Axibal, Derek P; Kasch, Anthony R; Fader, Ryan R; Chadayammuri, Vivek; Terhune, E Bailey; Georgopoulos, Gaia; Rhodes, Jason T; Vidal, Armando F

    2016-08-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior tibial spine in young athletes are injuries similar to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adults. Sparse data exist on the association between anterior tibial spine fractures (ATSFs) and later ligamentous laxity or injuries leading to ACL reconstruction. To better delineate the incidence of delayed instability or ACL ruptures requiring delayed ACL reconstruction in young patients with prior fractures of the tibial eminence. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We identified 101 patients between January 1993 and January 2012 who sustained an ATSF and who met inclusion criteria for this study. All patients had been followed for at least 2 years after the initial injury and were included for analysis after completion of a questionnaire via direct contact, mail, and/or telephone. If patients underwent further surgical intervention and/or underwent later ACL reconstruction, clinical records and operative reports pertaining to these secondary interventions were obtained and reviewed. Differences between categorical variables were assessed using the Fisher exact test. The association between time to revision ACL surgery and fracture type was assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots. The association between need for revision ACL surgery and age, sex, and mechanism of surgery was assessed using logistic regression. Nineteen percent of all patients evaluated underwent delayed ACL reconstruction after a previous tibial spine fracture on the ipsilateral side. While there were a higher proportion of ACL reconstructions in type II fractures, there was not a statistically significant difference in the number of patients within each fracture group who went on to undergo later surgery (P = .29). Further, there was not a significant association between fracture type, sex, or mechanism of injury as it related to the progression to later ACL reconstruction. However, there was a significant association between age at the time of injury and progression

  20. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  1. Location of the tibial tunnel aperture affects extrusion of the lateral meniscus following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuya; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-08-01

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus provides functional stability to the meniscus. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the position of the tibial tunnel and extrusion of the lateral meniscus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, where extrusion provides a proxy measure of injury to the anterior root. The relationship between extrusion and tibial tunnel location was retrospectively evaluated from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of 26 reconstructed knees, contributed by 25 patients aged 17-31 years. A measurement grid was used to localize the position of the tibial tunnel based on anatomical landmarks identified from the three-dimensional reconstruction of axial computed tomography images of the tibial plateaus. The reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (mm) was defined as the distance from the midpoint of the lateral edge of the grid to the posterolateral aspect of the tunnel aperture. The optimal cutoff of this distance to minimize post-operative extrusion was identified using receiver operating curve analysis. Extrusion of the lateral meniscus was positively correlated to the reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (r 2  = 0.64; p < 0.001), with a cutoff distance of 5 mm having a sensitivity to extrusion of 83% and specificity of 93%. The mean extrusion for a distance >5 mm was 0.40 ± 0.43 mm, compared to 1.40 ± 0.51 mm for a distance ≤5 mm (p < 0.001). Therefore, a posterolateral location of the tibial tunnel aperture within the footprint of the anterior cruciate ligament decreases the reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance and increases extrusion of the lateral meniscus post-reconstruction. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1625-1633, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Regional fibrocartilage variations in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion: a histological three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu; Wu, Yi; Gou, Jingyue; Li, Bangchun

    2015-02-01

    We studied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion architecture in humans and investigated regional differences that could suggest unequal force transmission from ligament to bone. ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software for three-dimensional reconstruction. The uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF) layer was divided into three regions: lateral, medial and posterior according to the architecture. The UF zone was significantly thicker laterally than medially or posteriorly (p < 0.05). Similarly, the calcified fibrocartilage (CF) thickness was significantly greater in the lateral part of the enthesis compared to the medial and posterior parts (p < 0.05). The UF quantity (more UF laterally) corresponding to the CF quantity (more CF laterally) at the ACL tibial insertion provides further evidence suggesting that the load transferred from the ACL to the tibia was greater laterally than medially and posteriorly.

  3. Allografts with autogenous platelet-rich plasma for tibial defect reconstruction: a rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Wong, Keng Lin; David, Vikram; Pereira, Barry P

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for fresh-frozen allografts in tibial defect reconstruction in rabbits. 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial defect reconstruction with autografts (n=12), allografts without PRP (n=12), or allografts with PRP (n=12) and were observed for 12, 16, and 24 weeks (4 for each period). Tibias of the remaining 4 rabbits were used as donor allografts, and the remaining allografts were procured from recipient rabbits. A 1.5- cm cortical segment of the tibia was osteotomised, and then fixed with a 9-hole mini-compression plate and 2 cerclage wires. Allografts were stripped off the periosteum and soft tissues and medullary contents, and then stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. All allografts were deep frozen for at least 4 weeks before transplantation. 7 ml of whole blood was drawn to prepare 1 ml of PRP. The PRP was then mixed with 1.0 ml of human thrombin to form a platelet gel. The PRP gel was then packed into the medullary canal of the allograft and applied on the cortical surface before tibial defect reconstruction. Rabbits were sacrificed at 12, 16, and 24 weeks. The specimens were assessed for bone union at host-graft junctions and for bone resorption, new bone formation, callus encasement, and viable osteocyte counts. There were 4 specimens in each group at each observation period. Osteoid bridging the gap at host-graft junctions was noted in all specimens in the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups at week 12 and in the allograft-without-PRP group at week 24. Bone union in allografts without PRP was delayed. All indices for biological incorporation (resorption index, new bone formation index, callus encasement index, and viable osteocyte count) were significantly greater in the autograft than allograft-without-PRP groups, except for the resorption index at week 24, whereas the differences were not significant between the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups. The differences between the 2

  4. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    PubMed

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  5. The Lateral Meniscus as a Guide to Anatomical Tibial Tunnel Placement During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kassam, A M; Tillotson, L; Schranz, P J; Mandalia, V I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show, on an MRI scan, that the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM) could guide tibial tunnel position in the sagittal plane and provide anatomical graft position. One hundred MRI scans were analysed with normal cruciate ligaments and no evidence of meniscal injury. We measured the distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the midpoint of the ACL by superimposing sagittal images. The mean distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the ACL midpoint was -0.1mm (i.e. 0.1mm posterior to the ACL midpoint). The range was 5mm to -4.6mm. The median value was 0.0mm. 95% confidence interval was from -0.5 to 0.3mm. A normal, parametric distribution was observed and Intra- and inter-observer variability showed significant correlation (p<0.05) using Pearsons Correlation test (intra-observer) and Interclass correlation (inter-observer). Using the posterior border of the AHLM is a reproducible and anatomical marker for the midpoint of the ACL footprint in the majority of cases. It can be used intra-operatively as a guide for tibial tunnel insertion and graft placement allowing anatomical reconstruction. There will inevitably be some anatomical variation. Pre-operative MRI assessment of the relationship between AHLM and ACL footprint is advised to improve surgical planning. Level 4.

  6. Radiologic assessment of femoral and tibial tunnel placement based on anatomic landmarks in arthroscopic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Sandeep Kumar; Balaji, Gopisankar; Akkilagunta, Sujiv; Menon, Jagdish; Poduval, Murali; Patro, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate tibial and femoral tunnel placement has a significant effect on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Postoperative radiographs provide a reliable and valid way for the assessment of anatomical tunnel placement after ACLR. The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic location of tibial and femoral tunnels in patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR using anatomic landmarks. Patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR from January 2014 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR, postoperative radiographs were studied. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions on sagittal and coronal radiographic views, graft impingement, and femoral roof angle were measured. Radiological parameters were summarized as mean ± standard deviation and proportions as applicable. Interobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: The position of the tibial tunnel was found to be at an average of 35.1% ± 7.4% posterior from the anterior edge of the tibia. The femoral tunnel was found at an average of 30% ± 1% anterior to the posterior femoral cortex along the Blumensaat's line. Radiographic impingement was found in 34% of the patients. The roof angle averaged 34.3° ± 4.3°. The position of the tibial tunnel was found at an average of 44.16% ± 3.98% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. The coronal tibial tunnel angle averaged 67.5° ± 8.9°. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel averaged 41.9° ± 8.5°. Conclusions: The femoral and tibial tunnel placements correlated well with anatomic landmarks except for radiographic impingement which was present in 34% of the patients. PMID:28566780

  7. Radiologic assessment of femoral and tibial tunnel placement based on anatomic landmarks in arthroscopic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nema, Sandeep Kumar; Balaji, Gopisankar; Akkilagunta, Sujiv; Menon, Jagdish; Poduval, Murali; Patro, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Accurate tibial and femoral tunnel placement has a significant effect on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Postoperative radiographs provide a reliable and valid way for the assessment of anatomical tunnel placement after ACLR. The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic location of tibial and femoral tunnels in patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR using anatomic landmarks. Patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR from January 2014 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR, postoperative radiographs were studied. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions on sagittal and coronal radiographic views, graft impingement, and femoral roof angle were measured. Radiological parameters were summarized as mean ± standard deviation and proportions as applicable. Interobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. The position of the tibial tunnel was found to be at an average of 35.1% ± 7.4% posterior from the anterior edge of the tibia. The femoral tunnel was found at an average of 30% ± 1% anterior to the posterior femoral cortex along the Blumensaat's line. Radiographic impingement was found in 34% of the patients. The roof angle averaged 34.3° ± 4.3°. The position of the tibial tunnel was found at an average of 44.16% ± 3.98% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. The coronal tibial tunnel angle averaged 67.5° ± 8.9°. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel averaged 41.9° ± 8.5°. The femoral and tibial tunnel placements correlated well with anatomic landmarks except for radiographic impingement which was present in 34% of the patients.

  8. Ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator propeller flaps for the reconstruction of lower third leg soft- tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Thalaivirithan Margabandu; Ramkumar, Jayagosh; Jaganmohan, Janardhanan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lower third leg soft tissue defects with anatomical and pathological constraints are posing formidable challenges to reconstructive surgeon. Aim: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator-propeller flaps for the reconstruction of small and medium sized soft tissue defects in the lower third leg. Patients and Methods: 22 patients (16 were males and 6 were females) were involved in this study between period of January 2012 and December 2016.We followed the protocol of initial non delineating exploratory incision made to find out single best perforator in all patients. All the defects in leg reconstructed with adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps. Results: All 22 flaps survived well. All in an average of 13 months follow up period, had pain free walking, with minimal scarring and acceptable aesthesis at the reconstruction sites with no need for any secondary procedure. Conclusion: With inability of preoperatively dopplering the perforators in the lower third leg region, the exploratory posterior nondelineating incision was used in all cases to secure the single best perforator for the propeller flaps. Thus adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps are dependable, easily adoptable for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower third leg region. PMID:29618863

  9. Ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator propeller flaps for the reconstruction of lower third leg soft- tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Thalaivirithan Margabandu; Ramkumar, Jayagosh; Jaganmohan, Janardhanan

    2017-01-01

    Lower third leg soft tissue defects with anatomical and pathological constraints are posing formidable challenges to reconstructive surgeon. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator-propeller flaps for the reconstruction of small and medium sized soft tissue defects in the lower third leg. 22 patients (16 were males and 6 were females) were involved in this study between period of January 2012 and December 2016.We followed the protocol of initial non delineating exploratory incision made to find out single best perforator in all patients. All the defects in leg reconstructed with adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps. All 22 flaps survived well. All in an average of 13 months follow up period, had pain free walking, with minimal scarring and acceptable aesthesis at the reconstruction sites with no need for any secondary procedure. With inability of preoperatively dopplering the perforators in the lower third leg region, the exploratory posterior nondelineating incision was used in all cases to secure the single best perforator for the propeller flaps. Thus adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps are dependable, easily adoptable for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower third leg region.

  10. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.

  11. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726

  12. Tibial rotation under combined in vivo loading after single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Alexander; Iosifidis, Michael; Spyropoulos, Giannis; Kotzamitelos, Dimitrios; Tsatalas, Themistoklis; Giakas, Giannis

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in vivo the differences in tibial rotation between single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knees under combined loading conditions. An 8-camera optoelectronic system and a force plate were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data from 14 patients with double-bundle ACL reconstruction, 14 patients with single-bundle reconstruction, 12 ACL-deficient subjects, and 12 healthy control individuals while performing 2 tasks. The first included walking, 60° pivoting, and stair ascending, and the second included stair descending, 60° pivoting, and walking. The 2 variables evaluated were the maximum range of internal-external tibial rotation and the maximum knee rotational moment. Tibial rotation angles were not significantly different across the 4 groups (P = .331 and P = .851, respectively) or when side-to-side differences were compared within groups (P = .216 and P = .371, respectively) for the ascending and descending maneuvers, nor were rotational moments among the 4 groups (P = .418 and P = .290, respectively). Similarly, for the descending maneuver, the rotational moments were not significantly different between sides (P = .192). However, for the ascending maneuver, rotational moments of the affected sides were significantly lower by 20.5% and 18.7% compared with their intact counterparts in the single-bundle (P = .015) and double-bundle (P = .05) groups, respectively. High-intensity activities combining stair ascending or descending with pivoting produce similar tibial rotation in single- and double-bundle ACL-reconstructed patients. During such maneuvers, the reconstructed knee may be subjected to significantly lower rotational loads compared with the intact knee. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI analysis of tibial PCL attachment in a large population of adult patients: reference data for anatomic PCL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuanjun; Guo, Laiwei; Wu, Meng; Xu, Tianen; Zhao, Lianggong; Jiang, Jin; Sheng, Xiaoyun; Xu, Lihu; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Ning; Xia, Yayi

    2016-09-05

    Consistent reference data used for anatomic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is not well defined. Quantitative guidelines defining the location of PCL attachment would aid in performing anatomic PCL reconstruction. The purpose was to characterize anatomic parameters of the PCL tibial attachment based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of adult knees. The PCL tibial attachment site was examined in 736 adult knees with an intact PCL using 3.0-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI. The outcomes measured were the anterior-posterior diameter (APD) of the tibial plateau; angle between the tibial plateau and the posterior tibial 'shelf' (the slope where the PCL tibial attachment site was) (PTS); length of the PTS; proximal, central, and distal PCL attachment positions as well as the width of the PCL attachment site; and vertical dimension of the PCL attachment site inferior from the tibial plateau. The average APD of the tibia plateau was 33.6 ± 3.5 mm, yielding significant differences between males (35.5 ± 3.0 mm) and females (31.6 ± 2.7 mm), P <.05, and there was a significantly decreasing trend with increasing age in males (P <.05). Mean angle between the tibial plateau and the PTS was 122.4° ± 8.1°, and subgroup analysis showed that the young group had a differently smaller angle (120.9° ± 7.5°) than the middle-aged (123.7° ± 8.2°) and the old (123.4° ± 7.7°) in males population, while there were no significant differences between sexes (P >.05). The proximal, central positions and width of the PCL attachment site were 13.4 ± 3.0 mm, 17.8 ± 3.0 mm and 9.6 ± 2.4 mm along the PTS, with significant differences between males and females (P <.05), and accounted for 60.0 % ± 9.1 %, 80.0 % ± 4.6 % and 43.3 % ± 9.7 % of the PTS respectively, with no significant differences between sexes and among age groups (all P >.05). This study provides reference

  14. [Tibial press-fit fixation of flexor tendons for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Ettinger, M; Liodakis, E; Haasper, C; Hurschler, C; Breitmeier, D; Krettek, C; Jagodzinski, M

    2012-09-01

    Press-fit fixation of hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. This study compares the biomechanical properties of press-fit fixations to an interference screw fixation. Twenty-eight human cadaveric knees were used for hamstring tendon explantation. An additional bone block was harvested from the tibia. We used 28 porcine femora for graft fixation. Constructs were cyclically stretched and then loaded until failure. Maximum load to failure, stiffness and elongation during failure testing and cyclic loading were investigated. The maximum load to failure was 970±83 N for the press-fit tape fixation (T), 572±151 N for the bone bridge fixation (TS), 544±109 N for the interference screw fixation (I), 402±77 N for the press-fit suture fixation (S) and 290±74 N for the bone block fixation technique (F). The T fixation had a significantly better maximum load to failure compared to all other techniques (p<0.001). This study demonstrates that a tibial press-fit technique which uses an additional bone block has better maximum load to failure results compared to a simple interference screw fixation.

  15. Mandibular Reconstruction with Lateral Tibial Bone Graft: An Excellent Option for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Ana Lucia Carpi; Pereira, Livia Costa; Torres, Thiago da Silva; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana; Louro, Rafael Seabra

    2017-12-01

    Autogenous bone grafts are the gold standard for reconstruction of atrophic jaws, pseudoarthroses, alveolar clefts, orthognathic surgery, mandibular discontinuity, and augmentation of sinus maxillary. Bone graft can be harvested from iliac bone, calvarium, tibial bone, rib, and intraoral bone. Proximal tibia is a common donor site with few reported problems compared with other sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of proximal tibia as a donor area for maxillofacial reconstructions, focusing on quantifying the volume of cancellous graft harvested by a lateral approach and to assess the complications of this technique. In a retrospective study, we collected data from 31 patients, 18 women and 13 men (mean age: 36 years, range: 19-64), who were referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Servidores do Estado Federal Hospital. Patients were treated for sequelae of orthognathic surgery, jaw fracture, nonunion, malunion, pathology, and augmentation of bone volume to oral implant. The technique of choice was lateral access of proximal tibia metaphysis for graft removal from Gerdy tubercle under general anesthesia. The mean volume of bone harvested was 13.0 ± 3.7 mL (ranged: 8-23 mL). Only five patients (16%) had minor complications, which included superficial infection, pain, suture dehiscence, and unwanted scar. However, none of these complications decreases the result and resolved completely. We conclude that proximal tibia metaphysis for harvesting cancellous bone graft provides sufficient volume for procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery with minimal postoperative morbidity.

  16. Mid-Term Clinical Outcome and Reconstruction of Posterior Tibial Slope after UKA.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alois; Boese, Christoph Kolja; Matthies, Andrej; Leffler, Jörg; Ries, Christian

    2018-05-21

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has gained growing popularity over the last decades. The posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been shown to play a significant role for knee biomechanics and is thought to be crucial for clinical function of the UKA. We evaluated the clinical outcome at mid-term follow-up after UKA. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the individual PTS was analyzed. A total of 91 consecutive patients undergoing medial UKA for osteoarthritis were included. Patients were contacted by telephone for a survival analysis at a minimum of 30 months after surgery. Patient-oriented questionnaires and Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were obtained. A retrospective chart review and radiological analysis of component alignment were performed for all patients before and at 6 weeks after surgery. Of 91 patients (93 knees) undergoing UKA, 69 patients (70 knees) were available for clinical follow-up after a mean of 56.0 (range 31-81) months post-surgery. The clinical results of the examined patients in the present study showed mean subscale scores of the KOOS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index between 71 and 91%. Overall 7 of 91 patients were revised during the course of follow-up period and underwent total knee arthroplasty. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a survival rate for UKA of 90.5% after 48 months. Calculated implant survival was 75.9 months (95% confidence interval 72.3-79.6) at the mean. The radiographic analysis of pre- and postoperative PTS showed no differences ( p  = 0.113).UKA for osteoarthritis of the medial knee compartment shows encouraging clinical results at mid-term follow-up. The individual PTS could be reconstructed within acceptable ranges. This is a retrospective therapeutic study with Level IV. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Isokinetic evaluation of internal/external tibial rotation strength after the use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Armour, Tanya; Forwell, Lorie; Litchfield, Robert; Kirkley, Alexandra; Amendola, Ned; Fowler, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to internal tibial rotation weakness. Internal tibial rotation strength may be affected by the semitendinosus and gracilis harvest after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective evaluation of internal and external tibial rotation strength. Inclusion criteria for subjects (N = 30): unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 2 years previously, a stable anterior cruciate ligament (<5-mm side-to-side difference) at time of testing confirmed by surgeon and KT-1000 arthrometer, no history of knee problems after initial knee reconstruction, a normal contralateral knee, and the ability to comply with the testing protocol. In an attempt to minimize unwanted subtalar joint motion, subjects were immobilized using an ankle brace and tested at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s at a knee flexion angle of 90 degrees . The mean peak torque measurements for internal rotation strength of the operative limb (60 degrees /s, 17.4 +/- 4.5 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 13.9 +/- 3.3 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 11.6 +/- 3.0 ft-lb) were statistically different compared to the nonoperated limb (60 degrees /s, 20.5 +/- 4.7 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 15.9 +/- 3.8 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 13.4 +/- 3.8 ft-lb) at 60 degrees /s (P = .012), 120 degrees /s (P = .036), and 180 degrees /s (P = .045). The nonoperative limb demonstrated greater strength at all speeds. The mean torque measurements for external rotation were statistically similar when compared to the nonoperated limb at all angular velocities. We have shown through our study that

  18. Tibial and Femoral Tunnel Changes After ACL Reconstruction: A Prospective 2-Year Longitudinal MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alexander E; Delos, Demetris; Oltean, Hanna N; Vadasdi, Katherine; Cavanaugh, John; Potter, Hollis G; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-05-01

    Tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is a well-accepted and frequent phenomenon, yet little is known regarding its origin or natural history. To prospectively evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) changes in tibial and femoral bone tunnels after ACL-R with serial MRI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients underwent arthroscopic ACL-R with the same surgeon, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol. Each patient underwent preoperative dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and clinical evaluation, as well as postoperative time zero MRI followed by subsequent MRI and clinical examination, including functional and subjective outcome tests, at 6, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks. Tibial and femoral tunnel CSA was measured on each MRI at tunnel aperture (ttA and ftA), midsection (ttM and ftM), and exit (ttE and ftE). Logistic regression modeling was used to examine the predictive value of demographic data and preoperative bone quality (as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) on functional outcome scores, manual and instrumented laxity measurements, and changes in tunnel area over time. Eighteen patients (including 12 men), mean age 35.5±8.7 years, underwent ACL-R. There was significant tunnel expansion at ttA and ftA sites 6 weeks postoperatively (P=.024 and .0045, respectively). Expansion continued for 24 weeks, with progressive tunnel narrowing thereafter. Average ttA CSA was significantly larger than ftA CSA at all times. The ttM significantly expanded after 6 weeks (P=.06); continued expansion to week 12 was followed by 21 months of reduction in tunnel diameter. The ftM and both ttE and ftE sites decreased in CSA over the 2 years. Median Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores significantly improved at final follow-up (P=.0083 and <.0001, respectively), and patients returned to preoperative activity levels. Pivot shift significantly decreased (P<.0001). Younger age (<30 years), male sex, and delayed

  19. Posterior tibial slope influences static anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a minimum 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hong, Lei; Feng, Hua; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Jin; Song, Guanyang; Chen, Xingzuo; Zhuo, Hongwu

    2014-04-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has recently been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries because of an associated increase in anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL loading. However, few studies concerning the correlation between PTS and postoperative ATT have been published. To analyze the relationship between PTS and postoperative ATT in ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this retrospective study were 40 consecutive patients who underwent ACLR (28 male, 12 female; median age, 22 years; range, 14-44 years) from October 2010 to June 2011. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on medial and lateral PTS values as measured on MRI. Demographic data and results of the manual maximum side-to-side difference with a KT-1000 arthrometer at 30° of knee flexion before ACLR and at final follow-up were collected; results were divided into ATT ≤2 mm, 2 mm < ATT < 5 mm, and ATT ≥5 mm. First, the distribution of ATT in the 3 groups was compared, and then correlation analysis and logistic regression were conducted to determine the correlation between PTS and ATT. Finally, the thresholds of medial and lateral PTS were calculated. Results of the ATT measurements were collected at a mean of 27.5 months (range, 24.0-37.0 months) after ACLR. The group with a PTS ≥5° had significantly more cases of ATT ≥5 mm than the group with a PTS <3° (medial PTS: P = .005; lateral PTS: P = .016). There were statistically significant correlations with ATT for both medial (r = 0.43, P = .005) and lateral (r = 0.36, P = .02) PTS. Medial or lateral PTS resulted in the increased probability of ATT ≥5 mm, with an odds ratio of 1.76 (P = .011) and 1.68 (P = .008), respectively. The threshold of an increased risk of ATT ≥5 mm was a medial PTS >5.6° (P = .003) or a lateral PTS >3.8° (P = .002). There was a significant correlation between PTS and postoperative anterior knee static stability in this study

  20. Tibial Slope Strongly Influences Knee Stability After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Prospective 5- to 15-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, Clemens; Weiler, Andreas; Roider, Manoussos; Schaefer, Frederik M; Jung, Tobias M

    2017-02-01

    The reported failure rate after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction remains high. Previous studies have shown that the tibial slope (TS) influences sagittal plane laxity. Consequently, alterations of TS might have an effect on postoperative knee stability after PCL reconstruction. We hypothesized that flattening of TS is associated with increased posterior laxity after PCL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence 3. This study consisted of 48 patients who underwent PCL reconstruction in a single-surgeon series. Eight patients underwent an isolated PCL reconstruction, 27 patients underwent an additional posterolateral corner reconstruction, and 13 patients underwent a combined reconstruction of the PCL, anterior cruciate ligament, and posterolateral corner. Three blinded observers measured TS and the side-to-side difference (SSD) of posterior tibial translation (PTT) before and after PCL reconstruction using standardized stress radiographs. The minimum follow-up was 5 years. At a mean follow-up of 103 months (range, 65-187), the mean SSD of PTT was significantly reduced (10.9 ± 2.9 vs 4.9 ± 4.3 mm; P < .0001). The mean TS was 8.0° ± 3.7° (range, 1°-14.3°) for the operated knee and 7.9° ± 3.2° (range, 2°-15.3°) for the contralateral knee. There was a statistically significant correlation between TS and PTT ( r = -0.77 and R 2 = 0.59; P < .0001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between TS and the postoperative reduction of PTT ( r = 0.74 and R 2 = 0.55; P < .0001). Subgrouping according to the number of operated ligaments showed no significant differences regarding TS or the mean reduction of PTT. Flattening of TS is associated with a significantly higher remaining PTT as well as a lower reduction of PTT. Notably, these results are irrespective of sex and number of ligaments addressed. Thus, isolated soft tissue procedures in PCL deficiency may only incompletely address posterior knee instability in patients with

  1. The Efficacy of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Combined with Tibial Tuberosity Transfer in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Downham, Christopher; Bassett, James; Thompson, Peter; Sprowson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction combined with tibial tuberosity transfer (TTT) in the treatment of patellofemoral instability. Using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, a systematic search was carried out to identify and review the published literature pertinent to MFPL reconstruction combined with TTT. Relevant studies were critically appraised with narrative data synthesis. Studies that met the eligibility criteria were suitable for appraisal and consisted of case series and therapeutic series (levels IV & III). All studies had inherent variations in outcomes reporting and limited follow-up. Combined treatment offers restoration of normal anatomy, thus adding clinical value to the currently recommended anatomic approach to MPFL reconstruction. Nevertheless, the current body of evidence does not determine the threshold at which patellofemoral axis requires the need for adjunctive distal realignment as opposed to MPFL reconstruction alone. This review highlighted numerous recurring limitations in the conduct and presentation of the studies, which inadvertently mitigated the interpretation of their results. Future priority should be awarded to larger randomised controlled trials utilising validated patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27274466

  2. MRI Anatomy of the Tibial ACL Attachment and Proximal Epiphysis in a Large Population of Skeletally Immature Knees: Reference Parameters for Planning Anatomic Physeal-Sparing ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Swami, Vimarsha Gopal; Mabee, Myles; Hui, Catherine; Jaremko, Jacob Lester

    2014-07-01

    To aid in performing anatomic physeal-sparing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, it is important for surgeons to have reference data for the native ACL attachment positions and epiphyseal anatomy in skeletally immature knees. To characterize anatomic parameters of the ACL tibial insertion and proximal tibial epiphysis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of skeletally immature knees. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ACL tibial attachment site and proximal epiphysis were examined in 570 skeletally immature knees with an intact ACL (age, 6-15 years) using 1.5-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI; also measured were the tibial anteroposterior diameter; anterior, central, and posterior ACL attachment positions; vertical height of the epiphysis; and maximum oblique epiphyseal depth extending from the ACL tibial attachment center to the tibial tuberosity. In adolescents (11-15 years of age), the center of the ACL's tibial attachment was 51.5% ± 5.7% of the anteroposterior diameter of the tibia, with no significant differences between sexes or age groups (P > .05 in all cases). Mean vertical epiphyseal height was 15.9 ± 1.7 mm in the adolescent group, with significant differences between 11-year-olds (15.2 ± 1.5 mm) and 15-year-olds (16.6 ± 1.6 mm), P < .001, and between males (16.6 ± 1.5 mm) and females (14.8 ± 1.4), P < .001. Mean maximum oblique depth was 30.0 ± 5.3 mm, with a significant difference between 11-year-olds (26.7 ± 4.9 mm) and 15-year-olds (32.7 ± 5.1 mm), P < .001, and between males (29.7 ± 6.4 mm) and females (27.8 ± 5.2 mm), P < .001. The maximum oblique depth occurred at a mean angle of ~50°, and this angle did not change with age or sex. There was a significant moderate correlation (r = 0.39, P < .001) between epiphyseal vertical height and maximum oblique depth. The center of the ACL tibial attachment was consistently near 51% of the anteroposterior diameter, regardless of age or sex

  3. Ilizarov bone transport versus fibular graft for reconstruction of tibial bone defects in children.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Mostafa; El-Alfy, Barakat; Ali, Ayman M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment of segmental tibial defects in the pediatric age group using an Ilizarov external fixator versus a nonvascularized fibular bone graft. This study included 24 patients (age range from 5.5 to 15 years) with tibial bone defects: 13 patients were treated with bone transport (BT) and 11 patients were treated with a nonvascularized fibular graft (FG). The outcome parameters were bone results (union, deformity, infection, leg-length discrepancy) and functional results: external fixation index and external fixation time. In group A (BT), one patient developed refracture at the regenerate site, whereas, in group B (FG), after removal of the external fixator, one of the FGs developed a stress fracture. The external fixator time in group A was 10.7 months (range 8-14.5) versus 7.8 months (range 4-11.5 months) in group B (FG). In group A (BT), one patient had a limb-length discrepancy (LLD), whereas, in group B (FG), three patients had LLD. The functional and bone results of the Ilizarov BT technique were excellent in 23.1 and 30.8%, good in 38.5 and 46.2, fair in 30.8 and 15.4, and poor in 7.6 and 7.6%, respectively. The poor functional result was related to the poor bone result because of prolonged external fixator time resulting in significant pain, limited ankle motion, whereas the functional and bone results of fibular grafting were excellent in 9.1 and 18.2%, good in 63.6 and 45.5%, fair in 18.2 and 27.2%, and poor in 9.1 and 9.1%, respectively. Segmental tibial defects can be effectively treated with both methods. The FG method provides satisfactory results, with early removal of the external fixator. However, it had a limitation in patients with severe infection and those with LLD. Also, it requires a long duration of limb bracing until adequate hypertrophy of the graft. The Ilizarov method has the advantages of early weight bearing, treatment of postinfection bone defect in a one-stage surgery, and the

  4. Reverse Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Fixation: A Biomechanical Comparison Study of Tibial Cross-Pin and Femoral Interference Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Richard J; Klein, Samuel E; Chudik, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical performance of tibial cross-pin (TCP) fixation relative to femoral cross-pin (FCP), femoral interference screw (FIS), and tibial interference screw (TIS) fixation. We randomized 40 porcine specimens (20 tibias and 20 femurs) to TIS fixation (group 1, n = 10), FIS fixation (group 2, n = 10), TCP fixation (group 3, n = 10), or FCP fixation (group 4, n = 10) and performed biomechanical testing to compare ultimate load, stiffness, yield load, cyclic displacement, and load at 5-mm displacement. We performed cross-pin fixation of the looped end and interference screw fixation of the free ends of 9-mm-diameter bovine extensor digitorum communis tendon grafts. Graft fixation constructs were cyclically loaded and then loaded to failure in line with the tunnels. Regarding yield load, FIS was superior to TIS (704 ± 125 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P = .002), TCP was superior to TIS (1,449 ± 265 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P < .001), and TCP was superior to FCP (1,449 ± 265 N vs 792 ± 397 N, P < .001). Cyclic displacement for FCP was superior to TCP. Cyclic displacement for TIS versus FIS showed no statistically significant difference (2.5 ± 1.0 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.6 mm, P = .298). Interference screw fixation consistently failed by graft slippage, whereas TCP fixation failed by tibial bone failure. FCP fixation failed by either femoral bone failure or failure elsewhere in the testing apparatus. Regarding yield load, TCP fixation performed biomechanically superior to the clinically proven FCP at time zero. Because TIS fixation shows the lowest yield strength, it represents the weak link, and combined TCP-FIS fixation theoretically would be biomechanically superior relative to combined FCP-TIS fixation with regard to yield load. Cyclic displacement showed a small difference in favor of FCP over TCP fixation and no difference between TIS and FIS. Time-zero biomechanics of TCP fixation paired with FIS fixation show that this method of fixation can be

  5. Evaluation of carbonate apatite blocks fabricated from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate blocks for reconstruction of rabbit femoral and tibial defects.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Masayuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Fukuda, Naoyuki; Sakemi, Yuta; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vivo behavior of a carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) block fabricated by compositional transformation via a dissolution-precipitation reaction using a calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate [DCPD: CaHPO 4 ·2H 2 O] block as a precursor. These blocks were used to reconstruct defects in the femur and tibia of rabbits, using sintered dense hydroxyapatite (HAp) blocks as the control. Both the CO 3 Ap and HAp blocks showed excellent tissue response and good osteoconductivity. HAp block maintained its structure even after 24 weeks of implantation, so no bone replacement of the implant was observed throughout the post-implantation period in either femoral or tibial bone defects. In contrast, CO 3 Ap was resorbed with increasing time after implantation and replaced with new bone. The CO 3 Ap block was resorbed approximately twice as fast at the metaphysis of the proximal tibia than at the epiphysis of the distal femur. The CO 3 Ap block was resorbed at an approximately linear change over time, with complete resorption was estimated by extrapolation of data at approximately 1-1.5 years. Hence, the CO 3 Ap block fabricated in this study has potential value as an ideal artificial bone substitute because of its resorption and subsequent replacement by bone.

  6. [Excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    PubMed

    Cao, Honghui; Tang, Kanglai; Deng, Yinshuan; Tan, Xiaokang; Zhou, Binghua; Tao, Xu; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qianbo

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular and to evaluate its effectiveness. Between May 2006 and June 2011, 33 patients (40 feet) with flatfoot related with accessory navicular were treated. There were 14 males (17 feet) and 19 females (23 feet) with an average age of 30.1 years (range, 16-56 years). All patients had bilateral accessory navicular; 26 had unilateral flatfoot and 7 had bilateral flatfeet. The disease duration ranged from 7 months to 9 years (median, 24 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-midfoot score was 47.9 +/- 7.3. The X-ray films showed type II accessory navicular, the arch height loss, and heel valgus in all patients. All of them received excision of accessory navicular and reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular with anchor. All patients got primary wound healing without any complication. Thirty patients (36 feet) were followed up 6-54 months with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved complete pain relief at 6 months after surgery and had good appearance of the feet. The AOFAS ankle-midfoot score was 90.4 +/- 2.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=29.73, P=0.00). X-ray films showed that no screw loosening or breakage was observed. There were significant differences in the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar-first metatarsal angle between pre-operation and last follow-up (P < 0.01). The excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular is a good choice for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular, with correction of deformity, excellent effectiveness, and less complications.

  7. The Lymphatic Response to Injury with Soft-Tissue Reconstruction in High-Energy Open Tibial Fractures of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Malou C; Mistry, Raakhi M; Suami, Hiroo; Campbell-Lloyd, Andrew; Finkemeyer, James P; Piller, Neil B; Caplash, Yugesh

    2017-02-01

    Severe compound tibial fractures are associated with extensive soft-tissue damage, resulting in disruption of lymphatic pathways that leave the patient at risk of developing chronic lymphedema. There are limited data on lymphatic response following lower limb trauma. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography is a novel, real-time imaging technique for superficial lymphatic mapping. The authors used this technique to image the superficial lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs in patients with severe compound tibial fracture. Baseline demographics and clinical and operative details were recorded in a prospective cohort of 17 patients who had undergone bone and soft-tissue reconstruction after severe compound tibial fracture between 2009 and 2014. Normal lymphatic images were obtained from the patients' noninjured limbs as a control. In this way, the authors investigated any changes to the normal anatomy of the lymphatic system in the affected limbs. Of the 17 patients, eight had free muscle flaps with split-thickness skin grafting, one had a free fasciocutaneous flap, one had a full-thickness skin graft, six had local fasciocutaneous flaps, and one had a pedicled gastrocnemius flap. None of the free flaps demonstrated any functional lymphatic vessels; the fasciocutaneous flaps and the skin graft demonstrated impaired lymphatic vessel function and dermal backflow pattern similar to that in lymphedema. Local flaps demonstrated lymphatic blockage at the scar edge. Severe compound fractures and the associated soft-tissue injury can result in significant lymphatic disruption and an increased risk for the development of chronic lymphedema.

  8. Comparison of Bioabsorbable Interference Screws Composed of Poly-l-lactic Acid and Hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) to WasherLoc Tibial Fixation in Patients After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Patkowski, Mateusz; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Reichert, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint is a standard in ACL complete rupture treatment in athletes. One of the weakest points of this procedure is tibial fixation of grafts. The aim was, firstly, to evaluate patients 3-4 years after primary ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts and with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA or WasherLoc, comparing the postoperative result to the preoperative condition and, secondly, to compare the results between the two groups of patients with different tibial fixation. Group I consisted of 20 patients with a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA tibial fixation. In Group II, there were 22 patients after ACL reconstruction with the use of WasherLoc tibial fixation. The Lachman test, pivot-shift test, Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (2000 IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form were used to evaluate the results. The intra-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained in the groups studied showed statistically significant differences between the evaluation performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The inter-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained postoperatively showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. An evaluation 3-4 years after ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts demonstrated significant progress from the preoperative condition to the postoperative result in patients with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA as well as in patients with WasherLoc tibial fixation. There were no differences found between the two groups of patients after ACL reconstruction in terms of manual stability testing or a

  9. Flow-Through Free Fibula Osteocutaneous Flap in Reconstruction of Tibial Bone, Soft Tissue, and Main Artery Segmental Defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Zonghuan; Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen; Pan, Zhenyu; Ding, Junhui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this report was to present the use of flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap for the repair of complex tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. Five patients with bone, soft tissue, and segmental anterior tibial artery defects were included. The lengths of injured tibial bones ranged from 4 to 7 cm. The sizes of impaired soft tissues were between 9 × 4 and 15 × 6 cm. The lengths of defect of anterior tibial artery segments ranged from 6 to 10 cm. Two patients had distal limb perfusion problems. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was performed for all 5 patients. Patients were followed for 12 to 18 months. All wounds healed after 1-stage operation, and all flow-through flaps survived. The distal perfusion after vascular repair was normal in all patients. Superficial necrosis of flap edge was noted in 1 case. After the local debridement and partial thickness skin graft, the flap healed uneventfully, and the surgical operation did not increase injury to the donor site. Satisfactory bone union was achieved in all patients in 2 to 4 months postoperation. Enlargement of fibula graft was observed during follow-up from 12 to 18 months. The functions of adjacent joints were recovered, and all patients were able to walk normally. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was shown to be an effective and efficient technique for repairing composite tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. This 1-stage operation should be useful in clinical practice for the treatment of complex bone, soft tissue, and vessel defects.

  10. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  11. Biomechanical properties of patellar and hamstring graft tibial fixation techniques in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: experimental study with roentgen stereometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frank; Pape, Dietrich; Schiel, Karin; Steimer, Oliver; Kohn, Dieter; Rupp, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Reliable fixation of the soft hamstring grafts in ACL reconstruction has been reported as problematic. The biomechanical properties of patellar tendon (PT) grafts fixed with biodegradable screws (PTBS) are superior compared to quadrupled hamstring grafts fixed with BioScrew (HBS) or Suture-Disc fixation (HSD). Controlled laboratory study with roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA). Ten porcine specimens were prepared for each group. In the PT group, the bone plugs were fixed with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew. In the hamstring group, four-stranded tendon grafts were anchored within a tibial tunnel of 8 mm diameter either with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew or eight polyester sutures knotted over a Suture-Disc. The grafts were loaded stepwise, and micromotion of the graft inside the tibial tunnel was measured with RSA. Hamstring grafts failed at lower loads (HBS: 536 N, HSD 445 N) than the PTBS grafts (658 N). Stiffness in the PTBS group was much greater compared to the hamstring groups (3500 N/mm versus HBS = 517 N/mm and HSD = 111 N/mm). Irreversible graft motion after graft loading with 200 N was measured at 0.03 mm (PTBS), 0.38mm (HBS), and 1.85mm (HSD). Elasticity for the HSD fixation was measured at 0.67 mm at 100 N and 1.32 mm at 200 N load. Hamstring graft fixation with BioScrew and Suture-Disc displayed less stiffness and early graft motion compared to PTBS fixation. Screw fixation of tendon grafts is superior to Suture-Disc fixation with linkage material since it offers greater stiffness and less graft motion inside the tibial tunnel. Our results revealed graft motion for hamstring fixation with screw or linkage material at loads that occur during rehabilitation. This, in turn, may lead to graft laxity.

  12. Paradoxical tunnel enlargement after ACL reconstruction with hamstring autografts when using β-TCP containing interference screws for tibial aperture fixation- prospectively comparative study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Eun Su; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2017-09-16

    Tibial aperture fixation with a bioabsorbable interference screw is a popular fixation method in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). An interference screw containing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to improve bony integration and biocompatibility was recently introduced. This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes and radiological results of tunnel enlargement effect between the 2 bioabsorbable fixative devices of pure poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws and β-TCP-containing screws, for tibial interference fixation in ACLR using hamstring autografts. Eighty consecutive patients who had undergone double-bundle ACLR between 2011 to 2012 were prospectively reviewed and randomly divided into two groups based on the type of tibial interference screw: 28 were assigned to the pure PLLA screw group (Group A), while the other 29 were assigned to the β-TCP-containing screw fixation group (Group B). Clinical evaluations and radiological analyses were conducted in both groups with a minimum 2- year follow-up. There was no significant difference in subjective or objective clinical outcome between the 2 groups. In radiological analyses, the use of a β-TCP-containing screw reduced tunnel widening in the portion of the tunnel with screw engagement compared to the pure PLLA screw, while the use of a β-TCP-containing screw resulted in greater tunnel enlargement in the proximal portion of the tunnel without screw engagement than use of a pure PLLA screw. Use of a β-TCP-containing interference screw in tibial aperture fixation reduced tunnel enlargement in the vicinity of the screw, whereas greater enlargement occurred proximal to the screw end relative to use of a pure PLLA interference screw. These paradoxical enlargements in use of β-TCP containing screws suggest that for reducing tunnel enlargement, the length of the interference screw should be as fit as possible with tunnel length in terms of using soft grafts. II, Prospectively comparative

  13. Posterior root tear fixation of the lateral meniscus combined with arthroscopic ACL double-bundle reconstruction: technical note of a transosseous fixation using the tibial PL tunnel.

    PubMed

    Forkel, Philipp; Petersen, Wolf

    2012-03-01

    According to our observation in ACL reconstruction, we find root tears of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus as a common concomitant injury in ACL-deficient knees. This might be a consequence of initial trauma or of the increased anterior-posterior translation of the tibia and an overload impact on the posterior meniscus root in ACL-deficient knees. A tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus causes a 25% increase in peak pressure in the medial compartment compared with that found in the intact condition. The repair restores the peak contact pressure to normal (Allaire et al. in J Bone Joint Surg Am 90(9):1922-1931, [2008]). A tear of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus might have similar consequences. We hypothesize the surgical anatomical reattachment of the root at the tibia helping to restore knee joint kinematics and helping to advance ACL-graft function. This article presents an arthroscopical technique to reattach the posterior meniscus root in combination with ACL double-bundle reconstruction. The procedure uses the tibial PL tunnel to fix the meniscus suture.

  14. Considerations for ceramic inlays in posterior teeth: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christa D; Land, Martin F

    2013-01-01

    This review of ceramic inlays in posterior teeth includes a review of the history of ceramic restorations, followed by common indications and contraindications for their use. A discussion on the potential for tooth wear is followed by a review of recommended preparation design considerations, fabrication methods, and material choices. Despite the improved materials available for fabrication of porcelain inlays, fracture remains a primary mode of inlay failure. Therefore, a brief discussion on strengthening methods for ceramics is included. The review concludes with a section on luting considerations, and offers the clinician specific recommendations for luting procedures. In conclusion, inlay success rates and longevity, as reported in the literature, are summarized. PMID:23750101

  15. Tibial tunnel defect size as a risk factor in growth arrest following paediatric transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Pananwala, Hasitha; Jabbar, Yaser; Mills, Leonora; Symes, Michael; Nandapalan, Haren; Sefton, Andrew; Delungahawatte, Lasitha; Dao, Quang

    2016-09-01

    There is ongoing controversy regarding growth disturbances in younger patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Animal models have shown that an injury of 7-9% of the physeal area is a risk factor for growth disturbances. A total of 39 magnetic resonance imaging studies of the knee were examined. The proximal tibial physeal area was determined using a calibrated 'region of interest' ligature encompassing the tibial physis in the axial plane. The potential defect left by commonly used drill sizes was calculated as a percentage of the physeal area. A 7-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 1.45% physeal area (range: 1.11-1.89%, SD: 0.28, 95% CI: ±0.09), 8-mm drill leaves a 1.84% mean defect (range: 1.43-2.49%, SD: 0.38, 95% CI: ±0.12) and a 9-mm drill leaves a 2.30% mean defect (range: 1.83-3.19%, SD: 0.58, 95% CI: ±0.17). At 55°, 7-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 1.96% (range: 1.32-2.28%, SD: 0.37, 95% CI: ±0.12), 8-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 2.19% (range: 1.71-2.95%, SD: 0.46, 95% CI: ±0.14) and a 9-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 2.76% (range: 2.16-3.73%, SD: 0.58, 95% CI: ±0.18). There was a statistically significant difference in the tunnel area with a change of drill angle (7-mm drill P = 0.005, 8-mm drill P = 0.001, 9-mm drill P = 0.001). On the basis of this study in the context of animal model and observational evidence, the area of physeal injury using drill tunnels for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction would not appear to contribute to potential growth disturbances. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  17. Press-fit fixation using autologous bone in the tibial canal causes less enlargement of bone tunnel diameter in ACL reconstruction--a CT scan analysis three months postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Akoto, Ralph; Müller-Hübenthal, Jonas; Balke, Maurice; Albers, Malte; Bouillon, Bertil; Helm, Philip; Banerjee, Marc; Höher, Jürgen

    2015-08-19

    Bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon present in all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)- reconstruction techniques. It was hypothesized that press-fit fixation using a free autograft bone plug reduces the overall tunnel size in the tibial tunnel. In a prospective cohort study twelve patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction using an autologous quadriceps tendon graft and adding a free bone block for press-fit fixation (PF) in the tibial tunnel were matched to twelve patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with a hamstring graft and interference screw fixation (IF). The diameters of the bone tunnels were analysed by a multiplanar reconstruction technique (MPR) in a CT scan three months postoperatively. Manual and instrumental laxity (Lachman test, Pivot-shift test, Rolimeter) and functional outcome scores (International Knee Documentation Committee sore, Tegner activity level) were measured after one year follow up. In the PF group the mean bone tunnel diameter at the level of the joint entrance was not significantly enlarged. One and two centimeter distal to the bone tunnel diameter was reduced by 15% (p = .001). In the IF group the bone tunnel at the level of the joint entrance was enlarged by 14% (p = .001). One and two centimeter distal to the joint line the IF group showed a widening of the bone tunnel by 21% (p < .001) One and two centimeter below the joint line the bone tunnel was smaller in the PF group when compared to the IF group (p < .001). No significant difference for laxity test and functional outcome scores could be shown. This study demonstrates that press-fit fixation with free autologous bone plugs in the tibial tunnel results in significantly smaller diameter of the tibial tunnel compared to interference screw fixation.

