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Sample records for tibial tipo puddu

  1. Finite element analysis of Puddu and Tomofix plate fixation for open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Raja Izaham, Raja Mohd Aizat; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Abdul Rashid, Abdul Halim; Hossain, Md Golam; Kamarul, T

    2012-06-01

    The use of open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) to correct varus deformity of the knee is well established. However, the stability of the various implants used in this procedure has not been previously demonstrated. In this study, the two most common types of plates were analysed (1) the Puddu plates that use the dynamic compression plate (DCP) concept, and (2) the Tomofix plate that uses the locking compression plate (LCP) concept. Three dimensional model of the tibia was reconstructed from computed tomography images obtained from the Medical Implant Technology Group datasets. Osteotomy and fixation models were simulated through computational processing. Simulated loading was applied at 60:40 ratios on the medial:lateral aspect during single limb stance. The model was fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. Simulated data generated from the micromotions, displacement and, implant stress were captured. At the prescribed loads, a higher displacement of 3.25 mm was observed for the Puddu plate model (p<0.001). Coincidentally the amount of stresses subjected to this plate, 24.7 MPa, was also significantly lower (p<0.001). There was significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between implant stresses to that of the amount of fracture displacement which signifies a less stable fixation using Puddu plates. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the Tomofix plate produces superior stability for bony fixation in HTO procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in posterior tibial slope angle in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Omer; Yucel, Bulent; Mutlu, Serhat; Orman, Osman; Mutlu, Harun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, postoperative changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and clinical outcomes following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy were evaluated. This study included 39 knees (18 left, 21 right) of 35 patients (three male, 32 female; median age, 53 years; age range 37-64 years) with symptomatic isolated medial joint osteoarthritis who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and fixation with a Puddu plate. The patients were clinically assessed according to the Lysholm knee score, a visual analogue pain scale, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Radiological assessment was made according to the changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and the correlation between these changes and clinical signs. The median follow-up period was 11 years (range 7-14 years). Significant improvements were observed in the preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of the Lysholm knee scale, visual analogue pain scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire (p < 0.05). Radiological assessment showed that the posterior tibial slope angle was significantly higher during the postoperative and follow-up periods (p  0.05). There was no correlation between the postoperative Lysholm scores and the increase in the posterior tibial slope angle (p = n.s.). We conclude that both the conventional Puddu plate design and its anteromedial plate placement are what increase the tibial slope after an opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy. Therefore, current new plate design may help preserve the posterior tibial slope angle. IV.

  3. Tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Jeffrey A; Simpson, Amelia M

    2004-08-01

    Tibial fractures are common in small animal practice. As with other appendicular fractures, the patient's age, fracture location, and fracture type must be considered thoroughly. While methods for tibial fracture repair are similar to those used for appendicular fractures elsewhere, there are some unique considerations, both anatomically and functionally, that must be contemplated before repair. The following article will review the incidence of tibial fractures, tibial fracture types, and options for tibial fracture management and treatment. The use of external fixators, orthopedic bone plates, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF), and external coaptation will be discussed. An emphasis will be placed on the most common types of tibial fractures, as well as those best suited for repair by general practitioners of veterinary medicine. Three case based examples will follow the overview.

  4. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  5. Tibial osteotomy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Tibial osteotomy - series—Normal anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/ ...

  6. Usefulness of long tibial axis to measure medial tibial slope for opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Y; Sotozawa, M; Kobayashi, H; Kusayama, Y; Kumagai, K; Saito, T

    2016-11-01

    To assess which tibial slope measurements on knee, whole leg radiographs and three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography (CT) were useful in clinical practice before and after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Medial and lateral tibial slopes on knee, whole leg radiographs and three-dimensional reconstructed CT were measured in 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis. To investigate the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability for each medial and lateral tibial slope on knee, whole leg radiographs and CT, the measurements were repeated twice by two observers. The statistical differences between the medial and lateral tibial slopes obtained by the three methods, and the differences and correlation coefficients for the medial and lateral tibial slopes between knee or whole leg radiographs and CT were calculated. The reproducibility and reliability of medial and lateral tibial slopes on CT were superior to those on whole leg or knee radiographs. The medial and lateral tibial slopes on whole leg radiographs had better reproducibility and reliability than those on knee radiographs. The mean medial tibial slopes on knee, whole leg radiographs and CT were 9.3 ± 3.4°, 12.3 ± 4.3° and 11.0 ± 3.9°, respectively. The mean lateral tibial slopes were 7.9 ± 3.1°, 9.6 ± 3.6° and 9.3 ± 2.9°, respectively. The medial tibial slopes on knee, whole leg radiographs and CT were significantly higher than the lateral tibial slopes (p < 0.01 for all). Tibial slope measurements using CT required time and specialized software. Therefore, measurements of the medial tibial slope using the long tibial axis on whole leg radiographs were more reproducible and reliable and could be an alternative to CT in clinical practice. III.

  7. High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Seong Joon

    2012-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a widely performed procedure to treat medial knee arthrosis. In general, published studies on HTO report good long-term results with a correct patient selection and a precise surgical technique. The ideal candidate for an HTO is a middle aged patient (60 to 65 years of age), with isolated medial osteoarthritis, with good range of motion and without ligamentous instability. Some issues that need resolution remain; these include the choice between opening and closing wedge tibial osteotomy, the graft selection in opening wedge osteotomies, the type of fixation, the comparison with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and whether HTO significantly affects a subsequent total joint replacement. Precise indication, preoperative planning, and operative technique selection are essential to achieve good results. PMID:22708105

  8. Pediatric Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brad; Street, Matthew; Leigh, Warren; Crawford, Haemish

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis shows a strong predilection for the tibia in the pediatric population and is a significant source of complications. The purpose of this article is to retrospectively review a large series of pediatric patients with tibial osteomyelitis. We compare our experience with that in the literature to determine any factors that may aid diagnosis and/or improve treatment outcomes. A 10-year retrospective review was performed of clinical records of all cases of pediatric tibial osteomyelitis managed at the 2 children's orthopaedic departments in the Auckland region. The Osteomyelitis Database was used to identify all cases between 1997 and 2007, at Starship Children's Hospital, and 1998 and 2008 at Middlemore's Kids First Hospital. One hundred ninety-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and had a review of clinical notes and relevant investigations. The average duration of symptoms before presentation to hospital was 5.7 days. Less than 40% of patients had a recent episode of trauma. Almost 60% of patients could not bear weight on admission. Over 40% of patients had a temperature above 38°C. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 78% and the C-reactive protein was elevated in 90% of patients. In total, 42% of blood cultures and almost 75% of tissue cultures were positive, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly cultured organism. X-rays, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging were all used to aid the diagnosis. About 43% of patients had surgery. Treatment length was an average of 2 weeks 6 days of intravenous antibiotics followed by 3 weeks 2 days of oral treatment. Six postsurgical complications and 46 readmissions were noted: 25 for relapse, with the remainder due to social and antibiotic-associated complications. Although generally diagnosed on presentation, pediatric tibial osteomyelitis can require more sophisticated investigations and prolonged management. Treatment with intravenous and oral antibiotics and surgical

  9. Anterior tibial striations.

    PubMed

    Daffner, R H

    1984-09-01

    Radiolucent horizontal striations of the anterior cortex of the tibia were seen in 10 athletes who were evaluated for "shin-splints." There were seven basketball players, two professional dancers, and one hurdler. Each patient's history included vigorous leaping in performance of athletic feats. All the lesions were similar in location and appearance and were accompanied by thickening of the anterior tibial cortex. These striations are considered stress fractures and were not observed in a group of runners who were evaluated for shin-splints.

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  11. True aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Leoce, Brian M; Bernik, Jack T; Gupta, Anjuli M; Dardik, Herbert; Bernik, Thomas R

    2018-02-05

    The majority of anterior tibial aneurysm cases described in the literature are pseudoaneurysms resulting from trauma 1-6 . Since 1967, only eight cases published on true anterior tibial artery aneurysms were atraumatic 7-9,16,17 . Recent experience with an atraumatic aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery prompted a literature review regarding their incidence, and accordingly, we feel the need exists for greater recognition and understanding of this entity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Assessing Tibial Tray Rotation in TKA: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sam; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Gabriel, Christian; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-05-01

    Tibial anatomical landmarks for transverse plane rotation of the tibial tray have not been validated. The current authors propose aligning the tibial tray with both the anterior tibial center point of rotation (ATCPR) and the femoral trochlear groove (FTG) to establish the ideal tibial tray rotation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). When the tibial tray centerline was aligned with ATCPR and FTG lines, the mean range of motion (ROM) was 144.3° (preoperatively 145°) and tibial rotation range was 22.8 mm (preoperatively, 24.9 mm). When the tibial component was rotated 5 mm medially to the ATCPR, the knee ROM decreased in flexion with patellar subluxation, while it decreased in extension when rotated 5 mm laterally. This method identifies the ideal tibial tray rotation in TKA, at which maximal range of tibial rotation and knee ROM are achieved without obvious overriding of components. [Orthopedics, 2016; 39(3):S67-S71.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Functional performance after tibial rotationplasty.

    PubMed

    Murray, M P; Jacobs, P A; Gore, D R; Gardner, G M; Mollinger, L A

    1985-03-01

    We measured muscle strength, joint motion, and gait parameters and determined the electromyographic activities of the ankle and knee during walking, running, and stair-climbing in two children who had had a tibial rotationplasty for osteosarcoma of the distal end of the femur. Both had marked loss of strength in the plantar flexors on the side of the prosthesis compared with the sound side, although electromyographic recordings showed that the rotated calf muscles, to a substantial degree, had assumed the function of extensors of the prosthetic knee. Despite some abnormalities in gait, both children walked at speeds that were comparable to those of normal children. They could also run, climb stairs by stepping up with both limbs, and participate in many recreational activities. The functional abilities of these children suggested that rotationplasty, in patients with a similar lesion, is a worth-while alternative to above-the-knee amputation.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: tibial muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the TTN gene cause tibial muscular dystrophy . ... in chemical signaling and in assembling new sarcomeres. Mutations in the TTN gene alter the structure and ...

  15. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The natural evolution of internal tibial torsion.

    PubMed

    Weiner, D S; Weiner, S D

    1979-11-01

    Faced with a confusing body of literature concerning the necessity for treatment of internal tibial torsion, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 395 consecutive cases of manifest intoeing arising from internal tibial torsion. An additional Group of 200 uninvolved teenagers served as older controls. The conclusion drawn supports an attitude of patience and observation as spontaneous resolution is to be routinely expected by skeletal maturity. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Increased lateral tibial posterior slope is related to tibial tunnel widening after primary ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Soheil; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir Ata; Shaikh, Humza S; Arner, Justin W; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of femoral and tibial bone morphology on the amount of femoral and tibial tunnel widening after primary anatomic ACL reconstruction. It was hypothesized that tibial and femoral bone morphology would be significantly correlated with tunnel widening after anatomic ACL reconstruction. Forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 21.8 ± 8.1 years) who underwent primary single-bundle anatomic ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft were enrolled. Two blinded observers measured the bone morphology of tibia and femur including, medial and lateral tibial posterior slope, medial and lateral tibial plateau width, medial and lateral femoral condyle width, femoral notch width, and bicondylar width on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Tibial and femoral tunnel width at three points (aperture, mid-section, and exit) were measured on standard anteroposterior radiograph from 1 week and 1 year postoperatively (mean 12.5 ± 2 months). Tunnel width measurements at each point were compared between 1 week and 1 year to calculate percent of tunnel widening over time. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze correlations between bone morphology and tunnel widening. Increase in lateral tibial posterior slope was the only independent bony morphology characteristics that was significantly correlated with an increased tibial tunnel exit widening (R = 0.58). For every degree increase in lateral tibial posterior slope, a 3.2% increase in tibial tunnel exit width was predicted (p = 0.003). Excellent inter-observer and intra-observer reliability were determined for the measurements (ICC = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). Increased lateral tibial posterior slope is an important preoperative anatomic factor that may predict tunnel widening at the tibial tunnel exit. In regard to clinical relevance, the results of this study suggest that lateral tibial posterior slope be measured

  18. Tibial Bone Density in Athletes With Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Özgürbüz, Cengizhan; Yüksel, Oğuz; Ergün, Metin; İşlegen, Çetin; Taskiran, Emin; Denerel, Nevzad; Karamizrak, Oğuz

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month) MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks). A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females) diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females). Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks) compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms. Key points Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. No differences were found between the MTSS group (MTSS history 3-10 weeks) and the healthy athletes group. PMID:24149568

  19. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on the posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Dragosloveanu, Serban; Cristea, Stefan; Dragosloveanu, Calin

    2014-06-01

    High tibial osteotomy remains a useful procedure for delaying total knee arthroplasty for young patients with unicompartimental medial osteoarthritis of the knee. The tibial posterior slope is essential for both ligament function and knee kinematics. Even though many articles were published in the literature, the long term influence of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the posterior slope of the tibial plateau remains unknown. We assessed the relationship among the degree of correction, the surgical technique, the postoperative modification of tibial slope, knee flexion and Knee score at the two years. We used for evaluation a calibrated x-rays with correction factor. All the measures were done with Cedara I-View 6.3.2 application. All 47 patients were operated in our hospital between 2008-2011, with the same technique, open wedge high tibial osteotomy with an acrylic cement wedge. All patients postponed weight bearing for 6 weeks. We found that there is no statistical significance (p=0.2) between the preoperative varus and the after surgery tibial slope, but the resulting posterior inclination after surgery influences the tibial posterior slope at 2 years (p<=0.005).The degree of correction has a strong influence over the increase or decrease of tibial posterior slope(p<0.005). An increase in tibial slope increases the knee flexion by 1.45° for every degree of inclination (p<0.05). Functional results are not influenced by small modifications in tibial inclination (p>0.05). From this findings we may conclude that the most important factors that changes the posterior inclination of the tibia surface are the height of the cement wedge and the surgical technique, by placing the acrylic cement wedge more anteriorly. We have found that the vast majority of our high tibial osteotomies are in fact "flexion" osteotomies. At the 2 years control we have found a slight increase in tibial slope angle (average 1.77°) and knee flexion (average 2.56°) with no functional

  20. Treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures following plateless tibial tuberosity advancement to manage cranial cruciate disease.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, R; Egan, P; Parsons, K; Butterworth, S; Calvo, I; Roch, S; Moores, A P

    2017-07-01

    To report diaphyseal fractures of the proximal tibia following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate stabilisation for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. Members of the British Veterinary Orthopaedic Association's online discussion forum were invited to submit revision cases of tibial diaphyseal fracture following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate fixation. Data collected included signalment, surgical revision technique, pre- and postoperative revision radiographic findings, complications and veterinary assessment. Owners were invited to complete the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs questionnaire. A total of 17 dogs were included in the study. Eleven dogs had OrthoFoam-wedge modified Maquet procedures and six had the tibial tuberosity advancement rapid procedure. Tibial tuberosity advancement was maintained in 14/17 cases. Postrevision surgery complications occurred in eight cases: minor complications in 3/17 dogs; major in 5/17 and no catastrophic complications. Surgical site infection was the most common complication (4/8). Final clinical outcome found 8/17 of dogs to have excellent, 8/17 satisfactory and 1/17 poor clinical outcome. The median Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs score was 12/52 (range 2 to 28). Final outcome was 6/13 owners that were very satisfied, 2/13 owners indifferent and 5/13 owners very disappointed. This is the first case series reporting tibial diaphyseal fractures following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate stabilisation. The authors report here a wide spectrum of potential fixation strategies should one of these fractures occur. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Calf muscle wasting after tibial shaft fracture

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, M; Brannigan, A; Burke, T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study the long term effect of tibial shaft fractures treated by immobilisation in a long leg cast on the calf muscle bulk. Methods Computed tomography scans were performed at fixed points on the lower legs of 23 non‐professional athletes who sustained closed tibial fractures 16 years previously. Length of immobilisation was determined from the hospital records. All the fractures were treated non‐operatively. The cross sectional area of the various leg compartments was measured and compared with the non‐injured leg. Results There was a significant reduction in cross sectional area of the posterior compartment (p<0.001, Student's t test). No such difference was seen in the anterolateral compartment. Conclusion Tibial fractures treated non‐operatively are associated with significant long term calf muscle wasting. PMID:16720890

  2. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  3. Do Capactively Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    medial tibial condylar stress fractures were investigated. Four imaging...Capacitively coupled electric fields did not accelerate tibial stress fracture healing of the group as a whole in comparison with placebo treatment (rest...but women took longer to recover from tibial stress fractures than men. Superior treatment compliance was positively associated with reduced time to healing. REFERENCES NA APPENDICES NA

  4. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  5. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  6. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  7. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Campos, André Siqueira; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of tibial tuberosity is a rare lesion and still more unusual in adults. We describe a case in an adult who suffered a left knee injury due to a fall from height. No risk factors were identified. The lesion was treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation. The rehabilitation method was successful, resulting in excellent function and rage of motion of the knee. The aim of this study was to present an unusual case of direct trauma of the tibial tuberosity in an adult and the therapy performed. PMID:24293543

  8. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  9. Medial tibial stress syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Jovicić, Milica; Jovicić, Vladimir; Hrković, Marija; Lazović, Milica

    2014-01-01

    Although it can be difficult to differentiate pain in lower legs, it is important for clinicians to differentiate medial tibial stress syndrome, which is a rather benign condition, from acute compartment syndrome, which is an emergency, as well as from different types of stress fractures described in this region. The aim of this case report was to present medial tibial stress syndrome as a clinical diagnosis, possible dilemmas in differential diagnosis and the efficacy of rehabilitation treatment. A 25-year old male patient sought medical help complaining of the pain along the distal third of tibia. The pain was present on palpation of the distal two-thirds of the lateral and medial tibial border over the length of 9 cm and on muscle manual testing of foot flexors. The patient underwent physical and exercise treatment for three weeks. The recovery was monitored by visual analogue scale, which measured the lower leg pain, pain on palpation and manual muscle testing. In addition, the patient himself assessed his ability to resume sport activities on the 5-point Likert scale. The final evaluation and measurements showed his complete functional recovery. The results obtained in this case show the importance of accurate clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation for medial tibial stress syndrome.

  10. Reverse Segond Fracture Associated with Anteromedial Tibial Rim and Tibial Attachment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Reverse Segond fracture is an uncommon avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment of the deep portion of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. We report a reverse Segond fracture associated with anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fracture and anteromedial tibial rim fracture. Unlike previous reports, the combination of reverse Segond fracture, anteromedial tibial rim fracture, and anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture was not associated with posterior cruciate ligament injury, posterolateral corner injury, or tibial plateau fracture. This new combination of injuries provides better understanding of the mechanisms of ligamentous injuries of the knee and highlights the importance of meticulous assessment of these injuries for accurate diagnosis and subsequent management. PMID:28951794

  11. High tibial slope correlates with increased posterior tibial translation in healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Schatka, Imke; Weiler, Andreas; Jung, Tobias M; Walter, Thula C; Gwinner, Clemens

    2017-09-09

    Notwithstanding the importance of the tibial slope (TS) for anterior tibial translation, little information is available regarding the implications on posterior laxity, particularly in healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that increased TS is associated with decreased posterior tibial translation (PTT) in healthy knees. A total of 124 stress radiographs of healthy knees were enrolled in this study. Tibial slope and the posterior tibial translation were evaluated using a Telos device with a 150-N force at 90° of knee flexion. Two blinded observers reviewed independently on two different occasions. One hundred and twenty-four patients [35 females and 89 males; 41 (range 18-75) years] were enrolled in this study, with a mean PTT of 2.8 mm (±1.9 mm; range 0-8 mm) and a mean TS of 8.6° (±2.6°; range 1°-14°). Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between the PTT and TS in the overall patient cohort (P < 0.0001) with r = 0.76 and R 2  = 0.58. There was no statistical difference between female and male patients regarding the PTT or the TS. Subgrouping of the patient cohort (four groups with n = 31) according to their TS (groups I < 7°; II = 7°-8.5°; III = 9°-10.5°; IV ≥ 11°) revealed significant differences between each subgroup, respectively. Furthermore, there was a weak but significant correlation between age and PTT (P = 0.004, r = 0.26). In addition to the substantial variance in tibial slope and posterior laxity among healthy knees, high tibial slope significantly correlates with increased posterior tibial translation. Increasing age is further associated with a greater magnitude of posterior tibial translation. Consequently, knowledge of the tibial slope facilitates simple estimation of posterior knee laxity, which is mandatory for PCL reconstruction and knee arthroplasty.

  12. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y

    2006-08-01

    Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged.

  13. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  14. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    OF TIBIAL STRESS FRACTURE? To be presented at the International Society of Biomechanics Annual Meeting, Cleveland, OH. 3. IS DYNAMIC HIP AND KNEE ...A Radiographic Analysis of the Relationship between the Size and Shape of the Intercondylar Notch and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Knee surgery...Frontal Plane Mechanics during Walking between Patients with Medial and Lateral Knee Presented at the American American Society of Biomechanics Mtg

  15. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    individuals with tibial bowing had decreases in speed-of- sound z-scores in the bowed tibia compared to the affected tibia. In addition, we were able to...spreadsheets by the research coordinator. c. Biannual phone interviews with individuals with tibial bowing enrolled in Specific Aim 1. -We have...performed biannual phone interviews for individuals with tibial bowing who have reached their required time for phone interviews. In addition we have

  16. Tibial shaft fractures in football players.

    PubMed

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-06-13

    Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  17. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A retrospective study of tibial plateau translation following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilisation using three different plate types.

    PubMed

    Woodbridge, N; Corr, S A; Grierson, J; Arthurs, G

    2011-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate mediolateral translation of the proximal tibial segment (tibial plateau) after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO), stabilised with three types of plate. Pre- and postoperative radiographs of 79 dogs that had TPLO surgery using three different types of plates were reviewed. Two plate types incorporated non-locking screws: Slocum (22 cases) and Orthomed Delta (33 cases) plates. The third plate type incorporated locking screws: Synthes TPLO Locking Compression Plate (LCP) (24 cases). The radiographs were viewed by three Diplomate surgeons who were blinded to the type of implant used. Medial or lateral translation of the proximal tibial plateau relative to the tibial diaphysis was assessed and measured at the lateral tibial cortex at the osteotomy site. Mean lateral translation of the tibial plateau was significantly greater when using the Synthes TPLO LCP with locking screws (+2.1 mm) compared to the non-locking Slocum (+0.4 mm) or Orthomed Delta (0.0 mm) plates. The use of the Synthes TPLO LCP will maintain a malalignment of the tibial plateau. Accurate alignment of the tibial plateau must be ensured prior to application of the Synthes TPLO LCP.

  19. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  20. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  2. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  3. Effects of tibial rotation on Ober's test and patellar tracking.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tibial position on ITB flexibility and patellar position. A total of 31 asymptomatic subjects (21 males, 10 females) were recruited for this investigation. Adduction angle was measured by Ober's test, and PCD was measured by ultrasonography in three different tibial rotation conditions: N, IR, and ER. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in adduction angle and PCD among three different tibial positions (P<0.05). Adduction angle was significantly greater in the N tibial position than in ER (P<0.05). The PCD was significantly greater in N position than in IR (P<0.05). However, the PCD was significantly smaller in IR compared with the N position (P<0.05). These findings support that tibial rotation influences the flexibility of ITB and patellar positions. Therefore, excessive tibial rotation can cause inappropriate patellar positions that eventually lead to knee injury. Therapists should consider tibial rotation when measuring adduction angles because tibial rotation can change Ober's test results and contribute to the consistency of ITB length measurements. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  5. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer without bone graft.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, J P; Becker, G J; Meaney, J A; Miranda, M; Folcik, M A

    1990-01-01

    We followed 30 patients for more than 2 years after anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer for persistent patellofemoral pain associated with patellar articular degeneration. Twelve of these patients were followed more than 5 years. We report 93% good and excellent results subjectively and 89% good and excellent results objectively. The quality of improvement was sustained in all 12 of the patients who were evaluated again after more than 5 years from surgery. When examined separately, 75% of those patients with advanced patellar arthrosis achieved a good result; none of these patients achieved an excellent result. Postoperative continuous passive motion has markedly reduced the incidence of stiffness. Serious complications such as compartment syndrome, infection, and skin slough were avoided completely in 51 consecutive cases. Patellofemoral contact pressure studies in five cadaver knees have shown that anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer can provide substantial reduction of patellofemoral contact stress while helping to balance medial and lateral facet pressures. This surgical procedure is mechanically and clinically successful for alleviating intractable pain related to patellar malalignment and articular degeneration. This procedure enables the majority of appropriately selected patients with malalignment and patellar articular degeneration to resume increased levels of activity with substantially diminished pain.

  7. MRI of Polyethylene Tibial Inserts in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Normal and Abnormal Appearances.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela E; Sneag, Darryl B; Miller, Theodore T; Lipman, Joseph D; Padgett, Douglas E; Potter, Hollis G

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal and abnormal MRI appearances of polyethylene tibial inserts. Subjects who underwent MRI before revision total knee arthroplasty were identified. The polyethylene tibial insert's shape was categorized on MRI, and the presence of abnormalities was noted. The shape of the polyethylene tibial insert varied with the design. Polyethylene tibial insert abnormalities seen on MRI included displacement and fracture. MRI distinguishes various designs of polyethylene tibial inserts and can show associated abnormalities.

  8. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  9. Posterior tibial nerve lesions in ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.

  10. Current developments concerning medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2009-12-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common lower leg injuries in athletes who run. Studies have reported MTSS to occur in 4% to 20% of this population. It can be defined as an overuse injury that creates pain over an area covering the distal to middle third of the posteriomedial tibial border, which occurs during exercise and creates cyclic loading. Differential diagnosis includes ischemic disorders and stress fractures. Although the pathology of this injury is understood, the etiology is less agreed upon. This makes it difficult for clinicians to diagnose and treat this common injury. The purpose of this article is to present health care practitioners with the most current information regarding MTSS so they can better diagnose and treat this common injury. To this end, a literature review was conducted, with the most current results presented. The areas of etiological theories, imaging techniques, and treatment options for MTSS were searched. Five of the most prevalent etiological theories are presented with supporting evidence. Of the imaging tools available to the clinician, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy have comparable specificity and sensitivity. Clinicians should first make the clinical diagnosis of MTSS, however, because of high percentages of positive MRI scans in asymptomatic patients. There have been few randomized controlled trials investigating treatment options for athletes with MTSS. Those that have been performed rendered no significant findings, leading researchers to conclude that rest is equal to or better than other treatment options. Given the evidence, treatment suggestions for practitioners caring for athletes with MTSS are provided.

  11. Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Amal; Liebergall, Meir; London, Eli; Mosheiff, Rami

    2002-09-01

    This article presents our experience with 24 patients who had distal tibial fractures and were treated by percutaneous plate fixation. Distribution of the fractures according to the AO/OTA classification was as follows: five patients suffered from a 43 A type fracture, six from a 43 B type fracture, and 13 from a 43 C type fractures. Four of the fractures were open. Exclusion criteria included 43 C3 fractures and Gustilo III open fractures. All fractures showed radiographic signs of union enough to enable full weightbearing within an average time of 12.3 weeks. All patients showed a good range of motion (average dorsiflexion 12 degrees and average plantiflexion 18 degrees). Two fractures united with mal-union: one with an 8 degrees valgus deformity and another with a 7 degrees varus deformity. Both cases, which had a metaphyseal component, were treated by means of a "soft" (flexible and manually adjustable) AO 3.5 mm reconstruction plate. Except for one case of superficial infection, no infections were detected in any of the patients. The biological percutaneous plate fixation of distal tibial fractures with no extensive intra-articular involvement is a good soft tissue preserving technique. It provides a rigid and anatomical fixation in most cases. We conclude that type B fractures with one intact column can be fixed with either "soft" or "rigid" plates, and type A and C fractures with a metaphyseal component should be fixed with "rigid" plates (AO 4.5 mm Dynamic Compression Plate). In these fractures the reduction should be performed cautiously due to the tendency of sagittal plane mal-reduction.

