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Sample records for tibial stress fractures

  1. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  3. Epidemiology of metatarsal stress fractures versus tibial and femoral stress fractures during elite training.

    PubMed

    Finestone, Aharon; Milgrom, Charles; Wolf, Omer; Petrov, Kaloyan; Evans, Rachel; Moran, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The training of elite infantry recruits takes a year or more. Stress fractures are known to be endemic in their basic training and the clinical presentation of tibial, femoral, and metatarsal stress fractures are different. Stress fracture incidence during the subsequent progressively more demanding training is not known. The study hypothesis was that after an adaptation period, the incidence of stress fractures during the course of 1 year of elite infantry training would fall in spite of the increasingly demanding training. Seventy-six male elite infantry recruits were followed for the development of stress fractures during a progressively more difficult training program composed of basic training (1 to 14 weeks), advanced training (14 to 26 weeks), and unit training (26 to 52 weeks). Subjects were reviewed regularly and those with clinical suspicion of stress fracture were assessed using bone scan and X-rays. The incidence of stress fractures was 20% during basic training, 14% during advanced training and 23% during unit training. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of tibial and femoral stress fractures versus metatarsal stress fractures before and after the completion of phase II training at week 26 (p=0.0001). Seventy-eight percent of the stress fractures during phases I and II training were either tibial or femoral, while 91% of the stress fractures in phase III training were metatarsal. Prior participation in ball sports (p=0.02) and greater tibial length (p=0.05) were protective factors for stress fracture. The study hypothesis that after a period of soldier adaptation, the incidence of stress fractures would decrease in spite of the increasingly demanding elite infantry training was found to be true for tibial and femoral fractures after 6 months of training but not for metatarsal stress fractures. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of this difference but physicians and others treating stress fractures

  4. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  6. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    these runners. A "stiff’ runner will spend less time in contact with the ground (Farley and Gonzalez, 1996 ) and will attenuate less shock between the...leg and the head (McMahon et al., 1987). This is in agreement with the findings of Farley and Gonzalez ( 1996 ) who suggested lower extremity stiffness...Crossley, K. ( 1996 ) Stress fractures: a review of 180 cases. Clin. J. Sport Med. 6, 85-89. Brudvig, T., Grudger, T. and Obermeyer, L. (1983) Stress

  7. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  8. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  9. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. RESULTS Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. CONCLUSION We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau. PMID:28660141

  10. Immediate effects of modified landing pattern on a probabilistic tibial stress fracture model in runners.

    PubMed

    Chen, T L; An, W W; Chan, Z Y S; Au, I P H; Zhang, Z H; Cheung, R T H

    2016-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common injury in runners. This condition has been associated with increased impact loading. Since vertical loading rates are related to the landing pattern, many heelstrike runners attempt to modify their footfalls for a lower risk of tibial stress fracture. Such effect of modified landing pattern remains unknown. This study examined the immediate effects of landing pattern modification on the probability of tibial stress fracture. Fourteen experienced heelstrike runners ran on an instrumented treadmill and they were given augmented feedback for landing pattern switch. We measured their running kinematics and kinetics during different landing patterns. Ankle joint contact force and peak tibial strains were estimated using computational models. We used an established mathematical model to determine the effect of landing pattern on stress fracture probability. Heelstrike runners experienced greater impact loading immediately after landing pattern switch (P<0.004). There was an increase in the longitudinal ankle joint contact force when they landed with forefoot (P=0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both peak tibial strains and the risk of tibial stress fracture in runners with different landing patterns (P>0.986). Immediate transitioning of the landing pattern in heelstrike runners may not offer timely protection against tibial stress fracture, despite a reduction of impact loading. Long-term effects of landing pattern switch remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior tibial stress fractures treated with anterior tension band plating in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alexandre Santa; de Hollanda, João Paris Buarque; Duarte, Aires; Hungria Neto, José Soares

    2013-06-01

    The non-surgical treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures requires long periods of abstention from sports activities and often results in non-union. Many different surgical techniques have already been previously described to treat these fractures, but there is no consensus on the best treatment. We describe the outcome of treatment using anterior tibial tension band plating in three high-performance athletes (4 legs) with anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Tibial osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking compression plate in the anterolateral aspect of the tibia was performed in all patients diagnosed with anterior tibial stress fracture after September 2010 at Santa Casa Hospital. All of the fractures were consolidated within a period of 3 months after surgery, allowing for an early return to pre-injury levels of competitive sports activity. There were no infection, non-union, malunion or anterior knee pain complications. Anterior tibial tension band plating leads to prompt fracture consolidation and is a good alternative for the treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Bone grafts were shown to be unnecessary.

  12. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  13. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  14. Distinct hip and rearfoot kinematics in female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Hamill, Joseph; Davis, Irene S

    2010-02-01

    Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. To investigate the kinematics of the hip, knee, and rearfoot in the frontal and transverse planes in female distance runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury in runners, accounting for up to half of all stress fractures. Abnormal kinematics of the lower extremity may contribute to abnormal musculoskeletal load distributions, leading to an increased risk of stress fractures. Thirty female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture were compared to 30 age-matched and weekly-running-distance-matched control subjects with no previous lower extremity bony injuries. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a motion capture system and a force platform, respectively, as subjects ran in the laboratory. Selected variables of interest were compared between the groups using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Peak hip adduction and peak rearfoot eversion angles were greater in the stress fracture group compared to the control group. Peak knee adduction and knee internal rotation angles and all joint angles at impact peak were similar between the groups. Runners with a previous tibial stress fracture exhibited greater peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles during the stance phase of running compared to healthy controls. A consequence of these mechanics may be altered load distribution within the lower extremity, predisposing individuals to stress fracture.

  15. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilateral periprosthetic tibial stress fracture after total knee arthroplasty: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Guzelali; Azboy, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures around the knee after total knee arthroplasty can be seen in the femur, tibia and patella. The tibial fractures are rare cases. Our case with bilateral tibial stress fracture developed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the first of its kind in the literature. 75-year-old male patient with bilateral knee osteoarthritis had not benefited from conservative treatment methods previously applied. Left TKA was applied. In the second month postoperatively, periprosthetic tibial fracture was identified and osteosynthesis was implemented with locked tibia proximal plate-screw. Bone union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-ups. After 15 months of his first operation, TKA was applied to the right knee. Postoperatively in the second month, as in the first operation, periprosthetic tibial fracture was detected. Osteosynthesis with locking plate-screw was applied and union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-up. He was seen mobilized independently and without support in the last control of the case made in the 24th month after the second operation. The number of TKA applications is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of periprosthetic fractures should also be expected to increase in these cases. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after TKA are rarely seen. The treatment of periprosthetic fractures around the knee after TKA can be difficult. In the case of persistent pain in the upper end of the tibia after the surgery, stress fracture should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical treatment of refractory tibial stress fractures in elite dancers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryan G; Dhotar, Herman S; Rose, Donald J; Egol, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Treatment of tibial stress fractures in elite dancers is centered on rest and activity modification. Surgical intervention in refractory cases has important implications affecting the dancers' careers. Refractory tibial stress fractures in dancers can be treated successfully with drilling and bone grafting or intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 1992 and 2006, 1757 dancers were evaluated at a dance medicine clinic; 24 dancers (1.4%) had 31 tibial stress fractures. Of that subset, 7 (29.2%) elite dancers with 8 tibial stress fractures were treated operatively with either intramedullary nailing or drilling and bone grafting. Six of the patients were followed up closely until they were able to return to dance. One patient was available only for follow-up phone interview. Data concerning their preoperative treatment regimens, operative procedures, clinical union, radiographic union, and time until return to dance were recorded and analyzed. The mean age of the surgical patients at the time of stress fracture was 22.6 years. The mean duration of preoperative symptoms before surgical intervention was 25.8 months. Four of the dancers were male and 3 were female. All had failed nonoperative treatment regimens. Five patients (5 tibias) underwent drilling and bone grafting of the lesion, and 2 patients (3 tibias) with completed fractures or multiple refractory stress fractures underwent intramedullary nailing. Clinical union was achieved at a mean of 6 weeks and radiographic union at 5.1 months. Return to full dance activity was at an average of 6.5 months postoperatively. Surgical intervention for tibial stress fractures in dancers who have not responded to nonoperative management allowed for resolution of symptoms and return to dancing with minimal morbidity.

  18. Ground reaction forces and bone parameters in females with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim; Crossley, Kay; Jayarajan, Jyotsna; Walton, Elizabeth; Warden, Stuart; Kiss, Z Stephen; Wrigley, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common overuse running injury that results from the interplay of repetitive mechanical loading and bone strength. This research project aimed to determine whether female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (TSF) differ in ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during running, regional bone density, and tibial bone geometry from those who have never sustained a stress fracture (NSF). Thirty-six female running athletes (13 TSF; 23 NSF) ranging in age from 18 to 44 yr were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The groups were well matched for demographic, training, and menstrual parameters. A force platform measured selected GRF parameters (peak and time to peak for vertical impact and active forces, and horizontal braking and propulsive forces) during overground running at 4.0 m.s.(-1). Lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibial bone mineral density were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Tibial bone geometry (cross-sectional dimensions and areas, and second moments of area) was calculated from a computerized tomography scan at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometric parameters (P > 0.05). Both TSF and NSF subjects had bone density levels that were average or above average compared with a young adult reference range. Factor analysis followed by discriminant function analysis did not find any combinations of variables that differentiated between TSF and NSF groups. These findings do not support a role for GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometry in the development of tibial stress fractures, suggesting that other risk factors were more important in this cohort of female runners.

  19. Proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild osteoarthritis of the knee: case report.

    PubMed

    Curković, Marko; Kovac, Kristina; Curković, Bozidar; Babić-Naglić, Durda; Potocki, Kristina

    2011-03-01

    Stress fractures are considered as multifactorial overuse injuries occurring in 0.3%-0.8% of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, with rheumatoid arthritis being the most common underlying condition. Stress fractures can be classified according to the condition of the bone affected as: 1) fatigue stress fractures occurring when normal bone is exposed to repeated abnormal stresses; and 2) insufficiency stress fractures that occur when normal stress is applied to bone weakened by an underlying condition. Stress fractures are rarely associated with severe forms of knee osteoarthritis, accompanied with malalignment and obesity. We present a patient with a proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild knee osteoarthritis without associated malalignment or obesity. Stress fracture should be considered when a patient with osteoarthritis presents with sudden deterioration, severe localized tenderness to palpation and localized swelling or periosteal thickening at the pain site and elevated local temperature. The diagnosis of stress fractures in patients with rheumatic diseases may often be delayed because plain film radiographs may not reveal a stress fracture soon after the symptom onset; moreover, evidence of a fracture may never appear on plain radiographs. Triple phase nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive in the early clinical course than plain films for initial diagnosis.

  20. Biomechanical Factors in the Etiology of Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    stiffness in these runners. A “stiff” runner will spend less time in contact with the ground (Farley and Gonzalez, 1996 ) and will attenuate less shock...between the leg and the head (McMahon et al., 1987). This is in agreement with the findings of Farley and Gonzalez ( 1996 ) who suggested lower...Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories. Brukner, P., Bradshaw, C., Khan, K., White, S. and Crossley, K. ( 1996 ) Stress fractures: a

  1. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Virtual stress testing of fracture stability in soldiers with severely comminuted tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Petfield, Joseph L; Hayeck, Garry T; Kopperdahl, David L; Nesti, Leon J; Keaveny, Tony M; Hsu, Joseph R

    2017-04-01

    Virtual stress testing (VST) provides a non-invasive estimate of the strength of a healing bone through a biomechanical analysis of a patient's computed tomography (CT) scan. We asked whether VST could improve management of patients who had a tibia fracture treated with external fixation. In a retrospective case-control study of 65 soldier-patients who had tibia fractures treated with an external fixator, we performed VST utilizing CT scans acquired prior to fixator removal. The strength of the healing bone and the amount of tissue damage after application of an overload were computed for various virtual loading cases. Logistic regression identified computed outcomes with the strongest association to clinical events related to nonunion within 2 months after fixator removal. Clinical events (n = 9) were associated with a low tibial strength for compression loading (p < 0.05, AUC = 0.74) or a low proportion of failed cortical bone tissue for torsional loading (p < 0.005, AUC = 0.84). Using post-hoc thresholds of a compressive strength of four times body-weight and a proportional of failed cortical bone tissue of 5%, the test identified all nine patients who failed clinically (100% sensitivity; 40.9% positive predictive value) and over three fourths of those (43 of 56) who progressed to successful healing (76.8% specificity; 100% negative predictive value). In this study, VST identified all patients who progressed to full, uneventful union after fixator removal; thus, we conclude that this new test has the potential to provide a quantitative, objective means of identifying tibia-fracture patients who can safely resume weight bearing. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:805-811, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  4. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  5. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  6. Case report: multifocal subchondral stress fractures of the femoral heads and tibial condyles in a young military recruit.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    Subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head may be either of the insufficiency-type with poor quality bone or the fatigue-type with normal quality bone but subject to high repetitive stresses. Unlike osteonecrosis, multiple site involvement rarely has been reported for subchondral stress fractures. We describe a case of multifocal subchondral stress fractures involving femoral heads and medial tibial condyles bilaterally within 2 weeks. A 27-year-old military recruit began having left knee pain after 2 weeks of basic training, without any injury. Subsequently, right knee, right hip, and left hip pain developed sequentially within 2 weeks. The diagnosis of multifocal subchondral stress fracture was confirmed by plain radiographs and MR images. Nonoperative treatment of the subchondral stress fractures of both medial tibial condyles and the left uncollapsed femoral head resulted in resolution of symptoms. The collapsed right femoral head was treated with a fibular strut allograft to restore congruity and healed without further collapse. There has been one case report in which an insufficiency-type subchondral stress fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle occurred within a 2-year interval. Because the incidence of bilateral subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head is low and multifocal involvement has not been reported, multifocal subchondral stress fractures can be confused with multifocal osteonecrosis. Our case shows that subchondral stress fractures can occur in multiple sites almost simultaneously.

  7. Section modulus is the optimum geometric predictor for stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome in both male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry; Field, Bruce; Wells, Peter; Morgan, David

    2008-06-01

    Various tibial dimensions and geometric parameters have been linked to stress fractures in athletes and military recruits, but many mechanical parameters have still not been investigated. Sedentary people, athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome, and athletes with stress fractures have smaller tibial geometric dimensions and parameters than do uninjured athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Using a total of 88 subjects, male and female patients with either a tibial stress fracture or medial tibial stress syndrome were compared with both uninjured aerobically active controls and uninjured sedentary controls. Tibial scout radiographs and cross-sectional computed tomography images of all subjects were scanned at the junction of the midthird and distal third of the tibia. Tibial dimensions were measured directly from the films; other parameters were calculated numerically. Uninjured exercising men have a greater tibial cortical cross-sectional area than do their sedentary and injured counterparts, resulting in a greater value of some other cross-sectional geometric parameters, particularly the section modulus. However, for women, the cross-sectional areas are either not different or only marginally different, and there are few tibial dimensions or geometric parameters that distinguish the uninjured exercisers from the sedentary and injured subjects. In women, the main difference between the groups was the distribution of cortical bone about the centroid as a result of the different values of section modulus. Last, medial tibial stress syndrome subjects had smaller tibial cross-sectional dimensions than did their uninjured exercising counterparts, suggesting that medial tibial stress syndrome is not just a soft-tissue injury but also a bony injury. The results show that in men, the cross-sectional area and the section modulus are the key parameters in the tibia to distinguish exercise and injury status, whereas for women, it is the section modulus only.

  8. Return to sports after stress fractures of the tibial diaphysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G A J; Wood, A M

    2015-06-01

    This review aims to provide information on the time taken to resume sport following tibial diaphyseal stress fractures (TDSFs). A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PEDro, Sports Discus, Scopus and Google Scholar was performed using the keywords 'tibial', 'tibia', 'stress', 'fractures', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative' and 'return to sport'. Twenty-seven studies were included: 16 reported specifically on anterior TDSFs and 5 on posterior TDSFs. The general principles were to primarily attempt non-operative management for all TDSFs and to consider operative intervention for anterior TDSFs that remained symptomatic after 3-6 months. Anterior TDSFs showed a prolonged return to sport. The best time to return to sport and the optimal management modalities for TDSFs remain undefined. Management of TDSFs should include a full assessment of training methods, equipment and diet to modify pre-disposing factors. Future prospective studies should aim to establish the optimal treatment modalities for TDSFs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  10. Effectiveness of various isometric exercises at improving bone strength in cortical regions prone to distal tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Florio, C S

    2018-06-01

    A computational model was used to compare the local bone strengthening effectiveness of various isometric exercises that may reduce the likelihood of distal tibial stress fractures. The developed model predicts local endosteal and periosteal cortical accretion and resorption based on relative local and global measures of the tibial stress state and its surface variation. Using a multisegment 3-dimensional leg model, tibia shape adaptations due to 33 combinations of hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and the direction of a single or sequential series of generated isometric resultant forces were predicted. The maximum stress at a common fracture-prone region in each optimized geometry was compared under likely stress fracture-inducing midstance jogging conditions. No direct correlations were found between stress reductions over an initially uniform circular hollow cylindrical geometry under these critical design conditions and the exercise-based sets of active muscles, joint angles, or individual muscle force and local stress magnitudes. Additionally, typically favorable increases in cross-sectional geometric measures did not guarantee stress decreases at these locations. Instead, tibial stress distributions under the exercise conditions best predicted strengthening ability. Exercises producing larger anterior distal stresses created optimized tibia shapes that better resisted the high midstance jogging bending stresses. Bent leg configurations generating anteriorly directed or inferiorly directed resultant forces created favorable adaptations. None of the studied loads produced by a straight leg was significantly advantageous. These predictions and the insight gained can provide preliminary guidance in the screening and development of targeted bone strengthening techniques for those susceptible to distal tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. PATIENT-SPECIFIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CHRONIC CONTACT STRESS EXPOSURE AFTER INTRA-ARTICULAR FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL PLAFOND

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Anderson, Donald D.; Goldsworthy, Jane K.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of altered contact mechanics in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) following intra-articular fracture remains poorly understood. One proposed etiology is that residual incongruities lead to altered joint contact stresses that, over time, predispose to PTOA. Prevailing joint contact stresses following surgical fracture reduction were quantified in this study using patient-specific contact finite element (FE) analysis. FE models were created for 11 ankle pairs from tibial plafond fracture patients. Both (reduced) fractured ankles and their intact contralaterals were modeled. A sequence of 13 loading instances was used to simulate the stance phase of gait. Contact stresses were summed across loadings in the simulation, weighted by resident time in the gait cycle. This chronic exposure measure, a metric of degeneration propensity, was then compared between intact and fractured ankle pairs. Intact ankles had lower peak contact stress exposures that were more uniform, and centrally located. The series-average peak contact stress elevation for fractured ankles was 38% (p=0.0015; peak elevation was 82%). Fractured ankles had less area with low contact stress exposure than intacts, and a greater area with high exposure. Chronic contact stress overexposures (stresses exceeding a damage threshold) ranged from near zero to a high of 18 times the matched intact value. The patient-specific FE models utilized in this study represent substantial progress towards elucidating the relationship between altered contact stresses and the outcome of patients treated for intra-articular fractures. PMID:18404662

  12. "Shin splint" syndrome and tibial stress fracture in the same patient diagnosed by means of (99m)Tc-HMDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Justo Serrano; Grande, Maria Luz Domínguez; Torre, Jose Rafael Infante; Madrid, Juan Ignacio Rayo; Barquero, Carmen Durán; Bernardo, Lucía García; Sánchez, Román Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    We show a patient who presented leg pain triggered by intense exercise. The most likely diagnosis was a possible tibial stress fracture or a "shin splint" syndrome (soleus enthesopathy). We performed a bone scintigraphy including SPECT/CT that revealed the presence of the two concomitant pathologies. SPECT/CT identified the hot spot superimposed with bone lesion in the tibial stress fracture and only remodeling activity without evidence of cortical lesions in the enthesopathy processes.

  13. [Effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation].

    PubMed

    Ge, Qihang; Wan, Chunyou; Liu, Yabei; Ji, Xu; Ma, Jihai; Cao, Haikun; Yong, Wei; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Ningning

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of axial stress stimulation on tibial and fibular open fractures healing after Taylor space stent fixation. The data of 45 cases with tibial and fibular open fractures treated by Taylor space stent fixation who meet the selection criteria between January 2015 and June 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into trial group (23 cases) and control group (22 cases) according to whether the axial stress stimulation was performed after operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, affected side, cause of injury, type of fracture, and interval time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The axial stress stimulation was performed in trial group after operation. The axial load sharing ratio was tested, and when the value was less than 10%, the external fixator was removed. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time were recorded and compared. After 6 months of external fixator removal, the function of the limb was assessed by Johner-Wruhs criteria for evaluation of final effectiveness of treatment of tibial shaft fractures. There were 2 and 3 cases of needle foreign body reaction in trial group and control group, respectively, and healed after symptomatic anti allergic treatment. All the patients were followed up 8-12 months with an average of 10 months. All the fractures reached clinical healing, no complication such as delayed union, nonunion, or osteomyelitis occurred. The fracture healing time, full weight-bearing time, and external fixator removal time in trial group were significantly shorter than those in control group ( P <0.05). After 6 months of external fixator removal, the function of the limb was excellent in 13 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 3 cases, and poor in 1 case in trial group, with an excellent and good rate of 82.6%; and was excellent in 5 cases, good in 10 cases, fair in 4 cases, and poor in 3 cases in control group, with an

  14. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Field, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development. Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation. The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit's tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications in the development of

  15. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  16. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  17. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  18. Rap system of stress stimulation can promote bone union after lower tibial bone fracture: a clinical research.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jian-fei; Shen, Jia-zuo; Li, Da-kun; Lin, Da-sheng; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Qi, Peng; Lian, Ke-jian; Ding, Zhen-qi

    2012-01-01

    Lower tibial bone fracture may easily cause bone delayed union or nonunion because of lacking of dynamic mechanical load. Research Group would design a new instrument as Rap System of Stress Stimulation (RSSS) to provide dynamic mechanical load which would promote lower tibial bone union postoperatively. This clinical research was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010, 92 patients(male 61/female 31, age 16-70 years, mean 36.3 years) who suffered lower tibial bone closed fracture were given intramedullary nail fixation and randomly averagely separated into experimental group and control group(according to the successively order when patients went for the admission procedure). Then researchers analysed the clinical healing time, full weight bearing time, VAS (Visual Analogue Scales) score and callus growth score of Lane-Sandhu in 3,6,12 months postoperatively. The delayed union and nonunion rates were compared at 6 and 12 months separately. All the 92 patients had been followed up (mean 14 months). Clinical bone healing time in experimental group was 88.78±8.80 days but control group was 107.91±9.03 days. Full weight bearing time in experimental group was 94.07±9.81 days but control group was 113.24±13.37 days respectively (P<0.05). The delayed union rate in 6 months was 4.3% in experimental group but 10.9% in control group(P<0.05). The nonunion rate in 12 months was 6.5% in experimental group but 19.6% in control group(P<0.05). In 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively, VAS score and Lane-Sandhu score in experimental group had more significantly difference than them in control group. RSSS can intermittently provide dynamic mechanical load and stimulate callus formation, promote lower tibial bone union, reduce bone delayed union or nonunion rate. It is an adjuvant therapy for promoting bone union after lower tibial bone fracture.

  19. Multiple Tibial Insufficiency Fractures in the Same Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, Saartje; Mertens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures were first described by Briethaupt in 1855. Since then, there have been many discussions in the literature concerning stress fractures, which have been described in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. Currently, the tibia is the most frequent location, but multiple stress fractures in the same tibia are rare. This paper presents an unusual case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple tibial stress fractures of spontaneous onset. PMID:23569673

  20. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, geometry, and architecture in male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Blackburn, J Troy

    2015-02-01

    Greater lower extremity joint stiffness may be related to the development of tibial stress fractures in runners. Musculotendinous stiffness is the largest contributor to joint stiffness, but it is unclear what factors contribute to musculotendinous stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness, architecture, geometry, and Achilles tendon stiffness between male runners with and without a history of tibial stress fracture. Nineteen healthy runners (age = 21 ± 2.7 years; mass = 68.2 ± 9.3 kg; height = 177.3 ± 6.0 cm) and 19 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (age = 21 ± 2.9 years; mass = 65.3 ± 6.0 kg; height = 177.2 ± 5.2 cm) were recruited from community running groups and the university's varsity and club cross-country teams. Plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness was estimated from the damped frequency of oscillatory motion about the ankle follow perturbation. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure architecture and geometry of the medial gastrocnemius. Dependent variables were compared between groups via one-way ANOVAs. Previously injured runners had greater plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (P < .001), greater Achilles tendon stiffness (P = .004), and lesser Achilles tendon elongation (P = .003) during maximal isometric contraction compared with healthy runners. No differences were found in muscle thickness, pennation angle, or fascicle length.

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  3. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  4. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller than that of the screw fixation system. The maximal value of displacement (sum) in the plate-screw fixation system was 2.46 mm, which was lower than that in the screw fixation system (3.91 mm). The peak stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  5. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  6. External fixation of tibial pilon fractures and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Ristiniemi, Jukka

    2007-06-01

    Distal tibial fractures are rare and difficult to treat because the bones are subcutaneous. External fixation is commonly used, but the method often results in delayed union. The aim of the present study was to find out the factors that affect fracture union in tibial pilon fractures. For this purpose, prospective data collection of tibial pilon fractures was carried out in 1998-2004, resulting in 159 fractures, of which 83 were treated with external fixation. Additionally, 23 open tibial fractures with significant > 3 cm bone defect that were treated with a staged method in 2000-2004 were retrospectively evaluated. The specific questions to be answered were: What are the risk factors for delayed union associated with two-ring hybrid external fixation? Does human recombinant BMP-7 accelerate healing? What is the role of temporary ankle-spanning external fixation? What is the healing potential of distal tibial bone loss treated with a staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting compared to other locations of the tibia? The following risk factors for delayed healing after external fixation were identified: post-reduction fracture gap of >3 mm and fixation of the associated fibula fracture. Fracture displacement could be better controlled with initial temporary external fixation than with early definitive fixation, but it had no significant effect on healing time, functional outcome or complication rate. Osteoinduction with rhBMP-7 was found to accelerate fracture healing and to shorten the sick leave. A staged method using antibiotic beads and subsequent autogenous cancellous grafting proved to be effective in the treatment of tibial bone loss. Healing potential of the bone loss in distal tibia was at least equally good as in other locations of the tibia.

  7. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  8. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  10. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  11. Nontraumatic tibial polyethylene insert cone fracture in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanikake, Yohei; Hayashi, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tomita, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-12-01

    A 72-year-old male patient underwent mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. He experienced a nontraumatic polyethylene tibial insert cone fracture 27 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface of the tibial insert cone suggested progress of ductile breaking from the posterior toward the anterior of the cone due to repeated longitudinal bending stress, leading to fatigue breaking at the anterior side of the cone, followed by the tibial insert cone fracture at the anterior side of the cone, resulting in fracture at the base of the cone. This analysis shows the risk of tibial insert cone fracture due to longitudinal stress in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty in which an insert is designed to highly conform to the femoral component.

  12. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  13. Evaluation of Fibular Fracture Type vs Location of Tibial Fixation of Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy; Israel, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Comminuted fibular fractures can occur with pilon fractures as a result of valgus stress. Transverse fibular fractures can occur with varus deformation. No definitive guide for determining the proper location of tibial fixation exists. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal plate location for fixation of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular fracture. One hundred two patients with 103 pilon fractures were identified who were definitively treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013. Pilon fractures were classified using the AO/OTA classification and included 43-A through 43-C fractures. Inclusion criteria were age of at least 18 years, associated fibular fracture, and definitive tibial plating. Patients were grouped based on the fibular component fracture type (comminuted vs transverse), and the location of plate fixation (medial vs lateral) was noted. Radiographic outcomes were assessed for mechanical failures. Forty fractures were a result of varus force as evidenced by transverse fracture of the fibula and 63 were due to valgus force with a comminuted fibula. For the transverse fibula group, 14.3% mechanical complications were noted for medially placed plate vs 80% for lateral plating ( P = .006). For the comminuted fibular group, 36.4% of medially placed plates demonstrated mechanical complications vs 16.7% for laterally based plates ( P = .156). Time to weight bearing as tolerated was also noted to be significant between groups plated medially and laterally for the comminuted group ( P = .013). Correctly assessing the fibular component for pilon fractures provides valuable information regarding deforming forces. To limit mechanical complications, tibial plates should be applied in such a way as to resist the original deforming forces. Level of Evidence Level III, comparative study.

  14. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  15. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  16. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  17. Comparison of tibial shaft ski fractures in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tomo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ishimaru, Daichi; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms at Sumi Memorial Hospital. This study analyzed information obtained from 276 patients with tibial fractures sustained during skiing between 2004 and 2012. We focused on 174 ski-related tibial shaft fractures with respect to the following factors: age, gender, laterality of fracture, skill level, mechanism of fracture (fall vs collision), scene of injury (steepness of slope), snow condition, and weather. Fracture pattern was graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification and mechanical direction [external (ER) or internal rotation (IR)]. Tibial shaft fractures were the most common in both children (89.3%) and adults (47.4%). There were no significant differences in gender, side of fracture, mechanism of fracture, snow condition, or weather between children and adults. Skill levels were significantly lower in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Type A fractures were more dominant in children (73 cases, 72.3%) than in adults (39 cases, 53.4%). There was significantly more ER in children than in adults (P < 0.0001). Among children, female patients had significantly more IR than ER; in contrast, among adults, women were injured by ER. We found significant differences in some of these parameters, suggesting that child and adult skiers have different risk factors or mechanisms of injury for tibial shaft fractures.

  18. Pathomorphism of spiral tibial fractures in computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Spiral fractures of the tibia are virtually homogeneous with regard to their pathomorphism. The differences that are seen concern the level of fracture of the fibula, and, to a lesser extent, the level of fracture of the tibia, the length of fracture cleft, and limb shortening following the trauma. While conventional radiographs provide sufficient information about the pathomorphism of fractures, computed tomography can be useful in demonstrating the spatial arrangement of bone fragments and topography of soft tissues surrounding the fracture site. Multiple cross-sectional computed tomography views of spiral fractures of the tibia show the details of the alignment of bone chips at the fracture site, axis of the tibial fracture cleft, and topography of soft tissues that are not visible on standard radiographs. A model of a spiral tibial fracture reveals periosteal stretching with increasing spiral and longitudinal displacement. The cleft in tibial fractures has a spiral shape and its line is invariable. Every spiral fracture of both crural bones results in extensive damage to the periosteum and may damage bellies of the long flexor muscle of toes, flexor hallucis longus as well as the posterior tibial muscle. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage that are otherwise invisible on standard radiographs. Moreover, CT images provide useful information about the spatial location of the bone chips as well as possible threats to soft tissues that surround the fracture site. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum. 1. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage otherwise invisible on standard radiographs, 2. The sharp end of the distal tibial chip can damage the tibialis posterior muscle, long flexor muscles of the toes and the flexor hallucis longus, 3. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum.

  19. Do stress fractures induce hypertrophy of the grafted fibula? A report of three cases received free vascularized fibular graft treatment for tibial defects.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong; Sun, Hong-Tao; Fan, Yue-Guang; Li, Fei-Meng; Lin, Zhou-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of large segmental defects of the diaphyseal bone is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) is considered to be a reliable reconstructive procedure. Stress fractures are a common complication following this surgery, and hypertrophy is the main physiological change of the grafted fibula. The exact mechanism of hypertrophy is not completely known. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the possible relationship between stress fractures and hypertrophy. We herein report three cases of patients underwent FVFG. Two of them developed stress fractures and significant hypertrophy, while the remaining patient developed neither stress fractures nor significant hypertrophy. This phenomenon indicates that a relationship may exist between stress fractures and hypertrophy of the grafted fibula, specifically, that the presence of a stress fracture may initiate the process of hypertrophy.

  20. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Measurement of bone adjacent to tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S C; Eastell, R; Ingle, B M

    2002-12-01

    Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); (2) compare values for fractured versus non-fractured leg to determine the duration of decrement in bone measurements; and (3) calculate short-term precision in DXA, QUS and pQCT in order to calculate the ratio of decrement to precision (response ratio, RR) to determine the optimal test for monitoring changes after tibial fracture. The biggest decrement in bone measurements at the ipsilateral limb of 28 patients with tibial shaft fracture was observed at the pQCT tibial trabecular sites (distal = 19%, p<0.0001; proximal 5% = 21%, p<0.001; proximal 10% = 28%, p<0.001) and the ultradistal tibia/fibula measured by DXA (19%, p<0.0001). When comparing Z-scores, the magnitude of decrements at the ipsilateral limb was bigger for variables measured directly at the tibia, both proximal and distal to the fracture. The magnitude of the decrement in ultradistal tibia/fibula BMD decreased as the time since fracture increased ( r = 0.55). When response ratios are considered, pQCT measurements at the distal tibia (RR 6-8) and proximal 5% and 10% trabecular sites (RR 5 and 9 respectively) were found to be the most sensitive to change. Therefore, pQCT of the trabecular regions of either the proximal or distal tibia should prove the most sensitive measurement for monitoring changes in bone adjacent to a tibial shaft fracture.

  2. Fractures of the Tibial Plateau Involve Similar Energies as the Tibial Pilon but Greater Articular Surface Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B.; Higgins, Thomas F.; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated if clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and fifty-two tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2 to 33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6 to 32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0 to 493.0 mm and 56.1 to 288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p<0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Clinical Significance Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. PMID:27381653

  3. An unusual stress fracture: Bilateral posterior longitudinal stress fracture of tibia.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Ormeci, Tugrul; Oltulu, Ismail; Isyar, Mehmet; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures (SF) occur when healthy bone is subjected to cyclic loading, which the normal carrying range capacity is exceeded. Usually, stress fractures occur at the metatarsal bones, calcaneus, proximal or distal tibia and tends to be unilateral. This article presents a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral posterior longitudinal tibial stress fractures. A 58 years old male suffering for persistent left calf pain and decreased walking distance for last one month and after imaging studies posterior longitudinal tibial stress fracture was detected on his left tibia. After six months the patient was admitted to our clinic with the same type of complaints in his right leg. All imaging modalities and blood counts were performed and as a result longitudinal posterior tibial stress fractures were detected on his right tibia. Treatment of tibial stress fracture includes rest and modified activity, followed by a graded return to activity commensurate with bony healing. We have applied the same treatment protocol and our results were acceptable but our follow up time short for this reason our study is restricted for separate stress fractures of the posterior tibia. Although the main localization of tibial stress fractures were unilateral, anterior and transverse pattern, rarely, like in our case, the unusual bilateral posterior localization and longitudinal pattern can be seen. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury.

  5. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Utility of cement injection to stabilize split-depression tibial plateau fracture by minimally invasive methods: A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Belaid, D; Vendeuvre, T; Bouchoucha, A; Brémand, F; Brèque, C; Rigoard, P; Germaneau, A

    2018-05-08

    Treatment for fractures of the tibial plateau is in most cases carried out by stable fixation in order to allow early mobilization. Minimally invasive technologies such as tibioplasty or stabilization by locking plate, bone augmentation and cement filling (CF) have recently been used to treat this type of fracture. The aim of this paper was to determine the mechanical behavior of the tibial plateau by numerically modeling and by quantifying the mechanical effects on the tibia mechanical properties from injury healing. A personalized Finite Element (FE) model of the tibial plateau from a clinical case has been developed to analyze stress distribution in the tibial plateau stabilized by balloon osteoplasty and to determine the influence of the cement injected. Stress analysis was performed for different stages after surgery. Just after surgery, the maximum von Mises stresses obtained for the fractured tibia treated with and without CF were 134.9 MPa and 289.9 MPa respectively on the plate. Stress distribution showed an increase of values in the trabecular bone in the treated model with locking plate and CF and stress reduction in the cortical bone in the model treated with locking plate only. The computed results of stresses or displacements of the fractured models show that the cement filling of the tibial depression fracture may increase implant stability, and decrease the loss of depression reduction, while the presence of the cement in the healed model renders the load distribution uniform. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations.

  8. Models of tibial fracture healing in normal and Nf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schindeler, Aaron; Morse, Alyson; Harry, Lorraine; Godfrey, Craig; Mikulec, Kathy; McDonald, Michelle; Gasser, Jürg A; Little, David G

    2008-08-01

    Delayed union and nonunion are common complications associated with tibial fractures, particularly in the distal tibia. Existing mouse tibial fracture models are typically closed and middiaphyseal, and thus poorly recapitulate the prevailing conditions following surgery on a human open distal tibial fracture. This report describes our development of two open tibial fracture models in the mouse, where the bone is broken either in the tibial midshaft (mid-diaphysis) or in the distal tibia. Fractures in the distal tibial model showed delayed repair compared to fractures in the tibial midshaft. These tibial fracture models were applied to both wild-type and Nf1-deficient (Nf1+/-) mice. Bone repair has been reported to be exceptionally problematic in human NF1 patients, and these patients can also spontaneously develop tibial nonunions (known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia), which are recalcitrant to even vigorous intervention. pQCT analysis confirmed no fundamental differences in cortical or cancellous bone in Nf1-deficient mouse tibiae compared to wild-type mice. Although no difference in bone healing was seen in the tibial midshaft fracture model, the healing of distal tibial fractures was found to be impaired in Nf1+/- mice. The histological features associated with nonunited Nf1+/- fractures were variable, but included delayed cartilage removal, disproportionate fibrous invasion, insufficient new bone anabolism, and excessive catabolism. These findings imply that the pathology of tibial pseudarthrosis in human NF1 is complex and likely to be multifactorial.

  9. Biomechanical analysis of posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Min; Luo, Cong-Feng; Putnis, Sven; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of four different fixation methods for a posteromedial tibial plateau split fracture. Twenty-eight tibial plateau fractures were simulated using right-sided synthetic tibiae models. Each fracture model was randomly instrumented with one of the four following constructs, anteroposterior lag-screws, an anteromedial limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP), a lateral locking plate, or a posterior T-shaped buttress plate. Vertical subsidence of the posteromedial fragment was measured from 500 N to 1500 N during biomechanical testing, the maximum load to failure was also determined. It was found that the posterior T-shaped buttress plate allowed the least subsidence of the posteromedial fragment and produced the highest mean failure load than each of the other three constructs (P=0.00). There was no statistical significant difference between using lag screws or an anteromedial LC-DCP construct for the vertical subsidence at a 1500 N load and the load to failure (P>0.05). This study showed that a posterior-based buttress technique is biomechanically the most stable in-vitro fixation method for posteromedial split tibial plateau fractures, with AP screws and anteromedial-based LC-DCP are not as stable for this type of fracture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  11. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  12. Interlocking intramedullary nailing in distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Megas, P; Giannikas, D; Lambiris, E

    2000-08-01

    This retrospective study examined the results of non-pilon fractures of the distal part of the tibia treated with interlocking intramedullary nailing. Seventy-three patients with equal numbers of fractures treated surgically between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Mean patient age was 39.8 years, and follow-up averaged 34.2 months. The AO fracture classification system was used. Concomitant fractures of the lateral malleolus were fixed. All but three fractures achieved union within 4.2 months on average. Satisfactory or excellent results were obtained in 86.3% of patients. These results indicate interlocking intramedullary nailing is a reliable method of treatment for these fractures and is characterized by high rates of union and a low incidence of complications.

  13. [Balloon osteoplasty as reduction technique in the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Freude, T; Kraus, T M; Sandmann, G H

    2015-10-01

    Tibial plateau fractures requiring surgery are severe injuries of the lower extremities. Depending on the fracture pattern, the age of the patient, the range of activity and the bone quality there is a broad variation in adequate treatment.  This article reports on an innovative treatment concept to address split depression fractures (Schatzker type II) and depression fractures (Schatzker type III) of the tibial head using the balloon osteoplasty technique for fracture reduction. Using the balloon technique achieves a precise and safe fracture reduction. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimal invasive percutaneous approach with a gently rise of the depressed area and the associated protection of the stratum regenerativum below the articular cartilage surface. This article lights up the surgical procedure using the balloon technique in tibia depression fractures. Using the balloon technique a precise and safe fracture reduction can be achieved. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimally invasive percutaneous approach with a gentle raising of the depressed area and the associated protection of the regenerative layer below the articular cartilage surface. Fracture reduction by use of a tamper results in high peak forces over small areas, whereas by using the balloon the forces are distributed over a larger area causing less secondary stress to the cartilage tissue. This less invasive approach might help to achieve a better long-term outcome with decreased secondary osteoarthritis due to the precise and chondroprotective reduction technique.

  14. Newly designed anterolateral and posterolateral locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fractures: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengbo; Lu, Hua; Shen, Hao; Wang, Wei; Ni, Binbin; Chen, Jishizhan

    2017-02-23

    Lateral column tibial plateau fracture fixation with a locking screw plate has higher mechanical stability than other fixation methods. The objectives of the present study were to introduce two newly designed locking anatomic plates for lateral tibial plateau fracture and to demonstrate their characteristics of the fixation complexes under the axial loads. Three different 3D finite element models of the lateral tibial plateau fracture with the bone plates were created. Various axial forces (100, 500, 1000, and 1500 N) were applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during daily life. The equivalent maps of displacement and stress were output, and relative displacement was calculated along the fracture lines. The displacement and stresses in the fixation complexes increased with the axial force. The equivalent displacement or stress map of each fixation under different axial forces showed similar distributing characteristics. The motion characteristics of the three models differed, and the max-shear stress of trabecula increased with the axial load. These two novel plates could fix lateral tibial plateau fractures involving anterolateral and posterolateral fragments. Motions after open reduction and stable internal fixation should be advised to decrease the risk of trabecular microfracture. The relative displacement of the posterolateral fragments is different when using anterolateral plate and posterolateral plate, which should be considered in choosing the implants for different posterolateral plateau fractures.

  15. Hybrid external fixation in the treatment of tibial pilon fractures: A retrospective analysis of 162 fractures.

    PubMed

    Galante, Vito N; Vicenti, Giovanni; Corina, Gianfranco; Mori, Claudio; Abate, Antonella; Picca, Girolamo; Conserva, Vito; Speciale, Domenico; Scialpi, Lorenzo; Tartaglia, Nicola; Caiaffa, Vincenzo; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of hybrid external fixation in the treatment of tibial pilon fractures. Retrospective, multicentre study. Adult patients with tibial pilon fractures treated with hybrid external fixation. Fracture reduction with ligamentotaxis and fixation with XCaliber hybrid external fixator. Fracture union, complications, functional outcome (Mazur Ankle Score). Union was obtained in 159 fractures at an average of 125days; there were three delayed unions and three non-unions. The most frequent complication was superficial pin-track infections (48), all of which responded to local wound care and antibiotics. There were no deep infections and no DVT. Only one fracture had loss of reduction that required frame revision. The overall functional scores were 91 (excellent) for AO/OTA type A fractures, 89 (good) for type B fractures, and 75 (satisfactory) for type C fractures. Hybrid external fixation is an effective method of stabilising tibial pilon fractures, particularly those with marked comminution. The minimally-invasive technique and stable fixation enable early mobilisation, with good functional results and minimal complications. Level IV Case series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed diagnosis of a peroneal artery false aneurysm at a concomitant tibial fracture. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Panagiotopoulos, E; Megas, P; Lambiris, E

    1995-07-01

    A 49-year-old man had posttraumatic persistent calf swelling and a tibial and fibular fracture. Despite the intramedullary nailing of the fracture, the swelling did not improve, and at the 6th postoperative week it was misdiagnosed (using venogram) as deep vein thrombosis. Therefore, it was mistreated with anticoagulants, which led to great deterioration of the local signs. An arteriogram revealed an initially missed false peroneal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed immediately. The 6-week delay had led to some atrophy of the posterior compartment muscles, fortunately without any permanent disability. The importance of proper and early diagnosis of posttraumatic persistent calf swelling is stressed.

  17. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  18. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords “tibial”, “plateau”, “fractures”, “knee”, “athletes”, “sports”, “non-operative”, “conservative”, “operative”, “return to sport”. All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management (n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management (n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) (n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) (n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) (n = 262). All studies recorded “return to sport” rates. Only one study recorded a “return to sport” time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study

  19. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  20. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism following circular frame treatment for tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Vollans, S; Chaturvedi, A; Sivasankaran, K; Madhu, T; Hadland, Y; Allgar, V; Sharma, H K

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following tibial fractures. The risk is as high as 77% without prophylaxis and around 10% with prophylaxis. Within the current literature there are no figures reported specifically for those individuals treated with circular frames. Our aim was to evaluate the VTE incidence within a single surgeon series and to evaluate potential risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive single surgeon series of 177 patients admitted to a major trauma unit with tibial fractures. All patients received standardised care, including chemical thromboprophylaxis within 24h of injury until independent mobility was achieved. We comprehensively reviewed our prospective database and medical records looking at demographics and potential risk factors. Seven patients (4.0% ± 2.87%) developed symptomatic VTE during the course of frame treatment; three deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) and four pulmonary embolisms (PEs). Those with a VTE event had significantly increased body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) when compared to those without symptomatic VTE. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the groups in age, gender, smoking status, fracture type (anatomical allocation or open/closed), delay to frame treatment, weight bearing status post-frame, inpatient stay or total duration of frame treatment. This study suggests that increased BMI is a statistically significant risk factor for VTE, as reported in current literature. In addition, we calculated the true risk of VTE following circular frame treatment for tibial fracture in our series is from 1.13% to 6.87%, which is at least comparable to other forms of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ß-TCP bone substitutes in tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  5. Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Mahajan, Vivek; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2011-05-01

    Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In our patient the tibial plateau fracture occurred after a torsional injury to the involved extremity. The fracture occurred 4.5 years after the ACL reconstruction. The fracture was intra-articular Schatzker type IV and had a significant displacement. The patient was treated operatively by open reduction-internal fixation. He recovered well. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  7. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULTS The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days. CONCLUSIONS Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres. PMID:21047449

  8. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  9. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  10. Polyaxial Screws in Locked Plating of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yenna, Zachary C; Bhadra, Arup K; Ojike, Nwakile I; Burden, Robert L; Voor, Michael J; Roberts, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the axial and torsional stiffness of polyaxial locked plating techniques compared with fixed-angle locked plating techniques in a distal tibia pilon fracture model. The effect of using a polyaxial screw to cross the fracture site was examined to determine its ability to control relative fracture site motion. A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the biomechanical stiffness of distal tibia fracture models repaired with 3.5-mm anterior polyaxial distal tibial plates and locking screws. Sawbones Fourth Generation Composite Tibia models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc, Vashon, Washington) were used to model an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43-A1.3 distal tibia pilon fracture. The polyaxial plates were inserted with 2 central locking screws at a position perpendicular to the cortical surface of the tibia and tested for load as a function of axial displacement and torque as a function of angular displacement. The 2 screws were withdrawn and inserted at an angle 15° from perpendicular, allowing them to span the fracture and insert into the opposing fracture surface. Each tibia was tested again for axial and torsional stiffness. In medial and posterior loading, no statistically significant difference was found between tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed in the neutral position compared with the central screws placed at a 15° position. In torsional loading, a statistically significant difference was noted, showing greater stiffness in tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed at a 15° position compared with tibiae plated with the central screws placed at a 0° (or perpendicular) position. This study showed that variable angle constructs show similar stiffness properties between perpendicular and 15° angle insertions in axial loading. The 15° angle construct shows greater stiffness in torsional loading. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    PubMed

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  12. Arthroscopic Management of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures: Principles and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kaplan, Daniel James; Weinberg, Maxwell E; Egol, Jonathan; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2018-05-15

    Tibial spine fractures are uncommon injuries affecting the insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament on the tibia. They typically occur in skeletally immature patients aged 8 to 14 years and result from hyperextension of the knee with a valgus or rotational force. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and standard radiographs. The use of MRI can identify entrapped soft tissue that may prevent reduction. Open or arthroscopic repair is indicated in patients with partially displaced fractures (>5 mm) with one third to one half of the avulsed fragment elevated, in patients who have undergone unsuccessful nonsurgical reduction and long leg casting or bracing, and in patients with completely displaced fractures. Arthroscopy offers reduced invasiveness and decreased morbidity. Suture fixation and screw fixation have produced successful results. Suture fixation can eliminate the risk of fracture fragment comminution during screw insertion, the risk of neurovascular injury, and the need for hardware removal. Suture fixation is ideal in cases in which existing comminution prevents screw fixation.

  13. Fractography and oxidative analysis of gamma inert sterilized posterior-stabilized tibial insert post fractures: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Farzana; Chang, Jennifer; Huddleston, James; Van Citters, Douglas; Ries, Michael; Pruitt, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has shown success in reducing wear in hip arthroplasty but there remains skepticism about its use in Total Knee Replacement (TKR) inserts that are known to experience fatigue loading and higher local cyclic contact stresses. Two Legacy Posterior-Stabilized (LPS) Zimmer NexGen tibial implants sterilized by gamma irradiation in an inert environment with posts that fractured in vivo were analyzed. Failure mechanisms were determined using optical and scanning electron microscopy along with oxidative analysis via Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Micrographs of one retrieval revealed fatigue crack initiation on opposite sides of the post and quasi-brittle micromechanisms of crack propagation. FTIR of this retrieval revealed no oxidation. The fracture surface image of the second retrieval indicated a brittle fracture process and FTIR revealed oxidation in the explant. These two cases suggest that crosslinking of UHMWPE as a manufacturing process or sterilization method in conjunction with designs that incorporate high stress concentrations, such as the tibial post, may reduce material strength. Moreover, free radicals generated from ionizing radiation can render the polymer susceptible to oxidative embrittlement. Our findings suggest that tibial post fractures may be the results of in vivo oxidation and low level crosslinking. These and previous reports of fractured crosslinked UHMWPE devices implores caution when used with high stress concentrations, particularly when considering the potential for in vivo oxidation in TKR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. External fixation using locking plate in distal tibial fracture: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Ebraheim, Nabil; Li, Ming; He, Xianfeng; Schwind, Joshua; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Limei

    2015-08-01

    External fixation of tibial fractures using a locking plate has been reported with favorable results in some selected patients. However, the stability of external plate fixation in this fracture pattern has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the stability of external plate fixation with different plate-bone distances. In this study, the computational processing model of external fixation of a distal tibial metaphyseal fracture utilizing the contralateral femoral less invasive stabilization system plate was analyzed. The plate was placed on the anteromedial aspect of tibia with different plate-bone distances: 1, 10, 20, and 30 mm. Under axial load, the stiffness of construct in all groups was higher than intact tibia. Under axial load with an internal rotational force, the stiffness of construct with 1 and 10 mm plate-bone distances was similar to that of an intact tibia and the stiffness of the construct with 20 and 30 mm distances was lower than that of an intact tibia. Under axial load with an external rotational force, the stiffness of the construct in all groups was lower than that of an intact tibia. The maximum plate stresses were concentrated at the two most distal screws and were highest in the construct with the 10 mm plate-bone distance, and least in the construct with a 1 mm plate-bone distance. To guarantee a stable external plate fixation in distal tibial fracture, the plate-bone distance should be less than 30 mm.