  18. Progressive valgus angulation of the ankle secondary to loss of fibular congruity treated with medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis and fibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Alex C; Esposito, Paul W

    2014-06-01

    The fibula is an important stabilizer of the lateral ankle. Discontinuity of the fibular shaft can lead to progressive pain and shortening of the fibula, ultimately causing loss of lateral support to the ankle. Two children, who sustained segmental bone loss of the shaft of the fibula, developed progressive symptomatic valgus of the ankle with widening of the mortice and lateral subluxation of the talus. Both patients were treated with fibular plating and grafting with tricalcium sulfate with acute reconstitution of fibular length. Distal medial tibial hemiepiphysiodesis was simultaneously performed. One patient required revision plating and grafting 14 months after the index surgery because of plate failure. The valgus angulation and the widened medial mortice were corrected in the ankles of both patients, who returned to full activities. The patients were followed to maturity; the correction has been maintained, and they remain asymptomatic. The technique used in these cases can correct valgus angulation secondary to loss of fibular congruity rather than only halting progression of the deformity.

  19. Fired ceramic inlays: a 6-year follow up.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Höglund-Aberg, C; Olofsson, A L

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate feldspathic ceramic inlays luted with dual-cured resin composite or glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cement (GIC) during a 6-year follow-up. One-hundred and eighteen Class II fired feldspathic ceramic inlays were placed in 50 patients. In each patient half of the inlays were luted with a dual-cured resin composite and the other half with a conventional glass ionomer cement. The inlays were evaluated clinically, according to modified USPHS criteria, at baseline, after 6 months and then annually over a 6-year period. Of the 115 inlays evaluated at 6 years, 12% in the resin composite group and 26% in the GIC group were assessed as having failed. The main reason for failure in both groups was partial fracture or total loss of the inlays. Secondary caries was found to be associated with three inlays in one high caries risk patient. One inlay was replaced because of postoperative sensitivity. A relatively high and increasing failure rate was observed over the 6-year period of the study. The failure rate was more pronounced in the GIC group.

  20. Does severity of femoral trochlear dysplasia affect outcome in patellofemoral instability treated by medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and anterior tibial tuberosity transfer?

    PubMed

    Moitrel, G; Roumazeille, T; Arnould, A; Migaud, H; Putman, S; Ramdane, N; Pasquier, G

    2015-10-01

    Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction associated to anterior tibial tuberosity transfer (ATTT) is recommended in objective patellofemoral instability (PFI). Efficacy, however, has not been precisely determined in trochlear dysplasia with spur. A case-control study was performed in a PFI population, comparing groups with trochlear dysplasia with and without spur (S+ vs. S-) to assess the impact of trochlear dysplasia on (1) patellofemoral stability, (2) functional results and complications, and (3) patellofemoral cartilage status on MRI. Trochlear spur does not affect outcome in PFI managed by MPFL reconstruction and ATTT. Twenty-eight knees (26 patients) with PFI were analyzed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups of 14 knees each according to presence of trochlear spur (S+ vs. S-). All 28 knees had undergone ATTT and MPFL reconstruction by semitendinosus autograft. Results were assessed on Lille and IKDC functional scores, and cartilage status was determined on MRI at last follow-up. At a mean 24 months' follow-up (range, 12-52 months), there was no recurrence of dislocation. IKDC and Lille scores tended to improve in both groups, although the only significant improvement was in IKDC score (S- gain, 21.3±16; S+ gain, 18.1±14) (P=0.01). IKDC scores at last follow-up were better in the S+ than S- group (79±19 [range, 21-92] vs. 68±13 [range, 35-84], respectively; P=0.012). Lille scores showed no significant inter-group differences in mean gain (P=0.492) or mean value (P=0.381). The S+ group showed more cartilage lesions (n=14/14 knees, including 12/14 with grade≥2 lesions) than the S- group (n=9/14 knees, all grade≤2). MPFL reconstruction with ATTT provided good short-term patellofemoral stability independently of the severity of trochlear dysplasia. Functional results and gain on IKDC, however, were poorer in case of dysplasia with trochlear spur. This is probably due to cartilage lesions, observed more frequently pre- and post

  1. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  2. Dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft (Asopa) urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen D; Raup, Valary T; Brandes, Steven B

    2015-02-01

    Asopa described the inlay of a graft into Snodgrass's longitudinal urethral plate incision using a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach in 2001. He claimed that this technique was easier to perform and led to less tissue ischemia due to no need for mobilization of the urethra. This approach has subsequently been popularized among reconstructive urologists as the dorsal inlay urethroplasty or Asopa technique. Depending on the location of the stricture, either a subcoronal circumferential incision is made for penile strictures, or a midline perineal incision is made for bulbar strictures. Other approaches for penile urethral strictures include the non-circumferential penile incisional approach and a penoscrotal approach. We generally prefer the circumferential degloving approach for penile urethral strictures. The penis is de-gloved and the urethra is split ventrally to exposure the stricture. It is then deepened to include the full thickness of the dorsal urethra. The dorsal surface is made raw and grafts are fixed on the urethral surface. Quilting sutures are placed to further anchor the graft. A Foley catheter is placed and the urethra is retubularized in two layers with special attention to the staggering of suture lines. The skin incision is then closed in layers. We have found that it is best to perform an Asopa urethroplasty when the urethral plate is ≥1 cm in width. The key to when to use the dorsal inlay technique all depends on the width of the urethral plate once the urethrotomy is performed, stricture etiology, and stricture location (penile vs. bulb).

  3. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Margin adaptation of indirect composite inlays fabricated on flexible dies.

    PubMed

    Price, R B; Gerrow, J D

    2000-03-01

    Indirect composite restorations can be made in 1 appointment using a flexible die. Interactions between different impression materials and flexible die materials may affect the accuracy of fit and margin adaptation of the restoration. This study compared the margin adaptation of composite inlays made using the following 5 impression/flexible die material combinations; condensation silicone/polyvinyl siloxane (CS/PVS), wash viscosity polyvinyl siloxane/medium or heavy viscosity polyvinyl siloxane (PVS/PVS), irreversible hydrocolloid impression/medium viscosity polyvinyl siloxane (IH/PVS), wash viscosity polyvinyl siloxane impression/polyether (PVS/PE), with composite inlays made using a control system of a wash viscosity polyvinyl siloxane impression and a type IV stone die. For each test and control system, 10 impressions were made of a class II composite inlay preparation in a metal master die. One die was made from each impression and one composite inlay was made and finished on each die (a total of 60 inlays). Inlays were placed on the master die and the margin opening at the buccal, distal, and gingival sites was recorded with a measuring microscope (x40 magnification). The overall mean +/- SD margin openings of inlays made from the systems were as follows: PVS wash/PVS heavy viscosity 149.5 +/- 107. 4 microm; PVS wash/PVS medium viscosity 87.4 +/- 63.0 microm; IH/PVS medium viscosity 76.7 +/- 48.9 microm; CS/PVS 73.3 +/- 48.7 microm, PVS wash viscosity/PE 64.0 +/- 44.3 microm, PVS wash viscosity/stone 53.9 +/- 48.3 microm. Composite inlays made using the PVS wash viscosity/PVS heavy viscosity system had significantly larger distal, gingival, and overall mean margin openings than all other inlays (ANOVA and Fisher PLSD test; P =.05). The separating medium required between some impression and die materials did not work consistently. Composite inlays fabricated on dies made of material different than the impression material had mean buccal, distal, gingival, and

  5. [Comparative analysis of one- and two-stage augmentation urethroplasty with dorsal INLAY buccal graft for extended stricturesof spongious urethra].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Glukhov, V P; Mitusov, V V; Krasulin, V V; Ilyash, A V

    2018-03-01

    Urethral reconstructive surgery is in constant development. At present, reconstructive urethroplasty with buccal mucosa is increasingly being used. The study aimed to compare the results of a one- and two-stage augmentation urethroplasty with dorsal inlay buccal graft for strictures of the spongious urethra. The study comprised 72 patients aged 19-64 with urethral strictures 3-18 cm long. In 34 (47.2%) patients, the stricture was localized in the penile urethra, in 30 patients (41.6%) in the penile-bulbous urethra and in 8 patients (11%) in the bulbous urethra. All patients underwent augmentation urethroplasty with dorsal inlay buccal graft. The results were evaluated separately in 55 (76.4%, group 1) and 17 (23.6%, group 2) patients who underwent one-stage and two-stage surgery, respectively. The incidence rate of early postoperative complications was higher after one-stage (23.6%) compared two-stage surgery (11.8%) (p<0.05). Hematomas, wound dehiscence and urethrocutaneous fistulas were observed only after single-stage surgery. Primary healing of extensive strictures following augmentation urethroplasty with dorsal inlay buccal graft was achieved in 88.9% of patients; treatment effectiveness in the group 1 was 89.1%, in the group 2 - 88.2% (p>0.05). The final effectiveness of the operation, achieved with the use of additional surgical interventions, is estimated at 98.6%. The results of augmentation urethroplasty with dorsal inlay buccal graft do not depend on the number of stages, but fewer complications accompany two-stage surgery.

  6. Dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft (Asopa) urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen D.; Raup, Valary T.

    2015-01-01

    Asopa described the inlay of a graft into Snodgrass’s longitudinal urethral plate incision using a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach in 2001. He claimed that this technique was easier to perform and led to less tissue ischemia due to no need for mobilization of the urethra. This approach has subsequently been popularized among reconstructive urologists as the dorsal inlay urethroplasty or Asopa technique. Depending on the location of the stricture, either a subcoronal circumferential incision is made for penile strictures, or a midline perineal incision is made for bulbar strictures. Other approaches for penile urethral strictures include the non-circumferential penile incisional approach and a penoscrotal approach. We generally prefer the circumferential degloving approach for penile urethral strictures. The penis is de-gloved and the urethra is split ventrally to exposure the stricture. It is then deepened to include the full thickness of the dorsal urethra. The dorsal surface is made raw and grafts are fixed on the urethral surface. Quilting sutures are placed to further anchor the graft. A Foley catheter is placed and the urethra is retubularized in two layers with special attention to the staggering of suture lines. The skin incision is then closed in layers. We have found that it is best to perform an Asopa urethroplasty when the urethral plate is ≥1 cm in width. The key to when to use the dorsal inlay technique all depends on the width of the urethral plate once the urethrotomy is performed, stricture etiology, and stricture location (penile vs. bulb). PMID:26816804

  7. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  8. Considerations in computer-aided design for inlay cranioplasty: technical note.

    PubMed

    Nout, Erik; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2018-03-01

    Cranioplasty is a frequently performed procedure that uses a variety of reconstruction materials and techniques. In this technical note, we present refinements of computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing inlay cranioplasty. In an attempt to decrease complications related to polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cranioplasty, we gradually made changes to implant design and cranioplasty techniques. These changes include under-contouring of the implant and the use of segmented plates for large defects, microplate fixation for small temporal defects, temporal shell implants to reconstruct the temporalis muscle, and perforations to facilitate the drainage of blood and cerebrospinal fluid and serve as fixation points. From June 2016 to June 2017, 18 patients underwent cranioplasty, and a total of 31 PEEK and titanium implants were inserted. All implants were successful. These changes to implant design and cranioplasty techniques facilitate the insertion and fixation of patient-specific cranial implants and improve esthetic outcomes.

  9. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  10. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  11. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  12. Evaluation of concrete inlay for continuously reinforced concrete pavement rehabilitation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    In 1996, WisDOT constructed a concrete inlay test section on I43 in Manitowoc County. The existing pavement was CRCP constructed in 1978 and was badly deteriorated with punchouts. In the area of the 2777foot test section, the existing paveme...

  13. Three-dimensional modeling of metabolic species transport in the cornea with a hydrogel intrastromal inlay.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Peter M

    2014-05-15

    Intrastromal inlays for refractive correction of presbyopia are being adopted into clinical practice. An important concern is the effect of the inlay on the long-term health of the cornea due to disturbances in the concentration profiles of metabolic species. A three-dimensional metabolic model for the cornea is employed to investigate oxygen, glucose, and lactate ion transport in the cornea and to estimate changes in species concentrations induced by the introduction of a hydrogel inlay. A reaction-diffusion metabolic model, appropriate for highly oxygen-permeable hydrogel inlays, is used to describe cellular consumption of oxygen and glucose and production of lactic acid. A three-layer corneal geometry (epithelium, stroma, endothelium) is employed with a hydrogel inlay placed under a lamellar flap. The model is solved numerically by the finite element method. For a commercially available hydrogel material with a relative inlay diffusivity of 43.5%, maximum glucose depletion and lactate ion accumulation occur anterior to the inlay and both are less than 3%. Below 20% relative diffusivity, glucose depletion and lactate ion accumulation increase exponentially. Glucose depletion increases slightly with increasing depth of inlay placement. The flux of metabolic species is modified by an inlay, depending on the inlay relative diffusivity. For commercially available hydrogel materials and a typical inlay design, predicted changes in species concentrations are small when compared to the variation of concentrations across the normal cornea. In general, glucose depletion and lactate ion accumulation are highly sensitive to inlay diffusivity and somewhat insensitive to inlay depth. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Retrospective Comparison of Visual Outcomes After KAMRA Corneal Inlay Implantation With Simultaneous PRK or LASIK.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Bean, Andrew E; Albarracin, Julio C; Rebenitsch, Ronald L; Wallace, Ryan T; Birdsong, Orry C

    2018-05-01

    To report a retrospective study of simultaneous LASIK versus photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with accompanying small-aperture cornea inlay implantation (KAMRA; AcuFocus, Inc., Irvine, CA) in treating presbyopia. Simultaneous LASIK/inlay and simultaneous PRK/inlay was performed on 79 and 47 patients, respectively. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were safety, efficacy, predictability, and stability with primary emphasis on monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA). Both groups met U.S. Food and Drug Administration criteria for efficacy with 95% and 55% of the LASIK/inlay group and 83% and 52% of the PRK/inlay group having a monocular UNVA of 20/40 (J5) and 20/25 (J2), respectively, at 6-month follow-up. Ninety-two percent of the LASIK/inlay group and 95% of the PRK/inlay group had a UDVA of 20/40 or better at 6 months. Two eyes lost one line of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Mild hyperopic shift was noted in both groups at 6 months. Simultaneous PRK/inlay and LASIK/inlay meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards for efficacy and safety based on 6-month preliminary results and have similar outcomes to emmetropic eyes. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(5):310-315.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Quantitative measurement of marginal disintegration of ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Tsubakimoto, Yuko; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study include establishing a method for quantitative measurement of marginal change in ceramic inlays and clarifying their marginal disintegration in vivo. An accurate CCD optical laser scanner system was used for morphological measurement of the marginal change of ceramic inlays. The accuracy of the CCD measurement was assessed by comparing it with microscopic measurement. Replicas of 15 premolars restored with Class II ceramic inlays at the time of placement and eight years after restoration were used for morphological measurement by means of the CCD laser scanner system. Occlusal surfaces of the restored teeth were scanned and cross-sections of marginal areas were computed with software. Marginal change was defined as the area enclosed by two profiles obtained by superimposing two cross-sections of the same location at two different times and expressing the maximum depth and mean area of the area enclosed. The accuracy of this method of measurement was 4.3 +/- 3.2 microm in distance and 2.0 +/- 0.6% in area. Quantitative marginal changes for the eight-year period were 10 x 10 microm in depth and 50 x 10(3) microm2 in area at the functional cusp area and 7 x 10 microm in depth and 28 x 10(3) microm2 in area at the non-functional cusp area. Marginal disintegration at the functional cusp area was significantly greater than at the non-functional cusp area (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, p < 0.05). This study constitutes a quantitative measurement of in vivo deterioration in marginal adaptation of ceramic inlays and indicates that occlusal force may accelerate marginal disintegration.

  16. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  17. A comparison of stresses in molar teeth restored with inlays and direct restorations, including polymerization shrinkage of composite resin and tooth loading during mastication.

    PubMed

    Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composites is one of the main causes of leakage around dental restorations. Despite the large numbers of studies there is no consensus, what kind of teeth reconstruction--direct or indirect composite restorations are the most beneficial and the most durable. The aim was to compare equivalent stresses and contact adhesive stresses in molar teeth with class II MOD cavities, which were restored with inlays and direct restorations (taking into account polymerization shrinkage of composite resin) during simulated mastication. The study was conducted using the finite elements method with the application of contact elements. Three 3D models of first molars were created: model A was an intact tooth; model B--a tooth with a composite inlay, and model C--a tooth with a direct composite restoration. Polymerization linear shrinkage 0.7% of a direct composite restoration and resin luting cement was simulated (load 1). A computer simulation of mastication was performed (load 2). In these 2 situations, equivalent stresses according to the modified von Mises criterion (mvM) in the materials of mandibular first molar models with different restorations were calculated and compared. Contact stresses in the luting cement-tooth tissue adhesive interface around the restorations were also assessed and analyzed. Equivalent stresses in a tooth with a direct composite restoration (the entire volume of which was affected by polymerization shrinkage) were many times higher than in the tooth restored with a composite inlay (where shrinkage was present only in a thin layer of the luting cement). In dentin and enamel the stress values were 8-14 times higher, and were 13 times higher in the direct restoration than in the inlay. Likewise, contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct restoration were 6.5-7.7 times higher compared to an extraorally cured restoration. In the masticatory simulation, shear contact stresses in the adhesive bond around the direct

  18. Clinical and semiquantitative marginal analysis of four tooth-coloured inlay systems at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Gladys, S; Van Meerbeek, B; Inokoshi, S; Willems, G; Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1995-12-01

    The marginal quality of four tooth-coloured inlay systems was clinically investigated and subjected to computer-aided semiquantitative marginal analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 3 years of clinical service. Three of the restoration types were made using the Cerec CAD-CAM apparatus: one was milled from preformed glass ceramic blocks, and the two other inlay types were milled from preformed porcelain blocks. The fourth system was based on an experimental indirect resin composite inlay system. Each inlay type was luted with a different luting resin composite. The clinical evaluation was performed with a mirror and explorer by two clinicians separately, and the marginal analysis was conducted microscopically on replicas (SEM x 200). After 3 years in situ, all the restorations were clinically acceptable. No recurrent caries was observed. Marginal analysis under SEM detected a high percentage of submargination for all four systems, which suggests that their respective resin composite luting agents were all subject to wear. The percentage of marginal fractures on the enamel side as well as on the inlay side did not increase dramatically compared to the 6-month results. The first recall after 6 months of clinical service indicated how tooth-coloured inlays behave at their margins. The 3-year results confirmed the early findings, indicating that wear of resin composite lutes is important and present in all systems. The two ceramic materials showed a similar behaviour at the margins. The resin composite inlay performed better at the inlay site than at the enamel site.

  19. Dual-fibular reconstruction of a massive tibial defect after Ewing's sarcoma resection in a pediatric patient with a vascular variation.

    PubMed

    Saridis, Alkis G; Megas, Panagiotis D; Georgiou, Christos S; Diamantakis, Georgios M; Tyllianakis, Minos E

    2011-01-01

    In the management of malignancies of the extremities, limb salvage procedures have recently taken on greater significance. For those patients under intense adjuvant chemotherapy and with massive bone loss, free vascularized fibular grafting is currently advocated as a reliable reconstructive option, maybe because of the controversial results of bone transport in similar situations. However, when there is a vascular abnormality of either the recipient or donor extremity, microsurgical procedures are not feasible, further limiting potential reconstructive alternatives. We present the case of a 13-year-old female patient with Ewing's sarcoma of the right tibia. Preoperative angiography showed that vascularity of the affected side depended totally on a single peroneal artery. The patient was treated initially with multiagent chemotherapy, followed by an excision of 23 cm. The defect was bridged by a gradual medial transportation of the ipsilateral fibula with the Ilizarov technique and strengthened by nonvascularized transfer of the contralateral fibula. Total external fixation time was 162 days. After the removal of the Ilizarov frame a walking cast was applied for another month. At 5 years postoperatively there was no recurrence of the malignancy. The patient had full weight-bearing ability on the affected limb, with preservation of the ankle and knee joints motion and without any limb length discrepancy or axial deformity. The functional outcome that was visible was graded excellent. Transverse distraction osteogenesis of the ipsilateral fibula performed well under chemotherapy, showing unproblematic callus formation. Supplemented with nonvascularized transfer of the contralateral fibula, provided a reconstructive option with biological affinity, sufficient biomechanical strength and durability, and with a decreased complication rate. This case report presents a viable option, especially in cases in which vascular abnormalities of either the donor or the recipient

  20. A matched-pair comparison of inlay and onlay trochlear designs for patellofemoral arthroplasty: no differences in clinical outcome but less progression of osteoarthritis with inlay designs.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Cotic, Matthias; Beitzel, Knut; Baldini, Julia F; Meidinger, Gebhart; Schöttle, Philip B; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2017-09-01

    To compare clinical and radiographic results after isolated patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) using either a second-generation inlay or onlay trochlear design. The hypothesis was that an inlay design will produce better clinical results and less progression of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) compared to an onlay design. Fifteen consecutive patients undergoing isolated PFA with an onlay design trochlear component (Journey™ PFJ, Smith & Nephew) were matched with 15 patients after isolated PFA with an inlay design trochlear component (HemiCAP ® Wave, Arthrosurface). Matching criteria were age, gender, body mass index, and follow-up period. An independent observer evaluated patients prospectively, whereas data were compared retrospectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using WOMAC, Lysholm score, and pain VAS. Kellgren-Lawrence grading was used to assess progression of tibiofemoral OA. Conversion to total knee arthroplasty was necessary in one patient within each group, leaving 14 patients per group for final evaluation. The mean follow-up was 26 months in the inlay group and 25 months in the onlay group (n.s.). Both groups displayed significant improvements of all clinical scores (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups with regard to the clinical outcome and reoperation rate. No significant progression of tibiofemoral OA was observed in the inlay group, whereas 53 % of the onlay group showed progression of medial and/or lateral tibiofemoral OA (p = 0.009). Isolated PFA using either a second-generation inlay or onlay trochlear component significantly improves functional outcome scores and pain. The theoretical advantages of an inlay design did not result in better clinical outcome scores; however, progression of tibiofemoral OA was significantly less common in patients with an inlay trochlear component. This implant design may therefore improve long-term results and survival rates after isolated PFA. III.

  1. The effect of filler content and processing variables on dimensional accuracy of experimental composite inlay material.

    PubMed

    Razak, A A; Harrison, A

    1997-04-01

    Dimensional accuracy of a composite inlay restoration is important to ensure an accurate fit and to minimize cementation stresses. A method was developed to measure dimensional accuracy and stability of a composite inlay. A standard Class II (MOD) inlay cavity stainless steel mold was made with six circular indentations placed on the occlusal floor of the cavity and four indentations on each gingival floor to act as datum points in the measurement of linear polymerization shrinkage. The inlay restorations were prepared from an inlay-onlay composite material of different filler contents (50%, 65%, and 79% by weight). For each filler content group, three curing methods were used: light curing only, light curing and heat curing at 100 degrees C for 5 minutes, and light curing and heat curing at 100 degrees C for 5 minutes and then storage in distilled water for 7 days. The accuracy of the MOD inlays was determined by measuring the shrinkage of the restoration on the occlusal floor areas and the gingival seats. The results demonstrated an inverse linear relationship between filler content and polymerization shrinkage. There was a tendency for the light-curing and heat-curing method to show an increase in polymerization shrinkage. An expansion was recorded between the mesial and distal boxes when the specimens were soaked in water for 7 days. This study suggested that the inlay mold limits the physical shrinkage that can occur between the mesial and distal axial walls of the inlay restoration because the inlay cannot shrink to a smaller dimension than the mold. Water sorption then causes hygroscopic expansion, which enlarges the distance between the mesial and distal walls.

  2. Efficacy of composite versus ceramic inlays and onlays: study protocol for the CECOIA randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a common disease and affects many adults worldwide. Inlay or onlay restoration is widely used to treat the resulting tooth substance loss. Two esthetic materials can be used to manufacture an inlay/onlay restoration of the tooth: ceramic or composite. Here, we present the protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical efficacy of both materials for tooth restoration. Other objectives are analysis of overall quality, wear, restoration survival and prognosis. Methods The CEramic and COmposite Inlays Assessment (CECOIA) trial is an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter RCT involving two hospitals and five private practices. In all, 400 patients will be included. Inclusion criteria are adults who need an inlay/onlay restoration for one tooth (that can be isolated with use of a dental dam and has at least one intact cusp), can tolerate restorative procedures and do not have severe bruxism, periodontal or carious disease or poor oral hygiene. The decayed tissue will be evicted, the cavity will be prepared for receiving an inlay/onlay and the patient will be randomized by use of a centralized web-based interface to receive: 1) a ceramic or 2) composite inlay or onlay. Treatment allocation will be balanced (1:1). The inlay/onlay will be adhesively luted. Follow-up will be for 2 years and may be extended; two independent examiners will perform the evaluations. The primary outcome measure will be the score obtained with use of the consensus instrument of the Fédération Dentaire Internationale (FDI) World Dental Federation. Secondary outcomes include this instrument’s items, inlay/onlay wear, overall quality and survival of the inlay/onlay. Data will be analyzed by a statistician blinded to treatments and an adjusted ordinal logistic regression model will be used to compare the efficacy of both materials. Discussion For clinicians, the CECOIA trial results may help with evidence-based recommendations

  3. Inlay osmotic pump tablets containing metformin and glipizide.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B; Patel, G N; Patel, H R; Patel, M M

    2011-10-01

    The goal of diabetes therapy today is to achieve and maintain as near normal glycemia as possible to prevent the long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications of an elevated blood glucose. A newly developed inlay osmotic pump tablet (IOPT) can deliver glipizide (GLZ) and metformin HCl (MET) gradually in controlled manner. The aim of present investigation was to prepare the IOPT that can deliver >75% of GLZ in 2 h, whereas MET released after 2 h and sustained up to 12 h. In the present work, HP-β-CD was used to modify the solubility of GLZ before incorporating in the osmotic system and MET was spray-dried with HPMC A15C to modify its release profile, flow property, and compressibility. Various parameters mainly G(75%) (75% GLZ release), t(LMET) (lag time of MET release from device), Q(10 h) (percent of MET released within 10 h), and RSQ(ZERO) (R(2) of release data fitted to zero-order equation) were used to compare different formulations. The effects of different formulation variables, that is, osmagents, concentration of hydrophilic polymer, diameter of drug releasing orifice, and coating composition on the drug release profile were investigated. The release rate of GLZ could be effectively modified by the addition of sodium carbonate and sodium chloride, whereas the release rate of MET was adjusted by dual-coating system and by addition of hydrophilic polymer. The developed inlay osmotic system could be effective in the multidrug therapy of diabetes by delivering both drugs in a controlled manner.

  4. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  5. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  6. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    TÜRK, Ayşe Gözde; SABUNCU, Metin; ÜNAL, Sena; ÖNAL, Banu; ULUSOY, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05), before and after cementation. Results Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation

  7. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Türk, Ayşe Gözde; Sabuncu, Metin; Ünal, Sena; Önal, Banu; Ulusoy, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05), before and after cementation. Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation.

  8. Effect of the Femtosecond Laser on an Intracorneal Inlay for Surgical Compensation of Presbyopia during Cataract Surgery: Scanning Electron Microscope Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ibarz, Marta; Rodríguez-Prats, Jose Luis; Hernández-Verdejo, Jose Luis; Tañá, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of the femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) on porcine eyes implanted with a Kamra corneal inlay and to describe how the inlay may change the effect of the femtosecond laser on the lens. FLACS was performed on six porcine eyes and a Kamra corneal inlay had been implanted, exploring the lens under the surgical microscope. Another Kamra corneal inlay was attached to the upper part of the transparent hemisphere used for calibration of the femtosecond laser. Capsulorhexis, arcuate incisions, and phacofragmentation were carried out. The Kamra corneal inlay was compared with a nontreated one using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the hemisphere was analyzed with a surgical microscope. Capsulorhexis and phacofragmentation were completed in all the porcine eyes, although accuracy to determine the exact effect on the lens was not possible to achieve. The effect of the femtosecond laser on the PMMA hemisphere through the Kamra corneal inlay showed the capsulorhexis was placed outside the outer margin of the inlay and a sharply sculpted fragmentation pattern with a three-dimensional (donut-shaped) annulus untreated beneath it. SEM images of the nontreated and the treated inlays were comparable. No ultrastructural changes were found in the treated Kamra corneal inlay. FLACS can be performed with a Kamra corneal inlay for surgical compensation of presbyopia without the risk of damaging the inlay. The Kamra corneal inlay acts as a screen that avoids the laser to reach the areas beneath its shadow, but not the exposed areas of the lens.

  9. Effect of hybrid layer on stress distribution in a premolar tooth restored with composite or ceramic inlay: an FEM study.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sema; Eskitaşcioglu, Gürcan; Eraslan, Oguz; Senawongse, Pisol; Tagami, Junji

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this finite elemental stress analysis study was to evaluate the effect of hybrid layer on distribution and amount of stress formed under occlusal loading in a premolar tooth restored with composite or ceramic inlay. The mandibular premolar tooth was selected as the model based on the anatomical measurements suggested by Wheeler. The analysis is performed by using a Pentium II IBM compatible computer with the SAP 2000 structural analysis program. Four different mathematical models including the following structures were evaluated: 1) composite inlay, adhesive resin, and tooth structure; 2) composite inlay, adhesive resin, hybrid layer, and tooth structure; 3) ceramic inlay, adhesive resin, and tooth structure; 4) ceramic inlay, adhesive resin, hybrid layer, and tooth structure. Loading was applied from the occlusal surface of the restoration, and shear stresses under loading were evaluated. The findings were drawn by the Saplot program, and the results were analyzed by graphical comparison method. The output indicated that the hybrid layer acts as a stress absorber in models 2 and 4. The hybrid layer has also changed mathematical values of stress on cavity floors in both restoration types. Ceramic inlay collected the stress inside the body of the material, but the composite inlay directly transferred the stress through dental tissues. As a result, it was concluded that the hybrid layer has an effect on stress distribution under loading in a premolar tooth model restored with composite or ceramic inlay. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical efficacy of composite versus ceramic inlays and onlays: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fron Chabouis, Hélène; Smail Faugeron, Violaine; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Large tooth substance losses are frequent in posterior teeth because of primary caries or aging restorations. Inlays and onlays are often the minimal invasive solution in such cases, but the efficacy of the composite and ceramic materials used is unknown. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of composite and ceramic inlays or onlays. MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched without any restriction on date or language, as were references of eligible studies and ClinicalTrials.gov. Eligible studies were randomized trials comparing the clinical efficacy of composite to ceramic inlays or onlays in adults with any clinical outcome for at least 6 months. From 172 records identified, we examined reports of 2 randomized controlled trials involving 138 inlays (no onlays evaluated) in 80 patients and exhibiting a high-risk of bias. Outcomes were clinical scores and major failures. The 3-year overall failure risk ratio was 2 [0.38-10.55] in favor of ceramic inlays although not statistically significant. The reported clinical scores (United States Public Health Services and Californian Dental Association) showed considerable heterogeneity between trials and could not be combined. We have very limited evidence that ceramics perform better than composite material for inlays in the short term. However, this result may not be valid in the long term, and other trials are needed. Trials should follow Fédération dentaire internationale recommendations and enhance their methodology. Trials comparing composite and ceramic onlays are needed. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Double inlay plus ventral onlay buccal mucosa graft for simultaneous penile and bulbar urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Favorito, Luciano A; Conte, Paulo P; Sobrinho, Ulisses G; Martins, Rodrigo G; Accioly, Tomas

    2017-11-17

    Buccal mucosa grafts and fascio-cutaneous flaps are frequently used in long anterior urethral strictures (1). The inlay and onlay buccal mucosa grafts are easier to perform, do not need urethral mobilization and generally have good long-term results (2-4). In the present video, we present a case where we used a double buccal mucosa graft technique in a simultaneous penile and bulbar urethral stricture. A 54 year-old male patient was submitted to appendectomy where a urethral catheter was used for two days in May 2015. Three months after surgery, the patient complained of acute urinary retention and a supra-pubic tube was indicated. Urethrocystography was performed two weeks later and showed strictures in penile and bulbar urethra with 3.5 cm and 3 cm in length respectively. Urethroplasty was proposed for the surgical treatment in this case. We used a perineal approach with a ventral sagittal urethrotomy in both strictures. Penile urethra stricture measuring 3.5 cm in length was observed and a free graft from the buccal mucosa was harvested and placed into the longitudinal incision in the dorsal urethra and fixed with interrupted suture as dorsal inlay. Bulbar urethra stricture measuring 3 cm was observed and a free graft from the buccal mucosa was harvested and placed into the longitudinal incision in the ventral urethra and fixed with interrupted suture as ventral onlay. The ventral urethrotomy was closed over a 16Fr Foley catheter and the skin incision was then closed in layers. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. The patient could achieve satisfactory voiding and no complication was seen during the six-month follow-up. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra, and the mean peak flow was 12 mL/s. The BMG placement can be ventral, dorsal, lateral or combined dorsal and ventral BMG in the meeting of stricture but the first two are most common (5, 6). Ventral location provides the advantages of ease of exposure and good

  13. Marginal fit of indirect composite inlays using a new system for manual fabrication.

    PubMed

    Pott, P; Rzasa, A; Stiesch, M; Eisenburger, M

    2016-09-01

    This in vitro study compares a new system for manual chair side fabrication of indirect composite restorations, which uses silicone models after alginate impressions, to CAD/CAM-technology and laboratory manual production techniques. MATRIALS AND METHODS: and study design Each 10 composite inlays were fabricated using different types of production techniques: CAD/CAM- technology (A), the new inlay system (B), plaster model after alginate impression (C) or silicone impression (D). The inlays were adapted into a metal tooth and silicone replicas of the cement gaps were made and measured. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results and Statistics In group A the biggest marginal gaps (174.9μm ± 106.2μm) were found. In group B the gaps were significantly smaller (119.5 μm ± 90.6 μm) than in group A (p=0.035). Between groups C (64.6 μm ± 68.0μm) and D (58.2 μm ± 61.7 μm) no significant differences could be found (p=0.998), but the gaps were significantly smaller compared with group B. Conclusion Chairside manufacturing of composite inlays resulted in better marginal precision than CAD/CAM technology. In comparison to build restorations in a laboratory, the new system is a timesaving and inexpensive alternative. Nevertheless, production of indirect composite restorations in the dental laboratory showed the highest precision.

  14. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  15. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  16. IPS Empress inlays and onlays after four years--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Krämer, N; Frankenberger, R; Pelka, M; Petschelt, A

    1999-07-01

    Ceramic inlays are used as esthetic alternatives to amalgam and other metallic materials for the restoration of badly damaged teeth. However, only limited clinical data are available regarding adhesive inlays and onlays with proximal margins located in dentine. In a prospective, controlled clinical study, the performance of IPS Empress inlays and onlays with cuspal replacements and margins below the amelocemental junction was examined. Ninety-six IPS Empress fillings were placed in 34 patients by six clinicians. The restorations were luted with four different composite systems. The dentin bonding system Syntac Classic was used in addition to the acid-etch-technique. At baseline and after 6 months, one, two and four years after placement the restorations were assessed by two calibrated investigators using modified USPHS codes and criteria. A representative sample of the restorations was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate wear. Seven of the 96 restorations investigated had to be replaced (failure rate 7%; Kaplan-Meier). Four inlays had suffered cohesive bulk fractures and three teeth required endodontic treatment. After four years in clinical service, significant deterioration (Friedman 2-way Anova; p < 0.05) was found to have occurred in the marginal adaptation of the remaining restorations. Seventy-nine percent of the surviving restorations exhibited marginal deficiencies, independent of the luting composite. Neither the absence of enamel margins, nor cuspal replacement significantly affected the adhesion or marginal quality of the restorations. After four years, extensive IPS Empress inlays and onlays bonded with the dentin bonding system Syntac Classic were found to have a 7% failure rate with 79% of the remaining restorations having marginal deficiencies.

  17. Color Stability of CAD/CAM Fabricated Inlays after Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Karaokutan, Isil; Yilmaz Savas, Tuba; Aykent, Filiz; Ozdere, Eda

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the influence of accelerated artificial aging on the color stability of three different inlay restorations produced with a CAD/CAM system. Thirty non-carious human mandibular molar teeth were used. The teeth were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks. Standard Class I inlay cavities were prepared, and the teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) to fabricate inlay restorations: (1) a feldspathic-ceramic group, (2) a resin nano-ceramic group, and (3) a leucite glass-ceramic group. Optical impressions were made with CEREC software, and the restorations were designed and then milled. The inlays were adhesively cemented with a dual-polymerizing resin cement and left in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week. Color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer before and after accelerated aging in a weathering machine with a total energy of 150 kJ/m(2) . Changes in color (∆E, ∆L, ∆a, ∆b, ∆C) were determined using the CIE L*a*b* system. The results were assessed using a one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (p = 0.05). The color changes of the materials ranged from 2.1 to 9.29. The highest color change was seen in the resin nano-ceramic material. This change was not clinically acceptable (∆E > 5.5). No significant differences were found in the ∆L and ∆a values of the test groups. Color changes were observed in each evaluated material after accelerated aging. All CAD/CAM inlays became darker in appearance, more saturated, a little reddish, and more yellow. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. The transverse ligament as a landmark for tibial sagittal insertions of the anterior cruciate ligament: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Kongcharoensombat, Wirat; Ochi, Mitsuo; Abouheif, Mohamed; Adachi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Shingo; Kamei, Goki; Okuhara, Atushi; Shibuya, Hoyatoshi; Niimoto, Takuya; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Nakamae, Atsuo; Deie, Masataka

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the position of the transverse ligament, the anterior edge of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial footprint, and the center of the ACL tibial insertion. We used arthroscopy for localization of the anatomic landmarks, followed by insertions of guide pins under direct visualization, and then the position of these guide pins was checked on plain lateral radiographs. The transverse ligament and the anterior aspect of the ACL tibial footprint were identified by arthroscopy in 20 unpaired cadaveric knees (10 left and 10 right). Guide pins were inserted with tibial ACL adapter drill guides under direct observation at the transverse ligament, the anterior aspect of the tibial footprint, and the center of tibial insertion of the ACL. Then, plain lateral radiographs of specimens were taken. The Amis and Jakob line was used to define the attachment of the ACL tibial insertion and the transverse ligament. A sagittal percentage of the location of the insertion point was determined and calculated from the anterior margin of the tibia in the anteroposterior direction. The transverse ligament averaged 21.20% ± 4.1%, the anterior edge of the ACL tibial insertion averaged 21.60% ± 4.0%, and the center of the ACL tibial insertion averaged 40.30% ± 4.8%. There were similar percent variations between the transverse ligament and the anterior edge of the ACL tibial insertion, with no significant difference between them (P = .38). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was high, with small standard errors of measurement. This study shows that the transverse ligament coincides with the anterior edge of the ACL tibial footprint in the sagittal plane. The transverse ligament can be considered as a new landmark for tibial tunnel positioning during anatomic ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  20. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: a novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease.

    PubMed

    Kovell, Robert Caleb; Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-02-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures.

  1. Fatigue resistance and crack propensity of large MOD composite resin restorations: direct versus CAD/CAM inlays.

    PubMed

    Batalha-Silva, Silvana; de Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Magne, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    To assess the influence of material/technique selection (direct vs. CAD/CAM inlays) for large MOD composite adhesive restorations and its effect on the crack propensity and in vitro accelerated fatigue resistance. A standardized MOD slot-type tooth preparation was applied to 32 extracted maxillary molars (5mm depth and 5mm bucco-palatal width) including immediately sealed dentin for the inlay group. Fifteen teeth were restored with direct composite resin restoration (Miris2) and 17 teeth received milled inlays using Paradigm MZ100 block in the CEREC machine. All inlays were adhesively luted with a light curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Enamel shrinkage-induced cracks were tracked with photography and transillumination. Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was simulated, starting with a load of 200 N (5000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Teeth restored with the direct technique fractured at an average load of 1213 N and two of them withstood all loading cycles (survival=13%); with inlays, the survival rate was 100%. Most failures with Miris2 occurred above the CEJ and were re-restorable (67%), but generated more shrinkage-induced cracks (47% of the specimen vs. 7% for inlays). CAD/CAM MZ100 inlays increased the accelerated fatigue resistance and decreased the crack propensity of large MOD restorations when compared to direct restorations. While both restorative techniques yielded excellent fatigue results at physiological masticatory loads, CAD/CAM inlays seem more indicated for high-load patients. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Sensitivity of Clinical Outcomes to Centration on the Light-Constricted Pupil for a Shape-Changing Corneal Inlay.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Garza, Enrique; Koch, Douglas D; Vargas, Luis G; Lang, Alan; Roy, Adam

    2018-03-01

    To assess the clinically acceptable range of inlay decentration with respect to the light-constricted pupil center and the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR) for an inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay; ReVision Optics, Inc., Lake Forest, CA) that reshapes the anterior corneal surface. In this retrospective, observational cohort study of 115 patients with emmetropic or low hyperopic presbyopia who were implanted with a shape-changing corneal inlay, visual acuity, task performance (in good and dim light), reports of halos and glare, and satisfaction data were collected from the preoperative and 3-month postoperative examinations. Inlay centration with respect to the pupil center and CSCLR was determined from the center of the inlay effect derived from iTrace (Tracey Technologies, Houston, TX) wavefront measurements. Multivariate regression models assessed the influence of inlay position on visual outcomes. On average, monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) improved 4.9 ± 1.7 lines in the treated eye, with no loss in binocular distance vision. Eighty-three percent of implants were centered radially within 0.5 mm of the pupil center. Multivariate analysis of decentration with respect to both the pupil center and CSCLR revealed no significant interaction with the above clinical outcomes, with the exception of UNVA in the treated eye (all P > .05, α = 0.05). For decentration of less than 0.75 mm, the change in UNVA was less than 1 line. Distance and near visual acuity, task performance, severity of halos and glare, and satisfaction were independent of radial decentration of the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay of less than 0.75 mm from the light-constricted pupil. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(3):164-170.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Management of tibial non-unions according to a novel treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2015-12-01

    Tibial non-unions represent a spectrum of conditions that are challenging to treat. The optimal management remains unclear despite the frequency with which these diagnoses are encountered. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of tibial non-unions managed according to a novel tibial non-union treatment algorithm. One hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with 122 uninfected tibial non-unions were treated according to our proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm. All patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically for a minimum of six months after external fixator removal. Four patients were excluded because they did not complete the intended treatment process. The final study population consisted of 94 men and 24 women with a mean age of 34 years. Sixty-seven non-unions were stiff hypertrophic, 32 mobile atrophic, 16 mobile oligotrophic and one true pseudoarthrosis. Six non-unions were classified as type B1 defect non-unions. Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 113/122 (92.6%) tibias. Nine patients had failure of treatment. Seven persistent non-unions were successfully retreated according to the tibial non-union treatment algorithm. This resulted in final bony union in 120/122 (98.3%) tibias. The proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm appears to produce high union rates across a diverse group of tibial non-unions. Tibial non-unions however, remain difficult to treat and should be referred to specialist units where advanced reconstructive techniques are practiced on a regular basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited: Does the Independent Femoral Drilling Technique Avoid Roof Impingement With Anteriorly Placed Tibial Tunnels?