  12. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  13. Change in Posterior Tibial Slope After Open-Wedge and Closed-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nha, Kyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-11-01

    It is unclear whether open- or closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in significant changes in posterior tibial slope, with no consensus on the magnitude of such changes. Furthermore, methods of measuring posterior tibial slope differ among studies. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to evaluate whether posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge HTO and decreases after closed-wedge HTO and to quantify the magnitudes of the slope changes after open- and closed-wedge HTO using various methods of measuring posterior tibial slope. Posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge and decreases after closed-wedge HTO. The magnitude of change is similar for the 2 methods, and the value obtained for posterior tibial slope change is affected by the method of measurement. Meta-analysis. Multiple comprehensive databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched for studies that evaluated the posterior slope of the proximal tibia in patients who had undergone open- and/or closed-wedge HTO. Studies were included that compared pre- and postoperative posterior tibial slopes, regardless of measurement method, including anterior and posterior tibial cortex or tibial shaft axis as a reference line, in patients who underwent open- or closed-wedge HTO. The quality of each included study was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data, which included subgroups of 3 methods, showed that posterior tibial slope increased 2.02° (95% CI, 2.66° to 1.38°; P = .005) after open-wedge HTO and decreased 2.35° (95% CI, 1.38° to 3.32°; P < .001) after closed-wedge HTO. This meta-analysis confirmed that posterior tibial slope increased after open-wedge HTO and decreased after closed-wedge HTO when the results of a variety of measurement methods were pooled. The magnitude of change after open- and closed-wedge HTO was similar and small (approximately 2°), suggesting

  14. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  15. Improving tibial component alignment in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; D'Arino, A; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2015-12-01

    Tibia torsion may influence the accuracy of extramedullary instrumentations in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study assessed whether the effect of tibial torsion may be overcome using a surgical technique in which the extramedullary rod is aligned to reference points at the proximal tibia only. A consecutive series of 94 knees that underwent TKA were analyzed. In the first 47 knees (group 1), a standard procedure for tibial component alignment was performed while in the second group of 47 knees, a modified surgical technique was used including the alignment of the extramedullary rod to the reference points at the proximal tibia only (group 2). Lower limb, femoral, and tibial component alignment were measured on postoperative long-leg radiographs. Femorotibial mechanical axes angles were similar in the two groups. Femoral component alignment also did not differ between the groups. A neutral alignment of the tibial component was achieved in 17 and 34 % of the knees in group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0.04). A malalignment of the tibial component >3° was found in 34 % of knees in group 1 compared with 4 % of those in group 2 (p = 0.0001). Coronal alignment of the tibial component may improve by setting the extramedullary rod in line with anatomical references in the proximal tibia only. This technique appears to bypass the influence of tibial torsion on the alignment of the extramedullary guide at the distal tibia. The clinical relevance of the study is that using this technique, the rate of malalignment of the tibial component may be reduced compared to a standard technique in which a fixed reference is used at the ankle joint.

  16. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    parent of tibial bowing that was thought to be bilateral with possible increase on the right . Bracing was used bilaterally for 6 months and then...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with...skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), typically identified in infancy (Friedman and Birch, 1997). The

  17. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  18. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  19. The effect of wedge and tibial slope angles on knee contact pressure and kinematics following medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Black, Marianne S; d'Entremont, Agnes G; McCormack, Robert G; Hansen, Gregory; Carr, Derek; Wilson, David R

    2018-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure to treat medial compartment osteoarthritis in varus knees. The reported success rates of the procedure are inconsistent, which may be due to sagittal plane alignment of the osteotomy. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changing tibial slope, for a range of tibial wedge angles in high tibial osteotomy, on knee joint contact pressure location and kinematics during continuous loaded flexion/extension. Seven cadaveric knee specimens were cycled through flexion and extension in an Oxford knee-loading rig. The osteotomy on each specimen was adjusted to seven clinically relevant wedge and slope combinations. We used pressure sensors to determine the position of the centre of pressure in each compartment of the tibial plateau and infrared motion capture markers to determine tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. In early knee flexion, a 5° increase in tibial slope shifted the centre of pressure in the medial compartment anteriorly by 4.5mm (P≤0.001), (from the neutral slope/wedge position). Increasing the tibial slope also resulted in the tibia translating anteriorly (P≤0.001). Changes to the tibial slope during high tibial osteotomy for all tested wedge angles shifted the centre of pressure in both the medial and lateral compartments substantially and altered knee kinematics. Tibial slope should be controlled during high tibial osteotomy to prevent unwanted changes in tibial plateau contact loads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The accuracy of two different extra-medullary tibial cutting guides for posterior tibial slope in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bek, Doğan; Ege, Tolga; Yıldız, Cemil; Tunay, Servet; Başbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two different external tibial cutting guides with and without a spike anchoring to the intercondylar eminentia to achieve a desired posterior tibial slope. Between January 2008 and December 2011, 120 posterior cruciate ligament protecting total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgeries of 83 patients in which two different external tibial cutting guides used were included. Fifty-nine knees were included into the spiked and 61 knees were included into the spikeless cutting guide group. Posterior tibial slope angles were measured using the postoperative X-rays. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass indexes (p<0.05). While the mean postoperative slope angle was 2.66°±2.001°(range 0°-7°) in spiked group, it was 2.46°±2.277° (range 0°-7°) in spikeless group. Both systems had identical accuracy, indicating a low rate. The comparison of variances of two groups showed that both cutting guides had similar precision (p=0.234). There was no effect of body mass index on the results in both groups. Although different extra-medullary tibial cutting guides with and without a spike can reproducibly impart a desired posterior tibial slope in TKA, we concluded that a spiked guide was considered user-friendly.

  1. EMG biofeedback assisted KT-1000 evaluation of anterior tibial displacement.

    PubMed

    Feller, J; Hoser, C; Webster, K

    2000-01-01

    Two studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of EMG biofeedback to encourage hamstring relaxation during KT-1000 measurement of anterior tibial displacement. In study 1, 60 ACL-deficient patients were studied in three groups using 15 lb and 20 lb in each group: in group 1 the patients were simply retested 15 min after the initial test sequence, in group 2 they were initially retested with EMG biofeedback and then again without, and in group 3 they were retested twice with EMG biofeedback. No significant difference in mean anterior tibial displacement was seen between the initial measurements and retest measurements when no EMG biofeedback was used. A significant increase in mean anterior tibial displacement was seen when the retesting was performed with EMG biofeedback. No further increase was seen with repeated retesting with EMG biofeedback. In study 2, 40 patients were evaluated 4-12 months following ACL reconstruction. KT-1000 measurements of anterior tibial displacement of both the operated and non-operated knees were made at 15 lb and 30 lb with and without the use of EMG biofeedback. EMG biofeedback was associated with a significant increase in unilateral measurement of anterior tibial displacement. When side-to-side differences were compared, there was a small but statistically significant increase in anterior tibial displacement with the use of EMG biofeedback. Although the use of EMG biofeedback to encourage hamstring relaxation does increase unilateral measurements of anterior tibial displacement, it does not appear to have a clinically significant effect on measurement of side-to-side difference. It may have a role in testing patients who have difficulty achieving hamstring relaxation or in aiding inexperienced examiners.

  2. Alternative method for direct measurement of tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Stijak, Lazar; Santrac-Stijak, Gordana; Spasojević, Goran; Radonjić, Vidosava; Malis, Milos; Milovanović, Darko; Filipović, Branislav

    2014-04-01

    The tibial slope is one of the most frequently cited anatomical causes of anterior cruciate ligament trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of direct measuring of the tibial slope of the knee without prior soft tissue dissection in cadavers. Measurement was performed on the two groups of samples: osteological and cadaveric. The osteological group consisted of 102 matured tibiae and measurement was performed: indirectly by sagittal photographing of the tibia, and directly by a set of parallel bars. The cadaveric group consisted of 50 cadaveric knees and measurement was performed directly by a set of parallel bars. The difference and correlation between indirect and the direct measurements were observed, which included also measuring of the difference and correlation of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral condyles. A statistically significant difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring (p < 0.01) of 1 degree was found for the tibial slope on the medial condyle, which is of no practical importance. Direct measurement of the osteological and cadaveric groups of samples did not show a statistically significant difference regarding the values of the tibial slope on the lateral condyle (p > 0.05). However, the slope on the medial condyle, as well as indirect measurement showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). By the use of a set of parallel bars it is possible to measure the tibial slope directly without removal of the soft tissue. The results of indirect, photographic measurement did not statistically differ from the results of direct measurement of the tibial slope.

  3. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  4. Different changes in slope between the medial and lateral tibial plateau after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lustig, S; Scholes, C J; Costa, A J; Coolican, M J; Parker, D A

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to radiographic measurements, MRI provides multiple slices of the knee joint in the sagittal plane, making it possible to assess the medial and lateral tibial slope separately. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) on bony and meniscal slope in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments. It was hypothesised that greater changes on the medial tibial plateau would be observed compared with the lateral one. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed on pre- and post-operative MRIs from 21 patients (17 men and 4 women; age 52 ± 9 years). Inclusion criteria were varus alignment, medial compartment osteoarthritis and election for a primary MOWHTO. Each patient had a preoperative and a post-operative high-resolution MRI (3Tesla, Magnetom Trio, Siemens AG) at an average follow-up of 2.1 years. A previously published method was used to measure bony and meniscal slope for each compartment. The difference between pre- and post-operative tibial slope for both compartments was calculated and associated with the amount of frontal correction. There was a significant increase in bony tibial slope in both compartments following MOWHTO. When a change in bony tibial slope was detected in an individual patient, the change was larger in the medial compartment, with the average change also significantly greater (p < 0.01) in the medial compartment (2.4° ± 1.3°) compared with the lateral compartment (0.9° ± 1.1°). There was also a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the lateral tibial meniscal slope of 0.9° ± 1.4°, which was equivalent to the change in the bony lateral slope. The amount of frontal correction was not significantly associated with the amount of change in slope. The results suggest that the modification of the bony slope is larger in the medial compartment after MOWHTO, which is likely related to the location of the hinge on the lateral

  5. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  6. Forefoot flexibility and medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shintarou; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and morphology and flexibility of the foot arches. 131 feet from 74 healthy subjects and 31 feet from 27 patients with MTSS were classified as normal feet (n=78 in 40 subjects), flat feet (n=53 in 34 subjects), or MTSS feet (n=31 in 27 patients). The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) ratio and the transverse arch length (TAL) were measured in both rearfoot and forefoot loading positions. The difference between the 2 positions indicated the flexibility of the MLA (diff-MLA ratio) and the transverse arch (diff- TAL). The MLA ratio was higher in normal feet than MTSS feet or flat feet (15.1% vs. 12.8% vs. 12.3%, p<0.001). The diff-TAL was lower in MTSS feet than normal feet or flat feet (0.4% vs. 0.8% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001]). The 3 groups were comparable in terms of the diff-MLA ratio and the TAL. Respectively for the MLA ratio and the diff-TAL, the cut-off value was 11.9% and 0.61% based on the Youden index. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio of the cut-off value were 0.4, 0.9, and 4.8 for the MLA ratio, and 0.6, 0.7, and 9.8 for the diff-TAL, respectively. Decreased flexibility of the transverse arch and decreased MLA ratio are risk factors for MTSS. In contrast, the flexibility of the MLA and the height of the transverse arch were not risk factors for MTSS.

  7. New angle measurement device to control the posterior tibial slope angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2017-11-17

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy has been associated with an unintentional increase in the posterior tibial slope angle. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel bone spreader angle rod to maintain the native posterior tibial slope angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Data from 92 consecutive knees in 83 patients who underwent medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy for knee osteoarthritis between March 2015 and June 2016 were analysed. The osteotomy was performed without the use of a bone spreader angle rod in the first 50 cases (control group) and with the use of the angle rod in the subsequent 42 cases (angle rod group). The wedge insertion angle, defined as the angle between a line drawn along the posterior aspect of the wedge spacer and a line tangential to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles, and the posterior tibial slope angle were evaluated on pre- and postoperative lateral knee radiographs and postoperative computed tomography images. Wedge insertion angle showed that wedge spacers were inserted in a more direct horizontal direction in the angle rod group than in the control group (16.0 ± 8.8° and 23.0 ± 10.0°, respectively, P < 0.001). The pre- to postoperative change in posterior tibial slope angle was significantly smaller in the angle rod group (0.6 ± 1.6°) compared to that in the control group (3.2 ± 3.2°; P < 0.0001). A change of posterior tibial slope angle > 3° (outlier) was identified in 1 case (2.4%) in the angle rod group compared to 27 cases in the control group (54.0%). The direct horizontal insertion of wedge spacers with the assistance of our novel bone spreader angle rod maintains the native posterior tibial slope angle better than conventional methods. IV.

  8. Dynamic simulation of tibial tuberosity realignment: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Elias, John J; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate a dynamic multibody model developed to characterize the influence of tibial tuberosity realignment procedures on patellofemoral motion and loading. Computational models were created to represent four knees previously tested at 40°, 60°, and 80° of flexion with the tibial tuberosity in a lateral, medial and anteromedial positions. The experimentally loaded muscles, major ligaments of the knee, and patellar tendon were represented. A repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc testing was performed at each flexion angle to compare data between the three positions of the tibial tuberosity. Significant experimental trends for decreased patella flexion due to tuberosity anteriorization and a decrease in the lateral contact force due to tuberosity medialization were reproduced computationally. The dynamic multibody modeling technique will allow simulation of function for symptomatic knees to identify optimal surgical treatment methods based on parameters related to knee pathology and pre-operative kinematics.

  9. Reduced ultrasound velocity in tibial bone of young ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Foldes, A J; Danziger, A; Constantini, N; Popovtzer, M M

    1997-05-01

    Young ballet dancers are at risk both for osteopenia, due to low body weight, inadequate nutrition and gonadal dysfunction, as well as for lower limbs stress fractures. However, a direct relationship between stress fractures and bone mass in dancers could not be demonstrated, raising the possibility that qualitative aspects of bone, such as elasticity, may be adversely affected in the dancers. To test this hypothesis, speed of sound, a physical parameter that reflects both quantitative and qualitative properties of bone, was determined at the tibial bone of 27 dance students and 27 non-dance students. The results were compared to bone mineral density at the tibia and the lumbar spine, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. All three bone measurements were lower in the dance group, but the difference was statistically significant only for the tibial speed of sound. The role of tibial speed of sound measurement in assessing bone status in athletes warrants further exploration.

  10. Quantitative morphology of the subchondral plate of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed Central

    Milz, S; Putz, R

    1994-01-01

    The object of the present investigation was to measure the thickness distribution of the subchondral plate of the tibial plateau. The data were obtained by computerised image analysis of serial sections. The measured values revealed a marked difference in the thickness between the various regions of the joint surface. Thinner zones (100-300 microns) are found in the peripheral region near the margin of the tibial plateau. Thickness maxima (up to 1500 microns and more) are to be seen at the centres of the joint surfaces. The relationship between the thickness distribution of the subchondral plate and information about the stress distribution of this particular joint surface support the conclusion that the morphology of the subchondral plate of the tibial plateau is determined by the function of the joint. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7559105

  11. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  16. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pes Anserinus Bursitis due to Tibial Spurs in Children.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Sampath Kumar, Venkatesan; Poudel, Rishi R; Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Shah Alam

    2017-07-05

    Osteochondromas are the most common bone tumours. Although these tumors are relatively common in the long bones of children, the varied clinical and radiographic presentation of such neoplasms around the knee joint can cause diagnostic delays, especially when not associated with a palpable swelling. Proximal tibial osteochondromas can sometimes unusually present as spurs/ rose thorns leading to pes anserinus bursitis and vague knee pain. We describe the clinico-radiographic features of such proximal tibial metaphyseal osteochondromas giving rise to pes anserinus bursitis in three children, including bilaterally symmetrical osteochondroma in one of the cases, who were treated conservatively with good outcomes.

  18. Radiological analysis of closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ali; Kayali, Cemil; Ağuş, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in frontal plane (anatomical axis) and sagittal plane (tibial slope, patellar height) parameters following closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and possible correlations between them. Between June 2003 and May 2007, 15 knees of the 13 female patients (mean age 52.6 years; range 45 to 64 years) who were followed on a regular basis in our outpatient clinic and underwent closed-wedge HTO were included. The mean follow-up was 49 months (range 29-75 months). Radiologic analysis was performed using pre- and postoperative anatomical axis, tibial slope, and patellar height measurements [Caton index (CI) and Insall-Salvati index (ISI)]. The findings were analyzed by using Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Pearson's correlation test. Preoperative varus deformity was 6.3° ± 2.7°, while it was measured as 7.2° ± 2.5° valgus in the last visit (p=0.0004). The pre- and postoperative CI were 0.97 ± 0.1 and 0.96 ± 0.1, respectively (p=0.85). The ISI decreased from 1.23 ± 0.15 to 1.14 ± 0.15 (p=0.012). Patella baja was observed in only one patient (ISI=0.77). Preoperatively tibial slope was 6.5° ± 2.4°, while it was measured as 0.06° ± 3.4° in the last visit (p=0.0001). There was no correlation between frontal plane angle change and tibial slope, also between patellar height and tibial slope. Closed-wedge HTO does not result in significant changes in patellar height. The risk of patella baja can be decreased through minimal dissection around patellar tendon. However, closed-wedge HTO reduces tibial slope significantly. Optimal resection from posterior tibia is necessary to prevent this condition. A possible loss of tibial slope should be considered in the further reconstructive procedures.

  19. [Metal/alumine metallosis on tibial osteotomy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, G; Roue, J; Poignard, A; Hernigou, P

    2008-05-01

    Metallosis is mainly described in the hip joint at the time of wear or inappropriate use. Cases have also been reported in patients with a knee prosthesis, but never after tibial osteotomy. We report a rare case of metallosis resulting from metal-alumina contact after open wedge tibial osteotomy. The patient complained of pain, which was relieved after removal of the plate nine months after the first operation. Intraoperative inspection revealed metallosis at the synthesis site and local plate wear at zone of contact with the ceramic filler. Removal of the plate and cleaning of the metallosis zone led to full relief of the pain at one and a half months.

  20. An accessory portal for posterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion visualization.

    PubMed

    Bach, Bernard R; Aadalen, Kirk J; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2004-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is infrequently performed, technically challenging, and has less predictable results compared with its anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) counterpart. Creation of a transtibial tunnel has been associated with catastrophic neurovascular complications, as well as tunnel malpositioning. This technical note reports the use of the femoral PCL tunnel to visually access the posterior slope for tibial tunnel creation. This technique modification allows concurrent placement of instruments through an inferomedial and/or posteromedial portal to facilitate PCL insertional debridement, placement of the tibial aimer, and creation of the tunnel. We feel that this technical modification provides superior visualization of this anatomic area.

  1. Tibial shaft anatomy differs between Caucasians and East Asian individuals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongyi; Chen, Chilung; Scholl, Daniel; Faizan, Ahmad; Chen, Antonia F

    2017-09-22

    The orientation and distance from the shaft of the femur and tibia to the articular surface centre is important for performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with cementless stems. It is important to understand anatomic differences between races to match the tibial and femoral shaft axis to the knee articular surface. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare knee morphology between Caucasian and East Asian individuals to determine the optimal placement of tibial and femoral stems. A retrospective study was conducted on a matched cohort of 50 East Asians (21F, 29M) and 50 Caucasians (21F, 29M) by age and gender. CT scans were obtained in healthy volunteers using < 2-mm slices. The distance from the proximal tibial diaphysis axis to the tibial plateau centre and the distance from the distal femoral diaphysis axis to the centre of distal femoral articular surface were measured separately. Tibial measurements were taken using Akagi's anteroposterior (AP) axis and the widest mediolateral (ML) diameter, and femoral measurements were based on Whiteside's line and the surgical epicondylar axis. The ML distance between the tibial shaft centre and Akagi's line was significantly higher for Asians (9.9 ± 2.7 mm, Caucasians 7.7 ± 3.1 mm, p < 0.001). The distance between the femoral shaft centre and Whiteside's line was lower, although not significantly different (Asians 1.9 ± 1.0 mm, Caucasians 2.2 ± 1.1 mm, n.s.). However, there were no differences in the AP dimension for the femur or tibia comparing Asians to Caucasians in both tibial side (Asians 10.6 ± 3.3 mm vs. Caucasians 10.9 ± 4.0 mm) and femoral side (Asians 18.1 ± 1.7 mm vs. Caucasians 17.5 ± 1.6 mm). East Asian individuals have more offset in the ML dimension for the tibia. This finding is clinical relevant, as this dimensional difference should be taken into consideration when designing primary and revision TKA stemmed tibial implants for East Asian individuals. Case

  2. Increased medial tibial slope in teenage pediatric population with open physes and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shail; van Eck, Carola F; Vyas, Nina; Fu, Freddie H; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2011-03-01

    Variations in bony morphology have been associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. The primary aim of this study was to compare the tibial slope in the teenage pediatric population with open physes, with and without ACL injury. The secondary aims were to compare the notch width index (NWI) and determine the influence of gender and age on tibial slope and NWI. Thirty-nine teenage pediatric subjects were included in this study, 16 with and 23 without ACL injury. Medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope and NWI as measured on plain radiographs were compared between the groups using an independent t-test. Comparison of tibial slope and NWI was also performed between male and female subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient between age and tibial slope and NWI was calculated. The medial tibial slope averaged 10.2 (±3.9) degrees, the lateral tibial slope 11.5 (±3.9) degrees, and the NWI 0.26. There was a significant difference in medial tibial slope between the ACL-injured (12.1 degrees) subjects and the controls (8.9 degrees) (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in lateral tibial slope or NWI between the groups. There was no significant difference in the medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope and NWI between the male and female subjects. Subject age was not correlated with medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope or NWI. There was an increased medial tibial slope in ACL-injured teenagers with open physes, when compared to a control group of teenager with open physes without ACL injury.

  3. Lateralization of Tibial Plateau Reference Point Improves Accuracy of Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Proximal Tibia Vara.

    PubMed

    Thippana, Rajshekhar K; Kumar, Malhar N

    2017-12-01

    The tibial cut referenced to the center of the intercondylar eminence often leads to varus malalignment in the presence of preexisting proximal tibia vara. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lateralization of the lateral tibial plateau reference point (based on the amount of proximal tibia vara) on the postoperative coronal plane alignment. In this prospective cohort study, 62 patients (95 knees) with osteoarthritis and proximal tibia vara underwent primary total knee arthroplasty using a lateral tibial plateau reference point for the extramedullary jig. The pre- and postoperative radiographs were obtained for measurement of mechanical axis deviation, degree of tibia vara, proximal lateral reference point of the tibial condyle, and coronal alignment of the femoral and tibial components. The distance between the tibial reference point and the center of the intercondylar eminence was measured intraoperatively. The mean tibia vara was 7.1° (standard deviation [SD], 2.3°). The mean lateral displacement of the reference point was 7 mm (SD, 2.2 mm). Postoperative tibiofemoral angle was 6° to 10° of valgus in 94% of cases. There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of tibia vara and the amount of lateralization of the tibial reference point (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). In total knee arthroplasty patients with proximal tibia vara, reasonable accuracy can be achieved with use of the extramedullary jig for tibial component alignment by lateralizing the proximal tibial reference point.

  4. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  5. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  6. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  7. Arthroscopically assisted percutaneous osteosynthesis of lateral tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Cemil; Oztürk, Hasan; Altay, Taskin; Reisoglu, Ali; Agus, Haluk

    2008-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of lateral tibial plateau fractures treated with arthroscopically assisted percutaneous osteosynthesis (AAPO). Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 41 years underwent AAPO to repair low-energy Schatzker I-III tibial plateau fractures. Under pneumatic tourniquet, we reduced and fixed the fracture with 1 or 2 subchondral cannulated screws. Accompanying lesions included 10 meniscus tears, which we partially excised in 9 patients and repaired in 1 patient. On the second postoperative day, patients began range-of-motion exercises. We encouraged partial and full weight-bearing by the sixth and tenth weeks, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 38 (range 12-96) months, and we evaluated the patients using Rasmussen's clinical and radiologic criteria. We used a t test for statistical analysis. There were 13 excellent (62%), 6 good (28%) and 2 fair (10%) clinical results, and 11 excellent (52%), 7 good (33%) and 3 fair (14%) radiologic results. We observed mild or moderate arthritic changes in 5 patients (24%). There were no infection or wound problems, but we removed hardware in 4 patients. Arthroscopically assisted treatment of lateral tibial plateau fractures yields satisfactory results and can be accepted as an alternative and effective method for the treatment of low-energy tibial plateau fractures.

  8. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  9. Do ethnicity and gender influence posterior tibial slope?

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Scordo, Gavinca M; Prins, Johan; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2017-12-01

    Ethnicity and gender can affect posterior tibial slope; however, studies on this topic have limitations and are in disagreement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate posterior tibial slope in a large group of consecutive patients, determining whether ethnicity and gender can influence its value. Secondly, to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability of the two radiographic methods adopted. Posterior tibial slope was calculated (rater 1) in lateral view X-rays of the knee according to the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) and tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA) methods. Data were matched with ethnicity and gender. For determination of intra- and inter-rater reliability, 50 random X-rays were selected, and blindly measured by two other raters (2 and 3). A total of 581 radiographs were included (413 white and 168 black knees). Comparing white and black subjects, a statistically significant difference was found for both PTC (4.9 ± 1.2 vs 7.1 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001), and for TPAA (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 10.2 ± 3.0, p < 0.0001). In white subjects, an influence of gender was found only for TPAA (6.4 ± 1.1 in males vs 7.6 ± 1.1 in females, p < 0.0001). In black subjects, an influence of gender was found only for PTC (7.4 ± 3.0 in males vs 6.2 ± 2.9 in females, p = 0.01). Intra-rater reliability was good for both methods for rater 1, and very good for rater 2. Inter-rater reliability among the 3 raters was very good for both methods. Differences in posterior tibial slope between different ethnic groups exist. Differences observed between genders are conflicting and might be too small to have implications in clinical practice. The TPAA method is recommended for the evaluation of posterior tibial slope because of higher intra- and inter-rater reliability. Level of evidence 3 Case-control study.

  10. Posterior Tibial Slope as a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Şenişik, Seçkin; Özgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Çetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key points Dominant legs’ tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001). Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer. PMID:24149571

  11. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  12. Posteromedially placed plates with anterior staple reinforcement are not successful in decreasing tibial slope in opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Matheny, Lauren M; Cram, Tyler R; Moulton, Samuel G; Dornan, Grant J; Mitchell, Justin J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-12-01

    To document the effectiveness of a novel technique to decrease tibial slope in patients who underwent a proximal opening-wedge osteotomy with an anteriorly sloped plate placed in a posteromedial position. The hypothesis was that posteromedial placement of an anteriorly sloped osteotomy plate with an adjunctive anterior bone staple on the tibia would decrease, and maintain, the tibial slope correction at a minimum of 6 months following the osteotomy. All patients who underwent biplanar medial opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy with anterior staple augmentation to decrease sagittal plane tibial slope were included, and data were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Indications for decreasing tibial slope included medial compartment osteoarthritis with at least one of the following: ACL deficiency, posterior meniscus deficiency, or flexion contracture. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6-month postoperative radiographs were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (14 males and 7 females) were included in the study with a mean age of 36.5 years. Intrarater and interrater reliability of slope measurements were excellent at all time points (ICC ≥ 0.94, ICC ≥ 0.85). The osteotomy resulted in an average tibial slope decrease of 0.8 from preoperative (n.s.). At 6-month postoperative, average slope was not significantly different from time-zero postoperative slope (mean = +0.2°). The most important finding of this study was that posteromedial placement of an anteriorly angled osteotomy plate augmented with an anterior staple during a biplanar medial opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy did not decrease sagittal plane tibial slope. Whether a staple was effective in maintaining tibial slope from time zero to 6 months postoperatively was unable to be assessed due to no significant change in tibial slope from the preoperative postoperative states. The results of this study note that current osteotomy plate designs and surgical techniques are

  13. Long-term follow up of single-stage anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and high tibial osteotomy and its relation with posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Arun, G R; Kumaraswamy, Vinay; Rajan, David; Vinodh, K; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Santosh, Sahanand; Kishore, Chandan

    2016-04-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is considered to be an effective treatment for medial compartmental osteoarthritis. It is generally admitted that tibial slope increases after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and decreases after closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Young patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency along with medial compartment osteoarthritis need a combined procedure of ACL reconstruction along with high tibial osteotomy to regain physiological knee kinematics and to avoid chondral damage. We retrospectively analysed data from 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction along with medial opening-wedge osteotomy from Jan 2004 to June 2012 with a minimum follow up of 2 years. The pre-operative and post-operative posterior tibial slopes were measured. Functional outcome was analysed using clinico-radiological criteria, IKDC scoring and Lysholm score. Post-operative patients improved both clinically and functionally. The patients who had posterior tibial slope >5° decrease, compared to patients who had less <5° decrease, had better functional scores (IKDC and Lysholm score), which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that decreasing the tibial slope >5° compared to pre-operative value has functionally favourable effect on the reconstructed ACL graft and outcome. It is known that increasing slope causes an anterior shift in tibial resting position that is accentuated under axial loads. This suggests that decreasing tibial slope may be protective in an ACL deficient knee. Hence by placing the tricortical graft posterior to midline in the opening wedge reduces the posterior tibial slope and thereby reduces the stress on the graft leading to better functional outcome.