  15. Finite element analysis of intramedullary nailing and double locking plate for treating extra-articular proximal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fancheng; Huang, Xiaowei; Ya, Yingsun; Ma, Fenfen; Qian, Zhi; Shi, Jifei; Guo, Shuolei; Yu, Baoqing

    2018-01-16

    Proximal tibia fractures are one of the most familiar fractures. Surgical approaches are usually needed for anatomical reduction. However, no single treatment method has been widely established as the standard care. Our present study aims to compare the stress and stability of intramedullary nails (IMN) fixation and double locking plate (DLP) fixation in the treatment of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the extra-articular proximal tibial fracture, whose 2-cm bone gap began 7 cm from the tibial plateau articular surface, was created fixed by different fixation implants. The axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance was imitated by an axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment, while the distal end was fixed effectively. The equivalent von Mises stress and displacement of the model was used as the output measures for analysis. The maximal equivalent von Mises stress value of the system in the IMN model was 293.23 MPa, which was higher comparing against that in the DLP fixation model (147.04 MPa). And the mean stress of the model in the IMN model (9.25 MPa) was higher than that of the DLP fixation system in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS) (P < 0.0001). The maximal value of displacement (sum) in the IMN system was 8.82 mm, which was lower than that in the DLP fixation system (9.48 mm). This study demonstrated that the stability provided by the locking plate fixation system was superior to the intramedullary nails fixation system and served as an alternative fixation for the extra-articular proximal tibial fractures of young patients.

  16. Outcome of limb reconstruction system in open tibial diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Anand; Verma, Ankit; Agrawal, Mukul; Jain, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Arunangshu

    2015-01-01

    Management of open tibial diaphyseal fractures with bone loss is a matter of debate. The treatment options range from external fixators, nailing, ring fixators or grafting with or without plastic reconstruction. All the procedures have their own set of complications, like acute docking problems, shortening, difficulty in soft tissue management, chronic infection, increased morbidity, multiple surgeries, longer hospital stay, mal union, nonunion and higher patient dissatisfaction. We evaluated the outcome of the limb reconstruction system (LRS) in the treatment of open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss as a definative mode of treatment to achieve union, as well as limb lengthening, simultaneously. Thirty open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss of at least 4 cm or more with a mean age 32.5 years were treated by using the LRS after debridement. Distraction osteogenesis at rate of 1 mm/day was done away from the fracture site to maintain the limb length. On the approximation of fracture ends, the dynamized LRS was left for further 15-20 weeks and patient was mobilized with weight bearing to achieve union. Functional assessment was done by Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Illizarov (ASAMI) criteria. Mean followup period was 15 months. The mean bone loss was 5.5 cm (range 4-9 cm). The mean duration of bone transport was 13 weeks (range 8-30 weeks) with a mean time for LRS in place was 44 weeks (range 24-51 weeks). The mean implant index was 56.4 days/cm. Mean union time was 52 weeks (range 31-60 weeks) with mean union index of 74.5 days/cm. Bony results as per the ASAMI scoring were excellent in 76% (19/25), good in 12% (3/25) and fair in 4% (1/25) with union in all except 2 patients, which showed poor results (8%) with only 2 patients having leg length discrepancy more than 2.5 cm. Functional results were excellent in 84% (21/25), good in 8% (2/25), fair in 8% (2/25). Pin tract infection was seen in 5 cases, out of which 4

  17. Repeated Stress Fractures in an Amenorrheic Marathoner: A Case Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John R.; Nilson, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a case conference by 2 experts on the relationship between a 26-year-old marathoner's amenorrhea and her sustained unusual stress fractures in 4 ribs (plus previous similar fractures of the calcaneal, navicular, metatarsal, and tibial bones). The experts conclude that she suffers many manifestations of overtraining. (SM)

  18. Distal tibial fractures are a poorly recognised complication with fibula free flaps.

    PubMed

    Durst, A; Clibbon, J; Davis, B

    2015-09-01

    The fibula free flap is ideal for complex jaw reconstructions, with low reported donor and flap morbidity. We discuss a distal tibial stress fracture two months following a vascularised fibula free flap procedure. Despite being an unrecognised complication, a literature review produced 13 previous cases; only two were reported in the reconstructive surgery literature, with the most recent claiming to be the first. The majority of these studies treated this fracture non-operatively; none reported their patient follow-up. Each case presented with ipsilateral leg pain, which has been cited as an early donor site morbidity in as many as 40% of fibula free flap cases. It is known that the fibula absorbs at least 15% of leg load on weight bearing. Studies have shown severe valgus deformities in up to 25% of patients with fibulectomies. We treated our patient operatively, first correcting his worsening valgus deformity with an external fixator, then reinforcing his healed fracture with a long distal tibial plate. We believe that this complication is underreported, unexpected and not mentioned during the consenting process. By highlighting the management of our case and the literature, we aim to increase awareness (and thus further reporting and appropriate management) of this debilitating complication.

  19. Part II: arthroscopic treatment of tibial plateau fractures: intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Elson, Wylie S; Guttmann, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) of tibial intercondylar eminence fractures is the emerging state-of-the-art. ARIF is recommended for displaced type III fractures and should be considered for all cases of displaced type II fractures. Fractures without displacement after closed reduction require careful evaluation to rule out meniscal entrapment. Subjective results of ARIF are uniformly excellent, despite reports of objective anteroposterior laxity. Early range-of-motion exercises are essential to prevent loss of extension. Repair using nonabsorbable suture fixation, when of adequate strength to allow early range-of-motion, has the advantages of eliminating the risks of comminution of the fracture fragment, posterior neurovascular injury, and need for hardware removal, compared with ARIF using screws.

  20. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. Case Report: A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. Conclusion: A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients. PMID:29181350

  1. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients.

  2. Altered-stress fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Branagan, P.T.

    Altered-stress fracturing is a concept whereby a hydraulic fracture in one well is reoriented by another hydraulic fracture in a nearby location. The application is in tight, naturally fractured, anisotropic reservoirs in which conventional hydraulic fractures parallel the highly permeable natural fractures and little production enhancement is achieved by conventional hydraulic fracturing. Altered-stress fracturing can modify the stress field so that hydraulic fractures propagate across the permeable natural fractures. A field test was conducted in which stress changes of 250 to 300 psi (1.7 to 2.1 MPa) were measured in an offset well 120 ft (37 m) away during relativelymore » small minifracs in a production well. These results show that stress-altered fracturing is possible at this site and others. Analytic and finite element calculations quantify the effects of layers, stresses, and crack size. Reservoir calculations show significant enhancement compared to conventional treatments. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  3. Internal tibial torsion correction study. [measurements of strain for corrective rotation of stressed tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, J. M.; Madigan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative study of internal torsion in the entire tibial bone was performed by using strain gauges to measure the amount of deformation occuring at different locations. Comparison of strain measurements with physical dimensions of the bone produced the modulus of rigidity and its behavior under increased torque. Computerized analysis of the stress distribution shows that more strain occurs near the torqued ends of the bones where also most of the twisting and fracturing takes place.

  4. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  5. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Fracture reduction and primary ankle arthrodesis: a reliable approach for severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Douglas N; Gellman, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis and prolonged recovery are typical after a severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture, and ankle arthrodesis is a common salvage procedure. However, few reports discuss the option of immediate arthrodesis, which may be a potentially viable approach to accelerate overall recovery in patients with severe fracture patterns. (1) How long does it take the fracture to heal and the arthrodesis to fuse when primary ankle arthrodesis is a component of initial fracture management? (2) How do these patients fare clinically in terms of modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores and activity levels after this treatment? (3) Does primary ankle arthrodesis heal in an acceptable position when anterior ankle arthrodesis plates are used? During a 2-year period, we performed open fracture reduction and internal fixation in 63 patients. Eleven patients (12 ankles) with severely comminuted high-energy tibial pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed after surgical treatment with primary ankle arthrodesis and fracture reduction. Average patient age was 58 years, and minimum followup was 6 months (average, 14 months; range, 6-22 months). Anatomically designed anterior ankle arthrodesis plates were used in 10 ankles. Ring external fixation was used in nine ankles with concomitant tibia fracture or in instances requiring additional fixation. Clinical evaluation included chart review, interview, the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and radiographic evaluation. All of the ankle arthrodeses healed at an average of 4.4 months (range, 3-5 months). One patient had a nonunion at the metaphyseal fracture, which healed with revision surgery. The average AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 83 with 88% having an excellent or good result. Radiographic and clinical analysis confirmed a plantigrade foot without malalignment. No patients required revision surgery for malunion. Primary ankle arthrodesis combined with fracture reduction for the severely comminuted

  7. Delay in weight bearing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures is associated with impaired healing: a cohort analysis of 166 tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Houben, I B; Raaben, M; Van Basten Batenburg, M; Blokhuis, T J

    2018-04-09

    The relation between timing of weight bearing after a fracture and the healing outcome is yet to be established, thereby limiting the implementation of a possibly beneficial effect for our patients. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of timing of weight bearing after a surgically treated tibial shaft fracture. Surgically treated diaphyseal tibial fractures were retrospectively studied between 2007 and 2015. The timing of initial weight bearing (IWB) was analysed as a predictor for impaired healing in a multivariate regression. Totally, 166 diaphyseal tibial fractures were included, 86 cases with impaired healing and 80 with normal healing. The mean age was 38.7 years (range 16-89). The mean time until IWB was significantly shorter in the normal fracture healing group (2.6 vs 7.4 weeks, p < 0.001). Correlation analysis yielded four possible confounders: infection requiring surgical intervention, fracture type, fasciotomy and open fractures. Logistic regression identified IWB as an independent predictor for impaired healing with an odds ratio of 1.13 per week delay (95% CI 1.03-1.25). Delay in initial weight bearing is independently associated with impaired fracture healing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures. Unlike other factors such as fracture type or soft tissue condition, early resumption of weight bearing can be influenced by the treating physician and this factor therefore has a direct clinical relevance. This study indicates that early resumption of weight bearing should be the treatment goal in fracture fixation. 3b.

  8. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Kara, Adnan; Adaş, Müjdat; Karslioğlu, Bülent; Bülbül, Murat; Beksaç, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening. PMID:25544899

  9. Stress fracture of the pelvis and lower limbs including atypical femoral fractures-a review.

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard J; Garton, Mark; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Lalam, Radhesh; Singh, Jaspreet

    2015-02-01

    Stress fractures, that is fatigue and insufficiency fractures, of the pelvis and lower limb come in many guises. Most doctors are familiar with typical sacral, tibial or metatarsal stress fractures. However, even common and typical presentations can pose diagnostic difficulties especially early after the onset of clinical symptoms. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of stress fractures and their reflection in the imaging appearances. The role of varying imaging modalities is laid out and typical findings are demonstrated. Emphasis is given to sometimes less well-appreciated fractures, which might be missed and can have devastating consequences for longer term patient outcomes. In particular, atypical femoral shaft fractures and their relationship to bisphosphonates are discussed. Migrating bone marrow oedema syndrome, transient osteoporosis and spontaneous osteonecrosis are reviewed as manifestations of stress fractures. Radiotherapy-related stress fractures are examined in more detail. An overview of typical sites of stress fractures in the pelvis and lower limbs and their particular clinical relevance concludes this review. Teaching Points • Stress fractures indicate bone fatigue or insufficiency or a combination of these. • Radiographic visibility of stress fractures is delayed by 2 to 3 weeks. • MRI is the most sensitive and specific modality for stress fractures. • Stress fractures are often multiple; the underlying cause should be evaluated. • Infratrochanteric lateral femoral fractures suggest an atypical femoral fracture (AFF); endocrinologist referral is advisable.

  10. The treatment options for posterior malleolar fractures in tibial spiral fractures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jialiang; Liu, Lei; Yang, Zongyou; Hou, Zhiyong; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-09-01

    The posterior malleolar fracture (PMF) in tibial spiral fractures are a common type of complication that occurs in tibial fractures. However, the indication of fixation for posterior fractures is still under debate and varies between different surgeons'. It is not unusual to find the smaller PMF (<25%), which could be treated conservatively within guidelines, treated with internal fixation in clinic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of tibial spiral fractures with PMF and provide proper guidance for the treatment of this special fracture. A total of 284 cases of spiral fractures combined with PMF were collected and analyzed. Demographic data, fragment size (classified by 25% involvement of ankle joint), time to weight-bearing and functional scores post-operatively were recorded. The ankle-hindfoot scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, assessment of dorsiflexion restriction and arthritis scale were used as the main evaluations. Forty patients with a larger PMF (≥25%) and 72 with smaller ones (<25%) were fixed and categorized as the fixation group (FG). In the nonfixation group (NG), the corresponding numbers were four and 168 patients respectively. A total of 279 PMF were classified as large posterolateral triangular fragment carrying the posterior half of the fibular notch and intra-incisural posterolateral fragment involving one-fourth to one-third of the fibular notch. However, no obvious differences were observed in terms of the clinical outcomes in PMF involving one-fourth to one-third of the fibular notch. In the treatment of smaller PMF (<25%) of this type, there were no obvious differences in the functional outcomes between fixed (SF) and nonfixed PMF (SN). Many patients with smaller PMFs were fixated, but functional outcomes of SF were not better than those of SN. There is no need to emphasize other factors guiding the treatment of PMF involving one-fourth to

  11. Ipsilateral intact fibula as a predictor of tibial plafond fracture pattern and severity.

    PubMed

    Luk, Pamela C; Charlton, Timothy P; Lee, Jackson; Thordarson, David B

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in fracture pattern and severity of comminution between tibial plafond fractures with and without associated fibular fractures using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the presence of an intact fibula was predictive of increased tibial plafond fracture severity. This was a case control, radiographic review performed at a single level I university trauma center. Between November 2007 and July 2011, 104 patients with 107 operatively treated tibial pilon fractures and preoperative CT scans were identified: 70 patients with 71 tibial plafond fractures had associated fibular fractures, and 34 patients with 36 tibial plafond fractures had intact fibulas. Four criteria were compared between the 2 groups: AO/OTA classification of distal tibia fractures, Topliss coronal and sagittal fracture pattern classification, plafond region of greatest comminution, and degree of proximal extension of fracture line. The intact fibula group had greater percentages of AO/OTA classification B2 type (5.5 vs 0, P = .046) and B3 type (52.8 vs 28.2, P = .013). Conversely, the percentage of AO/OTA classification C3 type was greater in the fractured fibula group (53.5 vs 30.6, P = .025). Evaluation using the Topliss sagittal and coronal classifications revealed no difference between the 2 groups (P = .226). Central and lateral regions of the plafond were the most common areas of comminution in fractured fibula pilons (32% and 31%, respectively). The lateral region of the plafond was the most common area of comminution in intact fibula pilon fractures (42%). There was no statistically significant difference (P = .71) in degree of proximal extension of fracture line between the 2 groups. Tibial plafond fractures with intact fibulas were more commonly associated with AO/OTA classification B-type patterns, whereas those with fractured fibulas were more commonly associated with C-type patterns. An intact fibula

  12. Do Tibial Plateau Fractures Worsen Outcomes of Knee Ligament Injuries? A Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cinque, Mark E.; Godin, Jonathan A.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; Kruckeberg, Bradley M.; Pogorzelski, Jonas; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tibial plateau fractures account for a small portion of all fractures; however, these fractures can pose a surgical challenge when occurring concomitantly with ligament injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare 2-year outcomes of soft tissue reconstruction with or without a concomitant tibial plateau fracture and open reduction internal fixation. We hypothesized that patients with a concomitant tibial plateau fracture at the time of soft tissue surgery would have inferior outcomes compared with patients without an associated tibial plateau fracture. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty patients were included in this study: 8 in the fracture group and 32 in the matched control group. Inclusion criteria for the fracture group included patients who were at least 18 years old at the time of surgery and sustained a tibial plateau fracture and a concomitant injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, or fibular collateral ligament in isolation or any combination of cruciate or collateral ligaments and who subsequently underwent isolated or combined ligament reconstruction. Patients were excluded if they underwent prior ipsilateral knee surgery, sustained additional bony injuries, or sustained an isolated extra-articular ligament injury at the time of injury. Each patient with a fracture was matched with 4 patients from a control group who had no evidence of a tibial plateau fracture but underwent the same soft tissue reconstruction procedure. Results: Patients in the fracture group improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively with respect to Short Form–12 (P < .05) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index total scores (P < .05). The Lysholm (P = .075) and Tegner scores (P = .086) also improved, although this was not statistically significant. Patients in the control group improved significantly from

  13. Locking plate fixation in distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: series of 79 patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Sangwan, Kapil; Singh, Vijendra; Walia, Saurav

    2010-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation in distal tibial fractures jeopardises fracture fragment vascularity and often results in soft tissue complications. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis, if possible, offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. Seventy-nine consecutive adult patients with distal tibial fractures, including one patient with a bilateral fracture of the distal tibia, treated with locking plates, were retrospectively reviewed. The 4.5-mm limited-contact locking compression plate (LC-LCP) was used in 33 fractures, the metaphyseal LCP in 27 fractures and the distal medial tibial LCP in the remaining 20 fractures. Fibula fixation was performed in the majority of comminuted fractures (n = 41) to maintain the second column of the ankle so as to achieve indirect reduction and to prevent collapse of the fracture. There were two cases of delayed wound breakdown in fractures fixed with the 4.5-mm LC-LCP. Five patients required primary bone grafting and three patients required secondary bone grafting. All cases of delayed union (n = 7) and nonunion (n = 3) were observed in cases where plates were used in bridge mode. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with LCP was observed to be a reliable method of stabilisation for these fractures. Peri-operative docking of fracture ends may be a good option in severely impacted fractures with gap. The precontoured distal medial tibial LCP was observed to be a better tolerated implant in comparison to the 4.5-mm LC-LCP or metaphyseal LCP with respect to complications of soft tissues, bone healing and functional outcome, though its contour needs to be modified.

  14. Management of Open Tibial Shaft Fractures: Does the Timing of Surgery Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Duyos, Oscar A; Beaton-Comulada, David; Davila-Parrilla, Ariel; Perez-Lopez, Jose Carlos; Ortiz, Krystal; Foy-Parrilla, Christian; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures require emergent care. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics and fracture débridement within 6 to 24 hours is recommended. Few studies have examined outcomes when surgical treatment is performed >24 hours after occurrence of the fracture. This retrospective study included 227 patients aged ≥18 years with isolated open tibial shaft fractures in whom the time to initial débridement was >24 hours. The statistical analysis was based on time from injury to surgical débridement, Gustilo-Anderson classification, method of fixation, union status, and infection status. Fractures débrided within 24 to 48 hours and 48 to 96 hours after injury did not show a statistically significant difference in terms of infection rates (P = 0.984). External fixation showed significantly greater infection rates (P = 0.044) and nonunion rates (P = 0.001) compared with intramedullary nailing. Open tibial shaft fractures should be débrided within 24 hours after injury. Our data indicate that after the 24-hour period and up to 4 days, the risk of infection remains relatively constant independent of the time to débridement. Patients treated with external fixation had more complications than did patients treated with other methods of fixation. Primary reamed intramedullary nailing appears to be a reasonable option for the management of Gustilo-Anderson types 1 and 2 open tibial shaft fractures. Level III retrospective study.

  15. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Matcuk, George R; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included.

  16. Stress fractures about the tibia, foot, and ankle.

    PubMed

    Shindle, Michael K; Endo, Yoshimi; Warren, Russell F; Lane, Joseph M; Helfet, David L; Schwartz, Elliott N; Ellis, Scott J

    2012-03-01

    In competitive athletes, stress fractures of the tibia, foot, and ankle are common and lead to considerable delay in return to play. Factors such as bone vascularity, training regimen, and equipment can increase the risk of stress fracture. Management is based on the fracture site. In some athletes, metabolic workup and medication are warranted. High-risk fractures, including those of the anterior tibial diaphysis, navicular, proximal fifth metatarsal, and medial malleolus, present management challenges and may require surgery, especially in high-level athletes who need to return to play quickly. Noninvasive treatment modalities such as pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shock wave therapy may have some benefit but require additional research.

  17. Arthroscopic evaluation of soft tissue injuries in tibial plateau fractures: retrospective analysis of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed Zaki; Chang, Chung-Hsun; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Lo, Yang-Pin; Huang, Jau-Wen; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2006-06-01

    This investigation arthroscopically assesses the frequency of soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fracture according to the severity of fracture patterns. We hypothesized that use of arthroscopy to evaluate soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fractures would reveal a greater number of associated injuries than have previously been reported. From March 1996 to December 2003, 98 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and osteosynthesis, with precise diagnosis and management of associated soft tissue injuries. Arthroscopic findings for associated soft tissue injuries were recorded, and the relationship between fracture type and soft tissue injury was then analyzed. The frequency of associated soft tissue injury in this series was 71% (70 of 98). The menisci were injured in 57% of subjects (56 in 98), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 25% (24 of 98), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 5% (5 of 98), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 3% (3 of 98), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 3% (3 of 98), and the peroneal nerve in 1% (1 of 98); none of the 98 patients exhibited injury to the arteries. No significant association was noted between fracture type and incidence of meniscus, PCL, LCL, MCL, artery, and nerve injury. However, significantly higher injury rates for the ACL were observed in type IV and VI fractures. Soft tissue injury was associated with all types of tibial plateau fracture. Menisci (peripheral tear) and ACL (bony avulsion) were the most commonly injured sites. A variety of soft tissue injuries are common with tibial plateau fracture; these can be diagnosed with the use of an arthroscope. Level III, diagnostic study.

  18. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dinko; Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Elabjer, Esmat; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    Distal tibial or pilon fractures are usually the result of combined compressive and shear forces, and may result in instability of the metaphysis, with or without articular depression, and injury to the soft tissue. The complexity of injury, lack of muscle cover and poor vascularity make these fractures difficult to treat. Surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures includes several options: external fixation, IM nailing, ORIF and minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). Management of distal tibial fractures with MIPO enables preservation of soft tissue and remaining blood supply. This is a report of a series of prospectively studied closed distal tibial and pilon fractures treated with MIPO. A total of 21 patients with closed distal tibial or pilon fractures were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and November 2013 and completed follow-up. Demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, time required for union, ankle range of motion and complications were recorded. Fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification. Nineteen patients were initially managed with an ankle-spanning external fixator. When the status of the soft tissue had improved and swelling had subsided enough, a definitive internal fixation with MIPO was performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months. Mean age of the patients was 40.1 years (range 19-67 years). Eighteen cases were the result of high-energy trauma and three were the result of low-energy trauma. According to the AO/OTA classification there were extraarticular and intraarticular fractures, but only simple articular patterns without depression or comminution. The average time for fracture union was 19.7 weeks (range 12-38 weeks). Mean range of motion was 10° of dorsiflexion (range 5-15°) and 28.3° of plantar flexion (range 20-35°). Three cases were metalwork-related complications. Two patients underwent plate removal

  19. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    and Exercise . 22:2, S40, April, 1990. Hortobagyi, T., Kroll, W. P., Katch, F. L, Hamill, J. Comparison of stretch induced force and neural...syndrome in competitive female runners". It will be submitted to Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise by the end of 2003. Abstract Submission...speed sessions per month, nutrition and history of amenorrhea . Nevertheless, based on the data from these 20 subjects, several of the hypotheses

  20. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    runners. A "stiff’ runner will spend less time in contact with the ground (Farley and Gonzalez, 1996 ) and will attenuate less shock between the leg and the...head (McMahon et al., 1987). This is in agreement with the findings of Farley and Gonzalez ( 1996 ) who suggested lower extremity stiffness and knee...83/026). Natick, MA: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories. Brukner, P., Bradshaw, C., Khan, K., White, S. and Crossley, K. ( 1996

  1. Ultrasound-Diagnosed Tibia Stress Fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Adae; Abid, Ayesha; Shadiack, Anthony; Monaco, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Stress fractures are a frequent cause of lower extremity pain in athletes, and especially in runners. Plain imaging has a low sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bone scan scintigraphy is the criterion standard, but expensive. We present the case of a young female distance runner with left shin pain. Plain radiography was unremarkable. Ultrasound showed focal hyperechoic elevation of the periosteum with irregularity over the distal tibia and increased flow on Doppler. These findings were consistent with a distal tibia stress fracture and confirmed by MRI. Examination of our case will highlight the utility of considering an ultrasound for diagnosis of tibial stress fracture.

  2. Ultrasound-Diagnosed Tibia Stress Fracture: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae; Abid, Ayesha; Shadiack, Anthony; Monaco, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Stress fractures are a frequent cause of lower extremity pain in athletes, and especially in runners. Plain imaging has a low sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bone scan scintigraphy is the criterion standard, but expensive. We present the case of a young female distance runner with left shin pain. Plain radiography was unremarkable. Ultrasound showed focal hyperechoic elevation of the periosteum with irregularity over the distal tibia and increased flow on Doppler. These findings were consistent with a distal tibia stress fracture and confirmed by MRI. Examination of our case will highlight the utility of considering an ultrasound for diagnosis of tibial stress fracture. PMID:28469488

  3. Complex tibial fracture outcomes following treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kwok-Sui; Lee, Wing-Sze; Tsui, Hon-For; Liu, Paul Po-Lung; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2004-03-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) stimulation (LIPUS) on the healing of complex tibial fractures. Thirty complex tibial fractures were randomly assigned to the treatment with LIPUS (n = 16) or by a dummy machine (sham-exposed: n = 14). The fractures were immobilized by either internal or external fixations according to the clinical indications. LIPUS was given 20 min/day for 90 days. Fracture healing was monitored by clinical, radiological, densitometric and biochemical assessments. The LIPUS-treated group showed statistically significantly better healing, as demonstrated by all assessments. Complications were minimal in the LIPUS group. There were two cases of delayed union, with one in each group. There were two cases of infection in the control group. The delayed-union cases were subsequently treated by LIPUS and the infection cases were treated with standard protocol. Fracture healing in these patients was again treated by LIPUS.

  4. [Medial versus lateral plating in distal tibial fractures: a prospective study of 40 fractures].

    PubMed

    Encinas-Ullán, C A; Fernandez-Fernandez, R; Rubio-Suárez, J C; Gil-Garay, E

    2013-01-01

    Tibial plafond fractures are one of the most challenging injuries in orthopaedic surgery. Their results could be improved by following the new guidelines for the management, and modern plating techniques. The results and complication rate between anteromedial and anterolateral approach for open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures were compared. A study was conducted on 40 patients treated by open reduction an internal fixation between 2007 and 2008. The surgical approach was selected by the surgeon in charge, depending on fracture pattern and skin situation. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically by an independent orthopaedic surgeon, not involved in the surgical procedure, using clinical (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score) and radiological criteria at a minimum of two years. The appearance of complications after both approaches was recorded. Forty patients were included. The mean age was 53 years, with 24 males and 16 females. Seventeen of the injuries were of high energy, and there were 8 open fractures (3 of type i, 4 type ii and one type iii), and 12 of the closed injuries were grade ii or iii in the Tscherne classification. Six patients (15%) had associated injuries. At final follow-up there were 33 (82%) excellent or good results. No statistical differences were found between either surgical approach regarding time to bone union, rate of delayed union and infection rate. Three plates of the anteromedial group and none of the anterolateral group needed to be removed. Open reduction and internal fixation of distal tibia fractures produced reliable results, with no statistical differences found between anteromedial and anterolateral surgical approaches. Clinical and radiological results and complication rate were mainly related to the fracture type. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative pressure wound therapy for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin; Kim, Gi Beom

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures have been treated by initial wide wound debridement, stabilization of fracture with external fixation, and delayed wound closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of staged treatment using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. 15 patients with Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures, treated using staged protocol by a single surgeon between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed in this retrospective study. The clinical results were assessed using a Puno scoring system for severe open fractures of the tibia at the last followup. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee and ankle joints and postoperative complication were evaluated at the last followup. The radiographic results were assessed using time to bone union, coronal and sagittal angulations and a shortening at the last followup. The mean score of Puno scoring system was 87.4 (range 67-94). The mean ROM of the knee and ankle joints was 121.3° (range 90°-130°) and 37.7° (range 15°-50°), respectively. Bone union developed in all patients and the mean time to union was 25.3 weeks (range 16-42 weeks). The mean coronal angulation was 2.1° (range 0-4°) and sagittal was 2.7° (range 1-4°). The mean shortening was 4.1 mm (range 0-8 mm). Three patients had partial flap necrosis and 1 patient had total flap necrosis. There was no superficial and deep wound infection. Staged treatment using NPWT decreased the risks of infection and requirement of flap surgeries in Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Therefore, staged treatment using NPWT could be a useful treatment option for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures.

  6. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

  7. Low-energy fracture of posterolateral tibial plateau: treatment by a posterolateral prone approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Rong; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Jia-Qian; Yang, Yun-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Most of the posterolateral tibial plateau fractures are caused by low-energy injury. The posterior fracture fragment could not be exposed and reduced well through traditional approaches. The aim of this study was to review the results of surgical treatment of this kind of fracture using posterolateral approach with patient in prone position. The low-energy posterolateral fracture is defined as the main part of articular depression or split fragment limited within the posterior half of the lateral column. Direct reduction and buttress plate fixation through the posterolateral prone approach was applied in all the patients. In our series, 15 of 132 (11.4%) patients with tibial plateau fractures were identified as low-energy posterolateral fractures. The clinical outcomes were available in 14 of the 15 patients through phone interviews and chart reviews. Mean follow-up was 35.1 months (range: 24-48 months). All the patients had anatomic or good reductions (≤ 2 mm step/gap). Average range of motion was 0.7 degrees to 123.2 degrees (5-110 degrees to 0-140 degrees). The complications were limited to one superficial wound infection, two slight flexion contractures, and five implants removal. The average modified hospital for special surgery knee score was 93.4 (range: 86-100). The posterolateral prone approach provides excellent visualization, which can facilitate the reduction and posterior buttress plate fixation for low-energy posterolateral tibial plateau fractures and shows encouraging results. V, therapeutic study.

  8. Minimally invasive treatment of tibial pilon fractures through arthroscopy and external fixator-assisted reduction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huasong; Chen, Liaobin; Liu, Kebin; Peng, Songming; Zhang, Jien; Yi, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of tibial pilon fractures treated with arthroscopy and assisted reduction with an external fixator. Thirteen patients with tibial pilon fractures underwent assisted reduction for limited lower internal fixation with an external fixator under arthroscopic guidance. The weight-bearing time was decided on the basis of repeat radiography of the tibia 3 months after surgery. Postoperative ankle function was evaluated according to the Mazur scoring system. Healing of fractures was achieved in all cases, with no complications such as severe infection, skin necrosis, or an exposed plate. There were 9 excellent, 2 good, and 2 poor outcomes, scored according to the Mazur system. The acceptance rate was 85%. Arthroscopy and external fixator-assisted reduction for the minimally invasive treatment of tibial pilon fractures not only produced less trauma but also protected the soft tissues and blood supply surrounding the fractures. External fixation could indirectly provide reduction and effective operative space for arthroscopic implantation, especially for AO type B fractures and partial AO type C1 fractures.

  9. Delayed presentation is no barrier to satisfactory outcome in the management of open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Robert U; Mehta, Janak A; Cripps, Robin

    2004-04-01

    The management of open tibial fractures is a challenge to all orthopaedic trauma surgeons. The major goals are fracture union, uncomplicated soft tissue healing and return to pre-injury level of function. The geographical isolation and vastness of the Northern Territory of Australia complicates the management of these injuries by adding a significant delay to treatment. Forty-five patients sustained 48 open tibial fractures over the 30-month period of the study. Twelve received primary surgical treatment within 6h of injury but 33 were treated more than 6h after injury. The mean time to treatment in this latter group was 12h 15min (median 9h 45min, range 6-37h). The majority of injuries were high energy, with 23 patients having multiple injuries and 29 fractures (60%) being classified as AO C3 with 35 (73%) having Gustilo III soft tissue injuries. There was a mean time to union of 7.5 months and an overall complication rate of 42.2%. Thirteen patients (29%) required additional (late) surgical procedures subsequent to definitive fracture and soft tissue management. The zone of injury infection rate was 12.5%. The high incidence of open tibial fractures places a large financial burden on the state. However, despite the absence of a plastic surgical service and delays in presentation, satisfactory outcomes can be obtained by the application of the established surgical principles of thorough debridement, soft tissue management and fracture stabilisation.

  10. Role of the fibula in the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures fixed by intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, John G; Daly, Charles J; Harty, James A; Dailey, Hannah L

    2016-10-01

    For tibial fractures, the decision to fix a concomitant fibular fracture is undertaken on a case-by-case basis. To aid in this clinical decision-making process, we investigated whether loss of integrity of the fibula significantly destabilises midshaft tibial fractures, whether fixation of the fibula restores stability to the tibia, and whether removal of the fibula and interosseous membrane for expediency in biomechanical testing significantly influences tibial interfragmentary mechanics. Tibia/fibula pairs were harvested from six cadaveric donors with the interosseous membrane intact. A tibial osteotomy fracture was fixed by reamed intramedullary (IM) nailing. Axial, torsion, bending, and shear tests were completed for four models of fibular involvement: intact fibula, osteotomy fracture, fibular plating, and resected fibula and interosseous membrane. Overall construct stiffness decreased slightly with fibular osteotomy compared to intact bone, but this change was not statistically significant. Under low loads, the influence of the fibula on construct stability was only statistically significant in torsion (large effect size). Fibular plating stiffened the construct slightly, but this change was not statistically significant compared to the fibular osteotomy case. Complete resection of the fibula and interosseous membrane significantly decreased construct torsional stiffness only (large effect size). These results suggest that fixation of the fibula may not contribute significantly to the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures and should not be undertaken unless otherwise clinically indicated. For testing purposes, load-sharing through the interosseous membrane contributes significantly to overall construct mechanics, especially in torsion, and we recommend preservation of these structures when possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimal internal fixation augmented by small wire transfixion frames for high-energy tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Katsenis, Dimitris; Athanasiou, Vasilis; Vasilis, Athanasiou; Megas, Panayiotis; Panayiotis, Megas; Tyllianakis, Minos; Minos, Tillianakis; Lambiris, Elias

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with minimal internal fixation augmented by small wire external fixation frames and to assess the necessity of bridging the knee joint by extending the external fixation to the distal femur. This is a retrospective study of 48 tibial plateau fractures. There were 40 (83.5%) Schatzker type VI fractures, 8 Schatzker type V fractures, and 18 (37.5%) fractures were open. A complex injury according to the Tscherne-Lobenhoffer classification was recorded in 30 (62.5%) patients. All fractures were treated with combined minimally invasive internal and external fixation. Closed reduction was achieved in 32 (66.6%) of the fractures. Extension of the external fixation to the distal femur was done in 30 (62.5%) fractures. Results were assessed according to the criteria of Honkonen-Jarvinen. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 60 months with an average of 38 months. All fractures but 1 united at an average of 13.5 weeks (range 11-18 weeks). One patient developed an infected nonunion of the diaphyseal segment of his fracture. Thirty-nine (81%) patients achieved an excellent or good radiologic result. An excellent or good final clinical result was recorded in 36 patients (76%). Bridging the knee joint did not affect significantly the result (P < 0.418). No significant correlation was found between the type of fracture and the final score (P < 0.458). Hybrid internal and external fixation combined with tibiofemoral extension of the fixation is an attractive treatment option for complex tibial plateau fractures.

  12. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  13. Proximal tibial fractures: early experience using polyaxial locking-plate technology.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Tan, Hiang Boon; Haidukewych, George; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-08-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, 60 patients with proximal tibial fractures were included in this prospective study. All fractures were treated with the polyaxial locked-plate fixation system (DePuy, Warsaw, IN, USA). Clinical and radiographic data, including fracture pattern, changes in alignment, local and systemic complications, hardware failure and fracture union were analysed. The mean follow-up was 14 (12-36) months. According to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification, there were five 41-A, 28 41-B and 27 41-C fractures. Fractures were treated percutaneously in 30% of cases. Double-plating was used in 11 cases. All but three fractures progressed to union at a mean of 3.2 (2.5-5) months. There was no evidence of varus collapse as a result of polyaxial screw failure. No plate fractured, and no screw cut out was noted. There was one case of lateral joint collapse (>10°) in a patient with open bicondylar plateau fracture. The mean Knee Society Score at the time of final follow-up was 91 points, and the mean functional score was 89 points. The polyaxial locking-plate system provided stable fixation of extra-articular and intra-articular proximal tibial fractures and good functional outcomes with a low complication rate.

  14. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, A.-L.; Apostolou, N.; Vidal, C.; Ferrero, E.; Mazda, K.; Ilharreborde, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. Methods All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. Results A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. Conclusions This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456750

  15. Biomechanical analysis of four different fixations for the posterolateral shearing tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Luo, Cong-Feng; Putnis, Sven; Sun, Hui; Zeng, Zhi-Min; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2012-03-01

    The posterolateral shearing tibial plateau fracture is uncommon in the literature, however with the increased usage of computer tomography (CT), the incidence of these fractures is no longer as low as previously thought. Few studies have concentrated on this fracture, least of all using a biomechanical model. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyse the biomechanical characteristics of four different types of internal fixation to stabilise the posterolateral shearing tibial plateau fracture. Forty synthetic tibiae (Synbone, right) simulated the posterolateral shearing fracture models and these were randomly assigned into four groups; Group A was fixed with two anterolateral lag screws, Group B with an anteromedial Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate (LC-DCP), Group C with a lateral locking plate, and Group D with a posterolateral buttress plate. Vertical displacement of the posterolateral fragment was measured using three different strengths of axial loading force, and finally loaded until fixation failure. It was concluded that the posterolateral buttress plate is biomechanically the strongest fixation method for the posterolateral shearing tibial plateau fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total knee arthroplasty in patients with a prior fracture of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicholas G; Parvizi, Javad; Trousdale, Robert T; Bryce, Rex D; Lewallen, David G

    2003-02-01

    A fracture of the tibial plateau may predispose the knee to the development of posttraumatic arthritis. Malunion, intra-articular chondro-osseous defects, limb malalignment, retained internal fixation devices, and poor surrounding soft tissues may in turn compromise the outcome of total knee arthroplasty. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of total knee arthroplasty in patients with a previous fracture of the tibial plateau. The results of sixty-two condylar total knee arthroplasties performed with cement, from 1988 to 1999, in sixty-two patients with a previous fracture of the tibial plateau were reviewed. The fracture of the tibial plateau had been treated by open reduction and internal fixation in thirty-eight knees, external fixation in one knee, and nonoperatively in twenty-three knees. There were forty women and twenty-two men with an average age of sixty-three years at the time of the arthroplasty. Knee Society scores were recorded preoperatively and at the time of follow-up, at an average of 4.7 years, and complications were noted. No patient was lost to follow-up. The mean Knee Society scores improved significantly (p < 0.0001), from 43.9 points for pain and 52 points for function preoperatively to 82.9 and 84 points, respectively, at the time of the latest follow-up. There were thirteen reoperations, which included manipulation with the patient under anesthesia (five knees), wound revision (three knees), and component revision (five knees). There were six intraoperative complications (10%). A postoperative complication occurred in sixteen knees (26%). The vast majority of patients treated with total knee arthroplasty after a previous fracture of the tibial plateau have substantial improvement in function and relief of pain. However, these patients are at increased risk for perioperative complications, as evidenced by the high reoperation rate of 21% in this study.

  17. Dynamic osteosynthesis by modified Kuntscher nail for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Gadegone, Wasudeo M; Salphale, Yogesh S

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated a series of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia using low-cost, Indian-made modified Kuntscher nail (Daga nail) with the provision of distal locking screw for the management of the tibial diaphyseal fractures. One hundred and fifty one consecutive patients with diaphyseal fractures of tibia with 151 fractures who were treated by Daga nail were enrolled. One of the patients who had died because of cancer, and the two patients who were lost to follow-up at 3 months were excluded from the study.Therefore data of 148 patients with one hundred and fortyeight fractures is described. One hundred twenty closed fractures, 20 open Grade I fractures, and eight open Grade II fractures as per Gustilo and Anderson classification were included in this study. One hundred fourteen men and 34 women, with a mean age of 38.4 years, were studied. The result were analysed for Surgical time, duration of hospitalisation, union time, union rate, complication rate, functional recovery and crutch walking time. The fractures were followed at least until the time of solid union. The follow-up period averaged 15 months (range, 6-26 months). Union occurred in 140 cases (94.6%). The mean time to union was 13 weeks for closed fractures,17.8 weeks for Grade I open fractures, and 21.6 weeks for Grade II open fractures. Compartment syndrome occurred in two patients. Superficial infection occurred in five cases of Grade I and II compound fractures. Three closed fractures and one case of Grade I compound fracture required bone grafting for delayed union. Two cases of Grade II compound fracture with nonunion required revision surgery and bone grafting. Twelve cases resulted in acceptable malalignment due to operative technical error. In four cases, the distal screw breakage was seen, but none of these complications interfered with fracture healing. Recovery of joint motion was essentially normal in those patients without knee or ankle injury. Unreamed distally locked dynamic tibial nailing

  18. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  19. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  20. Biological approach to treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with double osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Patel, Pankaj R; Joshi, Anil Kumar; Naik, Rajnikant N; Nagaraj, Chethan; Kumar, Sudeep

    2009-02-01

    The treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures is associated with complications, and much conflicting literature exists concerning the treatment of choice. In our study, an attempt has been made to develop an ideal and adequate treatment protocol for these intra-articular fractures. The principle of double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), was combined with a medial external fixator to treat 22 intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with soft tissue injury with a mean follow-up of 25 months. Superficial pin track infection was observed in one case, and no soft tissue breakdown was noted. Loss of articular reconstruction was reported in one case. Bridging callus was seen at 12 weeks (8 weeks-7 months). The principle of substitution or double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral MIPO, was combined with a medial external fixator and proved to be a fairly good method of fixation in terms of results and complications.

  1. Arthroscopically assisted treatment of lateral tibial plateau fractures in skiers: use of a cannulated reduction system.

    PubMed

    Holzach, P; Matter, P; Minter, J

    1994-08-01

    A prospective study was performed on 16 patients with lateral tibial plateau fractures. All injuries were associated with alpine or cross-country skiing. Included in the study were those patients with an articular surface depression of > or = 2 mm with radiographic findings consistent with the AO/ASIF classification of tibial plateau fractures (41 B2.2/B3.1). A combined procedure was performed with arthroscopic visualization of the knee joint and utilization of a cannulated plateau elevator. All fractures were reduced with this device with subsequent autogenous bone graft and, when indicated, transverse cancellous lag screw fixation. Follow-up was 1-6.5 years for the 16 patients, with all but two reporting resumption of activity to preinjury levels.

  2. Ball-joint versus single monolateral external fixators for definitive treatment of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Beltsios, Michail; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Savvidou, Olga D; Karamanis, Eirineos; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2014-07-01

    To compare modular monolateral external fixators with single monolateral external fixators for the treatment of open and complex tibial shaft fractures, to determine the optimal construct for fracture union. A total of 223 tibial shaft fractures in 212 patients were treated with a monolateral external fixator from 2005 to 2011; 112 fractures were treated with a modular external fixator with ball-joints (group A), and 111 fractures were treated with a single external fixator without ball-joints (group B). The mean follow-up was 2.9 years. We retrospectively evaluated the operative time for fracture reduction with the external fixator, pain and range of motion of the knee and ankle joints, time to union, rate of malunion, reoperations and revisions of the external fixators, and complications. The time for fracture reduction was statistically higher in group B; the rate of union was statistically higher in group B; the rate of nonunion was statistically higher in group A; the mean time to union was statistically higher in group A; the rate of reoperations was statistically higher in group A; and the rate of revision of the external fixator was statistically higher in group A. Pain, range of motion of the knee and ankle joints, rates of delayed union, malunion and complications were similar. Although modular external fixators are associated with faster intraoperative fracture reduction with the external fixator, single external fixators are associated with significantly better rates of union and reoperations; the rates of delayed union, malunion and complications are similar.

  3. Delayed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young Patients With Previous Anterior Tibial Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Justin J; Mayo, Meredith H; Axibal, Derek P; Kasch, Anthony R; Fader, Ryan R; Chadayammuri, Vivek; Terhune, E Bailey; Georgopoulos, Gaia; Rhodes, Jason T; Vidal, Armando F

    2016-08-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior tibial spine in young athletes are injuries similar to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adults. Sparse data exist on the association between anterior tibial spine fractures (ATSFs) and later ligamentous laxity or injuries leading to ACL reconstruction. To better delineate the incidence of delayed instability or ACL ruptures requiring delayed ACL reconstruction in young patients with prior fractures of the tibial eminence. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We identified 101 patients between January 1993 and January 2012 who sustained an ATSF and who met inclusion criteria for this study. All patients had been followed for at least 2 years after the initial injury and were included for analysis after completion of a questionnaire via direct contact, mail, and/or telephone. If patients underwent further surgical intervention and/or underwent later ACL reconstruction, clinical records and operative reports pertaining to these secondary interventions were obtained and reviewed. Differences between categorical variables were assessed using the Fisher exact test. The association between time to revision ACL surgery and fracture type was assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots. The association between need for revision ACL surgery and age, sex, and mechanism of surgery was assessed using logistic regression. Nineteen percent of all patients evaluated underwent delayed ACL reconstruction after a previous tibial spine fracture on the ipsilateral side. While there were a higher proportion of ACL reconstructions in type II fractures, there was not a statistically significant difference in the number of patients within each fracture group who went on to undergo later surgery (P = .29). Further, there was not a significant association between fracture type, sex, or mechanism of injury as it related to the progression to later ACL reconstruction. However, there was a significant association between age at the time of injury and progression

  4. Distal tibial fractures and non-unions treated with shortened intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Zouboulis, P; Papadopoulos, A X; Karageorgos, A; Lambiris, E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed 18 patients, 14 with acute fractures and four with non-union of the distal tibia, treated between 1990 and 2001 with a shortened, reamed intramedullary nail. The mean follow-up was 38 (8-144) months. The fractures united at an average of 16 (12-18) weeks and the non-unions at 20 (12-30) weeks. Two patients required nail dynamization. No limb shortening nor material failures were seen. All patients returned to normal daily activities. Although technically demanding, intramedullary nailing for distal tibial fractures and non-unions with a shortened nail represents a safe and reliable method.

  5. Temporary Stabilization with External Fixator in 'Tripolar' Configuration in Two Steps Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Daghino, Walter; Messina, Marco; Filipponi, Marco; Alessandro, Massè

    2016-01-01

    The tibial pilon fractures represent a complex therapeutic problem for the orthopedic surgeon, given the frequent complications and outcomes disabling. The recent medical literature indicates that the best strategy to reduce amount of complications in tibial pilon fractures is two-stages procedure. We describe our experience in the primary stabilization of these fractures. We treated 36 cases with temporary external fixation in a simple configuration, called "tripolar": this is an essential structure (only three screws and three rods), that is possible to perform even without the availability of X-rays and with simple anesthesia or sedation. We found a sufficient mechanical stability for the nursing post-operative, in absence of intraoperative and postoperative problems. The time between trauma and temporary stabilization ranged between 3 and 144 hours; surgical average time was 8.4 minutes. Definitive treatment was carried out with a delay of a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 15 days from the temporary stabilization, always without problems, both in case of ORIF (open reduction, internal fixation) or circular external fixation. Temporary stabilization with external fixator in 'tripolar' configuration seems to be the most effective strategy in two steps treatment of tibial pilon fractures. These preliminary encouraging results must be confirmed by further studies with more cases.