    PubMed

    Tanksley, John A; Werner, Brian C; Conte, Evan J; Lustenberger, David P; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Gwathmey, F Winston; Miller, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is now well accepted. The ideal location for the tibial tunnel has not been studied extensively, although some biomechanical and clinical studies suggest that placement of the tibial tunnel in the anterior part of the ACL tibial attachment site may be desirable. However, the concern for intercondylar roof impingement has tempered enthusiasm for anterior tibial tunnel placement. To compare the potential for intercondylar roof impingement of ACL grafts with anteriorly positioned tibial tunnels after either transtibial (TT) or independent femoral (IF) tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees were randomized to either a TT or IF drilling technique. Tibial guide pins were drilled in the anterior third of the native ACL tibial attachment site after debridement. All efforts were made to drill the femoral tunnel anatomically in the center of the attachment site, and the surrogate ACL graft was visualized using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Reformatting was used to evaluate for roof impingement. Tunnel dimensions, knee flexion angles, and intra-articular sagittal graft angles were also measured. The Impingement Review Index (IRI) was used to evaluate for graft impingement. Two grafts (2/6, 33.3%) in the TT group impinged upon the intercondylar roof and demonstrated angular deformity (IRI type 1). No grafts in the IF group impinged, although 2 of 6 (66.7%) IF grafts touched the roof without deformation (IRI type 2). The presence or absence of impingement was not statistically significant. The mean sagittal tibial tunnel guide pin position prior to drilling was 27.6% of the sagittal diameter of the tibia (range, 22%-33.9%). However, computed tomography performed postdrilling detected substantial posterior enlargement in 2 TT specimens. A significant difference in the sagittal graft angle was noted between the 2 groups. TT grafts were

  5. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, R. D.; Manzotti, A.; Bhave, A.; Paley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications of tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail with treatment using the traditional Ilizarov method. Methods In this matched case study, 16 adult patients underwent 19 tibial lengthening over nails (LON) procedures. For the matched case group, 17 patients who underwent 19 Ilizarov tibial lengthenings were retrospectively matched to the LON group. Results The mean external fixation time for the LON group was 2.6 months and for the matched case group was 7.6 months. The mean lengthening amounts for the LON and the matched case groups were 5.2 cm and 4.9 cm, respectively. The radiographic consolidation time in the LON group was 6.6 months and in the matched case group 7.6 months. Using a clinical and radiographic outcome score that was designed for this study, the outcome was determined to be excellent in 17 and good in two patients for the LON group. The outcome was excellent in 14 and good in five patients in the matched case group. The LON group had increased blood loss and increased cost. The LON group had four deep infections; the matched case group did not have any deep infections. Conclusions The outcomes in the LON group were comparable with the outcomes in the matched case group. The LON group had a shorter external fixation time but experienced increased blood loss, increased cost, and four cases of deep infection. The advantage of reducing external fixation treatment time may outweigh these disadvantages in patients who have a healthy soft-tissue envelope. Cite this article: J. E. Herzenberg. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails: A matched case comparison with Ilizarov tibial lengthening. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:1–10. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000577 PMID:26764351

  6. Changes in Keratometric Values and Corneal High Order Aberrations After Hydrogel Inlay Implantation.

    PubMed

    Whang, Woong-Joo; Yoo, Young-Sik; Joo, Choun-Ki; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2017-01-01

    We sought to analyze surgically induced refractive change (SIRC) and change in high-order aberration after Raindrop corneal inlay insertion (ReVision Optics, Lake Forest, CA), and assess the extent to which Raindrop corneal inlay insertion could correct presbyopia. Interventional case series. Seventeen patients were included if they had a corneal thickness ≥500 μm and a stable manifest spherical equivalent refraction between 0.50 and +1.00 diopters (D). The Raindrop corneal inlay was implanted on the stromal bed of a femtosecond laser-assisted generated flap of nondominant eyes. Manifest refraction, corneal powers, and corneal high-order aberrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The SIRC by manifest refraction was 0.99 ± 0.26 D. The changes derived from simulated keratometry (K), true net power, and equivalent K reading (EKR) at 1.0-4.0 mm were greater than the SIRC (all P < .01) while the change in EKR at 6.0 mm was less than the SIRC (P < .01). The changes in EKR 5.0 mm, automated K, and EKR 4.5 mm did not differ significantly from the SIRC (P = .81, .29, and .09, respectively), and the difference was the least for EKR 5.0 mm. In analysis of high-order aberrations, only spherical aberration showed statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative on both anterior cornea and total cornea (all P < .01). Raindrop corneal inlay corrects presbyopia via increasing negative spherical aberration. The equivalent K reading at 5.0 mm accurately reflected the SIRC, and would be applicable for intraocular power prediction before cataract surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-year clinical evaluation of IPS Empress II ceramic onlays/inlays.

    PubMed

    Tagtekin, D A; Ozyöney, G; Yanikoglu, F

    2009-01-01

    The stronger the ceramic material, the longer the restoration stays in the mouth. The current study evaluated the two-year clinical performance of a strong ceramic system, IPS Empress II, with increased strength on onlay/inlay restorations of molars. Teeth from 35 patients, including three premolars and 32 molars, were prepared for 28 onlay and seven inlay restorations with IPS Empress II ceramics. The restorations were cemented with a highly viscous, dual-curing luting composite cement (Bifix) and evaluated by two examiners using USPHS criteria at baseline (one week following insertion), six months, one year and two years. The baseline scores and recalls were assessed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Statistically significant marginal discoloration at the Bravo level was found at the 12- and 24-month recalls (p=0.046). One debonding was statistically insignificant. No changes were observed with respect to anamnesis, such as any symptom from the TMJ or masticatory muscles. No restorations were replaced due to hypersensitivity or were missing at the two-year evaluation. Any wear on the restoration, antagonist tooth or any changes of proximal contacts were not observed. IPS Empress II Ceramics were found to be appropriate as onlay/inlay restorations for clinical use under the conditions of the current study.

  8. IPS Empress inlays luted with a self-adhesive resin cement after 1 year.

    PubMed

    Taschner, Michael; Frankenberger, Roland; García-Godoy, Franklin; Rosenbusch, Silke; Petschelt, Anselm; Krämer, Norbert

    2009-02-01

    To prospectively compare the clinical performance of two different resin composites for luting IPS Empress inlays and onlays. 83 IPS Empress restorations were placed in 30 subjects. All restorations were inserted under rubber dam. 43 inlays/onlays were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement [RelyX Unicem (RX)]. A multistep adhesive (Syntac) was used with Variolink II low viscosity (SV) and served as control (n=40). The restorations were evaluated after 2 weeks: Baseline = 1st recall (R1), after 6 months (R2) and after 1 year (R3) by two calibrated examiners using the modified USPHS criteria. From R1 to R3, one failure was noticed in the SV group (R2) due to marginal enamel chipping. After 1 year of clinical service, SV revealed significantly better results regarding color match and integrity inlay (Mann-Whitney U-test, P< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed between SV and RX for the remaining criteria (Mann-Whitney U-test, P>0.05).

  9. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  10. Satisfactory outcomes following combined unicompartmental knee replacement and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Volpin, Andrea; Kini, S G; Meuffels, D E

    2017-03-31

    There exist limited options for treatment of patients with combined medial compartment arthritis and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Ideal treatment is one that offers lasting relief of symptoms not compromising any future surgery. Unicompartmental knee replacement has shown consistently good results in the relatively young and active population, but there is a high reported incidence of failure up to 20%, if performed in ACL-deficient knees. One of the recognized treatment modality is combined ACL reconstruction and unicompartmental arthroplasty. A systematic review was conducted looking at the demographics, techniques, complications and outcome of combined ACL reconstruction with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. A systematic literature search within the online Medline, PubMed Database, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Google Scholar was carried out until October 2016 to identify relevant articles. A study was defined eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: the surgical procedure combined unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; patient's clinical and/or functional outcomes were reported; any complications intra-operatively and post-operatively were reported; and the full-text articles, written in English, German, Italian, Dutch or Spanish, were available. Quality and risk of bias assessments were done using standardized criteria set. A total of 8 studies met the inclusion criteria encompassing 186 patients who were treated with simultaneous ACL reconstruction and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. The mean age was 50.5 years (range from 44 to 56) with a mean follow-up of 37.6 months (range from 24 to 60). There was an improvement in mean Oxford Score from 27.5 to 36.8. Complications reported included tibial inlay dislocation (n = 3), conversion to a total knee arthroplasty (n = 1), infection requiring two-stage revision (n = 2), deep-vein thrombosis (n = 1), stiffness requiring

  11. The effects of sectioning the spring ligament on rearfoot stability and posterior tibial tendon efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Meagan M; Christensen, Jeffery C

    2008-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency has been implicated as a cause of adult acquired flatfoot. Multiple theories are debated as to whether or not a flatfoot deformity develops secondary to insufficiency of the posterior tibial tendon or of the ligamentous structures such as the spring ligament complex. This cadaveric study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the effect that sectioning the spring ligament complex has on foot stability, and whether engagement of the posterior tibial tendon would be able to compensate for the loss of the spring ligament complex. A 3-dimensional kinematic system and a custom-loading frame were used to quantify rotation about the talus, navicular, and calcaneus in 5 cadaveric specimens, before and after sectioning the spring ligament complex, while incremental tension was applied to the posterior tibial tendon. This study demonstrated that sectioning the spring ligament complex created instability in the foot for which the posterior tibial tendon was unable to compensate. Sectioning the spring ligament complex also produced significant changes in talar, navicular, and calcaneal rotations. During simulated midstance, the navicular plantarflexed, adducted, and everted; the talar head plantarflexed, adducted, and inverted; and the calcaneus plantarflexed, abducted, and everted, after sectioning the spring ligament complex. The results of this study indicate that the spring ligament complex is the major stabilizer of the arch during midstance and that the posterior tibial tendon is incapable of fully accommodating for its insufficiency, suggesting that the spring ligament complex should be evaluated and, if indicated, repaired in flatfoot reconstruction. 5.

  12. Effect of ceramic thickness and composite bases on stress distribution of inlays--a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Letícia Brandão; Guimarães, Jackeline Coutinho; Monteiro Junior, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cavity depth, ceramic thickness, and resin bases with different elastic modulus on von Mises stress patterns of ceramic inlays. Tridimensional geometric models were developed with SolidWorks image software. The differences between the models were: depth of pulpal wall, ceramic thickness, and presence of composite bases with different thickness and elastic modulus. The geometric models were constrained at the proximal surfaces and base of maxillary bone. A load of 100 N was applied. The stress distribution pattern was analyzed with von Mises stress diagrams. The maximum von Mises stress values ranged from 176 MPa to 263 MPa and varied among the 3D-models. The highest von Mises stress value was found on models with 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay. Intermediate values (249-250 MPa) occurred on models with 2-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay and 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 2-mm-thick ceramic inlay. The lowest values were observed on models restored exclusively with ceramic inlay (176 MPa to 182 MPa). It was found that thicker inlays distribute stress more favorably and bases with low elastic modulus increase stress concentrations on the internal surface of the ceramic inlay. The increase of ceramic thickness tends to present more favorable stress distribution, especially when bonded directly onto the cavity without the use of supporting materials. When the use of a composite base is required, composite resin with high elastic modulus and reduced thickness should be preferred.

  13. Veneered zirconia inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses: 10-Year results from a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Friederike; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Rammelsberg, Peter; Ohlmann, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year clinical performance of zirconia-based inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDP). For replacement of a molar in 27 patients, 30 IRFDP were luted by use of different cements, Panavia F (Kuraray Europe GmbH) or Multilink Automix (Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH), with use of inlay/inlay, inlay/full-crown, or inlay/partial-crown retainers for anchorage. Frameworks were milled from yttria-stabilized zirconia (IPS e.maxZirCAD; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH) and fully veneered with pressable ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Before luting, the IRFDP were silica-coated (Rocatec; 3M Espe) and silanized (Monobond S; Ivoclar Vivadent GmbH). Complications (for example, chipping or delamination of the veneering ceramic, debonding, secondary caries, endodontic treatment, and abutment tooth fracture) and failure were reported, by use of standardized report forms, 2 weeks, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 10 years after cementation. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier survival and success (complication-free survival) and Cox regression analysis (α=0.05 for all). During the 10-year observation period, the complications most often observed were chipping of the veneer and debonding. Twenty-five restorations failed and one participant dropped out. Cumulative 10-year survival and success were 12.1% and 0%, respectively. The design of the retainer, use of a dental dam, choice of cement, and location in the dental arch had no statistically significant effect on the occurrence of complications. Use of fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP with this technique cannot be recommended. A large incidence of complications and poor survival were observed for fully veneered zirconia-based IRFDP, revealing an urgent need for further design improvements for this type of restoration. This, again, emphasizes the need for testing of new restoration designs in clinical trials before implementation in general dental practice. Copyright © 2017

  14. Comparison of a hydrogel corneal inlay and monovision laser in situ keratomileusis in presbyopic patients: focus on visual performance and optical quality.

    PubMed

    Verdoorn, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    To compare the visual performance and optical quality after Raindrop Near Vision Inlay implantation or monovision LASIK for the correction of presbyopia. In this retrospective case-series study, patients previously treated in the nondominant eye with monovision LASIK were compared with patients previously implanted with Raindrop Near Vision Inlay. The study enrolled 16 inlay and 15 monovision LASIK patients. Uncorrected near visual acuity, uncorrected distance visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, patient satisfaction, and patient task performance were assessed. Postoperatively, the mean spherical equivalent was -0.66 D (0.78 SD) for the inlay group and -1.03 D (0.56 SD) for the monovision LASIK group. Monocularly, at uncorrected near distances, 60% of inlay patients and 47% of monovision LASIK patients achieved ≥20/20. Monocularly, at uncorrected far distances, 75% of inlay patients and 40% of monovision LASIK patients achieved ≥20/32 vision. Binocularly, at near distances, 79% of inlay patients and 53% of monovision LASIK patients obtained ≥20/20 vision. All patients achieved ≥20/20 binocularly for distance. On average, inlay patients obtained 98 seconds of arc and monovision LASIK patients obtained 286 seconds of arc for stereopsis. Most (79%) of the inlay patients and 66% of monovision LASIK patients were satisfied with their near vision, while 86% of inlay patients and 67% of monovision LASIK patients were satisfied with their distance vision. Patients receiving corneal inlays demonstrated better near and distance visual acuities, binocular stereopsis, task performance, and satisfaction, when compared to patients treated with monovision LASIK.

  15. Flat midsubstance of the anterior cruciate ligament with tibial "C"-shaped insertion site.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Rainer; Schuhmacher, Peter; Fernandez, Francis; Śmigielski, Robert; Fink, Christian; Brehmer, Axel; Kirsch, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    This anatomical cadaver study was performed to investigate the flat appearance of the midsubstance shape of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and its tibial "C"-shaped insertion site. The ACL midsubstance and the tibial ACL insertion were dissected in 20 cadaveric knees (n = 6 fresh frozen and n = 14 paraffined). Magnifying spectacles were used for all dissections. Morphometric measurements were performed using callipers and on digital photographs. In all specimens, the midsubstance of the ACL was flat with a mean width of 9.9 mm, thickness of 3.9 mm and cross-sectional area of 38.7 mm(2). The "direct" "C"-shaped tibial insertion runs from along the medial tibial spine to the anterior aspect of the lateral meniscus. The mean width (length) of the "C" was 12.6 mm, its thickness 3.3 mm and area 31.4 mm(2). The centre of the "C" was the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus overlayed by fat and crossed by the ACL. No posterolateral (PL) inserting ACL fibres were found. Together with the larger "indirect" part (area 79.6 mm(2)), the "direct" one formed a "duck-foot"-shaped footprint. The tibial ACL midsubstance and tibial "C"-shaped insertion are flat and are resembling a "ribbon". The centre of the "C" is the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus. There are no central or PL inserting ACL fibres. Anatomical ACL reconstruction may therefore require a flat graft and a "C"-shaped tibial footprint reconstruction with an anteromedial bone tunnel for single bundle and an additional posteromedial bone tunnel for double bundle.

  16. Effect of ACL Transection on Internal Tibial Rotation in an in Vitro Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    , under the large forces associated with a simulated pivot landing, but it leads to a significant increase in anterior tibial translation. Clinical Relevance: An ACL reconstruction that restores both ligament orientation and stiffness will provide major resistance to anterior tibial translation while providing minor resistance to axial tibial rotation. PMID:21325589

  17. In vitro Fracture strength and hardness of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing inlays.

    PubMed

    Sagsoz, O; Yildiz, M; Hojjat Ghahramanzadeh, A S L; Alsaran, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the fracture strength and surface microhardness of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials in vitro. Mesial-occlusal-distal inlays were made from five different CAD/CAM materials (feldspathic ceramic, CEREC blocs; leucite-reinforced ceramic, IPS Empress CAD; resin nano ceramic, 3M ESPE Lava Ultimate; hybrid ceramic, VITA Enamic; and lithium disilicate ceramic, IPS e.max CAD) using CEREC 4 CAD/CAM system. Samples were adhesively cemented to metal analogs with a resin cement (3M ESPE, U200). The fracture tests were carried out with a universal testing machine. Furthermore, five samples were prepared from each CAD/CAM material for micro-Vickers hardness test. Data were analyzed with statistics software SPSS 20 (IBM Corp., New York, USA). Fracture strength of lithium disilicate inlays (3949 N) was found to be higher than other ceramic inlays (P < 0.05). There was no difference between other inlays statistically (P > 0.05). The highest micro-Vickers hardness was measured in lithium disilicate samples, and the lowest was in resin nano ceramic samples. Fracture strength results demonstrate that inlays can withstand the forces in the mouth. Statistical results showed that fracture strength and micro-Vickers hardness of feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced ceramic, and lithium disilicate ceramic materials had a positive correlation.

  18. Tibial slope correction combined with second revision ACL produces good knee stability and prevents graft rupture.

    PubMed

    Dejour, David; Saffarini, Mo; Demey, Guillaume; Baverel, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.

  19. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Ideal tibial intramedullary nail insertion point varies with tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard M; Zdero, Rad; McKee, Michael D; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how superior entry point varies with tibial rotation and to identify landmarks that can be used to identify suitable radiographs for successful intramedullary nail insertion. The proximal tibia and knee were imaged for 12 cadaveric limbs undergoing 5° increments of internal and external rotation. Medial and lateral arthrotomies were performed, the ideal superior entry point was identified, and a 2-mm Kirschner wire inserted. A second Kirschner wire was sequentially placed at the 5-mm and then the 10-mm position, both medial and lateral to the initial Kirschner wire. Radiographs of the knee were obtained for all increments. The changing position of the ideal nail insertion point was recorded. A 30° arc (range, 25°-40°) provided a suitable anteroposterior radiograph. On the neutral anteroposterior radiograph, the Kirschner wire was 54% ± 1.5% (range, 51-56%) from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. For every 5° of rotation, the Kirschner wire moved 3% of the plateau width. During external rotation, a misleading medial entry point was obtained. A fibular bisector line correlated with an entry point that was ideal or up to 5 mm lateral to this but never medial. The film that best showed the fibular bisector line was between 0° and 10° of internal rotation of the tibia. The fibula head bisector line can be used to avoid choosing external rotation views and, thus, avoid medial insertion points. The current results may help the surgeon prevent malalignment during intramedullary nailing in proximal tibial fractures.

  1. Photothermal coherence tomography for 3-D visualization and structural non-destructive imaging of a wood inlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakolian, Pantea; Sfarra, Stefano; Gargiulo, Gianfranco; Sivagurunathan, Koneshwaran; Mandelis, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the suitability of truncated correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT) for the non-destructive imaging of a replica of a real inlay to identify subsurface features that often are invisible areas of vulnerability and damage. Defects of inlays involve glue-rich areas, glue-starved areas, termite attack, insect damage, and laminar splitting. These defects have the potential to result in extensive damage to the art design layers of inlays. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging technique to visualize and determine the location of defects within the sample. The recently introduced TC-PCT modality proved capable of providing 3-D images of specimens with high axial resolution, deep subsurface depth profiling capability, and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, in this study the authors used TC-PCT to image a fabricated inlay sample with various natural and artificial defects in the middle and top layers. The inlay in question reproduces to scale a piece of art preserved in the "Mirror room" of the Castle Laffitte in France. It was built by a professional restorer following the ancient procedure named element by element. Planar TC-PCT images of the inlay were stacked coherently to provide 3-D visualization of areas with known defects in the sample. The experimental results demonstrated the identification of defects such as empty holes, a hole filled with stucco, subsurface delaminations and natural features such as a wood knot and wood grain in different layers of the sample. For this wooden sample that has a very low thermal diffusivity, a depth range of 2 mm was achieved.

  2. Marginal adaptation, fracture load and macroscopic failure mode of adhesively luted PMMA-based CAD/CAM inlays.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Bienz, Stefan; Mörmann, Werner; Mehl, Albert; Attin, Thomas; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate marginal adaptation, fracture load and failure types of CAD/CAM polymeric inlays. Standardized prepared human molars (48) were divided into four groups (n=12): (A) PCG (positive control group); adhesively luted glass-ceramic inlays, (B) TRX; CAD/CAM polymeric inlays luted using a self-adhesive resin cement, (C) TAC; CAD/CAM polymeric inlays luted using a conventional resin cement, and (D) NCG (negative control group); direct-filled resin-based composite restorations. All specimens were subjected to a chewing simulator. Before and after chewing fatigue, marginal adaptation was assessed at two interfaces: (1) between dental hard tissues and luting cement and (2) between luting cement and restoration. Thereafter, the specimens were loaded and the fracture loads, as well as the failure types, were determined. The data were analysed using three- and one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffé test, two sample Student's t-test (p<0.05). Before and after chewing fatigue, marginal adaptation for interface 1 showed significantly better results for TRX and PCG than for TAC (p=0.001-0.02) and NCG (p=0.001-0.047). For interface 2, marginal adaptation for TAC was significantly inferior to TRX (p<0.001) and PCG (p<0.001). Chewing fatigue had a negative impact on the marginal adaptation of TAC and NCG. No significant differences in fracture load were found between all tested groups. Self-adhesive luted polymeric CAD/CAM inlays showed similar marginal adaptation and fracture load values compared to adhesively luted glass-ceramic inlays. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inlay-retained cantilever fixed dental prostheses to substitute a single premolar: impact of zirconia framework design after dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Ramez; Tannous, Fahed; Kern, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the framework design on the durability of inlay-retained cantilever fixed dental prostheses (IR-FDPs), made from zirconia ceramic, after artificial ageing. Forty-eight caries-free human premolars were prepared as abutments for all-ceramic cantilevered IR-FDPs using six framework designs: occlusal-distal (OD) inlay, OD inlay with an oral retainer wing, OD inlay with two retainer wings, mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay, MOD inlay with an oral retainer ring, and veneer partial coping with a distal box (VB). Zirconia IR-FDPs were fabricated via computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The bonding surfaces were air-abraded (50 μm alumina/0.1 MPa), and the frameworks were bonded with adhesive resin cement. Specimens were stored for 150 d in a 37°C water bath during which they were thermocycled between 5 and 55°C for 37,500 cycles; thereafter, they were exposed to 600,000 cycles of dynamic loading with a 5-kg load in a chewing simulator. All surviving specimens were loaded onto the pontic and tested until failure using a universal testing machine. The mean failure load of the groups ranged from 260.8 to 746.7 N. Statistical analysis showed that both MOD groups exhibited significantly higher failure loads compared with the other groups (i.e. the three OD groups and the VB group) and that there was no significant difference in the failure load among the OD groups and the VB group. In conclusion, zirconia IR-FDPs with a modified design exhibited promising failure modes. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Considerations for Altering Preparation Designs of Porcelain Inlay/Onlay Restorations for Nonvital Teeth.

    PubMed

    Homsy, Foudda; Eid, Rita; El Ghoul, Wiam; Chidiac, Jose Johann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare all ceramic inlay/onlay survival rates in vital and nonvital teeth having the same cavity design. Filling the pulp chamber with ceramic materials or not was also discussed. Ceramic class II inlays/onlays were made on 11 premolars and 30 molars: 14 vital, 27 endodontically treated. The same tooth preparation design was performed on vital and nonvital teeth: In nonvital teeth the pulp chambers were covered by a glass ionomer cement until the pulpal floor depths were between 2 and 2.5 mm, more likely similar to the vital teeth preparations. In vital teeth, glass ionomer was used as a liner to achieve pulpal floor depths between 2 and 2.5 mm when needed. The restorations were assessed (at baseline, 6 months, 1 and 2 years) according to three criteria: marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, and fracture of teeth/restorations, consistent with United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Eight teeth (19%) showed minor marginal discolorations, while three molars (7%) had loss of marginal integrity. These margins were adjusted using rubber polishing cups and were then judged clinically acceptable. From these three molars, one was vital and two were endodontically treated. No fracture of teeth or restorations was observed. Chi square and exact probability tests were used. There was no statistical difference between vital and nonvital teeth (p = 0.719 chi-squared and Fisher) or between premolars and molars (p = 0.564 chi-squared; 1.000, Fisher). Within the limitations of this study there was no difference for the same inlay/onlay cavity design between vital and nonvital teeth. In nonvital teeth, it seems that filling the pulp chamber with a ceramic core material is not important. Long-term observation periods are needed to reinforce the clinical behavior outcome. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Aesthetic guidelines for second-generation indirect inlay and onlay composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Miara, P

    1998-05-01

    Recent innovations in indirect composite technology and adhesive bonding procedures have resulted in the development of advanced materials particularly suited for inlay and onlay restorations. Microhybrid composite resins are characterized by a filler/matrix ratio that is significantly greater than that of earlier materials. This article reviews the physical properties and clinical application of these "second-generation" composite resins, with emphasis on a system that utilizes a heat-curing process in conjunction with nitrogen pressure to fabricate a material with improved mechanical and aesthetic properties.

  6. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  7. Anatomical Individualized ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Amir Ata; Sabzevari, Soheil; Irarrázaval, Sebastián; Chao, Tom; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is composed of two bundles, which work together to provide both antero-posterior and rotatory stability of the knee. Understanding the anatomy and function of the ACL plays a key role in management of patients with ACL injury. Anatomic ACL reconstruction aims to restore the function of the native ACL. Femoral and tibial tunnels should be placed in their anatomical location accounting for both the native ACL insertion site and bony landmarks. One main component of anatomical individualized ACL reconstruction is customizing the treatment according to each patient's individual characteristics, considering preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of the native ACL and knee bony anatomy. Anatomical individualized reconstruction surgery should also aim to restore the size of the native ACL insertion as well. Using this concept, while single bundle ACL reconstruction can restore the function of the ACL in some patients, double bundle reconstruction is indicated in others to achieve optimal outcome.

  8. Reliability of frames of reference used for tibial component rotation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen R; Deakin, Angela H; Payne, Anthony P; Picard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated seven different frames of reference used for tibial component rotation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to determine which ones showed good reliability between bone specimens. An optoelectronic system based around a computer-assisted surgical navigation system was used to measure and locate 34 individual anatomical landmarks on 40 tibias. Each particular frame of reference was reconstructed from a group of data points taken from the surface of each bone. The transverse axis was used as the baseline to which the other axes were compared, and the differences in angular rotation between the other six reference frames and the transverse axis were calculated. There was high variability in the tibial rotational alignment associated with all frames of reference. Of the references widely used in current TKA procedures, the tibial tuberosity axis and the anterior condylar axis had lower standard deviations (6.1° and 7.3°, respectively) than the transmalleolar axis and the posterior condylar axis (9.3° for both). In conclusion, we found high variability in the frames of reference used for tibial rotation alignment. However, the anterior condylar axis and transverse axis may warrant further tests with the use of navigation. Combining different frames of reference such as the tibial tuberosity axis, anterior condylar axis and transverse axis may reduce the range of errors found in all of these measurements.

  9. Knee braces can decrease tibial rotation during pivoting that occurs in high demanding activities.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Tsiaras, Vasilios; Ristanis, Stavros; Zampeli, Franceska; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Stergiou, Nicholas; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether knee braces could effectively decrease tibial rotation during high demanding activities. Using an in vivo three-dimensional kinematic analysis, 21 physically active, healthy, male subjects were evaluated. Each subject performed two tasks that were used extensively in the literature because they combine increased rotational and translational loads on the knee, (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting under three conditions: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced), (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved), and (C) unbraced condition. In the first task, tibial rotation during the pivoting phase was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved condition (P = 0.019) and the non-braced condition (P = 0.002). In the second task, the same variable was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved (P = 0.001) and the unbraced condition (P < 0.001). The sleeved condition also produced significantly decreased tibial rotation with respect to the unbraced condition (P = 0.021). Bracing decreased tibial rotation in activities where increased translational and rotational forces were applied. Because knee braces decreased tibial rotation, they can possibly be used with ACL-reconstructed and ACL-deficient patients to prevent such problems. Case-control study, Level III.

  10. Ceramic hemi-unicondylar arthroplasty in an adolescent patient with idiopathic tibial chondrolysis.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Derek; Garino, Jonathan; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in cartilage regeneration and restoration procedures, isolated, large, full-thickness cartilage lesions in young patients continue to pose significant challenges to patients and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment options for this difficult problem have traditionally included arthrodesis, osteotomy, osteochondral allograft, and prosthetic reconstruction. We present a case of an adolescent patient with isolated idiopathic lateral tibial chondrolysis treated with a custom ceramic hemi-unicondylar hemiarthroplasty. Preoperatively, a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patient's knee was obtained to begin manufacturing a conforming custom ceramic insert that would articulate between the tibial base plate and the patient's native lateral femoral cartilage. Through a lateral parapatellar approach, the tibial preparation was carried out using the Zimmer M/G unicompartmental knee system (Warsaw, Indiana), and the tibial base plate was cemented into position in the standard fashion. A custom, conforming, prefabricated ceramic insert (CeramTec, Memphis, Tennessee) was then inserted onto the tibial base plate. At 5-year follow-up, this salvage procedure was successful in relieving pain and restoring function in this young patient. There were no signs of implant loosening or lysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at last follow-up revealed that the cartilage thickness of the patient's lateral femoral condyle remained unchanged. Unicondylar hemiarthroplasty performed in patients with large unipolar lesions in the knee can provide durable and reliable pain relief. Ceramic is a viable material that can be considered for articulation with native cartilage.

  11. Anthropometric measurements of tibial plateau and correlation with the current tibial implants.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Sayar, Safak; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to make an anthropometric analysis at the resected surfaces of the proximal tibia in the Turkish population and to compare the data with the dimensions of tibial components in current use. We hypothesized that tibial components currently available on the market do not fulfil the requirements of this population and a new tibial component design may be required, especially for female patients with small stature. Anthropometric data from the proximal tibia of 226 knees in 226 Turkish subjects were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the mediolateral, middle anteroposterior, medial and lateral anteroposterior dimensions and the aspect ratio of the resected proximal tibial surface. All morphological data were compared with the dimensions of five contemporary tibial implants, including asymmetric and symmetric design types. The dimensions of the tibial plateau of Turkish knees demonstrated significant differences according to gender (P < 0.05). Among the different tibial implants reviewed, neither asymmetric nor symmetric designs exhibited a perfect conformity to proximal tibial morphology in size and shape. The vast majority of tibial implants involved in this study tend to overhang anteroposteriorly, and a statistically significant number of women (21 %, P < 0.05) had tibial anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available tibial component. Tibial components designed according to anthropometric measurements of Western populations do not perfectly meet the requirements of Turkish population. These data could provide the basis for designing the optimal and smaller tibial component for this population, especially for women, is required for best fit. II.

  12. A clinical trial of Empress II porcelain inlays luted to vital teeth with a dual-curing adhesive system and a self-curing resin cement.

    PubMed

    Fabianelli, Andrea; Goracci, Cecilia; Bertelli, Egidio; Davidson, Carel L; Ferrari, Marco

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clinically evaluate Empress II inlays cemented with a dual-curing bonding agent and a self-curing luting system. Forty patients were selected to receive one Empress II inlay. Empress II is a heat-pressed glass ceramic containing lithium disilicate and lithium orthophosphate crystals, purported to provide higher stress resistance and improved strength. The restorations were placed between March and May 2000. Recalls were performed after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. At the 3-year recall, 7 patients were lost to follow-up. Inlays were evaluated for postoperative sensitivity, marginal integrity, marginal leakage, color stability, surface staining, retention, and surface crazing (microcracks). At the 3-year recall, all the restorations were in place and only one showed postoperative sensitivity (at the first recall, 1 week after placement). Only 3 inlays showed slight marginal staining, and 4 inlays showed gaps, with little surface staining or microcracks. No inlay debonded or fractured during theobservation period. All the evaluated inlays were in place and acceptable.

  13. Structural dynamics of shroudless, hollow fan blades with composite in-lays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.; Hirschbein, M. S.; Chamis, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Structural and dynamic analyses are presented for a shroudless, hollow titanium fan blade proposed for future use in aircraft turbine engines. The blade was modeled and analyzed using the composite blade structural analysis computer program (COBSTRAN); an integrated program consisting of mesh generators, composite mechanics codes, NASTRAN, and pre- and post-processors. Vibration and impact analyses are presented. The vibration analysis was conducted with COBSTRAN. Results show the effect of the centrifugal force field on frequencies, twist, and blade camber. Bird impact analysis was performed with the multi-mode blade impact computer program. This program uses the geometric model and modal analysis from the COBSTRAN vibration analysis to determine the gross impact response of the fan blades to bird strikes. The structural performance of this blade is also compared to a blade of similar design but with composite in-lays on the outer surface. Results show that the composite in-lays can be selected (designed) to substantially modify the mechanical performance of the shroudless, hollow fan blade.

  14. Clinical performance of bonded ceramic inlays/onlays: A 5- to 18-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgia Botto, Ernesto; Baró, Rosario; Borgia Botto, José Luis

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study evaluated the clinical performance of bonded ceramic inlays/onlays, placed by the first author in his private practice, in a 5 to 18-year period. The patients evaluated had been treated in the office for at least 7 years and were still in the practice up to year 2013. 130 randomly selected patients agreed to participate in the study. 93 bonded ceramic inlays/onlays (BCRs), were placed on posterior teeth in 47 subjects. Gender, age, tooth preparation, number, type, extent, location, quality and survival of the restorations, ceramic materials, luting resins cements, parafunctional habits, secondary caries and maintenance therapy were the variables evaluated. Cohen 's Kappa coefficient, on the quality analysis of the restorations, ranged from 0.78 to 1. Fisher 's exact test, Chi Square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney non-parametric test were indicated to analyze significant differences. At the initial examination, 87 (93.5%) restorations were in function and six failed (6.5%). 81 (93%) were rated as clinical successes. The observed mean survival time of those that remained functional was 11 years. The standard deviation was 4 years, with a 95% CI for the overall observed mean survival time (10 years-11 years, 9 months). 87 of 93 BCRs had a functional success of 93.5%, with an observed mean survival of 11 years. The clinical performance of bonded ceramic onlays was very acceptable. Bonded ceramic onlays showed a predictable, esthetic, and functional treatment, with acceptable longevity.

  15. Do Tibial Plateau Fractures Worsen Outcomes of Knee Ligament Injuries? A Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cinque, Mark E.; Godin, Jonathan A.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; Kruckeberg, Bradley M.; Pogorzelski, Jonas; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tibial plateau fractures account for a small portion of all fractures; however, these fractures can pose a surgical challenge when occurring concomitantly with ligament injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare 2-year outcomes of soft tissue reconstruction with or without a concomitant tibial plateau fracture and open reduction internal fixation. We hypothesized that patients with a concomitant tibial plateau fracture at the time of soft tissue surgery would have inferior outcomes compared with patients without an associated tibial plateau fracture. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty patients were included in this study: 8 in the fracture group and 32 in the matched control group. Inclusion criteria for the fracture group included patients who were at least 18 years old at the time of surgery and sustained a tibial plateau fracture and a concomitant injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, or fibular collateral ligament in isolation or any combination of cruciate or collateral ligaments and who subsequently underwent isolated or combined ligament reconstruction. Patients were excluded if they underwent prior ipsilateral knee surgery, sustained additional bony injuries, or sustained an isolated extra-articular ligament injury at the time of injury. Each patient with a fracture was matched with 4 patients from a control group who had no evidence of a tibial plateau fracture but underwent the same soft tissue reconstruction procedure. Results: Patients in the fracture group improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively with respect to Short Form–12 (P < .05) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index total scores (P < .05). The Lysholm (P = .075) and Tegner scores (P = .086) also improved, although this was not statistically significant. Patients in the control group improved significantly from

  16. Intercondylar roof impingement pressure after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tajima, Goro; Ingham, Sheila J M; Shen, Wei; Horaguchi, Takashi; Saito, Akiyoshi; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2009-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft impingement against the intercondylar roof has been postulated, but not thoroughly investigated. The roof impingement pressure changes with different tibial and femoral tunnel positions in ACL reconstruction. Anterior tibial translation is also affected by the tunnel positions of ACL reconstruction. The study design included a controlled laboratory study. In 15 pig knees, the impingement pressure between ACL and intercondylar roof was measured using pressure sensitive film before and after ACL single bundle reconstruction. ACL reconstructions were performed in each knee with two different tibial and femoral tunnel position combinations: (1) tibial antero-medial (AM) tunnel to femoral AM tunnel (AM to AM) and (2) tibial postero-lateral (PL) tunnel to femoral High-AM tunnel (PL to High-AM). Anterior tibial translation (ATT) was evaluated after each ACL reconstruction using robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system. Neither the AM to AM nor the PL to High-AM ACL reconstruction groups showed significant difference when compared with intact ACL in roof impingement pressure. The AM to AM group had a significantly higher failure load than PL to High-AM group. This study showed how different tunnel placements affect the ACL-roof impingement pressure and anterior-posterior laxity in ACL reconstruction. Anatomical ACL reconstruction does not cause roof impingement and it has a biomechanical advantage in ATT when compared with non-anatomical ACL reconstructions in the pig knee. There is no intercondylar roof impingement after anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction.

  17. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Praveen; Chitre, Vidya; Aras, Meena A

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, inlay casting waxes have been used to fabricate patterns for castings. Newer resin pattern materials offer greater rigidity and strength, allowing easier laboratory and intraoral adjustment without the fear of pattern damage. They also claim to possess a greater dimensional stability when compared to inlay wax. This study attempted to determine and compare the marginal accuracy of patterns fabricated from an inlay casting wax, an autopolymerized pattern resin and a light polymerized pattern resin on storage off the die for varying time intervals. Ten patterns each were fabricated from an inlay casting wax (GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), an autopolymerized resin pattern material (Pattern resin, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and a light-cured resin pattern material (Palavit GLC, Hereaus Kulzer GmbH, Germany). The completed patterns were stored off the die at room temperature. Marginal gaps were evaluated by reseating the patterns on their respective dies and observing it under a stereomicroscope at 1, 12, and 24 h intervals after pattern fabrication. The results revealed that the inlay wax showed a significantly greater marginal discrepancy at the 12 and 24 h intervals. The autopolymerized resin showed an initial (at 1 h) marginal discrepancy slightly greater than inlay wax, but showed a significantly less marginal gap (as compared to inlay wax) at the other two time intervals. The light-cured resin proved to be significantly more dimensionally stable, and showed minimal change during the storage period. The resin pattern materials studied, undergo a significantly less dimensional change than the inlay waxes on prolonged storage. They would possibly be a better alternative to inlay wax in situations requiring high precision or when delayed investment (more than 1 h) of patterns can be expected.

  18. Bioceramic inlays do not improve mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium stems in the proximal sheep femur.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Pauli; Koort, Jyri; Itälä, Ari; Ylänen, Heimo; Dalstra, Michel; Hupa, Mikko; Kommonen, Bertel; Aro, Hannu T

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine, if bioactive glass (BG) surface inlays improve osseointegration of titanium implants in the proximal femur of adult sheep. In simulation of uncemented primary stems (nine animals), only the proximal part of the implants was grit-blasted and three surface slots of the grit-blasted region were filled with sintered BG microspheres. Primary stems were implanted using press-fit technique. In revision stem simulation (eight animals), grit-blasting was extended over the whole implant and seven perforating holes of the stem were filled by sintered BG granules. Revision stems were implanted with a mixture of autogenous bone graft and BG granules. Comparison with solid partially or fully grit-blasted control stems implanted in the contralateral femurs was performed in the primary and revision stem experiments at 12 and 25 weeks, respectively. Implant incorporation was evaluated by torsional failure testing and histomorphometry. Only one-third of the primary stems anchored mechanically to bone. The revision stems incorporated better and the BG inlays of the revision stems showed ingrowth of new bone. However, there were no significant differences in the torsional failure loads between the stems with BG inlays and the control stems. In conclusion, surface BG inlays gave no measurable advantage in mechanical incorporation of grit-blasted titanium implants. Overall, the proximal sheep femur, characterized by minimal amount of cancellous bone and the presence of adipocytic bone marrow, seemed to present compromised bone healing conditions. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Develi, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    The tibial nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve and it terminates in the tarsal tunnel by giving lateral and medial plantar nerves. We present a rare case of trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. The variant nerve curves laterally after branching from the tibial nerve and courses deep to quadratus plantae muscle. Interestingly, posterior tibial artery was also terminating by giving three branches. These branches were accompanying the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

  20. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  1. Femoro-tibial kinematics after TKA in fixed- and mobile-bearing knees in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, Kiriakos; Höll, Steffen; Gosheger, Georg; Dieckmann, Ralf; Martinelli, Nicolo; Ostermeier, Sven; Tibesku, Carsten O

    2013-10-01

    Lack of the anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty results in paradoxical movement of the femur as opposed to the tibia under deep flexion. Total knee arthroplasty with mobile-bearing inlays has been developed to provide increased physiological movement of the knee joint and to reduce polyethylene abrasion. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of the kinematic movement in the sagittal plane in order to show differences between fixed- and mobile-bearing TKA in comparison with the natural knee joint. Seven knee joints of human cadaver material were used in a laboratory experiment. Fixed- and mobile-bearing inlays were tested in sequences under isokinetic extension in so-called kinemator for knee joints, which can simulate muscular traction power by the use of hydraulic cylinders, which crossover the knee joint. As a target parameter, the a.p. translation of the tibio-femoral relative movement was measured in the sagittal plane under ultrasound (Zebris) control. The results show a reduced tibial a.p. translation in relation to the femur in the bearing group compared to the natural joint. In the Z-axis, between 110° and 50° of flexion, linear movement decreases towards caudal movement under extension. Admittedly, the study did not show differences in the movement pattern between "mobile-bearing" and "fixed-bearing" prostheses. Results of this study cannot prove functional advantages of mobile-bearing prostheses for the knee joint kinematic after TKA. Both types of prostheses show typical kinematics of an anterior instability, hence they were incapable of performing physiological movement.

  2. The effect of plate position and size on tibial slope in high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rubino, L Joseph; Schoderbek, Robert J; Golish, S Raymond; Baumfeld, Joshua; Miller, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomies are performed for degenerative changes and varus. Opening wedge osteotomies can change proximal tibial slope in the sagittal plane, possibly imparting stability in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of plate position and size on change in tibial slope. Eight cadaveric knees underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates of each different size. Plates were placed anterior, central, and posterior for each size used. Lateral radiographs were obtained. Tibial slope was measured and compared with baseline slope. Tibial slope was affected by plate position (P < 0.05) and size (P < 0.001). Smaller, posterior plates had less effect on tibial slope. However, anterior and central plates increased tibial slope over all plate sizes (P < 0.05). This study found that tibial slope increases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Larger corrections and anterior placement of the plate are associated with larger increases in slope.

  3. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  4. Influence of restorative material and proximal cavity design on the fracture resistance of MOD inlay restoration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Fok, Alex; Li, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the restorative material and cavity design on the facture resistance of inlay restorations under a compressive load using acoustic emission (AE) measurement. Two restorative materials, a composite resin (MZ100, 3M ESPE) and a ceramic (IPS Empress CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent), and two cavity designs, non-proximal box and proximal box, were studied. Thirty-two extracted human third molars were selected and divided into 4 groups. The restorative materials and cavity designs used for the four groups were: (1) composite and non-proximal box; (2) ceramic and non-proximal box; (3) composite and proximal box; (4) ceramic and proximal box. The restored molars were loaded in a MTS machine via a loading head of diameter 10mm. The rate of loading was 0.1mm/min. During loading, an AE system was used to monitor the debonding and fracture of the specimens. The load corresponding to the first AE event, the final maximum load sustained, as well as the total number of AE events recorded were used to evaluate the fracture resistance of the restored teeth. For the initial fracture load, Group 2 (236.15N)Group 2 (1685)>Group 3 (239)>Group 1 (221). The differences from pairwise comparisons in the initial fracture load and final load were mostly insignificant statistically (p>0.05), the only exception being that between Groups 2 and 3 in the initial fracture load (p=0.039). For the total number of AE events, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between all group pairs that involved different materials, with the composite groups giving much fewer AE events than the ceramic groups. Conversely, no statistically significant difference in the AE results was found between groups with the same material

  5. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Posttraumatic deformities of the knee joint : Intra-articular osteotomy after malreduction of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Krause, M; Frings, J; Drenck, T; Akoto, R; Müller, G; Madert, J

    2016-10-01

    Malreduction of tibial head fractures often leads to malalignment of the lower extremity, pain, limited range of motion and instability. The extent of the complaints and the degree of deformity requires an exact analysis and a standardized approach. True ligamentous instability should be distinguished from pseudoinstability of the joint. Also extra- and intra-articular deformities have to be differentiated. In intra-articular deformities the extent of articular surface displacement, defects and clefts must be accurately evaluated. A specific surgical approach is necessary, which allows adequate visualization, correct osteotomy and refixation of the fractured area of the tibial head. In the long-term course good clinical results are described for intra-articular osteotomies. If the joint is damaged to such an extent that it cannot be reconstructed or in cases of advanced posttraumatic osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty may be necessary; however, whenever possible and reasonable, anatomical reconstruction and preservation of the joint should be attempted.