  14. All-polyethylene tibial components generate higher stress and micromotions than metal-backed tibial components in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Brihault, Jean; Navacchia, Alessandro; Pianigiani, Silvia; Labey, Luc; De Corte, Ronny; Pascale, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2016-08-01

    Most total knee arthroplasty tibial components are metal-backed, but an alternative tibial component made entirely of polyethylene (all-polyethylene design) exists. While several clinical studies have shown that all-poly design performs similarly to the metal-backed, the objective of this study is to perform a biomechanical comparison. Loads, constraints and geometries during a squat activity at 120° of flexion were obtained from a validated musculoskeletal model and applied to a finite element model. Stresses in the tibia and micromotions at the bone-implant interface were evaluated for several implant configurations: (1) three different thicknesses of the cement penetration under the baseplate (2, 3 and 4 mm), (2) the presence or absence of a cement layer around the stem of the tibial tray and (3) three different bone conditions (physiological, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone). All-polyethylene tibial components resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.001) and more uneven stress distributions in the cancellous bone under the baseplate (peak difference: +128.4 %) and fivefold increased micromotions (p < 0.001). Performance of both implant designs worsened with poorer bone quality with peaks in stress and micromotion variations of +40.8 and +54.0 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Performance improvements when the stem was cemented were not statistically significant (n.s.). The metal-backed design showed better biomechanical performance during a squat activity at 120° of flexion compared to the all-polyethylene design. These results should be considered when selecting the appropriate tibial component for a patient, especially in the presence of osteoporotic bone or if intense physical activity is foreseen.

  15. Quantification of tibial bone loss in antegrade versus retrograde tunnel placement for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Hoffelner, Thomas; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2015-08-01

    Tibial bone destruction during primary graft tunnel placement and tibial bone loss following tunnel enlargement represent major challenges in revision reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Initial all-inside ACL reconstruction facilitates the preparation of tibial bone sockets rather than full tunnels that potentially preserve tibial bone stock. The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess length, diameter and volume of tibial graft tunnels following all-inside and conventional ACL reconstruction. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of 59 patients were assessed following ACL reconstruction. In 35 patients we used conventional antegrade tibial tunnel drilling and in 24 all-inside retrograde tibial bone sockets. Imaging analysis included total, minimal and maximal tunnel length and tunnel diameter. Tunnel volumes were calculated corresponding to these parameters. Statistically significant group differences (p < 0.01) could be detected for tibial tunnel volume, length and diameter between conventional antegrade and all-inside retrograde tibial bone tunnels and sockets, respectively. Compared with conventional techniques, all-inside retrograde drilling of tibial bone sockets is effective in preserving significant bone stock, which might be beneficial for revision reconstruction in cases of eventual primary graft failure.

  16. Effects of measurement methods for tibial rotation axis on the morphometry in Korean populations by gender.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Son, Juhyun; Kwon, Oh-Ryong; Baek, Changhyun; Heo, Dong Beom; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Ho-Joong; Koh, Yong-Gon

    2017-01-01

    There have been arguments for methodology in tibial rotation axis measurement, which accordingly determines the morphometry of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty. The morphometry of the proximal tibia for the Korean population is determined by gender, based on the anatomical tibial axis and reliable rotational orientation in knee replacements, to evaluate the size suitability of the currently available prostheses in Korea. This study reconstructed the MRI images in three-dimensions for identification and measurement of the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) lengths of the proximal tibia and the tibial aspect ratio (ML/AP) using proximal tibial anthropometric data for 700 osteoarthritic knees (587 females and 113 males). The ML and AP lengths were measured using tibial rotation axis techniques based on the medial one-third tibial tubercle and Cobb's method. Significant differences (P<0.05) in ML, medial anteroposterior (MAP), lateral anteroposterior (LAP) lengths, and aspect ratio (ML/LAP) were observed for males and females with respect to different measurement techniques for the tibial rotation axis. However, the measured aspect ratio (ML/MAP) of tibiae for the Korean population did not show significance. The measured aspect ratio (ML/AP) ratio of tibiae for the Korean population was higher than that of currently available tibial components. Results from this study can guide development of gender-specific tibial prosthesis designs with different ML and AP aspect ratios based on the tibial anatomical rotation axis for the Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supramalleolar Osteotomy for Tibial Component Malposition in Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Deforth, Manja; Krähenbühl, Nicola; Zwicky, Lukas; Knupp, Markus; Hintermann, Beat

    2017-09-01

    Persistent pain despite a total ankle replacement is not uncommon. A main source of pain may be an insufficiently balanced ankle. An alternative to the revision of the existing arthroplasty is the use of a corrective osteotomy of the distal tibia, above the stable implant. This strictly extraarticular procedure preserves the integrity of the replaced joint. The aim of this study was to review a series of patients in whom a corrective supramalleolar osteotomy was performed to realign a varus misaligned tibial component in total ankle replacement. We hypothesized that the supramalleolar osteotomy would correct the malpositioned tibial component, resulting in pain relief and improvement of function. Twenty-two patients (9 male, 13 female; mean age, 62.6 years; range, 44.7-80) were treated with a supramalleolar osteotomy to correct a painful ankle with a varus malpositioned tibial component. Prospectively recorded radiologic and clinical outcome data as well as complications and reoperations were analyzed. The tibial anterior surface angle significantly changed from 85.2 ± 2.5 degrees preoperatively to 91.4 ± 2.9 degrees postoperatively ( P < .0001), the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score significantly increased from 46 ± 14 to 66 ± 16 points ( P < .0001) and the patient's pain score measured with the visual analog scale significantly decreased from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 3.3 ± 2.4 ( P < .001). No statistical difference was found in the tibial lateral surface angle and the range of motion of the ankle when comparing the preoperative to the postoperative measurements. The osteotomy healed in all but 3 patients on first attempt. Fifteen patients (68%) were (very) satisfied, 4 moderately satisfied, and 3 patients were not satisfied with the result. The supramalleolar osteotomy was found to be a reliable treatment option for correcting the varus misaligned tibial component in a painful replaced ankle. However, nonunion (14%) should be mentioned as a

  18. An Anatomic and Radiographic Study of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cynthia V; Greene, Janelle D; Cooperman, Daniel R; Liu, Raymond W

    2017-10-09

    Although the undulating shape of the distal tibial epiphysis is well recognized, its anatomic features have not been well quantified in the literature. To guide the placement of surgical implants about the distal tibial physis, we investigated the topographical anatomy of the distal tibial epiphysis and explored the ability of standard radiographs to visualize the physis. We studied 30 cadaveric distal tibial epiphyses in specimens 3 to 14 years of age. Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs were obtained of each specimen and then repeated after flexible radiopaque markers were placed on the major undulations. All radiographs were analyzed to determine the height or depth of each landmark, and measurements with and without markers for each landmark were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In 9 specimens, similar measurements were obtained on high-resolution 3-dimensional (3D) surface scans. There were 4 distinct physeal undulations usually present: an anteromedial peak (Kump's bump), a posterolateral peak, an anterior central valley, and a posterior central valley. On the 3D scans, Kump's bump averaged 5.0 mm (range, 3.0 to 6.4 mm), the posterolateral peak 2.4 mm (range, 1.2 to 5.0 mm), the anterior valley 1.3 mm (range, 0 to 3.6 mm), and the posterior valley 0.77 mm (range, 0 to 2.7 mm). Lateral radiographs with markers correlated with measurements from 3D scans better than those without markers (ICC=0.61 vs. 0.24). For AP radiographs, correlation was good to excellent regardless of marker use (ICC=0.76 vs. 0.66). There are 4 major undulations of the distal tibial physis. Kump's bump is the largest. A centrally placed epiphyseal screw in the medial/lateral direction or screws from anterolateral to posteromedial and anteromedial to posterolateral would tend to avoid both valleys. Particular caution should be taken when placing metaphyseal screws in the anteromedial or posterolateral distal tibia. Physeal undulations were

  19. Recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of posterior tibial plateau fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Chang, Shimin; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The posterior tibial plateau fracture is drawing increasing attention from orthopedists in recent years with the popularity of CT. However, due to the particular and severity of posterior tibial plateau fracture, there is still controversy in its classification and treatment. It is very difficult to achieve the ideal reduction and fixation by conventional techniques and approaches. The modified posterior approach is favorable for posterior tibial plateau fracture, but disadvantages remain. Recently, the lateral approach is applied by doctors. It is ideal for treatment of posterior tibial plateau fracture. Because of the complexity of local anatomical structure, the operative management of posterior tibial plateau fractures is a contentious issue as revealed in the recent surge of published literature addressing the surgical approach. This review mainly summaries the diagnosis, classification and surgery of the posterior tibial plateau fractures. PMID:26131147

  20. Multiple Tibial Insufficiency Fractures in the Same Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, Saartje; Mertens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures were first described by Briethaupt in 1855. Since then, there have been many discussions in the literature concerning stress fractures, which have been described in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones. Currently, the tibia is the most frequent location, but multiple stress fractures in the same tibia are rare. This paper presents an unusual case of a 60-year-old woman with multiple tibial stress fractures of spontaneous onset. PMID:23569673

  1. Evaluation of alveolar grafting with tibial graft in adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sadique

    2013-01-01

    In a resource-limited setting, use of advanced reconstruction procedures for cleft patient is unaffordable. The autogenous graft sites such as iliac or rib are not favored owing to socio-ethno-economic and cosmetic reasons. In such situations, tibial graft is an excellent alternative. There is limited literature on the use of tibial graft from India and this manuscript attempts to address this lacuna. Archives of a single department on cleft palate cases treated with tibial graft were collected. Cases fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated from the orthopantomogram (OPG) and/or computed tomogram (CT) imaging using previously described methodology. All the data collected were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The mean age of the patients was 17.78 ± 3.29 years with a range of 13-23 years. Three patients had been treated with secondary bone grafting, while the remainder had been treated with tertiary bone grafting. The median age of the study population was 17.39 years, while the mode was 17 years. The mean efficiency in terms of preoperative and post-operative size of defects as measured in OPG was 74.32 ± 7.31, while it was 73.15 ± 9.9 as measured in CT. All the patients were comfortable with closure of the defect. Patients treated with secondary bone grafting had a mean efficiency was 79.53 ± 9.07, while for tertiary grafting, it was 71.72 ± 4.86. The tibial graft offers an excellent alternative to the conventional standard grafts such as iliac crest or rib grafts. The efficiency of the treatment measured at 6 months period on standard OPG or CT is comparable to the results obtained with the rib/iliac crest.

  2. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David A. Stevenson, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah... Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11- 1 -0250 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Stevenson...observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing

  4. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and "weekend warrior" athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of "shin splints," one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. "Active" rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness.

  5. Outcome of surgical treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yates, Ben; Allen, Mike J; Barnes, Mike R

    2003-10-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common chronic sports injury characterized by exercise-induced pain along the posteromedial border of the tibia. The reported outcomes of surgical treatment of this condition have varied. Of seventy-eight patients who underwent surgery for medial tibial stress syndrome, forty-six (thirty-one men and fifteen women) returned for follow-up. The outcomes of the surgery were determined by comparing preoperative and postoperative pain levels as indicated on a visual analog pain scale and ascertaining the ability of the athletes to return to presymptom levels of exercise. The mean duration of postoperative follow-up was thirty months (range, six to sixty-three months). Surgery significantly reduced pain levels (p < 0.001) by an average of 72% as indicated on the visual analog pain scale. An excellent result was achieved in 35% of the limbs; a good result, in 34%; a fair result, in 22%; and a poor result, in 9%. Despite the success with regard to pain reduction, for a variety of reasons only nineteen (41%) of the athletes fully returned to their presymptom sports activity. Surgery can significantly reduce the pain associated with medial tibial stress syndrome. Despite this reduction in pain, athletes should be counseled that a full uninhibited return to sports is not always achieved.

  6. The impact of tibial torsion measurements on gait analysis kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Santos, Nadia Maria; Godoy, Wagner De; Bernal, Milena Moreira Barreto; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Ramalho, Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure and compare tibial torsion values as assessed by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics. In addition, the impact of each one of these measurements on kinematic and kinetic results for normal gait was determined. Methods: Twenty-three healthy and fully ambulatory patients were assessed, 11 women and 12 men, from 20 to 40 years old. Data were collected at a laboratory for the three-dimensional analysis of movement with 10 cameras and two force plates. Tibial torsion measurements were obtained using goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics based on the Plug-in Gait model. Afterwards, both procedures were compared, and the impact of each result was assessed on the kinematic and kinetic modeling of the knee and ankle. Results: Pearson's linear correlation coefficient (r=0,504) showed a moderate correlation between the three-dimensional kinematics and goniometry, and between the changes in the measurements. Regarding the processed kinematic and kinetic results for every torsion position, no significant differences were noticed among any of the studied variables (p>0.05). Conclusion: Although statistical correlation among tibial torsion angles by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematic were moderate, kinematic and kinetic analysis of the joints did not reveal any significant changes. Level of Evidence I, Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test. PMID:25328438

  7. Primary total knee arthroplasty for elderly complex tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie-Feng; Shen, Jian-Jian; Chen, Jun-Jie; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic results of primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) for elderly complex tibial plateau fractures. Between November 2010 and February 2012, six cases of elderly complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with primary TKA using the standard medial parapatellar approach. All six patients were available at follow up with mean duration of 32.3 months (range 25-41 months). There were 3 women and 3 men with an average age of 69.5 years (58-78 years) at the time of the arthroplasty. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score was 89.8 (range 85-94): 6/6 excellent. The mean knee flexion was 119.2° (105-130°). No significant postoperative complications were noted. None of these patients had significant postoperative knee pain required revision surgery, or had radiographic loosening of the components at the latest follow-up. TKA is a suitable solution for the treatment of elderly patients with complex tibial plateau fractures. Level IV, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tibial rotation-plasty for proximal femoral focal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kritter, A E

    1977-10-01

    The most common treatment for proximal femoral focal deficiency is amputation at the level of the ankle joint and subsequent prosthetic fitting in the manner used for an above-the-knee amputee. Since 1967, five patients with proximal femoral focal deficiency were treated with the Van Nes procedure -- an 180-degree tibial rotation-plasty to convert the ankle joint to a knee joint. Two of the five patients had excellent results -- the tibial rotation-plasty allowed the ankle joint to function as a knee joint with 90 degrees of flexion and placed it at the level of the contralateral anatomical knee. Fusion of the anatomical knee above the tibial rotation-plasty in these two patients provided a stable tibiofemoral lever arm that functioned as the thigh. Two patients had good results -- satisfactory functional and cosmetic improvement. In the remaining patient, who had associated paraxial fibular hemimelia with absence of the fourth and fifth rays of the foot, the result was a failure.

  9. Morphology and correction of distal tibial valgus deformities.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, G H; Marcellin-Little, D J; Ferretti, A

    2007-12-01

    To characterise distal tibial valgus deformities in dogs through physical examination and radiographic evaluation. In a clinical study of 16 client-owned dogs, twelve unilateral and four bilateral distal tibial valgus deformities were evaluated using palpation and radiographs. The origin and amplitude of angulation, rotation and length deficits if present were measured. Radiographically, fibular length and position in relation to the tibia was compared in affected and clinically normal limbs. The dimensions of the fibular physes were also compared between clinically normal and affected limbs. Rottweilers and Shetland sheepdogs were overrepresented. Valgus deformities ranged from 16 degrees to 48 degrees (median, 32 degrees ) in affected and from 0 degrees to 13 degrees (median, 6 degrees ) in contralateral, clinically normal limbs. Fibular length, fibular position relative to the tibia or physeal dimensions were not statistically different between affected and clinically normal limbs. Many distal tibial valgus deformities in dogs are a uniplanar deformity without concurrent craniocaudal or rotational changes or length deficits. A growth cessation in the fibula does not appear to be responsible for the development of the deformity.

  10. Tibial Growth Disturbance Following Distal Femoral Resection and Expandable Endoprosthetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Arteau, Annie; Lewis, Valerae O.; Moon, Bryan S.; Satcher, Robert L.; Bird, Justin E.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In growing children, an expandable endoprosthesis is commonly used after distal femoral resection to compensate for loss of the distal femoral physis. Our hypothesis was that such prostheses can affect proximal tibial growth, which would contribute to an overall leg-length discrepancy and cause angular deformity. Methods: Twenty-three skeletally immature patients underwent the placement of a distal femoral expandable endoprosthesis between 1994 and 2012. Tibial length, femoral length, and mechanical axis were measured radiographically to determine the growth rate. Results: No patient had radiographic evidence of injury to the proximal tibial physis at the time of surgery other than insertion of the tibial stem. Fifteen (65%) of the patients experienced less proximal tibial growth in the operative compared with the contralateral limb. In ten (43%) of the patients, the discrepancy progressively worsened, whereas in five (22%) of the patients, the discrepancy stabilized. Seven patients did not develop tibial length discrepancy, and one patient had overgrowth of the tibia. For the ten patients with progressive shortening, the proximal tibial physis grew an average of 4.0 mm less per year in the operative limb. Five (22%) of the patients had ≥20 mm of tibial length discrepancy at last follow-up. Three of these patients underwent contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis. Three patients required corrective surgery for angular deformity. Conclusions: The tibial growth plate may not resume normal growth after implantation of a distal femoral prosthesis. Physeal bar resection, prosthesis revision, and contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis may be needed to address tibial growth abnormalities. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:26582624

  11. A novel technique using sensor-based technology to evaluate tibial tray rotation.

    PubMed

    Roche, Martin W; Elson, Leah C; Anderson, Christopher R

    2015-03-01

    Rotational tibiofemoral congruency and centralized patellar tracking are critical technical factors that affect the postoperative success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Several techniques are used to position the femoral component, but there is no validated method for achieving the ideal rotational position of the tibial component. It has been suggested that referencing the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle intraoperatively mitigates positional outliers. This study used data collected from intraoperative sensors to quantify the variability associated with using the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle in 170 patients undergoing primary TKA. With the sensor-equipped trial insert in place, the knee was taken into extension and the location of the femoral condylar contact point on the articular surface of the tibial insert was displayed. Rotational adjustments of the tibial tray were evaluated in real time as the surgeon corrected tray malpositioning. The initial and final angles of tibial tray rotation were captured and recorded with intraoperative video feed. When referencing the tubercle, 53% of patients had asymmetric tibiofemoral congruency in extension. Of those patients, 68% had excessive internal rotation of the tibial tray relative to the femur and 32% had excessive external rotation. The average tibiofemoral incongruency deviated from a neutral position by 6° (range, 0.5°-19.2°). Data from this evaluation suggest that use of the tibial tubercle to maximize tibiofemoral congruency is highly variable and inconsistent for confirming the final rotation of the tibial tray. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Experience Influences the Agreement and Reliability of Tibial Component Positioning in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, Derek F; Pallante, Graham D; Ollivier, Matthieu P; Hooke, Alexander W; Abdel, Matthew P; Taunton, Michael J

    2017-11-13

    Poor rotation of the tibial component is associated with unfavorable total knee arthroplasty outcomes. Some surgeons utilize the tibial tubercle (TT method), while others utilize the femoral cam (Box method) as a rotational landmark during total knee arthroplasty. Our purpose is to determine the reproducibility of 2 methods for establishing intra-operative tibial component rotation, while also comparing the effect of level of training. Twelve surgeons positioned and sized a symmetric tibial component on 7 cadaver knees. Surgeons were allowed to utilize their preferred method for establishing tibial component rotation. Seven surgeons selected the TT method, 4 utilized the Box method, and 1 used both methods depending on the specimen. Repeat measurements were completed by each surgeon after a rest period. The differences between tibial tray positions were assessed using computer-assisted optoelectronic measurements. Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to determine inter-observer agreement (IOA) and intra-rater reliability (IRR). Overall, both the Box method and the TT method demonstrated high IRR for tibial component rotation. Experienced surgeons were more consistent at establishing component rotation regardless of technique. Trainees were more consistent when utilizing the Box method (IRR 0.96, IOA 0.94) than the TT method (IRR 0.71, IOA 0.72). Surgeon experience influences the agreement and reliability of tibial component position. For less experienced surgeons, the Box method was more effective than the TT method for consistently reproducing tibial component rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups ( p  < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p  = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p  = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint

  14. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles >30°.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-01-26

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effect of Osteotomy Position and Tibial Plateau Rotation on the Tensile Force Required for Failure of the Canine Quadriceps Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Katie; Tarlton, John; Parsons, Kevin; Toscano, Mike; Burton, Neil

    2015-08-01

    To measure the tensile force required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism with different tibial tuberosity widths and different degrees of rotation of the tibial plateau after radial osteotomy of the proximal tibia. Ex vivo study, randomized unblocked design Thirty-five hind limbs from 18 adult Greyhound cadavers. Part 1 (15 limbs)--The center of rotation of the proximal tibial radial osteotomy was advanced craniodistally, progressively reducing absolute tibial tuberosity width (ATTW) for 5 different widths. Part 2 (21 limbs)-Tibial plateau rotation was performed at a set ATTW. Rotation was varied as a function of tibial tuberosity position with rotation proximal, level with, or distal to the tuberosity. All 35 limbs were tested with force applied via the quadriceps mechanism until construct failure occurred. All but 2 limbs failed by fracture of the tibial tuberosity. The tensile force required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism increased linearly with increasing ATTW. Significantly less force (P = .016) was required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism when the rotation of the tibial plateau was distal to the level of the patella tendon (mean 1,877 N) compared to when it was above the level of the patella tendon (mean 2,533 N). Rotation of the tibial plateau distal to the level of the patella tendon insertion point resulted in fracture at the base of the tibial tuberosity, level with the tibial plateau buttress. The overwhelming mode of failure of the quadriceps mechanism was by tibial tuberosity fracture, thus this was the weakest part of the construct. Reducing the tibial tuberosity width and rotation of the tibial plateau segment below the patella tendon insertion decreased the force required for tibial tuberosity fracture. These results support the idea of a safe point with the tibial plateau segment providing buttress to the tibial tuberosity. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Low Rates of Aseptic Tibial Loosening in Obese Patients With Use of High-Viscosity Cement and Standard Tibial Tray: 2-Year Minimum Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David A; Berend, Keith R; Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Adams, Joanne B; Lombardi, Adolph V

    2017-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is overall a very successful surgery, but complications do occur. These complications include aseptic loosening of the tibial component, and obese patients are among the highest risk group. High-viscosity cement (HVC) has been implicated as a possible cause for aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aseptic loosening of the tibial component in obese patients with the use of HVC and standard tibial tray. We identified 1366 obese patients (1851 knees) with a body mass index >35 kg/m 2 and 2-year minimum follow-up who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty using HVC and a symmetrical, grit-blasted, cobalt-chrome tibial component with 40-mm stem. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, Knee Society (KS) scores, complications, and reoperations were evaluated. Specifically, we assessed the rate of tibial aseptic loosening. At a mean 5.4 years follow-up, only 1 in 1851 knees had aseptic loosening of the tibial component for an incidence of 0.054%. There was a mean increase of 3.3 degrees of knee range of motion. KS pain level decreased by 38.6 points (50 point scale). KS clinical scores improved by 52.2, Knee Society functional scores improved by 19.5, University of California, Los Angeles, activity score improved by 0.9, and Oxford Knee Score by 15.7. All these improvements were statistically significant with P < .001. Standard tibial components and HVC can be used in most patients, including the high-risk obese group, with low rates of tibial aseptic loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE TIBIAL APERTURE SURFACE ANALYSIS IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Milojević, Zoran; Tabaković, Slobodan; Vićević, Marija; Obradović, Mirko; Vranjes, Miodrag; Milankov, Miroslav Z

    2016-01-01

    The tibial tunnel aperture in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually analyzed as an ellipse, generated as an intersection between a tibial plateau and a tibial bone tunnel. The aim of this study is to show that the tibial tunnel aperture, which utilizes 3D tibial surface bone model, differs significantly from common computations which present the tibial tunnel anterior cruciate ligament aperture surface as an ellipse. An interactive program system was developed for the tibial tunnel aperture analysis which included the real tibia 3D surface bone model generated from a series of computed tomography images of ten male patients, their mean age being 25 years. In aperture calculation, the transverse drill angle of 10 degrees was used, whereas sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees were used with the drill-bit diameter set to 10 mm. The real 3D and 2D tibial tunnel aperture surface projection was calculated and compared with an ellipse. According to the calculations, generated 3D aperture surfaces were different for every patient even though the same drill parameters were used. For the sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, the mean difference between the projected 3D and 2D area on the tibial plateau was 19.6 +/- 5.4%, 21.1 +/- 8.0% and 21.3 +/- 9.6%, respectively. The difference between the projected 3D area on the tibial plateau and ellipse surface was 54.8 +/- 16.3%, 39.6 +/- 10.4% and 25.0 +/- 8.0% for sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. The tibial tunnel aperture surface area differs significantly from the ellipse surface area, which is commonly used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction analysis. Inclusion of the 3D shape of the tibial attachment site in the preoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction planning process can lead to a more precise individual anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the tibial bone. Both

  18. The size of tibial footprint of anterior cruciate ligament and association with physical characteristics in Asian females.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Beom; Song, Young-Suk; Kim, Su-Cheol; Park, Yong-Geun; Ha, Chul-Won

    2015-07-01

    The tibial footprint is important for preoperative planning of operative technique and graft selection. Knowledge of tibial footprint in Asians is scant including the relationship between tibial footprint and physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to identify the size of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial footprint and the proportion of size <14 mm, and to evaluate the association of tibial footprint with physical characteristics in Asian females. A total of 127 patients with intact or minimal change in ACL were included. The tibial footprint was carefully measured during total knee arthroplasty. As potential predictors, leg length, femoral length, tibial length, and anteroposterior and mediolateral diameter of the proximal tibia were measured on radiographs, as well as body height and weight. The relationship of ACL tibial footprint length <14 mm with physical characteristics was analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The tibial footprint was 13.8 mm (range 10.0-18.0) in length and 9.8 mm (range 6.3-13.5) in width. The proportion of footprints <14 mm in length was 53.5 %. Patient height, leg length, femoral length, and tibial length were correlated with tibial footprint. Tibial length was the best predictor of ACL tibial footprint length <14 mm (Odds ratio 1.75; 95 % confidence interval 1.08-2.82). Tibial footprint size shows a large variation with a high proportion of <14 mm length. Tibial length can help predict the ACL tibial footprint in the preoperative planning of ACL reconstruction.

  19. Tibial stress injuries. An aetiological review for the purposes of guiding management.

    PubMed

    Beck, B R

    1998-10-01

    In the last 30 years, few advances have been made in the management of tibial stress injuries such as tibial stress fracture and medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Tibial overuse injuries are a recognised complication of the chronic, intensive, weight-bearing training commonly practised by athletic and military populations. Generally, the most effective treatment is considered to be rest, often for prolonged periods. This is a course of action that will significantly disrupt an active lifestyle, and sometimes end activity-related careers entirely. There is now considerable knowledge of the nature of tibial stress injuries, such that presently accepted management practices can be critically evaluated and supplemented. Most recent investigations suggest that tibial stress injuries are a consequence of the repetitive tibial strain imposed by loading during chronic weight-bearing activity. Evidence is presented in this article for an association between repeated tibial bending and stress injury as a function of: (i) strain-related modelling (in the case of MTSS), and (ii) a strain-related positive feedback mechanism of remodelling (in the case of stress fracture). Factors that influence the bending response of the tibia to loading are reviewed. Finally, a guide for injury prevention and management based on research observations is presented.