  6. A Case of Nonunion Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Tibial Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is an uncommon injury. If bone union does not occur, knee extension will be limited by impingement of the avulsed fragment and knee instability will be induced by dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This report describes a 55-year-old woman who experienced an avulsion fracture of the right anterior tibial eminence during recreational skiing. Sixteen months later, she presented at our hospital with limitation of right knee extension. Plain radiography showed nonunion of the avulsion fracture region, and arthroscopy showed that the avulsed fragment impinged the femoral intercondylar notch during knee extension. The anterior region of the bony fragment was debrided arthroscopically until the knee could be extended completely. There was no subsequent instability, and the patient was able to climb a mountain 6 months after surgery. These findings indicate that arthroscopic debridement of an avulsed fragment for nonunion of an avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is a minimally invasive and effective treatment for middle-aged and elderly patients with a low level of sports activity. PMID:27119035

  7. [Treatment of Schatzker IV tibial plateau fractures with arthroscopy combined with MIPPO technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Wen; Ye, Feng; Bi, Da-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jian-Liang

    2018-02-25

    To discusses the clinical effects of arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis(MIPPO) technology in treating Schatzker IV tibial plateau fractures. From January 2012 to January 2016, 19 patients with Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive technique including 12 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.5 years old ranging from 19 to 78 years old. Patients were suffering knee pain, swelling, flexion and extension limited, and other symptoms preoperative. Patients were followed up and assessed by Rasmussen knee function score. No infection, traumatic arthritis, and knee joint valgus occurred after operation. Nineteen cases were followed up for 12 to 24 months with an average of 18.6 months. Fracture healing time was 3 to 5 months with an average of 3.8 months. The knee pain and limited mobility improved significantly. The range of autonomic movement of joints was from 90 to 136 degrees. According to Rasmussen functional score criteria, the total score was 27.00±2.49, the result was excellent in 16 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 1 case. Arthroscopic treatment for Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures combined with MIPPO can simultaneously treat internal structural injuries such as meniscus and other knee joints, with less trauma, fewer complications, and faster joint function recovery, but we must strictly grasp surgical indications and avoid expanding injuries. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  8. Defining the Lower Limit of a "Critical Bone Defect" in Open Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Haines, Nikkole M; Lack, William D; Seymour, Rachel B; Bosse, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    To determine healing outcomes of open diaphyseal tibial shaft fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the cortical circumference and to better define a "critical bone defect" based on healing outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Forty patients, age 18-65, with open diaphyseal tibial fractures with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the circumference as measured on standard anteroposterior and lateral postoperative radiographs treated with IMN. IMN of an open diaphyseal tibial fracture with a bone gap. Level-1 trauma center. Healing outcomes, union or nonunion. Forty patients were analyzed. Twenty-one (52.5%) went on to nonunion and nineteen (47.5%) achieved union. Radiographic apparent bone gap (RABG) and infection were the only 2 covariates predicting nonunion outcome (P = 0.046 for infection). The RABG was determined by measuring the bone gap on each cortex and averaging over 4 cortices. Fractures achieving union had a RABG of 12 ± 1 mm versus 20 ± 2 mm in those going on to nonunion (P < 0.01). This remained significant when patients with infection were removed. Receiver operator characteristic analysis demonstrated that RABG was predictive of outcome (area under the curve of 0.79). A RABG of 25 mm was the statistically optimal threshold for prediction of healing outcome. Patients with open diaphyseal tibial fractures treated with IMN and a <25 mm RABG have a reasonable probability of achieving union without additional intervention, whereas those with larger gaps have a higher probability of nonunion. Research investigating interventions for RABGs should use a predictive threshold for defining a critical bone defect that is associated with greater than 50% risk of nonunion without supplementary treatment. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). The flexion and extension of knee joint was 139.0 +/- 3.7 degrees and 4.0 +/- 0.7 degrees in intramedullary nailing group and 149.0+/-4.2 degrees and 0+/-0.4 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1

  10. A Biomechanical Study of Posteromedial Tibial Plateau Fracture Stability: Do They All Require Fixation?

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Martinez, Danny; Immerman, Igor; Oh, Cheongeun; Walker, Peter S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-07-01

    Although the posteromedial fragment in tibial plateau fractures is often considered unstable, biomechanical evidence supporting this view is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the stability of the fragment in a cadaver model. Our hypothesis was that under the expected small axial force during rehabilitation and the combined effects of this force with shear force, internal rotation torque, and varus moment, the most common posteromedial tibial fragment morphology could maintain stability in early flexion. Axial compression force alone or combined with posterior shear, internal rotation torque, or varus moment was applied to the femurs of 5 fresh cadaveric knees. A Tekscan pressure mapping system was used to measure pressure and contact area between the femoral condyles, meniscus, and tibial plateau. A Microscribe 3D digitizer was used to define the 3-dimensional positions of the femur and tibia. A 10-mm and then a 20-mm osteotomy was created with a saw at an angle of 30 degrees in the axial plane with respect to the tangent of the posterior tibial plateau and 75 degrees in the sagittal plane, representing a typical posteromedial fracture fragment. At each flexion angle (15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees) and loading condition (axial compression only, compression with shear force, torque, and varus moment), distal displacement of the medial femoral condyle and the tibial fracture fragments was determined. For the 10-mm fragment, medial femoral condyle displacement was little affected up to approximately 30-degree flexion, after which it increased. For the 20-mm fragment, there was progressive medial femoral condyle displacement with increasing flexion from baseline. However, for the 10- and 20-mm fragments themselves, displacements were noted at every flexion angle, starting at 1.7 mm inferior displacement with 15 degrees of flexion and internal rotation torque and up to 10.2 mm displacement with 90 degrees of flexion and varus bending moment. In this cadaveric model of a

  11. [effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule on tibial plateau fracture].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yonghui; Cao, Xingbing; Meng, Chen; Cao, Xueshu; Wei, Changbao

    2014-12-01

    To introduce the surgery method to reset and fix tibial plateau fracture without opening joint capsule, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this method. Between July 2011 and July 2013, 51 patients with tibial plateau fracture accorded with the inclusion criteria were included. All of 51 patients, 17 cases underwent open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule in trial group, and 34 cases underwent traditional surgery method in control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, time from injury to admission, side of injury, and types of fracture between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, incision length, incision healing, and fracture healing were compared between 2 groups. The tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface were measured on X-ray film. At last follow-up, joint function was evaluated with Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee function scale. The intraoperative blood loss in trial group was significantly less than that in control group (P < 0.05). The incision length in trial group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P < 0.05). Difference was not significant in operation time and the rate of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The patients were followed up 12-30 months (mean, 20.4 months) in trial group and 12-31 months (mean, 18.2 months) in control group. X-ray films indicated that all cases in 2 groups obtained fracture healing; there was no significant difference in the fracture healing time between 2 groups (t=1.382, P=0.173). On X-ray films, difference was not significant in tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface between 2 groups (P > 0.05). HSS score of the knee in trial group was significantly higher than that of control group (t=3.161, P=0.003). It can reduce the intraoperative blood loss and shorten the incision length to use open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule for

  12. [Posttraumatic deformities of the knee joint : Intra-articular osteotomy after malreduction of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Krause, M; Frings, J; Drenck, T; Akoto, R; Müller, G; Madert, J

    2016-10-01

    Malreduction of tibial head fractures often leads to malalignment of the lower extremity, pain, limited range of motion and instability. The extent of the complaints and the degree of deformity requires an exact analysis and a standardized approach. True ligamentous instability should be distinguished from pseudoinstability of the joint. Also extra- and intra-articular deformities have to be differentiated. In intra-articular deformities the extent of articular surface displacement, defects and clefts must be accurately evaluated. A specific surgical approach is necessary, which allows adequate visualization, correct osteotomy and refixation of the fractured area of the tibial head. In the long-term course good clinical results are described for intra-articular osteotomies. If the joint is damaged to such an extent that it cannot be reconstructed or in cases of advanced posttraumatic osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty may be necessary; however, whenever possible and reasonable, anatomical reconstruction and preservation of the joint should be attempted.

  13. [Clinical practice guideline on closed tibial plateau fractures in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Ocegueda-Sosa, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Aldaco-García, Víctor Daniel; Flores-Aguilar, Sergio; Manilla-Lezama, Nicolás; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Closed tibiae plateau fractures are common injuries in the emergency room. The optimal treatment is not well defined or established. For this reason, there are several surgical management options: open reduction and internal fixation, closed reduction and percutaneous synthesis, external fixation, and even conservative treatment for this kind of fracture. The mechanism of production of this fracture is through large varus or valgus deformation to which is added a factor of axial load. The trauma may be direct or indirect. The degree of displacement, fragmentation and involvement of soft tissues like ligaments, menisci, vascular and nerve structures are determined by the magnitude of the force exerted. Any intra-articular fracture treatment can lead to an erroneous instability, deformity and limitation of motion with subsequent arthritic changes, leading to joint incongruity, limiting activity and significantly altering the quality of life. Open reduction and internal fixation with anatomic restitution is the method used in this type of fracture. However, the results of numerous publications can be questioned due to the inclusion in the same study of fractures treated with very different methods.

  14. [A case of anterior tibial arteriovenous fistula after closed fracture of the leg].

    PubMed

    Touzard, R C

    1975-01-01

    This case permits one to emphasize the great rareness of arteriovenous fistula after closed fractures of the shaft of the tibia. Fistulas in this anterior tibial position are remarkably latent, cause no symptoms below the fistula nor symptoms of heart failure. Treatment by several ligatures, permitted this patient to return to work 15 days after operation without any further treatment. The patient no longer has any symptoms.

  15. External versus internal fixation for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, David; Hickson, Craig J; McKee, Lesley; Griffin, Xavier L

    2015-12-01

    It is uncertain whether external fixation or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) is optimal for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. A systematic review using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic, Embase, AMED, the Cochrane Library, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, US National Institute for Health Trials Registry, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search was conducted on 3rd October 2014 and no language limits were applied. Inclusion criteria were all clinical study designs comparing external fixation with open reduction internal fixation of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Studies of only one treatment modality were excluded, as were those that included unicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Treatment effects from studies reporting dichotomous outcomes were summarised using odds ratios. Continuous outcomes were converted to standardized mean differences to assess the treatment effect, and inverse variance methods used to combine data. A fixed effect model was used for meta-analyses. Patients undergoing external fixation were more likely to have returned to preinjury activities by six and twelve months (P = 0.030) but not at 24 months follow-up. However, external fixation was complicated by a greater number of infections (OR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.25-5.36, P = 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of deep infection, venous thromboembolism, compartment syndrome, or need for re-operation between the two groups. Although external fixation and ORIF are associated with different complication profiles, both are acceptable strategies for managing bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

  16. Prevention of arthrofibrosis after arthroscopic screw fixation of tibial spine fracture in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Myer, David; Eismann, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a major complication of tibial spine fracture treatment in children, potentially resulting in knee pain, quadriceps weakness, altered gait, decreased function, inability to return to sports, and long-term osteoarthritis. Thus, prevention rather than treatment of arthrofibrosis is desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an aggressive postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention approach to prevent permanent arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture treatment and to compare epiphyseal and transphyseal screws for fixation. A consecutive series of 24 patients younger than age 18 with displaced type II and III tibial spine fractures who underwent arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Final range of motion was compared between patients with epiphyseal (n=12) and transphyseal (n=9) screws. One-third (4 of 12) of patients with epiphyseal screws underwent arthroscopic debridement and screw removal approximately 3 months postoperatively; 3 patients lacked 5° to 15° of extension, 1 experienced pain with extension, and 1 had radiographic evidence of screw pullout, loss of reduction, and resultant malunion. In the transphyseal screw group, 3 patients had 10° loss of extension, and all corrected after arthroscopic debridement and screw removal. The two groups did not significantly differ in time to hardware removal or return to sports or final range of motion. No growth disturbances were identified in patients after transphyseal screw removal. An aggressive approach of postoperative rehabilitation and early intervention after arthroscopic reduction and screw fixation of tibial spine fractures in children was successful in preventing permanent arthrofibrosis.

  17. [Particular posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Lobenhoffer, P; Gerich, T; Bertram, T; Lattermann, C; Pohlemann, T; Tscheme, H

    1997-12-01

    Tibial plateau fractures with depression of posterior aspects of the proximal tibia cause significant therapeutic problems. Posterior fractures on the medial side are mainly highly instable fracture-dislocations (Moore type I). Posterolateral fractures usually cause massive depression and destruction of the chondral surface. Surgical exposure of these fractures from anterior requires major soft tissue dissection and has a significant complication rate. However, incomplete restoration of the joint surface results in chronic postero-inferior joint subluxation, osteoarthritis and pain. We present new specific approaches for posterior fracture types avoiding large skin incisions, but allowing for atraumatic exposure, reduction and fixation. Posteromedial fracture-dislocations are exposed by a direct posteromedial skin incision and a deep incision between medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. The posteromedial pillar and the posterior flare of the proximal tibia are visualized. The inferior extent of the joint fragment can be reduced by indirect techniques or direct manipulation of the fragment. Fixation is achieved with subchondral lag screws and an anti-glide plate at the tip of the fragment. Posterolateral fractures are exposed by a transfibular approach: the skin is incised laterally, the peroneal nerve is dissected free. The fibula neck is osteotomized, the tibiofibular syndesmosis is divided and the fibula neck is reflected upwards in one layer with the meniscotibial ligament and the iliotibial tract attachment. Reflexion of the fibula head relaxes the lateral collateral ligament, allows for lateral joint opening and internal rotation of the tibia and thus exposes the posterolateral and posterior aspect of the tibial plateau. Fixation and buttressing on the posterolateral side can be achieved easily with this approach. In closure, the fibula head is fixed back with a lag screw or a tension-band system. These two exposures can be combined in

  18. Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Thiruvengita; Kumar, T Suresh; Kumar, R Krishna; Murthy, Ganapathy K; Sundaram, Nandkumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women) who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years). All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and allows early knee

  19. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  20. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  1. Post-Traumatic Periprosthetic Tibial and Fibular Fracture After Total Ankle Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Brock, Amanda K; Tan, Eric W; Shafiq, Babar

    Periprosthetic fractures after total ankle arthroplasty are uncommon, with most cases occurring intraoperatively. We describe a post-traumatic periprosthetic fracture of the distal tibia and fibula after total ankle arthroplasty that was treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis. It is important for orthopedic surgeons not only to recognize the risk factors for postoperative periprosthetic total ankle arthroplasty fractures, but also to be familiar with the treatment options available to maximize function and minimize complications. The design of the tibial prosthesis and surgical techniques required to prepare the ankle joint for implantation are important areas of future research to limit the risk of periprosthetic fractures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Site Specific Effects of Zoledronic Acid during Tibial and Mandibular Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan Yiu; Lieu, Shirley; Hu, Diane; Miclau, Theodore; Colnot, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Numerous factors can affect skeletal regeneration, including the extent of bone injury, mechanical loading, inflammation and exogenous molecules. Bisphosphonates are anticatabolic agents that have been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic bone diseases. Zoledronate (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (N-BP), is the most potent bisphosphonate among the clinically approved bisphosphonates. Cases of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in patients receiving long term N-BP treatment. Yet, osteonecrosis does not occur in long bones. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zoledronate on long bone and cranial bone regeneration using a previously established model of non-stabilized tibial fractures and a new model of mandibular fracture repair. Contrary to tibial fractures, which heal mainly through endochondral ossification, mandibular fractures healed via endochondral and intramembranous ossification with a lesser degree of endochondral ossification compared to tibial fractures. In the tibia, ZA reduced callus and cartilage formation during the early stages of repair. In parallel, we found a delay in cartilage hypertrophy and a decrease in angiogenesis during the soft callus phase of repair. During later stages of repair, ZA delayed callus, cartilage and bone remodeling. In the mandible, ZA delayed callus, cartilage and bone remodeling in correlation with a decrease in osteoclast number during the soft and hard callus phases of repair. These results reveal a more profound impact of ZA on cartilage and bone remodeling in the mandible compared to the tibia. This may predispose mandible bone to adverse effects of ZA in disease conditions. These results also imply that therapeutic effects of ZA may need to be optimized using time and dose-specific treatments in cranial versus long bones. PMID:22359627

  3. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Rastalsky, Naina; Choy, Edwin; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged bisphosphonate use has been associated with increased risk of atypical femoral fractures. Very few cases of atypical femoral fractures have been reported with denosumab. We report a case of bilateral tibial stress reactions in a 60-year-old man with no history of osteoporosis who was on prolonged high-dose denosumab for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. He presented with a 3-month history of pain in his bilateral shins worsening with activity and improving with rest. Although initial radiographs were unremarkable, he was found to have changes consistent with a stress reaction on magnetic resonance imaging of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, bilateral tibial stress reactions have not been previously reported with anti-resorptive therapies (neither bisphosphonates nor denosumab). Our case is intriguing in terms of the development of stress reactions as a precursor to stress fractures which may also relate to atypical fractures. Our case suggests a possible association between denosumab use and stress reactions. Of note the indication for denosumab in our case was for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dose is substantially higher than the FDA approved dose for osteoporosis treatment. Although rare, clinicians should consider the possibility of stress fractures in patients on anti-resorptive medications such as denosumab, especially when a patient presents with new onset thigh pain, hip pain or pain over an area affecting the long bones. Evaluation by imaging of affected areas should be pursued to enable early detection and intervention, as well as prevention of morbidity and associated ongoing risk to the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sports activity after surgical treatment of intra-articular tibial plateau fractures in skiers.

    PubMed

    Loibl, Markus; Bäumlein, Martin; Massen, Felix; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Glaab, Richard; Perren, Thomas; Rillmann, Paavo; Ryf, Christian; Naal, Florian D

    2013-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures occur frequently while participating in winter sports, but there is no information on whether skiers can resume sports and recreational activities after internal fixation of these fractures. Skiers can resume low-impact sports activity after internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 103 patients were surveyed by postal questionnaires to determine their sports activities at a mean of 7.8 ± 1.8 years after internal fixation of intra-articular tibial plateau fractures. The survey also included the Lysholm score, the Tegner activity scale, and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. At the time of the survey, 88% of the patients were engaged in sports activities (rate of return to sports, 88%), and 53% continued to participate in downhill skiing. The median number of different activities declined from 5 (range, 1-17) preoperatively to 4 (range, 0-11) postoperatively (P < .01). Sports frequency and duration per week did not change: 3 (range, 1-7) preoperatively versus 3 (range, 0-7) postoperatively (P = .275) and 4 hours (range, 1-16 hours) preoperatively versus 3.5 hours (range, 0-15 hours) postoperatively (P = .217), respectively. Median values of all outcome scores declined: Lysholm score, 100 (range, 85-100) preoperatively versus 94.5 (range, 37-100) postoperatively (P < .01); VAS, 0 (range, 0-7) preoperatively versus 1 (range, 0-8) postoperatively (P < .01). Median Tegner activity scale scores declined in all age groups except for patients aged 51 to 60 years. The ability to participate in sports at the time of follow-up compared with the ability before the accident was rated as "similar" by 57 patients (62.0%) and as "worse" by 35 patients (38.0%). The more severe fracture types, B3 and C3 according to the AO classification system, were associated with poorer outcomes related to return to sports and functional scores. A large percentage of skiers with surgically treated intra

  5. Hybrid External Fixation for Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) 43-C Tibial Plafond Fractures.

    PubMed

    Abd-Almageed, Emad; Marwan, Yousef; Esmaeel, Ali; Mallur, Amarnath; El-Alfy, Barakat

    2015-01-01

    Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) type 43-C tibial plafond/pilon fractures represent a challenge for the treating orthopedic surgeon. We assessed the outcomes of using hybrid external fixation for this fracture type. The present prospective cohort study was started in August 2009 and ended by July 2012. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age 37.4 ± 10.7 years) with a type C tibial plafond fracture who had presented to our tertiary care orthopedic hospital were included. Motor vehicle accidents and fall from height were the cause of the fracture in 14 (46.7%) and 13 (43.3%) patients, respectively. A type C3 fracture was present in 25 patients (83.3%), and type C1 and C2 fractures were present in 2 (6.7%) and 3 (10.0%) patients, respectively. Nine fractures (30.0%) were open. Hybrid external fixation was used for all fractures. All fractures were united; clinical healing was achieved by a mean of 18.1 ± 2.2 weeks postoperatively and radiologic healing at a mean of 18.9 ± 1.9 weeks. The fixator was removed at a mean of 20.4 ± 2.0 weeks postoperatively. At a mean follow-up point of 13.4 ± 2.6 months, the mean modified Mazur ankle score was 84.6 ± 10.4. It was not associated with wound classification (p = .256). The most commonly seen complication was ankle osteoarthritis (17 patients; 56.7%); however, it was mild in >50.0% of the affected patients. In conclusion, using hybrid external fixation for type C tibial plafond fractures resulted in good outcomes. However, this should be investigated further in studies with a higher level of evidence. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of posteromedial tibial plateau fractures with buttress plate and cannulated screw construct.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Ying; Tsai, Min-Chain; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Chen, Yeung-Jen; Chan, Yi-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    To present the radiologic and clinical results of posteromedial fractures treated with arthroscopy-assisted reduction and buttress plate and cannulated screw fixation. Twenty-five patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fractures treated by the described technique were included in this study. According to the Schatzker classification, there were 5 type IV fractures (20%), 2 type V fractures (8%), and 18 type VI fractures (72%). The mean age at operation was 46 years (range, 21 to 79 years). The mean follow-up period was 86 months (range, 60 to 108 months). Clinical and radiologic outcomes were scored by the Rasmussen system. Subjective data were collected to assess swelling, difficulty climbing stairs, joint stability, ability to work and participate in sports, and overall patient satisfaction with recovery. Secondary osteoarthritis was diagnosed when radiographs showed a narrowed joint space in the injured knee at follow-up in comparison with the films taken at the time of injury. The mean postoperative Rasmussen clinical score was 25.9 (range, 18 to 29), and the mean radiologic score was 15.8 (range, 10 to 18). All 25 fractures achieved successful union, and 92% had good or excellent clinical and radiologic results. The 3 fracture types did not significantly differ in Rasmussen scores or rates of satisfactory results (P > .05). Secondary osteoarthritis was noted in 6 injured knees (24%). Arthroscopy-assisted reduction with buttress plate and cannulated screw fixation can restore posteromedial tibial plateau fractures of the knee with well-documented radiographic healing, good clinical outcomes, and low complication rates. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ketorolac Administered in the Recovery Room for Acute Pain Management Does Not Affect Healing Rates of Femoral and Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Donohue, David; Sanders, Drew; Serrano-Riera, Rafa; Jordan, Charles; Gaskins, Roger; Sanders, Roy; Sagi, H Claude

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether ketorolac administered in the immediate perioperative period affects the rate of nonunion in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective comparative study. Single Institution, Academic Level 1 Trauma Center. Three hundred and thirteen skeletally mature patients with 137 femoral shaft (OTA 32) and 191 tibial shaft (OTA 42) fractures treated with intramedullary rod fixation. Eighty patients with 33 femoral shaft and 52 tibial shaft fractures were administered ketorolac within the first 24 hours after surgery (group 1-study group). Two-hundred thirty-three patients with 104 femoral shaft and 139 tibial shaft fractures were not (group 2-control group). Rate of reoperation for repair of a nonunion and time to union. Average time to union of the femur was 147 days for group 1 and 159 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). Average time to union of the tibia was 175 days for group 1 and 175 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). There were 3 femoral nonunions (9%) in group 1 and eleven femoral nonunions (11.6%) in group 2 (P = 1.00). There were 3 tibial nonunions (5.8%) in group 1 and 17 tibial nonunions (12.2%) in group 2 (P = 0.29). The average dose of ketorolac for patients who healed their fracture was 85 mg, whereas it was 50 mg for those who did not (P = 0.27). All patients with a nonunion in the study group were current smokers. Ketorolac administered in the first 24 hours after fracture repair for acute pain management does not seem to have a negative impact on time to healing or incidence of nonunion for femoral or tibial shaft fractures. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. A 3D finite element model to investigate prosthetic interface stresses of different posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaomiao; Fu, Xiaodong; Wang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to calculate contact stresses in tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses subjected to a compressive load. The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis was constructed from the images produced by 3D scanning technology. Stresses in tibial polyethylene component were calculated with four different posterior tibial slopes (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis we presented was well validated. We found that the stress distribution in the polythene as evaluated by the distributions of the von Mises stress, the maximum principle stress, the minimum principle stress and the Cpress were more uniform with 3° and 6° posterior tibial slopes than with 0° and 9° posterior tibial slopes. Moreover, the peaks of the above stresses and trends of changes with increasing degree of knee flexion were more ideal with 3° and 6° posterior slopes. The results suggested that the tibial component inclination might be favourable to 7°-10° so far as the stress distribution is concerned. The range of the tibial component inclination also can decrease the wear of polyethylene. Chinese posterior tibial slope is bigger than in the West, and the current domestic use of prostheses is imported from the West, so their demands to tilt back bone cutting can lead to shorten the service life of prostheses; this experiment result is of important

  9. The Impact of Computed Tomography on Decision Making in Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Messias, Andre Marcio Vieira; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2018-02-14

    Schatzker introduced one of the most used classification systems for tibial plateau fractures, based on plain radiographs. Computed tomography brought to attention the importance of coronal plane-oriented fractures. The goal of our study was to determine if the addition of computed tomography would affect the decision making of surgeons who usually use the Schatzker classification to assess tibial plateau fractures. Image studies of 70 patients who sustained tibial plateau fractures were uploaded to a dedicated homepage. Every patient was linked to a folder which contained two radiographic projections (anteroposterior and lateral), three interactive videos of computed tomography (axial, sagittal, and coronal), and eight pictures depicting tridimensional reconstructions of the tibial plateau. Ten attending orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to the cases, were granted access to the homepage and assessed each set of images in two different rounds, separated to each other by an interval of 2 weeks. Each case was evaluated in three steps, where surgeons had access, respectively to radiographs, two-dimensional videos of computed tomography, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. After every step, surgeons were asked to present how would they classify the case using the Schatzker system and which surgical approaches would be appropriate. We evaluated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the Schatzker classification using the Kappa concordance coefficient, as well as the impact of computed tomography in the decision making regarding the surgical approach for each case, by using the chi-square test and likelihood ratio. The interobserver concordance kappa coefficients after each assessment step were, respectively, 0.58, 0.62, and 0.64. For the intraobserver analysis, the coefficients were, respectively, 0.76, 0.75, and 0.78. Computed tomography changed the surgical approach selection for the types II, V, and VI of Schatzker ( p  < 0.01). The addition of

  10. Concomitant Posterior Hip Dislocation, Ipsilateral Intertrochanteric- and Proximal Tibial- Fractures with Popliteal Artery Injury: A Challenging Trauma Mélange.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Pranit N; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Hart, Ryan; Wassef, Andrew

    2015-11-05

    Constellation of ipsilateral posterior hip dislocation, intertrochanteric- and proximal tibial fracture with popliteal artery injury is rare. Management of this presentation is challenging. A motor vehicle accident victim presented with these injuries, but without any initial signs of vascular compromise. Popliteal artery injury was diagnosed intra-operatively and repaired. This was followed by external fixation of tibial fracture, open reduction of dislocated hip and internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. Patient regained bilateral complete weight bearing and returned to pre-accident activity level. Apt surgical management including early repair of vascular injury in such a trauma mélange allows for a positive postoperative outcome.

  11. Anatomy and classification of the posterior tibial fragment in ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan; Kostlivý, Karel; Vaněček, Václav; Klika, Daniel; Trešl, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathoanatomy of the posterior fragment on the basis of a comprehensive CT examination, including 3D reconstructions, in a large patient cohort. One hundred and forty one consecutive individuals with an ankle fracture or fracture-dislocation of types Weber B or Weber C and evidence of a posterior tibial fragment in standard radiographs were included in the study. The mean patient age was 49 years (range 19-83 years). The exclusion criteria were patients below 18 years of age, inability to provide written consent, fractures of the tibial pilon, posttraumatic arthritis and pre-existing deformities. In all patients, post-injury radiographs were obtained in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views. All patients underwent CT scanning in transverse, sagittal and frontal planes. 3D CT reconstruction was performed in 91 patients. We were able to classify 137 cases into one of the following four types with constant pathoanatomic features: type 1: extraincisural fragment with an intact fibular notch, type 2: posterolateral fragment extending into the fibular notch, type 3: posteromedial two-part fragment involving the medial malleolus, type 4: large posterolateral triangular fragment. In the 4 cases it was not possible to classify the type of the posterior tibial fragment. These were collectively termed type 5 (irregular, osteoporotic fragments). It is impossible to assess the shape and size of the posterior malleolar fragment, involvement of the fibular notch, or the medial malleolus, on the basis of plain radiographs. The system that we propose for classification of fractures of the posterior malleolus is based on CT examination and takes into account the size, shape and location of the fragment, stability of the tibio-talar joint and the integrity of the fibular notch. It may be a useful indication for surgery and defining the most useful approach to these injuries.

  12. [Treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures with bilateral locking plate and bone graft].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying-Jie; Cheng, Zhan-Wei; Feng, Kai; Yan, Shao-Hua

    2012-07-01

    To explore the effective methods for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures. From May 2008 to April 2011, 28 patients with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated indirect reduction techniques, bilateral locking plate fixation combined with autologous bone grafts. There were 21 males and 7 females, with an average age of 43 years ranging from 21 to 65. There were 11 cases in Schatzker type V, 17 in VI. The effect was evaluated by Rasmussen standard on clinical and radiological. All patients were followed-up for 7 to 36 months (averaged of 21.5 months). Healing time of fracture was from 3 to 8 months (averaged 5.5 months). The results of Rasmussen scores in clinical was 4.50 +/- 1.32 in pain, 4.32 +/- 1.63 in walking ability, 4.07 +/- 1.34 in knee activity, 4.78 +/- 1.27 in stability of the knee, 4.85 +/- 1.12 in stretch knee; the results in radiation was 5.07 +/- 0.92 in articular surface collapse, 5.00 +/- 0.98 in platform widened, 5.14 +/- 0.85 in knee external varus. The effect result was excellent in 8 cases, good in 15, fair in 3 and poor in 2. The key for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures was to fully assess the damage as much as possible to protect the soft tissue, select the appropriate timing of surgery and surgical incision, application of indirect reduction techniques, limited incision and effective internal fixation to restore joint surface smooth and good limb alignment, early exercise, in order to achieve maximum recovery of joint function.

  13. [ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH EPIPHYSEAL UNCLOSURE].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xuebin; Zhang, Keyuan; Li, Gang; Ni, Jiati

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fractures in adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure. Between January 2011 and October 2013, 35 knees with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures (35 patients with epiphyseal unclosure) were arthroscopically treated with suture fixation. There were 25 males and 10 females, aged 8-16 years (mean, 14.7 years). The causes included sports injury in 24 cases, traffic accident injury in 9 cases, and daily life injury in 2 cases. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 27 cases of type II and 8 cases of type III. Five cases had meniscus injury. The preoperative the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 48.7 ± 3.2, and Lysholm score was 51.2 ± 4.5. The time from injury to operation was 2-16 days (mean, 5 days). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 months (range, 12-32 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 28 cases and satisfactory reduction in 7 cases. X-ray films showed all fractures healing at last follow-up. There was no limb shortening deformity, varus knee, or valgus knee. Lachman test results were all negative. The other knees had normal range of motion except 1 knee with limited flexion, whose range of motion returned to 0-120° after treatment. At last follow-up, the IKDC score was significantly improved to 93.2 ± 4.1 (t = -53.442, P = 0.000), and the Lysholm score was significantly increased to 96.2 ± 2.5 (t = -56.242, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic fixation technique has satisfactory results for the reduction and fixation of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture in the adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure because of little trauma and quick recovery.

  14. An Incidental Finding of a Talonavicular and Talocalcaneal Joint Coalition After a Tibial Pilon Fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Heidi M; Micciche, Mark J

    It has been proposed that patients with talocalcaneal and talonavicular coalitions have decreased ankle joint range of motion. It has also been reported that rotational forces regularly absorbed by the talocalcaneal joint are transferred to the ankle joint in patients with coalitions, increasing the stress on the ankle joint after trauma. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 reported study has detailed the increased stress placed on the ankle joint secondary to a coalition. We present a case study of a 53-year-old female who experienced a traumatic fall and subsequent right ankle fracture. Advanced imaging studies revealed a comminuted tibial pilon fracture and talocalcaneal and talonavicular joint coalitions. She underwent open reduction and internal fixation for treatment of the fracture, and the coalitions were not treated because they were asymptomatic. She was kept non-weightbearing for 6 weeks postoperatively and was returned to a regular sneaker at 10 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative films revealed stable intact fixation and pain-free gait with no increased restriction in her ankle joint range of motion. The hardware was removed at 13 months postoperatively. She had not experienced increased pain or arthritic changes at 15 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis Secondary to Fracture of the Tibial Plateau. A Prospective Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lizaur-Utrilla, Alejandro; Collados-Maestre, Isabel; Miralles-Muñoz, Francisco A; Lopez-Prats, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    A prospective matched cohort study was performed to compare outcomes of total knee arthroplasties (TKA) between 29 patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis (POA) after a fracture of tibial plateau and 58 patients underwent routine TKA. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. There were no significant differences in KSS, WOMAC, SF12 scores or range of motion. In the control group there were no complications. In the posttraumatic group, complications occurred in 4 patients (13.7%) (P=0.010) including partial patellar tendon detachment, superficial infection, skin necrosis, and knee stiffness. Only this last patient required revision for manipulation under anesthesia. Also, there was a revision for tibial aseptic loosening in each group. TKA is an effective treatment for POA after tibial plateau fracture. We recommend the prior removal of hardware, as well as tibial tubercle osteotomy when necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fixation of a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau with a locking screw plate instead of cannulated screws would allow early weight bearing: a computational exploration.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; González-Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    To assess, with finite element (FE) calculations, whether immediate weight bearing would be possible after surgical stabilization either with cannulated screws or with a locking plate in a split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). A split fracture of the LTP was recreated in a FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was reproduced by using geometrical data from patient radiographs. A locking screw plate (LP) and a cannulated screw (CS) systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture and 80 kg static body-weight was simulated. While the simulated body-weight led to clinically acceptable interfragmentary motion, possible traumatic bone shear stresses were predicted nearby the cannulated screws. With a maximum estimation of about 1.7 MPa maximum bone shear stresses, the Polyax system might ensure more reasonable safety margins. Split fractures of the LTP fixed either with locking screw plate or cannulated screws showed no clinically relevant IFM in a FE model. The locking screw plate showed higher mechanical stability than cannulated screw fixation. The locking screw plate might also allow full or at least partial weight bearing under static posture at time zero.

  17. Tibial plafond fractures: limited incision reduction with percutaneous fixation.

    PubMed

    Salton, Heather L; Rush, Shannon; Schuberth, John

    2007-01-01

    This study was a retrospective review of 18 patients with 19 pilon fractures treated with limited incision reduction and percutaneous plate fixation of the tibia. Patients were treated with either a 1- or 2-stage protocol. The latter consisted of placement of an external fixator followed by definitive reduction. The emphasis of analysis was placed on the identification of complications to the soft tissue envelope or bone-healing problems within the first 6 months after surgery. A major complication was defined as an unplanned operation within the first 6 months. Minor complications were any superficial wound defects that did not require operative intervention to resolve or any malunion or delayed union. With this protocol, no major complications were encountered. Minor complications were identified in 4 patients (4 fractures) of which 2 were minor wound problems. One patient developed a malunion, and the other had a delayed union. Four patients requested removal of prominent hardware. These results indicate that limited incision reduction and percutaneous plate fixation lead to safe methods of stabilization. The authors also provide guidance and strategies for the consistent execution of this technique.

  18. Value of lateral blood pool imaging in patients with suspected stress fractures of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Hosahalli K; Clarke, Susan E M; Centenara, Martin; Lucarelli, Amanda; Baron, Daniel; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-03-01

    To critically evaluate the use of lateral blood pool imaging in athletes with lower limb pain and with a clinical suspicion of stress fracture. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians evaluated 3-phase bone scans using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate performed in 50 consecutive patients referred from a specialist sports injury clinic for suspected tibial stress fracture. The vascularity to the tibia as seen on the blood pool (second phase) images in the anterior/posterior views was compared with the lateral/medial view assessments. Stress fractures were presumed to be present when on the delayed images (third phase) there was a focal or fusiform area of increased tracer uptake involving the tibial cortex. Shin splints which are a recognized cause of lower limb pain in athletes mimicking stress fracture were diagnosed if increased tracer uptake was seen extending along the posterior tibial surface with no significant focal or fusiform area of uptake within this. Inter-reviewer agreement for the assessment of vascularity was also assessed using Cohen's Kappa scores. Twenty-four stress fractures in 24 patients and 66 shin splints in 40 patients were diagnosed. In 18 patients stress fracture and shin splints coexisted. In 10 patients no tibial pathology was identified. Of the 24 patients diagnosed with stress fractures, lateral/medial blood pool imaging was superior in the assessment of blood pool activity (P < 0.001) identifying increased vascularity in 21 cases compared with the anterior/posterior views positive in only 11 cases. The inter-reviewer agreement was near perfect for lateral/medial views, κ = 0.86 while very good for anterior/posterior views, κ = 0.68. In patients with suspected tibial stress fractures, lateral views of the tibia provide the optimal method for evaluation of vascularity. Prospective studies with quantitative or semi-quantitative assessment of skeletal vascularity could provide supplementary information relating to the pathophysiology

  19. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a skeletally-immature child - a case report.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Kim, Young-Mo

    2011-01-01

    It has been theorized that a traumatic tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (MM) is the cause of the so-called meniscus ossicle (MO). We report the delayed appearance of a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM after a valgus, twisting injury in a 12-year-old boy with open physes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed 3 days after the injury did not demonstrate a definitive tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM; whereas, a repeat MRI for 3 months post-injury did. Medial extrusion of the MM was also noted on the 3 month MRI. Arthroscopic reattachment of the avulsed posterior root of the MM using a trans-physeal nonabsorbable suture tied over a proximal tibia staple was performed. Follow-up MRI at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated healing of the tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in an anatomic position. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms and there was no angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy at 2 years postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in a skeletally-immature patient successfully treated by a trans-physeal arthroscopic suture. This case also illustrates the development of the MO of the posterior root of the MM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D printing-assisted osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Du, Di; Zhou, Zhibin; Lu, Nan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Liangyu; Chen, Aimin

    2016-12-01

    Osteotomy and internal fixation are usually the most effective way to treat the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures, and the accuracy of the osteotomy is still a challenge for surgeons. This is a report of a series of prospectively study of osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral plateau fractures with the aid of 3D printing technology. A total of 7 patients with malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures were enrolled in the study between September 2012 to September 2014 and completed follow up. CT image data were used for 3D reconstruction, and individually 3D printed models were used for accurate measurements and detail osteotomy procedures planning. Under the premeditated operation plan, the osteotomy operations were performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 2 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months or more. Mean age of the patients was 44 years (range 30-52 years), 3 cases were result of fall injuries, 2 were traffic accidents and 2 were sports injuries. Among the cases, one accompanied with craniocerebra trauma, one with pelvic fracture, one accompanied with both. According to the Schatzker Tibial Plateau classification, the original fracture type were 3 type I, 1 type II and 3 type III. The lateral tibial plateau collapse ranges from 4 mm-12mm, with an average of 9.4mm. All the operations were successfully completed, the average operation time was 77.1min (range 70-90 min), the average intraoperative blood loss was 121.4ml (range 90-180ml), the mean follow-up time was 14.4 months (range 12-18 months), and the average healing time of the osteotomy fragments was 12 weeks (range 11-13 weeks). The difference between preoperative and postoperative Rasmussen scores were statistically significant (P<0.05). All the patients were obtained functional recovery, with no complications. 3D printing technology is helpful to accurately design osteotomy operation, reduce the risk of postoperative deformity

  1. Individual risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures: a single centre experience of 480 patients.

    PubMed

    Metsemakers, W-J; Handojo, K; Reynders, P; Sermon, A; Vanderschot, P; Nijs, S

    2015-04-01

    Despite modern advances in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures, complications including nonunion, malunion, and infection remain relatively frequent. A better understanding of these injuries and its complications could lead to prevention rather than treatment strategies. A retrospective study was performed to identify risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing (IMN) of tibial shaft fractures. Between January 2000 and January 2012, 480 consecutive patients with 486 tibial shaft fractures were enrolled in the study. Statistical analysis was performed to determine predictors of deep infection and compromised fracture healing. Compromised fracture healing was subdivided in delayed union and nonunion. The following independent variables were selected for analysis: age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification, polytrauma, fracture type, open fractures, Gustilo type, primary external fixation (EF), time to nailing (TTN) and reaming. As primary statistical evaluation we performed a univariate analysis, followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Univariate regression analysis revealed similar risk factors for delayed union and nonunion, including fracture type, open fractures and Gustilo type. Factors affecting the occurrence of deep infection in this model were primary EF, a prolonged TTN, open fractures and Gustilo type. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed polytrauma as the single risk factor for nonunion. With respect to delayed union, no risk factors could be identified. In the same statistical model, deep infection was correlated with primary EF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of poor outcome after IMN of tibial shaft fractures. The univariate regression analysis showed that the nature of complications after tibial shaft nailing could be multifactorial. This was not confirmed in a multiple logistic regression model, which

  2. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Krogsgaard, Michael Rindom

    2014-01-01

    Few reports have described avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in skeletally immature patients. This lesion should not be overlooked as it damages the load absorptive (distributive) function of the meniscus, increasing the risk of cartilage degeneration. Two cases of displaced avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children are presented along with a concise report of the literature regarding avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Both avulsions were reattached arthroscopically by trans-tibial pull-out sutures with a good clinical result at 2-years follow-up, and in one case, the avulsion was found at re-arthroscopy after 6 weeks to have healed.

  3. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation. Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups. The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5–24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P < .05). In group A, 5 cases had postoperative complications and 1 in group B (P < .05). The mean bone healing time in group A was 6.9 months (range: 5–9 months) and 6.0 months (range: 5–8 months) in group B (P > .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P < 0.05). In group A, the mean knee joint range of motion was 122° (range: 95°–150°) and 135° (range: 100°–160°) in group B (P > 0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05). External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation. PMID:29019890

  4. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P < .05). In group A, 5 cases had postoperative complications and 1 in group B (P < .05). The mean bone healing time in group A was 6.9 months (range: 5-9 months) and 6.0 months (range: 5-8 months) in group B (P > .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P < 0.05). In group A, the mean knee joint range of motion was 122° (range: 95°-150°) and 135° (range: 100°-160°) in group B (P > 0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  5. Appropriate hinge position for prevention of unstable lateral hinge fracture in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R; Komatsu, N; Fujita, K; Kuroda, K; Takahashi, M; Omi, R; Katsuki, Y; Tsuchiya, H

    2017-10-01

    Open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) for medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee can be complicated by intra-operative lateral hinge fracture (LHF). We aimed to establish the relationship between hinge position and fracture types, and suggest an appropriate hinge position to reduce the risk of this complication. Consecutive patients undergoing OWHTO were evaluated on coronal multiplanar reconstruction CT images. Hinge positions were divided into five zones in our new classification, by their relationship to the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ). Fractures were classified into types I, II, and III according to the Takeuchi classification. Among 111 patients undergoing OWHTOs, 22 sustained lateral hinge fractures. Of the 89 patients without fractures, 70 had hinges in the zone within the PTFJ and lateral to the medial margin of the PTFJ (zone WL), just above the PTFJ. Among the five zones, the relative risk of unstable fracture was significantly lower in zone WL (relative risk 0.24, confidence interval 0.17 to 0.34). Zone WL appears to offer the safest position for the placement of the osteotomy hinge when trying to avoid a fracture at the osteotomy site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99B10:1313-18. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Early prophylactic autogenous bone grafting in type III open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Subaşi, Mehmet; Arslan, Huseyin; Necmioğlu, Serdar; Kayikçi, Cuma

    2004-08-01

    The authors report the results achieved in patients with type III open tibial fractures who underwent primary autogenous bone grafting at the time of debridement and skeletal stabilisation. Twenty patients with a mean age of 35.8 years (range, 24-55) were treated between 1996 and 1999. Eight fractures were type IIIA, 11 were type IIIB, and 1 was type IIIC. At the index procedure, wound debridement, external fixation and autogenous bone grafting with bone coverage were achieved. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (range, 34-55). The mean time to fixator removal was 21 weeks (range, 14-35), and the mean time to union was 28 weeks (range, 19-45). Skin coverage was achieved by a myocutaneous flap in 2 patients, late primary closure in 4, and split skin grafting in 14. One (5%) of the patients experienced delayed union, and 1 (5%) developed infection. In tibial type III open fractures, skin coverage may be delayed, using the surrounding soft tissue to cover any exposed bone after thorough débridement and wound cleansing. Primary prophylactic bone grafting performed at the same time reduces the rate of delayed union, shortens the time to union, and does not increase the infection rate.

  7. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively ( P < 0.001). ACS in tibial fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  8. High-energy fractures of the tibial plateau. Knee function after longer follow-up.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Dennis P; Marsh, J Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Studies of the long-term outcomes of treatment of fractures of the tibial plateau have included wide mixtures of fracture types and mostly low-energy split and split-depression fractures. The long-term results of treatment of high-energy intra-articular proximal tibial fractures are unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the function of the knee and the development of arthrosis at a minimum of five years after injury in a consecutive series of patients in whom a high-energy fracture of the tibial plateau had been treated with a uniform technique of external fixation. Between July 1988 and December 1994, thirty patients with a total of thirty-one fractures of the tibial plateau were treated with a monolateral external fixator and limited internal fixation of the articular surface. Follow-up data on twenty-four knees in twenty-three patients were obtained at a mean of ninety-eight months. Twenty patients (twenty knees) returned specifically for the study, at which time they completed an Iowa Knee Score questionnaire and a Short Form-36 (SF-36) general health survey, a physical examination was performed, and weight-bearing radiographs were made. The results of the SF-36 evaluations for fourteen patients and the Knee Scores for twelve were compared with those obtained five years previously, at two to four years after the injury. After healing, no patient required a secondary reconstructive procedure. The range of motion of the knee averaged 3 degrees of extension to 120 degrees flexion, which was an average of 87% of the total arc of the contralateral knee. The average Iowa Knee Score was 90 points (range, 72 to 100 points). For twelve patients, the Iowa Knee Score previously recorded at two to four years averaged 92 points, as did the score at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen patients rated their outcome as excellent; six, as good; and three, as fair. Fifteen patients were working, and ten of them were performing strenuous labor. Radiographs showed

  9. Fat embolism syndrome in an adolescent before surgical treatment of an isolated closed tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Cayce B; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C; Beaty, James H; Rhodes, Leslie; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs most commonly in adults with high-energy trauma, especially fractures of the long-bones and pelvis. Because of unique age-related physiologic differences in the immature skeleton, as well as differences in fracture management in pediatric patients, FES is rare in children. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FES occurring before surgical fixation of a closed tibial shaft fracture in an adolescent. A 16-year-old, 109 kg, Caucasian adolescent boy developed FES after closed diaphyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula, showing signs of respiratory distress and mental status changes. The FES resolved with supportive respiratory care and intramedullary nailing of the fracture was done without further respiratory compromise. FES is uncommon in children and adolescents. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis promptly and institute appropriate treatment. Intramedullary nailing of a long-bone fracture can be done safely and successfully after resolution of the FES.

  10. Risk of total knee arthroplasty after operatively treated tibial plateau fracture: a matched-population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wasserstein, David; Henry, Patrick; Paterson, J Michael; Kreder, Hans J; Jenkinson, Richard

    2014-01-15

    The aims of operative treatment of displaced tibial plateau fractures are to stabilize the injured knee to restore optimal function and to minimize the risk of posttraumatic arthritis and the eventual need for total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of our study was to define the rate of subsequent total knee arthroplasty after tibial plateau fractures in a large cohort and to compare that rate with the rate in the general population. All patients sixteen years of age or older who had undergone surgical treatment of a tibial plateau fracture from 1996 to 2009 in the province of Ontario, Canada, were identified from administrative health databases with use of surgeon fee codes. Each member of the tibial plateau fracture cohort was matched to four individuals from the general population according to age, sex, income, and urban/rural residence. The rates of total knee arthroplasty at two, five, and ten years were compared by using time-to-event analysis. A separate Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the influence of patient, provider, and surgical factors on the time to total knee arthroplasty. We identified 8426 patients (48.5% female; median age, 48.9 years) who had undergone fixation of a tibial plateau fracture and matched them to 33,698 controls. The two, five, and ten-year rates of total knee arthroplasty in the plateau fracture and control cohorts were 0.32% versus 0.29%, 5.3% versus 0.82%, and 7.3% versus 1.8%, respectively (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for comorbidity, plateau fracture surgery was found to significantly increase the likelihood of total knee arthroplasty (hazard ratio [HR], 5.29 [95% confidence interval, 4.58, 6.11]; p < 0.0001). Higher rates of total knee arthroplasty were also associated with increasing age (HR, 1.03 [1.03, 1.04] per year over the age of forty-eight; p < 0.0001), bicondylar fracture (HR, 1.53 [1.26, 1.84]; p < 0.0001), and greater comorbidity (HR, 2.17 [1.70, 2.77]; p < 0.001). Ten years after tibial plateau

  11. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagnik; Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-04-01

    Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed. There was no difference between the two modalities

  12. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. Aim To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. Materials and Methods A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Results Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed

  13. [Comparison study on two operations for treatment of extra-articular distal tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Qi, Haotian; Li, Weikang; Zhao, Yongjie; Zhang, Yinguang; Liu, Zhaojie; Jia, Jian

    2013-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness between minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treatment of extra-articular distal tibial fracture. Between March 2009 and March 2012, 57 patients with extra-articular distal tibial fractures were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of 57 cases, 31 were treated with MIPO (MIPO group), and 26 with ORIF (ORIF group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, type of fractures, complication, and time from injury to operation between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, fracture healing time, and complications were compared between 2 groups. There was no significant difference in operation time and intraoperative blood loss between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Wound infection occurred in 5 cases [2 in MIPO group (6.5%) and 3 in ORIF group (11.5%)] showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=0.651, P=0.499). The other wound obtained healing by first intention. All cases were followed up 13-24 months (mean, 15 months). No significant difference was found in the average healing time between 2 groups and between patients with types A and B by AO classification (P > 0.05); in patients with type C, the healing time in MIPO group was significantly shorter than that in ORIF group (t= -2.277, P=0.033). Delayed union was observed in 3 cases of MIPO group (9.7%) and in 4 cases of ORIF group (15.4%), showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=0.428, P=0.691). Mal-union occurred in 4 cases of MIPO group (12.9%) and in 1 case of ORIF group (3.8%), showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=1.449, P=0.362). No significant difference was found in Mazur score between 2 groups (t=0.480, P=0.633). The excellent and good rate was 93.5% in MIPO group (excellent in 24 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case) and was 92.3% in ORIF group (excellent in 18 cases, good in 6 cases, and poor in 2 cases), and the

  14. Postoperative weight bearing and patient reported outcomes at one year following tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Thewlis, Dominic; Fraysse, Francois; Callary, Stuart A; Verghese, Viju Daniel; Jones, Claire F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J; Rickman, Mark; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-07-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex and the current evidence for postoperative rehabilitation is weak, especially related to the recommended postoperative weight bearing. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if loading in the first 12 weeks of recovery is associated with patient reported outcome measures at 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. We hypothesized that there would be no association between loading and patient reported outcome measures. Seventeen patients, with a minimum of 52-week follow-up following fragment-specific open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fracture, were selected for this retrospective analysis. Postoperatively, patients were advised to load their limb to a maximum of 20kg during the first 6 weeks. Loading data were collected during walking using force platforms. A ratio of limb loading (affected to unaffected) was calculated at 2, 6 and 12 weeks postoperative. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Scores were collected at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. The association between loading ratios and patient reported outcomes were investigated. Compliance with weight bearing recommendations and changes in the patient reported outcome measures are described. Fracture reduction and migration were assessed on plain radiographs. No fractures demonstrated any measurable postoperative migration at 52 weeks. Significant improvements were seen in all patient reported outcome measures over the first 52 weeks, despite poor adherence to postoperative weight bearing restrictions. There were no associations between weight bearing ratio and patient reported outcomes at 52 weeks postoperative. Significant associations were identified between the loading ratio at 2 weeks and knee-related quality of life at six months (R 2 =0.392), and between the loading ratio at 6 weeks combined with injury severity and knee-related quality of life at 26 weeks (R 2 =0.441). In summary, weight bearing as tolerated does not negatively affect the

  15. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle, part 2: site-specific etiology, imaging, and treatment, and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Jacob C; Khurana, Bharti; Smith, Stacy E

    2017-09-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a commonly encountered problem among athletes and individuals participating in a wide range of activities. This illustrated review, the second of two parts, discusses site-specific etiological factors, imaging appearances, treatment options, and differential considerations of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. The imaging and clinical management of stress fractures of the foot and ankle are highly dependent on the specific location of the fracture, mechanical forces acting upon the injured site, vascular supply of the injured bone, and the proportion of trabecular to cortical bone at the site of injury. The most common stress fractures of the foot and ankle are low risk and include the posteromedial tibia, the calcaneus, and the second and third metatarsals. The distal fibula is a less common location, and stress fractures of the cuboid and cuneiforms are very rare, but are also considered low risk. In contrast, high-risk stress fractures are more prone to delayed union or nonunion and include the anterior tibial cortex, medial malleolus, navicular, base of the second metatarsal, proximal fifth metatarsal, hallux sesamoids, and the talus. Of these high-risk types, stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, the navicular, and the proximal tibial cortex may be predisposed to poor healing because of the watershed blood supply in these locations. The radiographic differential diagnosis of stress fracture includes osteoid osteoma, malignancy, and chronic osteomyelitis.