  7. Human astrocytic grid networks patterned in parylene-C inlayed SiO2 trenches.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M D; Raos, B J; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Graham, E S; Unsworth, C P

    2016-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that glia, and in particular astrocytes, should be studied as organised networks which communicate through gap junctions. Astrocytes, however, adhere to most surfaces and are highly mobile cells. In order to study, such organised networks effectively in vitro it is necessary to influence them to pattern to certain substrates whilst being repelled from others and to immobilise the astrocytes sufficiently such that they do not continue to migrate further whilst under study. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time how it is possible to facilitate the study of organised patterned human astrocytic networks using hNT astrocytes in a SiO2 trench grid network that is inlayed with the biocompatible material, parylene-C. We demonstrate how the immobilisation of astrocytes lies in the depth of the SiO2 trench, determining an optimum trench depth and that the optimum patterning of astrocytes is a consequence of the parylene-C inlay and the grid node spacing. We demonstrate high fidelity of the astrocytic networks and demonstrate that functionality of the hNT astrocytes through ATP evoked calcium signalling is also dependent on the grid node spacing. Finally, we demonstrate that the location of the nuclei on the grid nodes is also a function of the grid node spacing. The significance of this work, is to describe a suitable platform to facilitate the study of hNT astrocytes from the single cell level to the network level to improve knowledge and understanding of how communication links to spatial organisation at these higher order scales and trigger in vitro research further in this area with clinical applications in the area of epilepsy, stroke and focal cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation of mechanical properties of four kinds of composite resins for inlay].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-ling; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jin-rui

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the compressive strength, wear resistance, hardness, and soaking fatigue of four composite resins for inlay, which were Ceramage, Surefil, Solitaire 2, and Filtek(TM) Z350. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructures of the wear surface of the samples. The samples for the compression test, hardness test and wear were prepared. The samples were respectively immersed in the artificial saliva for 2 months for immersed test. The electronic universal testing machine was used to test the compression strength. Hardness was quantified by micro-Vickers hardness test. The wear tester was used for the wear test. SEM was used to analyze the microstructures of the wear surface of samples. All the data was analyzed by using SPSS17.0 software package. The compressive strength of Surefil was the biggest which was significantly higher than the other three resins before soaking (P<0.05). After soaking, there was no significant difference between the composite resins (P>0.05). The hardness of Surefil was the best, and significant difference was found between the hardness of the materials before soaking (P<0.05). After soaking, no significant difference was obtained between the hardness of Surefil and Filtek(TM) Z350 (P>0.05).The compressive strength and hardness of 4 materials decreased after soaking in artificial saliva. But only the compressive strength of Filtek(TM) Z350 had no significant change after immersion (P>0.05). Except Filtek(TM) Z350, there was significant difference between the other three materials (P<0.05). Significant relationship was observed between wear and hardness of three materials (P<0.05). According to SEM observation, abrasive wear occurred in four materials. In addition to Ceramage, other composite resins had adhesive wear. The mechanical property of Surefil is the best, and it is suitable for fabrication of posterior inlay. Filtek(TM) Z350's ability to resist fatigue is the best.

  9. Microleakage of IPS empress 2 inlay restorations luted with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Cal, E; Celik, E U; Turkun, M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the microleakage of three self-adhesive and one etch-and-rinse resin cements when luting IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) all-ceramic inlay restorations to the prepared cavities in extracted human molars. The cylindrical Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars using diamond burs. The IPS Empress 2 ceramic inlays were placed with Multilink Sprint (Ivoclar Vivadent), RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, USA), G-Cem (GC, Japan), or Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) as the control group. After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, samples were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between baths of 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 seconds. The microleakage scores were examined on the occlusal and gingival margins at 30× magnification after each sample was stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin and sectioned into three parts using a thin diamond blade (Isomet, Buehler, USA) (n=40). The extent of microleakage on both occlusal and gingival margins of the restorations was scored and recorded. The microleakage data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in both margins according to the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (p<0.05). Microleakage scores on the occlusal margins were Variolink II < RelyX Unicem < G-Cem = Multilink Sprint. Microleakage scores on the gingival margins are Variolink II = RelyX Unicem < G-Cem < Multilink Sprint. Self-adhesive resin cements displayed higher microleakage scores on the occlusal margins, whereas on the gingival margins RelyX Unicem showed comparable microleakage results with the control samples.

  10. Early results of patellofemoral inlay resurfacing arthroplasty using the HemiCap Wave prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash; Haider, Zakir; Anand, Amarjit; Spicer, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Common surgical treatment options for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis include arthroscopic procedures, total knee replacement and patellofemoral replacement. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis is a novel inlay design introduced in 2009 with scarce published data on its functional outcomes. We aim to prospectively evaluate early functional outcomes and complications, for patients undergoing a novel inlay resurfacing arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthrosis in an independent centre. From 2010 to 2013, 16 consecutive patients underwent patellofemoral resurfacing procedures using HemiCap Wave (Arthrosurface Inc., Franklin, Massachusetts, USA) for anterior knee pain with confirmed radiologically and/or arthroscopically isolated severe patellofemoral arthrosis. Standardized surgical technique, as recommended by the implant manufacturer, was followed. Outcome measures included range of movement, functional knee scores (Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36)), radiographic disease progression, revision rates and complications. Eight men and eight women underwent patellofemoral HemiCap Wave resurfacing, with an average age of 63 years (range: 46-83). Average follow-up was 24.1 months (6-34). Overall, post-operative scores were excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative OKS, KOOS and SF-36 scores ( p < 0.01). One patient had radiological disease progression. One patient underwent revision for deep infection. Two other minor complications were observed and treated conservatively. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis has excellent early results in terms of functional outcomes, radiological outcomes and low complication rates. At the very least, early results show that the HemiCap Wave is comparable to more established onlay prostheses. The HemiCap Wave thus provides a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment

  11. Ceramic Inlays: Effect of Mechanical Cycling and Ceramic Type on Restoration-dentin Bond Strength.

    PubMed

    Trindade, F Z; Kleverlaan, C J; da Silva, L H; Feilzer, A J; Cesar, P F; Bottino, M A; Valandro, L F

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between dentin and five different ceramic inlays in permanent maxillary premolars, with and without mechanical cycling. One hundred permanent maxillary premolars were prepared and divided into 10 groups (n=10) according to the ceramic system (IPS e.Max Press; IPS e.Max CAD; Vita PM9; Vita Mark II; and Vita VM7) and the mechanical cycling factor (with and without [100 N, 2 Hz, 1.2×10(6) cycles]). The inlays were adhesively cemented, and all of the specimens were cut into microbars (1×1 mm, nontrimming method), which were tested under microtensile loading. The failure mode was classified and contact angle, roughness, and microtopographic analyses were performed on each ceramic surface. The mechanical cycling had a significant effect (p=0.0087) on the bond strength between dentin and IPS e.max Press. The Vita Mark II group had the highest bond strength values under both conditions, with mechanical cycling (9.7±1.8 MPa) and without (8.2±1.9 MPa), while IPS e.Max CAD had the lowest values (2.6±1.6 and 2.2±1.4, respectively). The adhesive failure mode at the ceramic/cement interface was the most frequent. Vita Mark II showed the highest value of average roughness. IPS e.max Press and Vita Mark II ceramics presented the lowest contact angles. In conclusion, the composition and manufacturing process of ceramics seem to have an influence on the ceramic surface and resin cement bond strength. Mechanical cycling did not cause significant degradation on the dentin and ceramic bond strength under the configuration used.

  12. Load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic posterior inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Djamila; Wolfart, Stefan; Ludwig, Klaus; Kern, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the quasi-static load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic resin-bonded three-unit inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs) made from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-manufactured yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) frameworks with two different connector dimensions, with and without fatigue loading. Twelve IRFDPs each were made with connector dimensions 3 x 3 mm(2) (width x height) (control group) and 3 x 2 mm(2) (test group). Inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses were adhesively cemented on identical metal-models using composite resin cement. Subgroups of six specimens each were fatigued with maximal 1,200,000 loading cycles in a chewing simulator with a weight load of 25 kg and a load frequency of 1.5 Hz. The load-bearing capacity was tested in a universal testing machine for IRFDPs without fatigue loading and for IRFDPs that had not already fractured during fatigue loading. During fatigue testing one IRFDP (17%) of the test group failed. Under both loading conditions, IRFDPs of the control group exhibited statistically significantly higher load-bearing capacities than the test group. Fatigue loading reduced the load-bearing capacity in both groups. Considering the maximum chewing forces in the molar region, it seems possible to use zirconia ceramic as a core material for IRFDPs with a minimum connector dimension of 9 mm(2). A further reduction of the connector dimensions to 6 mm(2) results in a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity.

  13. Role of high tibial osteotomy in chronic injuries of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Eugenio; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Romeo, Rocco; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to change the mechanical weight-bearing axis and alter the loads carried through the knee. Conventional indications for HTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee causing pain and dysfunction. Traditionally, knee instability associated with varus thrust has been considered a contraindication. However, today the indications include patients with chronic ligament deficiencies and malalignment, because an HTO procedure can change not only the coronal but also the sagittal plane of the knee. The sagittal plane has generally been ignored in HTO literature, but its modification has a significant impact on biomechanics and joint stability. Indeed, decreased posterior tibial slope causes posterior tibia translation and helps the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Vice versa, increased tibial slope causes anterior tibia translation and helps the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. A review of literature shows that soft tissue procedures alone are often unsatisfactory for chronic posterior instability if alignment is not corrected. Since limb alignment is the most important factor to consider in lower limb reconstructive surgery, diagnosis and treatment of limb malalignment should not be ignored in management of chronic ligamentous instabilities. This paper reviews the effects of chronic posterior instability and tibial slope alteration on knee and soft tissues, in addition to planning and surgical technique for chronic posterior and posterolateral instability with HTO.

  14. The indications and donor-site morbidity of tibial cortical strut autografts in the management of defects in long bones.

    PubMed

    Lauthe, O; Soubeyrand, M; Babinet, A; Dumaine, V; Anract, P; Biau, D J

    2018-05-01

    Aims The primary aim of this study was to determine the morbidity of a tibial strut autograft and characterize the rate of bony union following its use. Patients and Methods We retrospectively assessed a series of 104 patients from a single centre who were treated with a tibial strut autograft of > 5 cm in length. A total of 30 had a segmental reconstruction with continuity of bone, 27 had a segmental reconstruction without continuity of bone, 29 had an arthrodesis and 18 had a nonunion. Donor-site morbidity was defined as any event that required a modification of the postoperative management. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically at a median of 36 months (IQR, 14 to 74). Results Donor-site morbidity occurred in four patients (4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1 to 10). One patient had a stress fracture of the tibia, which healed with a varus deformity, requiring an osteotomy. Two patients required evacuation of a haematoma and one developed anterior compartment syndrome which required fasciotomies. The cumulative probability of union was 90% (95% CI 80 to 96) at five years. The type of reconstruction (p = 0.018), continuity of bone (p = 0.006) and length of tibial graft (p = 0.037) were associated with the time to union. Conclusion The tibial strut autograft has a low risk of morbidity and provides adequate bone stock for treating various defects of long bones. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:667-74.

  15. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximal tibial osteotomy. A survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Fechtman, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy is generally accepted as a treatment for the patient with unicompartmental arthritis. However, a few reports of the long-term results of this procedure are available in the literature, and none have used the technique known as survivorship analysis. This technique has an advantage over conventional analysis because it does not exclude patients for inadequate follow-up, loss to follow-up, or patient death. In this study, survivorship analysis was applied to 78 proximal tibial osteotomies, performed exclusively by the senior author for the correction of a preoperative varus deformity, and a survival curve was constructed. It was concluded that the reliable longevity of the proximal tibial osteotomy is approximately 6 years.

  17. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  18. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  19. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  20. The use of a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system to accurately reproduce the clinical dial test.

    PubMed

    Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H; Jacobs, C; Branch, T P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee

  1. Marginal and internal fit of pressed lithium disilicate inlays fabricated with milling, 3D printing, and conventional technologies.

    PubMed

    Homsy, Foudda R; Özcan, Mutlu; Khoury, Marwan; Majzoub, Zeina A K

    2018-05-01

    The subtractive and additive computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of lithium disilicate partial coverage restorations is poorly documented. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal and internal fit accuracy of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic inlays fabricated with conventional, milled, and 3-dimensional (3D) printed wax patterns. A dentoform mandibular first molar was prepared for a mesio-occlusal ceramic inlay. Five groups of 15 inlays were obtained through conventional impression and manual wax pattern (group CICW); conventional impression, laboratory scanning of the stone die, CAD-CAM milled wax blanks (group CIDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group CI3DW); and scanning of the master preparation with intraoral scanner and CAD-CAM milled (group DSDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group DS3DW). The same design was used to produce the wax patterns in the last 4 groups. The replica technique was used to measure marginal and internal adaptation by using stereomicroscopy. Mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess differences according to the groups and discrepancy location (α=.05). Group DSDW showed the smallest marginal discrepancy (24.3 μm) compared with those of groups CICW (45.1 μm), CIDW (33.7 μm), CI3DW (39.8 μm), and DS3DW (39.7 μm) (P<.001). No statistically significant differences were detected among groups CICW, CIDW, CI3DW, and DS3DW relative to the marginal discrepancy. The internal discrepancy was significantly larger than the marginal discrepancy within all groups (P<.001). Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic inlays produced from digital scans and subtractive milling of wax patterns resulted in better marginal and internal fit accuracy than either conventional impression/fabrication or additive 3D manufacturing. Three-dimensional printed wax patterns yielded fit values similar to those of the conventionally waxed inlays. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published

  2. Landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation in the initial contact period of one-leg forward hops.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, S-Y; Yang, C-Y; Wu, C-D; Chang, C-W

    2017-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore anterior tibial translation but not tibial rotation. This study aimed to explore landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation at landing when the ACL is most vulnerable. Three groups of male subjects (50 ACLRs, 26 basketball players, and 31 controls) participated in one-leg forward hop tests for determining the tibial rotatory landing strategies adopted during the initial landing phase. The differences in knee kinematics and muscle activities between internal and external tibial rotatory (ITR, ETR) landing strategies were examined. A higher proportion of basketball players (34.6%) were found to adopt ITR strategies (controls: 6.5%), exhibiting significantly greater hopping distance and knee strength. After adjusting for hopping distance, subjects adopting ITR strategies were found to hop faster with straighter knees at foot contact and with greater ITR and less knee adduction angular displacement during the initial landing phase. However, significantly greater angular displacement in knee flexion, greater medial hamstring activities, and greater co-contraction index of hamstrings and medial knee muscles were also found during initial landing. Our results support the importance of the recruitments of medial hamstrings or the local co-contraction in assisting the rotatory control of the knee during initial landing for avoiding ACL injuries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  4. Biological approach to treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with double osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Patel, Pankaj R; Joshi, Anil Kumar; Naik, Rajnikant N; Nagaraj, Chethan; Kumar, Sudeep

    2009-02-01

    The treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures is associated with complications, and much conflicting literature exists concerning the treatment of choice. In our study, an attempt has been made to develop an ideal and adequate treatment protocol for these intra-articular fractures. The principle of double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), was combined with a medial external fixator to treat 22 intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with soft tissue injury with a mean follow-up of 25 months. Superficial pin track infection was observed in one case, and no soft tissue breakdown was noted. Loss of articular reconstruction was reported in one case. Bridging callus was seen at 12 weeks (8 weeks-7 months). The principle of substitution or double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral MIPO, was combined with a medial external fixator and proved to be a fairly good method of fixation in terms of results and complications.

  5. Two-year clinical evaluation of Cerec 3D ceramic inlays inserted by undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hein, Nicole; Schirrmeister, Jörg Fabian; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Hellwig, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of final-year dental students' clinical performance after a practical computer-based course and training in the new Cerec 3 method. Cerec 3D restorations (Sirona) were made and inserted in patients by 50 dental students. The students were in their final semester in the Department of Operative Dentistry. Before treatment of the patients began, the students had undergone computer-based Cerec 3D training. The training included lessons comprising the whole Cerec procedure from planning to insertion of the restoration. Vital permanent premolars or molars requiring a 2- or 3-surface restoration were selected for the study. The evaluation started 1 week after luting. The inlays were examined in accordance with the US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months. The 2-year survival rate of the restorations was estimated to be 93.3% according to Kaplan-Meier. No statistically significant changes were observed in color match, surface texture, and anatomic form. The decrease of pulpal hypersensitivity during the observation period was statistically significant (P <.05). Dental students are capable of delivering demanding clinical tasks after appropriate training. The introduction of CAD/CAM restorations to the dental curriculum resulted in high short-term success rates. Further investigations are required to evaluate the long-term success of those restorations. To achieve a clinically adequate performance, it is necessary to consider the basic rules and technology associated with ceramic restorations.

  6. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  7. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  8. Correlation between hindfoot joint three-dimensional kinematics and the changes of the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Ma, Xin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the kinematics of the hindfoot joint and the medial arch angle change in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot three-dimensionally under loading. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 12 healthy feet and 12 feet with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot were taken both in non- and full-body-weight-bearing condition. The CT images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into three-dimensional models with Mimics and Geomagic reverse engineering software. The three-dimensional changes of the hindfoot joint were calculated to determine their correlation to the medial longitudinal arch angle. The medial arch angle change was larger in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot compared to that in healthy foot under loading. The rotation and translation of the talocalcaneal joint, the talonavicular joint and the calcanocuboid joint had little influence on the change of the medial arch angle in healthy foot. However, the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint, the proximal translation of the calcaneus relative to the talus and the dorsiflexion of talonavicular joint could increase the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Joint instability occurred in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Limitation of over movement of the talocalcaneal joint and the talonavicular joint may help correct the medial longitudinal arch in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dorsal onlay (Barbagli technique) versus dorsal inlay (Asopa technique) buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein; El Gamal, Samir; El-Nadey, Mohamed; El Gamal, Osama; Radwan, Mohamed; Gaber, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    To compare both the dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa for the management of long anterior urethral stricture. From January 2010 to May 2012, a total of 47 patients with long anterior urethral strictures were randomized into two groups. The first group included 25 patients who were managed by dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The second group included 22 patients who were managed by dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. Different clinical parameters, postoperative complications and success rates were compared between both groups. The overall success rate in the dorsal onlay group was 88%, whereas in the dorsal inlay group the success rate was 86.4% during the follow-up period. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (205 ± 19.63 min) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (128 ± 4.9 min, P-value <0.0001). The average blood loss was significantly higher in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (228 ± 5.32 mL) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (105 ± 12.05 mL, P-value <0.0001). The dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty provide similar success rates. The Asopa technique is easy to carry out, provides shorter operative time and less blood loss, and it is associated with fewer complications for anterior urethral stricture repair. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Combined hydrogel inlay and laser in situ keratomileusis to compensate for presbyopia in hyperopic patients: one-year safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chayet, Arturo; Barragan Garza, Enrique

    2013-11-01

    To perform a feasibility study of the safety and efficacy of a corneal-contouring inlay with concurrent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to treat hyperopic presbyopia. Private clinic, Tijuana, Mexico. Prospective interventional case series. Hyperopic patients received LASIK in both eyes and a corneal inlay under the femtosecond laser flap in the nondominant eye. The inlay is designed to reshape the anterior corneal curvature, creating a near-center multifocal refractive effect. Main safety outcomes were retention of preoperative corrected distance and near visual acuities and reports of adverse events. Efficacy was determined through measurements of near, intermediate, and distance visual acuities and patient questionnaires on visual task ability and satisfaction. The study enrolled 16 patients. All eyes with an inlay achieved an uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) of 20/32 or better by the 1-week postoperative examination and at every visit thereafter. The mean monocular and binocular UNVA was 20/27 or better at all visits. The mean binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity improved significantly from 20/53 preoperatively to 20/19 postoperatively (P<10(-5)). One inlay was explanted during the study. At 1 year, all 14 patients analyzed were satisfied or very satisfied with their near, distance, and overall vision. The hydrogel corneal inlay with concurrent LASIK improved uncorrected near, intermediate, and distance visual acuity in hyperopic presbyopic patients with high patient satisfaction and visual task ability. This represents a new indication for this recently developed technology. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical evaluation of ceramic inlays and onlays fabricated with two systems: two-year clinical follow up.

    PubMed

    Coelho Santos, M J M; Mondelli, R F L; Lauris, J R P; Navarro, M F L

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical performance of ceramic inlays and onlays made with two systems: sintered (Duceram, Dentsply-Degussa)--D and pressable (IPS Empress, Ivoclar-Vivadent)--IPS after two years. Eighty-six restorations, 44 IPS and 42 D, were cemented into the mouths of 35 patients. Twenty-seven premolars and 59 molars received Class II preparations totaling 33 onlays and 53 inlays. All restorations were cemented with dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and Syntac Classic adhesive under rubber dam. The evaluations were conducted by two independent investigators at the baseline and after one and two years using the modified USPHS criteria. Additionally, radiographs and slides were made. After two years, 100% of the restorations were assessed and all the restorations were considered clinically excellent or acceptable. Among the analyzed criteria, the following received Bravo ratings: marginal discoloration--IPS (31.82%), D (23.81%); marginal integrity--IPS (18.18%), D (11.9%), color match-IPS (4.55%), D (9.52%) and surface texture-IPS (2.27%); D (14.29%). No "Charlie" or "Delta" scores were attributed to the restorations. The results were subjected to the Fisher and McNemar Statistical Tests. No significant differences were noticed between the two ceramic materials. Among the analyzed criteria, only marginal discoloration presented an increased percentage of "Bravo" scores that increased with time for both ceramic materials. Compared with the baseline data, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No difference was found between inlay and onlay restorations or between restorations placed in premolars or molars. In conclusion, these two types of ceramic materials demonstrated excellent clinical performance after two years.

  12. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  13. The effect of box preparation on the strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite inlay-retained fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Breuklander, Marijn H; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2005-04-01

    Nonstandardized box dimensions for inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (FPDs) may result in uneven distribution of the forces on the connector region of such restorations. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of box dimensions on the initial and final failure strength of inlay-retained fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) FPDs. Twenty-one inlay-retained FPDs were prepared using FRC (everStick) frameworks with unidirectional fiber reinforcement between mandibular first premolars and first molars. Boxes were prepared using conventional inlay burs (Cerinlay), and small and large ultrasonic tips (SONICSYS approx). Box dimensions were measured after preparation with a digital micrometer. All restorations were subjected to thermal cycling (6000 cycles, 5 degrees C-55 degrees C). Fracture testing was performed in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Acoustic emission signals were monitored during loading of the specimens. Initial and final fracture strength values (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc tests, alpha =.05) and failure types (Fisher exact test) were statistically compared for each group. Significant differences (P =.0146 and P =.0086) were observed between the groups in the dimensions of the boxes prepared using conventional burs buccolingually (2.8-3.0 mm in molars, 3.1-4.3 mm in premolars) and the small size (2.5-2.9, 2.9-3.8 mm) or large size (2.6-3.8, 3.2-4.9 mm) ultrasonic tips for the premolars and the molars, respectively. No significant differences were found at the initial and final failures between the conventionally prepared group (842 +/- 267 N, 1161 +/- 428 N) and those prepared with either small (1088 +/- 381 N, 1320 +/- 380 N) or large ultrasonic tips (1070 +/- 280 N, 1557 +/- 321 N), respectively. The failure analysis demonstrated no significant difference in failure types but predominant delamination of the veneering resin (85%) in all experimental groups. According to acoustic emission tests, a higher energy level was

  14. The effect of three variables on shear bond strength when luting a resin inlay to dentin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ik; Park, Sung-Ho H

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of three variables on the shear bond strength of indirect composite restorations to human dentin. The three variables examined included immediate dentin sealing (IDS), the thinning of dentin adhesives by air-blowing before cementation and light-curing the dentin adhesive before cementation. One-hundred and eighty cylinder composite inlays, 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length, were made using a Tescera ATL system (BISCO Inc). Tooth disks 2-mm thick were obtained from 90 freshly-extracted human premolars. Two indirect composite cylinders were assigned to a single tooth disk. The discs were randomly divided into six groups according to the luting methods. AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent) was used as the dentin-bonding agent (DBA) for all groups. In Groups 1, 2 and 3, the dentin was sealed with AdheSE before taking the impression. After priming, the adhesive was lightly air-blown, then light-cured. On the other hand, the dentin was not sealed before taking the impression in Groups 4, 5 and 6. Regarding the application of DBA before cementation, it was gently air-blown and light-cured before cementation in Groups 1 and 4; whereas, it was heavily air-blown and light-cured in Groups 2 and 5 and gently air-blown but not light-cured in Groups 3 and 6. Z-250 and Duo-Link were used as luting materials. After 24-hours of storage, the bonded inlays were subjected to a shear bond test. For each luting material, one-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test were used to compare the shear bond strength. Paired t-tests were also performed to compare the shear strength between the two luting materials. All the statistical tests were carried out at the 95% confidence level. In Z-250, the results of the shear bond strength were as follows: Group 1(14.90MPa) > Group 2(12.22MPa), Group 4(12.16MPa) Group 5(9.61MPa), Group 3(9.60MPa) Group 6(3.54MPa)(p<0.05). In Duo-Link, the following shear bond strengths were obtained: Group 1(14.65MPa) > Group 2

  15. Clinical evaluation of ceramic inlays and onlays fabricated with two systems: 12-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; Freitas, Maria Cristina; Azevedo, Larissa Marinho; Santos, Gildo Coelho; Navarro, Maria Fidela; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 12-year clinical performance of sintered (Duceram, Dentsply-Degussa, Dentsply International Inc., PA, USA)-D and pressable (IPS Empress, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Leichtenstein)-IPS ceramic inlay and onlay restorations. Eighty-six restorations were placed in 35 patients with a median age of 33 years by a single operator. The restorations were luted with dual-cured resin luting material (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Leichtenstein) and Syntac Classic adhesive under rubber dam. The evaluations were conducted by two independent investigators at the baseline, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 12 years using the modified USPHS criteria. At the 12-year recall, 22 patients were evaluated (62.86 %), totalling 48 (55.81 %) restorations. Seven restorations were fractured (one from Duceram and six from IPS), eight restorations presented secondary caries (three from Duceram and five from IPS), nine restorations showed unacceptable defects at the restoration margin and needed repair or replacement (two from Duceram and seven from IPS), and four IPS restorations presented pulp sensitivity. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests revealed that IPS Empress system showed the best results for color match and surface texture (p < 0.05) but a significant worse result for fracture (p = 0.05). Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in relation to color match, surface texture, marginal discoloration, and marginal integrity between the baseline and 12-year recall for both ceramic systems. This long-term clinical study observed that the main reasons for failure of ceramic restorations were related to fracture, recurrent caries, and decreased marginal integrity over time. Carefully monitoring of the ceramic-tooth interface may extend their clinical longevity.

  16. A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyu; Cai, He; Suo, Lai; Xue, Yiyuan; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the survival and complication rates of inlay-retainer fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs). A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in English and time filters (articles published from 1960) were used. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and prospective cohort studies on IRFDPs with a mean follow-up period of at least 2 years were included. Among 501 screened articles, one RCT and ten prospective cohort studies were included in this study. Of the included studies, information on failure and complications was independently extracted by two reviewers in duplicate. The failure and complication rates of IRFDPs were pooled with a random effect model and Poisson regression was applied to further investigate the influence of framework materials. The estimated 3- and 5-year survival rates of IRFDPs were 92.6% (95% CI: 85.8-97.6%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 77.4-96.1%), respectively. Debonding, fracture, dentine hypersensitivity and secondary caries were primary complications. The estimated 5-year rates of debonding, veneer fracture and secondary caries were 5.3%, 15.2% and 2.7%, respectively. Additionally, fiber-reinforced composite IRFDPs exhibited a lower incidence of debonding and caries with a higher rate of veneer fracture compared with metal-based and all-ceramic IRFDPs (p<0.05). Compared with conventional fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and implant-supported single crowns (ISCs), IRFDPs exhibited an acceptable 3-year survival rate but higher complication rates of debonding and veneer fracture. IRFDPs can be recommended as viable short- or middle-term minimally invasive alternatives to short-span conventional FDPs and ISCs, while the clinical outcome of IRFDPs as long-term definitive restorations still calls for further research. The indications of IRFDPs should be strictly controlled and monitored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  18. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  19. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  20. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  1. The Impact of Computed Tomography on Decision Making in Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Messias, Andre Marcio Vieira; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2018-02-14

    Schatzker introduced one of the most used classification systems for tibial plateau fractures, based on plain radiographs. Computed tomography brought to attention the importance of coronal plane-oriented fractures. The goal of our study was to determine if the addition of computed tomography would affect the decision making of surgeons who usually use the Schatzker classification to assess tibial plateau fractures. Image studies of 70 patients who sustained tibial plateau fractures were uploaded to a dedicated homepage. Every patient was linked to a folder which contained two radiographic projections (anteroposterior and lateral), three interactive videos of computed tomography (axial, sagittal, and coronal), and eight pictures depicting tridimensional reconstructions of the tibial plateau. Ten attending orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to the cases, were granted access to the homepage and assessed each set of images in two different rounds, separated to each other by an interval of 2 weeks. Each case was evaluated in three steps, where surgeons had access, respectively to radiographs, two-dimensional videos of computed tomography, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. After every step, surgeons were asked to present how would they classify the case using the Schatzker system and which surgical approaches would be appropriate. We evaluated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the Schatzker classification using the Kappa concordance coefficient, as well as the impact of computed tomography in the decision making regarding the surgical approach for each case, by using the chi-square test and likelihood ratio. The interobserver concordance kappa coefficients after each assessment step were, respectively, 0.58, 0.62, and 0.64. For the intraobserver analysis, the coefficients were, respectively, 0.76, 0.75, and 0.78. Computed tomography changed the surgical approach selection for the types II, V, and VI of Schatzker ( p  < 0.01). The addition of

  2. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, A.-L.; Apostolou, N.; Vidal, C.; Ferrero, E.; Mazda, K.; Ilharreborde, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. Methods All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. Results A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. Conclusions This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456750

  3. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; P<0.05). The present study demonstrates a small, but statistically significant overall bone mineral density decrease in healed tibiae with retained nails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  4. Anatomic tibial component design can increase tibial coverage and rotational alignment accuracy: a comparison of six contemporary designs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Scuderi, Giles R; Bischoff, Jeffrey E; Bertin, Kim; Tarabichi, Samih; Rajgopal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate contemporary tibial component designs against global tibial anatomy. We hypothesized that anatomically designed tibial components offer increased morphological fit to the resected proximal tibia with increased alignment accuracy compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs. Using a multi-ethnic bone dataset, six contemporary tibial component designs were investigated, including anatomic, asymmetric, and symmetric design types. Investigations included (1) measurement of component conformity to the resected tibia using a comprehensive set of size and shape metrics; (2) assessment of component coverage on the resected tibia while ensuring clinically acceptable levels of rotation and overhang; and (3) evaluation of the incidence and severity of component downsizing due to adherence to rotational alignment and overhang requirements, and the associated compromise in tibial coverage. Differences in coverage were statistically compared across designs and ethnicities, as well as between placements with or without enforcement of proper rotational alignment. Compared to non-anatomic designs investigated, the anatomic design exhibited better conformity to resected tibial morphology in size and shape, higher tibial coverage (92% compared to 85-87%), more cortical support (posteromedial region), lower incidence of downsizing (3% compared to 39-60%), and less compromise of tibial coverage (0.5% compared to 4-6%) when enforcing proper rotational alignment. The anatomic design demonstrated meaningful increase in tibial coverage with accurate rotational alignment compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs, suggesting its potential for less intra-operative compromises and improved performance. III.

  5. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative comparison of the pivot shift test results before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by using the three-dimensional electromagnetic measurement system.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kanto; Hoshino, Yuichi; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Araki, Daisuke; Matsushita, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Takayama, Koji; Nagamune, Kouki; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2015-10-01

    Tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test is a potential quantitative parameter to evaluate rotational laxity of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. However, clinical application of this measurement has not been fully examined. This study aimed to measure and compare tibial acceleration before and after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in ACL-injured patients. We hypothesized tibial acceleration would be reduced by ACLR and tibial acceleration would be consistent in the same knee at different time points. Seventy ACL-injured patients who underwent ACLR were enrolled. Tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test was measured using an electromagnetic measurement system before ALCR and at the second-look arthroscopy 1 year post-operatively. Tibial acceleration was compared to clinical grading and between ACL-injured/ACL-reconstructed and contralateral knees. Pre-operative tibial acceleration was increased stepwise with the increase in clinical grading (P < 0.01). Tibial acceleration in ACL-injured knee (1.9 ± 1.2 m/s(2)) was larger than that in the contralateral knee (0.8 ± 0.3 m/s(2), P < 0.01), and reduced to 0.9 ± 0.3 m/s(2) post-operatively (P < 0.01). There was no difference between ACL-reconstructed and contralateral knee (n.s.). Tibial acceleration in contralateral knees was consistent pre- and post-operatively (n.s.). Tibial acceleration measurement demonstrated increased rotational laxity in ACL-injured knees and its reduction by ALCR. Additionally, consistent measurements were obtained in ACL-intact knees at different time points. Therefore, tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test could provide quantitative evaluation of rotational stability before and after ACL reconstruction. III.

  7. In Vitro Comparative Analysis of Fracture Resistance in Inlay Restoration Prepared with CAD-CAM and Different Systems in the Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Derelioglu, Sera

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare to fracture resistance test of inlay restorations prepared using direct inlay technique (Gradia® Direct Composite) and Indirect Restoration System® (Gradia Indirect Composite) and CAD/CAD system (Vita Enamic® Block). Study Design. 48 noncarious extracted maxillary second primary molars were randomly divided into 4 groups with 12 in each group. All the teeth were prepared based on inlay class II preparations except for the control group. Other groups were restored with Gradia Direct Composite, Gradia Indirect Composite, and Vita Enamic Block, respectively. All restorations were cemented self-adhesive dual cure resin (3M Espe, RelyX™ Unicem Aplicap). A fracture test was performed using a compressive load. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vita Enamic Block and Gradia Indirect Composite showed significantly higher fracture resistance than Gradia Direct Composite (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference fracture resistance between Vita Enamic Block and Gradia Indirect Composite (p > 0.05). All restorations tested led to a significant reduction in fracture resistance (p < 0.05). Conclusion. In inlay restorations, Indirect Restoration Systems and CAD/CAM systems were applied successfully together with the self-adhesive dual cure resin cements in primary molars. PMID:27830145

  8. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases. PMID:29304102

  9. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  10. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  12. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  13. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  15. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  16. [Detection of tibial condylar fractures using 3D imaging with a mobile image amplifier (Siemens ISO-C-3D): Comparison with plain films and spiral CT].

    PubMed

    Kotsianos, D; Rock, C; Wirth, S; Linsenmaier, U; Brandl, R; Fischer, T; Euler, E; Mutschler, W; Pfeifer, K J; Reiser, M

    2002-01-01

    To analyze a prototype mobile C-arm 3D image amplifier in the detection and classification of experimental tibial condylar fractures with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Human knee specimens (n = 22) with tibial condylar fractures were examined with a prototype C-arm (ISO-C-3D, Siemens AG), plain films (CR) and spiral CT (CT). The motorized C-arm provides fluoroscopic images during a 190 degrees orbital rotation computing a 119 mm data cube. From these 3D data sets MP reconstructions were obtained. All images were evaluated by four independent readers for the detection and assessment of fracture lines. All fractures were classified according to the Müller AO classification. To confirm the results, the specimens were finally surgically dissected. 97 % of the tibial condylar fractures were easily seen and correctly classified according to the Müller AO classification on MP reconstruction of the ISO-C-3D. There is no significant difference between ISO-C and CT in detection and correct classification of fractures, but ISO-CD-3D is significant by better than CR. The evaluation of fractures with the ISO-C is better than with plain films alone and comparable to CT scans. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the ISO-C can provide important information which cannot be obtained from plain films. The ISO-C-3D may be useful in planning operative reconstructions and evaluating surgical results in orthopaedic surgery of the limbs.

  17. Anatomy and classification of the posterior tibial fragment in ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan; Kostlivý, Karel; Vaněček, Václav; Klika, Daniel; Trešl, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathoanatomy of the posterior fragment on the basis of a comprehensive CT examination, including 3D reconstructions, in a large patient cohort. One hundred and forty one consecutive individuals with an ankle fracture or fracture-dislocation of types Weber B or Weber C and evidence of a posterior tibial fragment in standard radiographs were included in the study. The mean patient age was 49 years (range 19-83 years). The exclusion criteria were patients below 18 years of age, inability to provide written consent, fractures of the tibial pilon, posttraumatic arthritis and pre-existing deformities. In all patients, post-injury radiographs were obtained in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views. All patients underwent CT scanning in transverse, sagittal and frontal planes. 3D CT reconstruction was performed in 91 patients. We were able to classify 137 cases into one of the following four types with constant pathoanatomic features: type 1: extraincisural fragment with an intact fibular notch, type 2: posterolateral fragment extending into the fibular notch, type 3: posteromedial two-part fragment involving the medial malleolus, type 4: large posterolateral triangular fragment. In the 4 cases it was not possible to classify the type of the posterior tibial fragment. These were collectively termed type 5 (irregular, osteoporotic fragments). It is impossible to assess the shape and size of the posterior malleolar fragment, involvement of the fibular notch, or the medial malleolus, on the basis of plain radiographs. The system that we propose for classification of fractures of the posterior malleolus is based on CT examination and takes into account the size, shape and location of the fragment, stability of the tibio-talar joint and the integrity of the fibular notch. It may be a useful indication for surgery and defining the most useful approach to these injuries.

  18. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  19. Elastic Properties of Lithium Disilicate Versus Feldspathic Inlays: Effect on the Bonding by 3D Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Flávia Zardo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Jager, Niek; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Kleverlaan, Cornelis Johannes

    2016-10-03

    To determine the elastic properties of five ceramic systems with different compositions (lithium disilicate vs. feldspathic ceramics) and processing methods and compare the stress distribution in premolars in the interface with inlays made with these systems loaded with the maximum normal bite force (665 N) using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The elastic properties of five ceramic restoration materials (IPS e.max Press, IPS e.max CAD, Vita PM9, Vita Mark II, Vita VM7) were obtained using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method. Three-dimensional FEA simplified models of maxillary premolars restored with these ceramic materials were created. The models were loaded with a load at the two nodes on the occlusal surface in the middle of the tooth, 2 mm from the outside of the tooth, simulating a loading ball with a radius of 6 mm. The means values of density (g/cm³), Young's modulus (GPa), and Poison's ratio was 2.6 ± 0.3, 82.3 ± 18.3, and 0.22 ± 0.01 for IPS e.max Press; 2.3 ± 0.1, 83.5 ± 15.0, and 0.21 ± 0.01 for IPS e.max CAD; 2.5 ± 0.1, 44.4 ± 11.5, and 0.26 ± 0.08 for PM9; 2.4 ± 0.1, 70.6 ± 4.9, and 0.22 ± 0.01 for Vitamark II; 2.4 ± 0.1, 63.3 ± 3.9, and 0.23 ± 0.01 for VM7, respectively. The 3D FEA showed the tensile stress at the interface between the tooth and the inlay was dependent on the elastic properties of the materials, since the Vita PM9 and IPS e.max CAD ceramics presented the lowest and the highest stress concentration in the interface, respectively. The elastic properties of ceramic materials were influenced by composition and processing methods, and these differences influenced the stress concentration at the bonding interface between tooth and restoration. The lower the elastic modulus of inlays, the lower is the stress concentration at the bonding interfaces. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  1. Distal tibial fractures are a poorly recognised complication with fibula free flaps.

    PubMed

    Durst, A; Clibbon, J; Davis, B

    2015-09-01

    The fibula free flap is ideal for complex jaw reconstructions, with low reported donor and flap morbidity. We discuss a distal tibial stress fracture two months following a vascularised fibula free flap procedure. Despite being an unrecognised complication, a literature review produced 13 previous cases; only two were reported in the reconstructive surgery literature, with the most recent claiming to be the first. The majority of these studies treated this fracture non-operatively; none reported their patient follow-up. Each case presented with ipsilateral leg pain, which has been cited as an early donor site morbidity in as many as 40% of fibula free flap cases. It is known that the fibula absorbs at least 15% of leg load on weight bearing. Studies have shown severe valgus deformities in up to 25% of patients with fibulectomies. We treated our patient operatively, first correcting his worsening valgus deformity with an external fixator, then reinforcing his healed fracture with a long distal tibial plate. We believe that this complication is underreported, unexpected and not mentioned during the consenting process. By highlighting the management of our case and the literature, we aim to increase awareness (and thus further reporting and appropriate management) of this debilitating complication.

  2. All-polyethylene tibial components in distal femur limb-salvage surgery: a finite element analysis based on promising clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fan; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wenli; Min, Li; Shi, Rui; Luo, Yi; Duan, Hong; Tu, Chongqi

    2017-04-04

    Whether all-polyethylene tibial (APT) components are beneficial to patients who received distal femur limb-salvage surgery lacks high-quality clinical follow-up and mechanical evidence. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanics of the distal femur reconstructed with APT tumor knee prostheses using finite element (FE) analysis based on our previous, promising clinical outcome. Three-dimensional FE models that use APT and metal-backed tibial (MBT) prostheses to reconstruct distal femoral bone defects were developed and input into the Abaqus FEA software version 6.10.1. Mesh refinement tests and gait simulation with a single foot both in the upright and 15°-flexion positions with mechanical loading were conducted. Stress distribution analysis was compared between APT and MBT at the two static positions. For both prosthesis types, the stress was concentrated on the junction of the stem and shaft, and the maximum stress in the femoral axis base was more than 100 Mpa. The stress on the tibial surface was relatively distributed, which was 1-19 MPa. The stress on the tibial bone-cement layer of the APT prosthesis was approximately 20 times higher than that on the MBT prosthesis in the same region. The stress on the proximal tibial cancellous bone and cortical bone of the APT prosthesis was 3-5 times greater than that of the MBT prosthesis, and it was more distributed. Although the stress of bone-cement around the APT component is relatively high, the stress was better distributed at the polyethylene-cement-bone interface in APT than in MBT prosthesis, which effectively protects the proximal tibia in distal femur tumor knee prosthesis replacement. These results should be considered when selecting the appropriate tibial component for a patient, especially under the foreseeable conditions of osteoporosis.

  3. [Effects of posterior tibial slope on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament rupture and stability of anterior cruciate ligament rupture knee].

    PubMed

    Yue, De-bo; E, Sen; Wang, Bai-liang; Wang, Wei-guo; Guo, Wan-shou; Zhang, Qi-dong

    2013-05-07

    To retrospectively explore the correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptured knees, stability of ACL-rupture knee and posterior tibial slope (PTS). From January 2008 to October 2012, 150 knees with ACL rupture underwent arthroscopic surgery for ACL reconstruction. A control group was established for subjects undergoing arthroscopic surgery without ACL rupture during the same period. PTS was measured on a digitalized lateral radiograph. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed for assessing the stability of knee. There was significant difference (P = 0.007) in PTS angle between the patients with ACL rupture (9.5 ± 2.2 degrees) and the control group (6.6 ± 1.8 degrees). Only among females, increased slope of tibial plateau had effect on the Lachman test. There was a higher positive rate of pivot shift test in patients of increased posterior slope in the ACL rupture group. Increased posterior tibial slope (>6.6) appears to contribute to non-contact ACL injuries in females. And the changes of tibial slope have no effect upon the Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope affect pivot shift.

  4. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  5. Early Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Intramedullary Nail for Treatment of a Complex Tibial Pilon Fracture (AO/OTA 43-C).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Szatkowski, Jan P

    2015-06-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA 43-C) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial plafond, tibiotalar arthrodesis, and salvage hindfoot reconstruction procedures are all associated with surgical complications and functional limitations. In this report, we present a case of a complex pilon fracture in a patient with multiple medical comorbidities and socioeconomic disadvantages that was successfully and acutely treated with a retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal hindfoot arthrodesis nail. At final follow-up examination, the patient had decreased pain, a stable plantigrade foot, and could ambulate with normal shoes without any assistive devices. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Comparing the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays in relation to different surface conditioning and curing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayındır, Yusuf Ziya; Demirbuga, Sezer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that different surface conditioning (etch and rinse and self-etch) and curing techniques (light cure/dual cure) had no effect on the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 extracted human molar teeth were horizontally sectioned and randomly divided into two groups according to restoration technique (direct and indirect restorations). Each group was further subdivided into seven subgroups (n = 8) according to bonding agent (etch and rinse adhesives Scotchbond multi-purpose plus, All-Bond 3, Adper Single Bond and Prime Bond NT; and self-etch adhesives Clearfil Liner Bond, Futurabond DC and G bond). Indirect composites were cemented to dentin surfaces using dual-curing luting cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested using a Universal Testing Machine. Two samples from each subgroup were evaluated under Scanning electron microscopy to see the failing modes. Data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests and Tukey's tests. Results: Surface conditioning and curing of bonding agents were all found to have significant effects on shear bond strength (P < 0.05) of both direct and indirect composite inlays. With direct restoration, etch and rinse systems and dual-cured bonding agents yielded higher bond strengths than indirect restoration, self-etch systems and light-cured bonding agents. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that direct restoration to be a more reliable method than indirect restoration. Although etch and rinse bonding systems showed higher shear bond strength to dentin than self-etch systems, both systems can be safely used for the adhesion of direct as well as indirect restorations. PMID:24932118

  7. Optical modeling of a corneal inlay in real eyes to increase depth of focus: optimum centration and residual defocus.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimum position to center a small-aperture corneal inlay and the effect of residual defocus in the surgical eye to maximize depth of focus. Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Cohort study. Personalized eye models were built using actual data (corneal topography, eye length, ocular aberrations, and eye alignment). A small aperture 1.6 mm in diameter was placed at the corneal plane in each model. The monochromatic and polychromatic Strehl ratios were calculated as a function of the pinhole position. Different residual defocus values were also incorporated into the models, and the through-focus Strehl ratios were calculated. Sixteen eye models were built. For most subjects, the optimum location of the aperture for distance vision was close to the corneal reflex position. For a given optimized centration of the aperture, the best compromise of depth of focus was obtained when the eyes had some residual myopic defocus (range -0.75 to -1.00 diopter [D]). Strehl ratio values were over 0.1 for far distance, which led to visual acuities better than 20/20. The depth of focus was 2.50 D with a mean near visual acuity of Jaeger 1 or better. In eyes with little astigmatism and aberrations, the optimum centration of the small aperture was near the corneal reflex position. To improve optical outcomes with the inlay, some small residual myopia and correction of corneal astigmatism might be required. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. All-ceramic inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses for replacing posterior missing teeth: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Sancho-Esper, Rocío; Lynch, Christopher D; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of all-ceramic inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (CIR-FDPs) for the replacement of posterior teeth. Screening of titles and abstracts, full-text analysis for inclusion eligibility, quality assessment, data extraction and evaluation of the scientific evidence were performed independently by two reviewers. The electronic databases MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Compludoc were searched with no restriction to publication date or language. The quality of the studies was evaluated through: the original 'QDP' ('Questionnaire for selecting articles on Dental Prostheses') (for research papers); the 'Guidelines for managing overviews' of the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group (for reviews); the Cochrane risk of bias tool; and the GRADE scale for grading scientific evidence. This review started with 4942 articles, which were narrowed down to 23 according to the selection criteria. The data was not statistically treated because of the heterogeneity of the studies. Zirconia-based CIR-FDPs may be recommended for restoring posterior single missing teeth, although the prosthesis/tooth bonded interface has yet to be improved. The addition of lateral wings to the classical inlay preparation seems promising. The weakest parts of CIR-FDPs are the connectors and retainers, while caries and endodontic problems are the most common biological complications. The fabrication of CIR-FDPs with monolithic zirconia may eliminate chipping problems. A three-unit CIR-FDP is a viable treatment option for replacing a posterior missing tooth. Appropriate case selection, abutment preparation and luting procedures may be decisive for clinical success. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays in relation to different surface conditioning and curing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayındır, Yusuf Ziya; Demirbuga, Sezer

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that different surface conditioning (etch and rinse and self-etch) and curing techniques (light cure/dual cure) had no effect on the shear bond strength of direct and indirect composite inlays. A total of 112 extracted human molar teeth were horizontally sectioned and randomly divided into two groups according to restoration technique (direct and indirect restorations). Each group was further subdivided into seven subgroups (n = 8) according to bonding agent (etch and rinse adhesives Scotchbond multi-purpose plus, All-Bond 3, Adper Single Bond and Prime Bond NT; and self-etch adhesives Clearfil Liner Bond, Futurabond DC and G bond). Indirect composites were cemented to dentin surfaces using dual-curing luting cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested using a Universal Testing Machine. Two samples from each subgroup were evaluated under Scanning electron microscopy to see the failing modes. Data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests and Tukey's tests. Surface conditioning and curing of bonding agents were all found to have significant effects on shear bond strength (P < 0.05) of both direct and indirect composite inlays. With direct restoration, etch and rinse systems and dual-cured bonding agents yielded higher bond strengths than indirect restoration, self-etch systems and light-cured bonding agents. The results of the present study indicated that direct restoration to be a more reliable method than indirect restoration. Although etch and rinse bonding systems showed higher shear bond strength to dentin than self-etch systems, both systems can be safely used for the adhesion of direct as well as indirect restorations.