  20. The incidence and risk factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome among naval recruits.

    PubMed

    Yates, Ben; White, Shaun

    2004-01-01

    To identify the incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a group of naval recruits undergoing a 10-week basic training period and to determine potential risk factors. One hundred and twenty-four recruits (84 men and 40 women) were followed prospectively during basic training. Anthropometric and lower limb biomechanical data were recorded at the start of the program along with injury history and previous sporting activity for the 3 months prior to enlisting. Recruits were monitored during training for development of medial tibial strees syndrome and were asked to complete an exit interview at the end of the program. Forty recruits (22 men and 18 women) developed medial tibial stress syndrome, giving an incidence of 35%. A significant relationship existed between gender and medial tibial stress syndrome (P =.012), with female recruits more likely to develop medial tibial stress syndrome than male recruits (53% vs 28%). A risk estimate revealed a relative risk of 2.03. The biomechanical results indicated a more pronated foot type (P =.002) in the medial tibial stress syndrome group when compared to the control group. A risk estimate established that recruits with a more pronated foot type had a relative risk of 1.70. Identifying a pronated foot type prior to training may help reduce the incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome by early intervention to control abnormal pronation. Findings of a higher incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome among female recruits require further investigation.

  1. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  2. Closed rupture of the posterior tibial artery secondary to a soccer injury.

    PubMed Central

    Tytherleigh, M. G.; Charnley, G. J.; Wilkins, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Arterial damage following blunt trauma is uncommon and is usually the result of high-energy injury. We report a case of posterior tibial artery rupture after a closed distal tibial fracture, sustained during a low-energy soccer tackle. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9771227

  3. Treatment strategy for tibial plateau fractures: an update

    PubMed Central

    Prat-Fabregat, Salvi; Camacho-Carrasco, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries produced by high- or low-energy trauma. They principally affect young adults or the ‘third age’ population. These fractures usually have associated soft-tissue lesions that will affect their treatment. Sequential (staged) treatment (external fixation followed by definitive osteosynthesis) is recommended in more complex fracture patterns. But one should remember that any type of tibial plateau fracture can present with soft-tissue complications. Typically the Schatzker or AO/OTA classification is used, but the concept of the proximal tibia as a three-column structure and the detailed study of the posteromedial and posterolateral fragment morphology has changed its treatment strategy. Limb alignment and articular surface restoration, allowing early knee motion, are the main goals of surgical treatment. Partially articular factures can be treated by minimally-invasive methods and arthroscopy is useful to assist and control the fracture reduction and to treat intra-articular soft-tissue injuries. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the gold standard treatment for these fractures. Complex articular fractures can be treated by ring external fixators and minimally-invasive osteosynthesis (EFMO) or by ORIF. EFMO can be related to suboptimal articular reduction; however, outcome analysis shows results that are equal to, or even superior to, ORIF. The ORIF strategy should also include the optimal reduction of the articular surface. Anterolateral and anteromedial surgical approaches do not permit adequate reduction and fixation of posterolateral and posteromedial fragments. To achieve this, it is necessary to reduce and fix them through specific posterolateral or posteromedial approaches that allow optimal reduction and plate/screw placement. Some authors have also suggested that primary total knee arthroplasty could be an option in specific patients and with specific fracture patterns. Cite this article: Prat

  4. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, F; Collins, B; Thomas, G P; Askari, A; Tan, E; Nicholls, R J; Vaizey, C J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic constipation is difficult to treat when symptoms are intractable. Colonic propulsion may be altered by distal neuromodulation but this is conventionally delivered percutaneously. Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is noninvasive and cheap: this study aimed to assess its efficacy in chronic constipation. Eighteen patients (median age 46 years, 12 female) with chronic constipation were recruited consecutively. Conservative and behavioural therapy had failed to improve symptoms in all 18. Thirty minutes of daily bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation was administered by each patient at home for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QoL) score. Change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM), weekly bowel frequency and visual analogue scale (VAS) score were also measured. Fifteen patients (12 female) completed the trial. The PAC-QoL score improved significantly with treatment [pretreatment, median 2.95, interquartile range (IQR) 1.18; posttreatment, median 2.50, IQR 0.70; P = 0.047]. There was no change in PAC-SYM score (pretreatment, median 2.36, IQR 1.59; posttreatment, median 2.08, IQR 0.92; P = 0.53). Weekly stool frequency improved as did VAS score, but these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.229 and 0.161). The PAC-QoL and PAC-SYM scores both improved in four (26%) patients. Two patients reported complete cure. There were no adverse events reported. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation appears to be effective in a quarter of patients with chronic constipation. Carefully selected patients with less severe disease may benefit more. This requires further study. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Surface damage versus tibial polyethylene insert conformity: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Markus A; Laurent, Michel P; Haman, Jeannie D; Jacobs, Joshua J; Galante, Jorge O

    2012-07-01

    Surface damage of the tibial polyethylene insert in TKA is thought to diminish with increasing conformity, based on computed lower contact stresses. Added constraint from higher conformity may, however, result in greater forces in vivo. We therefore determined whether increased conformity was associated with increased surface pitting, delamination, creep, and polishing in a group of retrieved tibial inserts. We compared 38 inserts with a dished articular surface (conforming group) with 31 inserts that were unconstrained and nonconforming in the sagittal plane (less conforming group). The two groups had identical polyethylene composition and processing history. The articulating surfaces were scored for pitting, delamination, deformation/creep, and polishing. Evidence of edge loading and the presence of embedded bone cement were also recorded. The conforming inserts were associated with higher delamination and pitting scores but lower polishing scores, even after adjusting for the effects of sex, age, insert thickness, and implantation duration. Long implantation duration and male sex were also associated with increased delamination, pitting, and polishing, whereas long shelf life was associated only with increased delamination. The conforming group also had approximately a fourfold greater prevalence of edge loading and approximately a threefold greater prevalence of embedded bone cement. The latter was associated with higher scores and proportions of delamination and pitting. These findings suggest more conformity may increase surface fatigue damage in TKA. Higher constraint-induced stresses during secondary motions and more possibility for edge loading and bone cement capture on a dished surface may account for these results. The selection of materials with high fatigue resistance may be particularly important for high-conformity/constraint tibial inserts. In addition, awareness of the benefits and trade-offs with conformity may allow better matching of TKA design

  6. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  7. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  8. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M

    2016-07-01

    Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non-English language were excluded. Systematic review. Level 4. The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, -83.36 to -55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0.01). The general principles are to undertake surgical management for displaced fractures and to attempt nonsurgical

  9. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-07-18

    To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords "tibial", "plateau", "fractures", "knee", "athletes", "sports", "non-operative", "conservative", "operative", "return to sport". All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management ( n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management ( n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) ( n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) ( n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) ( n = 262). All studies recorded "return to sport" rates. Only one study recorded a "return to sport" time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study reporting on ORIF. Return rates to sport for tibial plateau

  10. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  11. Medial parapatellar approach leads to internal rotation of tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schiapparelli, Filippo-Franco; Amsler, Felix; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the type of approach [medial parapatellar approach (MPA) versus lateral parapatellar approach with tibial tubercle osteotomy (LPA)] influences rotation of femoral and/or tibial component and leg axis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was the hypothesis that MPA leads to an internally rotated tibial TKA component. This study included 200 consecutive patients in whom TKA was performed using either a parapatellar medial (n = 162, MPA) or parapatellar lateral approach with tibial tubercle osteotomy (n = 38, LPA). All patients underwent clinical follow-up, standardized radiographs and computed radiography (CT). TKA components' position and the whole leg axis were assessed on 3D reconstructed CT scans (sagittal, coronal and rotational). Mean values of TKA component position and the whole leg alignment of both groups were compared using a t test. The tibial component was graded as internally rotated (<3° of external rotation (ER)), neutral rotation (equal or between 3° and 6° of ER) and externally rotated (>6° ER). The femoral component was graded as internally rotated [>3° of internal rotation (IR)], neutral rotation (equal or between -3° IR and 3° of ER) and externally rotated (>3° ER). There was no significant difference in terms of whole leg axis after TKA between both groups (MPA: 0.2° valgus ± 3.4; LPA: 0.0° valgus ± 3.5). Means of tibial component rotation were 2.7° ER ± 6.1 (MPA) and 7.6° ER ± 5.4 (LPA). Patients of group LPA presented a significantly less internally rotated (LPA: 18.4%; MPA: 48.8%) and more externally rotated (LPA: 52.6%; MPA: 22.8%) tibial component (p < 0.001). No significant differences were seen for the femoral component position, tibial valgus/varus and tibial slope. The type of approach (medial versus lateral) significantly influenced tibial TKA component rotation. It appears that a MPA tends to internally rotate the tibial TKA component and a LPA tends to

  12. Tibial stress fractures in an active duty population: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury among military recruits. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, long-term effects that tibial stress fractures have on military personnel with respect to physical activity level, completion of military training, recurrence of symptoms, and active duty service. Twenty-six military recruits included in a previous tibial stress fracture study were contacted 10 years after initial injury and asked a series of questions related to any long-term consequences of their tibial stress fracture. Of the 13 patients available for contact, no patients reported any necessary limited duty while on active duty, and no patient reported being separated or discharged from the military as a result of stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures in military recruits are most often an isolated injury and do not affect ability to complete military training or reflect a long-term need for decreased physical activity.

  13. Non-invasive repair of an iatrogenic tibial artery branch pseudoaneurysm after intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Cameron G; Hanson, Logan F

    2017-11-01

    Tibial fractures are a commonly seen injury in orthopedic surgery. Intramedullary nailing is considered the standard of care, as complications are rare. Those of a vascular nature, including iatrogenically induced pseudoaneurysms of the tibial artery have been previously described in the literature, however each reported case has required surgical repair. In the current case, we describe a repair of a tibial artery branch pseudoaneurysm, after direct contact with an interlocking screw from tibial intramedullary nailing, via ultrasound-guided thrombin injection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a tibial artery pseudoaneurysm repaired non-surgically. This adds support to the promising literature on non-invasive repair of orthopedically related pseudoaneurysms.

  14. Postoperative Repeat Dislocation of the Posterior Tibial Tendon: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Yasunari; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ochi, Mitsuo

    Dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon is an uncommon condition. Although surgery is usually performed in most cases of posterior tibial tendon dislocation, postoperative repeat dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon has not been reported in the published data. We report the case of a 27-year-old male patient who experienced repeat dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon after a gymnastic landing, 44 months after initial retinaculum repair. For revision surgery, we reconstructed the flexor retinaculum in conjunction with deepening of the retromalleolar groove, because the groove was hypoplastic. He returned to competitive gymnastics and had not experienced subluxation or dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon at the 1-year follow-up examination. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo evaluation of femoral and tibial graft tunnel placement following all-inside arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2014-12-01

    The arthroscopic all-inside tibial inlay technique represents a novel procedure for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. However, in vivo investigations that evaluate the accuracy of this technique regarding anatomic graft tunnel placement are few. The objective of this study was to analyse the femoral and tibial tunnel apertures using computed tomography (CT) and compare these findings to recommendations in the literature. CT scans were obtained in 45 patients following single-bundle PCL reconstruction. The centres of the tibial and femoral tunnel apertures were correlated to measurement grid systems used as a radiographic reference. The centre of the femoral tunnel aperture was located at 42.9% ± 9.4% of the total intercondylar depth and at 12.9% ± 7.2% of the total intercondylar height. The angle α for the femoral tunnel position was measured at 64.2° ± 10.0°. The centre of the tibial tunnel aperture was found at 51.8% ± 4.1% of the total mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau. The superoinferior distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the joint line was 9.6 mm ± 4.4 mm on frontal and 9.3 mm ± 3.4 mm on sagittal 3D-CT scans. The distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the former physis line averaged to 0.8 mm ± 3.4 mm. Comparison to the corresponding reference values revealed no statistically significant difference. Arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction is an efficient procedure for precise replication of the anatomical footprint of the PCL. IV, prospective case series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tibial dyschondroplasia is highly associated with suppression of tibial angiogenesis through regulating the HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathway in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Cheng; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Lan, Yan-Fang; Qiu, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Luo, Hou-Qiang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Li-Hong; Li, Jia-Kui

    2017-08-22

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an intractable poultry problem that is characterized by the appearance of non-vascularized and non-mineralized cartilage masses in tibial growth plates (TGPs). However, the role of angiogenesis inhibition in the occurrence of TD remains unknown. In this study, we found that, compared to low-altitude Arbor Acres chickens (AACs), high-altitude Tibetan chickens showed higher tibial vascular distributions that were accompanied by up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGF receptors. These observations provide insights into hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, which may be related to the absence of TD in high-altitude native Tibetan chickens. Importantly, hypoxia experiments also showed that during hypoxia, tibial angiogenesis was enhanced, which was due to pro-angiogenic factor up-regulation (including VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and IL-8), in AACs. Moreover, we observed that thiram-induced TD could strongly inhibit tibial angiogenesis in the hypertrophic zone through coordinated down-regulation of HIF-1α and pro-angiogenic factors, leading to a disruption in the blood supply to the TGP. Taken together, these findings reveal that the occurrence of TD is highly associated with inhibition of tibial angiogenesis through down-regulated expression of HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGF receptors, which results in suppression of TGP development.

  17. Comparison of locking and conventional screws for maintenance of tibial plateau positioning and biomechanical stability after locking tibial plateau leveling osteotomy plate fixation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Michael; Pearce, Simon G; Windolf, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten; Zeiter, Stephan; Schawalder, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2008-06-01

    To compare locking screws with conventional screws inserted in the tibial plateau fragment for reduction and stability of the construct after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), using a locking TPLO plate. Experimental biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine pelvic limbs (n=8 pairs). TPLO was stabilized with either conventional cortical screws or locking screws in a compressed osteotomy model. Titanium pins inserted into the tibial plateau and proximal metaphysis were used to track bone fragment location by computed tomography (CT) imaging. CT imaging was performed after osteotomy reduction, after plate stabilization, and after 30,000 cycles of axial compression testing. After 30,000 cycles, cyclic loading was continued with monotonically increasing peak-load until failure. The magnitude of rotation about the sawing axis was significantly greater for the conventional screw group because of plate application (P=.009). Translational movement of the tibial plateau fragment toward the plate was significantly greater for the conventional screw group (P=.006). There were no significant differences between groups in stiffness or number of cycles to failure. Maintenance of tibial plateau position was significantly superior for the locking screw group during plate application; however, screw type had no effect on fixation stability under cyclic loading. These results suggest that conventional screws and careful contouring of the TPLO plate can provide comparable mechanical stability to fixation with locking screws in the tibial plateau under load-sharing conditions, but potentially at the expense of osteotomy reduction.

  18. Canine Stifle Biomechanics Associated With Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Predicted Using a Computer Model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on canine biomechanics in the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle using a 3-dimensional quasi-static rigid body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait. Computer simulations. A 5-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever weighing 33 kg. A TTA was implemented in a previously developed canine pelvic limb computer model using the tibial plateau slope and common tangent planning techniques. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared to CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifles. The TTA significantly decreased peak caudal cruciate ligament load, significantly increased peak lateral collateral ligament load, and significantly changed peak medial collateral ligament load occurrence, while there was no significant difference in peak patellar ligament load compared to the CrCL-intact stifle. Compared to the CrCL-deficient stifle, peak caudal cruciate, lateral collateral and medial collateral ligament loads significantly decreased, while peak patellar ligament load was similar, peak relative tibial translation significantly decreased and peak relative tibial rotation was converted to external rotation in the TTA-treated stifle. Each TTA planning technique generated similar caudal cruciate, medial collateral, and patellar ligament loading as well as relative tibial translation, but lateral collateral ligament loading and occurrence of relative tibial rotation differed significantly across the techniques. Model-predicted stifle ligament loads improved following TTA compared to the CrCL-deficient stifle, but TTA did not restore CrCL-intact stifle biomechanics. The TTA effectively reduced tibial translation, but tibial rotation was not stabilized. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Is posterior tibial slope associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Wu, Song; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Zhang, Yi; Lei, Guang-hua

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine whether the association between posterior tibial slope and noncontact ACL injury exists in Chinese population; (2) compare the reliability and consistency of the three methods (longitudinal axis, posterior and anterior tibial cortex axis) in lateral radiograph. Case-control study contained 146 patients in total (73 noncontact ACL injuries and 73 meniscus injuries, matched for age and gender), which were verified by arthroscopy, MRI and physical examination. For the total population and the male subgroup, the mean posterior tibial slope of the ACL-injured group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, the longitudinal axis method exhibited the highest inter-rater (0.898) and intrarater reliability (0.928), whereas the anterior tibial cortex was the most variable (inter-rater reliability, 0.805; intrarater reliability, 0.824). The anterior tibial cortex method produced largest posterior tibial slope measurements (13.8 ± 3.3 for injury group; 11.6 ± 2.7 for control group), while the posterior tibial cortex method was the smallest (9.1 ± 3.1 for injury group; 7.2 ± 2.6 for control group). All three methods were not affected by age, sex, height, weight and BMI (n.s.). The results of this study suggested that an increased posterior tibial slope was associated with the risk of noncontact ACL injury in Chinese population. Meanwhile, the longitudinal axis method is recommended for measuring posterior tibial slope in lateral radiograph in future studies. Posterior tibial slope measured by longitudinal axis method may be used as predictor of ACL injury. Case-control study, Level III.

  20. Development and validation of a new method for the radiologic measurement of the tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, S; Goettinger, M; Weber, P; Horng, A; Glaser, C; Jansson, V; Müller, P E

    2011-10-01

    The posterior tibial slope has a huge influence on the kinematics of the knee. In several orthopedic interventions such as high tibial osteotomy and unicondylar or bicondylar knee replacement changing, the tibial slope can result in altered knee mechanics. Therefore, an exact preoperative measurement of the posterior tibial slope is mandatory. Several methods are used on conventional radiographs and CT scans, but until now there is no standard validated method. The aim of this study was to compare several methods and imaging techniques to measure the posterior tibial slope and to establish a standard and reliable measurement method by radiography. Fourteen knees (seven cadavers) were scanned by a 64-slice CT, a 3T-MRI, and true lateral radiographs were performed. The anatomical references (TPAA = tibial proximal anatomical axis; ATC = anterior tibial cortex; PTC = posterior tibial cortex) and the new computed reference (MPA = mean of PTA and ATC) were compared by short as well as long radiographs, CT scan and MRI. The influence of a malrotation in radiographs of the knees was also analyzed. CT scan and MRI are suitable for the measurement of the medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes, the results of the radiographs varied depending on the method used. The new method (MPA) showed the best correlation to the CT scan (r = 0.997), even on short radiographs (10 cm distal the joint line). The measurement of the posterior tibial slope on a short lateral radiograph using the MPA is a reliable method and should be established as a standard. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  1. Surgical management of persistent intoeing gait due to increased internal tibial torsion in children.

    PubMed

    Davids, Jon R; Davis, Roy B; Jameson, Lisa C; Westberry, David E; Hardin, James W

    2014-06-01

    Intoeing gait is frequently seen in developing children, and in most cases it resolves with growth. However, persistent, extreme intoeing gait, due to increased internal tibial torsion, may disrupt gait function. At our institution, children with symptomatic intoeing gait are evaluated per a standardized protocol, which includes quantitative gait analysis. When the primary cause is increased internal tibial torsion, surgical correction by supramalleolar tibial rotational osteotomy is recommended. The study design was a retrospective case series, with normative controls (31 children), of typically developing children with symptomatic intoeing gait who were treated by isolated supramalleolar tibial rotation osteotomy (28 children, with 45 treated extremities). Preoperative and 1-year postoperative physical examination, kinematic, kinetic, and pedobarographic data were compared. Patient-reported and parent-reported outcomes in functional and satisfaction domains were assessed by items on a 7-point questionnaire. Internal tibial torsion, foot progression angle, and knee rotation were normalized following tibial rotation osteotomy. Compensatory external hip rotation and external knee progression angle were significantly improved but not normalized following tibial rotation osteotomy. An increased coronal plane knee varus moment was significantly decreased following surgery. Increased sagittal and transverse plane knee moments were significantly decreased but not normalized following surgery. Significant improvements were observed with respect to tripping, falling, foot/ankle pain, and knee pain following surgery. Children with symptomatic intoeing gait because of increased internal tibial torsion have characteristic primary and compensatory kinematic gait deviations that result in increased loading about the knee during the stance phase of gait. Correction of the internal tibial torsion by rotation osteotomy improves, but does not normalize, all the kinematic and

  2. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  3. [Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for pelvic floor dysfunction. Review].

    PubMed

    Sucar-Romero, Sandra; Escobar-del Barco, Laura; Rodríguez-Colorado, Silvia; Gorbea-Chávez, Viridiana

    2014-08-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a highly prevalent functional pathology that affects women and can present with different clinical symptoms that include urinary urgency with or without incontinence, diurnal and nocturnal frequency, urinary retention, fecal incontinence, obstructive defecation, sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Lately, concern arised as to offer patients an advanced therapy within an integral approach. This interest was first focused in sacral nerve root modulation, a key element for pelvic function. Neuromodulation is considered a normal characteristic of the nervous system that regulates or modifies the electric impulses that come from different nervous body tissues. Neuromodulation is carried out through sacral neurostimulation (SNS), posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PNTS), which are reversible non destructive therapies used for peripheric stimulation of nerves, ganglia, spinal medula and brain. Even though there is evidence of efficacy for sacral nerve stimulation at short, medium and long-term, there are two main concerns within this approach: invasivity and high cost. It seems posterior nerve tibial stimulation has the same neuromodulatory effect as the one obtained by sacral nerve stimulation through a less invasive route and lower cost.

  4. Radiographic predictors of compartment syndrome in tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Becher, Stephen John

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the relationship of radiographic features of tibial plateau fractures to the development of compartment syndrome. We hypothesized that the direction and degree of initial displacement of the femur on the tibia, and the amount of tibial widening (TW), were correlated with the development of compartment syndrome. Retrospective case-control study. Single level 1 trauma center. Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients with 162 plateau fractures. Grouping with and without compartment syndrome. The following data were obtained: age, sex, Schatzker and OTA/AO classification, open/closed status, TW, and femoral displacement (FD). A univariate statistical and a logistical regression analysis were performed to determine significance. The overall rate of compartment syndrome was 11%. Univariate analysis found both the TW and FD to be significant with respect to development of compartment syndrome (P < 0.05). Higher Schatzker (IV-VI) and OTA/AO grades were also correlated (P < 0.05) with increased incidence of compartment syndrome. Logistic regression found FD and Schatzker grade to be significant. Our study is the first to identify easily obtained radiographic parameters that correlate to the occurrence compartment syndrome. There may also be a relationship between TW and FD, as noted by regression result. This study helps to assess which patients with a fracture are at higher risk for developing a compartment syndrome. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. A New Instrument for Measuring Tibial Torsion in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop and test the validity and reliability of a new instrument for measuring the thigh-foot angle (TFA) for the patients with in-toeing and out-toeing gait. Methods The new instrument (Thigh-Foot Supporter [TFS]) was developed by measuring the TFA during regular examination of the tibial torsional status. The study included 40 children who presented with in-toeing and out-toeing gaits. We took a picture of each case to measure photographic-TFA (P-TFA) in the proper position and to establish a criterion. Study participants were examined by three independent physicians (A, B, and C) who had one, three and ten years of experience in the field, respectively. Each examiner conducted a separate classical physical examination (CPE) of every participant using a gait goniometer followed by a TFA assessment of each pediatric patient with or without the TFS. Thirty minutes later, repeated in the same way was measured. Results Less experienced examiner A showed significant differences between the TFA values depending on whether TFS used (left p=0.003 and right p=0.008). However, experienced examiners B and C did not show significant differences. Using TFS, less experienced examiner A showed a high validity and all examiner's inter-test and the inter-personal reliabilities increased. Conclusion TFS may increase validity and reliability in measuring tibial torsion in patients who has a rotational problem in lower extremities. It would be more useful in less experienced examiners. PMID:28758082

  6. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  7. The influence of posterior tibial slope changes on joint gap and range of motion in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Ishida, Kazunari; Araki, Daisuke; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    The effect of posterior slope on joint gap in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has yet to be quantified. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the joint component gap and postoperative range of motion in UKA. Forty consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. The correlation between the tibial slope changes and the component gap, the component gap difference between flexion angles, the postoperative extension or flexion angles was examined. The correlation of joint looseness with tibial slope changes and postoperative extension angle was also examined. Increased tibial slope positively correlated with the differences between the component gap at 90° and 10°, 120° and 10°, or 135° and 10° knee flexion angle. Although tibial slope change did not affect postoperative flexion angle, increased tibial slope reduced postoperative extension angle. Moreover, increased tibial slope resulted in decreased joint looseness during 10° of knee flexion and decreased joint looseness during 10° of knee flexion resulted in reduced postoperative extension angle. Increased tibial slope resulted in tight component gap at knee extension compared with that at knee flexion. Furthermore, tight component gap at extension lead to decreased postoperative extension angle. These results indicate that an individual anatomical tibial slope should be considered when tibial sagittal osteotomy was performed and increasing tibial slope should be avoided to achieve full extension angle after UKA. II. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of tibial plateau angle changes after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy fixation with conventional or locking screw technology.

    PubMed

    Conkling, Amanda L; Fagin, Bennett; Daye, R Mark

    2010-06-01

    To compare the effects of locking and conventional screws on postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), osteotomy healing, and complication rate after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs treated for naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=118) with CCL rupture. Dogs (> or =20 kg) with unilateral CCL rupture and sufficient bone stock for TPLO and use of a 3.5-mm-broad or -narrow TPLO plate were sequentially allocated to have plate fixation with locking or conventional screws. Data analyzed included breed, age, sex, body weight, body condition score, limb operated, implants used, meniscal status, operative time, and days to recheck. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 8-week recheck mediolateral radiographs were reviewed, and TPA, complications, and healing status were evaluated. Stifles in the locking screw group had significantly less change in postoperative TPA than stifles in the conventional screw group. Locking screw fixation also had significantly higher grades of osteotomy healing, assessed on a mediolateral radiographic view. TPLO plates secured with locking screws are acceptable when compared with those secured with conventional screws; osteotomy healing is improved and TPA better conserved when using locking screws. Locking screw fixation serves to increase stabilization of TPA during TPLO healing and provides improved radiographic evidence of osteotomy healing.

  9. Reproducibility and Precision of CT Scans to Evaluate Tibial Component Rotation.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, Derek F; Ollivier, Matthieu P; Pallante, Graham D; Abdel, Matthew P; Clarke, Henry D; Mabry, Tad M; Taunton, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Component rotation likely plays a greater role on the survivorship and outcomes of total knee arthroplasties than is currently known. Our goal was to evaluate the precision, interobserver reliability, and intrarater reliability of tibial component rotation as measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, regardless of measurement technique. Three fellowship-trained, academic arthroplasty surgeons independently measured tibial component rotation on CT scans of 62 total knee arthroplasties using their methods of choice. Measurements were repeated at least 2 weeks after the initial measurement. The precision of the measurements was assessed using a formal 8-step protocol as the gold standard. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate precision, interobserver agreement, and intrarater reliability RESULTS: The interobserver agreement between the 3 surgeons for tibial component rotation was also moderate (ICC = 0.52). The intrarater reliability of tibial rotation was excellent (ICC = 0.81). Comparison of surgeons' measurement to a validated gold standard revealed only moderate precision for tibial component rotation (ICC = 0.64). Practicing surgeons measuring tibial rotation were internally consistent, but failed to demonstrate satisfactory precision and interobserver agreement. We support the adoption of standardized criteria for the measurement of tibial component rotation on CT scans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Malrotated tibial component increases medial collateral ligament tension in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-12-01

    Malrotation of the tibial component can lead to complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Despite reports of internal rotation being associated with more severe pain or stiffness than external rotation, the biomechanical reasons remain largely unknown. We used a computer simulation model and evaluated traction forces in the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) with a malrotated tibial component during squatting. We also examined tibiofemoral and patellofemoral contact forces and stresses under similar conditions. A dynamic musculoskeletal knee model was simulated in three different constrained tibial geometries with a prototype component. The testing conditions were changed between 15° external and 15° internal rotation of the tibial component. With internal rotation of the tibial component, the MCL force increased progressively; the LCL force also increased, but only up to less than half of the MCL force values. A higher degree of constraint of the tibial component was associated with greater femoral rotational movement and higher MCL forces. The tibiofemoral and patellofemoral contact forces were not influenced by malrotation of the tibial component, but the contact stresses increased because of decreased contact area. This altered loading condition could cause patient complaints and polyethylene problems after TKA. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Higher division of the tibial nerve in the leg: gross anatomical study with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Norzana, A G; Farihah, H S; Fairus, A; Teoh, S L; Nur, A K; Faizah, O; Das, S

    2013-01-01

    Tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve and it is the main nerve innervating the muscles of the back of the leg. The tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves. The level of division may be important for surgical purpose. The main aim of the present study was to observe the exact level of division of the tibial nerve and discuss its clinical implications. A total of 20 cadaveric limbs (irrespective of left or right side) were taken randomly. The posterior compartment of the thigh and leg was dissected to trace the tibial nerve and its branches. The specimens were subjected to measurements with respect to an arbitrary horizontal line passing through tip of medial malleolus and the calcaneum. All the specimens were photographed. In 5 cases (25%), the tibial nerve divided deep to the flexor retinaculum. In 15 cases (75%) cases, the tibial nerve divided at a distance of 3.5 cm - 6.5 cm (average 5 cm) above the medial malleolus. The tibial nerve and its divisions are important for performing successful nerve blocks and insertion of plates while treating fractures. Variations may account for the various discrepancies between the electromyographic tests and clinical tests.