  16. Lower limb stress fractures in sport: Optimising their management and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Stress fractures in sport are becoming increasing more common, comprising up to 10% of all of sporting injuries. Around 90% of such injuries are located in the lower limb. This articles aims to define the optimal management of lower limb stress fractures in the athlete, with a view to maximise return rates and minimise return times to sport. Treatment planning of this condition is specific to the location of the injury. However, there remains a clear division of stress fractures by “high” and “low” risk. “Low risk” stress fractures are those with a low probability of fracture propagation, delayed union, or non-union, and so can be managed reliably with rest and exercise limitation. These include stress fractures of the Postero-Medial Tibial Diaphysis, Metatarsal Shafts, Distal Fibula, Medial Femoral Neck, Femoral Shaft and Calcaneus. “High risk” stress fractures, in contrast, have increased rates of fracture propagation, displacement, delayed and non-union, and so require immediate cessation of activity, with orthopaedic referral, to assess the need for surgical intervention. These include stress fractures of the Anterior Tibial Diaphysis, Fifth Metatarsal Base, Medial Malleolus, Lateral Femoral Neck, Tarsal Navicular and Great Toe Sesamoids. In order to establish the optimal methods for managing these injuries, we present and review the current evidence which guides the treatment of stress fractures in athletes. From this, we note an increased role for surgical management of certain high risk stress fractures to improve return times and rates to sport. Following this, key recommendations are provided for the management of the common stress fracture types seen in the athlete. Five case reports are also presented to illustrate the application of sport-focussed lower limb stress fracture treatment in the clinical setting. PMID:28361017

  17. [Application of rafting K-wire technique for tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-zhou; Yu, Wei-zhong; Li, Yun-feng; Liu, Yan-hui

    2015-12-01

    To summarize application of rafting K-wires technique for tibial plateau fractures. From January 2013 to January 2015,45 patients with tibial plateau fractures were treated by locking plate with rafting K-wires, including 33 males and 12 females with an average of 44.2 years old ranging from 22 to 56 years old. According to Schatzker classification, 6 cases were type II, 8 were type Ill, 4 were type IV, 4 were type V, and 5 were type VI. Allogeneic bone graft were performed for bone defects. All patients were fixed with two to five K-wires. Part of weight loading were encouraged at 3 months after operation,and full weight-loading were done at 5 months after operation. Postoperative complications were observed,and Rasmussen clinical and radiological assessment were used to evaluate clinical results. All Patients were followed up from 10 to 23 months with average of 14 months. According to Rasmussen clinical and radiological assessment, clinical scores 23.58 ± 6.33, radiological scores were 14.00 ± 6.33; and excellent and good rates were 82.2% and 77.8% respectively. Four patients occurred severe osteoporosis and collapse of articular surface; 5 patients occurred traumatic arthritis. Rafting K-wires technique with anatomized armor plate could effective fix and support platform collapse and joint bone fragments, increase support surface area and reduce postoperative reduction loss rate.

  18. Minimally invasive surgical technique: Percutaneous external fixation combined with titanium elastic nails for selective treatment of tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kai-Kai; Zhou, Xian-Ting; Tao, Zhou-Shan; Chen, Wei-Kai; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques have been described to treat tibial fractures, which respectively remains defects. This article presents a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique: percutaneous external fixator combined with titanium elastic nails (EF-TENs system). The purpose of this study is to introduce this new minimally invasive surgical technique and selective treatment of tibial fractures, particularly in segmental fractures, diaphysis fractures accompanied with distal or proximal bone subfissure, or fractures with poor soft-tissue problems. Following ethical approval, thirty-two patients with tibial fractures were treated by the EF-TENs system between January 2010 and December 2012. The follow-up studies included clinical and radiographic examinations. All relevant outcomes were recorded during follow-up. All thirty-two patients were achieved follow-ups. According to the AO classification, 3 Type A, 9 Type B and 20 Type C fractures were included respectively. According to the Anderson-Gustilo classification, there were 5 Type Grade II, 3 Type Grade IIIA and 2 Type Grade IIIB. Among 32 patients, 8 of them were segmental fractures. 12 fractures accompanied with bone subfissure. Results showed no nonunion case, with an average time of 23.7 weeks (range, 14-32 weeks). Among them, there were 3/32 delayed union patients and 0/32 malunion case. 4/32 patients developed a pin track infection and no patient suffered deep infection. The external fixator was removed with a mean time of 16.7 weeks (range, 10-26 weeks). Moreover, only 1/32 patient suffered with the restricted ROM of ankle, none with the restricted ROM of knee. This preliminary study indicated that the EF-TENs system, as a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique, had substantial effects on selective treatment of tibial fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of stability of osteosynthesis with K-wires on an artificial model of tibial malleolus fracture.

    PubMed

    Bumči, Igor; Vlahović, Tomislav; Jurić, Filip; Žganjer, Mirko; Miličić, Gordana; Wolf, Hinko; Antabak, Anko

    2015-11-01

    Paediatric ankle fractures comprise approximately 4% of all paediatric fractures and 30% of all epiphyseal fractures. Integrity of the ankle "mortise", which consists of tibial and fibular malleoli, is significant for stability and function of the ankle joint. Tibial malleolar fractures are classified as SH III or SH IV intra-articular fractures and, in cases where the fragments are displaced, anatomic reposition and fixation is mandatory. Type SH III-IV fractures of the tibial malleolus are usually treated with open reduction and fixation with cannulated screws that are parallel to the physis. Two K-wires are used for temporary stabilisation of fragments during reduction. A third "guide wire" for the screw is then placed parallel with the physis. Considering the rules of mechanics, it is assumed that the two temporary pins with the additional third pin placed parallel to the physis create a strong triangle and thus provide strong fracture fixation. To prove this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted on the artificial models of the lower end of the tibia from the company "Sawbones". Each model had been sawn in a way that imitates the fracture of medial malleoli and then reattached with 1.8mm pins in various combinations. Prepared models were then tested for tensile and pressure forces. The least stable model was that in which the fractured pieces were attached with only two parallel pins. The most stable model comprised three pins, where two crossed pins were inserted in the opposite compact bone and the third pin was inserted through the epiphysis parallel with and below the growth plate. A potential method of choice for fixation of tibial malleolar fractures comprises three K-wires, where two crossed pins are placed in the opposite compact bone and one is parallel with the growth plate. The benefits associated with this method include shorter operating times and avoidance of a second operation for screw removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Gait characteristics before hardware removal in patients operated upon for tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Bogdan; Prejbeanu, Radu; Crisan, Dan; Predescu, Vlad; Popa, Iulian; Poenaru, Dan V

    2015-07-01

    The reporting of gait analysis data on operated fractures of the tibial plateau, while extensive for studies of knee osteoarthritis of mostly undisclosed aetiology and ACL deficient knees, is rather limited in literature. In the present study we investigated 25 tibial plateau fractures classified as Schatzker II, IV, V and VI that underwent operative reduction and lateral plate osteosynthesis. Apart from routine radiographic exploration and patient completed (KOOS) scores at three (mean of 3.2 months), six (mean of 5.6 months) and 12 months (mean of 11.3 months) postoperatively, gait analysis was performed at these intervals as well. Cadence, step time and knee flexion were the gait parameters that were selected for the comparison at six and 12 months postoperatively. The analysed gait parameters were significantly improved between the six and the 12-month session and statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of values. Cadence had a mean value of 41 steps/minute at six months and 45 steps/minute at 12 months (p = 0.99). Step time was a mean of 0.74 seconds at six months while at 12 months the median value was 0.66 seconds (p = 0.94). Knee flexion angles evolved in a similar manner with mean values of 58° at six months and 69° at 12 months (p = 0.95). The mean KOOS scores were 42.4, 56.3 and 67.99 at three, six and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. Complex intra-articular fractures, classified as Schatzker IV, V and VI, had a higher impact on joint function than Schatzker II fractures treated with similar techniques and implants. There were statistically significant improvements in the recovery status at 12 months postoperatively compared to six months with extended chances for improvement.

  1. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  2. [Close reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis for proximal and distal tibial fractures: a report of 56 patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin-Wen; Kuang, Yong; Gu, Xin-Feng; Zheng, Yu-Xin; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-En; Zhang, Ming-Cai; Zhan, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Yin-yu

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of close reduction combined with minimally invasive percutanous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) for proximal and distal tibial fractures. From March 2007 to December 2010, 56 patients with proximal and distal tibial fractures were treated with close reduction combined with MIPPO technique. There were 39 males and 17 females,aged from 22 to 67 years with an average of 41.3 years. Left fracture was in 25 cases and right fracture was in 31 cases; proximal tibial fracture was in 15 cases and distal tibial fractures was in 41 cases; 34 cases caused by fall down and 22 cases caused by road accident. The mean time from injury to operation was 1.7 d. Clinical manifestation included pain, swelling of leg with limitation of activity. According to the standard of Johner-Wruhs, clinical effects were evaluated. The mean operative time was 46 min in 56 patients. All fractures obtained satisfactory reduction and the location of plate was good. Incisions healed with one-stage and no superficial or deep infection was found. All the patients were followed up from 8 to 23 months with an average of 14.2 months. Only one fracture complication with delayed union,and after auto grafting with ilium bone,the fracture got union. Other 55 cases obtained bone healing in 15 to 20 weeks after operation and no internal fixation failure was found. The time of walking was 4-6 months after operation,without limping at 7 months after operation. Both lower extremities were symmetrical and the function of knee and ankle got complete recovery. According to the criteria of Johner-Wruhs score,46 cases obtained excellent results,9 good and 2 fair. Treatment of proximal and distal tibial fractures with close reduction and MIPPO technique can not only preserve soft tissue,simplify operative procedure and decrease wound, but also can obtain rigid internal fixation and guarantee early function exercises of knee and ankle joints. The method has the advantages of less soft tissue

  3. [An improved reduction technique for depression fractures of lateral tibial plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchuan; Lou, Hua; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the improved reduction technique for depression fractures of the lateral tibial plateau and its effectiveness. Between January 2008 and December 2010; 48 patients (48 knees) with depression fractures of the lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker II or III fractures) were treated. There were 32 males and 16 females with an average age of 45.8 years (range, 16-79 years). All fractures were fresh closed fractures, which were caused by traffic accident in 27 cases, by falling from height in 5 cases, by crushing in 8 cases, and by sustained falls in 8 cases. According to Schatzker classification, 29 cases were classified as type II and 19 cases as type III. The lateral cortex was cut off to expose the depression and compacted cancellous bone was elevated to reset the articular surface. After reduction, autologous iliac bone graft and locking plate internal fixation were used. Healing of incision by first intention was achieved in all patients, and no complication occurred. All patients were followed up 1.7 years on average (range, 1-3 years). At last follow-up, the knee extension was (-0.5 +/- 0.3) degrees, and the knee flexion was (136.9 +/- 8.8) degrees. X-ray films showed that the fracture healing time was 52 weeks and no breakage of internal fixation occurred. According to Rasmussen clinical score, the results were excellent in 35 cases, good in 10 cases, and fair in 3 cases. According to Rasmussen radiographical score, the results were excellent in 41 cases, good in 7 cases; there were 41 excellent scores and 7 good scores of articular reduction; all gained good recovery of coronal and sagittal alignment and condylar width. The articular surface collapse was (1.0 +/- 0.7) mm at immediate postoperatively and (1.2 +/- 0.7) mm at last follow-up, showing no significant difference (t = -1.42, P = 0.20), but significant differences were found when compared with that at preoperation [(12.2 +/- 8.0) mm, P < 0.05]. This improved technique can provide a

  4. Using external and internal locking plates in a two-stage protocol for treatment of segmental tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yeh, Jih-Hsi; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2011-09-01

    The tibial segmental fractures usually follow high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. We designed a two-stage protocol for these complex injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of tibial segmental fractures treated according to this protocol. A prospective series of 25 consecutive segmental tibial fractures were treated using a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a low-profile locking plate was applied as an external fixator to temporarily immobilize the fractures after anatomic reduction had been achieved followed by soft-tissue reconstruction. The second stage involved definitive internal fixation with a locking plate using a minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique. The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 20-44 months). All fractures achieved union. The median time for the proximal fracture union was 23 weeks (range, 12-30 weeks) and that for distal fracture union was 27 weeks (range, 12-46 weeks; p = 0.08). Functional results were excellent in 21 patients and good in 4 patients. There were three cases of delayed union of distal fracture. Valgus malunion >5 degrees occurred in two patients, and length discrepancy >1 cm was observed in two patients. Pin tract infection occurred in three patients. Use of the two-stage procedure for treatment of segmental tibial fractures is recommended. Surgeons can achieve good reduction with stable temporary fixation, soft-tissue reconstruction, ease of subsequent definitive fixation, and high union rates. Our patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion, good functional outcomes, and a comfortable clinical course.

  5. Magnitude of cement-device interfacial stresses with and without tibial stemming: impact of BMI.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Ananthkrishnan; Hedley, Anthony Keith; Kester, Mark A

    2011-03-01

    Patients expect their total knee arthroplasty to relieve pain and to be long lasting. With patients becoming more active, weighing more, and living longer, this expectation becomes increasingly more difficult to fulfill. Patients who are obese and active put greater loads on their implants and may have a greater risk of failure. Although much attention has been paid to decreasing polyethylene wear, a major cause of implant failure, very little research focus has been directed to elucidate other measures to reduce failure, such as the efficacy of prophylactic stemming of the tibial tray. This study explored whether additional mechanical support for tibial base plates would help reduce bone cement stresses in heavy patients, who, like patients with a high activity level, put added stress on their implants. A tibial base plate with a 12-mm-diameter x 50-mm-long stem was compared with the same tibial base plate with a 15-mm-diameter x 20-mm-long end cap using finite element analysis. The results indicate that the tibial base plate with a prophylactic stem significantly reduced compressive and shear stresses on the cement-device interface and therefore may help to reduce the possibility of tibial loosening in these at-risk patients. Further, such studies will aid the surgeon in educating patients and in selecting the appropriate implant strategy.

  6. Foot and Ankle Stress Fractures in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Greaser, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of stress fractures in the general athletic population is less than 1%, but may be as high as 15% in runners. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle account for almost half of bone stress injuries in athletes. These injuries occur because of repetitive submaximal stresses on the bone resulting in microfractures, which may coalesce to form complete fractures. Advanced imaging such as MRI and triple-phase bone scans is used to evaluate patients with suspected stress fracture. Low-risk stress fractures are typically treated with rest and protected weight bearing. High-stress fractures more often require surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient reported health related quality of life early outcomes at 12 months after surgically managed tibial plafond fracture.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Luke J; Edwards, Elton R; Gosling, Cameron McR; Hau, Raphael; Hofstee, Dirk Jan; Shuen, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-04-01

    Tibial plafond fractures represent a small but complex subset of fractures of the lower limb. The aim of this study was to describe the health related quality of life, pain and return to work outcomes 12 months following surgically managed tibial plafond fracture. The Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) database was used to identify patients with tibial plafond fractures. All patients captured by VOTOR with a tibial plafond fracture between September 2003 and July 2009, were identified consecutively and comprised the initial cohort. The radiographs of all identified patients were classified using the AO/OTA fracture classification. A review of the included patient's medical records was performed. Data were collected on the injury event, management and complications. Outcomes at 12 months were prospectively collected by telephone interview and included return to work, a numerical rating scale for assessment of pain and the Short Form 12 (SF-12). There were 98 unilateral tibial plafond fractures; 91 fractures were managed operatively, 4 non-operatively and 3 underwent amputation. The 91 operatively managed patients were the focus of this study. A two-stage management approach, involving temporary external fixation, followed by definitive open reduction and internal fixation, was the most common operative treatment. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 70%. 57% had returned to work by 12 months post-injury, the median (IQR) pain score was 2 (0-5) and 27% reported moderate to severe persistent pain. Mean PCS-12 scores were significantly lower than Australian norms (p=0.99), 38.2 for males and 37.5 for females. The presence of persistent pain, loss of physical health and a low return to work rate highlights the profound impact of tibial plafond fractures on patients' lives. Although this study looked at the early 12 month results, it is expected these outcomes will continue to improve over time. Further studies, with larger patient numbers, must focus

  8. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most

  9. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  10. Treatment of open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Vukajinović, Zoran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Najman, Stevo

    2013-01-01

    Tibia fracture caused by high velocity missiles is mostly comminuted and followed by bone defect which makes their healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. A 34-year-old male was wounded at close range by a semi-automatic gun missile. He was wounded in the distal area of the left tibia and suffered a massive defect of the bone and soft tissue. After the primary treatment of the wound, the fracture was stabilized with an external fixator type Mitkovic, with convergent orientation of the pins. The wound in the medial region of the tibia was closed with the secondary stitch, whereas the wound in the lateral area was closed with the skin transplant after Thiersch. Due to massive bone defect in the area of the rifle-missile wound six months after injury, a medical team placed a reconstructive external skeletal fixator type Mitkovic and performed corticotomy in the proximal metaphyseal area of the tibia. By the method of bone transport (distractive osteogenesis), the bone defect of the tibia was replaced. After the fracture healing seven months from the secondary surgery, the fixator was removed and the patient was referred to physical therapy. Surgical treatment of wounds, external fixation, performing necessary debridement, adequate antibiotic treatment and soft and bone tissue reconstruction are essential in achieving good results in patients with the open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles. Reconstruction of bone defect can be successfully treated by reconstructive external fixator Mitkovic.

  11. The floating knee: a review on ipsilateral femoral and tibial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Vives, Josep; Bel, Jean-Christophe; Capel Agundez, Arantxa; Chana Rodríguez, Francisco; Palomo Traver, José; Schultz-Larsen, Morten; Tosounidis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Blake and McBryde established the concept of ‘floating knee’ to describe ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia.1 This combination is much more than a bone lesion; the mechanism is usually a high-energy trauma in a patient with multiple injuries and a myriad of other lesions. After initial evaluation patients should be categorised, and only stable patients should undergo immediate reduction and internal fixation with the rest receiving external fixation. Definitive internal fixation of both bones yields the best results in almost all series. Nailing of both bones is the optimal fixation when both fractures (femoral and tibial) are extra-articular. Plates are the ‘standard of care’ in cases with articular fractures. A combination of implants are required by 40% of floating knees. Associated ligamentous and meniscal lesions are common, but may be irrelevant in the case of an intra-articular fracture which gives the worst prognosis for this type of lesion. Cite this article: Muñoz Vives K, Bel J-C, Capel Agundez A, Chana Rodríguez F, Palomo Traver J, Schultz-Larsen M, Tosounidis, T. The floating knee. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:375-382. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000042. PMID:28461916

  12. [Curative efficacies of mini-invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis versus supercutaneous plating for distal tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhu, Limei; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui

    2014-12-30

    To compare the clinical efficacies of mini-invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO) versus supercutaneous plating with closed reduction in the treatment of distal tibial fractures. A total of 48 patients with close distal tibial fractures were treated between January 2010 and January 2012. The MIPO group included 16 males and 8 females with an average age of 36 years. And the types were A (n = 15), B (n = 6) and C (n = 3) according to the classification scheme of Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF). The supercutaneous plating group also included 16 males and 8 females with an average age of 37 years. And the types were A (n = 15), B (n = 6) and C (n = 3). And the operative duration, hospital stay, union time, postoperative complications and function of ankle were compared between two groups. The mean follow-up period was 18.5 (12-26) months. There was no instance of nonunion, hardware breakdown or deep infection. Patients in supercutaneous plating group had significantly shorter mean operative duration, hospital stay and union time. Three patients and 1 patient in MIPO group presented with superficial infection and delayed union respectively while there was no occurrence in supercutaneous plating group. And the differences were not statistically significant. Fifteen patients (62.5%) complained of implant impingement or discomfort. And stripping occurred at an incidence of 15.6% during the removal time of locking screws in MIPO group. While in supercutaneous plating group, there as no complaint of skin irritation and removal of supercutaneous plate was easily performed without anesthesia. The mean AOFAS score was 90.7 ± 3.8 in supercutaneous plating group versus 88.9 ± 4.1 in MIPO group (P = 0.070). Distal tibia fractures may be treated successfully with MIPO or supercutaneous plating. However, supercutaneous plating offers multiple advantages in terms of mean operative duration, hospital stay, union time, skin irritation and implant

  13. Role of Appositional Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Distal Tibial Fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Won, Yougun; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of interfragmentary appositional (gap-closing) screw fixation in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for distal tibial fractures on the clinical and radiologic results. Prospective nonrandomized study. Level I trauma center. Sixty patients who were diagnosed as distal metadiaphyseal oblique or spiral tibial fracture without displaced articular fragment. Thirty patients (group A) of the 60 patients were treated with MIPO without appositional screw fixation, and the other 30 (group B) were treated with the screw. Radiologic union, clinical union, clinical functional score [American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score], and complications. The time for initial callus formation and radiologic union was significantly longer in group A than those in group B (76.8 vs. 58.0 days, P = 0.044; 409 vs. 258.7 days, P = 0.002, respectively). The rate of clinical union during 1 year was significantly higher in group B than in group A (P = 0.0063). Four nonunion patients in group A achieved bone union after placement of an additional bone graft. None of the patients in group B diagnosed with delayed union or nonunion (P < 0.001). None of the patients of both groups had malreduction, skin problems, or infection. Overall, the AOFAS score did not significantly differ between groups A and B (85.4 vs. 87.0, P = 0.43). The use of additional interfragmentary appositional screw fixation in distal tibia MIPO for the fixation of oblique or spiral fracture promoted callus formation and union rate compared with MIPO without appositional screw fixation. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. The Effect of Sagittal Plane Deformities after Tibial Plateau Fractures to Functions and Instability of Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Erdil, M; Yildiz, F; Kuyucu, E; Sayar, Ş; Polat, G; Ceylan, H H; Koçyiğit, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of posterior tibial slope after fracture healing on antero-posterior knee laxity, functional outcome and patient satisfaction. 126 patients who were treated for tibial plateau fractures between 2008-2013 in the orthopedics and traumatology department of our institution were evaluated for the study. Patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, arthroscopy assisted minimally invasive osteosynthesis or conservative treatment. Mean posterior tibial slope after the treatment was 6.91 ± 5.11 and there was no significant difference when compared to the uninvolved side 6.42 ± 4,21 (p = 0.794). Knee laxity in anterior-posterior plane was 6.14 ± 2.11 and 5.95 ± 2.25 respectively on healthy and injured side. The difference of mean laxity in anterior-posterior plane between two sides was statistically significant. In this study we found no difference in laxity between the injured and healthy knees. However Tegner score decreased significantly in patients who had greater laxity difference between the knees. We did not find significant difference between fracture type and laxity, IKDC functional scores independent of the ligamentous injury. In conclusion despite coronal alignment is taken into consideration in treatment of tibial plateau fractures, sagittal alignment is reasonably important for stability and should not be ignored.

  15. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of a four-column classification for tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rondanelli, Alfredo; Escobar-González, Sara Sofía; Henao-Alzate, Alejandro; Martínez-Cano, Juan Pablo

    2017-09-01

    A four-column classification system offers a different way of evaluating tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study is to compare the intra-observer and inter-observer reliability between four-column and classic classifications. This is a reliability study, which included patients presenting with tibial plateau fractures between January 2013 and September 2015 in a level-1 trauma centre. Four orthopaedic surgeons blindly classified each fracture according to four different classifications: AO, Schatzker, Duparc and four-column. Kappa, intra-observer and inter-observer concordance were calculated for the reliability analysis. Forty-nine patients were included. The mean age was 39 ± 14.2 years, with no gender predominance (men: 51%; women: 49%), and 67% of the fractures included at least one of the posterior columns. The intra-observer and inter-observer concordance were calculated for each classification: four-column (84%/79%), Schatzker (60%/71%), AO (50%/59%) and Duparc (48%/58%), with a statistically significant difference among them (p = 0.001/p = 0.003). Kappa coefficient for intr-aobserver and inter-observer evaluations: Schatzker 0.48/0.39, four-column 0.61/0.34, Duparc 0.37/0.23, and AO 0.34/0.11. The proposed four-column classification showed the highest intra and inter-observer agreement. When taking into account the agreement that occurs by chance, Schatzker classification showed the highest inter-observer kappa, but again the four-column had the highest intra-observer kappa value. The proposed classification is a more inclusive classification for the posteromedial and posterolateral fractures. We suggest, therefore, that it be used in addition to one of the classic classifications in order to better understand the fracture pattern, as it allows more attention to be paid to the posterior columns, it improves the surgical planning and allows the surgical approach to be chosen more accurately.

  17. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures by primary fascio-septo-cutaneous local flap and primary fixation: The 'fix and shift' technique.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, P R

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures of tibia have posed great difficulty in managing both the soft tissue and the skeletal components of the injured limb. Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures are more difficult to manage than I, II, and III A fractures. Stable skeletal fixation with immediate soft tissue cover has been the key to the successful outcome in treating open tibial fractures, in particular, Gustilo Anderson III B types. If the length of the open wound is larger and if the exposed surface of tibial fracture and tibial shaft is greater, then the management becomes still more difficult. Thirty six Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures managed between June 2002 and December 2013 with "fix and shift" technique were retrospectively reviewed. All the 36 patients managed by this technique had open wounds measuring >5 cm (post debridement). Under fix and shift technique, stable fixation involved primary external fixator application or primary intramedullary nailing of the tibial fracture and immediate soft tissue cover involved septocutaneous shift, i.e., shifting of fasciocutaneous segments based on septocutaneous perforators. Primary fracture union rate was 50% and reoperation rate (bone stimulating procedures) was 50%. Overall fracture union rate was 100%. The rate of malunion was 14% and deep infection was 16%. Failure of septocutaneous shift was 2.7%. There was no incidence of amputation. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures with "fix and shift" technique has resulted in better outcome in terms of skeletal factors (primary fracture union, overall union, and time for union and malunion) and soft tissue factors (wound healing, flap failure, access to secondary procedures, and esthetic appearance) when compared to standard methods adopted earlier. Hence, "fix and shift" could be recommended as one of the treatment modalities for open III B tibial fractures.

  18. Moore I postero-medial articular tibial fracture in alpine skiers: Surgical management and return to sports activity.

    PubMed

    Morin, Vincent; Pailhé, Régis; Sharma, Akash; Rouchy, René-Christopher; Cognault, Jérémy; Rubens-Duval, Brice; Saragaglia, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 10 years, like many authors, we observed an increasing number of Moore I tibial plateau fractures related to alpine skiing for which the surgeon may face difficult choices regarding surgical approach and fixation means. Some authors have recently been suggesting a posterior approach associated to open reduction and osteosynthesis by a buttress plate. But in our knowledge there is no specific study on sports activity recovery after Moore I tibial fractures. The aim of this work was to assess sports activities and clinical outcomes after surgically treated Moore I tibial plateau fractures in an athletic population of skiers. We conducted a prospective case series between 2012 and 2014. This included fifteen patients aged 39.6±7 years whom presented with a Moore I tibial plateau fracture during a skiing accident. 12 cases (80%) presented with an associated tibial spine fracture. Treatment consisted of a standard antero-medial approach, with a medial para patellar arthrotomy to allow direct visualisation of articular reduction and spinal fixation. Two or three 6.5mm long cancellous bone screws were placed antero-posteriorly so as to ensure perfect compression of the fracture site. Radiological and functional results were assessed by an independent observer (Lysholm-Tegner, UCLA, KOOS scores) at the longest follow-up. Mean follow-up was 18.2±6 months (12-28). An immediate postoperative anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases and remained stable in time. At last follow-up Lysholm mean score was 85±14 points (59-100), UCLA score was 7.3±1.6 (4-10) and Tegner score was 4.6±1.3 (3-6). Mean KOOS score was 77±15 (54-97). 87% of patients had resumed their skiing activity and 93% were satisfied or very satisfied from their post-operative surgical outcome. We observed no pseudarthrosis or secondary varus displacement. In our series 87% of patients had resumed back to their sporting activities. Surgical management of Moore I tibial plateau fractures by

  19. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  20. Nail or plate in the management of distal extra-articular tibial fracture, what is better? Valutation of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bisaccia, Michele; Cappiello, Andrea; Meccariello, Luigi; Rinonapoli, Giuseppe; Falzarano, Gabriele; Medici, Antonio; Vicente, Cristina Ibáñez; Piscitelli, Luigi; Stano, Verdiana; Bisaccia, Olga; Caraffa, Auro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Distal tibial fractures are the most common long bone fractures. Several studies focusing on the methods of treatment of displaced distal tibial fractures have been published. To date, locked plates, intramedullary nails and external fixation are the three most used techniques. The aim of our study was to compare intramedullary nail (IMN) and locked plate (LP) for treatment of this kind of fracture. Materials and methods: We collected data on 81 patients with distal tibial fractures (distance from the joint between 40 and 100 mm) and we divided into two groups: IMN and LP. We compared in the 2 groups the mean operation time, the mean union time, the infection rate the rate of malunion and nonunion, the full weight bearing time. Results: No patient in the two groups developed a nonunion. None of the patients obtained a fair or poor outcome. Overall 52 patients obtained an excellent result (69.3%) and 23 obtained a good result (30.6%). Discussion: Our study results indicate a superiority of IMN over LP in terms of lower rates of infections and statistically significant shorter time to full weight bearing. Whereas LP appeared to be advantageous over IMN in terms of leading to a better anatomical and fixed reductions of the fracture and a lower rate of union complications. The two treatments achieved comparable results in terms of operation time, hospital stay, union time and functional outcomes. PMID:29469802

  1. Does human immunodeficiency virus status affect early wound healing in open surgically stabilised tibial fractures?: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Howard, N E; Phaff, M; Aird, J; Wicks, L; Rollinson, P

    2013-12-01

    We compared early post-operative rates of wound infection in HIV-positive and -negative patients presenting with open tibial fractures managed with surgical fixation. The wounds of 84 patients (85 fractures), 28 of whom were HIV positive and 56 were HIV negative, were assessed for signs of infection using the ASEPIS wound score. There were 19 women and 65 men with a mean age of 34.8 years. A total of 57 fractures (17 HIV-positive, 40 HIV-negative) treated with external fixation were also assessed using the Checkett score for pin-site infection. The remaining 28 fractures were treated with internal fixation. No significant difference in early post-operative wound infection between the two groups of patients was found (10.7% (n = 3) vs 19.6% (n = 11); relative risk (RR) 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 1.8); p = 0.32). There was also no significant difference in pin-site infection rates (17.6% (n = 3) vs 12.5% (n = 5); RR 1.62 (95% CI 0.44 to 6.07); p = 0.47). The study does not support the hypothesis that HIV significantly increases the rate of early wound or pin-site infection in open tibial fractures. We would therefore suggest that a patient's HIV status should not alter the management of open tibial fractures in patients who have a CD4 count > 350 cells/μl.

  2. [Current treatment situation and progress on bone defect of collapsed tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Luo, Chang-qi; Fang, Yue; Tu, Chong-qi; Yang, Tian-fu

    2016-02-01

    Characteristics of collapsed tibial plateau fracture determines that the joint surface must remain anatomical reduction,line of force in tibial must exist and internal fixation must be strong. However, while renewing articular surface smoothness, surgeons have a lot of problems in dealing with bone defect under the joint surface. Current materials used for bone defect treatment include three categories: autologous bone, allograft bone and bone substitutes. Some scholars think that autologous bone grafts have a number of drawbacks, such as increasing trauma, prolonged operation time, the limited source, bone area bleeding,continuous pain, local infection and anesthesia,but most scholars believe that the autologous cancellous bone graft is still the golden standard. Allograft bone has the ability of bone conduction, but the existence of immune responses, the possibility of a virus infection, and the limited source of the allograft cannot meet the clinical demands. Likewise, bone substitutes have the problem that osteogenesis does not match with degradation in rates. Clinical doctors can meet the demand of the patient's bone graft according to patient's own situation and economic conditions.

  3. Stress Fractures of Tibia Treated with Ilizarov External Fixator.

    PubMed

    Górski, Radosław; Żarek, Sławomir; Modzelewski, Piotr; Górski, Ryszard; Małdyk, Paweł

    2016-08-30

    Stress fractures are the result of cyclic loading of the bone, which gradually becomes damaged. Most often they are treated by rest or plaster cast and, in rare cases, by internal fixation. There is little published data on initial reposition followed by stabilization with the Ilizarov apparatus in such fractures. Six patients were treated with an external fixator according to the Ilizarov method for a stress fracture of the tibia between 2007 and 2015. Three patients were initially treated conservatively. Due to increasing tibial deformation, they were qualified for surgical treatment with external stabilization. In the other patients, surgery was the first-line treatment. All patients demonstrated risk factors for a stress fracture. After the surgery, they fully loaded the operated limb. No patient developed malunion, nonunion, infection or venous thrombosis. The average time from the first operation to the removal of the external fixator was 19 weeks. Radiographic and clinical outcomes were satisfactory in all patients. 1. The Ilizarov method allows for successful stabilization of stress fractures of the tibia. 2. It may be a good alternative to internal stabilization, especially in patients with multiple comorbidities which affect bone quality and may impair soft tissue healing.

  4. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Gustavo; Soler, Isabel; López-Durán, Luis

    2014-04-14

    Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo's grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety.

  5. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. Case presentation We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo’s grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. Conclusion This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety. PMID:24731759

  6. Tarsal navicular stress fractures: radiographic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.; Freiberger, R.H.

    1983-09-01

    Tarsal navicular stress fractures are a potential source of disabling foot pain in physically active individuals. The diagnosis of tarsal navicular stress fracture requires a high index of clinical and radiographic suspicion because the fracture is only rarely evident on routine radiographs or standard tomograms. The radiographic diagnosis of a tarsal navicular stress fracture may require anatomic anteroposterior tomograms or a radionuclide bone scan with plantar views. Radiographic examinations of 23 fractures in 21 patients are evaluated.

  7. [Quality of life and job performance resulting from operatively treated tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Roßbach, B P; Faymonville, C; Müller, L P; Stützer, H; Isenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the functional results and the effect on quality of life of surgically treated tibial plateau fractures in physically active and working patients with multiple and serious injuries. In addition, the relationships between functional and radiological outcome were evaluated and compared with activity in daily and professional life. In all, 41 injured patients were followed up a mean of 47 months after surgical treatment and examined with radiological, functional, as well as quality of life score. In the radiological scoring, a mean value of 72 points (max 100 points) was achieved. In the activity score, there was an average of 63.5 points (max 100 points). When evaluating the health-related quality of life, an average score of 69.6 points was achieved. There was a significant relationship between radiological and activity scores and the radiological and life quality scores. Furthermore, the relationship between activity and quality of life scores was considered significant. Surgeon's influence on the functional outcome could be confirmed. The functional and the radiological results were moderate. Quality of life was permanently affected by the consequences of tibial plateau fracture in 12 patients; 11 patients were not re-employed. However, the quality of life was assessed as good or very good and 28 patients had returned to work. The quality of life was firmly linked to the radiological and functional parameters, which tended to be influenced by the quality of the primary surgical treatment when looking at the overall population.

  8. Prevalence of knee stiffness after arthroscopic bone suture fixation of tibial spine avulsion fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, M; Barbosa, N C; Gardon, R; Tuteja, S; Chatellard, R; Fayard, J-M; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2016-09-01

    Tibial spine avulsion fractures (TSAFs) occur chiefly in adolescents. Few published data are available on outcomes after arthroscopic surgical treatment of TSAFs in adults. To evaluate outcomes of consecutive patients with TSAFs managed by arthroscopic bone suture followed by a standardised non-aggressive rehabilitation programme. Arthroscopic bone suture followed by non-aggressive rehabilitation therapy reliably produces satisfactory outcomes in adults with TSAF. Thirteen adults were included. Outcomes were evaluated based on the Tegner score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, anterior-posterior knee laxity, passive and active motion ranges, and radiological appearance. After a mean follow-up of 41±27months (12-94months), all 13 patients had healed fractures without secondary displacement. No patient had knee instability. Post-operative stiffness was noted in 5 patients (2 with complex regional pain syndrome and 3 with extension lag), 1 of whom required surgical release. The mean IKDC score was 91.3±11.7. The mean Tegner score was 5.46±1.37 compared to 6.38±0.70 before surgery. Mean tibial translation (measured using the Rolimeter) was 1.09±1.22mm, compared to 5.9±1.85mm before surgery. The outcomes reported here support the reliability of arthroscopic bone suture for TSAF fixation. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of patients experienced post-operative stiffness, whose contributory factors may include stunning of the quadriceps due to the short time from injury to surgery and the use of a gentle rehabilitation programme. IV, retrospective study of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes after arthroscopic excision of the bony prominence in the treatment of tibial spine avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K Donald; Urch, Scott E; Freeman, Heather

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes after arthroscopic excision of the bony prominence after a tibial spine avulsion fracture. This study included 7 subjects (5 female and 2 male subjects; mean age, 21.4 years). All subjects underwent preoperative rehabilitation focused on range of motion (ROM) and swelling control. Postoperative rehabilitation focused on regaining symmetric knee hyperextension and flexion. Objective examinations and subjective surveys were obtained at least 1 year after surgery. All subjects achieved normal knee extension; 6 patients achieved normal knee flexion, whereas 1 patient had nearly normal flexion. Physical examination showed a negative Lachman test with a firm end point in all patients, and the mean side-to-side difference for the KT-1000 manual maximum test (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) was 1.3 mm. No subjects required subsequent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. All subjects returned to their previous level of activity without instability symptoms. At a mean of 5.7 years after surgery, the mean International Knee Documentation Committee subjective survey score was 90.6 points overall, with 4.7 out of 5 possible points for the instability question. At latest follow-up, the mean ROM was from 6° of hyperextension to 147° of flexion in the involved knee, compared with 6° of hyperextension to 148° of flexion for the noninvolved knee. The results of arthroscopic excision of the bony fragment after type II, III, or III+ tibial spine avulsion fracture are positive, with good stability, symmetric ROM, and high subjective scores. Most importantly, this procedure allows patients to regain full, symmetric hyperextension of the knee, avoiding the complications associated with extension loss. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is intramedullary nailing applicable for distal tibial fractures with ankle joint extension?

    PubMed

    Beytemür, Ozan; Albay, Cem; Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Güleç, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and radiographic results and treatment complications of AO/OTA (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association) type 43C1 and C2 fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We retrospectively evaluated 35 AO/OTA type 43C1 and C2 patients (26 males, 9 females; mean age 39.8±16.9 years; range 19 to 82 years) treated with intramedullary nailing. Two interfragmentary screws out of nail were applied in 10 patients (29%), while one interfragmentary screw out of nail was applied in 17 patients (49%). Intramedullary nailing was applied in eight patients (23%) without external screws. Fracture union, union time, alignment problems, and complications were evaluated. Clinical evaluation of patients was conducted using the Olerud and Molander score and by measuring the ankle joint range of motion. Union was achieved in all 35 patients. Mean union time was 16.5±2.8 weeks (range 12 to 24 weeks) and mean Olerud and Molander score was 88±8.24. Varus deformity was detected in one patient, valgus deformity was detected in two patients, and rotation deformity was detected in one patient. Superficial infection was detected in three patients (9%). Deep infection was not detected in any patient. Intramedullary nailing is not contraindicated for simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures. In these fractures, intramedullary nailing performed in accordance with its technique, with an additional percutaneous screw if necessary, is a successful treatment option with high fracture union rates, high functional results, and low complication rates.

  11. Indirect reduction technique using a distraction support in minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Wei; Shi, Zeng-Yuan; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Mao, Hai-Jiao

    2016-12-01

    To describe an indirect reduction technique during minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of tibial shaft fractures with the use of a distraction support. Between March 2011 and October 2014, 52 patients with a mean age of 48 years (16-72 years) sustaining tibial shaft fractures were included. All the patients underwent MIPPO for the fractures using a distraction support prior to insertion of the plate. Fracture angular deformity was assessed by goni- ometer measurement on preoperative and postoperative images. Preoperative radiographs revealed a mean of 7.6°(1.2°-28°) angulation in coronal plane and a mean of 6.8°(0.5°-19°) angulation in sagittal plane. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radio- graphs showed a mean of 0.8°(0°-4.0°) and 0.6°(0°-3.6°) of varus/valgus and apex anterior/posterior angulation, respectively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. This study suggests that the distraction support during MIPPO of tibial shaft fractures is an effective and safe method with no associated complications.

  12. [Clinical application of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nail].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Li-Guo; Fang, Zhi-Song; Luo, Cong-Feng; Wang, Qing-Feng; Ma, Yi-Ping; Gao, Hong; Fu, Guo-Hai; Hu, Cheng-Ting

    2012-07-01

    To introduce the clinical method of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nails. From June 2006 to March 2011, 26 patients with distal tibial fracture were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails using blocking screws and rooting technique, included 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 46.2 years old ranging from 24 to 64 years. According to AO classification: 10 cases of type A1, 4 cases of type A2, 8 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2. The average distance of the fractures end to the ankle joint was 85 mm ranging from 55 to 125 mm, the mean time between injured and operation was 4.5 days. The patients were evaluated with pain, range of motion, walking. All cases were followed-up for 6 to 22 months (averaged 15 months). According to Iowa ankle joint grading system,the score was improved from preoperative (66.8 +/- 8.2) to postoperative (94.6 +/- 4.8). All fractures had united, and got satisfactory reduction and stable fixation with no complications had happen such as breakage of screw. Fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail using blocking screws and rooting technique in treating distal tibial fracture, is a safe and effective technique for the improvement of stability.

  13. Time dependent loss of trabecular bone in human tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lucian Bogdan; Kitchen, David; Anderson, Paul Hamill; Yang, Dongqing; Starczak, Yolandi; Kogawa, Masakazu; Perilli, Egon; Smitham, Peter Jonathan; Rickman, Mark Sean; Thewlis, Dominic; Atkins, Gerald James

    2018-05-22

    We investigated if time between injury and surgery affects cancellous bone properties in patients suffering tibial plateau fractures (TPF), in terms of structural integrity and gene expression controlling bone loss. A cohort of 29 TPF, operated 1-17 days post-injury, had biopsies from the fracture and an equivalent contralateral limb site, at surgery. Samples were assessed using micro-computed tomography and real-time RT-PCR analysis for the expression of genes known to be involved in bone remodeling and fracture healing. Significant decreases in the injured vs control side were observed for bone volume fraction (BV/TV, -13.5 ± 6.0%, p = 0.011), trabecular number (Tb.N, -10.5 ± 5.9%, p = 0.041) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, -4.6 ± 2.5%, p = 0.033). Changes in these parameters were more evident in patients operated 5-17 days post-injury, compared to those operated in the first 4 days post injury. A significant negative association was found between Tb.Th (r = -0.54, p < 0.01) and BV/TV (r = -0.39, p < 0.05) in relation to time post-injury in the injured limb. Both BV/TV and Tb.Th were negatively associated with expression of key molecular markers of bone resorption, CTSK, ACP5 and the ratio of RANKL:OPG mRNA. These structure/gene expression relationships did not exist in the contralateral tibial plateau of these patients. This study demonstrated that there is a significant early time-dependent bone loss in the proximal tibia after TPF. This bone loss was significantly associated with altered expression of genes typically involved in the process of osteoclastic bone resorption but possibly also by osteocytes. The mechanism of early bone loss in such fractures should be a subject of further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-traumatic cerebral fat embolism prior to operative repair of femoral and tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Cheon; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2008-02-01

    Rare cases of primary cerebral fat embolism as a postoperative complication have been reported. In addition, cerebral fat embolism occurring before operative repair without shunt lesion are more rarely reported. We report a patient with a posttraumatic cerebral fat embolism resulting in severe neurologic dysfunction without right to left shunt. A 25-year-old man was brought to the hospital immediately after a traffic accident. He sustained a right segmental femoral shaft fracture and a left tibial shaft fracture. The patient was alert with no neurological deficits. Approximately 13 hours after injury, the patient developed acute mental status deterioration and dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive multifocal infarction owing to embolic showering throughout nearly the entire brain parenchyma. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed no evidence of embolism in the lung, abdomen, and pelvis. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed no circulating embolic particles or intracardiac shunt. The patient underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with a reamed intramedullary nail in the tibia and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a reamed nail in the femur at 5 days after injury. We performed decompression of a hematoma containing a large number of lipid droplets via a small incision in the femur shaft fracture, established suction drainage of the tibia medullar cavity, and applied a tourniquet to the thigh in the tibia shaft fracture. Supportive medical treatment included endotracheal ventilatory support and tracheostomy. The patient was discharged from the hospital 50 days after admission. On follow-up 2 months later, he had returned to activities of daily living, however a speech disturbance remained.

  15. Temporary Stabilization with External Fixator in ‘Tripolar’ Configuration in Two Steps Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Daghino, Walter; Messina, Marco; Filipponi, Marco; Alessandro, Massè

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tibial pilon fractures represent a complex therapeutic problem for the orthopedic surgeon, given the frequent complications and outcomes disabling. The recent medical literature indicates that the best strategy to reduce amount of complications in tibial pilon fractures is two-stages procedure. We describe our experience in the primary stabilization of these fractures. Methods: We treated 36 cases with temporary external fixation in a simple configuration, called "tripolar": this is an essential structure (only three screws and three rods), that is possible to perform even without the availability of X-rays and with simple anesthesia or sedation. Results: We found a sufficient mechanical stability for the nursing post-operative, in absence of intraoperative and postoperative problems. The time between trauma and temporary stabilization ranged between 3 and 144 hours; surgical average time was 8.4 minutes. Definitive treatment was carried out with a delay of a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 15 days from the temporary stabilization, always without problems, both in case of ORIF (open reduction, internal fixation) or circular external fixation Conclusion: Temporary stabilization with external fixator in ‘tripolar’ configuration seems to be the most effective strategy in two steps treatment of tibial pilon fractures. These preliminary encouraging results must be confirmed by further studies with more cases. PMID:27123151

  16. Laser/LED phototherapy on the repair of tibial fracture treated with wire osteosynthesis evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Antônio L B; Soares, Luiz G P; da Silva, Aline C P; Santos, Nicole R S; da Silva, Anna Paula L T; Neves, Bruno Luiz R C; Soares, Amanda P; Silveira, Landulfo

    2018-04-23

    The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete surgical tibial fractures fixed with wire osteosynthesis (WO) treated or not with infrared laser (λ780 nm) or infrared light emitting diode (LED) (λ850 ± 10 nm) lights, 142.8 J/cm 2 per treatment, associated or not to the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. Surgical tibial fractures were created on 18 rabbits, and all fractures were fixed with WO and some groups were grafted with MTA. Irradiated groups received lights at every other day during 15 days, and all animals were sacrificed after 30 days, being the tibia removed. The results showed that only irradiation with either laser or LED influenced the peaks of phosphate hydroxyapatite (~ 960 cm -1 ). Collagen (~ 1450 cm -1 ) and carbonated hydroxyapatite (~ 1070 cm -1 ) peaks were influenced by both the use of MTA and the irradiation with either laser or LED. It is concluded that the use of either laser or LED phototherapy associated to MTA cement was efficacious on improving the repair of complete tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis by increasing the synthesis of collagen matrix and creating a scaffold of calcium carbonate (carbonated hydroxyapatite-like) and the subsequent deposition of phosphate hydroxyapatite.