  10. Micro-CT Evaluation of Ceramic Inlays: Comparison of the Marginal and Internal Fit of Five and Three Axis CAM Systems with a Heat Press Technique.

    PubMed

    Alajaji, Norah K; Bardwell, David; Finkelman, Matthew; Ali, Ala

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate inlay restorations fabricated by two milling systems (Five and Three-axis), and a traditional heat-press technique. Fifteen premolar teeth with an MOD cavity preparation were fabricated. Lithium-disilicate inlay restorations were obtained by three fabrication techniques and fitted to their dies (n = 15/gp) as follows: Group-1, three-axis milling system, Group-2, five-axis milling system, Group-3, conventional heat-press technique. Gaps were evaluated by X-ray microtomography. Marginal gap (MG), occlusal-marginal gap (OMG), proximal-marginal gap (PMG), gingival-marginal gap (GMG), absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD), axial-internal gap (AIG), and occlusal-internal gap (OIG) were evaluated at 120 different points per inlay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were conducted for post-hoc testes and the Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons (α = 0.007). The heat-press group demonstrated significantly smaller mean-values amongst all outcomes compared with CAD/CAM groups except for GMG, where there was no statistically significant difference between groups in the ANOVA (p = 0.042). Within the CAD/CAM groups, the five-axis group showed significantly lower OMG mean-value compared with the three-axis group p < 0.001, and lower AIG mean-value compared with the three-axis group p < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the five-axis and the three-axis groups' AMD, MG, PMG, and OIG locations. Different fabrication techniques affected the marginal and internal adaptation of ceramic inlay restorations. The heat-press group showed the best marginal and internal adaptation results; however, in every group, all samples were within the clinically acceptable MG limit (100 μm). The marginal fit and internal adaptation of inlay ceramic restorations fabricated by a five-axis milling system have not been tested or

  11. Do modern total knee replacements improve tibial coverage?

    PubMed

    Meier, Malin; Webb, Jonathan; Collins, Jamie E; Beckmann, Johannes; Fitz, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of the present study is to compare newer designs of various symmetric and asymmetric tibial components and measure tibial bone coverage using the rotational safe zone defined by two commonly utilized anatomic rotational landmarks. Computed tomography scans (CT scans) of one hundred consecutive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were obtained pre-operatively. A virtual proximal tibial cut was performed and two commonly used rotational axes were added for each image: the medio-lateral axis (ML-axis) and the medial 1/3 tibial tubercle axis (med-1/3-axis). Different symmetric and asymmetric implant designs were then superimposed in various rotational positions for best cancellous and cortical coverage. The images were imported to a public domain imaging software, and cancellous and cortical bone coverage was computed for each image, with each implant design in various rotational positions. One single implant type could not be identified that provided the best cortical and cancellous coverage of the tibia, irrespective of using the med-1/3-axis or the ML-axis for rotational alignment. However, it could be confirmed that the best bone coverage was dependent on the selected rotational landmark. Furthermore, improved bone coverage was observed when tibial implant positions were optimized between the two rotational axes. Tibial coverage is similar for symmetric and asymmetric designs, but depends on the rotational landmark for which the implant is designed. The surgeon has the option to improve tibial coverage by optimizing placement between the two anatomic rotational alignment landmarks, the medial 1/3 and the ML-axis. Surgeons should be careful assessing intraoperative rotational tibial placement using the described anatomic rotational landmarks to optimize tibial bony coverage without compromising patella tracking. III.

  12. A morphologic and quantitative comparison of mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnants of the ruptured human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Sha, Lin; Xie, Guoming; Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does not always result in expected successful outcome. A satisfactory outcome depends not only on the tightness or strength of the graft but also on the quality of proprioceptive restoration. Mechanoreceptors of ACL are supposed to play considerable roles in the proprioceptive feedback system of knee. This study aimed to observe the condition and number of the surviving mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnant of ruptured ACL in human knees.From April 2009 to January 2012, 60 patients with existing free tibial remnants who had undergone arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were enrolled and divided into 4 groups according to the time duration of injury to surgery (Group I: no more than 3 months; Group II: 3 to 6 months; Group III, 6 months to 1 year; Group IV: more than 1 year). Six normal ACL specimens were taken as controls. Specimens were obtained from ACL tibial remnant and stained by the immunohistochemical staining method. The type, size, and quantity of mechanoreceptors were observed under the light microscope. A total of 92 Ruffini-like corpuscles, 9 Pacini-like corpuscles, 5 unclassified neural endings, and free nerve endings were identified via immunohistochemical staining.There were no significant differences in the number of mechanoreceptors in the 5 groups (P = 0.238). Some degenerative changes were observed in Group IV. The results suggest that the residual mechanoreceptors in the ruptured ACL exhibit long-term survival and showed no obvious signs of withering within 1 year.Residual mechanoreceptors do exist in the tibial remnants of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament in human knees and identified clearly by using immunohistochemistry staining. No significant difference was found regarding quantitative variation of the residual mechanoreceptors about the injury duration.

  13. Variation in the shape of the tibial insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament: classification is required.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Irarrázaval, Sebastian; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Vernacchia, Cara; Thorhauer, Eric; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-08-01

    To propose a classification system for the shape of the tibial insertion site (TIS) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to demonstrate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this system. Due to variation in shape and size, different surgical approaches may be feasible to improve reconstruction of the TIS. One hundred patients with a mean age of 26 ± 11 years were included. The ACL was cut arthroscopically at the base of the tibial insertion site. Arthroscopic images were taken from the lateral and medial portal. Images were de-identified and duplicated. Two blinded observers classified the tibial insertion site according to a classification system. The tibial insertion site was classified as type I (elliptical) in 51 knees (51 %), type II (triangular) in 33 knees (33 %) and type III (C-shaped) in 16 knees (16 %). There was good agreement between raters when viewing the insertion site from the lateral portal (κ = 0.65) as well as from the medial portal (κ = 0.66). Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent. Agreement in the description of the insertion site between the medial and lateral portals was good for rater 1 and good for rater 2 (κ = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively). There is variation in the shape of the ACL TIS. The classification system is a repeatable and reliable tool to summarize the shape of the TIS using three common patterns. For clinical relevance, different shapes may require different types of reconstruction to ensure proper footprint restoration. Consideration of the individual TIS shape is required to prevent iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures like the menisci. III.

  14. Using external and internal locking plates in a two-stage protocol for treatment of segmental tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yeh, Jih-Hsi; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2011-09-01

    The tibial segmental fractures usually follow high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. We designed a two-stage protocol for these complex injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of tibial segmental fractures treated according to this protocol. A prospective series of 25 consecutive segmental tibial fractures were treated using a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a low-profile locking plate was applied as an external fixator to temporarily immobilize the fractures after anatomic reduction had been achieved followed by soft-tissue reconstruction. The second stage involved definitive internal fixation with a locking plate using a minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique. The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 20-44 months). All fractures achieved union. The median time for the proximal fracture union was 23 weeks (range, 12-30 weeks) and that for distal fracture union was 27 weeks (range, 12-46 weeks; p = 0.08). Functional results were excellent in 21 patients and good in 4 patients. There were three cases of delayed union of distal fracture. Valgus malunion >5 degrees occurred in two patients, and length discrepancy >1 cm was observed in two patients. Pin tract infection occurred in three patients. Use of the two-stage procedure for treatment of segmental tibial fractures is recommended. Surgeons can achieve good reduction with stable temporary fixation, soft-tissue reconstruction, ease of subsequent definitive fixation, and high union rates. Our patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion, good functional outcomes, and a comfortable clinical course.

  15. Anatomic mapping for surgical reconstruction of the proximal tibiofibular ligaments.

    PubMed

    See, Aaron; Bear, Russell R; Owens, Brett D

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. Previous studies regarding the anatomy of this region have predominantly focused on joint orientation. As radiographic technology has advanced, later studies have attempted to evaluate the capsular anatomy. However, no reports specifically map the ligaments to this joint. The objectives of the current study were to define specific ligamentous structures that provide stability to the proximal tibiofibular joint, describe easily identifiable and reproducible surgical landmarks to aid in surgical reconstruction, and add to the understanding of the posterolateral structures of the knee previously described by other authors. The proximal tibiofibular joint ligaments were identified in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Average ligament length, width, and thickness and area of the footprints of the tibial and fibular attachments were measured. Distances from the ligament footprints to known anatomic landmarks (eg, Gerdy's tubercle, tibial articular surface, and fibular styloid) were also measured. The anterior ligament tibial attachment was a mean of 15.6 mm lateral and posterior to Gerdy's tubercle and 17.3 mm anterior and inferior from the fibular styloid. Posterior ligament tibial insertion was a mean of 15.7 mm inferior to the tibial articular surface on the tibial side and 14.2 mm medial and slightly inferior from the fibular styloid. Definable ligaments provide stability to the proximal tibiofibular joint and can be reconstructed in an anatomic fashion using the landmarks and parameters described. This information allows for an anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibiofibular joint, which should provide patients with better outcomes and fewer postoperative sequelae. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Single Stage Tibial Osteotomy and Long Stem Total Knee Arthroplasty to Correct Adverse Consequences of Unequal Tibial Lengthening with an Ilizarov Circular Fixator.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M D

    2015-01-01

    Correction of limb alignment or length discrepancy by circular external fixation is an accepted technique which relies on the correct biomechanical application of the frame and precise corrections which are frequently delegated to the patient to perform. Errors can occur in the execution of the correction by the patient and may result in significant deformity that requires remedial intervention. A 67 Caucasian female underwent multifocal limb reconstruction of the lower limb utilising a complex Ilizarov frame. Attendance at follow-up visits did not occur and the patient presented at 6 months with severe deformity due to incorrect execution of the correction protocol which resulted in a 45 degree varus deformity of the tibia. Subsequent correction via acute tibial osteotomy and stabilisation with a stemmed total knee replacement resulted in a good outcome. Patient compliance with post-operative management is paramount with distraction osteogenesis and should be ensured prior to embarking on lengthening or deformity correction.

  17. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  18. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  19. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  20. Comparison of microleakage of three acid-base luting cements versus one resin-bonded cement for Class V direct composite inlays.

    PubMed

    Piemjai, Morakot; Miyasaka, Kumiko; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2002-12-01

    Demineralized dentin beneath set cement may adversely affect microleakage under fixed restorations. Microleakage of direct composite inlays cemented with acid-base cements and a methyl methacrylate resin cement were evaluated to determine their effect on the integrity of the underlying hybridized dentin. Sixty Class V box preparations (3 mm x 3 mm x 1.5 mm) were precisely prepared in previously frozen bovine teeth with one margin in enamel and another margin in dentin. Direct composite inlays (EPIC-TMPT) for each preparation were divided into 4 groups of 15 specimens each and cemented with 3 acid-base cements (control group): Elite, Ketac-Cem, Hy-Bond Carbo-Cem, and 1 adhesive resin cement: C&B Metabond. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C before immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours. The dye penetration was measured on the sectioned specimens at the tooth-cement interface of enamel and cementum margins and recorded with graded criteria under light microscopy (Olympus Vanox-T) at original magnification x 50, 100, and 200. A Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney test at P<.05 were used to analyze leakage score. All cementum margins of the 3 acid-base cements tested demonstrated significantly higher leakage scores than cementum margins for inlays cemented with the resin cement tested(P<.01). No leakage along the tooth-cement interface was found for inlays retained with the adhesive resin cement. Within the limitations of this study, the 3 acid-base cements tested exhibited greater microleakage at the cementum margins than did the adhesive resin cement that was tested.

  1. Safety and efficacy of a hydrogel inlay with laser in situ keratomileusis to improve vision in myopic presbyopic patients: one-year results.

    PubMed

    Garza, Enrique Barragan; Chayet, Arturo

    2015-02-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of implanting a hydrogel corneal inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay) concurrently with performing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to treat myopic presbyopia and to compare the results with results of the same treatment in emmetropic and hyperopic patients. Two private clinics, Tijuana and Monterrey, Mexico. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Bilateral myopic LASIK was performed and a corneal inlay was concurrently implanted in the nondominant eye under a flap created using a femtosecond laser. Primary safety outcomes were the retention of corrected distance (CDVA) and near (CNVA) visual acuities. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of uncorrected near (UNVA), intermediate (UIVA), and distance (UDVA) visual acuities. A patient questionnaire was used to assess the preoperative and postoperative incidence of visual symptoms, the ability to perform common tasks with no correction, and patient satisfaction with vision. Thirty eyes were enrolled. At each postoperative visit, the mean CDVA and CNVA were within one half line of preoperative measurements and no eye lost 2 or more lines of CDVA. The mean binocular UDVA, UIVA, and UNVA were better than 20/25 Snellen at all postoperative visits. By 6 months, 93% of patients had a binocular Snellen acuity of 20/25 or better across all visual ranges. According to patient questionnaires, 1 year after surgery, visual symptoms were at preoperative levels, 98% of all visual tasks could be easily performed without correction, and 90% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall vision. A hydrogel corneal inlay with concurrent LASIK was safe and effective for treating myopic presbyopia. Drs. Garza and Chayet are consultants to and investigators for Revision Optics, Inc. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Histological Analysis of the Tibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Rainer; Oka, Shinya; Traut, Ulrike; Schuhmacher, Peter; Kirsch, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion by histological assessment in the sagittal plane. Methods: For histology the native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into 4 sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. The slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analyzed at a magnification of ×20. Results: From medial to lateral the anterior-posterior lengths of the ACL insertion were an average of 10.2, 9.3, 7.6 and 5.8 mm. The anterior margin of the tibial ACL insertion raised from an anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibers rose along with a peak of the anterior part of the medial tibial spine in which the direct insertion was adjacent to the articular cartilage. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact to the lateral ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the tibial ACL insertion. There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibers in the area intercondylaris anterior. Conclusion: The functional intraligamentous midsubstance ACL fibers arose from the most posterior part of its bony tibial insertion in a flat and “C-shape” way. The anterior border of this functional ACL started from a bony ‘anterior ridge’ and the medial border was along with a peak of the medial tibial spine.

  3. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  4. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  5. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in passive knee biomechanical properties in tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Soon; Wilson, Nicole A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament with the highest incidence of injury in female athletes who participate in pivoting sports. Noncontact ACL injuries commonly occur with both internal and external tibial rotation. ACL impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch during tibial external rotation and abduction has been proposed as an injury mechanism, but few studies have evaluated in vivo gender-specific differences in laxity and stiffness in external and internal tibial rotations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these differences. The knees of 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects were rotated between internal and external tibial rotation with the knee at 60 degrees of flexion. Joint laxity, stiffness, and energy loss were compared between male and female subjects. Women had higher laxity (p = 0.01), lower stiffness (p = 0.038), and higher energy loss (p = 0.008) in external tibial rotation than did men. The results suggest that women may be at greater risk of ACL injury resulting from impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch, which has been shown to be associated with external tibial rotation and abduction.

  7. Treatment of open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Vukajinović, Zoran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Najman, Stevo

    2013-01-01

    Tibia fracture caused by high velocity missiles is mostly comminuted and followed by bone defect which makes their healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. A 34-year-old male was wounded at close range by a semi-automatic gun missile. He was wounded in the distal area of the left tibia and suffered a massive defect of the bone and soft tissue. After the primary treatment of the wound, the fracture was stabilized with an external fixator type Mitkovic, with convergent orientation of the pins. The wound in the medial region of the tibia was closed with the secondary stitch, whereas the wound in the lateral area was closed with the skin transplant after Thiersch. Due to massive bone defect in the area of the rifle-missile wound six months after injury, a medical team placed a reconstructive external skeletal fixator type Mitkovic and performed corticotomy in the proximal metaphyseal area of the tibia. By the method of bone transport (distractive osteogenesis), the bone defect of the tibia was replaced. After the fracture healing seven months from the secondary surgery, the fixator was removed and the patient was referred to physical therapy. Surgical treatment of wounds, external fixation, performing necessary debridement, adequate antibiotic treatment and soft and bone tissue reconstruction are essential in achieving good results in patients with the open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles. Reconstruction of bone defect can be successfully treated by reconstructive external fixator Mitkovic.

  8. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed Technique.

    PubMed

    Oz, F D; Bolay, S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups ( n =15). 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empress Esthetic ingots and heat-pressed technique. Marginal gap measurements were taken with a stereomicroscope. Restorations were cemented with Variolink N and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were subjected to thermocycling. The fracture strength of specimens was determined at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Fracture modes were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance for fracture strength data and Kruskal-Wallis for marginal gap data ( p =0.05). The mean marginal gap size of EC, LU, EL, and EP were 33.54  µ m, 33.77  µ m, 34.23  µ m, and 85.34  µ m, respectively. EP had statistically higher values than other groups. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the intact teeth group (3959,00 ± 1279,79 N) than those of restored groups EC (2408,00 ± 607,97 N), LU (2206,73 ± 675,16), EL (2573.27 ± 644,73) ve EP (2879,53 ± 897,30). Inlays fabricated using CEREC Omnicam demonstrated better marginal adaptation than inlays produced with heat-pressed technique, whereas fracture strength values of inlays fabricated with different type of blocks using CEREC Omnicam exhibited similarity to those fabricated with heat-pressed technique.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bolay, S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=15). 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empress Esthetic ingots and heat-pressed technique. Marginal gap measurements were taken with a stereomicroscope. Restorations were cemented with Variolink N and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were subjected to thermocycling. The fracture strength of specimens was determined at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Fracture modes were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance for fracture strength data and Kruskal–Wallis for marginal gap data (p=0.05). Results The mean marginal gap size of EC, LU, EL, and EP were 33.54 µm, 33.77 µm, 34.23 µm, and 85.34 µm, respectively. EP had statistically higher values than other groups. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the intact teeth group (3959,00 ± 1279,79 N) than those of restored groups EC (2408,00 ± 607,97 N), LU (2206,73 ± 675,16), EL (2573.27 ± 644,73) ve EP (2879,53 ± 897,30). Conclusion Inlays fabricated using CEREC Omnicam demonstrated better marginal adaptation than inlays produced with heat-pressed technique, whereas fracture strength values of inlays fabricated with different type of blocks using CEREC Omnicam exhibited similarity to those fabricated with heat-pressed technique. PMID:29853894

  11. Effect of Cements at Different Temperatures on the Clinical Performance and Marginal Adaptation of Inlay-Onlay Restorations In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Aygün Emiroğlu, Şeyda; Evren, Buket; Kulak Özkan, Yasemin

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of inlays and onlays luted with two different resin cements, mixed at different temperatures and to evaluate the marginal adaptation of the restorations. One hundred IPS e.max restorations (82 onlays, 18 inlays; 84 molars, 16 premolars) were placed in 50 patients (28 females, 22 males, mean age, 33 years). The restorations were assigned to six groups according to the luting agent temperature (25°C, 37°C, and 54°C) and cement type (Variolink N high viscosity or G-Cem Automix). All restorations were evaluated after 1 week and 1 year by two examiners using modified USPHS criteria. Replicas of 30 selected onlay restorations (5 per group) were assessed for marginal quality under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 200×. Marginal adaptation was quantitatively evaluated in terms of percentage of gap formation, and marginal gap width was measured. After 1 year, the total survival rates of the Variolink N high viscosity group and G-Cem Automix group were 100% and 93.8%, respectively. Three debondings occurred with the G-Cem Automix group, one from each temperature group. For 1-year clinical service time, no significant difference was noticed in the marginal adaptation of Variolink N high viscosity groups and the 37°C G-Cem Automix group, while 25°C and 54°C G-Cem Automix groups' marginal adaptation scores decreased (p < 0.05). Regarding the SEM evaluations, Variolink N high viscosity cement groups showed better marginal adaptation than G-Cem Automix cement groups (p < 0.05). Cementation with the cements preheated to 37°C increased continuous margins in both enamel-cement and cement-ceramic interfaces, but these results were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Cements at different temperatures did not have significant effects on marginal gap widths of the restorations. The restorations cemented with Variolink N high viscosity cement mixed at the three tested temperatures exhibited better treatment options than the self

  12. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Joint Laxities and Graft Forces After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Anteromedial Portal, Outside-In, and Transtibial Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae Ang; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Li, Jing-Sheng; Li, Guoan; Gill, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is emphasized to improve joint laxity and to potentially avert initiation of cartilage degeneration. There is a paucity of information on the efficacy of ACL reconstructions by currently practiced tunnel creation techniques in restoring normal joint laxity. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Hypothesis Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by the anteromedial (AM) portal technique, outside-in (OI) technique, and modified transtibial (TT) technique can equally restore the normal knee joint laxity and ACL forces. Methods Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were tested using a robotic testing system under an anterior tibial load (134 N) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion and combined torques (10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal tibial torques) at 0° and 30° of flexion. Knee joint kinematics, ACL, and ACL graft forces were measured in each knee specimen under 5 different conditions (ACL-intact knee, ACL-deficient knee, ACL-reconstructed knee by AM portal technique, ACL-reconstructed knee by OI technique, and ACL-reconstructed knee by TT technique). Results Under anterior tibial load, no significant difference was observed between the 3 reconstructions in terms of restoring anterior tibial translation (P > .05). However, none of the 3 ACL reconstruction techniques could completely restore the normal anterior tibial translations (P <.05). Under combined tibial torques, both AM portal and OI techniques closely restored the normal knee anterior tibial translation (P > .05) at 0° of flexion but could not do so at 30° of flexion (P <.05). The ACL reconstruction by the TT technique was unable to restore normal anterior tibial translations at both 0° and 30° of flexion under combined tibial torques (P <.05). Forces experienced by the ACL grafts in the 3 reconstruction techniques were lower than those experienced by normal ACL under both the loading conditions

  13. SPECT/CT tracer uptake is influenced by tunnel orientation and position of the femoral and tibial ACL graft insertion site.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Michael T; Mathis, Dominic; Rasch, Helmut; Amsler, Felix; Friederich, Niklaus F; Arnold, Markus P

    2013-02-01

    SPECT/CT is a hybrid imaging modality, which combines a 3D scintigraphy (SPECT) and a conventional computerised tomography (CT). SPECT/CT allows accurate anatomical localisation of metabolic tracer activity. It allows the correlation of surgical factors such as tunnel position and orientation with mechanical alignment, clinical outcome and biological factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the SPECT/CT tracer uptake (intensity and distribution) correlates with the stability and laxity of the knee joint and the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral tunnels in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A consecutive series of knees (n=66), with symptoms of pain and/or instability after ACL reconstruction were prospectively evaluated using clinical examination and 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT. Clinical laxity testing was performed using the Rolimeter (Ormed, Freiburg, Germany) including Lachman testing (0-2 mm, 3-5 mm, 6-10 mm, >10 mm), anterior drawer test (0-2 mm, 3-5 mm, 6-10 mm, >10 mm), pivot shift test (positive versus negative) and patient-based subjective instability (yes versus no). For analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake a previously validated SPECT/CT localisation scheme consisting of 17 tibial, nine femoral and four patellar regions on standardised axial, coronal, and sagittal slices was used. The tracer activity on SPECT/CT was localised and recorded using a 3D volumetric and quantitative analysis software. Mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum of grading for each area of the localisation scheme were recorded. The position and orientation of the tibial and femoral tunnel was assessed using a previously published method on 3D-CT. Correlation of instability, pivot shift as well as clinical laxity testing with 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT tracer uptake intensity and distribution showed no significant correlation. 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT tracer uptake correlated significantly with the position and orientation of the ACL

  14. 3D printing-assisted osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Du, Di; Zhou, Zhibin; Lu, Nan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Liangyu; Chen, Aimin

    2016-12-01

    Osteotomy and internal fixation are usually the most effective way to treat the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures, and the accuracy of the osteotomy is still a challenge for surgeons. This is a report of a series of prospectively study of osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral plateau fractures with the aid of 3D printing technology. A total of 7 patients with malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures were enrolled in the study between September 2012 to September 2014 and completed follow up. CT image data were used for 3D reconstruction, and individually 3D printed models were used for accurate measurements and detail osteotomy procedures planning. Under the premeditated operation plan, the osteotomy operations were performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 2 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months or more. Mean age of the patients was 44 years (range 30-52 years), 3 cases were result of fall injuries, 2 were traffic accidents and 2 were sports injuries. Among the cases, one accompanied with craniocerebra trauma, one with pelvic fracture, one accompanied with both. According to the Schatzker Tibial Plateau classification, the original fracture type were 3 type I, 1 type II and 3 type III. The lateral tibial plateau collapse ranges from 4 mm-12mm, with an average of 9.4mm. All the operations were successfully completed, the average operation time was 77.1min (range 70-90 min), the average intraoperative blood loss was 121.4ml (range 90-180ml), the mean follow-up time was 14.4 months (range 12-18 months), and the average healing time of the osteotomy fragments was 12 weeks (range 11-13 weeks). The difference between preoperative and postoperative Rasmussen scores were statistically significant (P<0.05). All the patients were obtained functional recovery, with no complications. 3D printing technology is helpful to accurately design osteotomy operation, reduce the risk of postoperative deformity

  15. Early tension loss in an anterior cruciate ligament graft. A cadaver study of four tibial fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Grover, Dustin M; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2005-02-01

    The tensile force applied to an anterior cruciate ligament graft determines the maximal anterior translation; however, it is unknown whether the tensile force is transferred to the intra-articular portion of the graft and whether the intra-articular tension and maximal anterior translation are maintained shortly after ligament reconstruction. Ten cadaveric knees were reconstructed with a double-looped tendon graft. The graft was looped through a femoral fixation transducer that measured the resultant force on the proximal end of the graft. A pneumatic cylinder applied a tensile force of 110 N to the graft exiting the tibial tunnel with the knee in full extension. The graft was fixed sequentially with four tibial fixation devices (a spiked metal washer, double staples, a bioabsorbable interference screw, and a WasherLoc). Three cyclic loading treatments designed to conservatively load the graft and its fixation were applied. The combined loss in intra-articular graft tension from friction, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and three cyclic loading treatments was 50% for the spiked washer (p = 0.0004), 100% for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 64% for the interference screw (p = 0.0001), and 56% for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tension loss caused an increase in the maximal anterior translation from that of the intact knee of 2.0 mm for the spiked washer (p = 0.005), 7.8 mm for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 2.7 mm for the interference screw (p = 0.001), and 2.1 mm for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tensile force applied to a soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft is not transferred intra-articularly and is not maintained during graft fixation. The loss in tension is caused by friction in the tibial tunnel and wrapping the graft around the shank of the screw of the spiked washer, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and cyclical loading of the knee. The amount of tension loss is sufficient to increase the maximal anterior translation.

  16. Soft tissue management of children's open tibial fractures – a review of seventy children over twenty years

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P; Schaverien, MV; Stewart, KJ

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of open tibial fractures in children represents a unique reconstructive challenge. The aim of the study was to evaluate the management of paediatric open tibial fractures with particular regard to soft tissue management. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective case-note analysis was performed for all children presenting with an open tibial fracture at a single institution over a 20-year period for 1985 to 2005. RESULTS Seventy children were reviewed of whom 41 were males and 29 females. Overall, 91% (n = 64) of children suffered their injury as a result of a vehicle-related injury. The severity of the fracture with respect to the Gustilo classification was: Grade I, 42% (n = 29); Grade II, 24% (n = 17); Grade III, 34% (n = 24; 7 Grade 3a, 16 Grade 3b, 1 Grade 3c). The majority of children were treated with external fixation and conservative measures, with a mean hospital in-patient stay of 13.3 days. Soft tissue cover was provided by plastic surgeons in 31% of all cases. Four cases of superficial wound infection occurred (6%), one case of osteomyelitis and one case of flap failure. The limb salvage was greater than 98%. CONCLUSIONS In this series, complications were associated with delayed involvement of plastic surgeons. Retrospective analysis has shown a decreased incidence of open tibial fractures which is reported in similar studies. Gustilo grade was found to correlate with length of hospital admission and plastic surgery intervention. We advocate, when feasible, the use of local fas-ciocutaneous flaps (such as distally based fasciocutaneous and adipofascial flaps), which showed a low complication rate in children. PMID:20501017

  17. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  18. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  19. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  20. Evidence-based concepts and procedures for bonded inlays and onlays. Part II. Guidelines for cavity preparation and restoration fabrication.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Rizcalla, Nicolas; Krejci, Ivo; Dietschi, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The second part of this article series presents an evidence-based update of clinical protocols and procedures for cavity preparation and restoration selection for bonded inlays and onlays. More than ever, tissue conservation dictates preparation concepts, even though some minimal dimensions still have to be considered for all restorative materials. In cases of severe bruxism or tooth fragilization, CAD/CAM composite resins or pressed CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics are often recommended, although this choice relies mainly on scarce in vitro research as there is still a lack of medium- to long-term clinical evidence. The decision about whether or not to cover a cusp can only be made after a multifactorial analysis, which includes cavity dimensions and the resulting tooth biomechanical status, as well as occlusal and esthetic factors. The clinical impact of the modern treatment concepts that were outlined in the previous article - Dual Bonding (DB)/Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS), Cavity Design Optimization (CDO), and Cervical Margins Relocation (CMR) - are described in detail in this article and discussed in light of existing clinical and scientific evidence for simpler, more predictable, and more durable results. Despite the wide choice of restorative materials (composite resin or ceramic) and techniques (classical or CAD/CAM), the cavity for an indirect restoration should meet five objective criteria before the impression.

  1. Long Term Functional Outcome of Tibial Tuberosity Advancement vs. Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy and Extracapsular Repair in a Heterogeneous Population of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Krotscheck, Ursula; Nelson, Samantha A; Todhunter, Rory J; Stone, Marisa; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2016-02-01

    To determine a long term function of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) for treatment of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs, and to compare this to the long term function of previously reported tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), extracapsular reconstruction (ECR), and a population of normal dogs. Prospective clinical trial. Dogs with unilateral ruptured CCL treated with TTA (n = 14), TPLO (n = 15), and ECR (n = 23), and normal adult dogs (control, n = 80). Force plate gait analysis was performed at 1 time point for the normal control group and preoperatively, and at 2 and 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months postoperatively for the treatment groups. Using serial force plates, symmetry indices (SI) were calculated between the operated and unoperated pelvic limbs for peak vertical force (PVF), contact time (CT), and vertical impulse (VI). Ground reaction forces (GRF) of the treatment and control group were compared using a general linear model. Walk SI for dogs with TTA were not significantly different from the control group at 12 months postoperatively. At the trot, neither TTA nor ECR achieved normal GRF. SI of the TPLO group were not different from the normal control group by 6-12 months postoperatively. At the walk, TTA achieves normal function by 12 months; however, at the trot TTA is indistinguishable from ECR. TPLO resulted in operated limb function that was similar to the control population by 6-12 months postoperatively at the walk and the trot. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Fractures of the Tibial Plateau Involve Similar Energies as the Tibial Pilon but Greater Articular Surface Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B.; Higgins, Thomas F.; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated if clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and fifty-two tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2 to 33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6 to 32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0 to 493.0 mm and 56.1 to 288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p<0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Clinical Significance Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. PMID:27381653

  3. Posterior tibial slope in medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: 2-D versus 3-D navigation.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-10-01

    Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (Δ slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury.

  5. Can the tibial slope be measured on lateral knee radiographs?

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, M; Sgroi, M; Juchems, M; Reichel, H; Kappe, T

    2014-12-01

    The posterior tibial slope influences both the natural knee stability as well as the stability and kinematics after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Exact definition of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) requires lateral radiographs of the lower limb. Only lateral knee radiographs are routinely obtained after TKA, however. The purpose of the present study therefore was to analyse the relationship between PTS measurement results on short and expanded lateral knee radiographs. The PTS was measured on 100 consecutive lateral radiographs of the lower limb using the mechanical and three diaphyseal axes with various distances below the tibial plateau. Significant differences between PTS results were found for all three diaphyseal axes, with the smallest differences and the strongest correlation for a diaphyseal axis at 16 and 20 cm below the tibial plateau. Using short distances below the tibial plateau (6 and 10 cm) resulted in an overestimation of the PTS of 3°, on average. The PTS measurements in long lateral knee radiographs are more accurate compared to short radiographs. On short lateral knee radiographs, only a estimation of the PTS can be carried out. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  6. Comparison of tibial shaft ski fractures in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tomo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ishimaru, Daichi; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms at Sumi Memorial Hospital. This study analyzed information obtained from 276 patients with tibial fractures sustained during skiing between 2004 and 2012. We focused on 174 ski-related tibial shaft fractures with respect to the following factors: age, gender, laterality of fracture, skill level, mechanism of fracture (fall vs collision), scene of injury (steepness of slope), snow condition, and weather. Fracture pattern was graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification and mechanical direction [external (ER) or internal rotation (IR)]. Tibial shaft fractures were the most common in both children (89.3%) and adults (47.4%). There were no significant differences in gender, side of fracture, mechanism of fracture, snow condition, or weather between children and adults. Skill levels were significantly lower in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Type A fractures were more dominant in children (73 cases, 72.3%) than in adults (39 cases, 53.4%). There was significantly more ER in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Among children, female patients had significantly more IR than ER; in contrast, among adults, women were injured by ER. We found significant differences in some of these parameters, suggesting that child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures.

  7. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  9. Models of tibial fracture healing in normal and Nf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schindeler, Aaron; Morse, Alyson; Harry, Lorraine; Godfrey, Craig; Mikulec, Kathy; McDonald, Michelle; Gasser, Jürg A; Little, David G

    2008-08-01

    Delayed union and nonunion are common complications associated with tibial fractures, particularly in the distal tibia. Existing mouse tibial fracture models are typically closed and middiaphyseal, and thus poorly recapitulate the prevailing conditions following surgery on a human open distal tibial fracture. This report describes our development of two open tibial fracture models in the mouse, where the bone is broken either in the tibial midshaft (mid-diaphysis) or in the distal tibia. Fractures in the distal tibial model showed delayed repair compared to fractures in the tibial midshaft. These tibial fracture models were applied to both wild-type and Nf1-deficient (Nf1+/-) mice. Bone repair has been reported to be exceptionally problematic in human NF1 patients, and these patients can also spontaneously develop tibial nonunions (known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia), which are recalcitrant to even vigorous intervention. pQCT analysis confirmed no fundamental differences in cortical or cancellous bone in Nf1-deficient mouse tibiae compared to wild-type mice. Although no difference in bone healing was seen in the tibial midshaft fracture model, the healing of distal tibial fractures was found to be impaired in Nf1+/- mice. The histological features associated with nonunited Nf1+/- fractures were variable, but included delayed cartilage removal, disproportionate fibrous invasion, insufficient new bone anabolism, and excessive catabolism. These findings imply that the pathology of tibial pseudarthrosis in human NF1 is complex and likely to be multifactorial.

  10. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  11. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomechanical Comparison of Five Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Nuelle, Clayton W; Milles, Jeffrey L; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick A; Kfuri, Mauricio; Cook, James L

    2017-07-01

    No surgical technique recreates native posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) biomechanics. We compared the biomechanics of five different PCL reconstruction techniques versus the native PCL. Cadaveric knees ( n  = 20) were randomly assigned to one of five reconstruction techniques: Single bundle all-inside arthroscopic inlay, single bundle all-inside suspensory fixation, single bundle arthroscopic-assisted open onlay (SB-ONL), double bundle arthroscopic-assisted open inlay (DB-INL), and double bundle all-inside suspensory fixation (DB-SUSP). Each specimen was potted and connected to a servo-hydraulic load frame for testing in three conditions: PCL intact, PCL deficient, and PCL reconstructed. Testing consisted of a posterior force up to 100 N at a rate of 1 N/s at four knee flexion angles: 10, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. Three material properties were measured under each condition: load to 5 mm displacement, maximal displacement, and stiffness. Data were normalized to the native PCL, compared across techniques, compared with all PCL-intact knees and to all PCL-deficient knees using one-way analysis of variance. For load to 5 mm displacement, intact knees required significantly ( p  < 0.03) more load at 30 degrees of flexion than all reconstructions except the DB-SUSP. At 60 degrees of flexion, intact required significantly ( p  < 0.01) more load than all others except the SB-ONL. At 90 degrees, intact, SB-ONL, DB-INL, and DB-SUSP required significantly more load ( p  < 0.05). Maximal displacement testing showed the intact to have significantly ( p  < 0.02) less laxity than all others except the DB-INL and DB-SUSP at 60 degrees. At 90 degrees the intact showed significantly ( p  < 0.01) less laxity than all others except the DB-SUSP. The intact was significantly stiffer than all others at 30 degrees ( p  < 0.03) and 60 degrees ( p  < 0.01). Finally, the intact was significantly ( p  < 0.05) stiffer than all others except the DB

  13. The influence of dental alloys on three-body wear of human enamel and dentin in an inlay-like situation.

    PubMed

    Graf, K; Johnson, G H; Mehl, A; Rammelsberg, P

    2002-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of metal alloys on three-body wear resistance of enamel and dentin, and vice versa. Three-body wear of human enamel, dentin, a soft gold alloy (BiOcclus Inlay), a CoCr alloy (Remanium 2000), a resin cement (Variolink II) and a zinc oxide phosphate cement (Harvard) was investigated using the ACTA-machine. Sample chambers of eight sample wheels were prepared with pure materials or combinations of human tooth substance, alloys and cement, simulating an inlay-like situation. After 100,000 and 200,000 cycles in a millet suspension with a spring force of 20 N, the amount of abraded material was profilometrically measured and evaluated by 3D surface data analysis. After 200,000 cycles, the materials demonstrated a mean loss of 0.41 microm for CoCr, 51 microm for gold, 57 microm for enamel, 164 microm for dentin, 79 microm for Variolink and 369 microm for Harvard. Using ANOVA and the Games-Howell-test, resin cement, enamel and gold were a subset not shown to differ, as was zinc phosphate cement and dentin. CoCr demonstrated the least wear and differed significantly from all materials. Enamel wear was significantly reduced in mixed chambers with CoCr, and gold after 200,000 cycles compared to enamel in pure chambers. In summary, a soft gold alloy can be recommended for inlays when considering three-body abrasion since the wear rate of the "soft" gold alloy corresponded to that of human enamel.

  14. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  15. Inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty in the treatment of dry central perforated chronic otitis media as an effective and time-saving procedure.

    PubMed

    Haksever, Mehmet; Akduman, Davut; Solmaz, Fevzi; Gündoğdu, Ercan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the inlay butterfly transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty with the conventional underlay tympanoplasty. Operation time, pre- and postoperative hearing levels, successful closure rate of tympanic membrane (take rate) and long-term re-perforation in dry perforated chronic otitis media were evaluated. The study design consists of case series with a chart review. The study settings are tertiary referral center. Of the 72 patients (age range 14-57 years) with dry perforated chronic otitis media, 29 patients underwent inlay butterfly transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty (group 1) and 43 patients underwent conventional underlay tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy (group 2) between January 2010 and June 2012. The outcome measures were the duration of surgery, "take rate" at the 30th postoperative day and the audiometric results at the 45th postoperative day. Long-term re-perforation was evaluated at least postoperative 1 year. The graft take rate was 96.5 % in group 1 and 90.7 % in group 2 at the 30th postoperative day (p > 0.05). Mean air-bone gap was improved from 18.8 ± 8.09 to 11.9 ± 7.12 dB in group 1 and from 21.9 ± 7.32 to 11.6 ± 8.43 dB in group 2. The improvement of air-bone gap in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05) but the improvement between the groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The average duration of the surgery was 29.9 ± 5.38 min for inlay tympanoplasty group and 58.9 ± 12.1 min for underlay tympanoplasty group (p < 0.05). Two patients in group 2 had re-perforations after an initial take of the graft in 1-year follow-up period. Inlay butterfly transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty is a good choice in selected cases. Although this technique has the similar take rate and audiological results with conventional underlay tympanoplasty, it is a time-saving procedure.

  16. Gender differences in the restoration of knee joint biomechanics during gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Asaeda, Makoto; Deie, Masataka; Fujita, Naoto; Kono, Yoshifumi; Terai, Chiaki; Kuwahara, Wataru; Watanabe, Hodaka; Kimura, Hiroaki; Adachi, Nobuo; Sunagawa, Toru; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of gender on recovery of knee joint biomechanics over the stance phase of gait after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Gait parameters and knee joint kinematics and kinetics were compared in 32 patients (16 male and 16 female) who underwent ACL reconstruction for a unilateral ACL deficiency, with comparison to an age-, height-, and weight-matched Control group. Knee flexion, adduction and tibial rotation angles were measured and knee extension and abduction moment was calculated by inverse dynamics methods. Females exhibited more tibial external rotation, in both the Control and ACL groups (P<0.05), which was not changed after ACL reconstruction. Prior to reconstruction, sagittal plane biomechanics were changed, in both males and females, compared to the Control groups (P<0.05). These abnormal sagittal plane mechanics were recovered at 12months, but not six months post-reconstruction. We identified gender-based differences in tibial rotation that influenced the kinematics and kinetics of the knee over the stance phase of gait, both pre-operatively and post-ACL reconstruction. Evaluation of biomechanical effects of ACL injury, before and after reconstruction, should be separately evaluated for females and males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Short- and Long-term Hearing Outcomes of Successful Inlay Cartilage Tympanoplasty Between Small and Large Eardrum Perforations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Wen; Wang, Wen-Hung; Huang, Chi-Che; Lee, Ta-Jen; Huang, Chien-Chia

    2015-12-01

    To compare the short- and long-term hearing outcomes after successful inlay cartilage tympanoplasty between patients with small (≤25%) and large (≥50%) eardrums perforations. This is a retrospective case series study conducted in a tertiary referral center. Twenty-five patients who underwent 27 procedures were enrolled. Their mean age was 60.26 years (range, 42 to 76 years). The mean follow-up time was 18.86 months (range, 12.30 to 35.83 months). The preoperative, initial postoperative, and long-term hearing results in patients with total repair of the eardrum were analyzed. In the small size group, the average (±standard deviation) air-bone gap (ABG) closure was 1.08±7.53 dB in the short-term and 2.33±11.56 dB in the long-term hearing examinations. There was no difference between short- and long-term ABG closure (P=0.689). In the large size group, the average ABG closure was 9.77±9.40 dB in the short-term and 16.25±6.01 dB in the long-term hearing examinations. There was a significant difference between short- and long-term ABG closure (P=0.029). Patients with large perforations have continuous hearing improvement and ABG closure for more than one year. In contrast, the short- and long-term postoperative ABGs are almost the same in patients with small perforations. More long-term postoperative follow-up of hearing results is necessary for large perforations.