  12. The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad C; Pericin, Branislav; Harhaji, Vladimir; Milankov, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an increased posterior tibial slope as a possible risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Sixty patients were divided into two groups (with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture). The posterior tibial slope on the lateral and medial condyles was measured by sagittal magnetic resonance imaging slices by means of computerized method using circles to determine tibial axis. The patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture had a statistically significantly (p = 0.06) greater posterior tibial slope on the lateral tibial condyle than the control group (6.68 degrees:5.64 degrees), and a greater slope on the medial condyle (5.49 degrees:4.67 degrees) in comparison to the patients with the intact anterior cruciate ligament. No significant difference in the average values of angles was observed between males and females with anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the average value being 6.23 degrees in men and 5.84 degrees in women on the lateral condyle, and 4.53 degrees in men and 4.53 degrees in women on the medial condyle. A statistically significant difference between the values of posterior tibial slope was observed between the groups with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the sex having no affect on the value of the posterior tibial slope. The method of measuring angles should be unique.

  13. Primary stability of tibial plateaus under dynamic compression-shear loading in human tibiae - Influence of keel length, cementation area and tibial stem.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Thomas M; Saleh, Khaled J; Holderied, Melanie; Pfaff, Andreas M; Schilling, Christoph; Schroeder, Christian; Mihalko, William M

    2017-07-05

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of the tibial keel & stem length in surface cementation, of a full cemented keel and of an additional tibial stem on the primary stability of a posterior stabilised tibial plateau (VEGA® System Aesculap Tuttlingen, Germany) under dynamic compression-shear loading conditions in human tibiae. We performed the cemented tibial plateau implantations on 24 fresh-frozen human tibiae of a mean donor age of 70.7years (range 47-97). The tibiae were divided into four groups of matched pairs based on comparable trabecular bone mineral density. To assess the primary stability under dynamic compression shear conditions, a 3D migration analysis of the tibial component relative to the bone based on displacements and deformations and an evaluation of the cement layer including penetration was performed by CT-based 3D segmentation. Within the tested implant fixation principles the mean load to failure of a 28mm keel and a 12mm stem (40mm) was 4700±1149N and of a 28mm keel length was 4560±1429N (p=0.996), whereas the mean load to failure was 4920±691N in full cementation (p=0.986) and 5580±502N with additional stem (p=0.537), with no significant differences regarding the dynamic primary stability under dynamic compression-shear test conditions. From our observations, we conclude that there is no significant difference between a 40mm and a 28mm tibial keel & stem length and also between a surface and a full cementation in the effect on the primary stability of a posterior stabilised tibial plateau, in terms of failure load, migration characteristics and cement layer thickness including the penetration into the trabecular bone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The natural history of tibial radiolucent lines in a proximally cemented stemmed total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Naima, V S; Freeman, M A

    1999-01-01

    A total of 207 tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been reviewed at a maximum of 10 years after replacement. Twelve knees developed aseptic femoral loosening and were reviewed separately from the remaining 195. All tibial components were fixed with cement confined to the proximal surface of the implant combined with an uncemented stem. In the 195 TKAs with well-fixed femoral components and (presumably) low wear, 15% of tibiae developed early-onset, nonprogressive partial radiolucent lines (RLLs), typically in relation to preoperative sclerosis. Tibial component vertical migration was measured in 36 components: no migration was detected over the course of 5 years whether or not an RLL was present. There was no case of tibial osteolysis, no tibial component was revised for aseptic loosening, and no implant was radiologically loose. In 12 knees, the femoral component loosened with subsidence exposing peripheral bone that caused severe HDP wear. Tibial RLLs were present in 9, and osteolysis was present in 11 (although the tibial component was actually loose in only 1). This material has been used to study 1) the natural history of RLLs in cemented TKA and 2) the outcome of using cement confined to the proximal part of the tibial interface. We conclude that in low-wear prostheses RLLs are due to a failure to inject cement into sclerotic bone. Such lines are nonprogressive and do not affect fixation. In the presence of severe wear, however, they may provide a portal for the entry of debris into the interface causing progression of the RLL and lysis. Proximal cement plus an uncemented stem furnishes adequate tibial fixation, provided that the HDP wear rate is low.

  15. Direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact.

    PubMed

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-01-19

    Anterior tibial loading is a major factor involved in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanism during ski impact landing. We sought to investigate the direct contribution of axial impact compressive load to anterior tibial load during simulated ski landing impact of intact knee joints without quadriceps activation. Twelve porcine knee specimens were procured. Four specimens were used as non-impact control while the remaining eight were mounted onto a material-testing system at 70 degrees flexion and subjected to simulated landing impact, which was successively repeated with incremental actuator displacement. Four specimens from the impacted group underwent pre-impact MRI for tibial plateau angle measurements while the other four were subjected to histology and microCT for cartilage morphology and volume assessment. The tibial plateau angles ranged from 29.4 to 38.8 degrees . There was a moderate linear relationship (Y=0.16X; R(2)=0.64; p<0.001) between peak axial impact compressive load (Y) and peak anterior tibial load (X). The anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group sustained surface cartilage fraying, superficial clefts and tidemark disruption, compared to the control group. MicroCT scans displayed visible cartilage deformation for both anterior and posterior regions in the impacted group. Due to the tibial plateau angle, increased axial impact compressive load can directly elevate anterior tibial load and hence contribute to ACL failure during simulated landing impact. Axial impact compressive load resulted in shear cartilage damage along anterior-posterior tibial plateau regions, due to its contribution to anterior tibial loading. This mechanism plays an important role in elevating ACL stress and cartilage deformation during impact landing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What mechanisms are associated with tibial component failure after kinematically-aligned total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Nedopil, Alexander J; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-08-01

    Eight patients treated with kinematically-aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) presented with tibial component failure. We determined whether radiographic measurements and clinical characteristics are different between patients with and without tibial component failure to identify mechanisms of failure and strategies to reduce the risk. Out of 3,212 primary TKAs (2,725 TKAs with a two-year minimum follow up), of which all were performed with KA, eight patients presented with tibial component failure. Radiographic measurements, clinical characteristics (e.g. age, gender, BMI, etc.), revision surgical records, and Oxford knee scores were compared to control cohort patients matched 1:3. Tibial component failure presented at an average of 28 ± 15 months after primary TKA. Patients with tibial component failure had a 6 kg/m2 greater body mass index (p = 0.034) and 5° greater posterior slope of the tibia component (p = 0.002) than controls. Final follow-up averaged 56 ± 19 months after the primary TKA and 28 ± 24 months after the revision TKA. The final Oxford knee score was 39 ± 4.6 for patients with tibial component failure and 44 ± 6.5 for the controls (p = 0.005). The incidence of tibial component failure after KA TKA was 0.3% and was caused by posterior subsidence or posterior edge wear and not varus subsidence. The strategy for lowering the risk of tibial component failure when performing KA is to set the tibial component parallel to the flexion-extension plane (slope) and varus-valgus plane of the native joint line.

  17. Influence of the posterior tibial slope on the flexion gap in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-08-01

    Adjusting the joint gap length to be equal in both extension and flexion is an important issue in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is generally acknowledged that posterior tibial slope affects the flexion gap; however, the extent to which changes in the tibial slope angle directly affect the flexion gap remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of tibial slope changes on the flexion gap in cruciate-retaining (CR) or posterior-stabilizing (PS) TKA. The flexion gap was measured using a tensor device with the femoral trial component in 20 cases each of CR- and PS-TKA. A wedge plate with a 5° inclination was placed on the tibial cut surface by switching its front-back direction to increase or decrease the tibial slope by 5°. The flexion gap after changing the tibial slope was compared to that of the neutral slope measured with a flat plate that had the same thickness as that of the wedge plate center. When the tibial slope decreased or increased by 5°, the flexion gap decreased or increased by 1.9 ± 0.6mm or 1.8 ± 0.4mm, respectively, with CR-TKA and 1.2 ± 0.4mm or 1.1 ± 0.3mm, respectively, with PS-TKA. The influence of changing the tibial slope by 5° on the flexion gap was approximately 2mm with CR-TKA and 1mm with PS-TKA. This information is useful when considering the effect of manipulating the tibial slope on the flexion gap when performing CR- or PS-TKA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximal tibial osteochondromas in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    PubMed

    Deirmengian, Gregory K; Hebela, Nader M; O'Connell, Michael; Glaser, David L; Shore, Eileen M; Kaplan, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification of skeletal muscle and soft connective tissues. The disorder is caused by a recurrent missense mutation in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin A receptor type I, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type-I receptor, in all classically affected individuals. Osteochondromas of the proximal part of the tibia are benign osteochondral neoplasms or orthotopic lesions of skeletal remodeling associated with dysregulated BMP signaling and have been considered an atypical feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, but they may be underdiagnosed because of their often asymptomatic nature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of proximal tibial osteochondromas in individuals who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Over a period of thirty months, we evaluated all patients with new and established fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva for the presence of proximal tibial osteochondromas on the basis of medical history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. We quantified the prevalence of osteochondromas and characterized the types of osteochondromas to identify relevant trends. Ninety-six patients (including fifty-two female patients and forty-four male patients) with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were evaluated on the basis of a history and physical examination. Plain radiographs were available for sixty-seven patients. Ninety percent of all patients had osteochondroma of the proximal part of the tibia. These lesions usually were asymptomatic, most commonly were bilateral, and typically were located at the pes anserinus. Seventy-five percent of the lesions were pedunculated, and 25% were sessile. Proximal tibial osteochondromas are a common phenotypic feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a finding

  19. Proximal Tibial Osteochondromas in Patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    PubMed Central

    Deirmengian, Gregory K.; Hebela, Nader M.; O’Connell, Michael; Glaser, David L.; Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification of skeletal muscle and soft connective tissues. The disorder is caused by a recurrent missense mutation in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin A receptor type I, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type-I receptor, in all classically affected individuals. Osteochondromas of the proximal part of the tibia are benign osteochondral neoplasms or orthotopic lesions of skeletal remodeling associated with dysregulated BMP signaling and have been considered an atypical feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, but they may be underdiagnosed because of their often asymptomatic nature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of proximal tibial osteochondromas in individuals who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Methods: Over a period of thirty months, we evaluated all patients with new and established fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva for the presence of proximal tibial osteochondromas on the basis of medical history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. We quantified the prevalence of osteochondromas and characterized the types of osteochondromas to identify relevant trends. Results: Ninety-six patients (including fifty-two female patients and forty-four male patients) with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were evaluated on the basis of a history and physical examination. Plain radiographs were available for sixty-seven patients. Ninety percent of all patients had osteochondroma of the proximal part of the tibia. These lesions usually were asymptomatic, most commonly were bilateral, and typically were located at the pes anserinus. Seventy-five percent of the lesions were pedunculated, and 25% were sessile. Conclusions: Proximal tibial osteochondromas are a common phenotypic feature of

  20. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords “tibial”, “plateau”, “fractures”, “knee”, “athletes”, “sports”, “non-operative”, “conservative”, “operative”, “return to sport”. All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management (n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management (n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) (n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) (n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) (n = 262). All studies recorded “return to sport” rates. Only one study recorded a “return to sport” time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study

  1. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  2. The role of the high tibial osteotomy in the unstable knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Shannon, Fintan J

    2007-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy is an accepted treatment option for knee arthrosis in association with coronal malalignment. However, the effect of this procedure on the sagittal balance of the knee has until recently been largely ignored. Basic science research over the past several years and some small clinical series have introduced a "novel" concept whereby the sagittal balance of a ligament deficient knee can be restored to some degree by altering the posterior tibial slope. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the role of selective high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of both the acute and chronic ligament deficient knee.

  3. Fracture of a Polyethylene Tibial Post in a Scorpio Posterior-Stabilized Knee Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Seung Joo; Yoon, Ji Yeol

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a polyethylene tibial post fracture in a 72-year-old woman 14 months after a Scorpio posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty. The polyethylene wear was found around the fracture site of the post, especially over the anterior aspect of the post base. The failure mechanism of the post fracture in the present case was anterior impingement with excessive wear over the base of the anterior aspect of the tibial post, which became a stress-riser of post and cam articulation. This is the first report of a polyethylene tibial post fracture of a Scorpio PS prosthesis. PMID:19885065

  4. Outcomes after arthroscopic fixation of tibial eminence fractures with bioabsorbable nails in skeletally immature patients.

    PubMed

    Momaya, Amit M; Read, Connor; Steirer, Megan; Estes, Reed

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the outcomes and any complications with arthroscopic bioabsorbable nail fixation of tibial eminence fractures in skeletally immature patients. We retrospectively reviewed all surgically treated tibial eminence fractures treated by a single surgeon and seven patients were identified with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Mean deficits of flexion and extension were minimal. Satisfactory Tegner levels, Lysholm knee scores, and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective scores were reported. Arthroscopic fixation of tibial eminence fractures with bioabsorbable nails yields satisfactory outcomes for this uncommon injury and obviates the need for future hardware removal.

  5. Risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Bongers, T; Bakker, E W; Zimmermann, W O; Weir, A; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). In total, 35 subjects were included in the study. For the risk factor analysis, the following parameters were investigated: hip internal and external ranges of motion, knee flexion and extension, dorsal and plantar ankle flexion, hallux flexion and extension, subtalar eversion and inversion, maximal calf girth, lean calf girth, standing foot angle and navicular drop test. After multivariate regression decreased hip internal range of motion, increased ankle plantar flexion and positive navicular drop were associated with MTSS. A higher body mass index was associated with a longer duration to full recovery. For other prognostic indicators, no relationship was found. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Equilibrium and movement control strategies in trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Viton, J M; Mouchnino, L; Mille, M L; Cincera, M; Delarque, A; Pedotti, A; Bardot, A; Massion, J

    2000-08-01

    This study was aimed at identifying changes in equilibrium and movement control strategies in trans-tibial amputees (TTA) related to both the biomechanical changes and the loss of afferent inflow. The coordinations between equilibrium and movement were studied in traumatical TTA and in controls during transition from bipedal to monopodal stance. TTA failed to perform the task in a high percentage of trials both when the sound and the prosthetic limb were supporting. Significant differences were also found between TTA and controls in the duration of the weight transfer phase, in the length of the initial centre of pressure (CP) displacement and in the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Despite adaptive posturomotor control strategies, transition from bipedal to monopodal stance remains a difficult task to perform for TTA, both when the supporting limb is the affected one and when the sound one is. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the rehabilitation programme and the prosthesis design for transtibial amputees.

  7. Sagittal accuracy of tibial osteotomy position during in vivo tibial plateau levelling osteotomy performed without an alignment jig and cutting guide.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew; Witte, Philip Georg; Scott, Harry William

    2017-01-16

    To assess the accuracy of tibial osteotomy location for tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) in the sagittal plane and its effect on the postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), when performed without an alignment jig and saw guide. Also, to document the improvement gained with experience. Medical records and stifle radiographs of dogs undergoing TPLO, without the use of an alignment jig and saw guide, by one surgeon were reviewed (2010-2014). Postoperative radiographs were reviewed to record the distance and direction of eccentricity. Postoperative TPA was also recorded. In a series of 401 TPLO procedures, 231 met the inclusion criteria. The absolute distance of eccentricity (DOE) for all dogs was 3.0 ± 1.6 mm. When evaluating surgical experience, the DOE for the final 77 cases (2.72 ± 1.43 mm), the middle 77 cases (3.18 ± 1.49 mm), and the first 77 cases (3.24 ± 1.7 mm) were not significantly different (p = 0.07157). There was a very weak correlation between DOE and postoperative TPA (R = 0.029). The location of the tibial osteotomy when performing TPLO without an alignment jig and saw guide compared favourably with previously documented use of an alignment jig and saw guide. Whilst the location of the tibial osteotomy has a theoretical impact on the postoperative TPA, other factors appear to be of greater importance. Surgeon experience did not result in significant improvement in accuracy up to 231 procedures.

  8. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contributing factors to medial tibial stress syndrome: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Carpenter, Erica Mullis; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2009-03-01

    To conduct a prospective, multisite, cohort study investigating the possible risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in college athletes. One hundred and forty-six healthy, collegiate athletes from NCAA Division I and Division II institutions participated in the study. Subjects first completed a health history questionnaire to establish previous history of injury and underwent a physical examination to assess their ankle/foot strength, ankle/foot range of motion, tibial varum, and navicular drop before the start of their respective athletic season. Athletes were instructed to report to a certified athletic trainer if they developed pain on their tibia. If MTSS was present, subjects were then placed into the symptomatic group. Independent t-tests and chi-square analyses were used to determine whether differences existed between MTSS and healthy athletes for the continuous and the discrete dependent variables, respectively. The significant dependent variables were then used in the discriminant function analysis. Twenty-nine subjects developed MTSS during this study. Athletes that had been participating in athletic activity for fewer than 5 yr were significantly more likely to develop MTSS (P = 0.002). Additionally, athletes with a previous history of MTSS (P = 0.0001), a previous history of stress fracture (P = 0.039), and the use of orthotics (P = 0.031) were more likely to develop MTSS compared with those who did not develop MTSS. This study established that the factors most influencing MTSS development were previous history of MTSS and stress fracture, years of running experience, and orthotic use. These data demonstrate the importance of establishing a thorough history before the start of the season so that athletes who might be at risk for MTSS development can be identified.

  10. Distal tibial fractures: evaluation of different fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Jöstl, Julian; Tiefenböck, Thomas Manfred; Hofbauer, Marcus; Winnisch, Markus; Lang, Nikolaus; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was the comparison of the most commonly used surgical techniques (external fixation, intramedullary nailing, and plate fixation) for the treatment of distal tibial fractures (AO/OTA classification 42-A, B, C or 43-A, B1). A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgical treatment for distal tibial fractures between 1992 and 2011 was performed. A total of 93 patients (52 male/41 female) met inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences were found regarding the consolidation time of the intramedullary-nailing (147.32 ± 91.16 days) and the plate-fixation group (135.75 ± 110.75 days) versus the external-fixation group (163.12 ± 96.79 days; P = 0.001; P = 0.01). Significant differences were also observed in the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint in the intramedullary-nailing and plate-fixation group versus the ROM in the external-fixation group (P = 0.044; P = 0.025). The overall complication rate was 13/93 (14 %). Out of 66 patients treated with intramedullary nailing, 8 (12 %) suffered from complications. Out of the 15 patients treated with plate and 12 patients with external fixation, 2 (13 %) and 3 (25 %) showed complications, respectively. Our results demonstrate advantages in terms of shorter mobilization time and a better ROM of the ankle joint for intramedullary nailing and plate fixation compared with external fixation. Due to our results, we suggest internal fixation (intramedullary nailing or plate fixation) whenever patient's condition and the local fracture situation allow it.

  11. Microcirculation Evaluated by Intraoperative Fluorescence Angiography after Tibial Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rother, Ulrich; Lang, Werner; Horch, Raymund E; Ludolph, Ingo; Meyer, Alexander; Regus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Intact microperfusion of the foot in the critical ischemic limb remains a crucial condition for ulcer healing. Aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the immediate effect of tibial bypass surgery on the microcirculation by usage of fluorescence angiography. Prospective analysis of 33 patients presenting with critical limb ischemia (Rutherford IV-VI) undergoing tibial bypass surgery was performed. Macroperfusion was investigated by measurement of ankle-brachial index. For assessment of microperfusion, intraoperative fluorescence angiography (SPY Elite, NOVADAQ) was undertaken during general anesthesia immediately before and after operation. For each investigation, a fluorescence dye (Indocyanine green) with an amount of 0.1 mg/kg was administered intravenously. Follow-up investigations were performed to assess the clinical outcome. The mean follow-up time was 8.28 (±4.46) months. The parameters Ingress (IN) and Ingress rate (InR) of the fluorescence dye representing the microcirculation showed a significant improvement to preoperative values and correlated with the ankle-brachial index significantly. Furthermore, a significant difference between the individual improvement of the microcirculation parameters (preoperative-postoperative) between patients with postoperative clinical improvement (wound healing, absence of rest pain) and those without could be demonstrated (InR: P = 0.039, IN: P = 0.036). The parameters IN and InR significantly reproduced the postoperative improvement of the microcirculation. An increased ankle-brachial index significantly correlated with increased microcirculation parameters. A better clinical outcome was found in those patients who had a higher relative improvement of microcirculation postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tibial tubercle torsion, a new factor of patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, V; Zeitoun, J-M; Camara, M; Blin, J-L; Marque, S; Chancelier, M-D

    2017-12-01

    External torsion of the anterior tibial tubercle (TT), defined as external rotation around a craniocaudal axis with respect to the posterior femoral condylar plane, may induce patellar instability. To our knowledge no studies have focused on this parameter. The present study aimed to perform an MRI analysis of TT torsion. The study hypothesis was that TT torsion correlates with patellar instability and with 3 of its components: tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, axial engagement index of the patella (AEI), and patellar tilt. Four observers performed MRI measurements for 2 groups: 37 patellar instability patients (PI group) with history of at least 2 patellar dislocations, and 50 control patients with meniscal lesion but free from patellofemoral pathology. All measurements were taken from 2 axial slices with the posterior condylar plane as reference. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.88. TT torsion correlated with patellar instability, with a mean 5.8̊ in controls and 17.9̊ in the PI group (P<0.001). There were also excellent correlations between TT torsion and TT-TG distance, patellar tilt and patellar lateralization (measured by AEI), with correlation coefficients greater than 0.85. TT torsion is a reproducible measurement, with excellent ICC. It is significantly correlated with patellar instability, with a discrimination threshold of 11.5̊, and correlations with all 3 components of instability. These statistical correlations enable TT torsion to be added to the list of patellar instability factors. Further studies should determine its biomechanical role and assess the contribution of associating TT derotation to medialization or distalization procedures. III; case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating Glucocorticoid Administration on Biomechanical Properties of Rats’ Tibial Diaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Freidouni, Mohammadjavad; Nejati, Hossein; Salimi, Maryam; Bayat, Mohammad; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Asgharie, Mohammad Ali; Rezaian, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a disease, which causes bone loss and fractures. Although glucocorticoids effectively suppress inflammation, their chronic use is accompanied by bone loss with a tendency toward secondary osteoporosis. Objectives: This study took into consideration the importance of cortical bone in the entire bone's mechanical competence. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different protocols of glucocorticoid administration on the biomechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis in rats compared to control and low-level laser-treated rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used systematic random sampling to divide 40 adult male rats into 8 groups with 5 rats in each group. Groups were as follows: 1) control, 2) dexamethasone (7 mg/week), 3) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), 4) methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), 5) methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), 6) dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), 7) dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg thrice per week), and 8) low-level laser-treated rats. The study periods were 4-7 weeks. At the end of the treatment periods, we examined the mechanical properties of tibial bone diaphysis. Data were analyzed by statistical analyses. Results: Glucocorticoid-treated rats showed weight loss and considerable mortality (21%). The biomechanical properties (maximum force) of glucocorticoid-treated rats in groups 4 (62 ± 2.9), 6 (63 ± 5.1), and 7 (60 ± 5.3) were comparable with the control (46 ± 1.5) and low-level laser-treated (57 ± 3.2) rats. Conclusions: In contrast to the findings in humans and certain other species, glucocorticoid administration caused anabolic effect on the cortical bone of tibia diaphysis bone in rats. PMID:26019900

  14. Dynamic and static tibial translation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency initially treated with a structured rehabilitation protocol.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    To compare dynamic and static tibial translation, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, at 2- to 5-year follow-up, with the tibial translation after 4 months of rehabilitation initiated early after the injury. Secondarily, to compare tibial translation in the injured knee and non-injured knee and explore correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Twelve patients with ACL rupture were assessed at 3-8 weeks after ACL injury, after 4 months of structured rehabilitation, and 2-5 years after ACL injury. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Static tibial translation was increased bilateral 2-5 years after ACL injury, whereas the dynamic tibial translation was unchanged. Tibial translation was greater in the injured knee compared with the non-injured knee (Lachman test 134 N 9.1 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 1.7 mm, P = 0.001, gait 5.6 ± 2.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.8 mm, P = 0.011). There were no correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Dynamic tibial translation was unchanged in spite of increased static tibial translation in the ACL-deficient knee at 2- to 5-year follow-up compared to directly after rehabilitation. Dynamic tibial translation did not correlate with the static tibial translation. A more normal gait kinematics may be maintained from completion of a rehabilitation programme to mid-term follow-up in patients with ACL deficiency treated with rehabilitation only. IV.

  15. Evaluation of the rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: position prioritizing maximum coverage.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Masashi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Kondo, Makoto; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The standard for rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unclear. Cases often require positioning of the tibial component, prioritizing adequate coverage of resected bone surface rather than alignment with the tibial rotational axis. We investigated tibial component position in TKA, prioritizing maximum coverage of resected bone surface, and evaluated the correlation with the tibial anteroposterior (AP) axis. We analyzed preoperative computed tomography images for primary TKA in 106 cases and 157 knees, using three-dimensional planning software. Tibial component position prioritizing maximum coverage of resected bone surface was simulated, and results were compared with the AP axis. Rotational alignment angle was defined as that between a line perpendicular to the tibial AP axis and a line connecting the posterior edge of the tibial component. The simulated tibial component was more externally rotated by a mean 4.5° ± 4.2°. The alignment angle showed normal distribution, but variability was large, ranging from 5.1° internal rotation to 16.2° external rotation. In 138 of 157 (87.9 %) knees, the tibial component was positioned in the externally rotated position with respect to the AP axis. The tibial component was aligned within the medial one-third of the patellar tendon in 122 of 157 (77.7 %) knees. The tibial component aligned using coverage prioritizing was externally rotated, although large variability was observed. Rotational alignment was optimal in 79 % of cases when the tibial component was aligned with coverage prioritizing, but hyperexternal rotation was observed in patients with severe knee deformation.

  16. Bi-cruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty can reduce the risk of knee instability associated with posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Hada, Masaru; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Kaneko, Takao; Murakami, Koji; Ma, Yuan; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between posterior tibial slope and knee kinematics in bi-cruciate stabilized (BCS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which has not been previously reported. This computer simulation study evaluated Journey 2 BCS components (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) implanted in a female patient to simulate weight-bearing stair climbing. Knee kinematics, patellofemoral contact forces, and quadriceps forces during stair climbing (from 86° to 6° of flexion) were computed in the simulation. Six different posterior tibial slope angles (0°-10°) were simulated to evaluate the effect of posterior tibial slope on knee kinematics and forces. At 65° of knee flexion, no anterior sliding of the tibial component occurred if the posterior tibial slope was less than 10°. Anterior contact between the anterior aspect of the tibial post- and the femoral component was observed if the posterior tibial slope was 6° or more. An increase of 10° in posterior tibial slope (relative to 0°) led to a 4.8% decrease in maximum patellofemoral contact force and a 1.2% decrease in maximum quadriceps force. BCS TKA has a wide acceptable range of posterior tibial slope for avoiding knee instability if the posterior tibial slope is less than 10°. Surgeons should prioritize avoiding adverse effects over trying to achieve positive effects such as decreasing patellofemoral contact force and quadriceps force by increasing posterior tibial slope. Our study helps surgeons determine the optimal posterior tibial slope during surgery with BCS TKA; posterior tibial slope should not exceed 10° in routine clinical practice.