  17. Soft tissue management of children's open tibial fractures – a review of seventy children over twenty years

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P; Schaverien, MV; Stewart, KJ

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of open tibial fractures in children represents a unique reconstructive challenge. The aim of the study was to evaluate the management of paediatric open tibial fractures with particular regard to soft tissue management. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective case-note analysis was performed for all children presenting with an open tibial fracture at a single institution over a 20-year period for 1985 to 2005. RESULTS Seventy children were reviewed of whom 41 were males and 29 females. Overall, 91% (n = 64) of children suffered their injury as a result of a vehicle-related injury. The severity of the fracture with respect to the Gustilo classification was: Grade I, 42% (n = 29); Grade II, 24% (n = 17); Grade III, 34% (n = 24; 7 Grade 3a, 16 Grade 3b, 1 Grade 3c). The majority of children were treated with external fixation and conservative measures, with a mean hospital in-patient stay of 13.3 days. Soft tissue cover was provided by plastic surgeons in 31% of all cases. Four cases of superficial wound infection occurred (6%), one case of osteomyelitis and one case of flap failure. The limb salvage was greater than 98%. CONCLUSIONS In this series, complications were associated with delayed involvement of plastic surgeons. Retrospective analysis has shown a decreased incidence of open tibial fractures which is reported in similar studies. Gustilo grade was found to correlate with length of hospital admission and plastic surgery intervention. We advocate, when feasible, the use of local fas-ciocutaneous flaps (such as distally based fasciocutaneous and adipofascial flaps), which showed a low complication rate in children. PMID:20501017

  18. Effect of rhBMP-2 on tibial plateau fractures in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Susan L; Lu, Yan; Seeherman, Howard; Li, X Jian; Lopez, Mandi J; Markel, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    This study was to determine the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protien-2 (rhBMP-2)/calcium phosphate matrix (CPX) paste to accelerate healing in a canine articular fracture model with associated subchondral defect. rhBMP-2/CPX (BMP), CPX alone (CPX) or autogenous bone graft (ABG) was administered to a canine articular tibial plateau osteotomy with a subchondral defect in each of 21 female dogs. The unoperated contralateral limbs served as controls. Ground reaction forces, synovial fluid, radiographic changes, mechanical testing, bone density, and histology of bone and synovium were analyzed at 6 weeks after surgery. Radiographic analysis demonstrated that the BMP and CPX groups showed improved bony healing compared to the ABG group at week 6. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the BMP group had significantly increased trabecular bone volume compared to the CPX and ABG groups. Mechanical testing revealed that the BMP group had significantly greater maximum failure loads than the ABG group. Histological analysis demonstrated that the BMP group had significantly less sub-synovial inflammation than CPX group. This study demonstrated that rhBMP-2/CPX accelerated healing of articular fractures with subchondral defect compared to ABG in most of the parameters evaluated, and had less subsynovial inflammation than the CPX alone in a canine model.

  19. Surgical treatment of avulsion fractures at the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament: functional result☆

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marcos Alexandre; Cervone, Gabriel Lopes de Faria; Costa, André Luis Serigatti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To objectively and subjectively evaluate the functional result from before to after surgery among patients with a diagnosis of an isolated avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament who were treated surgically. Method Five patients were evaluated by means of reviewing the medical files, applying the Lysholm questionnaire, physical examination and radiological examination. For the statistical analysis, a significance level of 0.10 and 95% confidence interval were used. Results According to the Lysholm criteria, all the patients were classified as poor (<64 points) before the operation and evolved to a mean of 96 points six months after the operation. We observed that 100% of the posterior drawer cases became negative, taking values less than 5 mm to be negative. Conclusion Surgical methods with stable fixation for treating avulsion fractures at the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament produce acceptable functional results from the surgical and radiological points of view, with a significance level of 0.042. PMID:27218073

  20. The Contribution of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Stress Fracture of the Proximal Tibia.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Berna; Coşkun, Nazım; Arıcan, Pelin

    2018-02-01

    Stress fractures are injuries most commonly seen in the lower limbs and are usually caused by repetitive stress. While the distal and middle third of the tibia is the most frequent site for stress fractures (almost 50%), stress fractures of the proximal tibia is relatively rare and could be confused with other types of tibial fractures, thus altering management plans for the clinician. Early diagnosis of stress fractures is also important to avoid complications. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of stress fractures, especially bone scan. Combined with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) it is an important imaging technique for stress fractures in both upper and lower extremities, and is widely preferred over other imaging techniques. In this case, we present the case of a 39-year-old male patient diagnosed with stress fracture of the proximal tibia and demonstrate the contribution of CT scan fused with SPECT imaging in the early diagnosis of stress fracture prior to other imaging modalities.

  1. How much articular displacement can be detected using fluoroscopy for tibial plateau fractures?

    PubMed

    Haller, Justin M; O'Toole, Robert; Graves, Matthew; Barei, David; Gardner, Michael; Kubiak, Erik; Nascone, Jason; Nork, Sean; Presson, Angela P; Higgins, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    While there is conflicting evidence regarding the importance of anatomic reduction for tibial plateau fractures, there are currently no studies that analyse our ability to grade reduction based on fluoroscopic imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of fluoroscopy in judging tibial plateau articular reduction. Ten embalmed human cadavers were selected. The lateral plateau was sagitally sectioned, and the joint was reduced under direct visualization. Lateral, anterior-posterior (AP), and joint line fluoroscopic views were obtained. The same fluoroscopic views were obtained with 2mm displacement and 5mm displacement. The images were randomised, and eight orthopaedic traumatologists were asked whether the plateau was reduced. Within each pair of conditions (view and displacement from 0mm to 5mm) sensitivity, specificity, and intraclass correlations (ICC) were evaluated. The AP-lateral view with 5mm displacement yielded the highest accuracy for detecting reduction at 90% (95% CI: 83-94%). For the other conditions, accuracy ranged from (37-83%). Sensitivity was highest for the reduced lateral view (79%, 95% CI: 57-91%). Specificity was highest in the AP-lateral view 98% (95% CI: 93-99%) for 5mm step-off. ICC was perfect for the AP-lateral view with 5mm displacement, but otherwise agreement ranged from poor to moderate at ICC=0.09-0.46. Finally, there was no additional benefit to including the joint-line view with the AP and lateral views. Using both AP and lateral views for 5mm displacement had the highest accuracy, specificity, and ICC. Outside of this scenario, agreement was poor to moderate and accuracy was low. Applying this clinically, direct visualization of the articular surface may be necessary to ensure malreduction less than 5mm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between foot type and tibial stress injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barnes, A; Wheat, J; Milner, C

    2008-02-01

    To systematically review published articles investigating the association between structural foot characteristics and tibial stress injuries, and to suggest possible future avenues of research in this area. Literature was identified, selected and appraised in accordance with the methods of a systematic review. Articles potentially relevant to the research question were identified by searching the following electronic databases: Amed, Cinahl, Index to UK theses, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Sports discus and Web of science. Duplicates were removed and, based on the title and abstract, the full text of relevant studies were retrieved. Two reviewers independently assessed papers; this formed the basis for the inclusion of the most appropriate trials. From the 479 articles originally identified, nine were deemed appropriate for inclusion in the review. In general, specific data relating to this relationship was limited. Outcomes of the nine investigations were difficult to compare due to differing methods used across studies. Results have proved conflicting, with limited evidence found to implicate any specific foot type as a potential risk factor for tibial stress injuries. No definitive conclusions can be drawn relating foot structure or function to an increased risk of tibial stress injuries. Extremes of foot types are likely to pose an increased risk of tibial stress injuries compared to normal arched feet.

  3. The Effect of Arch Drop on Tibial Rotation and Tibiofemoral Contact Stress in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Kaitlin; Segal, Neil A; Waheed, Saphia; Anderson, Donald D

    2018-04-26

    Women are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis and numerous other lower limb musculoskeletal disorders. Arch drop during pregnancy and the resultant excessive pronation of the feet may alter loading patterns and contribute to the greater prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women. To determine the effect of arch drop on tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress. Interventional study with internal control. Biomechanics laboratory. Eleven postpartum women (age 33.4 ± 5.3 years, body mass 76.1 ± 13.5 kg) who had lost arch height with pregnancy in a previous study. Subjects underwent standing computed tomography (SCT) with their knees in a 20° fixed-flexed position with and without semirigid arch supports to reconstitute prepregnancy arch height. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was acquired at a flexion angle equivalent to that of SCT. Bone and cartilage were manually segmented on the magnetic resonance images and segmented surfaces were registered to the 3-dimensional SCT image sets for the arch-supported and -unsupported conditions. These models were used to measure changes in tibial rotation, as well as to estimate contact stress in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, using computational methods. Change in tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress with arch drop. Arch drop resulted in a mean tibial internal rotation of 0.75 ± 1.33° (P < .05). Changes in mean or peak contact stress were not detected. Arch drop causes internal tibial rotation, resulting in a shift in the tibiofemoral articulation. An associated increase in contact stress was not detected. Internal rotation of the tibia increases stress on the anterior cruciate ligament and menisci, potentially explaining the greater prevalence of knee disorders in postpartum women. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Intramedullary Nail for Treatment of a Complex Tibial Pilon Fracture (AO/OTA 43-C).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Szatkowski, Jan P

    2015-06-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA 43-C) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial plafond, tibiotalar arthrodesis, and salvage hindfoot reconstruction procedures are all associated with surgical complications and functional limitations. In this report, we present a case of a complex pilon fracture in a patient with multiple medical comorbidities and socioeconomic disadvantages that was successfully and acutely treated with a retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal hindfoot arthrodesis nail. At final follow-up examination, the patient had decreased pain, a stable plantigrade foot, and could ambulate with normal shoes without any assistive devices. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Differentiating Stress Fracture From Periostitis.

    PubMed

    Martire, J R

    1994-10-01

    In brief Even in the age of high-technology MRI and CT, the triple-phase bone scan (TPBS) remains an exceptionally useful and accurate tool in evaluating athletic injuries. This is perhaps best seen in active people with overuse injuries of the tibia, femur, or humerus when plain films are negative but bone pain persists. Differentiating periostitis from stress fracture requires analyzing distinctive TPBS appearances and patterns.

  6. Treatment of open tibial shaft fracture with soft tissue and bone defect caused by aircraft bomb--case report.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Vidić, Goran; Trenkić, Srbobran; Vukasinović, Zoran; Lesić, Aleksandar; Stojiljković, Predrag; Stevanović, Goran; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Najman, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft bombs can cause severe orthopaedic injuries. Tibia shaft fractures caused by aircraft bombs are mostly comminuted and followed by bone defects, which makes the healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. The goal of this paper is to present the method of treatment and the end results of treatment of a serious open tibial fracture with soft and bone tissue defects resulting from aircraft bomb shrapnel wounds. A 26-year-old patient presented with a tibial fracture as the result of a cluster bomb shrapnel wound. He was treated applying the method of external bone fixation done two days after wounding, as well as of early coverage of the lower leg soft tissue defects done on the tenth day after the external fixation of the fracture. The external fixator was removed after five months, whereas the treatment was continued by means of functional plaster cast for another two months. The final functional result was good. Radical wound debridement, external bone fixation of the fracture, and early reconstruction of any soft tissue and bone defects are the main elements of the treatment of serious fractures.

  7. Can tibial plateau fractures be reduced and stabilised through an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach?

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lucian B; Boopalan, P R J V C; Chakrabarty, Adhiraj; Callary, Stuart A

    2014-04-01

    Tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) are an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for surgical site infections (SSIs). Current antero-lateral approaches to the knee dissect through the anterior tibial angiosome (ATA), which may contribute to a higher rate of SSIs. The aim of this study was to develop an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to allow reduction and fixation of lateral TPFs and to investigate its feasibility in a consecutive cohort. Twenty cadaveric knees were dissected to define the position of the vessels supplying the ATA from the lateral tibial condyle to the skin perforators. Based on these results, an angiosome-sparing surgical approach to treat lateral TPFs was developed. Fifteen consecutive patients were subsequently treated through this approach. Clinical outcomes included assessment of SSI and Lysholm score. Fracture healing and stability were assessed using the Rasmussen score and radiostereometric analysis (RSA). At the latest follow-up between 1 and 4 years, there was no report of SSI. Nine patients (60%) had good or excellent Lysholm scores. The mean Rasmussen score at final follow-up was 17 (median 18, range 14-18) with 10 patients (66%) graded as excellent. Fracture fragment migration measured using RSA was below 2mm in all cases. This study has demonstrated that an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to the lateral tibial plateau is feasible. Adequate stability of these fracture types was achieved by positioning a buttress plate away from the bone and superficial to the regional fascial layer as an 'internal-external fixator'. The angiosome-sparing approach developed was able to be used in a prospective cohort and the clinical results to date are encouraging. Future clinical studies need to investigate the potential benefits of this surgical approach when compared with the previously described antero-lateral approaches. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do clinical outcomes correlate with bone density after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Gausden, Elizabeth; Garner, Matthew R; Fabricant, Peter D; Warner, Stephen J; Shaffer, Andre D; Lorich, Dean G

    2017-06-01

    The operative management of tibial plateau fractures in elderly patients has historically led to inconsistent results, and these clinical outcomes were thought to be associated with poor bone quality often in elderly patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between bone density and subjective clinical outcome scores after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. This is a retrospective cohort study from a single-surgeon conducted at an Academic, Level 1 Trauma Center. A preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained for all patients. Bone density of the distal femur was quantified with Hounsfield units (HU) as measured on axial CT scans. Inter-rater reliability of HU measurements was assessed using interclass correlation coefficients. Regression models controlling for age were used to identify relationships between bone density (HU) and the following variables: articular subsidence and 1-year subjective clinical outcomes scores [Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), and Short-Form-36 (SF-36) physical and mental component scores (PCS, MCS)]. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 59.3 years (range 27-85 years) and a minimum of 12 months of clinical follow-up were included in the study. The majority of the fractures (32 of 61) were classified as Schatzker II tibial plateau fractures, and there were 13 Schatzker V fractures, 11 Schatzker VI fractures, 2 Schatzker IV fractures and 1 Schatzker 1 fracture. HU measurements demonstrated an almost perfect inter-observer reliability (ICC = 0.97). Age was negatively correlated with HU measurements (r = -0.51, p < 0.001), and using a geriatric cut-off of 65 years of age, the geriatric group had a lower mean HU compared to the non-geriatric group (78.2 versus 114.8, p = 0.018). There was no significant relationship between bone quality, as assessed by distal femoral HU, and any subjective clinical outcome score. Inferior

  9. Gait retraining and incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in army recruits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M; Spears, Iain R

    2014-09-01

    Gait retraining, comprising biofeedback and/or an exercise intervention, might reduce the risk of musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to examine the effect of a gait-retraining program on medial tibial stress syndrome incidence during a 26-wk basic military training regimen. A total of 450 British Army recruits volunteered. On the basis of a baseline plantar pressure variable (mean foot balance during the first 10% of stance), participants classified as at risk of developing medial tibial stress syndrome (n = 166) were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 83) or control (n = 83) group. The intervention involved supervised gait retraining, including exercises to increase neuromuscular control and flexibility (three sessions per week) and biofeedback enabling internalization of the foot balance variable (one session per week). Both groups continued with the usual military training regimen. Diagnoses of medial tibial stress syndrome over the 26-wk regimen were made by physicians blinded to the group assignment. Data were modeled in a survival analysis using Cox regression, adjusting for baseline foot balance and time to peak heel rotation. The intervention was associated with a substantially reduced instantaneous relative risk of medial tibial stress syndrome versus control, with an adjusted HR of 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.53). The number needed to treat to observe one additional injury-free recruit in intervention versus control at 20 wk was 14 (11 to 23) participants. Baseline foot balance was a nonspecific predictor of injury, with an HR per 2 SD increment of 5.2 (1.6 to 53.6). The intervention was effective in reducing incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in an at-risk military sample.

  10. Comparison of suprapatellar and infrapatellar intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Li, Ge

    2018-06-14

    Optimal surgical approach for tibial shaft fractures remains controversial. We perform a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the clinical efficacy and prognosis between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. PubMed, OVID, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science were searched up to December 2017 for comparative RCTs involving infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Primary outcomes were blood loss, visual analog scale (VAS) score, range of motion, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. We assessed statistical heterogeneity for each outcome with the use of a standard χ 2 test and the I 2 statistic. The meta-analysis was undertaken using Stata 14.0. Four RCTs involving 293 participants were included in our study. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail regarding the total blood loss, VAS scores, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Suprapatellar intramedullary nailing could significantly reduce total blood loss, postoperative knee pain, and fluoroscopy times compared to infrapatellar approach. Additionally, it was associated with an improved Lysholm knee scores. High-quality RCTs were still required for further investigation.

  11. The influence of procedure delay on resource use: a national study of patients with open tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Sears, Erika Davis; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M; Chung, Kevin C

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) understand national variation in delay of emergency procedures in patients with open tibial fracture at the hospital level and (2) compare length of stay and cost in patients cared for at the best- and worst-performing hospitals for delay. The authors retrospectively analyzed the 2003 to 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients with open tibial fracture were included. Hospital probability of delay in performing emergency procedures beyond the day of admission was calculated. Multilevel linear regression random-effects models were created to evaluate the relationship between the treating hospital's tendency for delay (in quartiles) and the log-transformed outcomes of length of stay and cost. The final sample included 7029 patients from 332 hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals in the fourth (worst) quartile for delay were estimated to have 12 percent (95 percent CI, 2 to 21 percent) higher cost compared with patients treated at hospitals in the first quartile. In addition, patients treated at hospitals in the fourth quartile had an estimated 11 percent (95 percent CI, 4 to 17 percent) longer length of stay compared with patients treated at hospitals in the first quartile. Patients with open tibial fracture treated at hospitals with more timely initiation of surgical care had lower cost and shorter length of stay than patients treated at hospitals with less timely initiation of care. Policies directed toward mitigating variation in care may reduce unnecessary waste.

  12. A prospective multi-center study of intramedullary nailing vs casting of stable tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Obremskey, William T; Cutrera, Norele; Kidd, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting. Both groups were weight bearing following surgery. Radiographs were taken until union, and range of motion of knee and ankle joints was assessed. Malalignment (>5°) and malunion (>10°) were determined. Functional outcome measures using short musculoskeletal assessment scores (SMFA) and a knee pain score were scheduled at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. At 3 months, differences between the casting and IMN groups were noted in return to work (6/15 vs 3/17, P < 0.05); ankle dorsiflexion (7° vs 12°, P < 0.05); plantar flexion (28° vs 39°, P < 0.05); and SMFA domains of Dysfunction Index, Bother Index, daily activities, emotional status, and arm/hand function (P < 0.05). The SMFA mobility function demonstrated a significant trend (P = 0.065). At 6 months, malalignment was present in 3/15 in the casting group and in 1/17 in the IMN group (P = 0.02). Malunion was present in 1/15 in the cast group. One fracture in the casting group went on to nonunion and required late IMN placement at 7 months and eventually healed. There were no differences in ankle motion, SMFA scores, or return to work. There was no difference in knee pain between the groups as measured by VAS and Court-Brown pain scale at 6 months. Patients with stable tibia fractures treated with intramedullary nailing have improved clinical and functional outcomes at 3 months compared with those treated with casting, but there are no differences in any other outcome measure. Patients treated in a

  13. Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome With Radial Soundwave Therapy in Elite Athletes: Current Evidence, Report on Two Cases, and Proposed Treatment Regimen.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Fullem, Brian; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger

    Two case reports of high-level athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), 1 an Olympian with an actual stress fracture, are presented. Successful treatment included radial soundwave therapy, pneumatic leg braces, relative rest using an antigravity treadmill, and temporary foot orthoses. Radial soundwave therapy has a high level of evidence for treatment of MTSS. We also present recent evidence of the value of vitamin D assessment. Both patients had a successful outcome with minimal downtime. Finally, a suggested treatment regimen for MTSS is presented. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distal tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA type B, and C) treated with the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sasa; Mitković, Milorad; Micić, Ivan; Mladenović, Desimir; Najman, Stevo; Trajanović, Miroslav; Manić, Miodrag; Mitković, Milan

    2013-09-01

    Distal tibial pilon fractures include extra-articular fractures of the tibial metaphysis and the more severe intra-articular tibial pilon fractures. There is no universal method for treating distal tibial pilon fractures. These fractures are treated by means of open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) and external skeletal fixation. The high rate of soft-tissue complications associated with primary ORIF of pilon fractures led to the use of external skeletal fixation, with limited internal fixation as an alternative technique for definitive management. The aim of this study was to estimate efficacy of distal tibial pilon fratures treatment using the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method. We presented a series of 31 operated patients with tibial pilon fractures. The patients were operated on using the method of external skeletal fixation with a minimal internal fixation. According to the AO/OTA classification, 17 patients had type B fracture and 14 patients type C fractures. The rigid external skeletal fixation was transformed into a dynamic external skeletal fixation 6 weeks post-surgery. This retrospective study involved 31 patients with tibial pilon fractures, average age 41.81 (from 21 to 60) years. The average follow-up was 21.86 (from 12 to 48) months. The percentage of union was 90.32%, nonunion 3.22% and malunion 6.45%. The mean to fracture union was 14 (range 12-20) weeks. There were 4 (12.19%) infections around the pins of the external skeletal fixator and one (3.22%) deep infections. The ankle joint arthrosis as a late complication appeared in 4 (12.90%) patients. All arthroses appeared in patients who had type C fractures. The final functional results based on the AOFAS score were excellent in 51.61%, good in 32.25%, average in 12.90% and bad in 3.22% of the patients. External skeletal fixation and minimal internal fixation of distal tibial pilon fractures is a good method for treating all types of inta-articular pilon fractures. In

  15. Influence of fracture geometry on bone healing under locking plate fixations: A comparison between oblique and transverse tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Miramini, Saeed; Zhang, Lihai; Richardson, Martin; Mendis, Priyan; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-10-01

    Mechano-regulation plays a crucial role in bone healing and involves complex cellular events. In this study, we investigate the change of mechanical microenvironment of stem cells within early fracture callus as a result of the change of fracture obliquity, gap size and fixation configuration using mechanical testing in conjunction with computational modelling. The research outcomes show that angle of obliquity (θ) has significant effects on interfragmentary movement (IFM) which influences mechanical microenvironment of the callus cells. Axial IFM at near cortex of fracture decreases with θ, while shear IFM significantly increases with θ. While a large θ can increase shear IFM by four-fold compared to transverse fracture, it also result in the tension-stress effect at near cortex of fracture callus. In addition, mechanical stimuli for cell differentiation within the callus are found to be strongly negatively correlated to angle of obliquity and gap size. It is also shown that a relatively flexible fixation could enhance callus formation in presence of a large gap but could lead to excessive callus strain and interstitial fluid flow when a small transverse fracture gap is present. In conclusion, there appears to be an optimal fixation configuration for a given angle of obliquity and gap size. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of CT and MRI in patients with tibial plateau fracture: can CT findings predict ligament tear or meniscal injury?

    PubMed

    Mui, Leonora W; Engelsohn, Eliyahu; Umans, Hilary

    2007-02-01

    (1) To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of ligament tear and avulsion in patients with tibial plateau fracture. (2) To evaluate whether the presence or severity of fracture gap and articular depression can predict meniscal injury. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist retrospectively reviewed knee CT and MRI examinations of 41 consecutive patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with tibial plateau fractures. Fracture gap, articular depression, ligament tear and footprint avulsions were assessed on CT examinations. The MRI studies were examined for osseous and soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tear, meniscal displacement, ligament tear, and ligament avulsion. CT demonstrated torn ligaments with 80% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Only 2% of ligaments deemed intact on careful CT evaluation had partial or complete tears on MRI. Although the degree of fracture gap and articular depression was significantly greater in patients with meniscal injury compared with those without meniscal injury, ROC analysis demonstrated no clear threshold for gap or depression that yielded a combination of high sensitivity and specificity. In the acute setting, CT offers high sensitivity and specificity for depicting osseous avulsions, as well as high negative predictive value for excluding ligament injury. However, MRI remains necessary for the preoperative detection of meniscal injury.

  17. Stress fracture as a complication of autogenous bone graft harvest from the distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Loretta B; Mann, Roger A; Coughlin, Michael J; McPeake, William T; Mizel, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Autogenous bone graft from the distal tibia provides cancellous bone graft for foot and ankle operations, and it has osteogenic and osteoconductive properties. The site is in close proximity to the foot and ankle, and published retrospective studies show low morbidity from the procedure. One-hundred autografts were obtained from the distal tibia between 2000 and 2003. In four cases the distal tibial bone graft harvest resulted in a stress fracture. There were three women and one man. The average time of diagnosis of the stress fracture from the operation was 1.8 months. All stress fractures healed with a short course (average 2.4 months) of cast immobilization. This study demonstrated that a stress fracture from the donor site of autogenous bone graft of the distal tibia occurs and can be successfully treated nonoperatively.

  18. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  19. Surgical treatment of extra-articular or simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures: MIPO versus supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has become a widely accepted technique to treat distal tibial fractures. Recently, the novel application of a locking plate used as an external fixator (supercutaneous plating) was introduced for the management of open fractures and infected nonunions and even as an adjunct in distraction osteogenesis, which is considered another less invasive method. The aim of this study was to compare the results of supercutaneous plating with closed reduction and minimally invasive plating in the treatment of distal tibial fractures. Forty-eight matched patients were divided according to age, sex, Injury Severity Score, and fracture pattern into the MIPO group and the supercutaneous plating group. Minimum follow-up was 12 months (mean, 18.5 months; range, 12-26 months). No patient had nonunion, hardware breakdown, or deep infection. Patients in the supercutaneous plating group had a significantly shorter mean operative time (65.6±13.2 vs 85.9±14.0 minutes; P=.000), hospital stay (7.5±2.0 vs 13.0±4.4 days; P=.000), and union time (15.2±2.4 vs 17.0±2.8 weeks; P=.000). In the MIPO group, 15 (62.5%) patients reported implant impingement or discomfort and there was 1 incidence of stripping of 15.6% at the time of locking screw removal, whereas in the supercutaneous plating group, no patient reported skin irritation, and removal of the supercutaneous plate was easily performed in clinic without anesthesia. Distal tibial fractures may be treated successfully with MIPO or supercutaneous plating. However, the supercutaneous plating technique may represent a superior surgical option because it offers advantages in terms of mean operative time, hospital stay, and union time; skin irritation; and implant removal. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. A high rate of tibial plateau fractures after early experience with patient-specific instrumentation for unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Leenders, A M; Schotanus, M G M; Wind, R J P; Borghans, R A P; Kort, N P

    2018-04-30

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been available for a few years. However, limited literature is available on this subject. Hence, the aim of this cohort study is to evaluate the 2 years' results of our first experiences with the use of PSI in UKA. It is hypothesised that there is no advantage in rate of adverse events and in radiological and functional outcomes in comparison to literature on the conventional method. This cohort included 129 knees of 122 patients, operated by one surgeon. Outcome measures were the rate of adverse events (AEs); implant position as determined on radiographs; the accuracy of the default and approved planning of the implant sizes and the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) preoperatively, and at 3, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively. A total of 6 (4.9%) AEs were observed in this study, with 4 (3.3%) tibial fractures being the main complication. The mean postoperative biomechanical axis was 176.4° and in the majority of cases, the radiographic criteria, as determined by the manufacturer, were met. The tibial component showed 20 (16.4%) outliers in the sagittal and 3 (2.5%) outliers in the frontal plane. There were no outliers of the femoral component. For the femoral and tibial components, respectively, in 125 (96.9%) and 79 (61.7%) cases, there was an agreement between approved planning and implanted component size. All PROMs improved significantly after surgery. Tibial fracture was the most common AE, probably related to the transition from cemented to uncemented UKA. Perioperative modifications to the surgical technique were made in order to prevent this AE. Improvements should be made to the operation technique of the uncemented tibial plateau to obtain an adequate placement and at the same time reduce the risk for tibial fracture. The PSI technique was a reliable tool for the placement of the femoral component. Functional outcome was in line with literature on the

  1. Trampoline fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus: a report of seven cases and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kakel, R

    2012-06-01

    Fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children is a rare injury but notorious for carrying the risk of subsequent valgus deformity of the tibia. Trampoline-caused fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus. We followed up six children who collectively sustained seven fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis while trampolining with other heavier and/or older children. Initial and follow-up x-rays were reviewed by an orthopaedic surgeons and two radiologists. None of the patients developed valgus deformity with follow-up. Trampoline is associated with a specific type of injury to the proximal tibia when children are trampolining with other heavier children even without falling off the trampoline. This fracture is linear and complete, often non-displaced. Unlike "other" proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures, trampoline-associated proximal tibial metaphysical fracture in children is not associated with a risk of subsequent valgus deformity. Level 4. case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous patella fracture associated with anterior tibial tubercle pseudarthrosis in a revised knee replacement following knee Arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of a knee arthrodesis to a Total Knee Arthroplasty is an uncommon procedure. Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in this setting presents the surgeon with a number of challenges including the management of the extensor mechanism and patella. Case presentation We describe a unique case of a 69 years old Caucasian man who underwent a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty using a tibial tubercle osteotomy after a previous conversion of a knee arthrodesis without patella resurfacing. Unfortunately 9 months following surgery a tibial tubercle pseudarthrosis and spontaneous patella fracture occurred. Both were managed with open reduction and internal fixation. At 30 months follow-up the tibial tubercle osteotomy had completely consolidated while the patella fracture was still evident but with no signs of further displacement. The patient was completely satisfied with the outcome and had a painless range of knee flexion between 0-95°. Conclusions We believe that patients undergoing this type of surgery require careful counseling regarding the risk of complications both during and after surgery despite strong evidence supporting improved functional outcomes. PMID:24195600

  3. Comparison of two-staged ORIF and limited internal fixation with external fixator for closed tibial plafond fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Ying; Huang, Lei; Wang, Manyi

    2010-10-01

    To compare the results of two-staged open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and limited internal fixation with external fixator (LIFEF) for closed tibial plafond fractures. From January 2005 to June 2007, 56 patients with closed type B3 or C Pilon fractures were randomly allocated into groups I and II. Two-staged ORIF was performed in group I and LIFEF in group II. The outcome measures included bone union, nonunion, malunion, pin-tract infection, wound infection, osteomyelitis, ankle joint function, etc. These postoperative data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0. Incidence of superficial soft tissue infection (involved in wound infection or pin-tract infection) in group I was lower than that in group II (P < 0.05), with significant difference. Group I has significantly less radiation exposure (P < 0.001). Group II had higher rates of malunion, delayed union, and arthritis symptoms, with no statistical significance. Both groups resulted similar ankle joint function. Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking and fracture pattern were the two factors significantly influencing the final outcomes. In the treatment of closed tibial plafond fractures, both two-staged ORIF and LIFEF offer similar results. Patients undergo LIFEF carry significantly greater radiation exposure and higher superficial soft tissue infection rate (usually occurs on pin tract and does not affect the final outcomes).

  4. Angular stable plates in proximal meta-epiphyseal tibial fractures: study of joint restoration and clinical and functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, S; Giovannelli, D; Dell'Osso, G; Bottai, V; Bugelli, G; Celli, F; Citarelli, C; Guido, G

    2016-04-01

    The tibial plateau fractures involve one of the main weight bearing joints of the human body. The goals of surgical treatment are anatomical reduction, articular surface reconstruction and high primary stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes after internal plate fixation of this kind of fractures. From January 2009 to December 2012, we treated 75 cases of tibial plateau fracture with angular stable plates. We used Rasmussen Score and the Knee Society Score for the clinical and functional evaluation. Twenty-five cases that underwent hardware removal had arthroscopic and CT evaluation of the joint. No complications occurred. The clinical and functional evaluation, performed by the KSS and Rasmussen Score, highlighted the high percentage of good-to-excellent results (over 90 %). In every case, the range of motion was good with flexion >90°. Arthroscopy showed the presence of chondral damage in 100 % of patients. In all the cases, we found that X-ray images seem better than the CT images. Angular stable plates allow to obtain a good primary stability, permitting an early joint recovery with an excellent range of motion. Avoiding to perform a knee arthrotomy at the time of fracture reduction could prove to be an advantage in terms of functional recovery. The meniscus on the injured bone should be preserved in order to maintain good function of the joint. X-ray images remain the gold standard in checking the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  5. Functional and radiological evaluations of high-energy tibial plateau fractures treated with double-buttress plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Zheng, L; Zhang, Y; Li, J; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-14

    This study was designed to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of patients with complex tibial plateau fractures treated with double-buttress plate fixation. Sixty five cases of complex (Schatzker type V and VI) tibial plateau fractures were treated with double-buttress plate fixation in our centre from September 2001 to September 2006 through two separate plate incisions. Fifty four patients were followed up for a period ranging from 12 to 48 months and evaluated for the functional and radiological outcomes by a series of standard questionnaire and measurement. Due to the good exposure without any extensive soft-tissue dissection of the double-buttress plate fixation, the fractures in all 54 patients were healed and the treatment achieved greater than 90% of satisfactory-to-excellent rates of reduction. The mean time of bone union was 15.4 weeks (range, 12-30 weeks), and the mean time of full weight-bearing was 18.7 weeks (range, 14-26 weeks). At the final follow-up visit, no patients showed knee instability; the mean range of motion was 107.6 degrees (range, 85 degrees -130 degrees ). For all patients, no statistically significant difference in the functional outcomes was observed between their 6-months and final follow-up visits; or in the radiological findings between their immediate postoperative and final follow-up examinations. Double-buttress plate fixation is a feasible treatment option for bilcondylar and complex tibial plateau fractures. Although technically demanding, it offers reliable stability without additional postoperative adjuvant external fixation, and at the same time avoids extensive soft tissue dissection, allowing the early painless range of motion.

  6. Which Surgical Treatment for Open Tibial Shaft Fractures Results in the Fewest Reoperations? A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Foote, Clary J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Vignesh, K Nithin; Mundi, Raman; Chaudhry, Harman; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Thabane, Lehana; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-07-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures are one of the most devastating orthopaedic injuries. Surgical treatment options include reamed or unreamed nailing, plating, Ender nails, Ilizarov fixation, and external fixation. Using a network meta-analysis allows comparison and facilitates pooling of a diverse population of randomized trials across these approaches in ways that a traditional meta-analysis does not. Our aim was to perform a network meta-analysis using evidence from randomized trials on the relative effect of alternative approaches on the risk of unplanned reoperation after open fractures of the tibial diaphysis. Our secondary study endpoints included malunion, deep infection, and superficial infection. A network meta-analysis allows for simultaneous consideration of the relative effectiveness of multiple treatment alternatives. To do this on the subject of surgical treatments for open tibial fractures, we began with systematic searches of databases (including EMBASE and MEDLINE) and performed hand searches of orthopaedic journals, bibliographies, abstracts from orthopaedic conferences, and orthopaedic textbooks, for all relevant material published between 1980 and 2013. Two authors independently screened abstracts and manuscripts and extracted the data, three evaluated the risk of bias in individual studies, and two applied Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to bodies of evidence. We included all randomized and quasirandomized trials comparing two (or more) surgical treatment options for open tibial shaft fractures in predominantly (ie, > 80%) adult patients. We calculated pooled estimates for all direct comparisons and conducted a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect evidence for all 15 comparisons between six stabilization strategies. Fourteen trials published between 1989 and November 2011 met our inclusion criteria; the trials comprised a total of 1279 patients surgically treated for open tibial

  7. Thermoelastic stress analysis to validate tibial fixation technique in total ankle prostheses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ficklscherer, Andreas; Wegener, Bernd; Niethammer, Thomas; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar; Trouillier, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-03-01

    Recent literature has shown a persistently high rate of aseptic loosening of the tibial component in total ankle prostheses. We analyzed the interface between the tibial bone and tibial component with a thermoelastic stress analysis to demonstrate load transmission onto the distal tibia. In this regard, we used two established ankle prostheses, which were implanted in two human cadaveric and in two third-generation composite tibia bones (Sawbones®, Sweden). Subsequently, the bones were attached to a hydropulser and a sinusoidal load of 700 N was applied. Both prostheses had an inhomogeneous load transmission onto the distal tibia. Instead of distributing load equally to the subarticular bone, forces were focused around the bolting stem, accumulating as stress maxima with forces up to 90 MPa. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate load transmission into the metaphysis of the bone. As demonstrated in this study, anchoring systems with stems used in all established total ankle prostheses lead to an inhomogeneous load transmission onto the distal tibia, and furthermore, to a distribution of load into the weaker metaphyseal bone. For these reasons, we favor a prosthetic design with minimal bone resection and without any stem or stem-like anchoring system, which facilitates a homogeneous load transmission onto the distal tibia. Thermoelastic stress analysis proved to be a fast and easy-to-perform method to visualize load transmission.

  8. Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: incidence of lateral cortex fractures and influence of fixation device on osteotomy healing.

    PubMed

    Dexel, Julian; Fritzsche, Hagen; Beyer, Franziska; Harman, Melinda K; Lützner, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established treatment for young and middle-aged patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. Although not intended, a lateral cortex fracture might occur during this procedure. Different fixation devices are available to repair such fractures. This study was performed to evaluate osteotomy healing after fixation with two different locking plates. Sixty-nine medial open-wedge HTO without bone grafting were followed until osteotomy healing. In patients with an intact lateral hinge, no problems were noted with either locking plate. A fracture of the lateral cortex occurred in 21 patients (30.4 %). In ten patients, the fracture was not recognized during surgery but was visible on the radiographs at the 6-week follow-up. Lateral cortex fracture resulted in non-union with the need for surgical treatment in three out of eight (37.5 %) patients using the newly introduced locking plate (Position HTO Maxi Plate), while this did not occur with a well-established locking plate (TomoFix) (0 out of 13, p = 0.023). With regard to other adverse events, no differences between both implants were observed. In cases of lateral cortex fracture, fixation with a smaller locking plate resulted in a relevant number of non-unions. Therefore, it is recommended that bone grafting, another fixation system, or an additional lateral fixation should be used in cases with lateral cortex fracture. III.

  9. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    472-481, 1995 25. Gaeta M, Minutoli F, Scribano E, Ascenti G, Vinci S, Bruschetta D, Magaudda L, Blandino A: CT and MR imaging findings in athletes...1995 25. Gaeta M, Minutoli F, Scribano E, Ascenti G, Vinci S, Bruschetta D, Magaudda L, Blandino A: CT and MR imaging findings in athletes with

  10. Biomechanical Factors in the Etiology of Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    structures will control the kinematics of the runner. A "stiff runner will spend less time in contact with the ground (Farley and Gonzalez, 1996 ) and will...a SF are in agreement with Farley and Gonzalez ( 1996 ) and suggest that lower extremity stiffness and knee kinematics are highly correlated and may...stressfracture in male runners. Med Sei Sports Exercise 31(8), 1088-1093. Farley CT, Gonzalez O. ( 1996 ) Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running. J

  11. Training, Muscle Fatigue, and Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-15

    fractures in the lower appendicular skeleton of new recruits. During peacetime, stress fractures are by far the most co~m~n physical injury in the...research program is to study the etiology of the stress fracture lesion, and isolate any aspects of a physical regime which may exacerbate this...34 of remodelLig, to use the model to identify those areas of the cortex at greatest risk of failure, and the activities which accelerate the deleterious

  12. [Ultrabraid SUTURE WITH FOOTPRINT RIVET FOR ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS UNDER ARTHROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinying; Zheng, Jiapeng; Ll, Qiang; Zhong, Shuyu; Chen, Minzhen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of the Ultrabraid suture with FOOTPRINT rivet by arthroscopic technique for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fracture. Between May 2011 and December 2013, 19 adolescent patients with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture were treated with arthroscopic reduction and fixation by Ultrabraid sutures with FOOTPRINT rivet. There were 13 males and 6 females with an average age of 15.8 years (range, 8-18 years). The left knees were involved in 10 cases and the right knees in 9 cases. The injury causes included traffic accident injury in 8 cases, sport injury in 6 cases, and sprain injury in 5 cases. Three patients had old fractures, and the others had fresh fractures. The results of Lachman test and anterior drawer test were both positive. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subject score was 54.2 ± 4.0. Based on Meyers-McKeever classification, there were 3 cases of type II, 10 cases of type III, and 6 cases of type IV. The operation time was 50-60 minutes (mean, 55.2 minutes). X-ray film showed satisfactory fracture reduction at 1 day after operation. Primary healing of incision was obtained with no infection. Eighteen patients were followed up for 1-3 years (mean, 1.7 years). All fractures healed with smooth joint surface on the X-ray film at 3 months after operation. The results of Lachman test and anterior drawer test were both negative in 17 cases, and the results was negative for anterior drawer test and was weakly positive for Lachman test in 1 case. The IKDC subject score was significantly improved to 96.1 ± 2.1 at last follow-up (t = 34.600, P = 0.000). It could achieve early restoration of knee joint function to treat the ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture by arthroscopic technique of the Ultrabraid suture with FOOTPRINT rivet because of satisfactory reduction, reliable fixation, small wound, and early rehabilitation.

  13. [Comparison study on locking compress plate external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Luo, Xiaozhong; Tan, Lun; Lin, Xu; Wu, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhong, Zewei

    2013-11-01

    To compare the clinical results of locking compress plate (LCP) as an external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures. Between May 2009 and June 2012, 59 patients with tibial open fractures were treated with LCP as an external fixator in 36 patients (group A), and with standard external fixator in 23 patients (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, location, and interval between injury and surgery between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The time of fracture healing and incision healing, the time of partial weight-bearing, the range of motion (ROM) of knee and ankle, and complications were compared between 2 groups. The incidence of pin-track infection in group A (0) was significantly lower than that in group B (21.7%) (P=0.007). No significant difference was found in the incidence of superficial infection and deep infection of incision, and the time of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Deep vein thrombosis occurred in 5 cases of group A and 2 cases of group B, showing no significant difference (Chi(2)=0.036, P=0.085). All patients were followed up 15.2 months on average (range, 9-28 months) in group A, and 18.6 months on average (range, 9-47 months) in group B. The malunion rate and nonunion rate showed no significant difference between groups A and B (0 versus 13.0% and 0 versus 8.7%, P > 0.05); the delayed union rate of group A (2.8%) was significantly lower than that of group B (21.7%) (Chi(2)=5.573, P=0.018). Group A had shorter time of fracture healing, quicker partial weight-bearing, greater ROM of the knee and ankle than group B (P < 0.05). The LCP external fixator can obtain reliable fixation in treating tibial open fracture, and has good patients' compliance, so it is helpful to do functional exercise, improve fracture healing and function recovery, and reduce the complication incidence.

  14. Variation in tibial functionality and fracture susceptibility among healthy, young adults arises from the acquisition of biologically distinct sets of traits.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Evans, Rachel; Negus, Charles H; Gagnier, Joel J; Centi, Amanda; Erlich, Tomer; Hadid, Amir; Yanovich, Ran; Moran, Daniel S

    2013-06-01

    Physiological systems like bone respond to many genetic and environmental factors by adjusting traits in a highly coordinated, compensatory manner to establish organ-level function. To be mechanically functional, a bone should be sufficiently stiff and strong to support physiological loads. Factors impairing this process are expected to compromise strength and increase fracture risk. We tested the hypotheses that individuals with reduced stiffness relative to body size will show an increased risk of fracturing and that reduced strength arises from the acquisition of biologically distinct sets of traits (ie, different combinations of morphological and tissue-level mechanical properties). We assessed tibial functionality retrospectively for 336 young adult women and men engaged in military training, and calculated robustness (total area/bone length), cortical area (Ct.Ar), and tissue-mineral density (TMD). These three traits explained 69% to 72% of the variation in tibial stiffness (p < 0.0001). Having reduced stiffness relative to body size (body weight × bone length) was associated with odds ratios of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-4.3) and 7.0 (95% CI, 2.0-25.1) for women and men, respectively, for developing a stress fracture based on radiography and scintigraphy. K-means cluster analysis was used to segregate men and women into subgroups based on robustness, Ct.Ar, and TMD adjusted for body size. Stiffness varied 37% to 42% among the clusters (p < 0.0001, ANOVA). For men, 78% of stress fracture cases segregated to three clusters (p < 0.03, chi-square). Clusters showing reduced function exhibited either slender tibias with the expected Ct.Ar and TMD relative to body size and robustness (ie, well-adapted bones) or robust tibias with reduced residuals for Ct.Ar or TMD relative to body size and robustness (ie, poorly adapted bones). Thus, we show there are multiple biomechanical and thus biological pathways leading to reduced function and

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Comparative study of single lateral locked plating versus double plating in type C bicondylar tibial plateau fractures

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Devdatta Suhas; Trikha, Vivek; Mishra, Kaushal Kant; Bandekar, Shivanand M.; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries and treatment is challenging. Ideal method is still controversial with risk of unsatisfactory results if not treated properly. Many different techniques of internal and external fixation are used. This study compares the clinical results in single locked plating versus dual plating (DP) using two incision approaches. Our hypothesis was that DP leads to less collapse and change in alignment at final followup compared with single plating. Materials and Methods: 61 cases of Type C tibial plateau fractures operated between January 2007 and June 2011 were included in this prospective study. All cases were operated either by single lateral locked plate by anterolateral approach or double plating through double incision. All cases were followed for a minimum of 24 months radiologically and clinically. The statistical analysis was performed using software SPSS 10.0 to analyze the data. Results: Twenty nine patients in a single lateral locked plate and 32 patients in a double plating group were followed for minimum 2 years. All fractures healed, however there was a significant incidence of malalignment in the single lateral plating group. Though there was a significant increase in soft tissue issues with the double plating group; however, there was only 3.12% incidence of deep infection. There was no significant difference in Hospital for special surgery score at 2 years followup. Conclusion: Double plating through two incisions resulted in a better limb alignment and joint reduction with an acceptable soft tissue complication rate. PMID:26015609

  17. Comparative study of single lateral locked plating versus double plating in type C bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Devdatta Suhas; Trikha, Vivek; Mishra, Kaushal Kant; Bandekar, Shivanand M; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries and treatment is challenging. Ideal method is still controversial with risk of unsatisfactory results if not treated properly. Many different techniques of internal and external fixation are used. This study compares the clinical results in single locked plating versus dual plating (DP) using two incision approaches. Our hypothesis was that DP leads to less collapse and change in alignment at final followup compared with single plating. 61 cases of Type C tibial plateau fractures operated between January 2007 and June 2011 were included in this prospective study. All cases were operated either by single lateral locked plate by anterolateral approach or double plating through double incision. All cases were followed for a minimum of 24 months radiologically and clinically. The statistical analysis was performed using software SPSS 10.0 to analyze the data. Twenty nine patients in a single lateral locked plate and 32 patients in a double plating group were followed for minimum 2 years. All fractures healed, however there was a significant incidence of malalignment in the single lateral plating group. Though there was a significant increase in soft tissue issues with the double plating group; however, there was only 3.12% incidence of deep infection. There was no significant difference in Hospital for special surgery score at 2 years followup. Double plating through two incisions resulted in a better limb alignment and joint reduction with an acceptable soft tissue complication rate.

  18. Influence of phototherapies on the outcome of complete tibial fractures grafted or not with MTA: Raman spectroscopic study on rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; da Silva, Aline C. P.; Santos, Nicole R. S.; da Silva, Anna Paula L. T.; Neves, Bruno Luiz R. C.; Soares, Amanda P.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete surgical tibial fractures fixed with wire osteosynthesis or miniplates treated or not with infrared laser (λ780 nm) or infrared LED (λ850 +/- 10 nm) lights, 142.8 J/cm2 per treatment, associated or not to the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. Surgical fractures were created on 36 rabbits and fixed with WO or miniplates and some groups were grafted with MTA. Irradiated groups received lights at every other day for 15 days and sacrifice occurred after 30 days. The results showed that only irradiation with either laser or LED influenced the peaks of phosphate ( 960 cm-1) and carbonated ( 1,070 cm-1) hydroxyapatite. Collagen peak (1,450 cm-1) was influenced by both the use of MTA and irradiation with either laser or LED. It is concluded that the use of either laser or LED phototherapy associated to MTA cement was efficacious on improving the repair of complete tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis or miniplates.