  18. The Role of Fibers in the Femoral Attachment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Resisting Tibial Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeda, Ryo; Akita, Keiichi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to clarify the load-bearing functions of the fibers of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attachment in resisting tibial anterior drawer and rotation. Methods A sequential cutting study was performed on 8 fresh-frozen human knees. The femoral attachment of the ACL was divided into a central area that had dense fibers inserting directly into the femur and anterior and posterior fan-like extension areas. The ACL fibers were cut sequentially from the bone: the posterior fan-like area in 2 stages, the central dense area in 4 stages, and then the anterior fan-like area in 2 stages. Each knee was mounted in a robotic joint testing system that applied tibial anteroposterior 6-mm translations and 10° or 15° of internal rotation at 0° to 90° of flexion. The reduction of restraining force or moment was measured after each cut. Results The central area resisted 82% to 90% of the anterior drawer force; the anterior fan-like area, 2% to 3%; and the posterior fan-like area, 11% to 15%. Among the 4 central areas, most load was carried close to the roof of the intercondylar notch: the anteromedial bundle resisted 66% to 84% of the force and the posterolateral bundle resisted 16% to 9% from 0° to 90° of flexion. There was no clear pattern for tibial internal rotation, with the load shared among the posterodistal and central areas near extension and mostly the central areas in flexion. Conclusions Under the experimental conditions described, 66% to 84% of the resistance to tibial anterior drawer arose from the ACL fibers at the central-proximal area of the femoral attachment, corresponding to the anteromedial bundle; the fan-like extension fibers contributed very little. This work did not support moving a single-bundle ACL graft to the side wall of the notch or attempting to cover the whole attachment area if the intention was to mimic how the natural ACL resists tibial displacements. Clinical Relevance There is ongoing debate about how best

  19. The role of fibers in the femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament in resisting tibial displacement.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeda, Ryo; Akita, Keiichi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose was to clarify the load-bearing functions of the fibers of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attachment in resisting tibial anterior drawer and rotation. A sequential cutting study was performed on 8 fresh-frozen human knees. The femoral attachment of the ACL was divided into a central area that had dense fibers inserting directly into the femur and anterior and posterior fan-like extension areas. The ACL fibers were cut sequentially from the bone: the posterior fan-like area in 2 stages, the central dense area in 4 stages, and then the anterior fan-like area in 2 stages. Each knee was mounted in a robotic joint testing system that applied tibial anteroposterior 6-mm translations and 10° or 15° of internal rotation at 0° to 90° of flexion. The reduction of restraining force or moment was measured after each cut. The central area resisted 82% to 90% of the anterior drawer force; the anterior fan-like area, 2% to 3%; and the posterior fan-like area, 11% to 15%. Among the 4 central areas, most load was carried close to the roof of the intercondylar notch: the anteromedial bundle resisted 66% to 84% of the force and the posterolateral bundle resisted 16% to 9% from 0° to 90° of flexion. There was no clear pattern for tibial internal rotation, with the load shared among the posterodistal and central areas near extension and mostly the central areas in flexion. Under the experimental conditions described, 66% to 84% of the resistance to tibial anterior drawer arose from the ACL fibers at the central-proximal area of the femoral attachment, corresponding to the anteromedial bundle; the fan-like extension fibers contributed very little. This work did not support moving a single-bundle ACL graft to the side wall of the notch or attempting to cover the whole attachment area if the intention was to mimic how the natural ACL resists tibial displacements. There is ongoing debate about how best to reconstruct the ACL to restore normal knee function

  20. High-energy fractures of the tibial plateau. Knee function after longer follow-up.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Dennis P; Marsh, J Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Studies of the long-term outcomes of treatment of fractures of the tibial plateau have included wide mixtures of fracture types and mostly low-energy split and split-depression fractures. The long-term results of treatment of high-energy intra-articular proximal tibial fractures are unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the function of the knee and the development of arthrosis at a minimum of five years after injury in a consecutive series of patients in whom a high-energy fracture of the tibial plateau had been treated with a uniform technique of external fixation. Between July 1988 and December 1994, thirty patients with a total of thirty-one fractures of the tibial plateau were treated with a monolateral external fixator and limited internal fixation of the articular surface. Follow-up data on twenty-four knees in twenty-three patients were obtained at a mean of ninety-eight months. Twenty patients (twenty knees) returned specifically for the study, at which time they completed an Iowa Knee Score questionnaire and a Short Form-36 (SF-36) general health survey, a physical examination was performed, and weight-bearing radiographs were made. The results of the SF-36 evaluations for fourteen patients and the Knee Scores for twelve were compared with those obtained five years previously, at two to four years after the injury. After healing, no patient required a secondary reconstructive procedure. The range of motion of the knee averaged 3 degrees of extension to 120 degrees flexion, which was an average of 87% of the total arc of the contralateral knee. The average Iowa Knee Score was 90 points (range, 72 to 100 points). For twelve patients, the Iowa Knee Score previously recorded at two to four years averaged 92 points, as did the score at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen patients rated their outcome as excellent; six, as good; and three, as fair. Fifteen patients were working, and ten of them were performing strenuous labor. Radiographs showed

  1. Open tibial fractures grade IIIC treated successfully with external fixation, negative-pressure wound therapy and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7.

    PubMed

    Babiak, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the therapy in open tibial fractures grade III was to cover the bone with soft tissue and achieve healed fracture without persistent infection. Open tibial fractures grade IIIC with massive soft tissue damage require combined orthopaedic, vascular and plastic-reconstructive procedures. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), used in two consecutive cases with open fracture grade IIIC of the tibia diaphysis, healed extensive soft tissue defect with exposure of the bone. NPWT eventually allowed for wound closure by split skin graft within 21-25 days. Ilizarov external fixator combined with application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 at the site of delayed union enhanced definitive bone healing within 16-18 months. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  3. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. RESULTS Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. CONCLUSION We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau. PMID:28660141

  4. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  5. Anatomy, function, and pathophysiology of the posterior tibial tendon.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    The posterior tibial tendon is vital for the structure and function of the foot and ankle. Dysfunction of the tendon can be debilitating and devastating. In recent years, much attention had been directed toward the diagnosis and treatment of PTTD. To properly diagnose and devise an appropriate treatment regimen, the anatomy, function, and pathophysiology associated with PTTD need to be thoroughly understood.

  6. Tibial and fibular nerves evaluation using intraoperative electromyography in rats.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, André Coelho; Politani, Elisa Landucci; Silva, Eduardo Guandelini da; Salomone, Raquel; Longo, Marco Vinicius Losso; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Faria, José Carlos Marques de; Gemperli, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.

  7. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  8. Posterior tibial slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Senişik, Seçkin; Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Cetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key pointsDominant legs' tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001).Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer.

  9. Measurement of bone adjacent to tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S C; Eastell, R; Ingle, B M

    2002-12-01

    Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); (2) compare values for fractured versus non-fractured leg to determine the duration of decrement in bone measurements; and (3) calculate short-term precision in DXA, QUS and pQCT in order to calculate the ratio of decrement to precision (response ratio, RR) to determine the optimal test for monitoring changes after tibial fracture. The biggest decrement in bone measurements at the ipsilateral limb of 28 patients with tibial shaft fracture was observed at the pQCT tibial trabecular sites (distal = 19%, p<0.0001; proximal 5% = 21%, p<0.001; proximal 10% = 28%, p<0.001) and the ultradistal tibia/fibula measured by DXA (19%, p<0.0001). When comparing Z-scores, the magnitude of decrements at the ipsilateral limb was bigger for variables measured directly at the tibia, both proximal and distal to the fracture. The magnitude of the decrement in ultradistal tibia/fibula BMD decreased as the time since fracture increased ( r = 0.55). When response ratios are considered, pQCT measurements at the distal tibia (RR 6-8) and proximal 5% and 10% trabecular sites (RR 5 and 9 respectively) were found to be the most sensitive to change. Therefore, pQCT of the trabecular regions of either the proximal or distal tibia should prove the most sensitive measurement for monitoring changes in bone adjacent to a tibial shaft fracture.

  10. Pathomorphism of spiral tibial fractures in computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Spiral fractures of the tibia are virtually homogeneous with regard to their pathomorphism. The differences that are seen concern the level of fracture of the fibula, and, to a lesser extent, the level of fracture of the tibia, the length of fracture cleft, and limb shortening following the trauma. While conventional radiographs provide sufficient information about the pathomorphism of fractures, computed tomography can be useful in demonstrating the spatial arrangement of bone fragments and topography of soft tissues surrounding the fracture site. Multiple cross-sectional computed tomography views of spiral fractures of the tibia show the details of the alignment of bone chips at the fracture site, axis of the tibial fracture cleft, and topography of soft tissues that are not visible on standard radiographs. A model of a spiral tibial fracture reveals periosteal stretching with increasing spiral and longitudinal displacement. The cleft in tibial fractures has a spiral shape and its line is invariable. Every spiral fracture of both crural bones results in extensive damage to the periosteum and may damage bellies of the long flexor muscle of toes, flexor hallucis longus as well as the posterior tibial muscle. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage that are otherwise invisible on standard radiographs. Moreover, CT images provide useful information about the spatial location of the bone chips as well as possible threats to soft tissues that surround the fracture site. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum. 1. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage otherwise invisible on standard radiographs, 2. The sharp end of the distal tibial chip can damage the tibialis posterior muscle, long flexor muscles of the toes and the flexor hallucis longus, 3. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum.

  11. Excisional keratectomy combined with focal cryotherapy and amniotic membrane inlay for recalcitrant filamentary fungal keratitis: A retrospective comparative clinical data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingxin; Gao, Minghong; Duncan, Joshua K.; Ran, Di; Roe, Denise J.; Belin, Michael W.; Wang, Mingwu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel surgical intervention, excisional keratectomy combined with focal cryotherapy and amniotic membrane inlay (EKCAI), for the treatment of recalcitrant filamentary fungal keratitis. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who underwent excisional keratectomy combined with conjunctival flap inlay (EKCFI), EKCAI or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) from January 2006 to January 2011. Recalcitrance was determined as being unresponsive to standard medical antifungal therapy for at ≥1 week. Outcome measures among the three intervention modalities were compared. A total of 128 patients had a follow-up of ≥1 year after the primary intervention. The success rates of interventions at 1-year follow-up were 58.33% in the EKCFI group, 88.37% in the EKCAI group and 93.44% in the TPK group (P<0.0002). The preoperative visual acuity of the three groups were similar (P=0.6458), while the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of patients without recurrence was significantly different among the three groups 3 months after surgery. The best postoperative BCVA was found in the TPK group, while the worst was in the EKCFI group. In conclusion, EKCAI does not require donor cornea, is straightforward surgically, and has a favorable success rate compared with EKCFI. PMID:27882109

  12. Outcomes after arthroscopic excision of the bony prominence in the treatment of tibial spine avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K Donald; Urch, Scott E; Freeman, Heather

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes after arthroscopic excision of the bony prominence after a tibial spine avulsion fracture. This study included 7 subjects (5 female and 2 male subjects; mean age, 21.4 years). All subjects underwent preoperative rehabilitation focused on range of motion (ROM) and swelling control. Postoperative rehabilitation focused on regaining symmetric knee hyperextension and flexion. Objective examinations and subjective surveys were obtained at least 1 year after surgery. All subjects achieved normal knee extension; 6 patients achieved normal knee flexion, whereas 1 patient had nearly normal flexion. Physical examination showed a negative Lachman test with a firm end point in all patients, and the mean side-to-side difference for the KT-1000 manual maximum test (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) was 1.3 mm. No subjects required subsequent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. All subjects returned to their previous level of activity without instability symptoms. At a mean of 5.7 years after surgery, the mean International Knee Documentation Committee subjective survey score was 90.6 points overall, with 4.7 out of 5 possible points for the instability question. At latest follow-up, the mean ROM was from 6° of hyperextension to 147° of flexion in the involved knee, compared with 6° of hyperextension to 148° of flexion for the noninvolved knee. The results of arthroscopic excision of the bony fragment after type II, III, or III+ tibial spine avulsion fracture are positive, with good stability, symmetric ROM, and high subjective scores. Most importantly, this procedure allows patients to regain full, symmetric hyperextension of the knee, avoiding the complications associated with extension loss. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  14. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  16. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P < 0.001], residence [OR = 3.41 (95% CI: 1.6-7.3), P < 0.05 for Khaung Daing vs. Min Chaung] and education levels [OR = 4.5 (95% CI: 1.18-17.16), P < 0.05 for illiterate/3Rs level vs. high/graduate and OR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.26-7.93), P < 0.05 for primary/middle level vs. high/graduate] all factors classically associated with risk of schistosoma infection. None of the behavioural factors tested

  17. The Influence of Cement Morphology Parameters on the Strength of the Cement-Bone Interface in Tibial Tray Fixation.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Katrin; Bishop, Nicholas E; Schlegel, Ulf J; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M

    2017-02-01

    The strength of the cement-bone interface in tibial component fixation depends on the morphology of the cement mantle. The purpose of this study was to identify thresholds of cement morphology parameters to maximize fixation strength using a minimum amount of cement. Twenty-three cadaveric tibiae were analyzed that had been implanted with tibial trays in previous studies and for which the pull-out strength of the tray had been measured. Specimens were separated into a group failing at the cement-bone interface (INTERFACE) and one failing in the bulk bone (BULK). Maximum pull-out strength corresponds to the ultimate strength of the bulk bone if the cement-bone interface is sufficiently strong. 3D models of the cement mantle in situ were reconstructed from computed tomography scans. The influences of bone mineral density and 6 cement morphology parameters (reflecting cement penetration, bone-cement interface, cement volume) on pull-out strength of the BULK group were determined using multiple regression analysis. The threshold of each parameter for classification of the specimens into either group was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Cement penetration exceeding a mean of 1.1 mm or with a maximum of 5.6 mm exclusively categorized all BULK bone failure specimens. Failure strength of BULK failure specimens increased with bone mineral density (R 2  = 0.67, P < .001) but was independent of the cement morphology parameters. To maximize fixation strength, a mean cement penetration depth of at least 1.1 mm should be achieved during tibial tray cementing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cement Thickness of Inlay Restorations Made of Lithium Disilicate, Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic and Nano-Ceramic CAD/CAM Materials Evaluated Using 3D X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Uzgur, Recep; Ercan, Ertuğrul; Uzgur, Zeynep; Çolak, Hakan; Yalçın, Muhammet; Özcan, Mutlu

    2016-08-12

    To evaluate the marginal and internal cement thicknesses of inlay restorations made of various CAD/CAM materials using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technique. Caries-free extracted mandibular molars (N = 30) with similar size were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 10 per group). Mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared, and inlay restorations were obtained by milling out CAD/CAM materials namely, (a) IPS: monolithic lithium disilicate (control), (b) VE: polymer-infiltrated ceramic, and (c) CS: nano-ceramic using a CAM unit. Marginal and internal cement thicknesses were measured using 3D micro-CT. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha = 0.05). The mean marginal and internal cement thickness were not significant in all inlay materials (p > 0.05). Mean marginal cement thickness (μm) was the lowest for the IPS group (67.54 ± 10.16) followed by VE (84.09 ± 3.94) and CS (95.18 ± 10.58) (p > 0.05). The internal cement thickness (μm) was the lowest in the CS group (54.85 ± 6.94) followed by IPS (60.58 ± 9.22) and VE (77.53 ± 12.13) (p > 0.05). Marginal and internal cement thicknesses of MOD inlays made of monolithic lithium disilicate, polymer-infiltrated ceramic, and nano-ceramic CAD/CAM materials were similar and all less than 100 μm, which could be considered clinically acceptable. MOD inlays made of different CAD/CAM materials presented similar cement thickness, less than 100 μm. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. Case Report: A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. Conclusion: A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients. PMID:29181350

  20. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients.

  1. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Does the tibial remnant of the anterior cruciate ligament promote ligamentization?

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ill; Kim, Byoung Min; Kho, Duk Hwan; Kwon, Sai Won; Kim, Hyeung June; Hwang, Hyun Ryong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in ligamentization between the remnant-preserving (RP) and remnant-sacrificing (RS) techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective comparative study was carried out on 98 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction using either an RP (n=56) or RS (n=42) technique. MRI was performed at one of four time points postoperatively, and the signal intensity of the ACL graft was analyzed using the signal to noise quotient (SNQ) ratio and inter-bundle high signal intensity, along with an analysis of the survival rate of remnant tissue. The mean SNQ ratio of grafted tendons in the RP group was significantly higher than that seen in the RS group in the proximal and middle regions two to four months after surgery (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that seen in the RS group in all regions at 12 -18months (P<0.05). The inter-bundle high signal intensity was observed more frequently in the RP group (73.7%) at two to four months. Tibial remnants were observed on postoperative MRI regardless of when MRI was conducted. The ACL graft of the RP group showed higher signal intensity in the early stage and lower signal intensity in the late stage compared to that of the RS group. The ligamentization of grafts in the RP group proceeded more quickly. Preserving the remnant in ACL reconstruction appears to have a positive effect on ligamentization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Posterior tibial vein aneurysm presenting as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. The Effect of Graft Strength on Knee Laxity and Graft In-Situ Forces after Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yu-Shu; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Chang-Hung; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chan, Kam-Kong; Chang, Ting-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction is generally recommended for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries; however, the use of grafts is still a controversial problem. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human tibiofemoral joint with articular cartilage layers, menisci, and four main ligaments was constructed to investigate the effects of graft strengths on knee kinematics and in-situ forces of PCL grafts. Nine different graft strengths with stiffness ranging from 0% (PCL rupture) to 200%, in increments of 25%, of an intact PCL’s strength were used to simulate the PCL reconstruction. A 100 N posterior tibial drawer load was applied to the knee joint at full extension. Results revealed that the maximum posterior translation of the PCL rupture model (0% stiffness) was 6.77 mm in the medial compartment, which resulted in tibial internal rotation of about 3.01°. After PCL reconstruction with any graft strength, the laxity of the medial tibial compartment was noticeably improved. Tibial translation and rotation were similar to the intact knee after PCL reconstruction with graft strengths ranging from 75% to 125% of an intact PCL. When the graft’s strength surpassed 150%, the medial tibia moved forward and external tibial rotation greatly increased. The in-situ forces generated in the PCL grafts ranged from 13.15 N to 75.82 N, depending on the stiffness. In conclusion, the strength of PCL grafts have has a noticeable effect on anterior-posterior translation of the medial tibial compartment and its in-situ force. Similar kinematic response may happen in the models when the PCL graft’s strength lies between 75% and 125% of an intact PCL. PMID:26001045

  5. The effect of graft strength on knee laxity and graft in-situ forces after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Shu; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Chang-Hung; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chan, Kam-Kong; Chang, Ting-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction is generally recommended for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries; however, the use of grafts is still a controversial problem. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human tibiofemoral joint with articular cartilage layers, menisci, and four main ligaments was constructed to investigate the effects of graft strengths on knee kinematics and in-situ forces of PCL grafts. Nine different graft strengths with stiffness ranging from 0% (PCL rupture) to 200%, in increments of 25%, of an intact PCL's strength were used to simulate the PCL reconstruction. A 100 N posterior tibial drawer load was applied to the knee joint at full extension. Results revealed that the maximum posterior translation of the PCL rupture model (0% stiffness) was 6.77 mm in the medial compartment, which resulted in tibial internal rotation of about 3.01°. After PCL reconstruction with any graft strength, the laxity of the medial tibial compartment was noticeably improved. Tibial translation and rotation were similar to the intact knee after PCL reconstruction with graft strengths ranging from 75% to 125% of an intact PCL. When the graft's strength surpassed 150%, the medial tibia moved forward and external tibial rotation greatly increased. The in-situ forces generated in the PCL grafts ranged from 13.15 N to 75.82 N, depending on the stiffness. In conclusion, the strength of PCL grafts have has a noticeable effect on anterior-posterior translation of the medial tibial compartment and its in-situ force. Similar kinematic response may happen in the models when the PCL graft's strength lies between 75% and 125% of an intact PCL.

  6. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    relative risk of forefoot versus heel- strike running. In summary, there is no evidence in the literature that either study arm is at more risk than...tested in TSF, or even studied in runners. These basic validation studies will determine if modulators of tibial stress, .such as heel- strike mechanics...the other for acute injuries, although it was agreed that forefoot runners will be periodically evaluated for injuries to the Achilles tendon. After

  7. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    controlling for age and sex was used. However, there were no statistically significant differences between NF1 individuals with and without tibial...Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski (The Salk Institute) presented a different model of glioblastoma in which tumors were induced from fully differentiated...a driver of Schwann cell tumorigenesis. Induction ofWnt signaling was sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype in human Schwann cells, while

  8. Multiple Tibial Insufficiency Fractures in the Same Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, Saartje; Mertens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures were first described by Briethaupt in 1855. Since then, there have been many discussions in the literature concerning stress fractures, which have been described in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. Currently, the tibia is the most frequent location, but multiple stress fractures in the same tibia are rare. This paper presents an unusual case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple tibial stress fractures of spontaneous onset. PMID:23569673

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial bone adaptation after revision total knee arthroplasty: A comparison of different implant systems

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, María Paz; Seral, Belen; Pérez, María Angeles

    2017-01-01

    The best methods to manage tibial bone defects following total knee arthroplasty remain under debate. Different fixation systems exist to help surgeons reconstruct knee osseous bone loss (such as tantalum cones, cement, modular metal augments, autografts, allografts and porous metaphyseal sleeves) However, the effects of the various solutions on the long-term outcome remain unknown. In the present work, a bone remodeling mathematical model was used to predict bone remodeling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision. Five different types of prostheses were analyzed: one with a straight stem; two with offset stems, with and without supplements; and two with sleeves, with and without stems. Alterations in tibia bone density distribution and implant Von Mises stresses were quantified. In all cases, the bone density decreased in the proximal epiphysis and medullary channels, and an increase in bone density was predicted in the diaphysis and around stem tips. The highest bone resorption was predicted for the offset prosthesis without the supplement, and the highest bone formation was computed for the straight stem. The highest Von Mises stress was obtained for the straight tibial stem, and the lowest was observed for the stemless metaphyseal sleeves prosthesis. The computational model predicted different behaviors among the five systems. We were able to demonstrate the importance of choosing an adequate revision system and that in silico models may help surgeons choose patient-specific treatments. PMID:28886100

  10. Treatment of open tibial shaft fracture with soft tissue and bone defect caused by aircraft bomb--case report.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Vidić, Goran; Trenkić, Srbobran; Vukasinović, Zoran; Lesić, Aleksandar; Stojiljković, Predrag; Stevanović, Goran; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Najman, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft bombs can cause severe orthopaedic injuries. Tibia shaft fractures caused by aircraft bombs are mostly comminuted and followed by bone defects, which makes the healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. The goal of this paper is to present the method of treatment and the end results of treatment of a serious open tibial fracture with soft and bone tissue defects resulting from aircraft bomb shrapnel wounds. A 26-year-old patient presented with a tibial fracture as the result of a cluster bomb shrapnel wound. He was treated applying the method of external bone fixation done two days after wounding, as well as of early coverage of the lower leg soft tissue defects done on the tenth day after the external fixation of the fracture. The external fixator was removed after five months, whereas the treatment was continued by means of functional plaster cast for another two months. The final functional result was good. Radical wound debridement, external bone fixation of the fracture, and early reconstruction of any soft tissue and bone defects are the main elements of the treatment of serious fractures.

  11. Angular stable plates in proximal meta-epiphyseal tibial fractures: study of joint restoration and clinical and functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, S; Giovannelli, D; Dell'Osso, G; Bottai, V; Bugelli, G; Celli, F; Citarelli, C; Guido, G

    2016-04-01

    The tibial plateau fractures involve one of the main weight bearing joints of the human body. The goals of surgical treatment are anatomical reduction, articular surface reconstruction and high primary stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes after internal plate fixation of this kind of fractures. From January 2009 to December 2012, we treated 75 cases of tibial plateau fracture with angular stable plates. We used Rasmussen Score and the Knee Society Score for the clinical and functional evaluation. Twenty-five cases that underwent hardware removal had arthroscopic and CT evaluation of the joint. No complications occurred. The clinical and functional evaluation, performed by the KSS and Rasmussen Score, highlighted the high percentage of good-to-excellent results (over 90 %). In every case, the range of motion was good with flexion >90°. Arthroscopy showed the presence of chondral damage in 100 % of patients. In all the cases, we found that X-ray images seem better than the CT images. Angular stable plates allow to obtain a good primary stability, permitting an early joint recovery with an excellent range of motion. Avoiding to perform a knee arthrotomy at the time of fracture reduction could prove to be an advantage in terms of functional recovery. The meniscus on the injured bone should be preserved in order to maintain good function of the joint. X-ray images remain the gold standard in checking the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Min; Luo, Cong-Feng; Putnis, Sven; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of four different fixation methods for a posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture. Twenty-eight tibial plateau fractures were simulated using right-sided synthetic tibiae models. Each fracture model was randomly instrumented with one of the four following constructs, anteroposterior lag-screws, an anteromedial limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP), a lateral locking plate, or a posterior T-shaped buttress plate. Vertical subsidence of the posteromedial fragment was measured from 500 N to 1500 N during biomechanical testing, the maximum load to failure was also determined. It was found that the posterior T-shaped buttress plate allowed the least subsidence of the posteromedial fragment and produced the highest mean failure load than each of the other three constructs (P=0.00). There was no statistical significant difference between using lag screws or an anteromedial LC-DCP construct for the vertical subsidence at a 1500 N load and the load to failure (P>0.05). This study showed that a posterior-based buttress technique is biomechanically the most stable in-vitro fixation method for posteromedial split tibial plateau fractures, with AP screws and anteromedial-based LC-DCP are not as stable for this type of fracture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

  14. Can three-dimensional patient-specific cutting guides be used to achieve optimal correction for high tibial osteotomy? Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Munier, M; Donnez, M; Ollivier, M; Flecher, X; Chabrand, P; Argenson, J-N; Parratte, S

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis with a high-tibial osteotomy (HTO) is most effective when the optimal angular correction is achieved. However, conventional instrumentation is limited when multiplanar correction is needed. Use of patient-specific cutting guides (PSCGs) for HTO provides an accurate correction (difference<2°) relative to the preoperative planning. Between February 2014 and February 2015, 10 patients (mean age: 46 years [range: 31-59]; grade 1 or 2 osteoarthritis in Ahlbäck's classification) were included prospectively in this reliability and safety study. All patients were operated using the same medial opening-wedge osteotomy technique. Preoperative planning was based on long-leg radiographs and CT scans with 3D reconstruction. The PSGCs were used to align the osteotomy cut and position the screw holes for the plate. The desired correction was achieved in the three planes when the holes on the plate were aligned with the holes drilled based on the PSCG. Preoperatively, the mean HKA angle was 171.9° (range: 166-179°), the mean proximal tibial angle was 87° (86-88°) and the mean tibial slope was 7.8° (1-22°). The postoperative correction was compared to the planned correction using 3D CT scan transformations. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were assessed at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The procedure was successfully carried out in all patients with the PSCGs. On postoperative long-leg radiographs, the mean HKA was 182.3° (180-185°); on the CT scan, the mean tibial mechanical angle was 94° (90-98°) and the mean tibial slope was 7.1° (4-11°). In 19 out of 20 postoperative HKA and slope measurements, the difference between the planned and achieved correction was <2° based on the 3D analysis of the three planes in space; in the other case, the slope was 13° instead of the planned 10°. The intra-class correlation coefficients between the postoperative and planned parameters were 0.98 [0.92-0.99] for

  15. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  16. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  17. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups ( p  < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p  = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p  = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint

  18. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-04-21

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Survival of inlays and partial crowns made of IPS empress after a 10-year observation period and in relation to various treatment parameters.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Richard; Cappel, I; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Pieper, K; Stachniss, V

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term survival of inlays and partial crowns made of IPS Empress. For this purpose, the patient data of a prospective study were examined in retrospect and statistically evaluated. All of the inlays and partial crowns fabricated of IPS-Empress within the Department of Operative Dentistry at the School of Dental Medicine of Philipps University, Marburg, Germany were systematically recorded in a database between 1991 and 2001. The corresponding patient files were revised at the end of 2001. The information gathered in this way was used to evaluate the survival of the restorations using the method described by Kaplan and Meyer. A total of n = 1624 restorations were fabricated of IPS-Empress within the observation period. During this time, n = 53 failures were recorded. The remaining restorations were observed for a mean period of 18.77 months. The failures were mainly attributed to fractures, endodontic problems and cementation errors. The last failure was established after 82 months. At this stage, a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.81 was registered with a standard error of 0.04. At this time, n = 30 restorations were still being observed. Restorations on vital teeth (n = 1588) showed 46 failures, with a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.82. Restorations performed on non-vital teeth (n = 36) showed seven failures, with a cumulative survival probability of p = 0.53. Highly significant differences were found between the two groups (p < 0.0001) in a log-rank test. No significant difference (p = 0.41) was found between the patients treated by students (n = 909) and those treated by qualified dentists (n = 715). Likewise, no difference (p = 0.13) was established between the restorations seated with a high viscosity cement (n = 295) and those placed with a low viscosity cement (n = 1329).

  20. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  1. Image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Georgii Ivanovich; Taratorin, Aleksandr Markovich

    Linear, nonlinear, and iterative image-reconstruction (IR) algorithms are reviewed. Theoretical results are presented concerning controllable linear filters, the solution of ill-posed functional minimization problems, and the regularization of iterative IR algorithms. Attention is also given to the problem of superresolution and analytical spectrum continuation, the solution of the phase problem, and the reconstruction of images distorted by turbulence. IR in optical and optical-digital systems is discussed with emphasis on holographic techniques.

  2. Induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shulin; Fu, Jingshu; Xie, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation in the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects. A retrospective analyses for 67 cases of tibialosteomyelitis defects were admitted to our department between September 2012 to February 2015, which were treated with induced membrane technique. At the first stage, implanted with a PMMA cement spacer in the defects after radical debridement and fixed with reconstructive locked plate. Bone grafting and exchanged the plate with intramedullary nail at the second stage. In current study, all patients were followed up for 18-35 months. Sixty-six patients achieved bone union with the average radiographic and clinical healing times of 5.55±2.19 and 7.45±1.69months, respectively. Seven patients required a second debridement before grafting, while four patients experienced a recurrence of infection or a relapse following second stage treatment. Twelve patients experienced either knee or ankle dysfunctions and 2 patients faced delayed wound healing. Donor site complications includes pain and infection were found in 7 and 3 patients, respectively with delayed stress fracture in 1 patient only. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects, seems a reliable method. The use of reconstructive locked plate as a temporary internal fixation at the first stage and exchanged with intramedullary nail at the second stage, potentially achieves good clinical efficacy. Care should be taken to restore the joint function especially in distal tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tibial component alignment and risk of loosening in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a radiographic and radiostereometric study.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Ensini, A; Leardini, A; d'Amato, M; Feliciangeli, A; Timoncini, A; Amadei, F; Belvedere, C; Giannini, S

    2014-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has shown a higher rate of revision compared with total knee arthroplasty. The success of UKA depends on prosthesis component alignment, fixation and soft tissue integrity. The tibial cut is the crucial surgical step. The hypothesis of the present study is that tibial component malalignment is correlated with its risk of loosening in UKA. This study was performed in twenty-three patients undergoing primary cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Translations and rotations of the tibial component and the maximum total point motion (MTPM) were measured using radiostereometric analysis at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Standard radiological evaluations were also performed immediately before and after surgery. Varus/valgus and posterior slope of the tibial component and tibial-femoral axes were correlated with radiostereometric micro-motion. A survival analysis was also performed at an average of 5.9 years by contacting patients by phone. Varus alignment of the tibial component was significantly correlated with MTPM, anterior tibial sinking, varus rotation and anterior and medial translations from radiostereometry. The posterior slope of the tibial component was correlated with external rotation. The survival rate at an average of 5.9 years was 89%. The two patients who underwent revision presented a tibial component varus angle of 10° for both. There is correlation between varus orientation of the tibial component and MTPM from radiostereometry in unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Particularly, a misalignment in varus larger than 5° could lead to risk of loosening the tibial component. Prognostic studies-retrospective study, Level II.

  4. Comparison of intraoperative anthropometric measurements of the proximal tibia and tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Naohisa; Sugita, Takehiko; Aizawa, Toshimi; Sasaki, Akira; Maeda, Ikuo; Kamimura, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Precise matching of the tibial component and resected bony surfaces and proper rotational implanting of the tibial component are crucial for successful total knee arthroplasty. We aimed to analyze the exact anthropometric proximal tibial data of Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and correlate the measurements with the dimensions of current total knee arthroplasty systems. A total of 703 knees in 566 Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were included. The bone resection in the proximal tibia was performed perpendicular to the tibial axis in the frontal plane. Measurements of the proximal tibia were intraoperatively obtained after proximal tibial preparation. There were significant positive correlations between the lateral anteroposterior and medial anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions. A progressive decrease in the mediolateral/lateral anteroposterior ratio with an increasing lateral anteroposterior dimension or the mediolateral/anteroposterior ratio with an increasing anteroposterior dimension was observed. The lateral anteroposterior dimension was smaller than the medial anteroposterior dimension by a mean of 4.8 ± 2.0 mm. The proximal tibia exhibited asymmetry between the lateral and medial plateaus. A comparison of the morphological data and dimensions of the implants, one of which was a symmetric tibial component (NexGen) and the others were asymmetric (Genesis II and Persona), indicated that an asymmetric tibial component could be beneficial to maximize tibial plateau coverage. This study provided important reference data for designing a proper tibial component for Japanese people. The proximal tibial cut surface was asymmetric. There was wide dispersion in the lateral anteroposterior, medial anteroposterior, and mediolateral dimensions depending on the patient. Our data showed that the tibial components of the Genesis II and Persona rather than that of the NexGen may be preferable for

  5. Visualization of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone tunnels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Non-anatomic bone tunnel placement is the most common cause of a failed ACL reconstruction. Accurate and reproducible methods to visualize and document bone tunnel placement are therefore important. We evaluated the reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans, and a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) approach in visualizing and measuring ACL reconstruction bone tunnel placement. Methods 50 consecutive patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstructions were evaluated postoperatively by standard radiographs, CT scans, and 3D VR images. Tibial and femoral tunnel positions were measured by 2 observers using the traditional methods of Amis, Aglietti, Hoser, Stäubli, and the method of Benereau for the VR approach. Results The tunnel was visualized in 50–82% of the standard radiographs and in 100% of the CT scans and 3D VR images. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the inter- and intraobserver agreement was between 0.39 and 0.83 for the standard femoral and tibial radiographs. CT scans showed an ICC range of 0.49–0.76 for the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The agreement in 3D VR was almost perfect, with an ICC of 0.83 for the femur and 0.95 for the tibia. Interpretation CT scans and 3D VR images are more reliable in assessing postoperative bone tunnel placement following ACL reconstruction than standard radiographs. PMID:21999625

  6. Comparison of the primary stability of different tibial baseplate concepts to retain both cruciate ligaments during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrej M; Stangel, Melanie; Grupp, Thomas M; Valderrabano, Victor

    2013-10-01

    A novel tibial baseplate design (Transversal Support Tibial Plateau) as a new treatment concept for bi-cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty is evaluated for mechanical stability and compared to other tibial baseplate designs. This concept should provide better primary stability and thus, less subsidence, than implantation of two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates. Different baseplates were implanted into synthetic bone specimens (Sawbones® Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Washington, USA), all uncemented. Using a standardized experimental setup, subsidence was achieved, enabling comparison of the models regarding primary stability. Overall implant subsidence was significantly increased for the two separate unicondylar tibial baseplates versus the new Transversal Support Tibial Plateau concept, which showed comparable levels to a conventional tibial baseplate. Reduced subsidence results in better primary stability. Linking of two separate baseplates appears to provide increased primary stability in terms of bony fixation, comparable to that of a conventional single tibial baseplate. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Appropriate hinge position for prevention of unstable lateral hinge fracture in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R; Komatsu, N; Fujita, K; Kuroda, K; Takahashi, M; Omi, R; Katsuki, Y; Tsuchiya, H

    2017-10-01

    Open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) for medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee can be complicated by intra-operative lateral hinge fracture (LHF). We aimed to establish the relationship between hinge position and fracture types, and suggest an appropriate hinge position to reduce the risk of this complication. Consecutive patients undergoing OWHTO were evaluated on coronal multiplanar reconstruction CT images. Hinge positions were divided into five zones in our new classification, by their relationship to the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ). Fractures were classified into types I, II, and III according to the Takeuchi classification. Among 111 patients undergoing OWHTOs, 22 sustained lateral hinge fractures. Of the 89 patients without fractures, 70 had hinges in the zone within the PTFJ and lateral to the medial margin of the PTFJ (zone WL), just above the PTFJ. Among the five zones, the relative risk of unstable fracture was significantly lower in zone WL (relative risk 0.24, confidence interval 0.17 to 0.34). Zone WL appears to offer the safest position for the placement of the osteotomy hinge when trying to avoid a fracture at the osteotomy site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99B10:1313-18. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Management of Distal Tibial Metaphyseal Bone Defects With an Intramedullary Nitinol Scaffold: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Ford, Samuel E; Ellington, J Kent

    2017-08-01

    Difficult problems that are faced when reconstructing severe pilon fractures include filling metaphyseal defects and supporting an impacted, multifragmented articular surface. Supplements to plate fixation currently available in a surgeon's armamentarium include cancellous bone autograft, structural bone allograft, demineralized bone matrix, and calcium-based cements. Cancellous autograft possesses limited inherent mechanical stability and is associated with graft site morbidity. Structural allografts incorporate inconsistently and are plagued by late resorption. Demineralized bone matrix also lacks inherent structural stability. Calcium phosphate cements are not rigidly fixed to bone unless fixation is applied from cortical bone or through a plate, which must be taken into consideration when planning fixation. The Conventus DRS (Conventus Orthopaedics, Maple Grove, MN) implant is an expandable nitinol scaffold that takes advantage of the elasticity and shape memory of nitinol alloy. Once deployed and locked, it serves as a stable intramedullary base for fragment-specific periarticular fracture fixation, even in the face of metaphyseal bone loss. Two cases of successful implant use are presented. In both cases, the implant is used to fill a metaphyseal void and provide stable articular support to the distal tibial plafond. Therapeutic Level V: Case Report, Expert Opinion.

  9. Tibial tunnel aperture irregularity after drilling with 5 reamer designs: a qualitative micro-computed tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Geeslin, Andrew G; Jansson, Kyle S; Wijdicks, Coen A; Chapman, Mark A; Fok, Alex S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    There is limited information in the literature on comparisons of antegrade versus retrograde reaming techniques and the effect on the creation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial tunnel entry and exit apertures. Proximal and distal apertures of ACL tibial tunnels, as created with different reamers, will be affected by type of reamer design. Controlled laboratory study. Forty skeletally mature porcine tibias with bone mineral density values comparable with a young athletic population were included in this study. Five 9-mm reamer models were used (3 antegrade: A1, smooth-bore reamer; A2, acorn-head reamer; A3, flat-head reamer; 2 retrograde: R1, retrograde acorn reamer; R2, single-blade retrograde reamer), and a new reamer was used for each tibia (8 reamer-tibia pairs per reamer model). All specimens underwent micro-computed tomography scanning, and images were reconstructed and analyzed using 3-dimensional image analysis software. Aperture rim fractures were graded on a 0-IV scale that described the proportion of the fractured aperture circumference. Specimens with incomplete apertures were also recorded. Because of the unique characteristics of various tunnels, intratunnel characteristics were observed and recorded. In sum, 1 proximal and 7 distal aperture rim fractures were found; 3, 0, and 4 distal aperture rim fractures were found with groups A1, A2, and A3, respectively. Incomplete apertures were more commonly found at the distal aperture (n = 15) than the proximal aperture (n = 8); there were no tibias with this finding at both apertures. All incomplete distal apertures occurred with the retrograde technique, and all incomplete proximal apertures occurred with the antegrade technique, most commonly with reamer design A3. An added finding of tunnel curvature at the distal aspect of the tunnel was observed in all 8 tibias with R1 reamers and 5 tibias with R2 reamers. This phenomenon was not observed in any of the tibias reamed with the antegrade technique

  10. Biomechanical Comparison: Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Milles, Jeffrey L; Nuelle, Clayton W; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick; Kfuri, Mauricio; Cook, James L

    2017-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding double-bundle (DB) versus single-bundle (SB) posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, with differences in multiple variables affecting biomechanical and clinical results. Our objective was to compare immediate postimplantation biomechanics of SB versus DB reconstructions to determine the relative importance of restoring both PCL bundles versus total graft volume. Twenty knees were randomly assigned to five techniques ( n  = 4 knees/technique), performed by three surgeons experienced in their technique(s), three SB techniques ( n  = 12; all-inside arthroscopic inlay, all-inside suspensory fixation, and arthroscopic-assisted open onlay), and two DB techniques ( n  = 8; arthroscopic-assisted open inlay and all-inside suspensory fixation). Each knee was tested in three conditions: PCL-intact, PCL-deficient, and post-PCL reconstruction. Testing consisted of a posterior-directed force at four knee flexion angles, 10, 30, 60, and 90 degrees, to measure load to 5 mm of posterior displacement, maximum displacement (at 100 N load), and stiffness. Data for each knee were normalized, combined into two groups (SB and DB), and then compared using one-way analysis of variance. Graft volumes were calculated and analyzed to determine if differences significantly influenced the biomechanical results. Intact knees were stiffer than both groups at most angles ( p  < 0.02; p  < 0.05). DB was stiffer than SB at all angles except 30 degrees ( p  < 0.05). Intact knees had less laxity than SB ( p  < 0.03) and DB ( p  < 0.05) at 60 and 90 degrees. DB had less laxity than SB at all angles except 60 degrees ( p  < 0.05). Intact knees required more load than SB at 30, 60, and 90 degrees ( p  < 0.01) and more than DB at 60 and 90 degrees ( p  < 0.05). DB required more load than SB at 30, 60, and 90 degrees ( p  < 0.01). Graft volumes did not have strong correlations ( r  = 0.13-0.37) to any

  11. Pedicled Sensate Composite Calcaneal Flap in Children With Congenital Tibial Pseudoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Mongon, Mauricio L D; Ribera, Fernando C; de Souza, Antonio M A; Sposito, Aurelio L; Belangero, William D; Livani, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    The preservation and functionality of a limb affected by a malformation (such as congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia) or a severely mangled lower limb in children, despite modern reconstructive techniques, remains challenging, often eventually requiring amputation to achieve a better outcome. The classical Syme and Boyd procedures are functionally better than transtibial (TT) amputation, but are not feasible for congenital tibial pseudoarthrosis. TT amputation delivers an excellent, effective, and functional stump that usually leads, after prosthetization, to a functional gait. Unfortunately, in some situations, particularly when amputation is performed conventionally, the stump is also associated with complications. Future surgical revisions are often needed, particularly in children, because of stump overgrowth. Between 2008 and 2010, three patients diagnosed with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia associated with neurofibromatosis who were indicated for TT amputation with calcaneal flap after failure of all previous surgical reconstructive procedures were selected. The chosen method for osteosynthesis was an external fixator of Ilizarov. At 12 weeks of follow-up, the stump had healed in all three patients, and tibiocalcaneal fusion was achieved without complications. All patients were prosthetized and had an asymptomatic gait. After a minimum follow-up of 6 years, all three cases with the pedicled sensate composite calcaneal flap still had a strong, full weight-bearing surface and have adapted easily to the conventional prosthesis, providing a painless stump with excellent functionality. With a 0 rate of needed revisions, all 3 cases with the pedicled sensate composite calcaneal flap preserving the hind foot still have a strong, full weight-bearing surface and have easily adapted to the conventional prosthesis, providing a painless and excellent functional stump that could last a lifetime. Level IV.

  12. [The external patello-tibial transfixation (EPTT). Part II: Clinical application and results].

    PubMed

    Ishaque, B; Gotzen, L; Ziring, E; Petermann, J

    1999-07-01

    In part I of the paper the biomechanical and technical background of the EPTT using the MPT fixator and the indications for this procedure have been described. In part II we report about the clinical application of the EPTT in 67 patients with a wide spectrum of repairs and reconstructions of the extensor mechanism. 48 patients had fresh injuries, 18 of them with severe concomitant knee lesions and 19 patients had neglected rsp. unsuccessfully operated injuries. There were 4 deep infections, two of them related to the MPT fixator. In the patients with uneventful healing the fixator remained in place for 7.3 weeks in average. The clinical, isokinetic and radiological results were reviewed in 17 patients with an average follow-up time of 37.3 months. There were 5 patients with partial patellectomy and tendon reattachment because of lower patella pole comminution and 12 patients with tendon reattachment ruptured at the inferior patella pole or suture repair in midsubstance rupture. The clinical results according to the IKDC score were rated in 3 patients as normal, in 10 patients as nearly normal and in 4 patients as abnormal. This rating was highly dependend on the subjective judgement by the patients who considered their operated knees not as normal as the contralateral knees. From our clinical experiences and results we can derive that the EPTT enables the surgical management of extensor mechanism disruptions with a minimum of internal fixation material and provides a safe protection of the repairs and reconstructions during the healing period. The EPTT allows immediate unrestricted functional rehabilitation and early walking without crutches. Thus the EPTT represents an effective alternative to the patello-tibial cerclage with a wire or synthetic ligaments.

  13. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  14. ß-TCP bone substitutes in tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism following circular frame treatment for tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Vollans, S; Chaturvedi, A; Sivasankaran, K; Madhu, T; Hadland, Y; Allgar, V; Sharma, H K

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following tibial fractures. The risk is as high as 77% without prophylaxis and around 10% with prophylaxis. Within the current literature there are no figures reported specifically for those individuals treated with circular frames. Our aim was to evaluate the VTE incidence within a single surgeon series and to evaluate potential risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive single surgeon series of 177 patients admitted to a major trauma unit with tibial fractures. All patients received standardised care, including chemical thromboprophylaxis within 24h of injury until independent mobility was achieved. We comprehensively reviewed our prospective database and medical records looking at demographics and potential risk factors. Seven patients (4.0% ± 2.87%) developed symptomatic VTE during the course of frame treatment; three deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and four pulmonary embolisms (PEs). Those with a VTE event had significantly increased body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) when compared to those without symptomatic VTE. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups in age, gender, smoking status, fracture type (anatomical allocation or open/closed), delay to frame treatment, weight bearing status post-frame, inpatient stay or total duration of frame treatment. This study suggests that increased BMI is a statistically significant risk factor for VTE, as reported in current literature. In addition, we calculated the true risk of VTE following circular frame treatment for tibial fracture in our series is from 1.13% to 6.87%, which is at least comparable to other forms of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULTS The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days. CONCLUSIONS Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres. PMID:21047449

  17. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  18. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  19. Failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of factors leading to instability after primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Ao, Ying-Fang; Yu, Jia-Kuo; Dai, Ling-Hui; Shao, Zhen-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery can be expected to become more common as the number of primary reconstruction keeps increasing. This study aims to investigate the factors causing instability after primary ACL reconstruction, which may provide an essential scientific base to prevent surgical failure. One hundred and ten revision ACL surgeries were performed at our institute between November 2001 and July 2012. There were 74 men and 36 women, and the mean age at the time of revision was 27.6 years (range 16 - 56 years). The factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-one knees failed because of bone tunnel malposition, with too anterior femoral tunnels (20 knees), posterior wall blowout (1 knee), vertical femoral tunnels (7 knees), too posterior tibial tunnels (12 knees), and too anterior tibial tunnels (10 knees). There was another knee performed with open surgery, where the femoral tunnel was drilled through the medial condyle and the tibial tunnel was too anterior. Five knees were found with malposition of the fixation. One knee with allograft was suspected of rejection and a second surgery had been made to take out the graft. Three knees met recurrent instability after postoperative infection. The other factors included traumatic (48 knees) and unidentified (12 knees). Technical errors were the main factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstructions, while attention should also be paid to the risk factors of re-injury and failure of graft incorporation.

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Wada, Keizo; Takasago, Tomoya; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Kawatani, Yohei; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy.

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Hamada, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy. PMID:28607785

  2. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, OandP.org , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  3. Segmental transports for posttraumatic lower extremity bone defects: are femoral bone transports safer than tibial?