  17. A geometric morphometric analysis of the medial tibial condyle of African hominids.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of Modularity on the Fatigue Performance of Tibial Tray Designs in TKA Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ahilan Anantha; Ghyar, Rupesh; Ravi, Bhallamudi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue performance of tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of critical importance in terms of longevity of the prosthesis. Standards have been proposed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to ensure its long-term structural integrity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of modularity in the tibial tray following the testing standards, using finite element analysis. Goodman and Sines criteria were used to compare the fatigue safety factor (FSF) of four modular designs versus the two conventional designs. Cruciate-retaining (CR) type modular tibial tray designs were better than posterior-stabilized (PS) type tibial tray designs. More cutouts in the tray and absence of keel were reasons for poor fatigue performance.

  19. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  20. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  1. Successful stabilisation of a type III paediatric tibial eminence fracture using a tensioned wire technique.

    PubMed

    Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David

    2016-09-19

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. The knee joint line position measured from the tibial side in Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiheng; Zhou, Yixin; Yang, Dejin; Tang, Jing; Shao, Hongyi

    2011-10-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging study of 50 Chinese normal knees was conducted to determine the knee joint line position. The distances from the fibular head and the tibial tubercle to the joint line were measured, and each distance value was converted to a ratio relative to the anteroposterior tibial widths at the levels of the insertion of the patellar tendon and the apex of the fibular head. The distance to the joint line was 11.99 ± 1.20 mm from the fibular head and 20.48 ± 1.64 mm from the tibial tubercle. The fibular head and tibial tubercle are reliable landmarks. The distances and ratios can be used to determine the knee joint line position in revision surgery for the Chinese population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fracture in high school runners.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shigenori; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2013-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and tibial stress fracture (SF) are common lower leg disorders in runners. A prospective study was done to identify the incidence of MTSS and SF in high school runners and to determine risk factors. A total of 230 runners participating in high school running teams were evaluated. All runners aged 15 years as first grade of high school were involved in the study. They were followed up for 3 years. The measured items included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), range of hip and ankle motion, straight leg raising (SLR), intercondylar and intermalleolar interval, Q-angle, navicular drop test, hip abductor strength and physical conditioning. Each runner was followed for 3 years to report occurrence of MTSS and SF. A total number of 102 MTSS (0.29 athlete exposures) and 21 SF (0.06 athlete exposures) were identified. In females, BMI significantly increased the risk of MTSS after adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95 % confidence interval, 0.31-0.86). Increased internal rotation of the hip significantly increased the risk of MTSS (adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95 % confidence interval, 0.85-0.99). In males, limited SLR also significantly increased the risk of SF with adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.83). A significant relationship was found between BMI, internal hip rotation angle and MTSS in females, and between limited SLR and SF in males. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  4. Influence of mediolateral tibial baseplate position in TKA on knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure.

    PubMed

    Steinbrück, Arnd; Fottner, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Müller, Tatjana; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar

    2017-08-01

    Anterior knee pain is a major reason for unsatisfied patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Since malposition and increased retropatellar peak pressure are supposed to contribute to pain, we conducted this in vitro study to analyse the influence of mediolateral tibial component position on tibiofemoral and patella kinematics as well as retropatellar pressure. Eight fresh frozen cadaver specimens were tested after a fixed-bearing TKA. To evaluate the influence of mediolateral tibial component position, special inlays with 3 mm of medialization and lateralization were constructed. For the analysis, a weight-bearing knee rig under a loaded squat from 20° to 120° of flexion was used. Tibiofemoral and patella kinematics were measured with an ultrasonic-based three-dimensional motion analysis system. Additionally, retropatellar pressure distribution was registered with a pressure-sensitive film. Alteration of mediolateral tibial component position by 3 mm did not reveal a significant influence on retropatellar peak pressure (7.5 ± 2.5 vs. 7.2 ± 2.6 MPa). Regarding tibiofemoral kinematics, 3-mm medialization of the tibial baseplate significantly increased lateral femoral rollback and femorotibial external rotation. Medialization of 3 mm also significantly increased the relative medial patella shift and decreased lateral patella tilt. Medialization of the tibial baseplate came along with more lateral rollback and external femorotibial rotation. For the positioning of the tibial baseplate, rotational alignment seems to be more important than mediolateral orientation. Since retropatellar peak pressure remained rather unchanged, the tibial baseplate should be placed by the surgeon looking for a maximal tibial coverage without overhang.

  5. Lower-limb alignment and posterior tibial slope in Pakistanis: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Mujahid Jamil; Umer, Masood; Davis, Edward T; Habib, Munira; Ahmed, Mehmood

    2010-04-01

    To assess the lower-limb alignment and posterior tibial slope in Pakistanis. 40 male and 19 female healthy Pakistanis aged 20 to 45 years were recruited. A full weight-bearing anteroposterior radiograph of the entire lower limb of each subject was obtained. The axial alignment was measured based on the centres of the femoral head, knee, and ankle. The tibiofemoral (TF) angle, knee joint line obliquity angle (angle J), and posterior tibial slope were determined. The mean TF angle was more varus in men than women (178.4 degrees vs. 180.0 degrees, p<0.001). The mean angle J was more medially inclined in men than women (93.4 degrees vs. 91.4 degrees, p=0.007). The mean medial tibial slope was greater in women than men (16.0 degrees vs. 12.5 degrees, p<0.001). The posterior tibial slope was greater in women than men (14.1 degrees vs. 12.5 degrees, p=0.02), and was greater than the 5 degrees to 10 degrees commonly reported. Knee alignment and geometry vary in different population subsets. With regard to total knee arthroplasty, the more medially inclined angle J in Pakistani men suggests that an anteroposterior cut of the distal femur should be in increased external rotation, compared with Pakistani women. Whereas the greater posterior tibial slope in Pakistanis suggests that a proximal tibial cut with a greater posterior tibial slope may reduce the chance of tibial loosening and increase postoperative knee range of motion, especially when using posterior cruciate ligament-retaining designs.

  6. Tibial component designs in primary total knee arthroplasty: should we reconsider all-polyethylene component?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Pan, Xiaoyun; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xianlong

    2012-08-01

    Despite the frequency with which total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) are performed, whether they are best performed using all-polyethylene or metal-backed tibial components remains a controversy. The aim of the present study was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of metal-backed compared with all-polyethylene tibial components during TKAs through an evaluation of current literature. A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized and non-randomized comparative studies comparing metal-backed with all-polyethylene tibial components during TKAs were performed. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of knee score, range of motion (ROM), quality of life, implant alignment, tibial migration, radiolucent line, complication, reoperation, and implant survivorship. A total of 10 randomized/quasi-randomized controlled trials and 13 non-randomized comparative studies assessing 19,767 TKAs were eligible. On the basis of these studies, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to knee score, ROM, quality of life, complication, and reoperation. The findings indicated that using all-polyethylene tibial components is associated with lower continuous migration rate compared with metal-backed tibial components. Only 13 studies provided adequate data on implant survivorship during intermediate or long-term follow-up. Of these, 9 found that no statistical significance existed between the 2 groups. The other 3 studies found that using all-polyethylene components yielded a higher survival rate than using metal-backed components. Metal-backed tibial components had no obvious advantages over all-polyethylene tibial components in TKAs. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to publication bias, low methodological quality of the included studies, and different surgical interventions. Therapeutic study (systematic review and meta-analysis), Level III.

  7. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  8. All-Polyethylene Tibial Components: An Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes and Infection.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Watts, Chad D; Cass, Joseph R; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    There is debate regarding tibial component modularity and composition in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biomechanical studies have suggested improved stress distribution in metal-backed tibias; however, these results have not translated clinically. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of all-polyethylene components and to compare the results to those with metal-backed components. We reviewed 31,939 patients undergoing a primary TKA over a 43-year period (1970-2013). There were 28,224 (88%) metal-backed and 3715 (12%) all-polyethylene tibial components. The metal-backed and all-polyethylene groups had comparable demographics with respect to gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Mean follow-up was 7 years. The mean survival for all primary TKAs at the 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-year time points was 95%, 89%, 73%, and 57%, respectively. All-polyethylene tibial components were found to have a significantly improved (P < .0001) survivorship when compared with their metal-backed counterparts. All-polyethylene tibial components were also found to have a significantly lower rate of infection, instability, tibial component loosening, and periprosthetic fracture. The all-polyethylene group had improved survival rates in all age groups, except in patients 85 years old or greater, where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had improved survival for all BMI groups except in the morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40) where there was no significant difference. All-polyethylene tibial components had significantly improved implant survival, reduced rates of postoperative infection, fracture, and tibial component loosening. All polyethylene should be considered for most of the patients, regardless of age and BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are knee mechanics during early stance related to tibial stress fracture in runners?

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Hamill, Joseph; Davis, Irene

    2007-07-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a serious overuse injury in runners. Greater vertical loading rates and tibial shock have been found in runners with previous tibial stress fracture compared to controls. The timing of these variables occurs very early in the stance phase and suggests that conditions shortly after footstrike may be important in determining injury risk. The purpose of this study was to further investigate lower extremity mechanics in early stance in runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. In addition, the relationships between these variables were explored. Twenty-three runners with a history of tibial stress fracture were investigated. They were compared with 23 age and mileage matched control subjects with no previous lower extremity bony injuries. Data were collected as subjects ran at 3.7 m/s. All variables of interest were computed over the period from footstrike to the impact peak of the vertical ground reaction force. Independent t-tests and effect sizes were used to assess the differences between the groups. Pearson Product Moment correlations were used to determine whether initial stance variables were related to tibial shock in the two groups. Sagittal plane knee stiffness was significantly greater in the tibial stress fracture group. Stiffness was also positively correlated with shock. Knee excursion, knee angle at footstrike and shank angle at footstrike were not different between groups. These findings provide further support for the relationship between mechanics during initial loading and tibial stress fractures in runners. This relationship may be important in terms of retraining gait to reduce the risk of stress fracture in runners.

  10. The biomechanical characteristics of arthroscopic tibial inlay techniques for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: in vitro comparison of tibial graft tunnel placement.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Karl Peter; Hoffelner, Thomas; Osti, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the biomechanical properties of arthroscopic tibial inlay procedures depend on tibial graft bone block position. Five paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were randomized to a reconstruction with quadriceps tendon placing the replicated footprint either to the more proximal margin of the remnants of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments (group A) or to the distal margin of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments at the edge of the posterior tibial facet to the posterior tibial cortex in level with the previous physis line (group B). The relative graft-tibia motions, post cycling pull-out failure load and failure properties of the tibia-graft fixation were measured. Cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles, stiffness and yield strength were calculated. The cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles measured consistently more in group A without statistically significant difference (4.11 ± 1.37, 7.73 ± 2.73 and 8.18 ± 2.75 mm versus 2.81 ± 1.33, 6.01 ± 2.37 and 6.46 ± 2.37 mm). Mean ultimate load to failure (564.6 ± 212.3) and yield strength (500.2 ± 185.9 N) were significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Replicating the anatomical PCL footprint at the posterior edge of the posterior tibial facet yields higher pull-out strength and less cycling loading displacement compared to a tunnel position at the centre of the posterior tibial facet.

  11. Accuracy of a hand-held surgical navigation system for tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, William D; Kermanshahi, Arash Y; Munro, Michelle M; McCauley, Julie C; Copp, Steven N

    2014-12-01

    Accuracy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implant placement and overall limb are important goals of TKA technique. The accuracy and ease of use of an accelerometer-based hand-held navigation system for tibial resection during TKA was examined in 90 patients. Preoperative goals for sagittal alignment, navigation system assembly time, resection time, and tourniquet time were evaluated. Coronal and sagittal alignment was measured postoperatively. The average coronal tibial component alignment was 0.43° valgus; 6.7% of patients had tibial coronal alignment outside of ±3° varus/valgus. The difference between the intraoperative goal and radiographically measured posterior tibial slope was 0.5°. The average time to completion of the tibial cut was 4.6 minutes. The accelerometer-based hand-held navigation system was accurate for tibial coronal and sagittal alignment during TKA, with no additional surgical time compared with conventional instrumentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Roberto; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Marmotti, Antonio; Castoldi, Filippo

    2010-07-01

    Various techniques exist for establishing tibial rotational alignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to establish the most precise and reproducible method to assess tibial component rotational alignment during TKA by comparing the flexion-extension technique (ROM) and the Posterior-lateral Corner Locked Technique (PLCL). Twenty posterior stabilized TKAs were performed on cadavers. The rotation angles of the tibial components obtained using the two techniques were evaluated. The tibial component rotation axis obtained using the ROM technique and the PLCL method averaged, respectively, 0.35 degrees (+ or - 4.2 degrees ) externally rotated and 0.34 degrees (+ or - 3 degrees ) internally rotated to the Akagi line. No significant differences between the two methods were found and a high correlation exists between the two techniques (Pearson's coefficient = 0.88). The ROM and PLCL techniques are both precise and reproducible methods to assess tibial component rotation during TKA. However, while the ROM technique is dependent on the correct positioning of the femoral component and the soft tissue balancing, the PCLC method is easier if a complete visualization of the posterior-lateral corner of the cut tibial plateau is achieved.

  13. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF MODIFIED POSTERIOR TIBIAL SLOPE ON ACL STRAIN AND KNEE KINEMATICS: A HUMAN CADAVERIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Fening, Stephen D.; Kovacic, Jeffrey; Kambic, Helen; McLean, Scott; Scott, Jacob; Miniaci, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Increases to the posterior tibial slope can lead to an anterior shift in tibial resting position. However, the effect of this shift on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain has not been investigated sufficiently. This study examined the relationship between increased tibial slope and ACL strain, as well as the subsequent kinematics of the tibiofemoral joint. We hypothesized increases in slope would shift the tibia anterior relative to the femur and increase ACL strain. ACL strain measurements and tibiofemoral kinematics were compared for 5 intact and experimental knees subject to anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Combinations of both compressive and AP loading were applied. As slope increased, the resting position of the tibia shifted anteriorly, external tibial rotation increased, and tibial translation remained unchanged. Contrary to our hypothesis, ACL strain decreased. The clinical implication of these findings is that alterations to the posterior tibial slope should not increase strain in the ACL. PMID:18686482

  15. Static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Öberg, Birgitta; Kvist, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. To explore whether static and dynamic tibial translation are correlated. Ten patients undergoing quadruple hamstring tendon graft ACL reconstruction were evaluated before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after ACL reconstruction. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Five years after ACL reconstruction, static tibial translation did not differ between knees (Lachman test 90 N and 134 N n.s.). In contrast, there was greater maximal anterior tibial translation during gait in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees (5.5 ± 1.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mm, P = 0.028). There were no differences in static or dynamic tibial translation between the 5-year follow-up and before ACL reconstruction or between the 5-year follow-up and the 5-week follow-up. There were no correlations between static and dynamic tibial translation. Although static tibial translation did not differ between knees 5 years after ACL reconstruction, dynamic tibial translation during gait was greater in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees. Neither static nor dynamic tibial translation changed 5 years after ACL reconstruction as compared to before surgery and 5 weeks after surgery. Static tibial translation did not correlate with dynamic tibial translation. This study indicates that although the knee is stable during static measurements, kinematics during gait is impaired 5 years after ACL reconstruction. This may affect the return to sport and risk of osteoarthritis. Case series, Level IV.

  16. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2016-02-01

    It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. Findings support the practice of allotting several sessions to the alignment of trans-tibial prostheses, as users' gait responds differently to perturbations when external factors (e.g. exertion) change. Furthermore, the found inhomogeneity in the population of persons with trans-tibial amputation supports the use of technical gait assessment methods in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates.

    PubMed

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient's final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  18. Increase of tibial slope reduces backside wear in medial mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Weber, Patrick; Schröder, Christian; Schmidutz, Florian; Kraxenberger, Michael; Utzschneider, Sandra; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E

    2013-10-01

    Unicondylar knee arthroplasty is a good alternative for patients in monocompartmental osteoarthritis. The revision rate in unicondylar knee arthroplasty is higher than in total knee arthroplasty. The influence of the tibial slope on wear in unicondylar knee arthroplasty has not been investigated so far. The influence of the tibial slope on wear was investigated in mobile bearing unicondylar knee prosthesis. This was positioned with four different tibial slopes (-4°, 0°, 4°, 8°) in a knee wear simulator simulating the human gait in a plane according to ISO 14243-2:2002(E). After this a kinematic analysis was performed and the inlays were observed under reflected-light-microscopy. Wear was significantly reduced with an increasing tibial slope (0°: 3.46 mg/millioncycles, SD: 0.59, 4° slope: 1.52 mg/millioncycles, SD: 0.06, 8° slope group: 0.99 mg/millioncycles, SD: 0.42). An anterior slope of -4° also reduced wear (2.08 mg/millioncycles, SD: 0.37). Kinematic analysis revealed a reduced translation between the inlay and the tibia with an increasing tibial slope. The backside of the inlays of the 4° and 8° slope group showed less wear pattern when observed under reflected-light microscopy. Increasing the tibial slope led to a reduced translation between the inlay and the prosthesis in the analysed mobile-bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty and with this to a reduced backside wear. A tibial slope between 4 and 8° can be recommended in mobile UKA to reduce wear, however, the influence on the ligaments has to be considered and needs to be investigated in further studies. © 2013.

  19. Subtalar arthrodesis for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and pes planus.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, H B; Patzer, G L

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-one patients (21 feet in 18 women and three men) who were treated with subtalar arthrodesis for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and pes planus at an average age of 60 years (range, 44-75 years) were studied. Mean duration of symptoms was 3 years. All had realignment of the calcaneus in relation to the talus, and all had screw fixation without supplemental bone graft. Average followup was 3 years (range, 2-5 years). All patients had successful union. The tibiocalcaneal angle averaged 13 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees before operation and 6 degrees +/- 1.9 degrees after operation. The lateral talometatarsal, lateral talocalcaneal, and lateral tibiotalar angles all improved significantly. Arch height (navicular height) increase averaged 5 +/- 2.7 mm. Arch length (calcaneal-metatarsal) decrease averaged 4 +/- 3.2 mm. One complication occurred: delayed wound healing (excellent result). Clinical results were excellent in eight feet, good in eight, fair in four, and poor in one. Patients were satisfied with the operative result in 16 feet, satisfied with reservations in four, and dissatisfied with the operative results in one. Subtalar arthrodesis effectively corrects deformity, does not require bone graft, has a high union rate, and is associated with a low complication rate. However, 11 of the 21 patients continued to have some pain, and in patients with preexisting arthrosis of adjacent joints, symptoms may persist.

  20. Intramedullary nailing supplemented with Poller screws for proximal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sunil G; Varshneya, Ankit; Kulkarni, Shreenath; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Milind G; Kulkarni, Vidhisha S; Kulkarni, Ruta M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate outcome of intramedullary nailing supplemented with Poller screws for proximal tibial fractures using small diameter nails. 50 men and 20 women (75 fractures) aged 18 to 65 (mean, 33) years underwent intramedullary nailing supplemented with Poller screws for acutely displaced fractures (n=60) or for delayed union (n=10) or mal-union (n=5) of the proximal metadiaphyseal tibia. 88% of the fractures were caused by road traffic accidents. 54 cases had closed fractures and 21 had grade I or II compound fractures. Clinical and radiological outcome was evaluated. In 69 cases, healing occurred after a mean of 4.2 (range, 3-9) months. In 5 cases, there was non-union, which was resolved by bone grafting. One case was mal-united. 63 patients recovered a full range of knee motion (0º-130º), and the remaining 7 attained flexion of 0º to 90º. According to the knee rating scale of the Hospital for Special Surgery, outcome was excellent in 50 patients, good in 14, poor in 3, and failed in 3 at month 12, and remained so after a mean follow-up of 30.8 months. Postoperatively, 74 cases had <5º of varus or valgus malalignment, and only one developed varus of +7º. 65 cases exhibited no deformity, 7 had a deformity of <3º, and 3 had a deformity of 4º to 9º. Poller screws help maintain fixation of intramedullary nailing and alignment of fractures.

  1. [Clinical and radiological results in distal tibial physeal injuries].

    PubMed

    Taşkıran, Mustafa Can; Turgut, Ali; Kalenderer, Onder; Ağuş, Haluk

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the clinical and radiological results of the distal tibial epiphyseal fractures in children treated with surgery. We evaluated 59 patients (33 boys, 26 girls) retrospectively. Physeal fractures were classified according to the Salter-Harris classification: 4 fractures were type I, 22 type II, 29 type III, and the remaining 4 type IV. Closed reduction and internal fixation were performed in 29 patients, while open reduction and internal fixation were performed in 30 patients. Mean age at the time of trauma was 10.9 years (6-14). Patients were evaluated by American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Patients were operated in a mean of 3.8 hours (3-72). Fixation was performed with Kirschner (K)-wire in 50 patients, with screw in 6 patients, and with both K-wire and screw in 3 patients. Mean follow-up time was 71.7 months (12-149). Due to premature physeal arrest, 1 cm shortening and valgus deformity were seen in only one patient. However, no infection, nonunion, or osteonecrosis was observed in any patient. Mean AOFAS score was 86.6 (65-100) at the last follow-up. Successful results with fewer complications could be obtained in ankle physeal fractures with early management through adequate reduction and stabilized fixation.

  2. Dynamic midfoot kinematics in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, Michael S; Kelly, Luke A; Christensen, Finn B; Simonsen, Ole H; Kaalund, Søren; Laessoe, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common diagnosis. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive static navicular drop (ND) is related to the diagnosis. However, no studies have yet investigated ND and the velocity of ND during dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate ND characteristics in patients with MTSS in dynamic and static conditions. In a case-control study, 14 patients diagnosed as having MTSS were included from an orthopedic outpatient clinic. A control group consisting of 14 healthy participants was matched regarding age, sex, and typical sporting activity. Navicular drop was evaluated during treadmill walking by a two-dimensional video analysis. Static foot posture, static ND, dynamic ND (dND), and velocity of dND were compared. The two groups were comparable in relation to age, sex, height, weight, and foot size. No significant difference was found in static foot posture. Static ND showed a mean difference of 1.7 mm between the groups (P = .08). During treadmill walking, patients with MTSS had, on average, a 1.5-mm-larger dND (P =.004) and a 2.4-mm/sec-larger mean velocity of dND (P = .03). Patients with MTSS display a larger ND and a higher ND velocity during treadmill walking. Increased ND velocity may be important to this condition. Future studies should include velocity of dND to investigate the mechanisms of dND in relation to overuse injuries.

  3. In vivo deterioration of tibial baseplate locking mechanisms in contemporary modular total knee components.

    PubMed

    Engh, G A; Lounici, S; Rao, A R; Collier, M B

    2001-11-01

    The results of recent studies documenting the backside wear of polyethylene inserts retrieved from total knee implants call into question the stability of the locking mechanisms of modular tibial components. Wear of the metal tibial baseplate suggests that the capture mechanisms of some modular fixed-bearing tibial components do not adequately restrict in vivo motion of the insert. The purposes of this study were (1) to present a method for evaluating locking-mechanism stability and (2) to investigate the stability of modular tibial components after an interval in vivo. We measured the anteroposterior and mediolateral motion between the polyethylene insert and the tibial tray in a variety of modular total knee tibial components. A uniaxial mechanical testing machine was used to evaluate the stability of ten unimplanted components (control group), fifteen implants obtained from patients who were undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty (revision group), and fifteen devices retrieved post mortem (autopsy group). We applied loads along the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of the tibial component and recorded the maximum insert displacement that occurred. From this value, we calculated an insert-motion index, the magnitude of a two-dimensional vector that represented the total motion in the transverse plane. For the control group, the mean insert-motion index was 64 +/- 13 microm (range, 6 to 157 microm); for the revision group, it was 341 +/- 51 microm (range, 104 to 718 microm); and for the autopsy group, it was 380 +/- 45 microm (range, 122 to 657 microm). The insert-motion index for the control group was significantly lower than that for the revision group (p = 0.001) or autopsy group (p < 0.001). Motion between the polyethylene insert and the metal baseplate in contemporary modular tibial designs increases after a period of in vivo loading. Although there are several advantages to the use of modular tibial components, these advantages must be weighed

  4. Reliability and validity of measures of hammer toe deformity angle and tibial torsion.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O Y; Tuttle, L J; Commean, P K; Mueller, M J

    2009-09-01

    Measures of second-fourth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle (indicator of hammer toe deformity) and clinical measures of tibial torsion have limited evidence for validity and reliability. The purposes of this study are to determine: (1) reliability of using a 3D digitizer (Metrecom) and computed tomography (CT) to measure MTPJ angle for toes 2-4; (2) reliability of goniometer, 3D digitizer, and CT to measure tibial torsion; (3) validity of MTPJ angle measures for toes 2-4 using goniometry and 3D digitizer compared to CT (gold standard) and (4) validity of tibial torsion measures using goniometry and 3D digitizer (Metrecom) compared to CT (gold standard). Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. 27 feet with hammer toe deformity and 31 feet without hammer toe deformity were tested using standardized gonimetric, 3D digitizer and CT methods. ICCs (3,1), standard error of the measurement (SEM) values, and difference measures were used to characterize intrarater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients and an analysis of variance were used to determine associations and differences between the measurement techniques. 3D digitizer and CT measures of MTPJ angle had high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95-0.96 and 0.98-0.99, respectively; SEM = 2.64-3.35 degrees and 1.42-1.47 degrees, respectively). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures of tibial torsion had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.75, 0.85, and 0.98, respectively; SEM = 2.15 degrees, 1.74 degrees, and 0.72 degree, respectively). Both goniometric and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle were highly correlated with CT measures of MTPJ angle (r = 0.84-0.90, r = 0.84-0.88, respectively) and tibial torsion (r = 0.72, r = 0.83). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures were all different from each other for measures of hammer toe deformity (p < 0.001). Goniometry measures were different from CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion (p < 0.002). CT measures and 3D digitizer

  5. Mechanical testing of a modified stabilisation method for tibial tuberosity advancement.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Barthelemy, N; Mills, J; Pascon, F; Ragetly, G R; Balligand, M

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated three modified techniques of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Loads to failure were calculated for each technique. A 9 mm TTA procedure was performed in the tibiae of dogs weighing between 32 and 38 kg. In group 1 (n = 12), the distal part of the tibial crest was left attached to the tibia by the cranial cortex, and a figure-of-eight wire was added for stabilisation. In group 2 (n = 12), the tibial crest was left attached but no additional device was used for stabilisation. In group 3 (n = 12), the tibial crest was completely separated from the tibia and fixed by a figure-of-eight wire so that, in this group, only the wire opposed avulsion of the tibial crest. Unidirectional axial force was applied via the patella to determine the maximal load to failure of the model. There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. These two groups both had a significantly stronger construct than that of group 3. We described modifications to the TTA procedure without plate fixation that warrant clinical investigation. When the crest is broken during its advancement, the tension sustained by the repair is significantly weaker from a biomechanical point of view and the use of such a repair clinically is not recommended by the authors.

  6. Biomechanical risk factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Campbell, Jackie A; Avil, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between functional and static foot posture and medial tibial stress syndrome in distance runners. Twenty-eight runners with a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome and 12 asymptomatic runners were assessed with the Foot Posture Index to measure static overpronation. Range of motion was measured at the talocrural joint, with the knee extended and flexed as was range of motion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the angular difference between the neutral and relaxed calcaneal stance positions. Each participant was then videotaped while running on a treadmill shod and unshod. This videotape was analyzed using freeze frame to identify abnormal or mistimed pronation at each phase of gait. The results were analyzed using logistic regression to give the probability that a runner is likely to experience medial tibial stress syndrome, predicted from the static measurements and dynamic observations. Variables identified as being significant predictors of medial tibial stress syndrome were the difference between the neutral and relaxed calcaneal stance positions, range of motion of the talocrural joint with the knee extended, early heel lift and abductory twist during gait, and apropulsive gait. Runners with suspected symptoms of medial tibial stress syndrome should be assessed dynamically and statically for abnormal or mistimed pronation.