  19. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures - a prospective one-year follow-up study of 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Berre Eriksen, Christian; Elsoe, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18-79 years). Forty-three patients completed the 12-month follow-up (88%). Gait speed and cadence were significantly increased between the 6- and 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). At 6-month follow-up, patients showed considerable asymmetry in the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg: single-support time 12.8% shorter, swing-time 12.8% longer, step-length 11.9% shorter, and rotation of the foot increased by 32.3%. At the 12-month follow-up, gait asymmetry become almost normalized compared to a healthy reference group. In patients treated by intramedullary nailing following a tibial shaft fracture, gait asymmetry accompanied with slower speed and cadence are common during the first 6 months and become normalized compared with a healthy reference population between 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Asymmetry in gait pattern following bicondylar tibial plateau fractures-A prospective one-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Elsoe, Rasmus; Larsen, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high number of studies evaluating outcomes following tibial plateau fractures, the literature lacks studies including the objective assessment of gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate asymmetry in gait patterns at 12 months after frame removal following ring fixation of a tibial plateau fracture. The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns 12 months after frame removal measured with a pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence, as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. Twenty-three patients were included with a mean age of 54.4 years (32-78 years). Patients presented with a shorter step-length of the injured leg compared to the non-injured leg (asymmetry of 11.3%). Analysis of single-support showed shorter support time of the injured leg compared to the non-injured leg (asymmetry of 8.7%). Moreover, analysis of swing-time showed increased swing-time of the injured leg (asymmetry of 8.9%). Compared to a healthy reference population, increased asymmetry in all gait patterns was observed. The association between asymmetry and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) showed moderate associations (single-support: R=0.50, P=0.03; step-length: R=0.43, P=0.07; swing-time: R=0.46, P=0.05). Compared to a healthy reference population, gait asymmetry is common 12 months after frame removal in patients treated with external ring fixation following a tibial plateau fracture of the tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Procedure Delay on Resource Utilization: A National Study of Patients with Open Tibial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Erika Davis; Burke, James F.; Davis, Matthew M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to 1) understand national variation in delay of emergency procedures in patients with open tibial fracture at the hospital level and 2) compare length of stay (LOS) and cost in patients cared for at the best and worst performing hospitals for delay. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 2003 – 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients with primary diagnosis of open tibial fracture were selected for inclusion. We calculated hospital probability of delay of emergency procedures beyond the day of admission (day 0). Multilevel linear regression random effects models were created to evaluate the relationship between the treating hospital’s tendency for delay (in quartiles) and the log-transformed outcomes of LOS and cost, while adjusting for patient and hospital variables. Results The final sample included 7,029 patients from 332 hospitals. Adjusted analyses demonstrate that patients treated at hospitals in the fourth (worst) quartile for delay were estimated to have 12% (95% CI 2–21%) higher cost compared to patients treated at hospitals in the first quartile. In addition, patients treated at hospitals in the fourth quartile had an estimated 11% (CI 4–17%) longer LOS compared to patients treated at hospitals in the first quartile. Conclusions Patients with open tibial fracture treated at hospitals with more timely initiation of surgical care had lower cost and shorter LOS than patients treated at hospitals with less timely initiation of care. Policies directed toward mitigating variation in care are not only beneficial for patient outcomes, but may also reduce unnecessary waste. Level II (Prognostic) PMID:23142940

  2. A qualitative approach to recovery after open tibial fracture: the road to a novel, patient-derived recovery scale.

    PubMed

    Trickett, R W; Mudge, Elizabeth; Price, Patricia; Pallister, Ian

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how patients perceive their recovery following open tibial fractures using a qualitative approach. Following the appropriate ethical approval, adult patients with a diagnosis of open tibial fracture were recruited after completion of their surgical treatment and discharge from Morriston Hospital, a centre with orthoplastic surgical care. A purposive sampling method was employed to ensure that a range of injuries as well as clinical outcomes were included. All patients took part in an in-depth semi-structured interview, exploring aspects of their injury, treatment, rehabilitation and psychosocial and financial situations. Interviews were completed with two interviewers present and were recorded for verbatim transcription. Interview transcripts were analysed to identify items important to patients during their recovery. Nine patients with a mean injury to interview interval of 2.3 years were interviewed. A total of 538 items were identified and subsequently mapped onto 18 categories: pain; mobility; flexibility; temperature (effects on symptoms); fear; appearance; sleep; diet/weight; employment; social; finance; impact on others; self-care; recovery (patient perceptions of recovery); frustration; goal setting (by patients and health-care providers); and adaptation (both physical and mental). There is a wide range of factors that our cohort found important during their recovery from open tibial fracture. Despite being considered as 'healed' by the medical staff, patients did not report a corresponding full recovery and return to pre-injury normality. The categories identified will enable the development of a patient-reported recovery scale to be used in lower-limb trauma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yufu; Sun, Kai; Jiang, Wenxue

    2018-06-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in full text to demonstrate database to show the associations of perioperative, postoperative outcomes of arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous fixation(ARPF) and open reduction and internal fixation(ORIF) for tibial plateau fractures to provide the predictive diagnosis for clinic. Literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for information from the earliest date of data collection to June 2017. RCTs comparing the benefits and risks of ARPF with those of ORIF in tibial plateau fractures were included. Statistical heterogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by X 2 test with the significance set P < 0.10 or I 2  > 50%. Seven RCTs consisting of 571 patients were included.(288 ARPF patients; 283 ORIF patients;). Pooled results showed that ORIF was related to a greater increase in operative time, incision length, hospital stay, perioperative complications, and full weight bearing compared with ARPF. The results showed that ARPF was related to a greater increase in ROM Rasmussen Scores compared with ORIF (WMD = 10.38; 95% CI, 8.31, 12.45; P < 0.10). This meta-analysis showed that arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous fixation for tibial plateau fractures, compared with open reduction and internal fixation, could demonstrate an decreased risk of perioperative and postoperative complications and improve clinical outcome in operative time, incision length, hospital stay, perioperative complications, full weight bearing and Rasmussen Scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new surgical technique for traumatic dislocation of posterior tibial tendon with avulsion fracture of medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Taek; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hee; Nam, Dae-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a case of traumatic dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon with avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus in a 52-year-old female patient who was treated surgically with periosteal flap and suture anchor fixation. Based in the posteromedial ridge of the distal tibia, a quadrilateral periosteal flap was created and folded over the tendon, followed by fixation on the lateral aspect of the groove by use of multiple suture anchors. Clinical and radiological findings 25 months postoperatively showed well-preserved function of the ankle joint with stable tendon gliding.

  5. Balloon osteoplasty--a new technique for reduction and stabilisation of impression fractures in the tibial plateau: a cadaver study and first clinical application.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Philipp; Sandmann, Gunther; Bauer, Jan; König, Benjamin; Martetschläger, Frank; Müller, Dirk; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Neumaier, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are among the most severe injuries of the knee joint and lead to advanced gonarthrosis if the reduction does not restore perfect joint congruency. Many different reduction techniques focusing on open surgical procedures have been described in the past. In this context we would like to introduce a novel technique which was first tested in a cadaver setup and has undergone its successful first clinical application. Since kyphoplasty demonstrated effective ways of anatomical correction in spine fractures, we adapted the inflatable instruments and used the balloon technique to reduce depressed fragments of the tibial plateau. The technique enabled us to restore a congruent cartilage surface and bone reduction. In this technique we see a useful new method to reduce depressed fractures of the tibial plateau with the advantages of low collateral damage as it is known from minimally invasive procedures.

  6. Incidence of infection after early intramedullary nailing of open tibial shaft fractures stabilized with pinless external fixators

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major drawback of conventional fixator system is the penetration of fixator pins into the medullary canal. The pins create a direct link between the medullary cavity and outer environment, leading to higher infection rates on conversion to intramedullary nailing. This disadvantage is overcome by the AO pinless fixator, in which the trocar points are clamped onto the outer cortex without penetrating it. This study was designed to evaluate the role of AO pinless fixators in primary stabilization of open diaphyseal tibial fractures that received staged treatment because of delayed presentation or poor general condition. We also analyzed the rate of infection on early conversion to intramedullary nail. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 30 open diaphyseal fractures of tibia, which were managed with primary stabilization with pinless fixator and early exchange nailing. Outcome was evaluated in terms of fracture union and rate of residual infection. The data were compared with that available in the literature. Results: All the cases were followed up for a period of 2 years. The study includes Gustilo type 1 (n=10), 14 Gustilo type 2 (n=14), and type3 (n=6) cases. 6 cases (20%) had clamp site infection, 2 cases (6.7%) had deep infection, and in 28 cases (93%) the fracture healed and consolidated well. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the valuable role of pinless external fixator in the management of open tibial fractures in terms of safety and ease of application as well as the advantage of early conversion to intramedullary implant without the risk of deep infection. PMID:19753227

  7. [Revision of Schatzker type Ⅵ tibial plateau fracture failure focus on the recovery of lower limb alignment].

    PubMed

    Cong, R J; Liu, J F; Jiang, Y; Dilixiati, Duolikun; Hou, X D; Zheng, L P

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the lower extremity abnormal alignment and the joint surface, and to explore the surgical skills. Methods: Twenty-two cases of tibial plateau Schatzker Ⅵ fracture internal fixation failure revision from January 2012 to January 2017 in Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai 10(th) Hospital.One year follow-up after initial surgery to make sure of failure.Three-dimensional CT scan, radiography, infection index, gait analysis, knee joint ROM, femur tibia angle, tibial plateau tibial shaft angle and posterior slope if tibial plateau were observed. The medial approach and bi-planer osteotoma were used.Autogenous iliac bone graft, postoperative fast recovery channel were used.Follow-up point included preoperative and postoperative 7 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.Obvervational index included double lower limbs radiography, knee society score(KSS), complications such as infection, skin necrosis, joint main passive activity, double lower limbs alignment the last follow-up SF-36 scale.Rate was compared by χ(2) test, measurement data using paired sample t test.Correlation was analyzed by Pearson correlation regression testing. Results: Twenty-two patients received follow-up.KSS, more than 21 cases were benign, with good gait.One case was poor, with claudication gait.Not skin necrosis, no deep infection cases, 1 case get blisters 2 days postoperatively, and disappear after 5 days with detumescence and cold therapy.Whether restoring force line affect the KSS significantly(χ(2)=22.000, P =0.000). Knee joint ROM, SF-36 score, KSS and lower limb alignment were improved significantly. In different individual the articular surface and anatomical angle recovered greatly but the posterior slope angle was quite difference which has no correlation with KSS and SF-36 scale( P >0.01). Conclusions: Revision of Schatzker type Ⅵ tibial plateau fracture failure should focus on the recovery of lower limb alignment.moderate overcorrect bone

  8. Complex tibial fractures are associated with lower social classes and predict early exit from employment and worse patient-reported QOL: a prospective observational study of 46 complex tibial fractures treated with a ring fixator.

    PubMed

    Elsoe, Rasmus; Larsen, Peter; Petruskevicius, Juozas; Kold, Søren

    2018-04-01

    The long-term outcomes following complex fractures of the tibia are reported to carry a risk of knee pain, malalignment, articular injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The main objective of this study was to account for the patient-reported quality of life (QOL) 12 months after ring fixator removal in patients with a complex tibial fracture. Secondary objectives included a review of the socio-economic characteristics of the patient group and the rate of return to work in the study period. A prospective follow-up study was conducted of 60 patients with complex fractures of the tibia treated with ring external fixation. Patient-reported outcomes, radiological outcomes and socio-economic status including employment status of the patients were obtained 12 months after frame removal. Forty-six patients completed the assessment 12 months after frame removal (77%). The mean age of the patient at the time of fracture was 54.6 years (range 31-86). There were 19 males and 27 females. At 12 months after frame removal, the mean EQ5D-5L index was 0.66 (CI 0.60-0.72). The mean EQ5D-5L VAS was 69 (CI 61-76). When this was compared to the established reference population from Denmark, the study population showed a significantly worse EQ5D-5L index. The majority of patients (87%) were in the lower social classes suggesting a higher degree of social deprivation in the study population. Twenty-seven per cent of patients who were employed prior to injury had returned to employment at approximately 19 months following fracture. The onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis was present in the knee joint in 29% of patients following a proximal intra-articular fracture, whereas osteoarthritis was present at the ankle joint in 35% of patients following a distal intra-articular fracture 12 months after frame removal. This study indicates that at 12 months after frame removal there are poorer patient-reported QOL as when compared to reference populations. Furthermore, this study

  9. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Fracture and Osteotomy Union in the Setting of Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Reliability of the Modified Radiographic Union Score for Tibial Fractures (RUST).

    PubMed

    Franzone, Jeanne M; Finkelstein, Mark S; Rogers, Kenneth J; Kruse, Richard W

    2017-09-08

    Evaluation of the union of osteotomies and fractures in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a critical component of patient care. Studies of the OI patient population have so far used varied criteria to evaluate bony union. The radiographic union score for tibial fractures (RUST), which was subsequently revised to the modified RUST, is an objective standardized method of evaluating fracture healing. We sought to evaluate the reliability of the modified RUST in the setting of the tibias of patients with OI. Tibial radiographs of 30 patients with OI fractures, or osteotomies were scored by 3 observers on 2 separate occasions. Each of the 4 cortices was given a score (1=no callus, 2=callus present, 3=bridging callus, and 4=remodeled, fracture not visible) and the modified RUST is the sum of these scores (range, 4 to 16). The interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities were evaluated using intraclass coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. The ICC representing the interobserver reliability for the first iteration of scores was 0.926 (0.864 to 0.962) and for the second series was 0.915 (0.845 to 0.957). The ICCs representing the intraobserver reliability for each of the 3 reviewers for the measurements in series 1 and 2 were 0.860 (0.707 to 0.934), 0.994 (0.986 to 0.997), and 0.974 (0.946 to 0.988). The modified RUST has excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability in the setting of OI despite challenges related to the poor quality of the bone and its dysplastic nature. The application and routine use of the modified RUST in the OI population will help standardize our evaluation of osteotomy and fracture healing. Level III-retrospective study of nonconsecutive patients.

  11. Immediate versus delayed intramedullary nailing for open fractures of the tibial shaft: a multivariate analysis of factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazuhiko; Itoman, Moritoshi; Uchino, Masataka; Fukushima, Kensuke; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kojima, Yoshiaki

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate contributing factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing of open tibia fractures treated with locked intramedullary nailing (IMN) by multivariate analysis. We examined 99 open tibial fractures (98 patients) treated with immediate or delayed locked IMN in static fashion from 1991 to 2002. Multivariate analyses following univariate analyses were derived to determine predictors of deep infection, nonunion, and healing time to union. The following predictive variables of deep infection were selected for analysis: age, sex, Gustilo type, fracture grade by AO type, fracture location, timing or method of IMN, reamed or unreamed nailing, debridement time (< or =6 h or >6 h), method of soft-tissue management, skin closure time (< or =1 week or >1 week), existence of polytrauma (ISS< 18 or ISS> or =18), existence of floating knee injury, and existence of superficial/pin site infection. The predictive variables of nonunion selected for analysis was the same as those for deep infection, with the addition of deep infection for exchange of pin site infection. The predictive variables of union time selected for analysis was the same as those for nonunion, excluding of location, debridement time, and existence of floating knee and superficial infection. Six (6.1%; type II Gustilo n=1, type IIIB Gustilo n=5) of the 99 open tibial fractures developed deep infections. Multivariate analysis revealed that timing or method of IMN, debridement time, method of soft-tissue management, and existence of superficial or pin site infection significantly correlated with the occurrence of deep infection (P< 0.0001). In the immediate nailing group alone, the deep infection rate in type IIIB + IIIC was significantly higher than those in type I + II and IIIA (P = 0.016). Nonunion occurred in 17 fractures (20.3%, 17/84). Multivariate analysis revealed that Gustilo type, skin closure time, and existence of deep infection significantly correlated with

  12. Outcomes assessment in the SPRINT multicenter tibial fracture trial: Adjudication committee size has trivial effect on trial results.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Nicole; Walter, Stephen; Devereaux, P J; Sprague, Sheila; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schemitsch, Emil; Tornetta, Paul; Sanders, David; Swiontkowski, Marc; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate how the size of an outcome adjudication committee, and the potential for dominance among its members, potentially impacts a trial's results. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the six-member adjudication committee in the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT) Trial. We modeled the adjudication process, predicted the results and costs if smaller committees had been used, and tested for the presence of a dominant adjudicator. Use of smaller committee sizes (one to five members) would have had little impact on the final study results, although one analysis suggested that the benefit in reduction of reoperations with reamed nails in closed tibial fractures would have lost significance if committee sizes of three or less were used. We identified a significant difference between adjudicators in the number of times their original minority decisions became the final consensus decision (χ(2)=9.67, P=0.046), suggesting that dominant adjudicators were present. However, their impact on the final study results was trivial. Reducing the number of adjudicators from six to four would have led to little change in the final SPRINT study results irrespective of the significance of the original trial results, demonstrating the potential for savings in trial resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P < 0.0001). Average time required for partial and full weight bearing in the nailing group was 4.95 weeks and 10.09 weeks respectively which was significantly less ( P < 0.0001) as compared to 6.90 weeks and 13.38 weeks in the plating group. Lesser complications in terms of implant irritation, ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  14. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  15. [Minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis versus open reduction and internal fixation for distal tibial fractures in adults: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-xi; Gao, Fu-qiang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yun-ting; Yang, Yu-run; Li, Zirong

    2015-08-01

    To perform a meta-analysis on clinical outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for distal tibial fractures in adults. Pubmed database (from 1968 to March 2014), Cochrane library and CNKI database (from 1998 to March 2014) were searched. Case-control study on minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for distal tibial fractures in adults were chosen,and postoperative infection, operative time, blood loss, fracture nonunion rate, delayed union,fracture malunion rate were seen as evaluation index for meta analysis. The system review was performed using the method recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Totally 5 studies (366 patients) were enrolled. Meta-analysis showed that there were significant meaning in postoperative infection between MIPPO and ORIF [OR = 0.23,95% CI (0.06,0.92), P = 0.04]; fracture nonunion rate in MIPPO was lower than in ORIF group [OR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.03,0.76), P = 0.02]; operative time in MIPPO was shorter than in ORIF group, and had significant difference [MD = -14.42, 95% CI (-27.79, -1.05), P < 0.05]; blood loss in MIPPO was less than in ORIF group [MD= -87.17,95%CI (-99.20, -75.15), P < 0.05]; there was no obviously meaning in delayed union between two groups. For distal tibial fractures in adults, MIPPO has, advantages of short operative time, less blood loss, lower incidence of infection and fracture non-uniom, but with high fracture malunion rate. MIPPO for distal tibial fractures in adults is better than ORIF, and the best treatment should choose according to patient's condition.

  16. Management of a type two avulsion fracture of the tibial intercondylar eminence in children: arthroscopic suture fixation versus conservative immobilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Bi, Qing; Bi, Mingguang

    2018-06-01

    Treatment of a type II tibial eminence avulsion fracture was controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of a modified arthroscopic suture fixation versus conservative immobilization in treatment of this type fracture in immature population. A total of 43 type II avulsion fractures of tibial intercondylar eminence in immature patients were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Twenty-two (13 males, 9 females) were treated with arthroscopic suture fixation and 21(12 males, 9 females) with conservative cast immobilization. Radiograph, Lachman test, anterior drawer test (ADT), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 subjective score, and Lysholm score were used to evaluate clinical outcomes in follow-up. All 43 paediatric or adolescent patients with a mean of 11.3 years (range, 8-16 years) were followed up for a median period of 34.5 months (range, 24-46 months). Radiographic evaluation showed optimal reduction immediately after surgery and bone union within three months. At the final follow-up, no limitation of knee motion range was found in any children. Grade II laxity was found in one case from surgical group and six from conservation group, showing significant difference based on ADT (χ2 = 7.927, P = 0.005) and Lachman tests (χ2 = 9.546, P = 0.002). IKDC and Lysholm scores were significantly improved; however, there were significant differences in the IKDC score (91.7 ± 4.34 vs. 84.7 ± 6.11, t = 4.35, P < 0.001) and Lysholm score (93.4 ± 4.04 vs. 87.1 ± 5.24, t = 4.53, P < 0.001), and the improvement of IKDC value (40.2 ± 7.83 vs. 31.4 ± 8.4, t = 3.57, P = 0.001) and Lysholm value (43.8 ± 6.55 vs. 35.4 ± 5.97, t = 4.36, P < 0.001) between the surgical group and the nonsurgical group. In treatment of type II tibial eminence avulsion fracture, a modified, 8 shape suture fixation under arthroscopy showed superior clinical

  17. [Detection of tibial condylar fractures using 3D imaging with a mobile image amplifier (Siemens ISO-C-3D): Comparison with plain films and spiral CT].

    PubMed

    Kotsianos, D; Rock, C; Wirth, S; Linsenmaier, U; Brandl, R; Fischer, T; Euler, E; Mutschler, W; Pfeifer, K J; Reiser, M

    2002-01-01

    To analyze a prototype mobile C-arm 3D image amplifier in the detection and classification of experimental tibial condylar fractures with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Human knee specimens (n = 22) with tibial condylar fractures were examined with a prototype C-arm (ISO-C-3D, Siemens AG), plain films (CR) and spiral CT (CT). The motorized C-arm provides fluoroscopic images during a 190 degrees orbital rotation computing a 119 mm data cube. From these 3D data sets MP reconstructions were obtained. All images were evaluated by four independent readers for the detection and assessment of fracture lines. All fractures were classified according to the Müller AO classification. To confirm the results, the specimens were finally surgically dissected. 97 % of the tibial condylar fractures were easily seen and correctly classified according to the Müller AO classification on MP reconstruction of the ISO-C-3D. There is no significant difference between ISO-C and CT in detection and correct classification of fractures, but ISO-CD-3D is significant by better than CR. The evaluation of fractures with the ISO-C is better than with plain films alone and comparable to CT scans. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the ISO-C can provide important information which cannot be obtained from plain films. The ISO-C-3D may be useful in planning operative reconstructions and evaluating surgical results in orthopaedic surgery of the limbs.

  18. Fundamental differences in axial and appendicular bone density in stress fractured and uninjured Royal Marine recruits--a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davey, Trish; Lanham-New, Susan A; Shaw, Anneliese M; Cobley, Rosalyn; Allsopp, Adrian J; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Arnett, Timothy R; Taylor, Pat; Cooper, Cyrus; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-04-01

    Stress fracture is a common overuse injury within military training, resulting in significant economic losses to the military worldwide. Studies to date have failed to fully identify the bone density and bone structural differences between stress fractured personnel and controls due to inadequate adjustment for key confounding factors; namely age, body size and physical fitness; and poor sample size. The aim of this study was to investigate bone differences between male Royal Marine recruits who suffered a stress fracture during the 32 weeks of training and uninjured control recruits, matched for age, body weight, height and aerobic fitness. A total of 1090 recruits were followed through training and 78 recruits suffered at least one stress fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and whole body (WB) using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in 62 matched pairs; tibial bone parameters were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computer Tomography in 51 matched pairs. Serum C-terminal peptide concentration was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline, week-15 and week-32. ANCOVA was used to determine differences between stress fractured recruits and controls. BMD at the LS, WB and FN sites was consistently lower in the stress fracture group (P<0.001). Structural differences between the stress fracture recruits and controls were evident in all slices of the tibia, with the most prominent differences seen at the 38% tibial slice. There was a negative correlation between the bone cross-sectional area and BMD at the 38% tibial slice. There was no difference in serum CTx concentration between stress fracture recruits and matched controls at any stage of training. These results show evidence of fundamental differences in bone mass and structure in stress fracture recruits, and provide useful data on bone risk factor profiles for stress fracture within a healthy military population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published

  19. Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiashen; Chang, Hengrui; Zhu, Yanbin; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zhanle; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Medline, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database were searched for relevant original studies from database inception to October 2016. Eligible studies had to meet quality assessment criteria according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and had to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Stata 11.0 software was used for this meta-analysis. Eight studies involving 2214 cases of tibial plateau fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation and 219 cases of surgical site infection were included in this meta-analysis. The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture (p < 0.05): open fracture (OR 3.78; 95% CI 2.71-5.27), compartment syndrome (OR 3.53; 95% CI 2.13-5.86), operative time (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.53-3.02), tobacco use (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.13-3.99), and external fixation (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.05-4.09). Other factors, including male sex, were not identified as risk factors for surgical site infection. Patients with the abovementioned medical conditions are at risk of surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risks and give relevant preoperative advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Open tibial fractures grade IIIC treated successfully with external fixation, negative-pressure wound therapy and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7.

    PubMed

    Babiak, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the therapy in open tibial fractures grade III was to cover the bone with soft tissue and achieve healed fracture without persistent infection. Open tibial fractures grade IIIC with massive soft tissue damage require combined orthopaedic, vascular and plastic-reconstructive procedures. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), used in two consecutive cases with open fracture grade IIIC of the tibia diaphysis, healed extensive soft tissue defect with exposure of the bone. NPWT eventually allowed for wound closure by split skin graft within 21-25 days. Ilizarov external fixator combined with application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 at the site of delayed union enhanced definitive bone healing within 16-18 months. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Treatment of Patellar Lower Pole Fracture with Modified Titanium Cable Tension Band Plus Patellar Tibial Tunnel Steel "8" Reduction Band.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Decheng; He, Zhiliang; Shi, Hao

    2018-01-08

    To determine the efficacy of modified titanium tension band plus patellar tendon tunnel steel 8 "reduction band" versus titanium cable tension band fixation for the treatment of patellar lower pole fracture. 58 patients with lower patella fracture were enrolled in this study, including 30 patients treated with modified titanium cable tension band plus patellar tibial tunnel wire "8" tension band internal fixation (modified group), and 28 patients with titanium cable tension band fixation. All patients were followed up for 9∼15 months with an average of 11.6 months. Knee flexion was significantly improved in the modified group than in the titanium cable tension band group (111.33 ± 13 degrees versus 98.21 ± 21.70 degrees, P = 0.004). The fracture healing time showed no significant difference. At the end of the follow-up, the improvement excellent rate was 93.33% in the modified group, and 82.14% in the titanium cable tension band group. Titanium cable tension band internal fixation loosening was found in 2 cases, including 1 case of treatment by two surgeries without loose internal fixation. The modified titanium cable tension band with "8" tension band fixation showed better efficacy for lower patella fractures than titanium cable tension band fixation.

  2. Intramedullary nailing versus plating for extra-articular distal tibial metaphyseal fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xing-He; Yan, Shi-Gui; Cai, Xun-Zi; Shi, Ming-Min; Lin, Tiao

    2014-04-01

    With development in the techniques of reduction and fixation, there has been a controversy in comparison between intramedullary nailing (IMN) and plating for the treatment of distal tibial metaphyseal fracture (DTF). The study aimed to investigate: (1) which fixation, IMN or plating, was better in the clinical outcomes and in the complications for the treatment of DTF and (2) which modifying variables affected the comparative results between the two modalities. PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and specific orthopaedic journals were searched from inception to July 2013, using the search strategy of '('Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary' [MeSH]) AND ('Tibial Fractures' [MeSH]) AND (plate OR plating)'. All prospective and retrospective controlled trials comparing function, pain, bone union and complications between IMN and plating for DTF were identified. Our analysis had no limitation of the language or the publication year. The primary outcome measurements were complication rate, union time, operation time and hospital stays, while the secondary outcome measurements were functional score and pain score. Fourteen of 6620 studies with 842 patients were included. IMN was probably preferential to plating for DTF given its higher functional score (p=0.01), lower risk of infection (p=0.02) and comparable pain score (p=0.33), total complication rate (p=0.53) and time to union (p=0.86). However, plating had a lower malunion rate than IMN (p<0.0001). All the results were based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence of moderate quality. With a satisfying alignment obtained, IMN may be preferential to plating for fixation of DTF with better function and lower risk of infection. However, IMN showed higher malunion rate for fixation of DTF. With the biases in our meta-analysis, it will ultimately require a rigorous and adequately powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) to

  3. Management of paediatric tibial fractures using two types of circular external fixator: Taylor spatial frame and Ilizarov circular fixator.

    PubMed

    Tafazal, Suhayl; Madan, Sanjeev S; Ali, Farhan; Padman, Manoj; Swift, Simone; Jones, Stanley; Fernandes, James A

    2014-05-01

    The use of circular fixators for the treatment of tibial fractures is well established in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the Ilizarov circular fixator (ICF) with the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) in terms of treatment results in consecutive patients with tibial fractures that required operative management. A retrospective analysis of patient records and radiographs was performed to obtain patient data, information on injury sustained, the operative technique used, time duration in frame, healing time and complications of treatment. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. Ten patients were treated with ICF between 2000 and 2005, while 15 patients have been treated with TSF since 2005. Two of the 10 treated with ICF and 5 of the 15 treated with TSF were open fractures. All patients went on to achieve complete union. Mean duration in the frame was 12.7 weeks for ICF and 14.8 weeks for the TSF group. Two patients in the TSF group had delayed union and required additional procedures including adjustment of fixator and bone grafting. There was one malunion in the TSF group that required osteotomy and reapplication of frame. There were seven and nine pin-site infections in the ICF and TSF groups, respectively, all of which responded to antibiotics. There were no refractures in either group. In an appropriate patient, both types of circular fixator are equally effective but have different characteristics, with TSF allowing for postoperative deformity correction. Of concern are the two cases of delayed union in the TSF group, all in patients with high-energy injuries. We feel another larger study is required to provide further clarity in this matter. Level II-comparative study.

  4. Percutaneous or Open Reduction of Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures During Intramedullary Nailing Does Not Increase Wound Complications, Infection or Nonunion Rates.

    PubMed

    Auston, Darryl A; Meiss, Jordan; Serrano, Rafael; Sellers, Thomas; Carlson, Gregory; Hoggard, Timothy; Beebe, Michael; Quade, Jonathan; Watson, David; Simpson, Robert Bruce; Kistler, Brian; Shah, Anjan; Sanders, Roy; Mir, Hassan R

    2017-04-01

    To compare the incidence of complications (wound, infection, and nonunion) among those patients treated with closed, percutaneous, and open intramedullary nailing for closed tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective review. Multiple trauma centers. Skeletally mature patients with closed tibia fractures amenable to treatment with an intramedullary device. Intramedullary fixation with closed, percutaneous, or open reduction. Superficial wound complication, deep infection, nonunion. A total of 317 tibial shaft fractures in 315 patients were included in the study. Two-hundred fractures in 198 patients were treated with closed reduction, 61 fractures in 61 patients were treated with percutaneous reduction, and 56 fractures in 56 patients were treated with formal open reduction. The superficial wound complication rate was 1% (2/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 3.6% (2/56) for the open group with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.179). The deep infection rate was 2% (4/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group with no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.133). Nonunion rate was 5.0% (10/200) for the closed group, 4.9% (3/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group, with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.492). This is the largest reported series of closed tibial shaft fractures nailed with percutaneous and open reduction. Percutaneous or open reduction did not result in increased wound complications, infection, or nonunion rates. Carefully performed percutaneous or open approaches can be safely used in obtaining reduction of difficult tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary devices. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Calcium phosphate cement augmentation in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures with open reduction and internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Oztürkmen, Yusuf; Caniklioğlu, Mustafa; Karamehmetoğlu, Mahmut; Sükür, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation augmented with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. Twenty-eight knees of 28 patients [19 males and 9 females; mean age, 41.2 years (range 22-72 years)] who had open reduction and internal fixation combined with CPC augmentation were included in this study. Seventeen fractures were Schatzker type II, 5 were type III, 3 were type IV, 2 were type V, and 1 was type VI. CPC was used to fill the subchondral bone defects in all knees. Fixation of the fragments was done with screws in 3 knees (10%). Standard proximal tibial plates or buttress plates were used in 25 knees (90%) with an additional split fragment extending distally to achieve internal fixation. Full weight-bearing was allowed in 6.4 weeks (range 6-12 weeks) after surgery. Resorption of CPC granules was defined as the decrease in the size and density of grafting material on radiographs. Rasmussen's radiological and clinical scores were determined postoperatively. Functionality was assessed with Lysholm knee scoring system. Activity was graded with Tegner's activity scale. Union was achieved in all patients with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months (range 6-36 months). There were no intraoperative complications. At the latest follow-up radiographs, resorption of the graft was observed in 25 knees (89%). Rasmussen's radiologic score was excellent in 17 patients (61%), good in 9 patients (32%), and fair in 2 patients (7%). Rasmussen's clinical score was excellent in 9 patients (32%), good in 18 patients (64%), and fair in 1 patient (4%). According to the Lysholm knee score, functional results were excellent in 16 patients (57%), good in 8 patients (29%), and fair in 4 patients (14%). Twenty-two patients (78%) achieved the preoperative activity level after surgery, and there was no significant difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative Tegner scores (4

  6. Stress Analysis and Fracture in Nanolaminate Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2008-01-01

    A stress analysis is performed on a nanolaminate subjected to bending. A composite mechanics computer code that is based on constituent properties and nanoelement formulation is used to evaluate the nanolaminate stresses. The results indicate that the computer code is sufficient for the analysis. The results also show that when a stress concentration is present, the nanolaminate stresses exceed their corresponding matrix-dominated strengths and the nanofiber fracture strength.

  7. Rare stress fracture: longitudinal fracture of the femur.

    PubMed

    Pérez González, M; Velázquez Fragua, P; López Miralles, E; Abad Moretón, M M

    42-year-old man with pain in the posterolateral region of the right knee that began while he was running. Initially, it was diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) as a possible aggressive process (osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma) but with computed tomography it was noted a cortical hypodense linear longitudinal image with a continuous, homogeneous and solid periosteal reaction without clear soft tissue mass that in this patient suggest a longitudinal distal femoral fatigue stress fracture. This type of fracture at this location is very rare. Stress fractures are entities that can be confused with an agressive process. MR iscurrently the most sensitive and specific imaging method for its diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Radial and tibial fracture repair with external skeletal fixation. Effects of fracture type, reduction, and complications on healing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Kneller, S K; Weigel, R M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive fractures of the canine radius and tibia were treated with external skeletal fixation as the primary method of stabilization. The time of fixation removal (T1) and the time to unsupported weight-bearing (T2) were correlated with: (1) bone involved; (2) communication of the fracture with the external environment; (3) severity of the fracture; (4) proximity of the fracture to the nutrient artery; (5) method of reduction; (6) diaphyseal displacement after reduction; and (7) gap between cortical fragments after reduction. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was used to test the correlation with p less than .05 set as the criterion for significance. The median T1 was 10 weeks and the median T2 was 11 weeks. None of the variables correlated significantly with either of the healing times; however, there was a strong trend toward longer healing times associated with open fractures and shorter healing times associated with closed reduction. Periosteal and endosteal callus uniting the fragments were observed radiographically in comminuted fractures, with primary bone union observed in six fractures in which anatomic reduction was achieved. Complications observed in the treatment of these fractures included: bone lysis around pins (27 fractures), pin track drainage (27 fractures), pin track hemorrhage (1 fracture), periosteal reaction around pins (27 fractures), radiographic signs consistent with osteomyelitis (12 fractures), degenerative joint disease (2 dogs), and nonunion (1 fracture). Valgus or rotational malalignment resulted in 16 malunions of fractures. One external fixation device was replaced and four loose pins were removed before the fractures healed. One dog was treated with antibiotics during the postoperative period because clinical signs of osteomyelitis appeared.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Thermal stress fracture of ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal stress failures of ceramic coatings are discussed in terms of fracture mechanics concepts. The effects of transient and residual stresses on single and multiple cycle failure mechanisms are considered. A specific example of a zirconia thermal barrier coating is presented and its endurance calculated using the proposed relationships.

  10. Semiextended approach for intramedullary nailing via a patellar eversion technique for tibial-shaft fractures: Evaluation of the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Obara, Shu; Hayashi, Junji; Arai, Masayuki; Sato, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation is a common treatment for tibial-shaft fractures, and it offers a better functional prognosis than other conservative treatments. Currently, the primary approach employed during intramedullary nail insertion is the semiextended position is the suprapatellar approach, which involves a vertical incision of the quadriceps tendon Damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage has been highlighted as a drawback associated with this approach. To avoid this issue, we perform surgery using the patellar eversion technique and a soft sleeve. This method allows the articular surface to be monitored during intramedullary nail insertion. We arthroscopically assessed the effect of this technique on patellofemoral joint cartilage. The patellar eversion technique allows a direct view and protection of the patellofemoral joint without affecting the patella. Thus, damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of double-contrast multi-detector CT scans to assess cartilage thickness after tibial plafond fracture

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Van Hofwegen, Christopher J.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after intra-articular fractures is poorly understood. Pursuit of a better understanding of this disease is complicated by inability to accurately monitor its onset, progression and severity. Common radiographic methods used to assess PTOA do not provide sufficient image quality for precise cartilage measurements. Double-contrast MDCT is an alternative method that may be useful, since it produces high-quality images in normal ankles. The purpose of this study was to assess this technique’s performance in assessing cartilage maintenance in ankles with an intra-articular fracture. Thirty-six tibial plafond fractures were followed over two years, with thirty-one MDCTs being obtained four months after injury, and twenty-two MDCTs after two years. Unfortunately, clinical results with this technique were unreliable due to pathology (presumed arthrofibrosis) and technical problems (pooling of contrast). The arthrofibrosis that developed in many patients inhibited proper joint access and contrast infiltration, although high-quality images were obtained in eleven patients. In this patient subset, in which focal regions of cartilage degeneration could be visualized, thickness could be measured with a high degree of fidelity. While thus useful in selected instances, double-contrast MDCT was too unreliable to be recommended to assess these particular types of injuries. PMID:20634971

  12. In vivo biomechanical evaluation of a novel angle-stable interlocking nail design in a canine tibial fracture model.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Loïc M; Cabassu, Julien B; Guillou, Reunan P; Villwock, Mark; Guiot, Laurent P; Haut, Roger C

    2014-03-01

    To compare clinical outcome and callus biomechanical properties of a novel angle stable interlocking nail (AS-ILN) and a 6 mm bolted standard ILN (ILN6b) in a canine tibial fracture model. Experimental in vivo study. Purpose-bred hounds (n = 11). A 5 mm mid-diaphyseal tibial ostectomy was stabilized with an AS-ILN (n = 6) or an ILN6b (n = 5). Orthopedic examinations and radiographs were performed every other week until clinical union (18 weeks). Paired tibiae were tested in torsion until failure. Callus torsional strength and toughness were statistically compared and failure mode described. Total and cortical callus volumes were computed and statistically compared from CT slices of the original ostectomy gap. Statistical significance was set at P < .05 RESULTS: From 4 to 8 weeks, lameness was less pronounced in AS-ILN than ILN6b dogs (P < .05). Clinical union was reached in all AS-ILN dogs by 10 weeks and in 3/5 ILN6b dogs at 18 weeks. Callus mechanical properties were significantly greater in AS-ILN than ILN6b specimens by 77% (failure torque) and 166% (toughness). Failure occurred by acute spiral (control and AS-ILN) or progressive transverse fractures (ILN6b). Cortical callus volume was 111% greater in AS-ILN than ILN6b specimens (P < .05). Earlier functional recovery, callus strength and remodeling suggest that the AS-ILN provides a postoperative biomechanical environment more conducive to bone healing than a comparable standard ILN. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Acoustic Emission Based Surveillance System for Prediction of Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    aging are susceptible to such fractures in contexts of osteoporosis, diabetes, cerebral palsy, fibrous dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta . This...disease, or, healthy people who have excessive exercise regimes (soldiers and athletes) experience these fractures [2]. Stress fractures interrupt

  14. The Lymphatic Response to Injury with Soft-Tissue Reconstruction in High-Energy Open Tibial Fractures of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Malou C; Mistry, Raakhi M; Suami, Hiroo; Campbell-Lloyd, Andrew; Finkemeyer, James P; Piller, Neil B; Caplash, Yugesh

    2017-02-01

    Severe compound tibial fractures are associated with extensive soft-tissue damage, resulting in disruption of lymphatic pathways that leave the patient at risk of developing chronic lymphedema. There are limited data on lymphatic response following lower limb trauma. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography is a novel, real-time imaging technique for superficial lymphatic mapping. The authors used this technique to image the superficial lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs in patients with severe compound tibial fracture. Baseline demographics and clinical and operative details were recorded in a prospective cohort of 17 patients who had undergone bone and soft-tissue reconstruction after severe compound tibial fracture between 2009 and 2014. Normal lymphatic images were obtained from the patients' noninjured limbs as a control. In this way, the authors investigated any changes to the normal anatomy of the lymphatic system in the affected limbs. Of the 17 patients, eight had free muscle flaps with split-thickness skin grafting, one had a free fasciocutaneous flap, one had a full-thickness skin graft, six had local fasciocutaneous flaps, and one had a pedicled gastrocnemius flap. None of the free flaps demonstrated any functional lymphatic vessels; the fasciocutaneous flaps and the skin graft demonstrated impaired lymphatic vessel function and dermal backflow pattern similar to that in lymphedema. Local flaps demonstrated lymphatic blockage at the scar edge. Severe compound fractures and the associated soft-tissue injury can result in significant lymphatic disruption and an increased risk for the development of chronic lymphedema.

  15. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The randomized controlled trial of influences of T shape approach on the function of knee joint in the treatment of proximal tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-xiong; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Jie-hong

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical value of T shape approach in the treatment of proximal tibial fractures. One handrend and thirteen patients of proximal tibial fractures were randomly divided into two groups. Group A: 62 cases underwent the traditional exposure approach. According to Schatzker classification,the cases of II to VI type was 25, 10, 16, 6, 5 respectively. Group B:51 cases underwent T shape approach ahead of knee joint, the cases of II to VI type was 21, 8, 13, 5, 4 respectively. All data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 to compare operation time, blood loss, duration of hospitalization, healing time, the time of osseous union and complications after operation. Sixty patients in group A and 50 patients in group B were followed-up from 12 to 24 months. (1) Operation time:group B was longer than A (P < 0.01). (2) Mean blood loss and duration of hospitalization was the same. (3) Clinical healing time:group B was shorter. (4) Mean time of osseous union: 48 group B was shorter. Function of knee: group B was better than group A. (Complication: group B was less than group A. As compared with traditional exposure approach, T shape approach of knee joint had advantages of small scar, fewer complications, faster union of fracture and earlier recovery of joint function. The approach is valuable for the treatment of proximal tibial fractures.

  17. A Prospective Randomized Study on Operative Treatment for Simple Distal Tibial Fractures-Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Minimal Open Reduction and Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Uk; Oh, Chang-Wug; Kim, Joon-Woo; Park, Ki Chul

    2018-01-01

    To compare the radiologic and clinical results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and minimal open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for simple distal tibial fractures. Randomized prospective study. Three level 1 trauma centers. Fifty-eight patients with simple and distal tibial fractures were randomized into a MIPO group (treatment with MIPO; n = 29) or a minimal group (treatment with minimal ORIF; n = 29). These numbers were designed to define the rate of soft tissue complication; therefore, validation of superiority in union time or determination of differences in rates of delayed union was limited in this study. Simple distal tibial fractures treated with MIPO or minimal ORIF. The clinical outcome measurements included operative time, radiation exposure time, and soft tissue complications. To evaluate a patient's function, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle score (AOFAS) was used. Radiologic measurements included fracture alignment, delayed union, and union time. All patients acquired bone union without any secondary intervention. The mean union time was 17.4 weeks and 16.3 weeks in the MIPO and minimal groups, respectively. There was 1 case of delayed union and 1 case of superficial infection in each group. The radiation exposure time was shorter in the minimal group than in the MIPO group. Coronal angulation showed a difference between both groups. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle scores were 86.0 and 86.7 in the MIPO and minimal groups, respectively. Minimal ORIF resulted in similar outcomes, with no increased rate of soft tissue problems compared to MIPO. Both MIPO and minimal ORIF have high union rates and good functional outcomes for simple distal tibial fractures. Minimal ORIF did not result in increased rates of infection and wound dehiscence. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Augmentation of tibial plateau fractures with an injectable bone substitute: CERAMENT™. Three year follow-up from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Iundusi, Riccardo; Gasbarra, Elena; D'Arienzo, Michele; Piccioli, Andrea; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-05-13

    Reduction of tibial plateau fractures and maintain a level of well aligned congruent joint is key to a satisfactory clinical outcome and is important for the return to pre-trauma level of activity. Stable internal fixation support early mobility and weight bearing. The augmentation with bone graft substitute is often required to support the fixation to mantain reduction. For these reasons there has been development of novel bone graft substitutes for trauma applications and in particular synthetic materials based on calcium phosphates and/or apatite combined with calcium sulfates. Injectable bone substitutes can optimize the filling of irregular bone defects. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of a novel injectable bone substitute CERAMENT™|BONE VOID FILLER in supporting the initial reduction and preserving alignment of the joint surface until fracture healing. From June 2010 through May 2011 adult patients presenting with acute, closed and unstable tibial plateau fractures which required both grafting and internal fixation, were included in a prospective study with percutaneous or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) augmented with an injectable ceramic biphasic bone substitute CERAMENT™|BONE VOID FILLER (BONESUPPORT™, Lund, Sweden) to fill residual voids. Clinical follow up was performed at 1, 3, 9 and 12 months and any subsequent year; including radiographic analysis and Rasmussen system for knee functional grading. Twenty four patients, balanced male-to-female, with a mean age of 47 years, were included and followed with an average of 44 months (range 41-52 months). Both Schatzker and Müller classifications were used and was type II or 41-B3 in 7 patients, type III or 41-B2 in 12 patients, type IV or 41-C1 in 2 patients and type VI or 41-C3 in 3 patients, respectively. The joint alignement was satisfactory and manteined within a range of 2 mm, with an average of 1.18 mm. The mean Rasmussen knee function score was 26.5, with 14

  19. Participation in Recreational Athletics After Operative Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures: Predictors and Functional Outcomes of Those Getting Back in the Game

    PubMed Central

    Kugelman, David N.; Qatu, Abdullah M.; Haglin, Jack M.; Konda, Sanjit R.; Egol, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tibial plateau fractures can be devastating traumatic injuries to the knee, particularly in active athletes. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to report on the return to participation in recreational athletics after operatively managed tibial plateau fractures. In addition, this study assessed factors associated with the ability to return to participation in recreational athletics after tibial plateau fractures treated with open reduction internal fixation and compared final outcomes between patients who were able to return to recreational athletics and those who could not. The hypothesis was that returning to participation in recreational athletics would be dependent on the time from surgery after operative fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Less severe injuries would be associated with a quicker return to athletics. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All tibial plateau fractures treated by 1 of 3 surgeons at a single academic institution over an 11-year period were prospectively followed. Final outcomes were evaluated using the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment at latest follow-up. All complications were recorded at each follow-up. Differences between the groups were compared using Student t tests for continuous variables. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether differences between categorical variables existed. Logistic regression was performed to assess independent variables associated with returning to participation in recreational athletics. Results: A total of 169 patients who underwent operative management of their tibial plateau fracture reported participation in recreational athletics before their injury. By the 6-month time point, 48 patients (31.6%) had returned to participation in recreational athletics, and at final follow-up (mean, 15 months), 89 patients (52.4%) had returned to participation in recreational athletics. Predictors of returning to recreational athletics

  20. Tibial stress changes in new combat recruits for special forces: patterns and timing at MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Amir; Moran, Daniel S; Evans, Rachel K; Fuks, Yael; Schweitzer, Mark E; Shabshin, Nogah

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the incidence, location, grade, and patterns of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the tibia in asymptomatic recruits before and after 4-month basic training and to investigate whether MR imaging parameters correlated with pretraining activity levels or with future symptomatic injury. This study was approved by three institutional review boards and was conducted in compliance with HIPAA requirements. Volunteers were included in the study after they signed informed consent forms. MR imaging of the tibia of 55 men entering the Israeli Special Forces was performed on recruitment day and after basic training. Ten recruits who did not perform vigorous self-training prior to and during service served as control subjects. MR imaging studies in all recruits were evaluated for presence, type, length, and location of bone stress changes in the tibia. Anthropometric measurements and activity history data were collected. Relationships between bone stress changes, physical activity, and clinical findings and between lesion size and progression were analyzed. Bone stress changes were seen in 35 of 55 recruits (in 26 recruits at time 0 and in nine recruits after basic training). Most bone stress changes consisted of endosteal marrow edema. Approximately 50% of bone stress changes occurred between the middle and distal thirds of the tibia. Lesion size at time 0 had significant correlation with progression. All endosteal findings smaller than 100 mm resolved or did not change, while most findings larger than 100 mm progressed. Of 10 control subjects, one had bone stress changes at time 0, and one had bone stress changes at 4 months. Most tibial bone stress changes occurred before basic training, were usually endosteal, occurred between the middle and distal thirds of the tibia, were smaller than 100 mm, and did not progress. These findings are presumed to represent normal bone remodeling.

  1. Olecranon stress fracture in a weight lifter: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P; Rao, S; Navadgi, B

    2001-01-01

    Stress fractures have been reported in the upper limb of sportspeople involved in upper limb dominated events. Olecranon stress fractures have been cited in baseball pitchers, javelin throwers, and gymnasts. The unusual case of a stress fracture of the olecranon in a young weight lifter is reported here. The minimally displaced stress fracture was treated with tension band and two Kirschner wires. The fracture healed in four months and the patient returned to light sports activity after six months. Key Words: weight lifter; olecranon; elbow; stress fracture PMID:11157469

  2. Comparison of Early and Delayed Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Treating Closed Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Liu, Lei; Tu, Chong-qi; Li, Jian; Li, Qi; Pei, Fu-xing

    2014-07-01

    The timing of surgery for osteosynthesis of type C pilon (AO/OTA) fractures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of early and delayed open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating closed type C pilon fractures. Forty-six patients with closed type C pilon fractures matched according to age, gender, soft tissue conditions, and fracture pattern were divided into group A (early group: underwent surgery within 36 hours of the injury) or group B (delayed group: underwent surgery 10 days to 3 weeks postinjury after the soft tissue swelling subsided). In the delayed group, 9 patients were treated first by temporary external fixation. All the closed fractures were managed by ORIF with locking plates. At follow-up, the clinical and radiographic results were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 25.8 months (range, 14 to 48 months) in group A and 26.0 months (range, 15 to 44 months) in group B. There was no significant difference (P > .05) between the 2 groups regarding the rate of soft tissue complication, the rate of fracture union, and the final functional score. The patients in group A had a significantly shorter mean time to fracture union (21.5 ± 4.0 weeks vs 23.3 ± 3.7 weeks, P < .05), operating time (84.3 ± 12.1 months vs 100.6 ± 13.7 months, P < .01), and hospital stay (7.6 ± 2.6 days vs 15.2 ± 4.2 days, P < .01). If soft tissue conditions are acceptable, early ORIF for treating closed type C pilon fractures can be safe and effective, with similar rates of wound complication, fracture union, and final good functional recovery but shorter operative time, union time, and hospital stay. These results favorably compare with delayed ORIF treatment. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Inelastic and Dynamic Fracture and Stress Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    Large deformation inelastic stress analysis and inelastic and dynamic crack propagation research work is summarized. The salient topics of interest in engine structure analysis that are discussed herein include: (1) a path-independent integral (T) in inelastic fracture mechanics, (2) analysis of dynamic crack propagation, (3) generalization of constitutive relations of inelasticity for finite deformations , (4) complementary energy approaches in inelastic analyses, and (5) objectivity of time integration schemes in inelastic stress analysis.