    PubMed

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Ettinger, Max; Jagodzinski, Michael; Hankemeier, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The long-term outcomes following femoral and tibial segment transports are not well documented. Purpose of the study is to compare the complication rates and life quality scores of femoral and tibial transports in order to find what are the complication rates of femoral and tibial monorail bone transports and if they are different? We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 8 femoral and 14 tibial consecutive segment transports performed with the monorail technique between 2001 and 2008 in our institution. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.1 years with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Aetiology of the defects was posttraumatic in all cases. Four femoral (50%) and nine tibial (64%) fractures were open. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey was used to compare the life quality after femoral and tibial bone transports. The Mann-Whiney U test, Fisher exact test, and the Student's two tailed t-test were used for statistical analysis. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The tibial transport was associated with higher rates of severe complications and additional procedures (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.4 ± 2.7, p = 0.048). Three patients of the tibial group were amputated because of recurrent infections and one developed a complete regenerate insufficiency that was treated with partial diaphyseal tibial replacement. Contrary to that none of patients of the femoral group developed a complete regenerate insufficiency or was amputated. Tibial bone transports have a higher rate of complete and incomplete regenerate insufficiency and can more often end in an amputation. The authors suggest systematic weekly controls of the CRP value and of the callus formation in patients with posttraumatic tibia bone transports. Further comparative studies comparing the results of bone transports with and without intramedullary implants are necessary.

  4. Salvage of tibial pilon fractures using fusion of the ankle with a 90 degrees cannulated blade-plate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Thordarson, D B; Shepherd, L E

    1999-06-01

    Six patients with ankle joint destruction and delayed metaphyseal union after tibial plafond fracture were surgically treated with tibiotalar arthrodesis and metaphyseal reconstruction, using a fixed-angle cannulated blade-plate. The procedure was performed through a posterior approach in five cases and a lateral approach in one case. The subtalar joint was preserved in all cases. Metaphyseal union and a stable arthrodesis were obtained in all cases without loss of fixation and with no mechanical failure of the blade-plate. Union was obtained in an average of 26 weeks. No secondary procedures were required to obtain union. All six patients were ambulatory at last follow-up. Stable internal fixation for simultaneous tibiotalar fusion and metaphyseal reconstruction can be achieved with a cannulated blade-plate while preserving the subtalar joint in complex plafond fractures.

  5. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  6. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  7. Analysis of anatomic periarticular tibial plate fit on normal adults.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Kanu S; Skalak, Anthony S; Marcus, Randall E; Vallier, Heather A; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2007-08-01

    Implant manufacturers are producing anatomically contoured periarticular plates to improve the treatment of proximal tibia fractures. We assessed the accuracy of the designation anatomic. We applied eight-hole medial and lateral anatomically contoured periarticular plates to 101 cadaveric tibiae. The tibiae and the plate fits were mapped, quantified, and analyzed using a MicroScribe G2LX digitizer, Rhinoceros software, and MATLAB software. By corresponding the clinical appearance of good fit with our digital findings, we created numerical criteria for plate fit in three planes: coronal (volume of free space between the plate and bone), sagittal (alignment with the tibial plateau and shaft), and axial (match in curvature between the proximal horizontal part of the plate and the tibial plateau). An anatomic fit should mirror the shape of the tibia in all three planes, and only four medial and four lateral plate fits qualified. Recognizing and understanding the substantial variations in fit that exist between anatomically contoured plates and the tibia may help lead to a more stable fixation and prevent malreduction of the fracture and/or soft tissue impingement.

  8. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  9. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  10. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  11. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  12. A 3D finite element model to investigate prosthetic interface stresses of different posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaomiao; Fu, Xiaodong; Wang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to calculate contact stresses in tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses subjected to a compressive load. The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis was constructed from the images produced by 3D scanning technology. Stresses in tibial polyethylene component were calculated with four different posterior tibial slopes (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis we presented was well validated. We found that the stress distribution in the polythene as evaluated by the distributions of the von Mises stress, the maximum principle stress, the minimum principle stress and the Cpress were more uniform with 3° and 6° posterior tibial slopes than with 0° and 9° posterior tibial slopes. Moreover, the peaks of the above stresses and trends of changes with increasing degree of knee flexion were more ideal with 3° and 6° posterior slopes. The results suggested that the tibial component inclination might be favourable to 7°-10° so far as the stress distribution is concerned. The range of the tibial component inclination also can decrease the wear of polyethylene. Chinese posterior tibial slope is bigger than in the West, and the current domestic use of prostheses is imported from the West, so their demands to tilt back bone cutting can lead to shorten the service life of prostheses; this experiment result is of important

  13. Tibial Acceleration and Spatiotemporal Mechanics in Distance Runners During Reduced-Body-Weight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew F; Rickert, Brendan J; Greer, Beau K

    2017-05-01

    Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air-pressure (DAP) bladder (eg, AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight (BW) in a clinical setting. However, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of BW unloading during running. Cross-sectional. University motion-analysis laboratory. 15 distance runners (9 male, 6 female; 20.4 ± 2.4 y, 60.1 ± 12.6 kg). Peak tibial acceleration and peak-to-peak tibial acceleration were measured via a uniaxial accelerometer attached to the tibia during a 37-min continuous treadmill run that simulated reduced-BW conditions via a DAP bladder. The trial began with a 10-min run at 100% BW followed by nine 3-min stages where BW was systematically reduced from 95% to 60% in 5% increments. There was no significant relationship between level of BW and either peak tibial acceleration or peak-to-peak tibial acceleration (P > .05). Both heart rate and step rate were significantly reduced with each 5% reduction in BW level (P < .01). Although ground-reaction forces are reduced when running in reduced-BW conditions on a DAP treadmill, tibial shock magnitudes are unchanged as an alteration in spatiotemporal running mechanics (eg, reduced step rate) and may nullify the unloading effect.

  14. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene tibial components in primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The choice of either all-polyethylene (AP) tibial components or metal-backed (MB) tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated MB and AP tibial components in primary TKA. Methods The search strategy included a computerized literature search (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and a manual search of major orthopedic journals. A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared the performance of tibial components in primary TKA was performed using a fixed or random effects model. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using Detsky quality scale. Results 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2000 and 2009 met the inclusion quality standards for the systematic review. The mean standardized Detsky score was 14 (SD 3). We found that the frequency of radiolucent lines in the MB group was significantly higher than that in the AP group. There were no statistically significant differences between the MB and AP tibial components regarding component positioning, knee score, knee range of motion, quality of life, and postoperative complications. Interpretation Based on evidence obtained from this study, the AP tibial component was comparable with or better than the MB tibial component in TKA. However, high-quality RCTs are required to validate the results. PMID:21895503

  15. Anterior tibial stress fractures treated with anterior tension band plating in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alexandre Santa; de Hollanda, João Paris Buarque; Duarte, Aires; Hungria Neto, José Soares

    2013-06-01

    The non-surgical treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures requires long periods of abstention from sports activities and often results in non-union. Many different surgical techniques have already been previously described to treat these fractures, but there is no consensus on the best treatment. We describe the outcome of treatment using anterior tibial tension band plating in three high-performance athletes (4 legs) with anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Tibial osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking compression plate in the anterolateral aspect of the tibia was performed in all patients diagnosed with anterior tibial stress fracture after September 2010 at Santa Casa Hospital. All of the fractures were consolidated within a period of 3 months after surgery, allowing for an early return to pre-injury levels of competitive sports activity. There were no infection, non-union, malunion or anterior knee pain complications. Anterior tibial tension band plating leads to prompt fracture consolidation and is a good alternative for the treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Bone grafts were shown to be unnecessary.

  16. Immediate effects of modified landing pattern on a probabilistic tibial stress fracture model in runners.

    PubMed

    Chen, T L; An, W W; Chan, Z Y S; Au, I P H; Zhang, Z H; Cheung, R T H

    2016-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common injury in runners. This condition has been associated with increased impact loading. Since vertical loading rates are related to the landing pattern, many heelstrike runners attempt to modify their footfalls for a lower risk of tibial stress fracture. Such effect of modified landing pattern remains unknown. This study examined the immediate effects of landing pattern modification on the probability of tibial stress fracture. Fourteen experienced heelstrike runners ran on an instrumented treadmill and they were given augmented feedback for landing pattern switch. We measured their running kinematics and kinetics during different landing patterns. Ankle joint contact force and peak tibial strains were estimated using computational models. We used an established mathematical model to determine the effect of landing pattern on stress fracture probability. Heelstrike runners experienced greater impact loading immediately after landing pattern switch (P<0.004). There was an increase in the longitudinal ankle joint contact force when they landed with forefoot (P=0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both peak tibial strains and the risk of tibial stress fracture in runners with different landing patterns (P>0.986). Immediate transitioning of the landing pattern in heelstrike runners may not offer timely protection against tibial stress fracture, despite a reduction of impact loading. Long-term effects of landing pattern switch remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the posterior tibial slope on the flexion gap in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-08-01

    Adjusting the joint gap length to be equal in both extension and flexion is an important issue in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is generally acknowledged that posterior tibial slope affects the flexion gap; however, the extent to which changes in the tibial slope angle directly affect the flexion gap remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of tibial slope changes on the flexion gap in cruciate-retaining (CR) or posterior-stabilizing (PS) TKA. The flexion gap was measured using a tensor device with the femoral trial component in 20 cases each of CR- and PS-TKA. A wedge plate with a 5° inclination was placed on the tibial cut surface by switching its front-back direction to increase or decrease the tibial slope by 5°. The flexion gap after changing the tibial slope was compared to that of the neutral slope measured with a flat plate that had the same thickness as that of the wedge plate center. When the tibial slope decreased or increased by 5°, the flexion gap decreased or increased by 1.9 ± 0.6mm or 1.8 ± 0.4mm, respectively, with CR-TKA and 1.2 ± 0.4mm or 1.1 ± 0.3mm, respectively, with PS-TKA. The influence of changing the tibial slope by 5° on the flexion gap was approximately 2mm with CR-TKA and 1mm with PS-TKA. This information is useful when considering the effect of manipulating the tibial slope on the flexion gap when performing CR- or PS-TKA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of tibial slope on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Petrigliano, Frank P; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Citak, Mustafa; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to quantify the effect of changes in tibial slope on the magnitude of anterior tibial translation (ATT) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee during the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests. We hypothesized that increased posterior tibial slope would increase the amount of ATT of an ACL-deficient knee, while leveling the slope of the tibial plateau would decrease the amount of ATT. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed on hip-to-toe cadaveric specimens, and ATT of the lateral and the medial compartments was measured using navigation (n = 11). The ACL was then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and ATT was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5 or -5° of tibial slope variation after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Sectioning the ACL resulted in a significant increase in ATT in both the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests (P < 0.05). Increasing or decreasing the slope of the tibial plateau had no effect on ATT during the Lachman test (n.s.). During the mechanized pivot shift tests, a 5° increase in posterior slope resulted in a significant increase in ATT compared to the native knee (P < 0.05), while a 5° decrease in slope reduced ATT to a level similar to that of the intact knee. Tibial slope changes did not affect the magnitude of translation during a Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope variation affected the magnitude of the pivot shift.

  19. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords “tibial”, “plateau”, “fractures”, “knee”, “athletes”, “sports”, “non-operative”, “conservative”, “operative”, “return to sport”. All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management (n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management (n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) (n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) (n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) (n = 262). All studies recorded “return to sport” rates. Only one study recorded a “return to sport” time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study

  20. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  1. Avulsion of the tibial tuberosity in a litter of greyhound puppies.

    PubMed

    Skelly, C M; McAllister, H; Donnelly, W J

    1997-10-01

    Avulsion of the tibial tuberosity was diagnosed in six of seven greyhound littermates aged five and a half months. The puppies showed hindlimb lameness of varying severity. Radiological assessment of affected stifle joints revealed partial or complete avulsion of the tibial tuberosities. In four puppies the lesions were bilateral. Euthanasia of the two most severely affected puppies was performed; the changes observed on histopathological examination of their cranioproximal tibiae suggested that the underlying lesion was that of osteochondrosis. A hereditary predisposition in greyhounds to osteochondrosis of the physis between the apophysis and the cranioproximal tibial diaphysis is postulated.

  2. Passive biaxial mechanical properties and in vivo axial pre-stretch of the diseased human femoropopliteal and tibial arteries.

    PubMed

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Dzenis, Yuris A; Lomneth, Carol S; Kazmi, Syed A Jaffar; Phillips, Nicholas Y; MacTaggart, Jason N

    2014-03-01

    Surgical and interventional therapies for atherosclerotic lesions of the infrainguinal arteries are notorious for high rates of failure. Frequently, this leads to expensive reinterventions, return of disabling symptoms or limb loss. Interaction between the artery and repair material likely plays an important role in reconstruction failure, but data describing the mechanical properties and functional characteristics of human femoropopliteal and tibial arteries are currently not available. Diseased superficial femoral (SFA, n = 10), popliteal (PA, n = 8) and tibial arteries (TA, n = 3) from 10 patients with critical limb ischemia were tested to determine passive mechanical properties using planar biaxial extension. All specimens exhibited large nonlinear deformations and anisotropy. Under equibiaxial loading, all arteries were stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal direction. Anisotropy and longitudinal compliance decreased distally, but circumferential compliance increased, possibly to maintain a homeostatic multiaxial stress state. Constitutive parameters for a four-fiber family invariant-based model were determined for all tissues to calculate in vivo axial pre-stretch that allows the artery to function in the most energy efficient manner while also preventing buckling during extremity flexion. Calculated axial pre-stretch was found to decrease with age, disease severity and more distal arterial location. Histological analysis of the femoropopliteal artery demonstrated a distinct sub-adventitial layer of longitudinal elastin fibers that appeared thicker in healthier arteries. The femoropopliteal artery characteristics and properties determined in this study may assist in devising better diagnostic and treatment modalities for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of evolution of tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rayan, Faizal; Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Quah, Conal; Ramoutar, Darryl; Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the commonest knee sport injuries. The annual incidence of the ACL injury is between 100000-200000 in the United States. Worldwide around 400000 ACL reconstructions are performed in a year. The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore the normal knee anatomy and kinesiology. The tibial and femoral tunnel placements are of primordial importance in achieving this outcome. Other factors that influence successful reconstruction are types of grafts, surgical techniques and rehabilitation programmes. A comprehensive understanding of ACL anatomy has led to the development of newer techniques supplemented by more robust biological and mechanical concepts. In this review we are mainly focussing on the evolution of tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction, focusing on three main categories, i.e., anatomical, biological and clinical outcomes. The importance of tunnel placement in the success of ACL reconstruction is well researched. Definite clinical and functional data is lacking to establish the superiority of the single or double bundle reconstruction technique. While there is a trend towards the use of anteromedial portals for femoral tunnel placement, their clinical superiority over trans-tibial tunnels is yet to be established. PMID:25793165

  4. Review of evolution of tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Faizal; Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Quah, Conal; Ramoutar, Darryl; Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares S

    2015-03-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the commonest knee sport injuries. The annual incidence of the ACL injury is between 100000-200000 in the United States. Worldwide around 400000 ACL reconstructions are performed in a year. The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore the normal knee anatomy and kinesiology. The tibial and femoral tunnel placements are of primordial importance in achieving this outcome. Other factors that influence successful reconstruction are types of grafts, surgical techniques and rehabilitation programmes. A comprehensive understanding of ACL anatomy has led to the development of newer techniques supplemented by more robust biological and mechanical concepts. In this review we are mainly focussing on the evolution of tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction, focusing on three main categories, i.e., anatomical, biological and clinical outcomes. The importance of tunnel placement in the success of ACL reconstruction is well researched. Definite clinical and functional data is lacking to establish the superiority of the single or double bundle reconstruction technique. While there is a trend towards the use of anteromedial portals for femoral tunnel placement, their clinical superiority over trans-tibial tunnels is yet to be established.

  5. Influence of different cusp coverage methods for the extension of ceramic inlays on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krifka, Stephanie; Stangl, Martin; Wiesbauer, Sarah; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-09-01

    No information is available to date about cusp design of thin (1.0 mm) non-functional cusps and its influence upon (1) marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and (2) crack formation of dental tissues. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of cusp coverage of thin non-functional cusps on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI and PCC preparations were performed on extracted human molars. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to 1.0-mm wall thickness and 1.0-mm wall thickness with horizontal reduction of about 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were adhesively luted with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading. Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating dye penetration after thermal cycling and mechanical loading. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective-light microscope. The data were statistically analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fishers exact test (alpha = 0.05) and the error rates method. PCC with horizontal reduction of non-functional cusps showed statistically significant less microleakage than PCC without such a cusp coverage. Preparation designs with horizontal reduction of non-functional cusps showed a tendency to less enamel crack formation than preparation designs without cusp coverage. Thin non-functional cusp walls of adhesively bonded restorations should be completely covered or reduced to avoid enamel cracks and marginal deficiency.

  6. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Egemen; Ege, Ahmet; Keser, Selcuk; Bayar, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa represents an infrequent clinical entity with cutaneous changes characterized by dermal fibrosis, hyperkeratotic verrucous and papillamotous lesions resulting from chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity. Although recurrent streptococcal lymphangitis is believed to play a critical role in the origin of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, the exact pathogenesis of the disorder is not yet clear. Therapeutic efforts should aim to reduce lymph stasis, which will also lead to improvement of the cutaneous changes but unfortunately there is no specific treatment for advanced cases. In this report, we present a patient who was treated by below knee amputation as a result of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

  7. Intramedullary nailing in the treatment of aseptic tibial nonunion.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Panagiotopoulos, E; Skriviliotakis, S; Lambiris, E

    2001-04-01

    Fifty patients suffering from aseptic tibial nonunion underwent reamed intramedullary nailing (I.N.) and were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-six patients were initially treated with external fixation, six with plate and screws, one with a static I.N., and seven with plaster of Paris. Eighteen of the fractures were initially open (A: 5, B: 6, and C: 7 according to the Gustilo classification). In 34 cases a closed procedure was performed, whereas in sixteen, an opening at the nonunion site was unavoidable either to remove metalwork or realign the fragments. Following failed external fixation, secondary I.N. was performed at least 10 days after removal of the device. Bone grafts from the iliac crest were used in three cases, and a fibular osteotomy was performed in 33. Patients were followed up for an average of 2.5 years after nailing, ranging from 10 months to 7 years. A solid union was achieved in all patients within a period of 6 months. One patient developed late infection, which settled after nail removal and one patient developed impending compartment syndrome which was detected on the first post-operative day and was treated with a fasciotomy. Transient peroneal nerve palsy occurred in one patient and this recovered in 3 months, whereas in nine patients a clinically acceptable deformity was noticed. In conclusion, we believe that reamed intramedullary nailing is a highly effective treatment for aseptic tibial nonunions. Early and late complications are rare and bone graft is rarely needed. The method allows early weight bearing even before solid union occurs, short hospitalisation time and early return to work without external support.

  8. The effect of muscle fatigue on in vivo tibial strains.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa R; Finestone, Aharon; Nyska, Meir; Mendelson, Stephen; Benjuya, Nisim; Simkin, Ariel; Burr, David

    2007-01-01

    Stress fracture is a common musculoskeletal problem affecting athletes and soldiers. Repetitive high bone strains and strain rates are considered to be its etiology. The strain level necessary to cause fatigue failure of bone ex vivo is higher than the strains recorded in humans during vigorous physical activity. We hypothesized that during fatiguing exercises, bone strains may increase and reach levels exceeding those measured in the non-fatigued state. To test this hypothesis, we measured in vivo tibial strains, the maximum gastrocnemius isokinetic torque and ground reaction forces in four subjects before and after two fatiguing levels of exercise: a 2km run and a 30km desert march. Strains were measured using strain-gauged staples inserted percutaneously in the medial aspect of their mid-tibial diaphysis. There was a decrease in the peak gastrocnemius isokinetic torque of all four subjects' post-march as compared to pre-run (p=0.0001), indicating the presence of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. Tension strains increased 26% post-run (p=0.002, 95 % confidence interval (CI) and 29% post-march (p=0.0002, 95% CI) as compared to the pre-run phase. Tension strain rates increased 13% post-run (p=0.001, 95% CI) and 11% post-march (p=0.009, 95% CI) and the compression strain rates increased 9% post-run (p=0.0004, 95% CI) and 17% post-march (p=0.0001, 95% CI). The fatigue state increases bone strains well above those recorded in rested individuals and may be a major factor in the stress fracture etiology.

  9. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Glucocorticoid Administration on Biomechanical Properties of Rats’ Tibial Diaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Freidouni, Mohammadjavad; Nejati, Hossein; Salimi, Maryam; Bayat, Mohammad; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Asgharie, Mohammad Ali; Rezaian, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a disease, which causes bone loss and fractures. Although glucocorticoids effectively suppress inflammation, their chronic use is accompanied by bone loss with a tendency toward secondary osteoporosis. Objectives: This study took into consideration the importance of cortical bone in the entire bone's mechanical competence. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different protocols of glucocorticoid administration on the biomechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis in rats compared to control and low-level laser-treated rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used systematic random sampling to divide 40 adult male rats into 8 groups with 5 rats in each group. Groups were as follows: 1) control, 2) dexamethasone (7 mg/week), 3) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), 4) methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), 5) methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), 6) dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), 7) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg thrice per week), and 8) low-level laser-treated rats. The study periods were 4-7 weeks. At the end of the treatment periods, we examined the mechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis. Data were analyzed by statistical analyses. Results: Glucocorticoid-treated rats showed weight loss and considerable mortality (21%). The biomechanical properties (maximum force) of glucocorticoid-treated rats in groups 4 (62 ± 2.9), 6 (63 ± 5.1), and 7 (60 ± 5.3) were comparable with the control (46 ± 1.5) and low-level laser-treated (57 ± 3.2) rats. Conclusions: In contrast to the findings in humans and certain other species, glucocorticoid administration caused anabolic effect on the cortical bone of tibia diaphysis bone in rats. PMID:26019900

  11. Lateralization of the Tibial Tubercle in Recurrent Patellar Dislocation: Verification Using Multiple Methods to Evaluate the Tibial Tubercle.

    PubMed

    Tensho, Keiji; Shimodaira, Hiroki; Akaoka, Yusuke; Koyama, Suguru; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto

    2018-05-02

    The tibial tubercle deviation associated with recurrent patellar dislocation (RPD) has not been studied sufficiently. New methods of evaluation were used to verify the extent of tubercle deviation in a group with patellar dislocation compared with that in a control group, the frequency of patients who demonstrated a cutoff value indicating that tubercle transfer was warranted on the basis of the control group distribution, and the validity of these methods of evaluation for diagnosing RPD. Sixty-six patients with a history of patellar dislocation (single in 19 [SPD group] and recurrent in 47 [RPD group]) and 66 age and sex-matched controls were analyzed with the use of computed tomography (CT). The tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance, TT-PCL ratio, and tibial tubercle lateralization (TTL) in the SPD and RPD groups were compared with those in the control group. Cutoff values to warrant 10 mm of transfer were based on either the minimum or -2SD (2 standard deviations below the mean) value in the control group, and the prevalences of patients in the RPD group with measurements above these cutoff values were calculated. The area under the curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of the measurements as predictors of RPD. The mean TT-PCL distance, TT-PCL ratio, and TTL were all significantly greater in the RPD group than in the control group. The numbers of patients in the RPD group who satisfied the cutoff criteria when they were based on the minimum TT-PCL distance, TT-PCL ratio, and TTL in the control group were 11 (23%), 7 (15%), and 6 (13%), respectively. When the cutoff values were based on the -2SD values in the control group, the numbers of patients were 8 (17%), 6 (13%), and 0, respectively. The AUC of the ROC curve for TT-PCL distance, TT-PCL ratio, and TTL was 0.66, 0.72, and 0.72, respectively. The extent of TTL in the RPD group was not substantial, and the percentages

  12. Nontraumatic tibial polyethylene insert cone fracture in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanikake, Yohei; Hayashi, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tomita, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-12-01

    A 72-year-old male patient underwent mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. He experienced a nontraumatic polyethylene tibial insert cone fracture 27 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface of the tibial insert cone suggested progress of ductile breaking from the posterior toward the anterior of the cone due to repeated longitudinal bending stress, leading to fatigue breaking at the anterior side of the cone, followed by the tibial insert cone fracture at the anterior side of the cone, resulting in fracture at the base of the cone. This analysis shows the risk of tibial insert cone fracture due to longitudinal stress in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty in which an insert is designed to highly conform to the femoral component.

  13. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  14. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg.

    PubMed

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion .

  15. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  16. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    PubMed

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  17. The Anteroposterior Axis of the Proximal Tibia Can Change After Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Computer Simulation Using Asian Osteoarthritis Knees.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Tetsuro; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Ma, Yuan; Kuwashima, Umito; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of cutting surface on the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the proximal tibia using a 3-dimensional (3D) bone model to ensure proper tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty. 3D bone models were reconstructed from the preoperative computed tomography data of 93 Japanese osteoarthritis knees with varus deformity. The AP axis was defined as the perpendicular bisector of the medial and lateral condylar centers in a 3D coordinate system. Bone cutting of the proximal tibia was performed with various tibial posterior slopes (0°, 3°, 7°) to the mechanical axis, and we compared the AP axes before and after bone cutting. The AP axis before bone cutting crossed a point at about 16% (one-sixth) of the distance from the medial edge of the patellar tendon at its tibial attachment. The AP axis after bone cutting was significantly internally rotated at all posterior slopes: 4.1° at slope 0°, 3.0° at slope 3°, and 2.1° at slope 7°. The percentages of cases with differences of more than 3° or 5° were 66.7% and 34.4% at slope 0°, 53.8% and 24.7% at slope 3°, and 38.3% and 11.8% at slope 7°, respectively. The AP axis of the proximal tibia may be rotated internally after resection of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty. Hence, surgeons should recognize the effect of changes in the cutting surface on rotational alignment of the proximal tibia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Open wedge high tibial osteotomy using three-dimensional printed models: Experimental analysis using porcine bone.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Jun-Dae; Kim, Hee-June; Park, Jaeyoung; Park, Il-Hyung; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) printed models for open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in porcine bone. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from 10 porcine knees and 3D imaging was planned using the 3D-Slicer program. The osteotomy line was drawn from the three centimeters below the medial tibial plateau to the proximal end of the fibular head. Then the osteotomy gap was opened until the mechanical axis line was 62.5% from the medial border along the width of the tibial plateau, maintaining the posterior tibial slope angle. The wedge-shaped 3D-printed model was designed with the measured angle and osteotomy section and was produced by the 3D printer. The open wedge HTO surgery was reproduced in porcine bone using the 3D-printed model and the osteotomy site was fixed with a plate. Accuracy of osteotomy and posterior tibial slope was evaluated after the osteotomy. The mean mechanical axis line on the tibial plateau was 61.8±1.5% from the medial tibia. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.160). The planned and post-osteotomy correction wedge angles were 11.5±3.2° and 11.4±3.3°, and the posterior tibial slope angle was 11.2±2.2° pre-osteotomy and 11.4±2.5° post-osteotomy. There were no significant differences (P=0.854 and P=0.429, respectively). This study showed that good results could be obtained in high tibial osteotomy by using 3D printed models of porcine legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. All-Polyethylene Tibial Components: An Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes and Infection.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Watts, Chad D; Cass, Joseph R; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    There is debate regarding tibial component modularity and composition in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biomechanical studies have suggested improved stress distribution in metal-backed tibias; however, these results have not translated clinically. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of all-polyethylene components and to compare the results to those with metal-backed components. We reviewed 31,939 patients undergoing a primary TKA over a 43-year period (1970-2013). There were 28,224 (88%) metal-backed and 3715 (12%) all-polyethylene tibial components. The metal-backed and all-polyethylene groups had comparable demographics with respect to gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Mean follow-up was 7 years. The mean survival for all primary TKAs at the 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-year time points was 95%, 89%, 73%, and 57%, respectively. All-polyethylene tibial components were found to have a significantly improved (P < .0001) survivorship when compared with their metal-backed counterparts. All-polyethylene tibial components were also found to have a significantly lower rate of infection, instability, tibial component loosening, and periprosthetic fracture. The all-polyethylene group had improved survival rates in all age groups, except in patients 85 years old or greater, where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had improved survival for all BMI groups except in the morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40) where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had significantly improved implant survival, reduced rates of postoperative infection, fracture, and tibial component loosening. All polyethylene should be considered for most of the patients, regardless of age and BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ground reaction forces and bone parameters in females with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim; Crossley, Kay; Jayarajan, Jyotsna; Walton, Elizabeth; Warden, Stuart; Kiss, Z Stephen; Wrigley, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common overuse running injury that results from the interplay of repetitive mechanical loading and bone strength. This research project aimed to determine whether female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (TSF) differ in ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during running, regional bone density, and tibial bone geometry from those who have never sustained a stress fracture (NSF). Thirty-six female running athletes (13 TSF; 23 NSF) ranging in age from 18 to 44 yr were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The groups were well matched for demographic, training, and menstrual parameters. A force platform measured selected GRF parameters (peak and time to peak for vertical impact and active forces, and horizontal braking and propulsive forces) during overground running at 4.0 m.s.(-1). Lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibial bone mineral density were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Tibial bone geometry (cross-sectional dimensions and areas, and second moments of area) was calculated from a computerized tomography scan at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometric parameters (P > 0.05). Both TSF and NSF subjects had bone density levels that were average or above average compared with a young adult reference range. Factor analysis followed by discriminant function analysis did not find any combinations of variables that differentiated between TSF and NSF groups. These findings do not support a role for GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometry in the development of tibial stress fractures, suggesting that other risk factors were more important in this cohort of female runners.

  1. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  2. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  3. Comparison of long-term results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Charoenrook, Victor; Michael, Ralph; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Temprano, José; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2018-04-01

    To compare the anatomical and the functional results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft (Tibial bone KPro). We reviewed the charts of 258 patients; 145 had OOKP whereas 113 had Tibial bone KPro implanted. Functional success was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≥0.05 on decimal scale and anatomical success as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for anatomical and functional survival as well as to estimate the probability of post-op complications. The anatomical survival for both KPro groups was not significantly different and was estimated as 67% for OOKP and 54% for Tibial bone KPro at 10 years after surgery. There was also no difference found after subdividing for primary diagnosis groups such as chemical injury, thermal burn, trachoma and all autoimmune cases combined. Estimated functional survival at 10 years post-surgery was 49% for OOKP and 25% for Tibial bone KPro, which was significantly different. The probability of patients with Tibial bone KPro developing one or more post-operative complications at 10 years after surgery (65%) was significantly higher than those with OOKP (40%). Mucous membrane necrosis and retroprosthetic membrane formation were more common in Tibial bone KPro than OOKP. Both types of autologous biological KPro, OOKP and Tibial bone KPro, had statistically similar rate of keratoprosthesis extrusion. Although functional success rate was significantly higher in OOKP, it may have been influenced by a better visual potential in the patients in this group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  5. [High tibial osteotomy--fixation by means of external fixation--indication, technique, complications (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klems, H

    1976-02-01

    High tibial osteotomy has proved its value in the treatment of gonarthrosis with or without axis deformity. The thrust of weight-bearing and other stresses is lessened on the degenerated tibial condyle and transferred to the more normal condyle. The stable fixation by means of external fixation allows early movement of the knee joint.-R-ferences to operative technique, indication, complications and after-treatment.

  6. A systematic review of single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction scoring checklist.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neel; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; van Eck, Carola F; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; Karlsson, Jón; Samuelsson, Kristian

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to apply the anatomic ACL reconstruction scoring checklist (AARSC) and to evaluate the degree to which clinical studies comparing single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) ACL reconstructions are anatomic. A systematic electronic search was performed using the databases PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Studies published from January 1995 to January 2014 comparing SB and DB ACL reconstructions with clinical outcome measurements were included. The items from the AARSC were recorded for both the SB and DB groups in each study. Eight-thousand nine-hundred and ninety-four studies were analysed, 77 were included. Randomized clinical trials (29; 38%) and prospective comparative studies (29; 38%) were the most frequent study type. Most studies were published in 2011 (19; 25%). The most commonly reported items for both SB and DB groups were as follows: graft type (152; 99%), femoral and tibial fixation method (149; 97% respectively), knee flexion angle during graft tensioning (124; 8%) and placement of the tibial tunnel at the ACL insertion site (101; 66%). The highest level of documentation used for ACL tunnel position for both groups was often one dimensional, e.g. drawing, operative notes or o'clock reference. The DB reconstruction was in general more thoroughly reported. The means for the AARSC were 6.9 ± 2.8 for the SB group and 8.3 ± 2.8 for the DB group. Both means were below a proposed required minimum score of 10 for anatomic ACL reconstruction. There was substantial underreporting of surgical data for both the SB and DB groups in clinical studies. This underreporting creates difficulties when analysing, comparing and pooling results of scientific studies on this subject.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  8. Emerging Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Budny, Jacob; Fox, Joseph; Rauh, Michael; Fineberg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed and researched orthopedic procedures. As technology and comparative research have advanced, surgical practices have changed to achieve a superior outcome. Our group performed a survey of orthopedic surgeons to evaluate current practice trends and techniques as a follow-up to similar surveys performed in 1999 and 2006. In a survey between 2013 and 2014 consisting of 35 questions regarding the surgical technique, graft choice, fixation method, and perioperative care in ACL reconstruction was sent electronically to the members of the American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine and the Arthroscopy Association of North America. Responses were recorded and compared with previous results. Survey responses were received from 824 active surgeons. Of the respondents, 89.4% are subspecialty trained, 98% of which in sports medicine. Preoperatively, full-knee extension was the only "very significant" factor in surgical timing. Approach preference via an arthroscopic-assisted single-incision approach predominated (89%)-similar to earlier results. Bone-patellar-tendon-bone use decreased relative to hamstring allograft at 45 and 41%, respectively. Tibial tunnel placement shifted anteriorly and femoral tunnel placement shifted posterosuperiorly as compared with the results obtained 5 years ago. Femoral drilling through a low medial portal was preferred in 47% of responses, increased from 15%. Preferred fixation on both the tibial and femoral sides was either metal or bioabsorbable interference screws. The use of transfixation pins and other devices decreased. Postoperative rehab protocols did not significantly change, 68.7% preferred full-weight bearing, 55% using a range of motion knee brace locked in extension, 66.4% starting physical therapy 1 week postoperatively, with unrestricted activity at 6 to 9 months. Overall, an increasing trend toward using hamstring autograft and drilling the

  9. Total knee replacement-cementless tibial fixation with screws: 10-year results.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Önder; Öztürk, Alper; Çatma, Mehmet Faruk; Ünlü, Serhan; Akdoğan, Mutlu; Ateş, Yalım

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term clinical and radiological results of cementless total knee replacement. A total of 51 knees of 49 patients (33 female and 16 male; mean age: 61.6 years (range, 29-66 years)) who underwent TKR surgery with a posterior stabilized hydroxyapatite coated knee implant were included in this study. All of the tibial components were fixed with screws. The HSS scores were examined preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Radiological assessment was performed with Knee Society evaluating and scoring system. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to rule out the survival of the tibial component. The mean HSS scores were 45.8 (range 38-60) and 88.1 (range 61-93), preoperatively and at the final follow-up respectively. Complete radiological assessment was performed for 48 knees. Lucent lines at the tibial component were observed in 4 patients; one of these patients underwent a revision surgery due to the loosening of the tibial component. The 10-year survival rate of a tibial component was 98%. Cementless total knee replacement has satisfactory long term clinical results. Primary fixation of the tibial component with screws provides adequate stability even in elderly patients with good bone quality. Level IV, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tibial anatomy in normal small breed dogs including anisometry of various extracapsular stabilizing suture attachment sites.

    PubMed

    Witte, P G

    2015-01-01

    To investigate proximal tibial anatomy and its influence on anisometry of extracapsular stabilizing sutures in small dog breeds. Mediolateral radiographs of the femora, stifles, and tibiae of 12 small breed dogs were acquired with the stifles positioned at various angles. Measurements taken included tibial plateau angle (TPA), diaphyseal: proximal tibial angle (DPA), patellar tendon angle (PTA), Z-angle, relative tibial tuberosity width (rTTW), and the distance between six combinations of two femoral and three tibial extra-capsular stabilizing suture (ECS) attachment sites. Theoretical strain through stifle range-of-motion was recorded. The TPA (32° ± 5.8°), DPA (10.2° ± 7.3°), PTA (103.7° ± 6.2°), and Z-angle (70.4° ± 9.0°) were positively correlated with one another (R >0.7), but none were correlated with rTTW (0.93 ± 0.10). The F2-T1 combination of ECS attachment sites had lowest strain for nine stifles. The shortest attachment site separation was at a stifle flexion of 50° for nine stifles. Proximal tibial anatomy measurements could not predict optimal attachment site combination, optimal stifle angle for suture placement, or ECS strain. There is individual variation in the optimal attachment site combination and stifle angle for suture placement, which may influence consistency of outcomes with ECS.

  12. Magnitude of cement-device interfacial stresses with and without tibial stemming: impact of BMI.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Ananthkrishnan; Hedley, Anthony Keith; Kester, Mark A

    2011-03-01

    Patients expect their total knee arthroplasty to relieve pain and to be long lasting. With patients becoming more active, weighing more, and living longer, this expectation becomes increasingly more difficult to fulfill. Patients who are obese and active put greater loads on their implants and may have a greater risk of failure. Although much attention has been paid to decreasing polyethylene wear, a major cause of implant failure, very little research focus has been directed to elucidate other measures to reduce failure, such as the efficacy of prophylactic stemming of the tibial tray. This study explored whether additional mechanical support for tibial base plates would help reduce bone cement stresses in heavy patients, who, like patients with a high activity level, put added stress on their implants. A tibial base plate with a 12-mm-diameter x 50-mm-long stem was compared with the same tibial base plate with a 15-mm-diameter x 20-mm-long end cap using finite element analysis. The results indicate that the tibial base plate with a prophylactic stem significantly reduced compressive and shear stresses on the cement-device interface and therefore may help to reduce the possibility of tibial loosening in these at-risk patients. Further, such studies will aid the surgeon in educating patients and in selecting the appropriate implant strategy.

  13. How does tibial cartilage volume relate to symptoms in subjects with knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Wluka, A; Wolfe, R; Stuckey, S; Cicuttini, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: No consistent relationship between the severity of symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and radiographic change has been demonstrated. Objectives: To determine the relationship between symptoms of knee OA and tibial cartilage volume, whether pain predicts loss of cartilage in knee OA, and whether change in cartilage volume over time relates to change in symptoms over the same period. Method: 132 subjects with symptomatic, early (mild to moderate) knee OA were studied. At baseline and 2 years later, participants had MRI scans of their knee and completed questionnaires quantifying symptoms of knee OA (knee-specific WOMAC: pain, stiffness, function) and general physical and mental health (SF-36). Tibial cartilage volume was determined from the MRI images. Results: Complete data were available for 117 (89%) subjects. A weak association was found between tibial cartilage volume and symptoms at baseline. The severity of the symptoms of knee OA at baseline did not predict subsequent tibial cartilage loss. However, weak associations were seen between worsening of symptoms of OA and increased cartilage loss: pain (rs = 0.28, p = 0.002), stiffness (rs = 0.17, p = 0.07), and deterioration in function (rs = 0.21, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tibial cartilage volume is weakly associated with symptoms in knee OA. There is a weak association between loss of tibial cartilage and worsening of symptoms. This suggests that although cartilage is not a major determinant of symptoms in knee OA, it does relate to symptoms. PMID:14962960

  14. Prediction of Tibial Rotation Pathologies Using Particle Swarm Optimization and K-Means Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Murat; Tuna, Can; Akogul, Serkan

    2018-03-28

    The aim of this article is to investigate pathological subjects from a population through different physical factors. To achieve this, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and K-means (KM) clustering algorithms have been combined (PSO-KM). Datasets provided by the literature were divided into three clusters based on age and weight parameters and each one of right tibial external rotation (RTER), right tibial internal rotation (RTIR), left tibial external rotation (LTER), and left tibial internal rotation (LTIR) values were divided into three types as Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 (Type 2 is non-pathological (normal) and the other two types are pathological (abnormal)), respectively. The rotation values of every subject in any cluster were noted. Then the algorithm was run and the produced values were also considered. The values of the produced algorithm, the PSO-KM, have been compared with the real values. The hybrid PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful on the optimal clustering of the tibial rotation types through the physical criteria. In this investigation, Type 2 (pathological subjects) is of especially high predictability and the PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful as an operation system for clustering and optimizing the tibial motion data assessments. These research findings are expected to be very useful for health providers, such as physiotherapists, orthopedists, and so on, in which this consequence may help clinicians to appropriately designing proper treatment schedules for patients.

  15. Reduction of metal artifacts from hip prostheses on CT images of the pelvis: value of iterative reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Morsbach, Fabian; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Wanner, Guido A; Krauss, Andreas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2013-07-01

    To assess the value of iterative frequency split-normalized (IFS) metal artifact reduction (MAR) for computed tomography (CT) of hip prostheses. This study had institutional review board and local ethics committee approval. First, a hip phantom with steel and titanium prostheses that had inlays of water, fat, and contrast media in the pelvis was used to optimize the IFS algorithm. Second, 41 consecutive patients with hip prostheses who were undergoing CT were included. Data sets were reconstructed with filtered back projection, the IFS algorithm, and a linear interpolation MAR algorithm. Two blinded, independent readers evaluated axial, coronal, and sagittal CT reformations for overall image quality, image quality of pelvic organs, and assessment of pelvic abnormalities. CT attenuation and image noise were measured. Statistical analysis included the Friedman test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Levene test. Ex vivo experiments demonstrated an optimized IFS algorithm by using a threshold of 2200 HU with four iterations for both steel and titanium prostheses. Measurements of CT attenuation of the inlays were significantly (P < .001) more accurate for IFS when compared with filtered back projection. In patients, best overall and pelvic organ image quality was found in all reformations with IFS (P < .001). Pelvic abnormalities in 11 of 41 patients (27%) were diagnosed with significantly (P = .002) higher confidence on the basis of IFS images. CT attenuation of bladder (P < .001) and muscle (P = .043) was significantly less variable with IFS compared with filtered back projection and linear interpolation MAR. In comparison with that of FBP and linear interpolation MAR, noise with IFS was similar close to and far from the prosthesis (P = .295). The IFS algorithm for CT image reconstruction significantly reduces metal artifacts from hip prostheses, improves the reliability of CT number measurements, and improves the confidence for depicting pelvic abnormalities.

  16. Endoscopic endonasal double flap technique for reconstruction of large anterior skull base defects: technical note.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Ricardo Landini Lutaif; Todeschini, Alexandre Bossi; Santos, Américo Rubens Leite Dos; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto

    2018-04-19

    One of the main concerns in endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base has been the high incidence and morbidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The introduction and routine use of vascularized flaps allowed a marked decrease in this complication followed by a great expansion in the indications and techniques used in endoscopic endonasal approaches, extending to defects from huge tumours and previously inaccessible areas of the skull base. Describe the technique of performing endoscopic double flap multi-layered reconstruction of the anterior skull base without craniotomy. Step by step description of the endoscopic double flap technique (nasoseptal and pericranial vascularized flaps and fascia lata free graft) as used and illustrated in two patients with an olfactory groove meningioma who underwent an endoscopic approach. Both patients achieved a gross total resection: subsequent reconstruction of the anterior skull base was performed with the nasoseptal and pericranial flaps onlay and a fascia lata free graft inlay. Both patients showed an excellent recovery, no signs of cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, flap necrosis, chronic meningeal or sinonasal inflammation or cerebral herniation having developed. This endoscopic double flap technique we have described is a viable, versatile and safe option for anterior skull base reconstructions, decreasing the incidence of complications in endoscopic endonasal approaches. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Clinical and radiographic correlation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    González Perales, Aldo Alán; Negrete Corona, Jorge; Chávez Hinojosa, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to correlate the clinical, functional and radiographic results of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the angulation and orientation of the femoral and tibial tunnels. The ACL is one of the most frequently injured articular structures of the knee. The reason for this being that it is the primary limiting structure of anterior tibial translation; its tear causes kinematic alterations and results in long-term degenerative and functional changes. Repair can restore the kinematics. 26 patients, 20-50 years old, post-ACL reconstruction with the semitendinous-gracilis technique. From November 2006 to July 2007. Clinical and functional assessments: Tegner and Lysholm. Radiographic assessment: anteroposterior view with knee extension and lateral view with 30 degrees flexion. Pearson correlations (r) were used in the analysis. 26 patients (100%), 20 males (76.92%), 6 females (23.08%). Mean of 2.4 in the Lysholm scale (fair to good); standard deviation 1.2. Bernard-Lysholm quadrant r = -0.772. Tegner quadrant r = 0.790. The Lysholm and Tegner scale is associated with the graft quadrant. The situation of the tibial implant in the saggital plane is associated with the Lysholm scale. The correlation of patients with an inadequate placement with respect to the quadrants was associated with good-to-excellent results and fair-to-good results. Two patients had a poor clinical outcome; the orientation of the AP angle and the quadrant were within acceptable parameters, with the exception of the lateral angle-shaft axis.