  7. The complex tibial organ of the New Zealand ground weta: sensory adaptations for vibrational signal detection.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes; Lomas, Kathryn; Field, Laurence H

    2017-05-17

    In orthopteran insects, a complex tibial organ has evolved to detect substrate vibrations and/or airborne sound. Species of New Zealand weta (Anostostomatidae) with tympanal ears on the foreleg tibia use this organ to communicate by sound, while in atympanate species (which communicate by substrate drumming) the organ is unstudied. We investigated the complex tibial organ of the atympanate ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis, for vibration detection adaptations. This system contains four sensory components (subgenual organ, intermediate organ, crista acustica homolog, accessory organ) in all legs, together with up to 90 scolopidial sensilla. Microcomputed tomography shows that the subgenual organ spans the hemolymph channel, with attachments suggesting that hemolymph oscillations displace the organ in a hinged-plate fashion. Subgenual sensilla are likely excited by substrate oscillations transmitted within the leg. Instead of the usual suspension within the middle of the tibial cavity, we show that the intermediate organ and crista acustica homolog comprise a cellular mass broadly attached to the anterior tibial wall. They likely detect cuticular vibrations, and not airborne sound. This atympanate complex tibial organ shows elaborate structural changes suggesting detection of vibrational stimuli by parallel input pathways, thus correlating well with the burrowing lifestyle and communication by substrate-transmitted vibration.

  8. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice. PMID:27752406

  9. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s -1 with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  10. The influence of tibial tray design on the wear of fixed-bearing total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Galvin, A; Jennings, L M; McEwen, H M; Fisher, J

    2008-11-01

    Debris-induced osteolysis due to surface wear is a potential long-term problem in total knee replacements (TKRs). Wear between the tibial tray and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert is thought to contribute to the wear. This study investigated the influence of tibial tray design on the wear of fixed-bearing TKRs. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of the material's surface finish and design characteristics of the locking mechanism of the tibial tray on the wear in fixed-bearing knees for both cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilized designs. A new fixed-bearing tibial tray design using Co-Cr and with an improved locking mechanism significantly reduced polyethylene wear from 22.8 +/- 6.0 mm3 per 10(6) cycles to 15.9 +/- 2.9 mm3 per 10(6) cycles compared with a previous titanium alloy tray with a CR design. The wear rates were similar to those of a fixed-bearing insert clamped into a tibial tray, suggesting that the decrease in wear was due to a reduction in backside wear. There was no significant difference between the wear rates of a cruciate-retaining design and a posterior-stabilized design under the two kinematic conditions tested.

  11. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  12. The effect of tibial component sizing on patient reported outcome measures following uncemented total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Abram, Simon G F; Marsh, Andrew G; Brydone, Alistair S; Nicol, Fiona; Mohammed, Aslam; Spencer, Simon J

    2014-10-01

    When performing total knee replacement (TKR), surgeons are required to decide on the most appropriate size of tibial component. As implants are predominantly selected from incremental sizes of a preferred design, it may be necessary for a surgeon to slightly under or oversize the component. There are concerns that overhang could lead to pain from irritation of soft tissues, and an undersized component could lead to subsidence and failure. Patient reported outcome measures were recorded in 154 TKRs at one year postoperatively (in 100 TKRs) and five years post-operatively (in 54 TKRs) in 138 patients. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS), WOMAC and SF-12 were recorded, and a composite pain score was derived from the OKS and WOMAC pain questions. Tibial component size and position were assessed on scaled radiographs and implants were grouped into anatomic sized tibial component (78 TKRs), undersized component (48 TKRs), minor overhang one to three mm (10 TKRs) or major overhang ≥ 3 mm (18 TKRs). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean post-operative OKS, WOMAC, SF-12 or composite pain score of each group. Furthermore, localisation of the site of pain did not correlate with medial or lateral overhang of the tibial component. Our results suggest that tibial component overhang or undersizing is not detrimental to outcome measures or pain. II. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An implantable telemetry device to measure intra-articular tibial forces.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Darryl D; Townsend, Christopher P; Arms, Steven W; Morris, Beverly A; Colwell, Clifford W

    2005-02-01

    Tibial forces are important because they determine polyethylene wear, stress distribution in the implant, and stress transfer to underlying bone. Theoretic estimates of tibiofemoral forces have varied between three and six times the body weight depending on the mathematical models used and the type of activity analyzed. An implantable telemetry system was therefore developed to directly measure tibiofemoral compressive forces. This system was tested in a cadaver knee in a dynamic knee rig. A total knee tibial arthroplasty prosthesis was instrumented with four force transducers located at the four corners of the tibial tray. These transducers measured the total compressive forces on the tibial tray and the location of the center of pressure. A microprocessor performed analog-to-digital signal conversion and performed pulse code modulation of a surface acoustic wave radio frequency oscillator. This signal was then transmitted through a single pin hermetic feed-through tantalum wire antenna located at the tip of the stem. The radio frequency signal was received by an external antenna connected to a receiver and to a computer for data acquisition. The prosthesis was powered by external coil induction. The tibial transducer accurately measured both the magnitude and the location of precisely applied external loads. Successful transmission of the radio frequency signal up to a range of 3m was achieved through cadaveric bone, bone cement, and soft tissue. Reasonable accuracy was obtained in measuring loads applied through a polyethylene insert. The implant was also able to detect unicondylar loading with liftoff.

  14. Effect of femoro-tibial component size mismatch on outcome in primary total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Steven; Foubert, Knud; Van Haver, Annemieke; Nicolai, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Most total knee arthroplasty systems allow a degree of femoro-tibial component size mismatch. We aim to investigate the influence of size mismatch on outcome after primary total knee arthroplasty. We reviewed 332 patients with cruciate-retaining Genesis II total knee arthroplasty with regard to femoro-tibial component size mismatch and Oxford Knee Score (OKS). We evaluated effects of Body Mass Index, gender and patellar procedure. Minimum follow-up is five years. We divided patients into four groups (tibial component larger than femoral component, no mismatch, femoral component one size larger and femoral component two sizes larger than tibial component). There was no statistically significant difference in OKS between the four groups. Size mismatch did not have a statistical significant effect on OKS in a multivariate analysis. Women had mismatched components in 66% of all cases and men in 40% of all cases. Our study showed no statistically significant effect of femoro-tibial size mismatch on outcome after total knee replacement. Compared to men, women tend to have more component size mismatch. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A modified tibial compression test for the detection of meniscal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Valen, S; McCabe, C; Maddock, E; Bright, S; Keeley, B

    2017-02-01

    To assess diagnostic efficacy of a modified tibial compression test in predicting medial meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure. Dogs admitted for surgical stabilisation of stifles with cranial cruciate ligament failure were examined by five preoperative physical tests to assess medial meniscal injury. Results of each physical test were compared with findings at arthrotomy and used to calculate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values. None of the physical tests were accurate in reflecting meniscal integrity for dogs with cranial cruciate failure. Out of the five tests, the modified tibial compression test exhibited the highest concordance and sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears. A palpable click during the modified tibial compression test had a sensitivity and specificity up to 63 and 77%, respectively, for the detection of medial meniscal lesions. Concordance values were up to 40% for the modified tibial compression test, followed by the range of motion test (up to 25%), while all other physical tests had concordance values below 10%. Physical tests are highly available, affordable and can be easily performed, but their efficacy in diagnosing medical meniscal injury is low. Meniscal clicks associated with meniscal tears were more frequently elicited during the modified tibial compression test when compared with other traditional tests. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Encoding of force increases and decreases by tibial campaniform sensilla in the stick insect, Carausius morosus.

    PubMed

    Zill, Sasha N; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2011-08-01

    Detection of force increases and decreases is important in motor control. Experiments were performed to characterize the structure and responses of tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that encode forces through cuticular strains, in the middle leg of the stick insect (Carausius morosus). The sensilla consist of distinct subgroups. Group 6A sensilla are located 0.3 mm distal to the femoro-tibial joint and have oval shaped cuticular caps. Group 6B receptors are 1 mm distal to the joint and have round caps. All sensilla show directional, phasico-tonic responses to forces applied to the tibia in the plane of joint movement. Group 6B sensilla respond to force increases in the direction of joint extension while Group 6A receptors discharge when those forces decrease. Forces applied in the direction of joint flexion produce the reverse pattern of sensory discharge. All receptors accurately encode the rate of change of force increments and decrements. Contractions of tibial muscles also produce selective, directional sensory discharges. The subgroups differ in their reflex effects: Group 6B receptors excite and Group 6A sensilla inhibit tibial extensor and trochanteral depressor motoneurons. The tibial campaniform sensilla can, therefore, encode force increases or decreases and aid in adapting motor outputs to changes in load.

  17. Stable migration of peri-apatite-coated uncemented tibial components in a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M J; Laende, E K; Collopy, D; Richardson, C G

    2017-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings for uncemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty can theoretically provide a long-lasting biological interface with the host bone. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis with propriety hydroxyapatite, peri-apatite, coated tibial components using component migration measured with radiostereometric analysis over two years as an indicator of long-term fixation. A total of 29 patients at two centres received uncemented PA-coated tibial components and were followed for two years with radiostereometric analysis exams to quantify the migration of the component. While there was significant variation in individual migration patterns, the overall migration of the tibial component in the study group demonstrated a pattern of initial migration followed by stabilisation after one year, with mean maximum total point motion (MTPM) of 0.02 mm (standard deviation (sd) 0.20) between one and two years post-operatively. The direction of greatest motion was subsidence, which stabilised at three months post-operatively (mean translation of 0.21 mm, sd 0.40). The tibial component migration pattern of stabilisation in the second post-operative year is indicative of successful long-term fixation for this PA-coated tibial component. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1596-1602. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  19. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most

  20. [Dynamic investigation of tibial biomechanical property endured persistent intensive stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Li, Guoping; Pei, Fuxing

    2007-04-01

    For investigating the changes in continuous biomechanical nature of bone bearing intensive stress in vivo, we adopted the animal model of persistent intensive stress. Thirty-seven rabbits were involved in the experiment; they were randomly divided into control group (5 rabbits) and trained group (32 rabbits). All animals were forced to jump and run about 300 times everyday in the electric stimulation cage so as to simulate the persistent intensive stress on tibias for different periods. Subsequently, all animals were sacrificed at different times (1-11 weeks), and all tibias of them were collected for biochemical investigation. By torsion destroy test, the experiment showed that the changes of biomechanical nature appeared obviously in a period of 6 weeks or so in the experiment. Furthermore, during the 2nd-3rd week of each period, the biomechanical indexes decreased strikingly; the abilities of deformation resistant dropped, the twisting rigidity decreased (69.7% lower than control, P< 0.01), the flexible index inereased (203.2% higher than control, P<0.05), the angle of twisting destroy increased (102.9% greater than control, P< 0.05). And the tibial mechanical strength declined too; the destroy torsion, energy absorption and energy absorb density decreased (most of them being 50% lower than control, even accounting for 34.5% of control; P< 0.05 or P< 0.01). We noticed that the biomechanical properties of bone endured persistent intensive stress presented periodicity and the period of change in bone biomechanical nature covered about 6 weeks in the experiment. Therefore, we have ground to conclude that a weakness period did exist when rabbit tibias endured 2-3 weeks persistent intensive stress, and such weakness did exist at the 2nd-3rd week of each training period.

  1. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendons Using a Suspensory Device for Tibial Fixation and Interference Screw for Femoral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Baena, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, María Josefa; Lombardo-Torre, Maximiano

    2017-02-01

    A technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is presented. Autologous hamstring tendons are selected as a graft. An interference screw is used for femoral fixation. A suspension device is used for tibial fixation to bring the fixation closer to the articular end of the tibial tunnel. Single diameter tunnels of the same diameter as the graft are created in an outside-in direction.

  2. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  3. Energy expenditure during walking in subjects with tibial rotationplasty, above-knee amputation, or hip disarticulation.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, D A; Pieterson, I; van der Eijken, J W; Hollander, A P; Dahmen, R; de Jong, B A

    1992-12-01

    The surgical treatment of osteosarcoma with a tibial rotationplasty seems to offer functional advantages in comparison with an above-knee amputation. It has not been established whether the functional advantages are accompanied by a lower rate of energy expenditure during walking. In children with a tibial rotationplasty (n = 15), an above-knee amputation (n = 6), or a hip disarticulation (n = 5), energy expenditure was measured during treadmill walking at various walking velocities. The subjects with a tibial rotationplasty were able to walk faster, but there were no differences between the groups in energy expenditure per unit time or per unit distance. Correction for confounding variables including age, sex, height, time since operation, level of activity, and support during walking in a multiple linear regression model did not reveal any significant differences in energy expenditure during walking between groups. 1992 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

  4. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit tibial leg lengthening model.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Douglas C; Piehl, Debra J; Baker, Joy T; Abbott, Joan; Nepola, James V

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) would shorten the healing time of regenerate bone in a rabbit tibial distraction model. Beginning 1 day after surgery, mid-shaft tibial osteotomies, stabilized with external fixators, were distracted 0.25 mm twice daily for 21 days and received either no exposure (sham control) or 1 hour per day exposure to low-amplitude, low-frequency PEMF. Tibiae were tested for torsional strength after 9, 16, and 23 days post-distraction. PEMF-treated tibiae were significantly stronger than shams at all three time points. By 16 days post-distraction, the PEMF group had achieved biomechanical strength essentially equivalent to intact bone. Shams did not achieve normal biomechanical strength even after 23 days post-distraction. In this tibial distraction model, short daily PEMF exposures accelerated consolidation of regenerate bone. Clinical usefulness awaits testing.

  5. Tosic external fixator in the management of proximal tibial fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Tosic, A; Ebraheim, N A; Abou Chakra, I; Emara, K

    2001-06-01

    This retrospective clinical study assessed proximal tibial fractures managed with the Tosic external fixator. Nineteen patients with 21 proximal tibial fractures treated with the Tosic external fixator between July 1997 and October 1998 comprised the study population. Eleven fractures were graded as 41A2, 3 fractures as 41 A3, 4 fractures as 41C1, and 3 fractures as 41 C2. Fourteen fractures were closed, and 7 fractures were open. Average time to healing was 1 7 weeks. No revision of fixation was needed. There were five cases of pin tract infection. Average range of knee motion was 2 degrees-135 degrees. These results indicate the Tosic external fixator is an efficient and simple way to treat proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures.

  6. The all-polyethylene tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gioe, Terence J; Maheshwari, Aditya V

    2010-02-01

    Outcomes of total knee arthroplasties performed with modern all-polyethylene tibial components have been found to be comparable with or better than those of arthroplasties done with metal-backed modular components in numerous mid-to-long-term follow-up studies, radiostereometric analyses, and the few prospective randomized trials available. Advantages of an all-polyethylene tibial component over a metal-backed modular component include lower cost, avoidance of locking-mechanism issues and backside wear, and increased polyethylene thickness after identical bone resections. Disadvantages of an all-polyethylene tibial component compared with a metal-backed modular component include a lack of modularity, limiting intraoperative options; no option for liner removal in the setting of acute irrigation and débridement; and no option for late liner exchange. Primary total knee arthroplasty with a modern all-polyethylene design can be done in many patients, with substantial cost savings across the health-care system.

  7. Effect of a too posterior placement of the tibial tunnel on the outcome 10-12 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the 70-degree tibial guide.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Strand, Torbjørn; Fischer-Bredenbeck, Cornelia; Solheim, Eirik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the radiographically assessed placement of the tibial tunnel and the long-term clinical and subjective outcome in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients. Patients were examined clinically, with subjective score systems and with standardised radiographs 10-12 years postoperatively. Only patients reconstructed with the aid of the 70-degree tibial drill guide were included. A posterior placement of the tibial tunnel was defined as >50% along the Amis and Jakob line (AJL). A high tunnel inclination was defined as >75° in the coronal plane. The possible linear relationships between clinical findings, subjective scores and tibial tunnel placement were investigated. Eighty-six percentage of the 96 patients were available for examination. Mean tibial tunnel inclination was 71.1° (SD 4.2). No difference was found in subjective scores and knee stability between high (14%) and low (86%) inclination groups. Mean placement of the tibial tunnel along the AJL was 46% (SD 5). Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement (24%) had a higher incidence of rotational instability (P = 0.02). Patients with rotational instability (grade 2 pivot shift) had significant lower Lysholm score than those with grade 0 and 1 rotational instability (P = 0.001). The use of a tibial drill guide that relates to the femoral roof leads to a posterior tibial tunnel placement (>50% of the tibial AP-diameter) in 24% of the patients. These patients have a significant higher proportion of rotational instability and worse subjective outcome. Case series, Level IV.

  8. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  9. Contours of the hominoid lateral tibial condyle with implications for Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Organ, Jason M; Ward, Carol V

    2006-08-01

    Tibial condyle shape is alleged to vary among fossil tibiae attributed to Australopithecus, and has been argued to reflect functional differences of the knee. Convex anteroposterior curvature of the lateral tibial condyle in A. africanus has been interpreted to indicate a more chimpanzee-like locomotor repertoire than the flatter lateral tibial condyles of A. afarensis (Berger and Tobias, 1996, J. Hum. Evol. 30, 343). Alternatively, Latimer, Ohman, and Lovejoy (1987, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 74, 155) have suggested that in response to increased transarticular loads accompanied by larger body mass, joints should become flatter as size increases, both within and among species, so that the variation observed among hominin fossils reflects size alone rather than functional differences. In this study, three-dimensional surface areas of the lateral tibial condyle of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas were computed using a Digibot II (Digibotics) laser scanner and the DataSculpt v.4.6 engineering software package to evaluate joint surface contours, and compared to two-dimensional surface area and arc and chord length measurements of the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes. Extant species measurements were then compared to those of A. afarensis (A.L. 129-1b, A.L. 288-1aq, A.L. 333x-26, A.L. 333-42) and A. africanus (Stw 514a). Results do not support the hypothesis that A. afarensis and A. africanus differ in condylar topology. They also do not support the hypothesis that joint surfaces become flatter with increased transarticular load accompanying increased body size, as curvature of the lateral tibial condyle in anteroposterior and mediolateral planes is not negatively allometric. However, femoral condylar shape is not included in this study, which may better reflect joint surface responses to increased body size. Finally, there is no basis from this study to reconstruct differences in locomotor behavior among fossil hominin taxa based on lateral tibial condyle morphology.

  10. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation vs parasacral transcutaneous neuromodulation for overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Viterbo, Walter; Bittencourt, Joana; Farias, Tiago; Lordêlo, Patrícia

    2013-08-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation have emerged as effective methods to treat overactive bladder in children. However, to our knowledge no study has compared the 2 methods. We evaluated the results of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder. We prospectively studied children with overactive bladder without dysfunctional voiding. Success of treatment was evaluated by visual analogue scale and dysfunctional voiding symptom score, and by level of improvement of each specific symptom. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was performed 3 times weekly and posterior tibial nerve stimulation was performed once weekly. A total of 22 consecutive patients were treated with posterior tibial nerve stimulation and 37 with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding demographic characteristics or types of symptoms. Concerning the evaluation by visual analogue scale, complete resolution of symptoms was seen in 70% of the group undergoing parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and in 9% of the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation (p = 0.02). When the groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The frequency of persistence of urgency and diurnal urinary incontinence was nearly double in the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation. However, this difference was not statistically significant. We found that parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is more effective in resolving overactive bladder symptoms, which matches parental perception. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the evaluation by dysfunctional voiding symptom score, or in complete resolution of urgency or diurnal incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  11. Association between body weight and proximal tibial bone mineral density after bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Ishii, Hana; Todoroki, Koji; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    Proximal tibial bone mineral density (BMD) has been studied for its potential impact on subsidence and loosening of the tibial component after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, no known studies of proximal tibial BMD after TKA have evaluated the effect of major impact factors such as body weight (BW), muscle strength, and level of activity. We aim to determine whether factors such as level of activity, quadriceps strength, BW, gender, age, and prosthetic design affect proximal tibial BMD over the mid- to long-term following TKA. We evaluated 36 patients (72 knees) who were undergoing bilateral TKA performed by a single surgeon. Median follow up time was 115months (range, 60-211months) for a minimum of five years. We measured BMD in the proximal tibia and used a hand-held dynamometer to measure quadriceps isometric strength, recording the maximum value of three measurements for each patient. Univariate analyses using Spearman's correlation coefficient for continuous variables revealed a weak negative correlation between age and BMD (r=-0.316, P=0.007) and a moderate positive correlation between BW and BMD (r=0.430, P<0.001). However, no significant correlations were found between the other factors above and BMD for continuous and discrete variables. Based on multivariate analyses, only BW had a significant effect on BMD (β=0.342, P=0.003). BW is the most impact factor on the proximal tibial BMD after mid- to long-term follow up TKA. Therefore, the management of BW may contribute to prevention of decline of tibial BMD for TKA patients owing to aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta1, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Material and methods 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. Results The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/− 2.66 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (p < 0.001). The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/− 1.72 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/− 1.01 mm2 and 0.30 mm respectively). Conclusion The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients. PMID:29375899

  13. Posterior tibial tendon dislocation: a systematic review of the literature and presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    In contrast to posterior tibial tendon lesions, dislocations of the posterior tibial tendon are thought to be 'extremely rare'. Diagnostic criteria for this condition have not yet been established. A systematic literature review revealed 61 published cases with posterior tibial tendon dislocation in 36 reports, including eight (12 patients) in French and five (7 patients) in German. We add one more case, which was complicated by a longitudinal tibial tendon tear and a lateral talar dome osteochondral lesion. Fifty-nine cases were descriptively analysed regarding initial injury, subjective symptoms, clinical presentation and findings on different imaging modalities. Treatment and outcome were additionally evaluated. 58.5% of the initial injuries were induced by sport. Initially most cases were misdiagnosed (53.1%). 35.6% of the patients felt a recurrent snapping phenomenon at the medial ankle. Physical examination exhibited a cord-like structure over the medial malleolus in 58.6%, and a posterior tibial tendon (sub)luxation could be provocated in 54.2%. MRI, ultrasound and plain radiography (medial malleolar chip fracture) detected specific findings in 75.0%, 66.7% and 14.7%, respectively. Surgery was done in 83.1% of the patients using varying techniques. The authors judged the treatment result as excellent or asymptomatic in 80%, as good in 12% and as fair or moderate in 8% of the patients. Posterior tibial tendon dislocation occurs more frequently than was previously thought. Misdiagnosis can be avoided, if the surgeon is aware of the condition and combines findings from history, physical investigation and imaging modalities.

  14. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwarpal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/- 2.66 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (p < 0.001). The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/- 1.72 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/- 1.01 mm2 and 0.30 mm respectively). The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  15. The Availability of Radiological Measurement of Tibial Torsion: Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-yeop; Yoon, Chul Ho; Lee, Eun Shin; Oh, Min-Kyun; Kim, A Ram; Park, Jong Moon; Shin, Jun-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for measuring tibial torsion measurements by a radiographic method using three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (3D-CT) and to compare the physical measures to those of 3D-CT. Method The study included 33 children who presented with intoeing gait. Tibial torsion was measured by 3D-CT. Distal reference point was the bimalleolar axis. Proximal reference points were the transtibial axis and posterior condylar axis. Physical measurements included thigh-foot angle (TFA) and bimalleolar angle (BMA). 3D-CT measurement and physical measurement were performed twice at both lower extremities by each rater. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were calculated by intraclass correlation coefficiency (ICC). The relationship between radiological and physical examination was calculated by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results The 3D-CT measures for tibial torsion were reliable within individual raters and between different raters. However, physical measures for tibial torsion were reliable within an individual rater but not reliable between raters. The 3D-CT measures by any proximal reference axis were more reliable within a rater and between raters than physical measurements. There was no significant impact introduced by the selection of the proximal reference axis. The correlation coefficiency between 3D-CT and physical measurement methods was low. Conclusion Because the 3D-CT measurements for tibial torsion are more reliable than physical measurements, we recommend that accurate diagnosis of internal tibial torsion should be detected by using 3D-CT measurements. Also, considering the disadvantages of radiological measurements, physical measurement may be used for short term follow-up by same raters, as intra-rater reliability is relatively good. PMID:22506190

  16. Computed tomography for femoral and tibial torsion in children with clubfoot.

    PubMed

    Cuevas de Alba, C; Guille, J T; Bowen, J R; Harcke, H T

    1998-08-01

    Forty-seven children with 70 clubfeet had computed tomography studies performed to determine the degree of femoral, tibial, and total limb torsion in both lower limbs. The total limb torsion angle (angle between the axis of the femoral neck and the axis of the ankle), which describes the relationship between femoral and tibial torsion, was used to evaluate the whole rotational deformity of the lower limb. The children were between the ages of 2 and 10 years (mean, 5 years) at the time of the computed tomography study. The mean femoral torsion was 25 degrees in the limbs with a clubfoot and 23 degrees in the contralateral limbs of patients with a unilateral clubfoot. The mean tibial torsion was 25 degrees in the limbs with a clubfoot and 24 degrees in the contralateral limb of patients with a unilateral clubfoot. The authors observed decreases of anterior femoral torsion corresponding to increases in age, consistent with the observations made by other authors of studies of children without clubfoot. External tibial torsion increased with age, with similar values in limbs with and without clubfoot. Ten limbs (nine with clubfoot, one without clubfoot) had femoral torsion greater than the means plus one standard deviation and 12 limbs (eight with clubfoot, four without clubfoot) had tibial torsion less than the means minus one standard deviation. The authors found four limbs (all with clubfoot) in three patients with lower than the mean minus one standard deviation of the total limb torsion angle (intoeing). Overall, there was no appreciable difference in the amount of femoral or tibial torsion in limbs with and without a clubfoot.

  17. The availability of radiological measurement of tibial torsion: three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Yeop; Yoon, Chul Ho; Lee, Eun Shin; Oh, Min-Kyun; Kim, A Ram; Park, Jong Moon; Shin, Jun-Hwa; Shin, Hee Suk

    2011-10-01

    To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for measuring tibial torsion measurements by a radiographic method using three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (3D-CT) and to compare the physical measures to those of 3D-CT. The study included 33 children who presented with intoeing gait. Tibial torsion was measured by 3D-CT. Distal reference point was the bimalleolar axis. Proximal reference points were the transtibial axis and posterior condylar axis. Physical measurements included thigh-foot angle (TFA) and bimalleolar angle (BMA). 3D-CT measurement and physical measurement were performed twice at both lower extremities by each rater. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were calculated by intraclass correlation coefficiency (ICC). The relationship between radiological and physical examination was calculated by Spearman correlation coefficient. The 3D-CT measures for tibial torsion were reliable within individual raters and between different raters. However, physical measures for tibial torsion were reliable within an individual rater but not reliable between raters. The 3D-CT measures by any proximal reference axis were more reliable within a rater and between raters than physical measurements. There was no significant impact introduced by the selection of the proximal reference axis. The correlation coefficiency between 3D-CT and physical measurement methods was low. Because the 3D-CT measurements for tibial torsion are more reliable than physical measurements, we recommend that accurate diagnosis of internal tibial torsion should be detected by using 3D-CT measurements. Also, considering the disadvantages of radiological measurements, physical measurement may be used for short term follow-up by same raters, as intra-rater reliability is relatively good.

  18. Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Isometry between Paired Femoral and Tibial Tunnels.

    PubMed

    Cain, E Lyle; Biggers, Marcus D; Beason, David P; Emblom, Benton A; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2017-11-01

    Accurate tunnel placement is important for a successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Controversy exists concerning the preferred method of femoral tunnel preparation, with proponents of both medial portal and transtibial drilling techniques. Current ACL literature suggests that placement of the femoral ACL attachment site posterior or "low" in the ACL footprint leads to more anatomically correct ACL mechanics and better rotational control. There is limited literature focusing on ACL graft displacement through knee range of motion based on specific paired placement of femoral and tibial tunnels. Our purpose was to assess ACL isometry between multiple combinations of femoral and tibial tunnels. We hypothesized that placement of the graft at the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint on the femur would be significantly less isometric and lead to more graft displacement as compared with central or anterior placement. The ACL of matched pairs of cadaveric knees was arthroscopically debrided while leaving the soft tissue footprint on the femur and tibia intact. One knee from each pair underwent notchplasty. In all knees, three femoral and three tibial tunnels were created at the anterior, central, and posterior aspects of the ACL footprint. A suture was passed through each tunnel combination (nine potential pairs), and the change in isometry was measured throughout full knee range of motion. Placement of the femoral tunnel along the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint was less isometric compared with a central or anterior position in the femoral footprint. Placement of a posterior tibial tunnel also led to decreased isometry, but tibial tunnel placement affected isometry to a lesser extent than femoral tunnel placement. The combination of a posterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnel resulted in greater than 1 cm of graft excursion from full flexion to extension. Placement of ACL tunnels at anisometric sites may adversely affect the mechanical

  19. A comparison of the effect of shoes on human tibial axial strains recorded during dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Burr, D; Fyhrie, D; Hoshaw, S; Finestone, A; Nyska, M; Davidson, R; Mendelson, S; Giladi, M; Liebergall, M; Lehnert, B; Voloshin, A; Simkin, A

    1998-02-01

    Percutaneous axial extensometers were mounted on the medial cortex of the midtibial diaphysis in seven male volunteers and the effect of three different shoes on in vivo peak-to-peak axial compression-tension strains measured during dynamic loading. Zohar shoes had lower axial strains and strain rates during treadmill walking than Nike Air Max running shoes or Israeli infantry boots. During running on a running track, there was no statistically significant difference between the axial strains or strain rates between the shoes tested. Shoe gear can modify tibial strains and strain rates that contribute to the development of tibial stress fractures.