  4. Fracture of Rolled Homogeneous Steel Armor (Nucleation Threshold Stress).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    AD-AO81 618 ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ABERD--ETC F/B 19/4 FRACTURE OF ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS STEEL ARMOR (NUCLEATION THRESHOL--ETC(U...ARBRL-MR-02984A QQ FRACTURE OF ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS STEEL ARMOR (NUCLEATION THRESHOLD STRESS) Gerald L Moss Lynn SeamanLy~ S, ,.DTIC S ELECTED January...nucleation stress, Crack threshold stress, Fracture, Fracture stress, Spallation, Armor, Rolled homogeneous steel armor M~ AS$TRACr (Vita ssf -- ebb

  5. Functional and Radiological Outcome of Schatzker type V and VI Tibial Plateau Fracture Treatment with Dual Plates with Minimum 3 years follow-up: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Harpreet Singh; Gangrade, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau causes various problems related to management like wound dehiscence, severe comminution leading to malalignment and delayed complications like varus collapse, implant failure and arthritis of knee joint. Aim This study was done to determine functional, radiological outcome and the complications of Schatzker V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with bipillar plating with dual plates with a regular follow-up of atleast 3 years. Materials and Methods Total 34 cases of tibial plateau fracture type V and VI treated with dual plating were studied from January 2011 to December 2013 in KIMS Hospital were followed for minimum of 3 years. The patients were operated through an anterolateral approach for lateral plate and a medial column plate was put through a minimally invasive medial approach or an open posteromedial approach. Results Total 34 patients were evaluated postoperatively thoroughly for functional outcome using The Knee Society Score and radiological outcomes by Modified Rasmussen Assessment criteria which showed 29 patients (85.29%) had excellent and 5 patients (14.71%) had good objective knee society score. 24 patients (70.59%) had excellent, 8 patients (23.53%) had good and 1patient (2.94%) were each of poor and fair functional knee society score. Eleven patients (32.35%) had excellent, 21patients (61.76%) had good and 2 patients (5.88%) had fair radiological outcome. Conclusion We conclude that open reduction and internal fixation of high-energy tibial plateau fractures with dual plates via 2 incisions gives excellent to good functional outcome with minimal soft tissue complications. Thus, a minimally invasive approach should be used which helps in preventing soft tissue problems and helps in early wound healing. Fixation done by bipillar plating is important for early mobilization of knee joint. Early mobilization leads to better range of movements and thereby better

  6. [Comparison of effect between early and delayed in primary intramedullary nailing combined with locked plate fixation for the treatment of multi-segments tibial fractures of type].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-qiang; Hu, Jiang-hai; Gu, Zhu-chao; Zhang, Huai-xian; Min, Peng; Zhang, Lin-jun; Yu, Wen-wen; Wang, Guang-lin

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical results of early and delayed intramedullary nailing and locked plating for the treatment of multi-segments tibial fractures of type AO/ASIF-42C2. Between January 2010 and January 2013,45 patients with multi-segments closed tibial fractures of AO/ASIF-42C2 were treated by early primary intramedullary nailing and locked plating in 20 cases as early group and delayed in 25 cases as delayed group. In early group,20 cases included 13 males and 7 females with an average age of (37.9±14.3) years old ranging from 20 to 56 years;according to soft tissue injury Tscherne classification, 8 fractures were frade I,12 were grade II. In delayed group, 25 cases included 17 males and 8 females with an average age of (38.7±17.2) years old ranging from 24 to 55 years,4 fractures were grade I ,19 were grade II ,2 were grade III. The operative time, blood loss, hospital stay,fracture healing time and complications were recorded. At final follow-up, the Johner-Wruhs score were used to evaluate functional efficacy, and the posterior-anterior and lateral X-ray to evaluate fracture reduction and alignment. All the patients were followed up for (12.5±2.5) months in early group and (13.2±2.8) months in delayed group (P>0.05). No wounds infections were happened. At the last follow-up, the mean range of knee joint was 10°-0°-120°. According to Johner-Wruhs scoring,there were 15 cases in excellent,3 in good,fair in 2 in early group; 21 in excellent,2 in good,2 in fair. The average operative time,blood loss had no significant differences between two groups (P>0.05), but hospital stay in early group was significantly shorter than those in delayed group(P<0.05). Average fracture healing time of early group and delayed group were (5.3±2.6) months and (6.0±2.9) months, respectively (P>0.05). For multi-segments tibial fractures of type AO/ASIF-42C2 with preoperative minor soft tissue injuries lighter of Tscherne grade I or II, early primary intramedullary nailing and

  7. Bioactive glass granules: a suitable bone substitute material in the operative treatment of depressed lateral tibial plateau fractures: a prospective, randomized 1 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jouni T; Kukkonen, Juha; Aho, Allan J; Moisander, Susanna; Kyyrönen, Timo; Mattila, Kimmo

    2011-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to compare bioactive glass and autogenous bone as a bone substitute material in tibial plateau fractures. We designed a prospective, randomized study consisting of 25 consecutive operatively treated patients with depressed unilateral tibial comminuted plateau fracture (AO classification 41 B2 and B3).14 patients (7 females, 7 males, mean age 57 years, range 25-82) were randomized in the bioglass group (BG) and 11 patients (6 females, 5 males, mean age 50 years, range 31-82) served as autogenous bone control group (AB). Clinical examination of the patients was performed at 3 and 12 months, patients' subjective and functional results were evaluated at 12 months. Radiological analysis was performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at 3 and 12 months. The postoperative redepression for both studied groups was 1 mm until 3 months and remained unchanged at 12 months. No differences were identified in the subjective evaluation, functional tests and clinical examination between the two groups during 1 year follow-up. We conclude that bioactive glass granules can be clinically used as filler material instead of autogenous bone in the lateral tibial plateau compression fractures.

  8. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services. Copyright

  9. Role of Joshi's external stabilization system with percutaneous screw fixation in high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish-Kumar; Sapra, Rahul; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Som-Prakash; Kaushik, Devwart; Gaba, Sahil; Bansal, Mahesh Chand; Dayma, Ratan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of high-energy tibial condylar fractures which are associated with severe soft tissue injuries remains contentious and challenging. In this study, we assessed the results of Joshi's external stabilization system (JESS) by using the principle of ligamentotaxis and percutaneous screw fixation for managing high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries. Between June 2008 and June 2010, 25 consecutive patients who were 17e71 years (mean, 39.7), underwent the JESS fixation for high-energy tibial condylar fractures associated with severe soft tissue injuries. Out of 25 patients, 2 were lost during follow-up and in 1 case early removal of frame was done, leaving 22 cases for final follow-up. Among them, 11 had poor skin condition with abrasions and blisters and 2 were open injuries (Gustilo-Anderson grade I&II). The injury mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents (n=19), fall from a height (n=2) and assault (n=1). The fractures were classified according to Schatzker classification system. There were 7 type-V, 14 type-VI and 1 type-lV Schatzker's tibial plateau fractures. The average interval between the injury and surgery was 6.8 days (range 2-13). The average hospital stay was 13 days (range, 7-22). The average interval between the surgery and full weight bearing was 13.6 weeks (range 11-20). The average range of knee flexion was 121°(range 105°-135°). The normal extension of the knee was observed in 20 patients, and an extensor lag of 5°-8° was noted in 2 patients. The complications included superficial pin tract infections (n=4) with no knee stiffness. JESS with lag screw fixation combines the benefit of traction, external fixation, and limited internal fixation, at the same time as allowing the ease of access to the soft tissue for wound checks, pin care, dressing changes, measurement of compartment pressure, and the monitoring of the neurovascular status. In a nutshell, JESS along with screw fixation offers a

  10. Fluid Production Induced Stress Analysis Surrounding an Elliptic Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Harshad Rajendra

    Hydraulic fracturing is an effective technique used in well stimulation to increase petroleum well production. A combination of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has led to the recent boom in shale gas production which has changed the energy landscape of North America. During the fracking process, highly pressurized mixture of water and proppants (sand and chemicals) is injected into to a crack, which fractures the surrounding rock structure and proppants help in keeping the fracture open. Over a longer period, however, these fractures tend to close due to the difference between the compressive stress exerted by the reservoir on the fracture and the fluid pressure inside the fracture. During production, fluid pressure inside the fracture is reduced further which can accelerate the closure of a fracture. In this thesis, we study the stress distribution around a hydraulic fracture caused by fluid production. It is shown that fluid flow can induce a very high hoop stress near the fracture tip. As the pressure gradient increases stress concentration increases. If a fracture is very thin, the flow induced stress along the fracture decreases, but the stress concentration at the fracture tip increases and become unbounded for an infinitely thin fracture. The result from the present study can be used for studying the fracture closure problem, and ultimately this in turn can lead to the development of better proppants so that prolific well production can be sustained for a long period of time.

  11. The management of tibial pilon fractures with the Ilizarov fixator: The role of ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, Hani; El-Hawary, Ahmed; Kandil, Yasser

    2015-12-01

    Pilon fractures usually result from high energy trauma, and are commonly associated with extensive soft tissue damage which prevents the use of open reduction and internal fixation. This study was designed to evaluate the use of the Ilizarov external fixator in the treatment of pilon fractures of the ankle, and to determine whether arthroscopy of the ankle could improve the outcome. From February 2011 to May 2013 a total of 23 patients with unilateral closed pilon fractures were divided into two groups treated with and without arthroscopy during fixation with the Ilizarov external fixator. The fractures were classified according to the AO Rüdi and Allgőwer classification. Follow up ranged from 10 to 37 months with a mean of 18 months. All cases were evaluated at follow up by the AOFAS and the Bone et al. grading system. According to Bone et al. there were 3 cases excellent, 4 cases good, 2 cases fair, and 2 cases poor in Group A (without arthroscopy), whereas there were 4 cases excellent, 6 cases good, 2 cases fair in Group B (with arthroscopy). The AOFAS score for Group A was 77.8±5.8, and for Group B was 78.4±6.9. We concluded that the Ilizarov external fixator is an excellent method in treating pilon fractures as it minimizes the need for extensive surgery. We also conclude that the use of arthroscopy during pilon fracture fixation did not add statistically significant improvement to our results and it needs longer term investigation to assess its advantage - if any - to the final outcome. level 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A pilot hole does not reduce the strains or risk of fracture to the lateral cortex during and following a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy in cadaveric specimens.

    PubMed

    Bujnowski, K; Getgood, A; Leitch, K; Farr, J; Dunning, C; Burkhart, T A

    2018-02-01

    It has been suggested that the use of a pilot-hole may reduce the risk of fracture to the lateral cortex. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a pilot hole on the strains and occurrence of fractures at the lateral cortex during the opening of a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and post-surgery loading. A total of 14 cadaveric tibias were randomized to either a pilot hole (n = 7) or a no-hole (n = 7) condition. Lateral cortex strains were measured while the osteotomy was opened 9 mm and secured in place with a locking plate. The tibias were then subjected to an initial 800 N load that increased by 200 N every 5000 cycles, until failure or a maximum load of 2500 N. There was no significant difference in the strains on the lateral cortex during HTO opening between the pilot hole and no-hole conditions. Similarly, the lateral cortex and fixation plate strains were not significantly different during cyclic loading between the two conditions. Using a pilot hole did not significantly decrease the strains experienced at the lateral cortex, nor did it reduce the risk of fracture. The nonsignificant differences found here most likely occurred because the pilot hole merely translated the stress concentration laterally to a parallel point on the surface of the hole. Cite this article : K. Bujnowski, A. Getgood, K. Leitch, J. Farr, C. Dunning, T. A. Burkhart. A pilot hole does not reduce the strains or risk of fracture to the lateral cortex during and following a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy in cadaveric specimens. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:166-172. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.72.BJR-2017-0337.R1.

  13. Couple stresses and the fracture of rock.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Colin; Coman, Ciprian D; Aldazabal, Javier

    2015-03-28

    An assessment is made here of the role played by the micropolar continuum theory on the cracked Brazilian disc test used for determining rock fracture toughness. By analytically solving the corresponding mixed boundary-value problems and employing singular-perturbation arguments, we provide closed-form expressions for the energy release rate and the corresponding stress-intensity factors for both mode I and mode II loading. These theoretical results are augmented by a set of fracture toughness experiments on both sandstone and marble rocks. It is further shown that the morphology of the fracturing process in our centrally pre-cracked circular samples correlates very well with discrete element simulations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress fractures in elite cross-country athletes.

    PubMed

    Laker, Scott R; Saint-Phard, Deborah; Tyburski, Mark; Van Dorsten, Brent

    2007-04-01

    This retrospective and comparative survey investigates an unusual number of stress fractures seen within a Division I college cross-country team. An anonymous questionnaire-designed to observe factors known to increase stress fracture incidence-was distributed to members of the current and previous seasons' teams. Running surface, sleep hours, intake of calcium, and shoe type were among the factors investigated. Eleven lower extremity stress fractures were found in nine athletes. Athletes with stress fractures reported significantly fewer workouts per week on the new track. All other study parameters had no statistically significant effect on stress fractures in these athletes.

  15. [Effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament tibial eminence avulsion fracture with non-absorbable suture fixation combined with mini-plate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiyuan; Xiao, Yang; Tong, Zuoming; Li, Guiqiu; Jiang, Juhua; Yao, Jinghui; Wu, Zhiyong; Li, Tengfei; Wu, Qun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the surgical techniques and effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fracture with non-absorbable suture fixation combined with the miniplate. Between January 2009 and March 2012, 32 patients with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures were treated. There were 18 males and 14 females, aged 12-40 years (mean, 17.5 years). The injury causes included traffic accident injury in 15 cases, sport injury in 6 cases, and falling injury in 11 cases. The time from injury to operation ranged 7-18 days with an average of 9.5 days. Before operation, the results of Lachman test were all positive; the Lysholm score was 52.13 +/- 4.22 and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 44.82 +/- 2.44. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 12 cases of type II and 20 cases of type III. After arthroscopic poking reduction of fracture, tibial eminence avulsion fractures were fixed with the Ethibond non-absorbable sutures bypass figure-of-eight tibial tunnel combined with the metacarpal and phalangeal mini-plate. Primary healing was obtained in all incisions; no joint infection or skin necrosis occurred after operation. All patients were followed up with an average time of 22.4 months (range, 12-50 months). The patients showed negative Lachman test at 12 weeks after operation. Except 3 patients having knee extension limitation at last follow-up, the knee extension range of motion (ROM) was normal in the other patients; the knee flexion ROM was normal in all patients. The Lysholm score and IKDC score were significantly improved to 94.19 +/- 0.93 and 94.35 +/- 1.22 at last follow-up, showing significant differences when compared with preoperative values (t = 55.080, P = 0.000; t = 101.715, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic treatment of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture with Ethibond non-absorbable suture fixation combined with mini-plate is an effective procedure with the

  16. Evaluating Stiffness of Fibreglass and Thermoplastic Splint Materials and Inter-fragmentary Motion in a Canine Tibial Fracture Model.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Amanda L; Allen, Matthew J; Zindl, Claudia; Litsky, Alan; Orsher, Robert; Ben-Amotz, Ron

    2018-04-16

     Various materials are used to construct splints for mid-diaphyseal tibial fracture stabilization. The objective of this study was to compare construct stiffness and inter-fragmentary bone motion when fibreglass (FG) or thermoplastic (TP) splints are applied to either the lateral or cranial aspect of the tibia in a mid-diaphyseal fracture model.  A coaptation bandage was applied to eight cadaveric canine pelvic limbs, with a custom-formed splint made of either FG or TP material applied to either the lateral or cranial aspect of the osteotomized tibia. Four-point bending tests were performed to evaluate construct stiffness and inter-fragmentary motion in both frontal and sagittal planes.  For a given material, FG or TP, construct stiffness was not affected by splint location. Construct stiffness was significantly greater with cranial FG splints than with cranial TP splints ( p  < 0.05), but this difference was not significant when comparing splints applied laterally ( p  = 0.15). Inter-fragmentary motions in the sagittal and frontal planes were similar across splint types for cranial splints, but for lateral splints there was a 64% reduction in frontal plane motion when FG was used as the splint material ( p  = 0.03).  FG produces a stiffer construct, but the difference is not reflected in a reduction in inter-fragmentary motion. For lateral splints, FG splints are associated with reduced inter-fragmentary motion as compared with TP and may therefore have slight superiority for this application. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  17. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for grade III open segmental tibial fractures from combat injuries in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kuklo, T R; Groth, A T; Anderson, R C; Frisch, H M; Islinger, R B

    2008-08-01

    This is a retrospective consecutive case series of 138 Gustillo-Anderson type IIIB and IIIC segmental tibial fractures treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in soldiers injured in Iraq between March 2003 and March 2005. Five patients with a head injury and four who were lost to follow-up were excluded. The patients were treated definitively with either a ringed external fixator or a reamed intramedullary nail, evaluated in terms of supplementary bone grafting with either autogenous bone (group 1, 67 patients) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 at 1.50 mg/ml applied to an absorbable collagen sponge (group 2, 62 patients). The mechanism of injury, defect size and classification, associated injuries, presence of infection, preliminary treatment/fixation, number of procedures before definitive management, time to and details of definitive management, subsequent infection, re-operation, smoking history and other complications were noted. Radiographs were assessed for union, delayed union or nonunion by an independent investigator. All the patients were male. Their mean age was 26.6 years (20 to 42) and the mean follow-up was for 15.6 months (12 to 32). Group 2 had a slightly higher profile of concomitant injuries and a slightly worse fracture classification, but these were not significant. The rate of union was 76% (51 of 67) for group 1 and 92% for group 2 (57 of 62; p = 0.015). There was also a higher rate of subsequent infection in group 1 (14.9%) compared with group 2 (3.2%; p = 0.001) and a higher rate of re-operation (28%) in group 1 (p = 0.003). There were no observed hypersensitivity reactions to the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 implant.

  18. Proximal tibia stress fracture with Osteoarthritis of knee − Radiological and functional analysis of one stage TKA with long stem

    PubMed Central

    Soundarrajan, Dhanasekaran; Rajkumar, Natesan; Dhanasekararaja, Palanisamy; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal tibia stress fractures with knee osteoarthritis pose a challenging situation. We evaluated the radiological and functional outcome of one-stage total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and long stem for patients with varied grades of knee arthritis and proximal tibia stress fractures.  Methods: We analysed 20 patients from April 2012 to March 2017 with proximal tibia stress fractures associated with knee osteoarthritis of varied grades. Out of 20 patients, five were acute fresh fractures. The mean age was 64 years (range, 52–78) which includes three men and 17 women. Previous surgery in the same limb, rheumatoid arthritis, valgus deformity were excluded. All patients were treated with posterior stabilised TKA with long stem, of which, four patients had screw augmentation for medial tibial bone defect and two patients with malunited fracture at stress fracture site required osteotomy, plating and bone grafting. Two patients had two level stress fracture of tibia in the same leg. Results: The mean follow-up period was 28 (range, 6–60) months. The mean tibiofemoral angle improved from 18.27° varus to 1.8° valgus. The mean knee society score improved from 21.9 (range, −10 to 45) to 82.8 (range, 15–99) [p < 0.05]. The mean Knee Society functional score improved from 15.5 (range, −10 to 40) to 76.8 (range, 10–100) [p < 0.05]. All fractures got united at the last follow-up. One patient had infection and wound dehiscence at six months for which debridement done and had poor functional outcome. Conclusion: TKA with long stem gives excellent outcome, irrespective of severity of arthritis associated with stress fracture. By restoring limb alignment and bypassing the fracture site, it facilitates fracture healing. Early detection and prompt intervention is necessary to prevent the progression to recalcitrant non-union or malunion. PMID:29667926

  19. Proximal tibia stress fracture with Osteoarthritis of knee - Radiological and functional analysis of one stage TKA with long stem.

    PubMed

    Soundarrajan, Dhanasekaran; Rajkumar, Natesan; Dhanasekararaja, Palanisamy; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    2018-01-01

    Proximal tibia stress fractures with knee osteoarthritis pose a challenging situation. We evaluated the radiological and functional outcome of one-stage total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and long stem for patients with varied grades of knee arthritis and proximal tibia stress fractures.  Methods: We analysed 20 patients from April 2012 to March 2017 with proximal tibia stress fractures associated with knee osteoarthritis of varied grades. Out of 20 patients, five were acute fresh fractures. The mean age was 64 years (range, 52-78) which includes three men and 17 women. Previous surgery in the same limb, rheumatoid arthritis, valgus deformity were excluded. All patients were treated with posterior stabilised TKA with long stem, of which, four patients had screw augmentation for medial tibial bone defect and two patients with malunited fracture at stress fracture site required osteotomy, plating and bone grafting. Two patients had two level stress fracture of tibia in the same leg. The mean follow-up period was 28 (range, 6-60) months. The mean tibiofemoral angle improved from 18.27° varus to 1.8° valgus. The mean knee society score improved from 21.9 (range, -10 to 45) to 82.8 (range, 15-99) [p < 0.05]. The mean Knee Society functional score improved from 15.5 (range, -10 to 40) to 76.8 (range, 10-100) [p < 0.05]. All fractures got united at the last follow-up. One patient had infection and wound dehiscence at six months for which debridement done and had poor functional outcome. TKA with long stem gives excellent outcome, irrespective of severity of arthritis associated with stress fracture. By restoring limb alignment and bypassing the fracture site, it facilitates fracture healing. Early detection and prompt intervention is necessary to prevent the progression to recalcitrant non-union or malunion. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  20. Treatment of Lateral Tibial Condylar Fractures Using Bioactive, Bioresorbable Forged Composites of Raw Particulate Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Screws.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kunio; Yoshida, Yukio; Otsuka, Takanobu; Takada, Naoya

    2018-05-01

    Forged composites of raw particulate unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA) devices possess high mechanical strength, bioactivity, and radio-opacity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of F-u-HA/PLLA screws in the treatment of lateral tibial condylar fractures. From January 2005 to December 2010, a total of 7 patients with displaced closed lateral tibial condylar fractures (Schatzker type II) were treated using F-u-HA/PLLA screws. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using 2 or 3 F-u-HA/PLLA screws. After surgery, weight bearing was not allowed for 6 weeks. Range of motion exercise was initiated after removal of the plaster splint. Radiographs were evaluated for fracture healing, joint depression, and the radioopacity of F-u-HA/PLLA screws. Clinical outcomes and postoperative complications were also assessed. Average follow-up was 44 months. All fractures were successfully healed. Average values for joint depression were 4.7 mm (range, 2-9 mm) preoperatively, 0.4 mm (range, 0-1 mm) postoperatively, and 0.4 mm (range, 0-1 mm) at final follow-up. Whole shadows of F-u-HA/PLLA screws were observed during the follow-up period. Breakage of screws, osteolysis, and a radiolucent zone around the screws were not observed at final follow-up. Average knee flexion and extension were 134° (range, 110° to 150°) and -1° (range, -10° to 0°), respectively. No patient had wound infection, late aseptic tissue response, or foreign body reaction postoperatively. None of the patients reported pain at final follow-up. These results suggest that F-u-HA/PLLA screws could be an alternative option for the treatment of lateral tibial condylar fractures. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e365-e368.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of Absorbable Sheath to Prevent Stress Shielding of Tibial Interlocking Intramedullary Nail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yansheng; Wang, Yongqing; Dong, Limin; Jia, Peng; Lu, Fengcheng

    2017-07-01

    The nail with absorbable sheath (AS nail) is designed to reduce the stress shielding effect of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail. In order to verify its feasibility, two types of the finite element models of internal fixation of tibia with the AS nail and the common metal nail (CM nail) are established using the Softwares of Mimics, Geomagic, SolidWorks and ANSYS according to the CT scanning data of tibia. The result of the finite element analysis shows that the AS nail has great advantages compared with the CM nail in reducing the stress shielding effect in different periods of fracture healing. The conclusion is that the AS nail can realize the static fixation to the dynamic fixation from the early to the later automatically to shorten the time of fracture healing, which also provides a new technique to the interlocking intramedullary nail.

  2. Effect of Stress State on Fracture Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arpan

    2018-02-01

    Present article comprehensively explores the influence of specimen thickness on the quantitative estimates of different ductile fractographic features in two dimensions, correlating tensile properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel tested under ambient temperature where the initial crystallographic texture, inclusion content, and their distribution are kept unaltered. It has been investigated that the changes in tensile fracture morphology of these steels are directly attributable to the resulting stress-state history under tension for given specimen dimensions.

  3. A New Device for Percutaneous Elevation of the Depressed Fractures of Tibial Condyles

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, V.S.; Kumar, Madhusudan; Murthy, G.V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Monocondylar tibia plateau fractures with non-comminuted fragments can be treated using percutaneous screws. Currently indirect methods of reduction are used and thus the technique is limited to fragments with less than 5 mm depression. The first author has designed a device for direct elevation and reduction of the fragments thus potentially expanding the indications of percutaneous screws to fragments with >5mm depression Technical Note: A total of ten cases were treated by this method of percutaneous elevation of the depressed fractures of lateral condyles of the Tibia using this device. Device was inserted through a bony window on the anteromedial surface of tibia. The inner piston of the device in slowly hammered inside thus elevating the depressed fragment. Elevation of fragment could be achieved in all the cases. The fractures were fixed with cancellous screws applied percutaneously. There were no cases with loss of fixation or subsidence of the fragment. All cases achieved radiological union and have good knee function at follow up Conclusion: The new device is able to elevate unicondylar tibia plateau fragments with no subsidence or loss of fixation in our series. A longer follow up in a larger sample will be needed to establish the technique. PMID:27298860

  4. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    PubMed

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  5. Biomechanical assessment and 3D finite element analysis of the treatment of tibial fractures using minimally invasive percutaneous plates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin-Jia; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of varying the length of a limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) and the number and position of screws on middle tibial fractures, and to provide biomechanical evidence regarding minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). For biomechanical testing, 60 tibias from cadavers (age at mortality, 20–40 years) were used to create middle and diagonal fracture models without defects. Tibias were randomly grouped and analyzed by biomechanic and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. The differences among LC-DCPs of different lengths (6-, 10- and 14-hole) with 6 screws, 14-hole LC-DCPs with different numbers of screws (6, 10 and 14), and 14-hole LC-DCPs with 6 screws at different positions with regard to mechanical characteristics, including compressing, torsion and bending, were examined. The 6-hole LC-DCP had greater vertical compression strain compared with the 10- and 14-hole LC-DCPs (P<0.01), and the 14-hole LC-DCP had greater lateral strain than the 6- and 10-hole LC-DCPs (P<0.01). Furthermore, significant differences in torque were observed among the LC-DPs of different lengths (P<0.01). For 14-hole LC-DCPs with different numbers of screws, no significant differences in vertical strain, lateral strain or torque were detected (P>0.05). However, plates with 14 screws had greater vertical strain compared with those fixed with 6 or 10 screws (P<0.01). For 4-hole LC-DCPs with screws at different positions, vertical compression strain values were lowest for plates with screws at positions 1, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 14 (P<0.01). The lateral strain values and vertical strain values for plates with screws at positions 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 14 were significantly lower compared with those at the other positions (P<0.01), and torque values were also low. Thus, the 14-hole LC-DCP was the most stable against vertical compression, torsion and bending, and the 6-hole LC-DCP was the least stable

  6. Characteristics of postoperative weight bearing and management protocols for tibial plateau fractures: Findings from a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Arnold, John B; Tu, Chen Gang; Phan, Tri M; Rickman, Mark; Varghese, Viju Daniel; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-12-01

    To identify and describe the characteristics of existing practices for postoperative weight bearing and management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs), identify gaps in the literature, and inform the design of future research. Seven electronic databases and clinical trial registers were searched from inception until November 17th 2016. Studies were included if they reported on the surgical management of TPFs, had a mean follow-up time of ≥1year and provided data on postoperative management protocols. Data were extracted and synthesized according to study demographics, patient characteristics and postoperative management (weight bearing regimes, immobilisation devices, exercises and complications). 124 studies were included involving 5156 patients with TPFs. The mean age across studies was 45.1 years (range 20.8-72; 60% male), with a mean follow-up of 34.9 months (range 12-264). The most frequent fracture types were AO/OTA classification 41-B3 (29.5%) and C3 (25%). The most commonly reported non-weight bearing time after surgery was 4-6 weeks (39% of studies), with a further 4-6 weeks of partial weight bearing (51% of studies), resulting in 9-12 weeks before full weight bearing status was recommended (55% of studies). Loading recommendations for initial weight bearing were most commonly toe-touch/<10kg (28%), 10kg-20kg (33%) and progressive (39%). Time to full weight bearing was positively correlated with the proportion of fractures of AO/OTA type C (r=0.465, p=0.029) and Schatzker type IV-VI (r=0.614, p<0.001). Similar rates of rigid (47%) and hinged braces were reported (58%), most frequently for 3-6 weeks (43% of studies). Complication rates averaged 2% of patients (range 0-26%) for abnormal varus/valgus and 1% (range 0-22%) for non-union or delayed union. Postoperative rehabilitation for TPFs most commonly involves significant non-weight bearing time before full weight bearing is recommended at 9-12 weeks. Partial weight bearing protocols and brace use were

  7. Medial tibial stress syndrome in high school cross-country runners: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Plisky, Melody S; Rauh, Mitchell J; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Underwood, Frank B; Tank, Robert T

    2007-02-01

    Prospective cohort. To determine (1) the cumulative seasonal incidence and overall injury rate of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and (2) risk factors for MTSS with a primary focus on the relationship between navicular drop values and MTSS in high school cross-country runners. MTSS is a common injury among runners. However, few studies have reported the injury rate and risk factors for MTSS among adolescent runners. Data collected included measurement of bilateral navicular drop and foot length, and a baseline questionnaire regarding the runner's height, body mass, previous running injury, running experience, and orthotic or tape use. Runners were followed during the season to determine athletic exposures (AEs) and occurrence of MTSS. The overall injury rate for MTSS was 2.8/1000 AEs. Although not statistically different, girls had a higher rate (4.3/1000 AEs) than boys (1.7/1000 AEs) (P = .11). Logistic regression modeling indicated that only gender and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with the occurrence of MTSS. However, when controlled for orthotic use, only BMI was associated with risk of MTSS. No significant associations were found between MTSS and navicular drop or foot length. Our findings suggest that navicular drop may not be an appropriate measure to identify runners who may develop MTSS during a cross-country season; thus, additional studies are needed to identify appropriate preseason screening tools.

  8. Decline in bone mineral density with stress fractures in a woman on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. A case report.

    PubMed

    Harkins, G J; Davis, G D; Dettori, J; Hibbert, M L; Hoyt, R A

    1999-03-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is a popular contraceptive among young, physically active women. However, its administration has been linked to a relative decrease in estrogen levels. Since bone resorption is accelerated during hypoestrogenic states, there has been growing concern about the potential development of osteoporosis and fractures with the use of this contraceptive method. A physically active, 33-year-old woman demonstrated a 12.4% drop in femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), 6.4% drop in lumbar BMD and 0.8% drop in total BMD with the subsequent development of a tibial stress fracture while on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Bone mineralization rapidly improved, and the stress fracture resolved with discontinuation of the medication. The long-term effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone mineralization in physically active women should be evaluated more thoroughly.

  9. Stress Fractures of the Pelvis and Legs in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Steve B.; Deren, Matthew E.; Matson, Andrew; Fadale, Paul D.; Monchik, Keith O.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes, often difficult to diagnose. A stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of bone caused by repeated applications of stress over time. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed articles published from 1974 to January 2012. Results: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may predict the risk of stress fractures in athletes, including bone health, training, nutrition, and biomechanical factors. Based on their location, stress fractures may be categorized as low- or high-risk, depending on the likelihood of the injury developing into a complete fracture. Treatment for these injuries varies substantially and must account for the risk level of the fractured bone, the stage of fracture development, and the needs of the patient. High-risk fractures include the anterior tibia, lateral femoral neck, patella, medial malleolus, and femoral head. Low-risk fractures include the posteromedial tibia, fibula, medial femoral shaft, and pelvis. Magnetic resonance is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis. Conclusions: These injuries can lead to substantial lost time from participation. Treatment will vary by fracture location, but most stress fractures will heal with rest and modified weightbearing. Some may require more aggressive intervention, such as prolonged nonweightbearing movement or surgery. Contributing factors should also be addressed prior to return to sports. PMID:24427386

  10. Stress fluctuations in fracture networks from theoretical and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, P.; Darcel, C.; Mas Ivars, D.; Le Goc, R.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the spatial fluctuations of stress in a simple tridimensional model constituted by a population of disc-shaped fractures embedded in an elastic matrix with uniform and isotropic properties. The fluctuations arise from the classical stress enhancement at fracture tips and stress shadowing around fracture centers that are amplified or decreased by the interactions between close-by fractures. The distribution of local stresses is calculated at the elementary mesh scale with the 3DEC numerical program based on the distinct element method. As expected, the stress distributions vary with fracture density, the larger is the density, the wider is the distribution. For freely slipping fractures, it is mainly controlled by the percolation parameter p (i.e., the total volume of spheres surrounding fractures). For stresses smaller than the remote deviatoric stress, the distribution depends only on for the range of density that has been studied. For large stresses, the distribution decreases exponentially when increasing stress, with a characteristic stress that increases with entailing a widening of the stress distribution. We extend the analysis to fractures with plane resistance defined by an elastic shear stiffness ks and a slip Coulomb threshold. A consequence of the fracture plane resistance is to lower the stress perturbation in the surrounding matrix by a factor that depends on the ratio between ks and a fracture-matrix stiffness km mainly dependent on the ratio between Young modulus and fracture size. km is also the ratio between the remote shear stress and the displacement across the fracture plane in the case of freely slipping fractures. A complete analytical derivation of the expressions of the stress perturbations and of the fracture displacements is obtained and checked with numerical simulations. In the limit ks >> km, the stress perturbation tends to 0 and the stress state is spatially uniform. The analysis allows us to quantify the intensity of the

  11. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress fracture of the second proximal phalanx of the foot in teenage athletes: Unrecognized location of stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Funakoshi, Yusei; Tsuchiya, Kan; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Kimura, Seiji; Sadamasu, Aya; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Adolescent athletes are a high-risk population for stress fractures. We report four cases of stress fractures of the second proximal phalanx, which had not been previously diagnosed as the location of the stress fracture of the foot, in teenage athletes. All fractures were on the plantar side of the proximal phalangeal base, and the oblique images of the plain radiograph clearly depicted the fractures. Notably, three out of the four patients had histories of stress fracture of other locations. While three athletes with acute cases were able to make an early return to play with simple conservative management, the chronic case required surgical treatment for this rare injury. Although a rare injury, it is important that clinicians be aware of this type of stress fracture, as a timely diagnosis can avoid the need for surgical treatment and allow an early return to play.

  13. Impact of Stress on Anomalous Transport in Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the large heterogeneity of fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transport through fractured rock remains largely unexplored. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of confining stress on flow and transport through discrete fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM), which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation and propagation of cracks. We implement a joint constitutive model within the FEMDEM framework to simulate the effect of fracture roughness. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions (Figure 1). We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture networks, and show that this anomalous behavior can be linked to the stress state of the rock. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through stressed fractures. Our results point to a heretofore unrecognized link between geomechanics and anomalous transport in discrete fractured networks. [1] P. K. Kang, S. Brown, and R. Juanes, Emergence of anomalous transport in stressed

  14. Role of MRI in hip fractures, including stress fractures, occult fractures, avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Nachtrab, O; Cassar-Pullicino, V N; Lalam, R; Tins, B; Tyrrell, P N M; Singh, J

    2012-12-01

    MR imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of hip fractures in all age groups, in a large spectrum of patient groups spanning the elderly and sporting population. It allows a confident exclusion of fracture, differentiation of bony from soft tissue injury and an early confident detection of fractures. There is a spectrum of MR findings which in part is dictated by the type and cause of the fracture which the radiologist needs to be familiar with. Judicious but prompt utilisation of MR in patients with suspected hip fractures has a positive therapeutic impact with healthcare cost benefits as well as social care benefits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The only three randomized trials on the treatment of MTSS were all performed in military populations. The treatment options investigated in this study were not previously examined in athletes. This study investigated if functional outcome of three common treatment options for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in athletes in a non-military setting was the same. Methods The study design was randomized and multi-centered. Physical therapists and sports physicians referred athletes with MTSS to the hospital for inclusion. 81 athletes were assessed for eligibility of which 74 athletes were included and randomized to three treatment groups. Group one performed a graded running program, group two performed a graded running program with additional stretching and strengthening exercises for the calves, while group three performed a graded running program with an additional sports compression stocking. The primary outcome measure was: time to complete a running program (able to run 18 minutes with high intensity) and secondary outcome was: general satisfaction with treatment. Results 74 Athletes were randomized and included of which 14 did not complete the study due a lack of progress (18.9%). The data was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Time to complete a running program and general satisfaction with the treatment were not significantly different between the three treatment groups. Conclusion This was the first randomized trial on the treatment of MTSS in athletes in a non-military setting. No differences were found between the groups for the time to complete a running program. Trial registration CCMO; NL23471.098.08 PMID:22464032

  16. The medial tibial stress syndrome score: a new patient-reported outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Winters, Marinus; Moen, Maarten H; Zimmermann, Wessel O; Lindeboom, Robert; Weir, Adam; Backx, Frank Jg; Bakker, Eric Wp

    2016-10-01

    At present, there is no validated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for patients with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to select and validate previously generated items and create a valid, reliable and responsive PROM for patients with MTSS: the MTSS score. A prospective cohort study was performed in multiple sports medicine, physiotherapy and military facilities in the Netherlands. Participants with MTSS filled out the previously generated items for the MTSS score on 3 occasions. From previously generated items, we selected the best items. We assessed the MTSS score for its validity, reliability and responsiveness. The MTSS score was filled out by 133 participants with MTSS. Factor analysis showed the MTSS score to exhibit a single-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency (α=0.58) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.81). The MTSS score ranges from 0 to 10 points. The smallest detectable change in our sample was 0.69 at the group level and 4.80 at the individual level. Construct validity analysis showed significant moderate-to-large correlations (r=0.34-0.52, p<0.01). Responsiveness of the MTSS score was confirmed by a significant relation with the global perceived effect scale (β=-0.288, R(2)=0.21, p<0.001). The MTSS score is a valid, reliable and responsive PROM to measure the severity of MTSS. It is designed to evaluate treatment outcomes in clinical studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Muscle stiffness of posterior lower leg in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, J; Nakamura, M; Nakao, S; Fujita, K; Yanase, K; Ichihashi, N

    2018-01-01

    Previous history of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a risk factor for MTSS relapse, which suggests that there might be some physical factors that are related to MTSS development in runners with a history of MTSS. The relationship between MTSS and muscle stiffness can be assessed in a cross-sectional study that measures muscle stiffness in subjects with a history of MTSS, who do not have pain at the time of measurement, and in those without a history of MTSS. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear elastic modulus, which is an index of muscle stiffness, of all posterior lower leg muscles of subjects with a history of MTSS and those with no history and investigate which muscles could be related to MTSS. Twenty-four male collegiate runners (age, 20.0±1.7 years; height, 172.7±4.8 cm; weight, 57.3±3.7 kg) participated in this study; 14 had a history of MTSS, and 10 did not. The shear elastic moduli of the lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior were measured using shear wave elastography. The shear elastic moduli of the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior were significantly higher in subjects with a history of MTSS than in those with no history. However, there was no significant difference in the shear elastic moduli of other muscles. The results of this study suggest that flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior stiffness could be related to MTSS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Shockwave treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome: A randomized double blind sham-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Newman, Phil; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Up to 35% of runners develop medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) which often results in lengthy disruption to training and sometimes affects daily activities. There is currently no high quality evidence to support any particular intervention for MTSS. This study aims to investigate the effect of shockwave therapy for MTSS. A randomized, sham-controlled, pilot trial in a university-based health clinic including 28 active adults with MTSS. Intervention included standard dose shockwave therapy for the experimental group versus sham dose for the control group, delivered during Week 1-3, 5 and 9. Main outcome measures were pain measured during bone and muscle pressure as well as during running using a numerical rating scale (0-10) and running was measured as pain-limited distance (m), at Week 1 (baseline) and Week 10 (post-intervention). Self-perception of change was measured using the Global Rating of Change Scale (-7 to +7) at Week 10 (post-intervention). Pain (palpation) was reduced in the experimental group by 1.1 out of 10.0 (95% CI -2.3 to 0.0) less than the control group. There were no other statistically significant differences between the groups. Standard dose shockwave therapy is not more effective than sham dose at improving pain or running distance in MTSS. However, the sham dose may have had a clinical effect. Further investigation including a no intervention control is warranted to evaluate the effect of shockwave therapy in the management of MTSS. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ankle and toe muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nakao, Sayaka; Fujita, Kosuke; Yanase, Ko; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of flexor digitorum longus attachment is found at the posteromedial border of the tibia, which is the most common location of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Therefore, plantar flexion strength of the lesser toes could be related to MTSS; however, the relationship between MTSS and muscle strength of the hallux and lesser toes is not yet evaluated due to the lack of quantitative methods. This study investigated the muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of MTSS by using a newly developed device to measure the muscle strength of the hallux, lesser toes, and ankle. This study comprised 27 collegiate male runner participants (20.0 ± 1.6 years, 172.1 ± 5.1 cm, 57.5 ± 4.0 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion of the ankle were measured by using an electric dynamometer. MVIC torque of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and 2nd-5th MTPJ were measured by using a custom-made torque-measuring device. MVIC torques were compared between runners with and without a history of MTSS. MVIC torque of the 1st MTPJ plantar flexion was significantly higher in runners with a history of MTSS than in those without it. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the MVIC torque values of the 2nd-5th MTPJ plantar flexion and each MVIC torque of the ankle between runners with and without a history of MTSS. A history of MTSS increased the isometric FHL strength.

  20. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination.

    PubMed

    Winters, M; Bakker, E W P; Moen, M H; Barten, C C; Teeuwen, R; Weir, A

    2017-02-08

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using history and physical examination. We also investigated if clinicians were able to reliably identify concurrent lower leg injuries. A clinical reliability study was performed at multiple sports medicine sites in The Netherlands. Athletes with non-traumatic lower leg pain were assessed for having MTSS by two clinicians, who were blinded to each others' diagnoses. We calculated the prevalence, percentage of agreement, observed percentage of positive agreement (Ppos), observed percentage of negative agreement (Pneg) and Kappa-statistic with 95%CI. Forty-nine athletes participated in this study, of whom 46 completed both assessments. The prevalence of MTSS was 74%. The percentage of agreement was 96%, with Ppos and Pneg of 97% and 92%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was almost perfect; k=0.89 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), p<0.000001. Of the 34 athletes with MTSS, 11 (32%) had a concurrent lower leg injury, which was reliably noted by our clinicians, k=0.73, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.98, p<0.0001. Our findings show that MTSS can be reliably diagnosed clinically using history and physical examination, in clinical practice and research settings. We also found that concurrent lower leg injuries are common in athletes with MTSS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Risk Factors for Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome in Active Individuals: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Zachary K; Anderson, Dustin; Games, Kenneth E; Eberman, Lindsey E

    2016-12-01

    Reference/Citation: Hamstra-Wright KL, Bliven KC, Bay C. Risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in physically active individuals such as runners and military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(6):362-369. What factors put physically active individuals at risk to develop medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)? The authors performed a literature search of CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from each database's inception to July 2013. The following key words were used together or in combination: armed forces, athlete, conditioning, disorder predictor, exercise, medial tibial stress syndrome, militaries, MTSS, military, military personnel, physically active, predictor, recruit, risk, risk characteristic, risk factor, run, shin pain, shin splints, and vulnerability factor. Studies were included in this systematic review based on the following criteria: original research that (1) investigated risk factors associated with MTSS, (2) compared physically active individuals with and without MTSS, (3) was printed in English, and (4) was accessible in full text in peer-reviewed journals. Two authors independently screened titles or abstracts (or both) of studies to identify inclusion criteria and quality. If the article met the inclusion criteria, the authors extracted demographic information, study design and duration, participant selection, MTSS diagnosis, investigated risk factors, mean difference, clinical importance, effect size, odds ratio, and any other data deemed relevant. After the data extraction was complete, the authors compared findings for accuracy and completeness. When the mean and standard deviation of a particular risk factor were reported 3 or more times, that risk factor was included in the meta-analysis. In addition, the methodologic quality was assessed with an adapted checklist developed by previous researchers. The checklist contained 5 categories: study objective

  2. Risk Factors for Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome in Active Individuals: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Zachary K.; Anderson, Dustin; Games, Kenneth E.; Eberman, Lindsey E.

    2016-01-01

    Reference/Citation: Hamstra-Wright KL, Bliven KC, Bay C. Risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in physically active individuals such as runners and military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(6):362–369. Clinical Question: What factors put physically active individuals at risk to develop medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)? Data Sources: The authors performed a literature search of CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from each database's inception to July 2013. The following key words were used together or in combination: armed forces, athlete, conditioning, disorder predictor, exercise, medial tibial stress syndrome, militaries, MTSS, military, military personnel, physically active, predictor, recruit, risk, risk characteristic, risk factor, run, shin pain, shin splints, and vulnerability factor. Study Selection: Studies were included in this systematic review based on the following criteria: original research that (1) investigated risk factors associated with MTSS, (2) compared physically active individuals with and without MTSS, (3) was printed in English, and (4) was accessible in full text in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction: Two authors independently screened titles or abstracts (or both) of studies to identify inclusion criteria and quality. If the article met the inclusion criteria, the authors extracted demographic information, study design and duration, participant selection, MTSS diagnosis, investigated risk factors, mean difference, clinical importance, effect size, odds ratio, and any other data deemed relevant. After the data extraction was complete, the authors compared findings for accuracy and completeness. When the mean and standard deviation of a particular risk factor were reported 3 or more times, that risk factor was included in the meta-analysis. In addition, the methodologic quality was assessed with an adapted checklist developed by

  3. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Lorenz, J.C.

    This project was a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the Harvey E. Yates Company (Heyco), Roswell, NM, conducted under the auspices of Department of Energy's Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project applied Sandia perspectives on the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology for the stimulation and production of low permeability gas reservoirs to low permeability oil reservoirs, such as those typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report details the results and analyses obtained in 1990 from core, logs, stress, and other data taken from three additional development wells. An overallmore » summary gives results from all five wells studied in this project in 1989--1990. Most of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones.« less

  4. Management of simple (types A and B) closed tibial shaft fractures using percutaneous lag-screw fixation and Ilizarov external fixation in adults.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed; Atef, Ashraf

    2012-10-01

    Although intramedullary fixation of closed simple (type A or B) diaphyseal tibial fractures in adults is well tolerated by patients, providing lower morbidity rates and better mobility, it is associated with some complications. This study evaluated the results of managing these fractures using percutaneous minimal internal fixation using one or more lag screws, and Ilizarov external fixation. This method was tested to evaluate its efficacy in immediate weight bearing, fracture healing and prevention of any post-immobilisation stiffness of the ankle and knee joints. This randomised blinded study was performed at a referral, academically supervised, level III trauma centre. Three hundred and twenty-four of the initial 351 patients completed this study and were followed up for a minimum of 12 (12-88) months. Patient ages ranged from 20 to 51 years, with a mean of 39 years. Ankle and knee movements and full weight bearing were encouraged immediately postoperatively. Solid union was assessed clinically and radiographically. Active and passive ankle and knee ranges of motion were measured and compared with the normal side using the Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched pairs. Subjective Olerud and Molander Ankle Score was used to detect any ankle joint symptoms at the final follow-up. No patient showed delayed or nonunion. All fractures healed within 95-129 days. Based on final clinical and radiographic outcomes, this technique proves to be adequate for managing simple diaphyseal tibial fractures. On the other hand, it is relatively expensive, technically demanding, necessitates exposure to radiation and patients are expected to be frame friendly.

  5. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stephanie W; Joyner, Patrick W; Almekinders, Louis C; Parekh, Selene G

    2014-11-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings. Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, calcaneus, talus, metatarsal, cuboid, cuneiform, sesamoid, or athlete. Clinical review. Level 5. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle can be divided into low and high risk based upon their propensity to heal without complication. A wide variety of nonoperative strategies are employed based on the duration of symptoms, type of fracture, and patient factors, such as activity type, desire to return to sport, and compliance. Operative management has proven superior in several high-risk types of stress fractures. Evidence on pharmacotherapy and physiologic therapy such as bone stimulators is evolving. A high index of suspicion for stress fractures is appropriate in many high-risk groups of athletes with lower extremity pain. Proper and timely work-up and treatment is successful in returning these athletes to sport in many cases. Low-risk stress fracture generally requires only activity modification while high-risk stress fracture necessitates more aggressive intervention. The specific treatment of these injuries varies with the location of the stress fracture and the goals of the patient.

  6. Anomalous Transport in Natural Fracture Networks Induced by Tectonic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the high uncertainty and large heterogeneity associated with fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transportthrough fractured rock remains poorly understood. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown, only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of geologic (tectonic) stress on flow and tracer transport through natural fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) [2], which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation of pre-existing fractures, and propagation of new cracks, upon changes in the stress field. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual rock outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions. We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture network, and show that the stress state is a powerful determinant of transport behavior: (1) An anisotropic stress state induces preferential flow paths through shear dilation; (2) An increase in geologic stress increases aperture heterogeneity that induces late-time tailing of particle breakthrough curves. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through the stressed fracture

  7. Computational comparison of tibial diaphyseal fractures fixed with various degrees of prebending of titanium elastic nails and with and without end caps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Nien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ho, Yi-Hung; Li, Chun-Ting; Peng, Yao-Te

    2016-10-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is a treatment strategy for the management of diaphyseal long-bone fractures in adolescents and children, but few studies have investigated the mechanical stability of tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stability, including the gap deformation and nail dropping, of a tibia fracture with various fracture sites and fixed with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails by the finite element method. Furthermore, the contribution of end caps to stability was taken into consideration in the simulation. A tibia model was developed with a transverse fracture at the proximal, middle and distal parts of the diaphysis, and fixed with three degrees of prebending of elastic nails, including those equal to, two times and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. The outer diameter of the nail used in the computation was 3.5mm, and the fractured tibia was fixed with two elastic double C-type nails. Furthermore, the proximal end of each nail was set to free or being tied to the surrounding bone by a constraint equation to simulate with or without using end caps. The results indicated that using end caps can prevent the fracture gap from collapsing by stopping the ends of the nails from dropping back in all prebending conditions and fracture patterns, and increasing the prebending of the nails to a degree three times the diameter of the canal reduced the gap shortening and the dropping distance of the nail end in those without using end caps under axial compression and bending. Insufficient prebending of the nails and not using end caps caused the gap to collapse and the nail to drop back at the entry point under loading. Using end caps or increasing the prebending of the nails to three times the diameter of the canal is suggested to stop the nail from dropping back and thus produce a more stable

  8. Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) stress and fracture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The revised stress and fracture analysis of the Spartan REM hardware for current load conditions and mass properties is presented. The stress analysis was performed using a NASTRAN math model of the Spartan REM adapter, base, and payload. Appendix A contains the material properties, loads, and stress analysis of the hardware. The computer output and model description are in Appendix B. Factors of safety used in the stress analysis were 1.4 on tested items and 2.0 on all other items. Fracture analysis of the items considered fracture critical was accomplished using the MSFC Crack Growth Analysis code. Loads and stresses were obtaind from the stress analysis. The fracture analysis notes are located in Appendix A and the computer output in Appendix B. All items analyzed met design and fracture criteria.