  18. Higher Rate of Revision in PFC Sigma Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty With Mismatch of Femoro-Tibial Component Sizes.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Clarke, Henry D; Graves, Stephen E; Liu, Yen-Liang; de Steiger, Richard N

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) systems permit a degree of femoro-tibial component size mismatch. The effect of mismatched components on revision rates has not been evaluated in a large study. We reviewed 21,906 fixed-bearing PFC Sigma primary TKAs using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, dividing patients into three groups: no femoro-tibial size mismatch, tibial component size > femoral component size, and femoral component > tibial component. Revision rates were higher when the femoral size was greater than the tibia, compared to both equal size (HR = 1.20 (1.00, 1.45), P = 0.047) and to tibial size greater than femoral (HR = 1.60 (1.08, 2.37), P = 0.019). Potential mechanisms to explain these findings include edge loading of polyethylene and increased tibial component stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage contact area and position in ACL reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ellison; Amano, Keiko; Pedoia, Valentina; Souza, Richard B; Ma, C Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan

    2018-04-18

    Patients who have suffered ACL injury are more likely to develop early onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis despite reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in the tibiofemoral cartilage contact area size and location after ACL injury and reconstruction. Thirty-one patients with isolated unilateral ACL injury were followed with T 2 weighted Fast Spin Echo, T 1ρ and T 2 MRI at baseline prior to reconstruction, and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Areas were delineated in FSE images with an in-house Matlab program using a spline-based semi-automated segmentation algorithm. Tibiofemoral contact area and centroid position along the anterior-posterior axis were calculated along with T 1ρ and T 2 relaxation times on both the injured and non-injured knees. At baseline, the injured knees had significantly smaller and more posteriorly positioned contact areas on the medial tibial surface compared to corresponding healthy knees. These differences persisted 6 months after reconstruction. Moreover, subjects with more anterior medial centroid positions at 6 months had elevated T 1ρ and T 2 measures in the posterior medial tibial plateau at 1 year. Changes in contact area and centroid position after ACL injury and reconstruction may characterize some of the mechanical factors contributing to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Successful correction of tibial bone deformity through multiple surgical procedures, liquid nitrogen-pretreated bone tumor autograft, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation in a patient with primary osteosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Watanabe, Koji; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-07

    In a previous report, we described a method of reconstruction using tumor-bearing autograft treated by liquid nitrogen for malignant bone tumor. Here we present the first case of bone deformity correction following a tumor-bearing frozen autograft via three-dimensional computerized reconstruction after multiple surgeries. A 16-year-old female student presented with pain in the left lower leg and was diagnosed with a low-grade central tibial osteosarcoma. Surgical bone reconstruction was performed using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft. Bone union was achieved at 7 months after the first surgical procedure. However, local tumor recurrence and lung metastases occurred 2 years later, at which time a second surgical procedure was performed. Five years later, the patient developed a 19° varus deformity and underwent a third surgical procedure, during which an osteotomy was performed using the Taylor Spatial Frame three-dimensional external fixation technique. A fourth corrective surgical procedure was performed in which internal fixation was achieved with a locking plate. Two years later, and 10 years after the initial diagnosis of tibial osteosarcoma, the bone deformity was completely corrected, and the patient's limb function was good. We present the first report in which a bone deformity due to a primary osteosarcoma was corrected using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft, followed by multiple corrective surgical procedures that included osteotomy, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation.

  1. The Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Stifle Extensor Mechanism Load: A Canine Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jarrod O; Glyde, Mark R; Hosgood, Giselle L; Hayes, Alex J

    2018-02-01

     To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on stifle extensor mechanism load in an ex vivo cruciate-intact canine cadaveric model.   Ex vivo mechanical testing study.  Cadaveric canine pelvic limbs ( n  = 6).  A 21-mm tibial radial osteotomy was performed on pelvic limbs ( n  = 6) prior to being mounted into a load-bearing limb press. The proximal tibial segment was incrementally rotated until the anatomical tibial plateau angle had been rotated to at least 1°. The proportional change in stifle extensor mechanism load between the anatomical tibial plateau angle and the neutralized (∼6.5 degrees) and over-rotated (∼1°) tibial plateau angle was analysed using a one-sample t -test against a null hypothesis of no change. A p -value ≤0.05 was considered significant.  There was no significant change in the stifle extensor mechanism load from the anatomical tibial plateau angle (308 N [261-355 N]) to the neutralized tibial plateau angle (313 N [254-372 N]; p =.81), or from the anatomical tibial plateau angle to the over-rotated tibial plateau angle (303 N [254-352 N; p  = 0.67).  Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy does not significantly alter stifle extensor mechanism load at either a neutralized or over-rotated tibial plateau angle in our cruciate-intact model. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  3. Measurement of bone mineral density in the tunnel regions for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan, and the immersion technique based on Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xin; Chen, Liaobin

    2012-10-01

    To determine, for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, whether the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral tunnel was higher than that of the tibial tunnel, to provide objective evidence for choosing the appropriate diameter of interference screws. Two groups were enrolled. One group comprised 30 normal volunteers, and the other comprised 9 patients with ACL rupture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions of the volunteers' right knees by choosing a circular area covering the screw fixation region. The knees were also scanned by spiral computed tomography (CT), and the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique was used to determine the circular sections passing through the longitudinal axis of the femoral and tibial tunnels. Grayscale CT values of the cross-sectional area were measured. Cylindrical cancellous bone blocks were removed from the femoral and tibial tunnels during the ACL reconstruction for the patients. The volumetric BMD of the bone blocks was measured using a standardized immersion technique according to Archimedes' principle. As measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions was 1.162 ± 0.034 g/cm(2) and 0.814 ± 0.038 g/cm(2), respectively (P < .01). The CT value of the femoral tunnel region was 211.7 ± 11.5 Hounsfield units, and the value of the tibial tunnel region was 104.9 ± 7.4 Hounsfield units (P < .01). The volumetric BMD of the bone block from the femoral tunnel (2.80 ± 0.88 g/cm(3)) was higher than the value from the tibial tunnel (1.88 ± 0.59 g/cm(3)) (P < .01). Comparing the data between male and female patients, we found no significant difference in both femoral and tibial tunnel regions. For ACL reconstruction, the BMD of the femoral tunnel is higher than that of the tibial tunnel. This implies that a proportionally larger-diameter interference screw should be used for fixation in the proximal tibia than that

  4. IPS-Empress II inlay-retained fixed partial denture reinforced with zirconia bar: three-dimensional finite element and in-vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kermanshah, Hamid; Geramy, Allahyar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Bitaraf, Tahereh

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated von Mises stress distribution, flexural strength and interface micrographs of IPS-Empress II (IPS) inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPD) reinforced with Zirconia bars (Zb). In the Finite element analysis, six three-dimensional models of IRFPD were designed using Solid Works 2006. Five models were reinforced with different Zb and a model without Zb was considered as a control. The bridges were loaded by 200 and 500 N forces at the middle of the pontic on the occlusal surface. Subsequently, von Mises stress and displacement of the models were evaluated along a defined path. In the experimental part, 21 bar shape specimens were fabricated from lithium disilicate and zirconia ceramic in three different designs. The zirconia-IPS interfaces and the fractured surfaces of flexural test were observed using SEM. In the connector area, von Mises stress and displacement of the models with Zb under a load of 500 N were decreased compared to the model without the Zb; however, this difference was not considerable at a load of 200 N. In the mesial connector, Von Mises stress and displacement was decreased from 12.5 Mpa for the control model tested at 500 N to 7.0 Mpa for the model with Zb and from 0.0050-0.0041 mm, respectively. SEM analyses showed that, before fracture, interfacial gaps were not observed along the interfaces, but initiated cracks propagated along the interfaces after flexural loading. IPS IRFPD reinforced by Zb can tolerate higher stresses while still functioning effectively and the interfaces may have desirable adaption.

  5. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue ... it harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. The advantage of breast reconstruction with ...

  6. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (P<.001), 26% decrease in lateral peak pressure (P=.027), and 18% increase in medial mean pressure (P=.008) when compared with normal. Cranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  7. Bone microarchitecture of the tibial plateau in skeletal health and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Hubert, Jan; Deymann, Simon; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Wulff, Birgit; Petersik, Andreas; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Hawellek, Thelonius; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-07

    Impaired bone structure poses a challenge for the treatment of osteoporotic tibial plateau fractures. As knowledge of region-specific structural bone alterations is a prerequisite to achieving successful long-term fixation, the aim of the current study was to characterize tibial plateau bone structure in patients with osteoporosis and the elderly. Histomorphometric parameters were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 21 proximal tibiae from females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age: 84.3 ± 4.9 years) and eight female healthy controls (45.5 ± 6.9 years). To visualize region-specific structural bony alterations with age, the bone mineral density (Hounsfield units) was additionally analyzed in 168 human proximal tibiae. Statistical analysis was based on evolutionary learning using globally optimal regression trees. Bone structure deterioration of the tibial plateau due to osteoporosis was region-specific. Compared to healthy controls (20.5 ± 4.7%) the greatest decrease in bone volume fraction was found in the medio-medial segments (9.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001). The lowest bone volume was found in central segments (tibial spine). Trabecular connectivity was severely reduced. Importantly, in the anterior and posterior 25% of the lateral and medial tibial plateaux, trabecular support and subchondral cortical bone thickness itself were also reduced. Thinning of subchondral cortical bone and marked bone loss in the anterior and posterior 25% of the tibial plateau should require special attention when osteoporotic patients require fracture fixation of the posterior segments. This knowledge may help to improve the long-term, fracture-specific fixation of complex tibial plateau fractures in osteoporosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of posterior tibial slope on knee flexion in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zongke; Pei, Fuxing

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the postoperative maximal knee flexion and stability in the posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-six patients (65 knees) who had undergone TKA with the posterior-stabilized prostheses were divided into the following 3 groups according to the measured tibial slopes: Group 1: ≤4°, Group 2: 4°-7° and Group 3: >7°. The preoperative range of the motion, the change in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line, the postoperative tibiofemoral angle and the preoperative and postoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores were recorded. The tibial anteroposterior translation was measured using the Kneelax 3 Arthrometer at both the 30° and the 90° flexion angles. The mean values of the postoperative maximal knee flexion were 101° (SD 5), 106° (SD 5) and 113° (SD 9) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A significant difference was found in the postoperative maximal flexion between the 3 groups (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between the 3 groups in the postoperative HSS scores, the changes in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line or the tibial anteroposterior translation at either the 30° or the 90° flexion angles. A 1° increase in the tibial slope resulted in a 1.8° flexion increment (r = 1.8, R (2) = 0.463, P < 0.001). An increase in the posterior tibial slope can significantly increase the postoperative maximal knee flexion. The tibial slope with an appropriate flexion and extension gap balance during the operation does not affect the joint stability.

  9. Effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on gait in vascular trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Katsuhira, Junji

    2018-07-01

    Patients with diabetes often develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which is a distal symmetric polyneuropathy, so foot function on the non-amputated side is expected to affect gait in vascular trans-tibial amputees. However, there is little information on the kinematics and kinetics of gait or the effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in vascular trans-tibial amputees. This study aimed to clarify these effects, including the biomechanics of the ankle on the non-amputated side. Participants were 10 vascular trans-tibial amputees with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (group V) and 8 traumatic trans-tibial amputees (group T). Each subject's gait was analyzed at a self-selected speed using a three-dimensional motion analyzer and force plates. Ankle plantarflexion angle, heel elevation angle, and peak and impulse of anterior ground reaction force were smaller on the non-amputated side during pre-swing in group V than in group T. Center of gravity during pre-swing on the non-amputated side was lower in group V than in group T. Hip extension torque during loading response on the prosthetic side was greater in group V than in group T. These findings suggest that the biomechanical function of the ankle on the non-amputated side during pre-swing is poorer in vascular trans-tibial amputees with DPN than in traumatic trans-tibial amputees; the height of the center of gravity could not be maintained during this phase in vascular trans-tibial amputees with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The hip joint on the prosthetic side compensated for this diminished function at the ankle during loading response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Major complications of tibial tuberosity advancement in 1613 dogs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mario; Craig, Diane; Cambridge, Tony; Sebestyen, Peter; Su, Yuhua; Fahie, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    To report major postoperative complications in 1613 dogs with tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 1613) with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency treated with TTA. Medical records of TTAs performed between December 2007-2013 were reviewed for age, sex, weight, contralateral stifle surgery, surgical approach, duration of preoperative lameness, presence of meniscal damage, concurrent patellar luxation and simultaneous bilateral TTA. Major postoperative complications were defined as surgical site infection (SSI) (superficial, deep, or organ/space), implant failure, fracture, patellar luxation, and meniscal tear. Major complications were recorded in 13.4% of cases. Superficial SSI (incisional irritation) was diagnosed in 6.9% cases, requiring only antimicrobial therapy. Other complications included postliminary medial meniscal tear (2% incidence), deep SSI (incisional dehiscence, 1.1%), implant failure (1%), patellar luxation (1.2%), fracture (0.9%), and organ/space SSI (septic arthritis, 0.4%). Dogs with normal menisci were less likely to develop postliminary meniscal tears if the medial meniscus was released at the time of TTA (P < .0001). No association was detected between recorded parameters and complications, although dogs >8 years old approached significance (P = .05) in terms of predisposition to major complications. Major complications after TTA are uncommon, even in dogs with concurrent patellar luxation or bilateral simultaneous procedures. In spite of its morbidity, medial meniscal release may prevent postliminary meniscal tears. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Bilateral Posterior Tibial Tendon and Flexor Digitorum Longus Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Eric M; Beck, David M; Pedowitz, David I

    2017-04-01

    The authors present a case of a previously healthy and athletic 17-year-old female who presented with a 3.5-year history of medial left ankle pain after sustaining an inversion injury while playing basketball. Prior to presentation, she had failed prior immobilization and physical therapy for a presumed ankles sprain. Physical examination revealed a dislocated posterior tibial tendon (PTT) that was temporarily reducible, but would spontaneously dislocate immediately after reduction. She had pain and snapping of the PTT with resisted ankle plantar flexion and resisted inversion as well as 4/5 strength in ankle inversion. The diagnosis of dislocated PTT was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient underwent suture anchor repair of the medial retinaculum of the left ankle. At the time of surgery both the PTT and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) were dislocated. Three months postoperatively, the patient represented with PTT dislocation of the right (nonoperative) ankle confirmed by MRI. After failure of immobilization, physical therapy, and oral anti-inflammatory medications, the patient underwent suture anchor repair of the medial retinaculum of the right ankle. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient has 5/5 strength inversion bilaterally, no subluxation of either PTT, and has returned to all activities without limitation. The authors present this unique case of bilateral PTT dislocation and concurrent PTT/FDL dislocation along with review of the literature for PTT dislocation. The authors highlight the common misdaiganosis of this injury and highlight the successful results of surgical intervention. Level V: Case report.

  12. Arthroscopic Management of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures: Principles and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kaplan, Daniel James; Weinberg, Maxwell E; Egol, Jonathan; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2018-05-15

    Tibial spine fractures are uncommon injuries affecting the insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament on the tibia. They typically occur in skeletally immature patients aged 8 to 14 years and result from hyperextension of the knee with a valgus or rotational force. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and standard radiographs. The use of MRI can identify entrapped soft tissue that may prevent reduction. Open or arthroscopic repair is indicated in patients with partially displaced fractures (>5 mm) with one third to one half of the avulsed fragment elevated, in patients who have undergone unsuccessful nonsurgical reduction and long leg casting or bracing, and in patients with completely displaced fractures. Arthroscopy offers reduced invasiveness and decreased morbidity. Suture fixation and screw fixation have produced successful results. Suture fixation can eliminate the risk of fracture fragment comminution during screw insertion, the risk of neurovascular injury, and the need for hardware removal. Suture fixation is ideal in cases in which existing comminution prevents screw fixation.

  13. Electrodiagnostic Examination of the Tibial Nerve in Clinically Normal Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Ezio; Callegari, Daniela; Ravera, Manuela; Dondi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 ± 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 ± 2.75 mV, and 13.02 ± 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 ± 3.83% and 0.1 ± 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 ± 0.65 ms and 1.92 ± 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 ± 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses. PMID:20706690

  14. [The use of structural proximal tibial allografts coated with human albumin in treating extensive periprosthetic knee-joint bone deficiency and averting late complications. Case report].

    PubMed

    Klára, Tamás; Csönge, Lajos; Janositz, Gábor; Pap, Károly; Lacza, Zsombor

    2015-01-11

    The authors report the history of a 74-year-old patient who underwent surgical treatment for segmental knee-joint periprosthetic bone loss using structural proximal tibial allografts coated with serum albumin. Successful treatment of late complications which occurred in the postoperative period is also described. The authors emphasize that bone replacement with allografts is a physiological process that enables the stable positioning of the implant and the reconstruction of the soft tissues, the replacement of extensive bone loss, and also it is a less expensive operation. It has been already confirmed that treatment of lyophilised allografts with albumin improves the ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to adhere and proliferate the surface of the allografts, penetrate the pores and reach deeper layers of the graft. Earlier studies have shown osteoblast activity on the surface and interior of the graft.

  15. Is Remnant Preservation Truly Beneficial to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Healing? Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluations of Remnant-Preserved Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Naraoka, Takuya; Kimura, Yuka; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Remnant-preserved anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was introduced to improve clinical outcomes and biological healing. However, the effects of remnant preservation and the influence of the delay from injury until reconstruction on the outcomes of this technique are still uncertain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether remnant preservation improved the clinical outcomes and graft incorporation of ACL reconstruction and to examine the influence of the delay between ACL injury and reconstruction on the usefulness of remnant preservation. We hypothesized that remnant preservation improves clinical results and accelerates graft incorporation and that its effect is dependent on the delay between ACL injury and reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 151 consecutive patients who underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a semitendinosus graft were enrolled in this study: 74 knees underwent ACL reconstruction without a remnant (or the remnant was <25% of the intra-articular portion of the graft; NR group), while 77 knees underwent ACL reconstruction with remnant preservation (RP group). These were divided into 4 subgroups based on the time from injury to surgery: phase 1 was <3 weeks (n = 24), phase 2 was 3 to less than 8 weeks (n = 70), phase 3 was 8 to 20 weeks (n = 32), and phase 4 was >20 weeks (n = 25). Clinical measurements, including KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side anterior tibial translation measurements, were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of graft maturation and graft-tunnel integration of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after reconstruction. There was no difference in side-to-side anterior tibial translation between the NR and RP groups. There was also no difference in graft maturation between the 2 groups. Furthermore, the time from ACL injury until reconstruction did

  16. Minimally invasive fixation in tibial plateau fractures using an pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Silvio; Bizzotto, Nicola; Stancati, Andrea; Santucci, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the outcome after minimally invasive reconstruction and internal fixation with and without the use of pre- and intra-operative real size 3D printing for patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures (TPFs). We prospectively followed up 40 consecutive adult patients with closed TPF who underwent surgical treatment of reconstruction of the tibial plateau with the use of minimally invasive fixation. Sixteen patients (group 1) were operated using a pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D-model, while 24 patients (group 2) were operated without 3D-model printing, but using only pre-operative and intra-operative 3D Tc-scan images. The mean operating time was 148.2±15.9min for group 1 and 174.5±22.2min for group 2 (p=0.041). In addition, the mean intraoperative blood loss was less in group 1 (520mL) than in group 2 (546mL) (p=0.534). After discharge, all patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 1year and then every year post surgically and radiographic evaluation was carried out each time using clinical and radiological Rasmussen's score, with no significant differences between the two groups. Two patients (group 2) developed infection which resolved within 3 weeks after usage of antibiotics. Neither superficial nor deep infections were present in group 1. In all patients, no non-union occurred. No intraoperative, perioperative, or postoperative complications, such as loss of valgus correction, bone fractures, or metallic plate failures were detected at follow-up. In patients operated with the use of 3D-model printing, we found a significant reduction in surgical time. Moreover, the technique without a 3D-model increased the patient's and the surgeon's exposure to radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequential avulsions of the tibial tubercle in an adolescent basketball player.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying Chieh; Chao, Ying-Hao; Lien, Fang-Chieh

    2010-05-01

    Tibial tubercle avulsion is an uncommon fracture in physically active adolescents. Sequential avulsion of tibial tubercles is extremely rare. We reported a healthy, active 15-year-old boy who suffered from left tibial tubercle avulsion fracture during a basketball game. He received open reduction and internal fixation with two smooth Kirschner wires and a cannulated screw, with every effort to reduce the plate injury. Long-leg splint was used for protection followed by programmed rehabilitation. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. Another avulsion fracture happened at the right tibial tubercle 3.5 months later when he was playing the basketball. From the encouragement of previous successful treatment, we provided him open reduction and fixation with two small-caliber screws. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. No genu recurvatum or other deformity was happening in our case at the end of 2-year follow-up. No evidence of Osgood-Schlatter disease or osteogenesis imperfecta was found. Sequential avulsion fractures of tibial tubercles are rare. Good functional recovery can often be obtained like our case if we treat it well. To a physically active adolescent, we should never overstate the risk of sequential avulsion of the other leg to postpone the return to an active, functional life.

  18. Tibial nerve stimulation to inhibit the micturition reflex by an implantable wireless driver microstimulator in cats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Liao, Li-Min; Chen, Guo-Qing; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Lu, Tian-Ji; Deng, Han; Loeb, Gerald-E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traditional tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) has been used to treat overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), but there are some shortcomings. Thus, a novel alternative is needed for the treatment of OAB. The study investigated the effects of a new type of tibial nerve microstimulator on the micturition reflex in cats. Methods: An implantable wireless driver microstimulator was implanted around the tibial nerve in 9 α-chloralose anesthetized cats. Cystometry was performed by infusing 0.9% normal saline (NS) or 0.25% acetic acid (AA) through a urethral catheter. Multiple cystometrograms were performed before, during, and after TNS to determine the inhibitory effect of the microstimulator on the micturition reflex. Results: TNS at 2 threshold (T) intensity significantly increased the bladder capacity (BC) during NS infusion. Bladder overactivity was irritated by the intravesical infusion of 0.25% AA, which significantly reduced the BC compared with the NS infusion. TNS at 2 T intensity suppressed AA-induced bladder overactivity and significantly increased the BC compared with the AA control. Conclusion: The implantable wireless driver tibial nerve microstimulator appears to be effective in inhibiting the micturition reflex during physiologic and pathologic conditions. The implantable wireless driver tibial nerve microstimulator could be used to treat OAB. PMID:27537576

  19. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Objective- To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study Design- In vitro biomechanical study. Animals- Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Methods- Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees . Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Results- Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanic parameters were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in any contact mechanic and kinematic parameters were detected between normal and TTA-treated stifles. Conclusion- TTA eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight-bearing and concurrently restores femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Clinical Relevance- TTA may mitigate the progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs afflicted with CrCL insufficiency by eliminating cranial tibial thrust while preserving the normal orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  20. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilateral periprosthetic tibial stress fracture after total knee arthroplasty: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Guzelali; Azboy, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures around the knee after total knee arthroplasty can be seen in the femur, tibia and patella. The tibial fractures are rare cases. Our case with bilateral tibial stress fracture developed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the first of its kind in the literature. 75-year-old male patient with bilateral knee osteoarthritis had not benefited from conservative treatment methods previously applied. Left TKA was applied. In the second month postoperatively, periprosthetic tibial fracture was identified and osteosynthesis was implemented with locked tibia proximal plate-screw. Bone union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-ups. After 15 months of his first operation, TKA was applied to the right knee. Postoperatively in the second month, as in the first operation, periprosthetic tibial fracture was detected. Osteosynthesis with locking plate-screw was applied and union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-up. He was seen mobilized independently and without support in the last control of the case made in the 24th month after the second operation. The number of TKA applications is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of periprosthetic fractures should also be expected to increase in these cases. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after TKA are rarely seen. The treatment of periprosthetic fractures around the knee after TKA can be difficult. In the case of persistent pain in the upper end of the tibia after the surgery, stress fracture should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mobility of a polyethylene tibial insert in a mobile total knee prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Castel, E; Roger, B; Camproux, A; Saillant, G

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the mobility of a mobile tibial implant in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by a radiographical evaluation. We analyzed mobility of the polyethylene tibial insert of 15 "G2S" TKA implanted for one year or more. We established a dynamic radiographical evaluation. We used 3 weight-bearing radiographs: AP in extension and two lateral (one in extension and one at 90 degrees of flexion), two AP with femoral internal and external rotation, 2 strict lateral X-rays in neutral rotation in antero-posterior replacement with a 25 kilograms strength Telos, and 2 AP in varus and valgus with Telos. Wilcoxon's test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Our study demonstrated preservation of the polyethylene mobility in tibial TKA implant in all movements: in rotation, in antero-posterior translation with Telos, and even in antero-posterior translation during physiological condition with flexion-extension weight-bearing radiographs. Statistical tests were very significant. We noticed that flexion induced anterior translation of tibial polyethylene when PCL was preserved. This study answered to our question whether mobility of TKA tibial implant persists after implantation. This mobility should reduce loosening forces to the tibia and stress in the polyethylene component. Now we have to determine the amplitude of mobility required to reach this objective.

  3. The role of fixation and bone quality on the mechanical stability of tibial knee components.

    PubMed

    Lee, R W; Volz, R G; Sheridan, D C

    1991-12-01

    Tibial component loosening remains one of the major causes of failure of cemented and noncemented total knee arthroplasties. In this study, the authors identified the role of implant design, method of fixation, and bone density as it related to implant stability. The physical properties of "good" and "bad" bone were simulated using a "good" and "bad" foam model of the proximal tibia, fabricated in the laboratory from DARO RF-100 foam. A generic tibial component permitting various fixation designs was implanted into "good" and "bad" variable density foam tibial models in both cemented and noncemented modes. The mechanical stability of the implants was determined using a Materials Testing Machine by the application of an eccentrically applied cyclic load. The micromotion (subsidence and lift-off) of the tibial implants was recorded using two Linear Variable Differential Transformers. Statistically significant differences in implant stability were recorded as a function of fixation method. The most rigid implant fixation was achieved using four peripherally placed, 6.5-mm cancellous screws. The addition of a central stem added stability only in the case of "poor" quality foam. The mechanical stability of noncemented implants related directly to the density of the foam. Implant stability was greatly enhanced in "poor" quality foam by the use of cement. The method of implant fixation and bone density are critical determinants to tibial implant stability.

  4. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee : Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-03-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165° to 174°. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175° to 179°, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone.High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170° (10° valgus).

  5. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee. Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-01-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165 degrees to 174 degrees. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175 degrees to 179 degrees, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone. High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170 degrees (10 degrees valgus).

  6. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s -1 with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  7. Bovine versus porcine acellular dermal matrix for complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Mark W; Selber, Jesse C; Liu, Jun; Adelman, David M; Baumann, Donald P; Garvey, Patrick B; Butler, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction with bioprosthetic mesh is associated with lower rates of mesh infection, fistula formation, and mesh explantation than reconstruction with synthetic mesh. The authors directly compared commonly used bioprosthetic meshes in terms of clinical outcomes and complications. A database of consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine or bovine acellular dermal matrix and midline musculofascial closure at their institution between January of 2008 and March of 2011 was reviewed. Surgical outcomes were compared. One hundred twenty patients were identified who underwent a nonbridged, inlay abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine [69 patients (57.5 percent)] or bovine acellular dermal matrix (51 patients (42.5 percent)]. The mean follow-up time was 21.0 ± 9.9 months. The overall complication rate was 36.6 percent; the porcine matrix group had a significantly higher complication rate (44.9 percent) than the bovine matrix group (25.5 percent; p = 0.04) and statistically equivalent surgical complications (29.2 percent versus 21.6 percent; p = 0.34). There were no significant differences in rates of recurrent hernia (2.9 percent versus 3.9 percent; p = 0.99) or bulge (7.2 percent versus 0 percent; p = 0.07). However, the rate of intraoperative adverse events in the porcine matrix group [seven events (10.1 percent)] was significantly higher than that in the bovine matrix group (0 percent; p = 0.02). In patients who undergo complex abdominal wall reconstruction, both bovine and porcine acellular dermal matrix are associated with similar rates of postoperative surgical complications and appear to result in similar outcomes. Porcine acellular dermal matrix may be prone to intraoperative device failure. Therapeutic, III.

  8. [Surgical treatment of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and external fixators: a case report].

    PubMed

    Golubović, Ivan; Vukašinović, Zoran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Golubović, Zoran; Stojiljković, Danilo; Radovanović, Zoran; Ilić, Nenad; Najman, Stevo; Višnjić, Aleksandar; Arsić, Stojanka

    2012-01-01

    The missiles of modern firearms can cause severe fractures of the extremity. High velocity missile fractures of the tibia are characterized by massive tissue destruction and primary contamination with polymorphic bacteria. Treatment of these fractures is often complicated by delayed healing, poor position healing, nonhealing and bone tissue infection. We present the management of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and primary treatment by external fixation in a 25-year-old patient. The patient was primarily treated with external fixation and reconstructive operations of the soft tissue without union of the fracture. Seven months after injury we placed a compression-distraction external fixator type Mitkovic and started with compression and distraction in the fracture focus after osteotomy of the fibula and autospongioplasty. We recorded satisfactory fracture healing and good functional outcome. Contamination and devitalization of the soft-tissue envelope increase the risk of infection and nonunion in fractures after wounding by high velocity missile. The use of the compression-distraction external fixator type Mitkovic may be an effective method in nonunions of the tibia after this kind of injury.

  9. ASB Clinical Biomechanics Award Paper 2010: Virtual Pre-Operative Reconstruction Planning for Comminuted Articular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Anderson, Donald D.; Willis, Andrew R.; Liu, Pengcheng; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Highly comminuted intra-articular fractures are complex and difficult injuries to treat. Once emergent care is rendered, the definitive treatment objective is to restore the original anatomy while minimizing surgically induced trauma. Operations that use limited or percutaneous approaches help preserve tissue vitality, but reduced visibility makes reconstruction more difficult. A pre-operative plan of how comminuted fragments would best be re-positioned to restore anatomy helps in executing a successful reduction. Methods In this study, methods for virtually reconstructing a tibial plafond fracture were developed and applied to clinical cases. Building upon previous benchtop work, novel image analysis techniques and puzzle solving algorithms were developed for clinical application. Specialty image analysis tools were used to segment the fracture fragment geometries from CT data. The original anatomy was then restored by matching fragment native (periosteal and subchondral) bone surfaces to an intact template, generated from the uninjured contralateral limb. Findings Virtual reconstructions obtained for ten tibial plafond fracture cases had average alignment errors of 0.39 (0.5 standard deviation) mm. In addition to precise reduction planning, 3D puzzle solutions can help identify articular deformities and bone loss. Interpretation The results from this study indicate that 3D puzzle solving provides a powerful new tool for planning the surgical reconstruction of comminuted articular fractures. PMID:21215501

  10. Cutaneous sensitivity in unilateral trans-tibial amputees

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Cale A.; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D. J.; Galvin, Patti

    2018-01-01

    Aim To examine tactile sensitivity in the leg and foot sole of below-knee amputees (diabetic n = 3, traumatic n = 1), and healthy control subjects (n = 4), and examine the association between sensation and balance. Method Vibration perception threshold (VPT; 3, 40, 250Hz) and monofilaments (MF) were used to examine vibration and light touch sensitivity on the intact limb, residual limb, and homologous locations on controls. A functional reach test was performed to assess functional balance. Results Tactile sensitivity was lower for diabetic amputee subjects compared to age matched controls for both VPT and MF; which was expected due to presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In contrast, the traumatic amputee participant showed increased sensitivity for VPT at 40Hz and 250Hz vibration in both the intact and residual limbs compared to controls. Amputees with lower tactile sensitivity had shorter reach distances compared to those with higher sensitivity. Conclusion Changes in tactile sensitivity in the residual limb of trans-tibial amputees may have implications for the interaction between the amputee and the prosthetic device. The decreased skin sensitivity observed in the residual limb of subjects with diabetes is of concern as changes in skin sensitivity may be important in 1) identification/prevention of excessive pressure and 2) for functional stability. Interestingly, we saw increased residual limb skin sensitivity in the individual with the traumatic amputation. Although not measured directly in the present study, this increase in tactile sensitivity may be related to cortical reorganisation, which is known to occur following amputation, and would support similar findings observed in upper limb amputees. PMID:29856766

  11. Polyaxial Screws in Locked Plating of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yenna, Zachary C; Bhadra, Arup K; Ojike, Nwakile I; Burden, Robert L; Voor, Michael J; Roberts, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the axial and torsional stiffness of polyaxial locked plating techniques compared with fixed-angle locked plating techniques in a distal tibia pilon fracture model. The effect of using a polyaxial screw to cross the fracture site was examined to determine its ability to control relative fracture site motion. A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the biomechanical stiffness of distal tibia fracture models repaired with 3.5-mm anterior polyaxial distal tibial plates and locking screws. Sawbones Fourth Generation Composite Tibia models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc, Vashon, Washington) were used to model an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43-A1.3 distal tibia pilon fracture. The polyaxial plates were inserted with 2 central locking screws at a position perpendicular to the cortical surface of the tibia and tested for load as a function of axial displacement and torque as a function of angular displacement. The 2 screws were withdrawn and inserted at an angle 15° from perpendicular, allowing them to span the fracture and insert into the opposing fracture surface. Each tibia was tested again for axial and torsional stiffness. In medial and posterior loading, no statistically significant difference was found between tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed in the neutral position compared with the central screws placed at a 15° position. In torsional loading, a statistically significant difference was noted, showing greater stiffness in tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed at a 15° position compared with tibiae plated with the central screws placed at a 0° (or perpendicular) position. This study showed that variable angle constructs show similar stiffness properties between perpendicular and 15° angle insertions in axial loading. The 15° angle construct shows greater stiffness in torsional loading. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most

  13. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  14. Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Paley, Dror; Jindal, Gaurav; Burghardt, Rolf D.; Specht, Stacy C.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and hypochondroplasia (one). Average age was 24.5 years (range, 15–54 years). The screw (length, typically 125 mm; diameter, 7 mm) was inserted with the ankle in 10° dorsiflexion. Gastrocnemius soleus recession was performed in two patients to achieve 10° dorsiflexion. Average lengthening was 4.9 cm (range, 3–7 cm). Screws were removed after a mean 3.3 months (range, 2–6 months). Preoperative ankle range of motion was regained within 6 months of screw removal. No neurovascular complications were encountered, and no patients experienced equinus contracture. We also conducted a cadaveric study in which one surgeon inserted screws in eight cadaveric legs under image intensifier control. The flexor hallucis longus muscle belly was the closest anatomic structure noted during dissection. The screw should be inserted obliquely from upper lateral edge of the calcaneus and aimed lateral in the tibia to avoid the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800215

  15. Higher tibial quantitative ultrasound in young female swimmers.

    PubMed

    Falk, B; Bronshtein, Z; Zigel, L; Constantini, N; Eliakim, A

    2004-08-01

    It has been found that swimming, a non-impact sport, generally has no effect on bone mineral density. To examine bone properties, as measured by quantitative ultrasound, among female swimmers in comparison with control girls and women. Subjects included 61 swimmers and 71 controls aged 8.5 to 26.5 years. None of the swimmers was at the elite level and none had included resistance training in her schedule. Bone speed of sound (SOS) was measured bilaterally at the distal radius and the mid-tibia. No differences were observed between swimmers and controls in body mass (mean (SD): 49.7 (12.3) v 50.7 (12.4) kg, respectively), although swimmers were taller (159 (12) v 155 (12) cm) and had lower body fat (18.3 (4.2)% v 22.3 (5.4)%). No difference was found in time since menarche (5.2 (4.0) and 4.5 (2.9) years in swimmers and controls, respectively; 21 swimmers and 25 control were premenarcheal). Radial speed of sound (SOS) increased with age but did not differ between swimmers and controls (non-dominant: 3904 (172) and 3889 (165) m/s for swimmers and controls, respectively). Tibial SOS also increased with age and was significantly higher in swimmers than in controls (non-dominant: 3774 (155) v 3712 (171) m/s). No differences were found between dominant and non-dominant sides. Swimming appears to be associated with higher bone SOS in the lower but not in the upper extremities. Further studies are needed to assess whether this difference reflects higher habitual activity among the swimmers or swimming specific mechanisms.

  16. Abdominal wall reconstruction using a combination of free tensor fasciae lata and anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap: a prospective study in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yang; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fangfang; Qian, Yunliang; Wang, Chen; Wang, Danru

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the abdominal wall continues to be a challenging problem for plastic surgeons. Transposition of well-vascularized flap tissue is the most effective way to repair composite abdominal wall defects. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment of such patients and assessed the reconstructive technique using combination of an inlay of bioprosthetic materials and a united thigh flap. A retrospective review of patients' records in the department was carried out. In total, 16 patients who underwent immediate abdominal wall reconstruction between 2000 and 2013 were identified. Patients' health status, defect sizes, and surgical technique were obtained from medical charts. The immediate reconstruction surgery of the abdominal wall was successful in all patients. One patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans experienced recurrences at the former site. One patient died because of liver metastases at 21 months after surgery. No incisional hernia or infection in this series of patients was observed. Full-thickness, giant defects of the complicated abdominal wall can be repaired successfully with relatively minor complications using this reconstructive technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  18. Achilles lengthening/posterior tibial tenotomy with immediate weightbearing for patients with significant comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Redfern, John C; Thordarson, David B

    2008-03-01

    Fixed equinovarus deformities can be challenging to treat especially in medically debilitated patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Achilles lengthening with posterior tibial tenotomy and immediate weightbearing in this difficult group of patients. Thirteen extremities in 10 patients underwent Achilles lengthening and posterior tibial tenotomy for fixed equinovarus deformities with significant medical comorbidities. Pre- and postoperative ambulatory status and deformities were noted. Average age at the time of surgery was 65 with an average duration of deformity 6.3 years. The average equinus corrected from 26 degrees to 1.2 degrees and the average varus deformity improved from -8.5 degrees to 2.7 degrees. All patients except one who was wheelchair-bound had a significant improvement in ambulatory status. Achilles lengthening with posterior tibial tenotomy allowed for immediate postoperative weightbearing with improvement in deformity and ambulatory status in this complicated patient group.

  19. Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravijot; Chauhan, Vijendra; Chauhan, Neena; Sharma, Sansar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100%) and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25%) had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75%) had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100%) at

  20. What Components Comprise the Measurement of the Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance in a Patellar Dislocation Population?

    PubMed

    Tensho, Keiji; Akaoka, Yusuke; Shimodaira, Hiroki; Takanashi, Seiji; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto

    2015-09-02

    The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is used as an indicator for medial tibial tubercle transfer; however, to our knowledge, no studies have verified whether this distance is strongly affected by tubercle lateralization at the proximal part of the tibia. We hypothesized that the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is mainly affected by tibial tubercle lateralization at the proximal part of the tibia. Forty-four patients with a history of patellar dislocation and forty-four age and sex-matched controls were analyzed with use of computed tomography. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, tibial tubercle lateralization, trochlear groove medialization, and knee rotation were measured and were compared between the patellar dislocation group and the control group. The association between the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance and three other parameters was calculated with use of the Pearson correlation coefficient and partial correlation analysis. There were significant differences in the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (p < 0.001) and knee rotation (p < 0.001), but there was no difference in the tibial tubercle lateralization (p = 0.13) and trochlear groove medialization (p = 0.08) between the patellar dislocation group and the control group. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance had no linear correlation with tubercle lateralization (r = 0.21) or groove medialization (r = -0.15); however, knee rotation had a good positive correlation in the patellar dislocation group (r = 0.62). After adjusting for the remaining parameters, knee rotation strongly correlated with the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (r = 0.69, p < 0.001), whereas tubercle lateralization showed moderate significant correlations in the patellar dislocation group (r = 0.42; p = 0.005). Because the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is affected more by knee rotation than by tubercle malposition, its use as an indicator for

  1. Ceramic inlays and partial ceramic crowns: influence of remaining cusp wall thickness on the marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krifka, Stephanie; Anthofer, Thomas; Fritzsch, Marcus; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    No information is currently available about what the critical cavity wall thickness is and its influence upon 1) the marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and 2) the crack formation of dental tissues. This in vitro study of CI and PCC tested the effects of different remaining cusp wall thicknesses on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI (n = 25) and PCC (n = 26) preparations were performed in extracted human molars. Functional cusps of CI and PCC were adjusted to a 2.5 mm thickness; for PCC, the functional cusps were reduced to a thickness of 2.0 mm. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to wall thicknesses of 1) 1.0 mm and 2) 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were fabricated and adhesively luted to the cavities with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading (TCML: 5000 x 5 degrees C-55 degrees C; 30 seconds/cycle; 500000 x 72.5N, 1.6Hz). Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating a) dye penetration (fuchsin) on multiple sections after TCML and by using b) quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after TCML. Ceramic- and tooth-luting agent interfaces (LA) were evaluated separately. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective light microscope. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the Error Rates Method (ERM). Crack formation was analyzed with the Chi-Square-test (alpha = 0.05) and ERM. In general, the remaining cusp wall thickness, interface, cavity design and TCML had no statistically significant influence on marginal integrity for both CI and PCC (ERM). Single pairwise comparisons showed that the CI and PCC of Group 2 had a tendency towards less microleakage along the dentin/LA interface than Group 1. Cavity design and location had no statistically significant influence on crack formation, but the specimens with 1.0 mm of remaining wall

  2. Does a conservative tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty violate the deep medial collateral ligament?

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Luyckx, Thomas; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Based on the anatomy of the deep medial collateral ligament (MCL), it was hypothesized that at least part of its cross-sectional insertion area is jeopardized while performing a standard tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether it is anatomically possible to preserve the tibial deep MCL insertion during conventional TKA. Thirty-three unpaired cadaveric knee specimens were used for this study. Knees with severe varus/valgus deformity or damage to the medial structures of the knee were excluded. In the first part of the study, the dimensions of the tibial insertion of the deep MCL and its relationship to the joint line were recorded. Next, the cross-sectional area of the deep MCL insertion was determined using calibrated digital photographic analysis. In the second part, the effect of a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut on the structural integrity of the deep MCL cross-sectional insertion area was determined using conventional instrumentation. The proximal border of the deep MCL insertion site on the tibia was located on average 4.7 ± 1.2 mm distally to the joint line. After performing a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut, on average 54% of the deep MCL insertion area was resected. In 29% of the cases, the deep MCL insertion area was completely excised. The deep MCL cannot routinely be preserved in conventional TKA. The deep MCL insertion is at risk and may be jeopardized in case of a tibial cut 9 mm below the native joint line. As the deep MCL is a distinct medial stabilizer and plays an important role in rotational stability, this may have implications in future designs of both unicondylar and total knee arthroplasty, but further research is necessary.

  3. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation vs parasacral transcutaneous neuromodulation for overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Viterbo, Walter; Bittencourt, Joana; Farias, Tiago; Lordêlo, Patrícia

    2013-08-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation have emerged as effective methods to treat overactive bladder in children. However, to our knowledge no study has compared the 2 methods. We evaluated the results of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder. We prospectively studied children with overactive bladder without dysfunctional voiding. Success of treatment was evaluated by visual analogue scale and dysfunctional voiding symptom score, and by level of improvement of each specific symptom. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was performed 3 times weekly and posterior tibial nerve stimulation was performed once weekly. A total of 22 consecutive patients were treated with posterior tibial nerve stimulation and 37 with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding demographic characteristics or types of symptoms. Concerning the evaluation by visual analogue scale, complete resolution of symptoms was seen in 70% of the group undergoing parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and in 9% of the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation (p = 0.02). When the groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The frequency of persistence of urgency and diurnal urinary incontinence was nearly double in the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation. However, this difference was not statistically significant. We found that parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is more effective in resolving overactive bladder symptoms, which matches parental perception. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the evaluation by dysfunctional voiding symptom score, or in complete resolution of urgency or diurnal incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  4. Do running speed and shoe cushioning influence impact loading and tibial shock in basketball players?

    PubMed Central

    Liebenberg, Jacobus; Woo, Jeonghyun; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Yoon, Suk-Hoon; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei; Ryu, Jiseon

    2018-01-01

    Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning) and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s) on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed) × 3 (footwear) repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.80) and impact loading (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.73–0.87) were experienced at faster running speeds. Interestingly, shoes with regular-cushioning or best-cushioning resulted in greater tibial shock (P = 0.03; η2 = 0.39) and impact loading (P = 0.03; η2 = 0.38–0.68) than shoes with better-cushioning. Basketball players continued using a rearfoot strike during running, regardless of running speed and footwear cushioning conditions (P > 0.14; η2 = 0.13). Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF. PMID:29770274

  5. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  6. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwarpal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/- 2.66 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ( p < 0.001). The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/- 1.72 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/- 1.01 mm 2 and 0.30 mm respectively). The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  7. Effects of tibial slope changes in the stability of fixed bearing medial unicompartmental arthroplasty in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Cross, Michael B; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Ranawat, Anil S; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may have increased failure rates with UKA as a result of abnormal contact stresses and altered knee kinematics. Variations in the slope of the tibial component in UKA may alter tibiofemoral translation, and affect outcomes. This cadaveric study evaluated tibiofemoral translation during the Lachman and pivot shift tests after changing the slope of a fixed bearing unicondylar tibial component. Sectioning the ACL increased tibiofemoral translation in both the Lachman and pivot shift tests (P<0.05). Tibial slope leveling (decreasing the posterior slope) of the polyethylene insert in a UKA decreases anteroposterior tibiofemoral translation in the sagittal plane to a magnitude similar to that of the intact knee. With 8° of tibial slope leveling, anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test decreased by approximately 5mm. However, no variation in slope altered the pivot shift kinematics in the ACL deficient knees. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arthroscopic repair of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Su Chan; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Song, Moon Bok; Lee, Choon Key

    2009-07-01

    Simultaneous repair of a radial tear at the tibial attachment site of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus under special circumstances requiring tibial valgus osteotomy is technically difficult. First, most patients who need an osteotomy have a narrowed medial tibiofemoral joint space. In such a situation, the pull-out suture technique is more difficult to perform than in a normal joint space. Second, pulling out suture strands that penetrate the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the anterior tibial cortex increases the risk of transection during osteotomy. We performed a meniscus repair combined with an opening wedge tibial valgus osteotomy without complications and present our technique as a new method for use in selective cases necessitating both meniscus repair of a complete radial tear and opening wedge tibial osteotomy.

  9. Multiple Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation with Concomitant Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Multifocal Chondral Disease of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Eric J; Waterman, Brian R; Kelly, Mick P; Wang, Kevin C; Frank, Rachel M; Cole, Brian J

    2017-08-01

    Symptomatic patellofemoral chondral lesions are a challenging clinical entity, as these defects may result from persistent lateral patellar maltracking or repetitive microtrauma. Anteromedializing tibial tubercle osteotomy has been shown to be an effective strategy for primary and adjunctive treatment of focal or diffuse patellofemoral disease to improve the biomechanical loading environment. Similarly, osteochondral allograft transplantation has proven efficacy in physiologically young, high-demand patients with condylar or patellofemoral lesions, particularly without early arthritic progression. The authors present the surgical management of a young athlete with symptomatic tricompartmental focal chondral defects with fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation and anteromedializing tibial tubercle osteotomy.

  10. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  11. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an accepted and established surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and is now being practiced across the globe in increasing numbers. Although most patie