  9. Expedited patient-specific assessment of contact stress exposure in the ankle joint following definitive articular fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Kern, Andrew M; Anderson, Donald D

    2015-09-18

    Acute injury severity, altered joint kinematics, and joint incongruity are three important mechanical factors linked to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Finite element analysis (FEA) was previously used to assess the influence of increased contact stress due to joint incongruity on PTOA development. While promising agreement with PTOA development was seen, the inherent complexities of contact FEA limited the numbers of subjects that could be analyzed. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a simplified methodology for contact stress computation, which idealizes contact surfaces as a bed of independent linear springs. In this study, DEA was explored as an expedited alternative to FEA contact stress exposure computation. DEA was compared to FEA using results from a previously completed validation study of two cadaveric human ankles, as well as a previous study of post-operative contact stress exposure in 11 patients with tibial plafond fracture. DEA-computed maximum contact stresses were within 19% of those experimentally measured, with 90% of the contact area having computed contact stress values within 1MPa of those measured. In the 11 fractured ankles, maximum contact stress and contact area differences between DEA and FEA were 0.85 ± 0.64 MPa and 22.5 ± 11.5mm(2). As a predictive measure for PTOA development, both DEA and FEA had 100% concordance with presence of OA (KL grade ≥ 2) and >95% concordance with KL grade at 2 years. These results support DEA as a reasonable alternative to FEA for computing contact stress exposures following surgical reduction of a tibial plafond fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salvage of tibial pilon fractures using fusion of the ankle with a 90 degrees cannulated blade-plate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Thordarson, D B; Shepherd, L E

    1999-06-01

    Six patients with ankle joint destruction and delayed metaphyseal union after tibial plafond fracture were surgically treated with tibiotalar arthrodesis and metaphyseal reconstruction, using a fixed-angle cannulated blade-plate. The procedure was performed through a posterior approach in five cases and a lateral approach in one case. The subtalar joint was preserved in all cases. Metaphyseal union and a stable arthrodesis were obtained in all cases without loss of fixation and with no mechanical failure of the blade-plate. Union was obtained in an average of 26 weeks. No secondary procedures were required to obtain union. All six patients were ambulatory at last follow-up. Stable internal fixation for simultaneous tibiotalar fusion and metaphyseal reconstruction can be achieved with a cannulated blade-plate while preserving the subtalar joint in complex plafond fractures.

  11. Stress fracture of ulna due to excessive push-ups.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sanjay; Rastogi, Devarshi; Solanki, Bipin; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities and spine, but are rarely found in non-weight-bearing bones of the body. Stress fracture of the ulna is extremely rare. We report a case of complete stress fracture of ulna caused due to excessive push ups in a young athlete. Conservative management was successful in healing of fracture and returning this patient back to his previous activity level. Physician should have high index of suspicion, whenever they encounter a young athlete complaining of forearm pain.

  12. Novel management of distal tibial and fibular fractures with Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Wei-Na; Qi, Bao-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Anatomical characteristics, such as subcutaneous position and minimal muscle cover, contribute to the complexity of fractures of the distal third of the tibia and fibula. Severe damage to soft tissue and instability ensure high risk of delayed bone union and wound complications such as nonunion, infection, and necrosis. This case report discusses management in a 54-year-old woman who sustained fractures of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula, with damage to overlying soft tissue (swelling and blisters). Plating is accepted as the first choice for this type of fracture as it ensures accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it increases the risk of complications. Closed fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula (AO: 43-A3). After the swelling was alleviated, the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with an Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO), ensuring a smaller incision and minimal soft-tissue dissection. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had recovered well and had regained satisfactory function in the treated limb. The Kofoed score of the left ankle was 95. Based on the experience from this case, the operation can be undertaken safely when the swelling has been alleviated. The minimal invasive technique represents the best approach. Considering the merits and good outcome in this case, we recommend the Acumed fibular nail and MIPO technique for treatment of distal tibial and fibular fractures.

  13. Fibular fixation as an adjuvant to tibial intramedullary nailing in the treatment of combined distal third tibia and fibula fractures: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Morin, Paul M; Reindl, Rudolf; Harvey, Edward J; Beckman, Lorne; Steffen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Distal third tibia fractures have classically been treated with standard plating, but intramedullary (IM) nailing has gained popularity. Owing to the lack of interference fit of the nail in the metaphyseal bone of the distal tibia, it may be beneficial to add rigid plating of the fibula to augment the overall stability of fracture fixation in this area. This study sought to assess the biomechanical effect of adding a fibular plate to standard IM nailing in the treatment of distal third tibia and fibula fractures. Eight cadaveric tibia specimens were used. Tibial fixation consisted of a solid titanium nail locked with 3 screws distally and 2 proximally, and fibular fixation consisted of a 3.5 mm low-contact dynamic compression plate. A section of tibia and fibula was removed. Testing was accomplished with an MTS machine. Each leg was tested 3 times; with and without a fibular plate and with a repetition of the initial test condition. Vertical displacements were tested with an axial load up to 500 N, and angular rotation was tested with torques up to 5 N*m. The difference in axial rotation was the only statistically significant finding (p = 0.003), with fibular fixation resulting in 1.1 degrees less rotation through the osteotomy site (17.96 degrees v. 19.10 degrees ). Over 35% of this rotational displacement occurred at the nail-locking bolt interface with the application of small torsional forces. Fibular plating in addition to tibial IM fixation of distal third tibia and fibula fractures leads to slightly increased resistance to torsional forces. This small improvement may not be clinically relevant.

  14. Spallation and fracture resulting from reflected and intersecting stress waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinslow, R.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of stress waves produced in solid by explosions or high-velocity impacts. These waves rebound from free surfaces in the form of tensile waves that are capable of causing internal fractures or spallation of the material. The high-speed framing camera is shown to be an important tool for observing the stress waves and fracture in transparent targets, and its photographs provide valuable information on the mechanics of fracture.

  15. Bone geometry, strength, and muscle size in runners with a history of stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Popp, Kristin L; Hughes, Julie M; Smock, Amanda J; Novotny, Susan A; Stovitz, Steven D; Koehler, Scott M; Petit, Moira A

    2009-12-01

    Our primary aim was to explore differences in estimates of tibial bone strength, in female runners with and without a history of stress fractures. Our secondary aim was to explore differences in bone geometry, volumetric density, and muscle size that may explain bone strength outcomes. A total of 39 competitive distance runners aged 18-35 yr, with (SFX, n = 19) or without (NSFX, n = 20) a history of stress fracture were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (XCT 3000; Orthometrix, White Plains, NY) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg x mm(-3)), bone area (ToA, mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index (BSI) = ToA x total volumetric density (ToD(2))) at the distal tibia (4%). Total (ToA, mm(2)) and cortical (CoA, mm(2)) bone area, cortical vBMD, and estimated bending strength (strength-strain index (SSIp), mm(3)) were measured at the 15%, 25%, 33%, 45%, 50%, and 66% sites. Muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) was measured at the 50% and 66% sites. Participants in the SFX group had significantly smaller (7%-8%) CoA at the 45%, 50%, and 66% sites (P stress fracture. However, the lower strength was appropriate for the smaller muscle size, suggesting that interventions to reduce stress fracture risk might be aimed at improving muscle size and strength.

  16. High-Risk Stress Fractures: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Kelly C; Ramey, Lindsay N

    2016-03-01

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes. They occur during periods of increased training without adequate rest, disrupting normal bone reparative mechanisms. There are a host of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including biochemical and biomechanical, that put athletes at risk. In most stress fractures, the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with imaging indicated at times, and management focused on symptom-free relative rest with advancement of activity as tolerated. Overall, stress fractures in athletes have an excellent prognosis for return to sport, with little risk of complication. There is a subset of injuries that have a greater risk of fracture progression, delayed healing, and nonunion and are generally more challenging to treat with nonoperative care. Specific locations of high-risk stress fracture include the femoral neck (tension side), patella, anterior tibia, medial malleolus, talus, tarsal navicular, proximal fifth metatarsal, and great toe sesamoids. These sites share a characteristic region of high tensile load and low blood flow. High-risk stress fractures require a more aggressive approach to evaluation, with imaging often necessary, to confirm early and accurate diagnosis and initiate immediate treatment. Treatment consists of nonweight-bearing immobilization, often with a prolonged period away from sport, and a more methodic and careful reintroduction to athletic activity. These stress fractures may require surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is essential to avoid delayed diagnosis and optimize outcomes in this subset of stress fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilateral femoral supracondylar stress fractures in a cross country runner.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kate; Fahey, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Several high-risk factors lead to stress fractures. They include excessive training in athletes leading to overuse injuries, nutritional deficiencies, and endocrine disorders. While stress fractures are common, bilateral stress fractures are rarely seen. Few cases have been reported of bilateral femoral stress fractures in young athletes. This article presents a case of a 14-year-old cross country runner with a bilateral femoral supracondylar stress fracture. He presented with bilateral supracondylar stress fractures from running. The patient followed a strict vegan diet, but his parents stated that, to their knowledge, he was getting adequate protein and calcium. Treatment consisted of decreased activity to pain-free levels with acetaminophen for pain. Low-impact conditioning such as swimming and bicycling was allowed. Hamstring and quadricep stretching was suggested. Nutritional consultation was obtained to ensure appropriate nutrition on a vegan diet. At 1-month follow-up, he was pain free and allowed to proceed with a gradual return to running activities. In this case, the onset of a new workout routine was intolerable for this patient's low bone density, causing insufficiency fractures. Appropriate vegan diets were not associated with stress fracture in our literature review. He may have had an inadequate diet prior to this injury. As in this case, full recovery can be made after this rest period, and the patient may return to his or her original activity safely. In young athletes, diet and nutrition must be kept in mind.

  18. Bilateral femoral neck stress fractures in a fire academy student.

    PubMed

    Wright, Russell C; Salzman, Garrett A; Yacoubian, Stephan V; Yacoubian, Shahan V

    2010-10-11

    Unilateral femoral neck stress fractures are well documented in active patients; however, the risk of a subsequent contralateral stress fracture remains unknown in patients who continue to be active. This article describes a 24-year-old male fire academy student who sustained a left femoral neck stress fracture, followed approximately 11 months later by a right femoral neck stress fracture, both of which went on to completely displace. A review of the index radiographs of each hip from outside institutions revealed femoral neck stress fractures that went undiagnosed until they displaced. The patient was referred to our institution and underwent closed reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws in both cases. A full endocrine evaluation was performed in the following weeks and proved unremarkable. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the results from 1 patient beyond the case studied, there is cause for concern in patients who remain active following femoral neck stress fractures. Our case highlights the significance of obtaining a complete and thorough medical history on physical examination and appropriately counseling patients regarding activity level. Until further research explores this possible relationship, physicians evaluating patients with a history of a stress fracture are encouraged to be vigilant of subsequent contralateral fractures and educate patients of this potentially avoidable injury. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. The service impact of failed locking plate fixation of distal tibial fractures: a service and financial evaluation at a major trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael; Mumith, Aadil; McEwan, Jo; Hancock, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    The surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures is challenging and controversial. Recently, locking plate fixation has become popular, but the outcomes of this treatment are mixed with complication rates as high as 50 % in the published literature. There are no reports specifically relating to the financial and resource costs of failed treatment in the literature. Retrospective service analysis of patients who had undergone locking plate fixation of a distal third tibial fracture between 2008 and 2011 with at least 12 months follow-up. Rates of readmission, reoperation, bony union and infection were ascertained. The financial and resource (hospital stay and number of outpatient appointments) implications of failed treatment were calculated. Forty-two patients were identified. There were 31 type A fractures, one type B fracture and 10 type C fractures. Three injuries were open. Twenty patients were treated with minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO). The readmission and reoperation rates were 26 % (n = 11) and 19 % (n = 8), respectively. A total of 89 % of readmissions were due to infection. All patients had received appropriate antibiotic regimens. The average costs of successful and failed treatment were £ 5538 and £ 18,335, respectively. The average time to union was 24.5 weeks. The rate of non-union was 21 % (n = 9). The rate of infection was 28 % (n = 12), with all patients with open fracture incurring an infection. Tourniquet time had no effect on the incidence of complications. Smokers were more likely to incur a complication (p < 0.05), and non-union was lower in the MIPO group (p < 0.05). The length and total cost of inpatient care were significantly lower in the MIPO group (p < 0.05). MIPO patients were five times less likely to incur readmission or reoperation. Failed treatment was three times more expensive and four times longer than successful treatment. The study identified a large burden to the service following failure of locking

  20. Post-Cam Design and Contact Stress on Tibial Posts in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Prostheses: Comparison Between a Rounded and a Squared Design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshifumi; Koga, Hideyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Katagiri, Hiroki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The post-cam mechanism in posterior stabilized (PS) prostheses plays an important role in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference of the contact stress on the tibial post between a rounded post-cam design and a squared design during deep knee flexion and at hyperextension using the three-dimensional (3D) finite element models. We created 2 types of 3D, finite element models of PS prostheses (types A and B), whose surfaces were identical except for the post-cam geometries: type A has a rounded post-cam design, while type B has a squared design. Both types have a similar curved-shape intercondylar notch of the femoral component. Stress distributions, peak contact stresses, and contact areas on the tibial posts at 90°, 120°, and 150° flexion with/without 10° tibial internal rotation and at 10° hyperextension were compared between the 2 models. Type B demonstrated more concentrated stress distribution compared to type A. The peak contact stresses were similar in both groups during neutral flexion; however, the stresses were much higher in type B during flexion with 10° rotation and at hyperextension. The higher peak contact stresses corresponded to the smaller contact areas in the tibial post. A rounded post-cam design demonstrated less stress concentration during flexion with rotation and at hyperextension compared with a squared design. The results would be useful for development of implant designs and prediction of the contact stress on the tibial post in PS total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women with previous stress fractures show reduced bone material strength

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Fink Eriksen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Bone fragility is determined by bone mass, bone architecture, and the material properties of bone. Microindentation has been introduced as a measurement method that reflects bone material properties. The pathogenesis of underlying stress fractures, in particular the role of impaired bone material properties, is still poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that impaired bone material strength might play a role in the development of stress fractures, we used microindentation in patients with stress fractures and in controls. Patients and methods — We measured bone material strength index (BMSi) by microindentation in 30 women with previous stress fractures and in 30 normal controls. Bone mineral density by DXA and levels of the bone markers C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type-1 procollagen (P1NP) were also determined. Results — Mean BMSi in stress fracture patients was significantly lower than in the controls (SD 72 (8.7) vs. 77 (7.2); p = 0.02). The fracture subjects also had a significantly lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than the controls (0.9 (0.02) vs. 1.0 (0.06); p = 0.03). Bone turnover—as reflected in serum levels of the bone marker CTX—was similar in both groups, while P1NP levels were significantly higher in the women with stress fractures (55 μg/L vs. 42 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was no correlation between BMSi and BMD or bone turnover. Interpretation — BMSi was inferior in patients with previous stress fracture, but was unrelated to BMD and bone turnover. The lower values of BMSi in patients with previous stress fracture combined with a lower BMD may contribute to the increased propensity to develop stress fractures in these patients. PMID:27321443

  2. The management of open tibial fractures in children: a retrospective case series of eight years' experience of 61 cases at a paediatric specialist centre.

    PubMed

    Nandra, R S; Wu, F; Gaffey, A; Bache, C E

    2017-04-01

    Following the introduction of national standards in 2009, most major paediatric trauma is now triaged to specialist units offering combined orthopaedic and plastic surgical expertise. We investigated the management of open tibia fractures at a paediatric trauma centre, primarily reporting the risk of infection and rate of union. A retrospective review was performed on 61 children who between 2007 and 2015 presented with an open tibia fracture. Their mean age was nine years (2 to 16) and the median follow-up was ten months (interquartile range 5 to 18). Management involved IV antibiotics, early debridement and combined treatment of the skeletal and soft-tissue injuries in line with standards proposed by the British Orthopaedic Association. There were 36 diaphyseal fractures and 25 distal tibial fractures. Of the distal fractures, eight involved the physis. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for two thirds of the injuries and 38 patients (62%) arrived outside of normal working hours. The initial method of stabilisation comprised: casting in nine cases (15%); elastic nailing in 19 (31%); Kirschner (K)-wiring in 13 (21%); intramedullary nailing in one (2%); open reduction and plate fixation in four (7%); and external fixation in 15 (25%). Wound management comprised: primary wound closure in 24 (39%), delayed primary closure in 11 (18%), split skin graft (SSG) in eight (13%), local flap with SSG in 17 (28%) and a free flap in one. A total of 43 fractures (70%) were Gustilo-Anderson grade III. There were four superficial (6.6%) and three (4.9%) deep infections. Two deep infections occurred following open reduction and plate fixation and the third after K-wire fixation of a distal fracture. No patient who underwent primary wound closure developed an infection. All the fractures united, although nine patients required revision of a mono-lateral to circular frame for delayed union (two) or for altered alignment or length (seven). The mean time to union was two weeks longer

  3. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  4. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  5. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation - Implications for fracturing on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    This study considers the global patterns of fracture that would result from nonsynchronous rotation of a tidally distorted planetary body. The incremental horizontal stresses in a thin elastic or viscous shell due to a small displacement of the axis of maximum tidal elongation are derived, and the resulting stress distributions are applied to interpret the observed pattern of fracture lineaments on Europa. The observed pattern of lineaments can be explained by nonsynchronous rotation if these features formed by tension fracturing and dike emplacement. Tension fracturing can occur for a small displacement of the tidal axis, so that the resulting lineaments may be consistent with other evidence suggesting a young age for the surface.

  6. WhatsApp Messenger is useful and reproducible in the assessment of tibial plateau fractures: inter- and intra-observer agreement study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Mendes, Carlos Henrique; Bergamin, André; de Souza, Felipe Serrão; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement in the initial diagnosis and classification by means of plain radiographs and CT scans of tibial plateau fractures photographed and sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The increasing popularity of smartphones has driven the development of technology for data transmission and imaging and generated a growing interest in the use of these devices as diagnostic tools. The emergence of WhatsApp Messenger technology, which is available for various platforms used by smartphones, has led to an improvement in the quality and resolution of images sent and received. The images (plain radiographs and CT scans) were obtained from 13 cases of tibial plateau fractures using the iPhone 5 (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) and were sent to six observers via the WhatsApp Messenger application. The observers were asked to determine the standard deviation and type of injury, the classification according to the Schatzker and the Luo classifications schemes, and whether the CT scan changed the classification. The six observers independently assessed the images on two separate occasions, 15 days apart. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for both periods of the study ranged from excellent to perfect (0.75<κ<1.0) across all survey questions. When asked if the inclusion of the CT images would change their final X-ray classification (Schatzker or Luo), the inter- and intra-observer agreement was perfect (k=1) on both assessment occasions. We found an excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement in the imaging assessment of tibial plateau fractures sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The authors now propose the systematic use of the application to facilitate faster documentation and obtaining the opinion of an experienced consultant when not on call. Finally, we think the use of the WhatsApp Messenger as an adjuvant tool could be broadened to other clinical centres to assess its viability in other skeletal and non

  7. Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Stephanie W.; Joyner, Patrick W.; Almekinders, Louis C.; Parekh, Selene G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings. Evidence Acquisition: Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, calcaneus, talus, metatarsal, cuboid, cuneiform, sesamoid, or athlete. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle can be divided into low and high risk based upon their propensity to heal without complication. A wide variety of nonoperative strategies are employed based on the duration of symptoms, type of fracture, and patient factors, such as activity type, desire to return to sport, and compliance. Operative management has proven superior in several high-risk types of stress fractures. Evidence on pharmacotherapy and physiologic therapy such as bone stimulators is evolving. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for stress fractures is appropriate in many high-risk groups of athletes with lower extremity pain. Proper and timely work-up and treatment is successful in returning these athletes to sport in many cases. Low-risk stress fracture generally requires only activity modification while high-risk stress fracture necessitates more aggressive intervention. The specific treatment of these injuries varies with the location of the stress fracture and the goals of the patient. PMID:25364480

  8. Short-term effects of teriparatide versus placebo on bone biomarkers, structure, and fracture healing in women with lower-extremity stress fractures: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Almirol, Ellen A; Chi, Lisa Y; Khurana, Bharti; Hurwitz, Shelley; Bluman, Eric M; Chiodo, Christopher; Matzkin, Elizabeth; Baima, Jennifer; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2016-09-01

    In this pilot, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated whether brief administration of teriparatide (TPTD) in premenopausal women with lower-extremity stress fractures would increase markers of bone formation in advance of bone resorption, improve bone structure, and hasten fracture healing according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Premenopausal women with acute lower-extremity stress fractures were randomized to injection of TPTD 20-µg subcutaneous (s.c.) (n = 6) or placebo s.c. (n = 7) for 8 weeks. Biomarkers for bone formation N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin (OC) and resorption collagen type-1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) and collagen type 1 cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) were measured at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. The area between the percent change of P1NP and CTX over study duration is defined as the anabolic window. To assess structural changes, peripheral quantitative computed topography (pQCT) was measured at baseline, 8 and 12 weeks at the unaffected tibia and distal radius. The MRI of the affected bone assessed stress fracture healing at baseline and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment, bone biomarkers P1NP and OC increased more in the TPTD- versus placebo-treated group (both p ≤ 0.01), resulting in a marked anabolic window (p ≤ 0.05). Results from pQCT demonstrated that TPTD-treated women showed a larger cortical area and thickness compared to placebo at the weight bearing tibial site, while placebo-treated women had a greater total tibia and cortical density. No changes at the radial sites were observed between groups. According to MRI, 83.3% of the TPTD- and 57.1% of the placebo-treated group had improved or healed stress fractures (p = 0.18). In this randomized, pilot study, brief administration of TPTD showed anabolic effects that TPTD may help hasten fracture healing in premenopausal women with lower-extremity stress fractures. Larger prospective studies are warranted to determine

  9. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete.A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity.Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws.

  10. Medial malleolar stress fracture secondary to chronic ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Andrew J L; Birks, Christopher L; Blackney, Mark C

    2008-07-01

    Medial malleolar stress fractures are uncommon even in the sporting population. We believe that stress fractures of the medial malleolus may be the end stage of chronic anteromedial ankle impingement in elite running and jumping athletes. We present five cases of elite athletes who presented to our institution with stress fractures of the medial malleolus over a 3-year period (2004 to 2007). In each case preoperative imaging revealed an anteromedial bony spur on the tibia. All fractures were internally fixed and at the same sitting had arthroscopic debridement of the bony spur. All fractures united without further intervention, average time to union was 10.2 (range, 6 to 16) weeks. At most recent review (average, 18 months; range, 8 to 37 months), all patients had resumed sporting activity to their previous level. No patient had suffered a recurrent fracture of the medial malleolus. We believe this region of impingement to be important in the development of the stress fracture and should be addressed at the time of fracture fixation.

  11. Stress Rupture Fracture Model and Microstructure Evolution for Waspaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhihao; Zhang, Maicang; Dong, Jianxin

    2013-07-01

    Stress rupture behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloy Waspaloy specimens from tenon teeth of an as-received 60,000-hour service-exposed gas turbine disk were studied between 923 K and 1088 K (650 °C and 815 °C) under initial applied stresses varying from 150 to 840 MPa. Good microstructure stability and performance were verified for this turbine disk prior to stress rupture testing. Microstructure instability, such as the coarsening and dissolution of γ' precipitates at the varying test conditions, was observed to be increased with temperature and reduced stress. Little microstructure variation was observed at 923 K (650 °C). Only secondary γ' instability occurred at 973 K (700 °C). Four fracture mechanisms were obtained. Transgranular creep fracture was exhibited up to 923 K (650 °C) and at high stress. A mixed mode of transgranular and intergranular creep fracture occurred with reduced stress as a transition to intergranular creep fracture (ICF) at low stress. ICF was dominated by grain boundary sliding at low temperature and by the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities due to microstructure instability at high temperature. The fracture mechanism map and microstructure-related fracture model were constructed. Residual lifetime was also evaluated by the Larson-Miller parameter method.

  12. A novel combined method of osteosynthesis in treatment of tibial fractures: a comparative study on sheep with application of rod-through-plate fixator and bone plating.

    PubMed

    Tralman, G; Andrianov, V; Arend, A; Männik, P; Kibur, R T; Nõupuu, K; Uksov, D; Aunapuu, M

    2013-04-01

    The study compares the efficiency of a new bone fixator combining periostal and intramedullary osteosynthesis to bone plating in treatment of tibial fractures in sheep. Experimental osteotomies were performed in the middle third of the left tibia. Animals were divided into two groups: in one group (four animals) combined osteosynthesis (rod-through-plate fixator, RTP fixator) was applied, and in the other group (three animals) bone plating was used. The experiments lasted for 10 weeks during which fracture union was followed by radiography, and the healing process was studied by blood serum markers reflecting bone turnover and by histological and immunohistochemical investigations. In the RTP fixator group, animals started to load body weight on the operated limbs the next day after the surgery, while in the bone plating group, this happened only on the seventh day. In the RTP fixator group, consolidation of fractures was also faster, as demonstrated by radiographical, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations and in part by blood serum markers for bone formation. It can be concluded that application of RTP fixation is more efficient than plate fixation in the treatment of experimental osteotomies of long bones in sheep. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  14. Minimally invasive fixation in tibial plateau fractures using an pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Silvio; Bizzotto, Nicola; Stancati, Andrea; Santucci, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the outcome after minimally invasive reconstruction and internal fixation with and without the use of pre- and intra-operative real size 3D printing for patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures (TPFs). We prospectively followed up 40 consecutive adult patients with closed TPF who underwent surgical treatment of reconstruction of the tibial plateau with the use of minimally invasive fixation. Sixteen patients (group 1) were operated using a pre-operative and intra-operative real size 3D-model, while 24 patients (group 2) were operated without 3D-model printing, but using only pre-operative and intra-operative 3D Tc-scan images. The mean operating time was 148.2±15.9min for group 1 and 174.5±22.2min for group 2 (p=0.041). In addition, the mean intraoperative blood loss was less in group 1 (520mL) than in group 2 (546mL) (p=0.534). After discharge, all patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 1year and then every year post surgically and radiographic evaluation was carried out each time using clinical and radiological Rasmussen's score, with no significant differences between the two groups. Two patients (group 2) developed infection which resolved within 3 weeks after usage of antibiotics. Neither superficial nor deep infections were present in group 1. In all patients, no non-union occurred. No intraoperative, perioperative, or postoperative complications, such as loss of valgus correction, bone fractures, or metallic plate failures were detected at follow-up. In patients operated with the use of 3D-model printing, we found a significant reduction in surgical time. Moreover, the technique without a 3D-model increased the patient's and the surgeon's exposure to radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-column classification and Schatzker classification: a three- and two-dimensional computed tomography characterisation and analysis of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Patange Subba Rao, Sheethal Prasad; Lewis, James; Haddad, Ziad; Paringe, Vishal; Mohanty, Khitish

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility between the three-column classification and Schatzker classification systems using 2D and 3D CT models. Fifty-two consecutive patients with tibial plateau fractures were evaluated by five orthopaedic surgeons. All patients were classified into Schatzker and three-column classification systems using x-rays and 2D and 3D CT images. The inter-observer reliability was evaluated in the first round and the intra-observer reliability was determined during the second round 2 weeks later. The average intra-observer reproducibility for the three-column classification was from substantial to excellent in all sub classifications, as compared with Schatzker classification. The inter-observer kappa values increased from substantial to excellent in three-column classification and to moderate in Schatzker classification The average values for three-column classification for all the categories are as follows: (I-III) k2D = 0.718, 95% CI 0.554-0.864, p < 0.0001 and average 3D = 0.874, 95% CI 0.754-0.890, p < 0.0001. For Schatzker classification system, the average values for all six categories are as follows: (I-VI) k2D = 0.536, 95% CI 0.365-0.685, p < 0.0001 and average k3D = 0.552 95% CI 0.405-0.700, p < 0.0001. The values are statistically significant. Statistically significant inter-observer values in both rounds were noted with the three-column classification, making it statistically an excellent agreement. The intra-observer reproducibility for the three-column classification improved as compared with the Schatzker classification. The three-column classification seems to be an effective way to characterise and classify fractures of tibial plateau.

  16. Comparison of the pre-shaped anatomical locking plate of 3.5 mm versus 4.5 mm for the treatment of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Ehlinger, Matthieu; Adamczewski, Benjamin; Rahmé, Michel; Adam, Philippe; Bonnomet, Francois

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of tibial plateau fractures is discussed. A retrospective comparative study of fractures treated with an anatomical locking plate of 4.5 mm or 3.5 mm. Our hypothesis is that the 3.5 mm plates give an equivalent hold of fractures with comparable results and better clinical tolerance. From May 2010 to October 2011, 18 patients were operated on using a 4.5-mm LCP™ anatomical plate (group A) and 20 patients received a3.5-mm LCP™ anatomical plate (group B). Groups were comparable. One fracture was open. For the Group A, 14 patients had a follow up of 35.3 months and for the Group B, 16 patients had a follow up of 27 months. Mobility was comparable in both groups. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score was 86.4 versus 80.6, the Lysholm score was 83.6 versus 77 for groups A and B respectively. Consolidation was 3.25 months versus 3.35 months and mean axis was 183.1° versus 181.6° for groups A and B. Mechanical axes during revision were statistically different to the controlateral axes. One secondary displacement was noted in group A and one secondary displacement in group B. Group A had eight patients reporting discomfort with the material versus three in group B (p < 0.05). The hypothesis is proven. In regards to the results, there is no significant difference between the two groups but the clinical tolerance was better in group B. More time is needed in the long term to better evaluate these severe fractures.

  17. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tony, G; Charran, A; Tins, B; Lalam, R; Tyrrell, P N M; Singh, J; Cool, P; Kiely, N; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2014-11-01

    Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple stress fractures in a young female runner.

    PubMed

    Dusek, T; Pećina, M; Loncar-Dusek, M; Bojanic, I

    2004-01-01

    The effect of exercise on female's bone metabolism has received much attention in recent years. We report on unusual case of a female runner with low body mass and amenorrhea, who suffered 4 stress fractures. Three of the stress fractures occurred during her sports career, and the fourth occurred 7 years after the cessation of sports activities. It seems that exercise-induced amenorrhea together with food restriction in the young age may cause long-term consequences on bone metabolism.

  19. Genetic predisposition for femoral neck stress fractures in military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Korvala, Johanna; Hartikka, Heini; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Solovieva, Svetlana; Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Sahi, Timo; Barral, Sandra; Ott, Jürg; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Männikkö, Minna

    2010-10-21

    Stress fractures are a significant problem among athletes and soldiers and may result in devastating complications or even permanent handicap. Genetic factors may increase the risk, but no major susceptibility genes have been identified. The purpose of this study was to search for possible genetic factors predisposing military conscripts to femoral neck stress fractures. Eight genes involved in bone metabolism or pathology (COL1A1, COL1A2, OPG, ESR1, VDR, CTR, LRP5, IL-6) were examined in 72 military conscripts with a femoral neck stress fracture and 120 controls. The risk of femoral neck stress fracture was significantly higher in subjects with low weight and body mass index (BMI). An interaction between the CTR (rs1801197) minor allele C and the VDR C-A haplotype was observed, and subjects lacking the C allele in CTR and/or the C-A haplotype in VDR had a 3-fold higher risk of stress fracture than subjects carrying both (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.38-7.49, p = 0.007). In addition, the LRP5 haplotype A-G-G-C alone and in combination with the VDR haplotype C-A was associated with stress fractures through reduced body weight and BMI. Our findings suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of stress fractures in individuals subjected to heavy exercise and mechanical loading. The present results can be applied to the design of future studies that will further elucidate the genetics of stress fractures.

  20. Genetic predisposition for femoral neck stress fractures in military conscripts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress fractures are a significant problem among athletes and soldiers and may result in devastating complications or even permanent handicap. Genetic factors may increase the risk, but no major susceptibility genes have been identified. The purpose of this study was to search for possible genetic factors predisposing military conscripts to femoral neck stress fractures. Results Eight genes involved in bone metabolism or pathology (COL1A1, COL1A2, OPG, ESR1, VDR, CTR, LRP5, IL-6) were examined in 72 military conscripts with a femoral neck stress fracture and 120 controls. The risk of femoral neck stress fracture was significantly higher in subjects with low weight and body mass index (BMI). An interaction between the CTR (rs1801197) minor allele C and the VDR C-A haplotype was observed, and subjects lacking the C allele in CTR and/or the C-A haplotype in VDR had a 3-fold higher risk of stress fracture than subjects carrying both (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.38-7.49, p = 0.007). In addition, the LRP5 haplotype A-G-G-C alone and in combination with the VDR haplotype C-A was associated with stress fractures through reduced body weight and BMI. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of stress fractures in individuals subjected to heavy exercise and mechanical loading. The present results can be applied to the design of future studies that will further elucidate the genetics of stress fractures. PMID:20961463

  1. Patterns of Fracture and Tidal Stresses Due to Nonsynchronous Rotation: Implications for Fracturing on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Helfenstein, P.

    1985-01-01

    Global lineaments on Europa were interpreted as fractures in an icy crust. A variety of lineament types were identified, which appear to form a systematic pattern on the surface. For a synchronously rotating body, the patterns of fractures observed could be produced by a combination of stresses due to orbital recession, orbital eccentricity, and internal contraction. However, it was recently suggested that the forced eccentricity of Europa's orbit may result in nonsynchronous rotation. The hypothesis that fractures in a thin icy crust may have formed in response to stresses resulting from nonsynchronous rotation is studied.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in stress fractures and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tohyama, Harukazu; Ito, Hirokazu; Minami, Akio

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether stress fractures and shin splints could be discriminated with MRI in the early phase. Twenty-two athletes, who had pain in the middle or distal part of their leg during or after sports activity, were evaluated with radiographs and MRI scans. Stress fractures were diagnosed when consecutive radiographs showed local periosteal reaction or a fracture line, and shin splints were diagnosed in all the other cases. In all eight patients with stress fractures, an abnormally wide high signal in the localized bone marrow was the most detectable in the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scan. In 11 patients with shin splints, the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial posterior surface of the tibia, and in seven patients with shin splints, the MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial bone marrow. No MRI scans of shin splints showed an abnormally wide high signal in the bone marrow as observed on MRI scans of stress fractures. This study showed that fat-suppressed MRI is useful for discrimination between stress fracture and shin splints before radiographs show a detectable periosteal reaction in the tibia.

  3. A biomechanical study comparing a raft of 3.5 mm cortical screws with 6.5 mm cancellous screws in depressed tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunit; Mahon, Andrew; Green, Sarah; McMurtry, Ian; Port, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    There has been a recent trend towards using a raft of small diameter 3.5mm cortical screws for supporting depressed tibial plateau fractures (Schatzker type III). Our aim was to compare the biomechanical properties of a raft of 3.5 mm cortical screws with that of 6.5 mm cancellous screws in a synthetic bone model. Ten rigid polyurethane foam (sawbone) blocks, with a density simulating osteoporotic bone and ten blocks with a density simulating normal density bone were obtained. A Schatzker type III fracture was created in each block. The fracture fragments were then elevated and supported using two 6.5 mm cancellous screws in ten blocks and four 3.5 mm cortical screws in the remaining. The fractures were loaded using a Lloyd testing machine. The mean force needed to produce a depression of 5 mm was 700.8 N with the four-screw construct and 512.4 N with the two-screw construct in the osteoporotic model. This difference was highly statistically significant (p = 0.009). The mean force required to produce the same depression was 1878.2 N with the two-screw construct and 1938.2 N with the four-screw construct in the non-osteoporotic model. Though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42), an increased fragmentation of the synthetic bone fragments was noticed with the two-screw construct but not with the four-screw construct. A raft of four 3.5 mm cortical screws is biomechanically stronger than two 6.5 mm cancellous screws in resisting axial compression in osteoporotic bone.

  4. Influence of fracture extension on in-situ stress in tight reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongping; Wei, Xu; Zhang, Ye; Xing, Libo; Xu, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Currently, hydraulic fracturing is an important way to develop low permeability reservoirs. The fractures produced during the fracturing process are the main influencing factors of changing in-situ stress. In this paper, the influence of fracture extension on in-situ stress is studied by establishing a mathematical model to describe the relationship between fracture length and in-situ stress. The results show that the growth rate gradually decreases after the fracture reaches a certain length with the increase of fracturing time; the continuous extension of the fracture is the main factor to change the in-situ stress. In order to reduce the impact on the subsequent fracture extension due to the changing of in-situ stress, controlling fracturing time and fracture length without affecting the stimulated reservoir effect is an important way. The results presented in this study can effectively reduce the impact of changing of in-situ stress on subsequent fracturing construction.

  5. Interpretation and classification of bone scintigraphic findings in stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Zwas, S T; Elkanovitch, R; Frank, G

    1987-04-01

    A new system for classification of stress fractures identified by bone scintigraphy was developed and divided into four grades according to lesion dimension, bone extension, and tracer accumulation. The scintigraphic findings were evaluated for severity of lesions by extent of the visualized bone response, ranging from ill-defined cortical lesions with slightly increased activity (I) to well-defined intramedullary transcortical lesions with intensely increased activity (IV). Bone scintigraphies using [99mTc]MDP were obtained in 310 military recruits suspected of having stress fractures. In 235 patients, 391 stress fractures were diagnosed. Forty percent of the lesions were asymptomatic. Most of the lesions were in the tibiae (72%), and 87% of the patients had one or two lesions, while 13% had three to five lesions. Eighty-five percent of the lesions were classified as mild and showed early and more complete resolution on follow-up studies after treatment as compared to the severe grades. Furthermore, specific scintigraphic patterns have been introduced for distinguishing inflammatory shin-splints from stress fractures, allowing for their appropriate early treatment. Thus, early recognition of mild stress fracture scintigraphic patterns representing the beginning of pathologic bone response to stress enabled a prompt and effective treatment to prevent progression of lesions, protracted disability, and complications.

  6. Influence of outdoor running fatigue and medial tibial stress syndrome on accelerometer-based loading and stability.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kurt H; Seerden, Stefan; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2018-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse running injury with pathomechanics likely to be exaggerated by fatigue. Wearable accelerometry provides a novel alternative to assess biomechanical parameters continuously while running in more ecologically valid settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of outdoor running fatigue and MTSS on both dynamic loading and dynamic stability derived from trunk and tibial accelerometery. Runners with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of MTSS performed an outdoor fatigue run of 3200m. Accelerometer-based measures averaged per lap included dynamic loading of the trunk and tibia (i.e. axial peak positive acceleration, signal power magnitude, and shock attenuation) as well as dynamic trunk stability (i.e. tri-axial root mean square ratio, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy). Regression coefficients from generalised estimating equations were used to evaluate group by fatigue interactions. No evidence could be found for dynamic loading being higher with fatigue in runners with MTSS history (all measures p>0.05). One significant group by running fatigue interaction effect was detected for dynamic stability. Specifically, in MTSS only, decreases mediolateral sample entropy i.e. loss of complexity was associated with running fatigue (p<0.01). The current results indicate that entire acceleration waveform signals reflecting mediolateral trunk control is related to MTSS history, a compensation that went undetected in the non-fatigued running state. We suggest that a practical outdoor running fatigue protocol that concurrently captures trunk accelerometry-based movement complexity warrants further prospective investigation as an in-situ screening tool for MTSS individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Probability of stress-corrosion fracture under random loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    Mathematical formulation is based on cumulative-damage hypothesis and experimentally-determined stress-corrosion characteristics. Under both stationary random loadings, mean value and variance of cumulative damage are obtained. Probability of stress-corrosion fracture is then evaluated, using principle of maximum entropy.

  8. Rehabilitation and return to running after lower limb stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Liem, Brian C; Truswell, Hallie J; Harrast, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb stress fractures are common injuries in runners. In terms of treatment, much of the medical literature has focused primarily on rest and cessation of running, but little has been written about the rehabilitation and functional progression of runners following a lower limb stress fracture. This article reviews the scientific evidence behind common rehabilitation concepts used for runners recovering from these injuries and also discusses sport-specific training modalities such as deep water running and antigravity treadmill training. Overall this article is intended to be a practical resource for clinicians to guide runners in functional rehabilitation and return to running following lower limb stress injury.

  9. Taking a holistic approach to managing difficult stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy L; Best, Thomas M

    2016-09-09

    Stress fractures and other bony stress injuries occur along a spectrum of severity which can impact treatment and prognosis. When treating these injuries, it should be borne in mind that no two stress fractures behave exactly alike. Given that they are not a consistent injury, standardized treatment protocols can be challenging to develop. Treatment should be individualized to the patient or athlete, the causative activity, the anatomical site, and the severity of the injury. A holistic approach to the treatment of the most difficult stress fractures should be taken by orthopedists and sports medicine specialists. This approach is necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, minimize loss of fitness and time away from sports participation, and decrease the risk of recurrence.

  10. Thermal stresses, differential subsidence, and flexure at oceanic fracture zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Pal; Haxby, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Geosat geoid undulations over four Pacific fracture zones have been analyzed. After correcting for the isostatic thermal edge effect, the amplitudes of the residuals are shown to be proportional to the age offset. The shape of the residuals seems to broaden with increasing age. Both geoid anomalies and available ship bathymetry data suggest that slip must sometimes occur on the main fracture zone or secondary faults. Existing models for flexure at fracture zones cannot explain the observed anomalies. A combination model accounting for slip and including flexure from thermal stresses and differential subsidence is presented. This model accounts for lateral variations in flexural rigidity from brittle and ductile yielding due to both thermal and flexural stresses and explains both the amplitudes and the shape of the anomalies along each fracture zone. The best fitting models have mechanical plate thicknesses that are described by the depth to the 600-700 C isotherms.

  11. Fracture toughness and the effects of stress state on fracture of nickel aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Michal, Gary M.; Locci, Ivan; Rigney, Joseph D.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of stress state on the fracture behavior of Ni3Al, Ni3Al + B, and NiAl were determined using either notched or fatigue-precracked bend bars tested to failure at room temperature, in addition to testing specimens in tension under superposed hydrostatic pressure. Although Ni3Al is observed to fail in a macroscopically brittle intergranular manner in tension tests conducted at room temperature, the fracture toughnesses presently obtained on Ni3Al exceeded 20 MPam, and R-curve behavior was exhibited. In situ monitoring of the fracture experiments was utilized to aid in interpreting the source(s) of the high toughness in Ni3Al, while SEM fractography was utilized to determine the operative fracture modes. The superposition by hydrostatic pressure during tensile testing of NiAl specimens was observed to produce increased ductility without changing the fracture mode.

  12. Anterior knee pain and thigh muscle strength after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture: an 8-year follow-up of 28 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Väistö, Olli; Toivanen, Jarmo; Kannus, Pekka; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common complication after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. The source of pain is often not known, although it correlates with a simultaneous decrease in thigh muscle strength. No long-term follow-up study has assessed whether weakness of the thigh muscles is associated with anterior knee pain after the procedure in question. Prospective study. University Hospital of Tampere, University of Tampere. The muscular performance of 40 consecutive patients with a nailed tibial shaft fracture was tested isokinetically in a follow-up examination an average of 3.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) years after the initial surgery. An 8-year follow-up was possible in 28 of these cases. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were made in 28 patients at an average 8.1 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail insertion and an average 6.6 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail extraction. All nails were extracted at an average 1.6 +/- 0.2 years after the nailing. : Seven patients were painless initially and still were at final follow-up (never pain, or NP). In 13 patients, the previous symptom of anterior knee pain was no longer present at final follow-up [pain, no pain (PNP)], and the remaining 8 had anterior knee pain initially and at final follow-up [always pain group (AP)]. With reference to the hamstring muscles, the mean peak torque difference between the injured and uninjured limb was -2.2% +/- 12% in the NP group, 1.6% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and 10.3% +/- 30% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 1.0; P = 0.593). At a speed of 180 degrees/second, the corresponding differences were -2.9% +/- 23% and 7.0% +/- 19% and 4.4% +/- 16% (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi = 1.7; P = 0.429). With reference to the quadriceps muscles, the mean peak torque difference was -2.8% +/- 9% in the NP group, 5.9% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and -13.0% +/- 16% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 7.9; P = 0

  13. The relationship between lower extremity alignment and Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome among non-professional athletes

    PubMed Central

    Raissi, Golam Reza D; Cherati, Afsaneh D Safar; Mansoori, Kourosh D; Razi, Mohammad D

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between lower extremity alignment and MTSS amongst non-professional athletes Design In a prospective Study, sixty six subjects were evaluated. Bilateral navicular drop test, Q angle, Achilles angle, tibial angle, intermalleolar and intercondylar distance were measured. In addition, runner's height, body mass, history of previous running injury, running experience was recorded. Runners were followed for 17 weeks to determine occurrence of MTSS. Results The overall injury rate for MTSS was 19.7%. The MTSS injury rate in girls (22%) was not significantly different from the rate in boys (14.3%). Most MTSS injuries were induced after 60 hours of exercise, which did not differ between boys and girls. There was a significant difference in right and left navicular drop (ND) in athletes with MTSS. MTSS had no significant correlation with other variables including Quadriceps, Tibia and Achilles angles, intercondylar and intermaleolar lengths and lower extremity lengths. Limitation All measurements performed in this study were uniplanar and static. The small sample size deemed our main limitation. The accurate assessment of participants with previous history of anterior leg pain for MTSS was another limitation. Conclusion Although a significant relationship between navicular drop and MTSS was found in this study; there was not any significant relationship between lower extremity alignment and MTSS in our sample study. PMID:19519909

  14. Stress fractures in athletes. How to spot this underdiagnosed injury.

    PubMed

    Sallis, R E; Jones, K

    1991-05-01

    Stress fractures are an increasingly common injury in competitive athletes, especially runners. Amenorrheic athletes are at particularly high risk. A radionuclide bone scan should be considered when the index of suspicion for stress fracture is high. Plain radiographs are of little use in establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the injury. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of conservative therapy allow for a favorable outcome in most cases. Avoidance of or reduced participation in the inciting activity is important for pain control. Certain stress fractures, such as those involving the femoral neck, should be monitored closely and treated aggressively with internal fixation when conservative measures fail. Runners who have exercise-induced amenorrhea should be advised to decrease their training intensity to a level where menses resume. Cyclic therapy with conjugated estrogens and progesterone should also be considered, as should daily calcium supplementation.

  15. Massage treatment and medial tibial stress syndrome; A commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    As students and practitioners we are taught about the treatment and causative factors of medial shin pain, in particular' shin splints' or the more recent term; medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). During the years there have been many theories, conjecture and misunderstandings about the mechanisms of 'shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome' however the ramifications of these mechanisms on how massage treatment is delivered have not being discussed. The evidence for the treatment of MTSS is largely clinical with little evidence of any treatment being proven to be effective in treating MTSS. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the mechanisms of MTSS and a commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS based on these mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation Between Fracture Network Properties and Stress Variability in Geological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qinghua; Gao, Ke

    2018-05-01

    We quantitatively investigate the stress variability in fractured geological media under tectonic stresses. The fracture systems studied include synthetic fracture networks following power law length scaling and natural fracture patterns based on outcrop mapping. The stress field is derived from a finite-discrete element model, and its variability is analyzed using a set of mathematical formulations that honor the tensorial nature of stress data. We show that local stress perturbation, quantified by the Euclidean distance of a local stress tensor to the mean stress tensor, has a positive, linear correlation with local fracture intensity, defined as the total fracture length per unit area within a local sampling window. We also evaluate the stress dispersion of the entire stress field using the effective variance, that is, a scalar-valued measure of the overall stress variability. The results show that a well-connected fracture system under a critically stressed state exhibits strong local and global stress variabilities.

  17. All-Polyethylene Tibial Components: An Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes and Infection.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Watts, Chad D; Cass, Joseph R; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    There is debate regarding tibial component modularity and composition in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biomechanical studies have suggested improved stress distribution in metal-backed tibias; however, these results have not translated clinically. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of all-polyethylene components and to compare the results to those with metal-backed components. We reviewed 31,939 patients undergoing a primary TKA over a 43-year period (1970-2013). There were 28,224 (88%) metal-backed and 3715 (12%) all-polyethylene tibial components. The metal-backed and all-polyethylene groups had comparable demographics with respect to gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Mean follow-up was 7 years. The mean survival for all primary TKAs at the 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-year time points was 95%, 89%, 73%, and 57%, respectively. All-polyethylene tibial components were found to have a significantly improved (P < .0001) survivorship when compared with their metal-backed counterparts. All-polyethylene tibial components were also found to have a significantly lower rate of infection, instability, tibial component loosening, and periprosthetic fracture. The all-polyethylene group had improved survival rates in all age groups, except in patients 85 years old or greater, where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had improved survival for all BMI groups except in the morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40) where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had significantly improved implant survival, reduced rates of postoperative infection, fracture, and tibial component loosening. All polyethylene should be considered for most of the patients, regardless of age and BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress Related Fracturing in Dimension Stone Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi Deliormanli, Ahmet; Maerz, Norbert H.

    2016-10-01

    In Missouri, the horizontal stresses (pressures) in the near surface rock are uncommonly high. Whil