  20. Routine monitoring of compartment pressure in patients with tibial fractures: Beware of overtreatment!

    PubMed

    Janzing, H M; Broos, P L

    2001-06-01

    This prospective clinical study sought to evaluate the possible effects of routine compartment pressure monitoring in tibial fractures and to assess the previously published criteria. Pressures in the anterior compartment were measured in consecutive cases of tibial fractures. In 95 patients, the protocol was completed with a follow-up after 1 yr. An optimal threshold pressure with both good sensitivity and specificity could not be identified. Such monitoring is a useful tool in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, mainly in symptomatic patients or those who are difficult to assess, but routine monitoring and the use of most popular threshold pressures, which have low specificity, can result in overtreatment.

  1. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.

  3. Theoretical discrepancy between cage size and efficient tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs treated for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Mills, J; Busoni, V; Brunel, L; Balligand, M

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the difference between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) along the tibial plateau axis and the advancement truly achieved in that direction when cage size has been determined using the method of Montavon and colleagues. To measure the effect of this difference on the final patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) in relation to the ideal 90°. Trigonometry was used to calculate the theoretical actual advancement of the tibial tuberosity in a direction parallel to the tibial plateau that would be achieved by the placement of a cage at the level of the tibial tuberosity in the osteotomy plane of the tibial crest. The same principle was used to calculate the size of the cage that would have been required to achieve the desired advancement. The effect of the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved on the final PTA was calculated. For a given desired advancement, the greater the tibial plateau angle (TPA), the greater the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved. The maximum discrepancy calculated was 5.8 mm for a 12 mm advancement in a case of extreme TPA (59°). When the TPA was less than 31°, the PTA was in the range of 90° to 95°. A discrepancy does exist between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement and the actual advancement in a direction parallel to the TPA, when the tibial tuberosity is not translated proximally. Although this has an influence on the final PTA, further studies are warranted to evaluate whether this is clinically significant.

  4. Ability of an intentionally smaller anterior than posterior gap to reduce the sagittal tibial slope in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Beom; Park, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-05-18

    We utilized in vivo 3- dimensional (D) computed tomography (CT) to determine whether the preoperatively planned anterior and posterior opening gap heights correlated with the real gaps following opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), as well as the relationships between anterior and posterior gap heights and change in sagittal tibial slope. This prospective study involved 41 patients (41 knees) undergoing navigation HTO for primary medial osteoarthritis. Mechanical axis (MA), weight-bearing line (WBL) ratio, and posterior tibial slope were measured on radiographs preoperatively and after 3 months. The anterior and posterior opening gaps created by osteotomy were measured using in vivo 3D CT and the patients were classified into a larger anterior or posterior gap group. Of the 41 patients, 24 (59 %) had larger anterior and 17 (41 %) had larger posterior gaps. There were no between group differences in preoperative and postoperative slopes, or in change in slope. The correlation between preoperatively planned and postoperative posterior gaps was good, whereas the correlation of anterior gaps was only fair. Bland-Altman plots showed poor agreement for both preoperative and postoperative anterior and posterior gaps. The mean systematic difference (bias) was 2.3 mm (p < 0.001) for anterior and -1.0 mm (p = 0.033) for posterior gaps. Preoperatively calculated opening gaps, which were planned to be larger posteriorly than anteriorly to minimize the change in slope after surgery, did not correspond with postoperative opening gaps on 3D CT. In addition, postoperative tibial slope did not increase, even when the anterior gap was larger than the posterior gap. KCT0001905 , April 29, 2016.

  5. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Winters, Marinus; Eskes, Michel; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H; Backx, Frank J G; Bakker, Eric W P

    2013-12-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common exercise-induced leg injury among athletes and military personnel. Several treatment options have been described in the literature, but it remains unclear which treatment is most effective. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of any intervention in the treatment of MTSS. Published or non-published studies, reporting randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of any treatment in subjects with MTSS were eligible for inclusion. Treatments were assessed for effects on pain, time to recovery or global perceived effect. Computerized bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus) and trial registries were searched for relevant reports, from their inception to 1 June 2012. Grey literature was searched for additional relevant reports. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to appraise study quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) whereas the Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to appraise non-randomized trials. The 'levels of evidence', according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, addressed the impact of the assessed trials. Two reviewers independently performed the search for articles, study selection, data extraction and appraised methodological quality. Eleven trials were included in this systematic review. All RCTs revealed a high risk of bias (Level 3 of evidence). Both non-randomized clinical trials were found to be of poor quality (Level 4 of evidence). RCTs, studying the effect of a lower leg brace versus no lower leg brace, and iontophoresis versus phonophoresis, were pooled using a fixed-effects model. No significant differences were found for lower leg braces (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.06; 95 % CI -0.44 to 0.32, p = 0.76), or iontophoresis (SMD 0.09; 95 % CI -0.50 to 0.68, p = 0.76). Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, ice massage, ultrasound therapy, periosteal pecking and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT

  6. Effect of reamer design on posteriorization of the tibial tunnel during endoscopic transtibial anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Korth, Kyle; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Gupta, Deepti; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N

    2013-06-01

    It is known that small alterations in tunnel positioning during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction significantly affect ACL length and tensioning patterns as well as alter force vectors and joint kinematics. To compare the amount of inadvertent posteriorization of the ACL tibial tunnel anatomy during transtibial ACL femoral reaming in the "over-the-top" position with a full femoral reamer versus a half femoral reamer, in comparison to the native tibial ACL footprint. It is hypothesized that the half reamer will result in less distortion of tibial tunnel anatomy and improved anatomic footprint coverage. It is also hypothesized that the true center of the tibial ACL footprint lies more anterior than previously described. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knee specimens were securely fixed to a stationary table at 90° of flexion and neutral rotation. After removal of the anterior capsule and patella, native joint anatomy was precisely recorded with a digitizer accurate to 0.05 mm. Tibial and femoral tunnels were then drilled in the manner of transtibial ACL reconstructions using the optimal tibial starting point of 15.9 mm below the medial plateau and 9.8 mm posteromedial to the medial margin of the tibial tubercle. After the 11-mm tibial tunnel was drilled, femoral tunnels were first drilled with a 10-mm half-fluted reamer, followed by a 10-mm full reamer. Each tibial tunnel's location and geometry relative to the native ligamentous insertion sites and joint anatomy were digitized. Digitized measurements of ACL insertional anatomy demonstrated that the center of the native ACL tibial footprint was 2.0 ± 0.49 mm (range, 1.1-2.7 mm) anterior to the posterior aspect of the lateral meniscus' anterior horn. Use of the 10-mm full femoral reamer resulted in a tibial-articular aperture that had a posterior edge 4.35 mm more posterior (P = .049) and extra-anatomic (P = .006) than the footprint of the 10-mm half femoral reamer. Half-fluted reamers may

  7. Tibial tunnel placement accuracy during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: independent femoral versus transtibial femoral tunnel drilling techniques.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas C; Tompkins, Marc; Economopoulos, Kostas; Milewski, Matthew D; Gaskin, Cree; Brockmeier, Stephen; Hart, Joseph; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of tibial tunnel placement using independent femoral (IF) versus transtibial (TT) techniques. Ten matched pairs of cadaveric knees were randomized so that one knee in the pair underwent arthroscopic TT drilling of the femoral tunnel and the other underwent IF drilling through an accessory medial portal. For both techniques, an attempt was made to place the femoral and tibial tunnels as close to the center of the respective anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprints as possible. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography using a technique optimized for ligament evaluation allowed comparison of the anatomic ACL tibial footprint to the tibial tunnel aperture. The percentage of tunnel aperture contained within the native footprint, as well as the distance from the center of the tunnel aperture to the center of the footprint, was measured. Additionally, graft obliquity relative to the tibial plateau was evaluated in the sagittal plane. The percentage of tibial tunnel aperture contained within the native footprint averaged 71.6% ± 17.2% versus 52.1% ± 23.4% (P = .04) in the IF and TT groups, respectively. The distance from the center of the footprint to the center of the tibial tunnel aperture was 3.50 ± 1.6 mm and 4.40 ± 1.7 mm (P = .27) in the IF and TT groups, respectively. TT drilling placed 6 of 10 tunnels posterior to the center of the footprint versus 3 of 10 tunnels in IF drilling. The graft obliquity angles were 54.8° in TT specimens and 47.5° in IF specimens (P = .09). This study adds to the literature suggesting that TT drilling with an 8-mm reamer has deleterious effects on tibial tunnel aperture and position. IF drilling, which does not involve repeated reaming of the tibial tunnel, is associated with the placement of a higher percentage of the tunnel aperture within the native tibial footprint. There was not a significant difference between the IF and TT techniques in their ability to place the center

  8. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited: Does the Independent Femoral Drilling Technique Avoid Roof Impingement With Anteriorly Placed Tibial Tunnels?

    PubMed

    Tanksley, John A; Werner, Brian C; Conte, Evan J; Lustenberger, David P; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Gwathmey, F Winston; Miller, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is now well accepted. The ideal location for the tibial tunnel has not been studied extensively, although some biomechanical and clinical studies suggest that placement of the tibial tunnel in the anterior part of the ACL tibial attachment site may be desirable. However, the concern for intercondylar roof impingement has tempered enthusiasm for anterior tibial tunnel placement. To compare the potential for intercondylar roof impingement of ACL grafts with anteriorly positioned tibial tunnels after either transtibial (TT) or independent femoral (IF) tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees were randomized to either a TT or IF drilling technique. Tibial guide pins were drilled in the anterior third of the native ACL tibial attachment site after debridement. All efforts were made to drill the femoral tunnel anatomically in the center of the attachment site, and the surrogate ACL graft was visualized using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Reformatting was used to evaluate for roof impingement. Tunnel dimensions, knee flexion angles, and intra-articular sagittal graft angles were also measured. The Impingement Review Index (IRI) was used to evaluate for graft impingement. Two grafts (2/6, 33.3%) in the TT group impinged upon the intercondylar roof and demonstrated angular deformity (IRI type 1). No grafts in the IF group impinged, although 2 of 6 (66.7%) IF grafts touched the roof without deformation (IRI type 2). The presence or absence of impingement was not statistically significant. The mean sagittal tibial tunnel guide pin position prior to drilling was 27.6% of the sagittal diameter of the tibia (range, 22%-33.9%). However, computed tomography performed postdrilling detected substantial posterior enlargement in 2 TT specimens. A significant difference in the sagittal graft angle was noted between the 2 groups. TT grafts were

  9. Short-term outcome and complications of TPLO using anatomically contoured locking compression plates in small/medium-breed dogs with "excessive" tibial plateau angle.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D C; Trinterud, T; Owen, M R; Bush, M A

    2016-06-01

    To report short-term radiographic and clinical outcome and complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs less than 18·1 kg with tibial plateau angle greater than 35° using anatomically contoured six-hole locking compression plates. Retrospective data were collected on: preoperative, postoperative and follow-up tibial plateau angles, plateau segment rotation, tibial tuberosity width and length of the cranial aspect of tibial tuberosity segment from the patellar tendon insertion and rotation of the tibial plateau below the level of the insertion of the patellar ligament. In 26 small dogs (29 stifles in total), mean preoperative, postoperative and follow-up tibial plateau angles were 38·2°, 4·8°, and 4·4°, respectively. Documented postoperative complications were limited to patellar tendinopathy in a single case (3·4%) and tibial tuberosity or fibula fracture were not observed. Short-term radiographic and clinical outcome of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilised with anatomically contoured six-hole locking compression plates for the treatment of small dogs with large tibial plateau angle suggests a very low risk of complications. Rotation beyond the "safe point" is necessary to perform full rotation in some cases, but does not appear to incur an increased risk of tibial tuberosity fracture. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Correlation of bone scintigraphy and histological findings in medial tibial syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, R; Lauder, I; Finlay, D; Allen, M; Belton, I

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To correlate bone scintigraphy and histopathological findings in patients with medial tibial syndrome. Methods—Twenty patients (32 limbs) with a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial syndrome had surgery. Bone scintigraphy before the operation was compared with the histological appearance of bone and periosteal specimens obtained at surgery. Results—Delayed bone scintigraphy showed normal appearance in 11 limbs, characteristic diffuse tubular pattern uptake in 16 limbs, and focal uptake in five. Periosteal histology disclosed fibrous thickening as the most common finding associated with increased vascularity, occasionally with chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, haemosiderin, and acid mucopolysaccharide deposition. Loss of osteocytes was the main finding of bone histology associated with some enlargement of lacunae and lamellar structure disruption. A grading system was used to score normal and abnormal histological appearance. For analysis the findings were regrouped to provide tables using Fisher's exact test. There was no correlation between bone scintigraphy and the histology of bone and periosteum, but two interesting observations were noted. Those cases with periosteal thickening had mostly normal bone scan appearance (p = 0.0028). Those cases with low levels of osteocyte loss had mostly abnormal bone scintigraphy. Conclusion—Abnormal histological appearance of bone and periosteum is a feature of medial tibial syndrome. These histological findings show poor correlation with bone scintigraphy. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome remains unclear. Key Words: medial tibial syndrome; bone; periosteum; scintigraphy; histology PMID:10690451

  11. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Teimoory, Nastaran; Miri, Elahe; Nikfallah, Abolghasem; Naeimi, Mahsa; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB). Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation) plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  12. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ of Stenopelmatus (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Stenopelmatidae (or "Jerusalem crickets") belong to the atympanate Ensifera, lacking hearing organs in the foreleg tibiae. Their phylogenetic position is controversial, either as a taxon in Tettigonioidea or within the clade of Gryllacridoidea. Similarly, the origin of tibial auditory systems in Ensifera is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal structures of the proximal tibiae of Stenopelmatus spec. with the hypothesis that internal sensory structures are similar to those in tympanate Ensifera. In Stenopelmatus the complex tibial organ consists of three neuronal parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and a third part with linearly arranged neurons. This tripartite organization is also found in tympanate Ensifera, verifying our hypothesis. The third part of the sense organ found in Stenopelmatus can be regarded by the criterion of position as homologous to auditory receptors of hearing Tettigonioidea. This crista acustica homolog is found serially in all thoracic leg pairs and contains 20 +/- 2 chordotonal neurons in the foreleg. The tibial organ was shown to be responsive to vibration, with a broad threshold of about 0.06 ms(-2) in a frequency range from 100-600 Hz. The central projection of tibial sensory neurons terminates into two equally sized lobes in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center. The data are discussed comparatively to those of other Ensifera and mapped phylogenetically onto recently proposed phylogenies for Ensifera. The crista acustica homolog could represent a neuronal rudiment of a secondarily reduced ear, but neuronal features are also consistent with an evolutionary preadaptation.

  13. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaña Neto, Frederico Carlos; de Paula Canal, Marina; Alves, Bernardo Aurélio Fonseca; Ferreira, Pablício Martins; Ayres, Jefferson Castro; Alves, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo–Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive); presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) index; mortality rate; and infection rate. Results 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%). Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75%) and IIIB (25%) predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. Conclusion The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions. PMID:27069881

  14. Serum chemistry and histopathology of broiler femoral head necrosis and tibial dyschondroplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) are two major leg problems in young meat type poultry which cause lameness, bone deformity and infections. Whereas FHN results from disarticulation of the femoral growth plate from the articular cartilage, TD lesions are characterized by i...

  15. Severe lateral tibial bowing with short stature in two siblings--a provisionally novel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zitano, Lia; Loder, Randall T; Cohen, Mervyn D; Weaver, David D

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we describe two siblings with short stature and severe lateral tibial bowing. In the younger sibling, the bowing was bilateral, while in the older sib, it was unilateral. However, both showed bilateral abnormalities of the distal tibial epiphyses and growth plates. Pseudoarthrosis of the left distal tibial metaphysis and subsequent spontaneous resolution of the abnormality occurred in the younger sibling. The fibulas of both children were of normal diameter and were straight, except for the distal ends. Surgery has almost completely corrected the lower leg bowing in both patients. The type of tibial bowing seen in these children can be associated with a number of syndromes, such as neurofibromatosis type I, Weismann-Netter syndrome, and a variety of environmental caused disorders, such as vitamin D deficient rickets. However, the severity of the bowing present in our patients and the absence of other clinical features differentiates this condition from those reported in the literature. We posit that the condition in the children presented here represents an as yet undescribed syndrome, which is likely to be of genetic origin. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Post damage in contemporary posterior-stabilized tibial inserts: influence of implant design and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Medel, Francisco J; Kurtz, Steven M; Sharkey, Peter F; Austin, Matthew S; Klein, Gregg R; Cohen, Alexis R; Patel, Hina; Goldberg, Victor M; Kraay, Matthew J; Rimnac, Clare M

    2011-06-01

    The mechanisms of damage at the polyethylene post in 3 contemporary tibial insert designs were evaluated and compared with a historical standard (Insall-Burstein II; Zimmer, Warsaw, Ind). One hundred five gamma sterilized posterior-stabilized tibial inserts were revised after an average of 4.7 years (0.05-13.6 years). Retrievals were classified according to their designs: Insall-Burstein II (n = 28); PFC (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, Mass; n = 30); NexGen (Zimmer; n = 32); and Scorpio (Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ; n = 15). Reasons for revision and patient details were available. Surface damage scoring and photogrammetry were performed on all the retrieved tibial inserts. Oxidation analysis was carried out for traceable historical, gamma air-sterilized and conventional, gamma inert-sterilized tibial inserts (n = 61) with the use of infrared spectroscopy. The posts for all 3 contemporary designs exhibited damage similar to the historical controls. Articular, post, and backside damage scores significantly increased with implantation time. Post damage was insensitive to design and patient factors but was exacerbated by oxidation. An association between damage at the post and articular surface was also confirmed. Logistic models suggested an interaction between post damage, backside surface damage, and implant loosening. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III.

    PubMed

    Jaña Neto, Frederico Carlos; de Paula Canal, Marina; Alves, Bernardo Aurélio Fonseca; Ferreira, Pablício Martins; Ayres, Jefferson Castro; Alves, Robson

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive); presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) index; mortality rate; and infection rate. 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%). Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75%) and IIIB (25%) predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions.

  18. Management of feline tibial diaphyseal fractures using orthogonal plates performed via minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew; Witte, Philip G; Moody, Tristram; Harris, Karen; Scott, Harry W

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess the medium- and long-term outcomes (radiographic and owner questionnaire) of feline tibial diaphyseal fractures with orthogonal plate fixation via a minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) approach. Methods Medical records and radiographs of cats that had tibial diaphyseal fractures stabilised with orthogonal plates were obtained (2012-2016). Immediate postoperative radiographs were reviewed to assess the construct configuration and follow-up radiographs (where available) were used to assess bone healing and implant-related complications. An owner-completed questionnaire (feline musculoskeletal pain index [FMPI]) was used at a minimum of 6 months following surgery to assess the cats' ability to perform normal activities. Results Eight feline tibial diaphyseal fractures met the inclusion criteria. One major complication was observed, most likely due to an operative technical error. There were no further complications following revision surgery. Six of the eight cases that had radiographic follow-up either had clinical bone union or showed evidence of bone healing. All cases were classified as successful according to FMPI. Conclusions and relevance Orthogonal plating of feline tibial diaphyseal fractures via an MIPO approach resulted in successful outcomes and a lower complication rate compared with previously reported techniques.

  19. Comparison between tibial nerve block with anaesthetics and neurotomy in hemiplegic adults with spastic equinovarus foot.

    PubMed

    Deltombe, Thierry; Bleyenheuft, Corinne; Gustin, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of diagnostic motor nerve block with anaesthetics and of selective tibial neurotomy in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot in hemiplegic adults. In this prospective observational study, 30 hemiplegic adults with spastic equinovarus foot benefited from a diagnostic nerve block with anaesthetics followed by a selective tibial neurotomy performed at the level of the same motor nerve branches of the tibial nerve. Spasticity (Ashworth scale), muscle strength (Medical Research Council scale), passive ankle dorsiflexion (ROM), gait parameters (10 meters walking test) and gait kinematics (video assessment) were assessed before and after the nerve block and two months and two years after selective tibial neurotomy. The decrease in spasticity and the improvement in gait kinematics were similar after the diagnostic nerve block and two months and two years after neurotomy. The diagnostic nerve block did not revealed the slight increase in gait speed and in tibialis anterior muscle strength that was observed two years after neurotomy. This study suggests that diagnostic nerve block with anaesthetics and selective neurotomy equally reduce spasticity and improve gait in case of spastic equinovarus foot in hemiplegic adults. Diagnostic nerve block can be used as a valuable screening tool before neurotomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surgical site infection in tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dubina, Andrew G; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Manson, Theodore T; Allmon, Christopher; O'Toole, Robert V

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compartment syndrome and timing of fasciotomy wound closure on surgical site infection (SSI) after surgical fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that SSI rate is increased for fractures with compartment syndrome versus those without, even accounting for confounders associated with infection. Our secondary hypothesis was that infection rates are unrelated to timing of fasciotomy closure or fixation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of operative tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome (n=71) treated with fasciotomy at our level I trauma center from 2003 through 2011. A control group consisted of 602 patients with 625 operatively treated tibial plateau fractures without diagnosis of compartment syndrome. The primary outcome measure was deep SSI after ORIF. Fractures with compartment syndrome had a higher rate of SSI (25% versus 8%, p<0.001). The difference remained significant in our multivariate model (odds ratio, 7.27; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-13.9). Delay in timing of fasciotomy closure was associated with a 7% increase per day in odds of infection (95% confidence interval, 0.2-13; p<0.05). Tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome have a significant increase in rates of SSI compared with those without compartment syndrome (p<0.001). Delays in fasciotomy wound closure were also associated with increased odds of SSI (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ilizarov trifocal lengthening followed by intramedullary nailing for massive posttraumatic tibial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Selim, Naser M

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of massive tibial bone defects takes a very long time. An Ilizarov trifocal approach decreases the lengthening time. Subsequent intramedullary fixation decreases the complications of the conventional Ilizarov method. This technique was applied between June 2010 and June 2011 in 10 male patients with a mean age of 30 years. All had grade III open tibial fractures. The patients were treated at Mansoura University Hospital and a private hospital. The sequence of treatment included trifocal lengthening using the Ilizarov method, followed by removal of the fixator, temporary plaster cast immobilisation and subsequent intramedullary fixation until complete union was achieved. The length of the tibial bone defect ranged between 6-12 cm; the lengthening time ranged between 45-75 days and the consolidation time ranged between 90-160 days. The results were evaluated according to Paley's bone and functional assessment scores. The bone results were excellent in 7 patients and good in 3. Two patients had non union and one patient had pin tract infection. The functional results were excellent in 7 patients and good in 3. Two patients had equinus deformity and one patient had limited range of knee motion. There were no deep infections, DVTs or leg length discrepancies greater than 2.5 cm. Ilizarov trifocal lengthening followed by delayed intramedullary fixation appeared in this study as a good method of treatment for massive posttraumatic tibial bone defects. It reduced fixator time and minimized the complications associated with the Ilizarov fixation.

  3. Tibial shaft fractures - management and treatment options. A review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Bode, G; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P; Hammer, T O

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of tibial shaft fractures is still discussed controversial. In the present study current literature was reviewed with the objective to demonstrate current recommendations concerning tibial shaft fractures. Tibial shaft fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma with severe concomitant soft-tissue injuries. Solid bone union without hypertrophy, fast mobilization and full range of motion without further soft-tissue damages are the aims of the therapy. Non-displaced tibial shaft fractures in patients with good compliance can be treated conservatively. Deep venous thrombosis, compartment syndrome, soft tissue injury and chronic regional pain syndrome are the major risks of conservative treatment and need to be required. Operative treatment can be performed with several different implants. Intramedullary nailing with a huge biomechanical stability seems to be the implant of choice. Only rare indications for plate osteosynthesis can be found. The use of external fixation has declined even though external fixation is still the implant of choice in first line treatment of multiple trauma according to the damage control principles. Open fractures with precarious blood supply and weak soft tissue covering are vulnerable to complications and remain a challenge for every treating surgeon. Reconstruction of axis, length and rotation is essential for a good outcome. The choice of technique depends on fracture localization, type of fracture, history of concomitant disorders and soft tissue damage.

  4. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD.

  5. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  6. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  7. Prediction of fatigue failure of a total knee replacement tibial plateau using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, J V; Skinner, H B; Mote, C D

    1988-08-01

    Recent reports of total knee prosthesis fractures have raised concerns over the long-term structural integrity of metal-backed tibial components. Both the development of a fibrous tissue membrane under the tibial plateau of a total knee prosthesis and loading conditions may seriously alter the fatigue life of the metal tibial tray. The effects of the cement and fibrous tissue at the bone-prosthesis interface were studied. Using the method of three-dimensional finite element analysis, peak loads of normal gait were simulated at several locations on the plateau of a generic, single-stemmed, porous-coated, CoCrMo tibial component model, providing information on the effect of abnormal loading patterns. According to the analysis, stresses below the material endurance limit are predicted throughout the prosthesis prior to the development of the fibrous membrane. However, stresses exceeding the yield strength of the material are predicted in a prosthesis that is supported by a fully developed 1 mm membrane, meaning that it has a markedly increased risk of low-cycle fatigue failure. Lateral displacement of the loading is detrimental to prosthesis life because maximum stress increases 100% while posterior displacement of the loading increases maximum stress by only 30%. Anterior loading creates stresses similar to those created by central loading. Because of their susceptibility to low-cycle fatigue failure, simple, single-stemmed prostheses are not recommended in cases of questionable bone stock unless modified. Several design alternatives are proposed.

  8. Editorial Commentary: Tibial Tubercle Prominence After Osgood-Schlatter Disease: What Causes Pain?

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    A novel surgical technique to reduce the tibial tubercle prominence in painful Osgood-Schlatter disease was piloted in a small cohort of patients with chronic anterior knee pain. Midterm results judged by patient-reported outcomes of pain and function show promise for this technique. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of high tibial osteotomy in chronic injuries of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Eugenio; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Romeo, Rocco; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to change the mechanical weight-bearing axis and alter the loads carried through the knee. Conventional indications for HTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee causing pain and dysfunction. Traditionally, knee instability associated with varus thrust has been considered a contraindication. However, today the indications include patients with chronic ligament deficiencies and malalignment, because an HTO procedure can change not only the coronal but also the sagittal plane of the knee. The sagittal plane has generally been ignored in HTO literature, but its modification has a significant impact on biomechanics and joint stability. Indeed, decreased posterior tibial slope causes posterior tibia translation and helps the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Vice versa, increased tibial slope causes anterior tibia translation and helps the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. A review of literature shows that soft tissue procedures alone are often unsatisfactory for chronic posterior instability if alignment is not corrected. Since limb alignment is the most important factor to consider in lower limb reconstructive surgery, diagnosis and treatment of limb malalignment should not be ignored in management of chronic ligamentous instabilities. This paper reviews the effects of chronic posterior instability and tibial slope alteration on knee and soft tissues, in addition to planning and surgical technique for chronic posterior and posterolateral instability with HTO.

  10. Effect of Tibial Posterior Slope on Knee Kinematics, Quadriceps Force, and Patellofemoral Contact Force After Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigetoshi; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model validated with in vivo data to evaluate the effect of tibial posterior slope on knee kinematics, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The maximum quadriceps force and patellofemoral contact force decreased with increasing posterior slope. Anterior sliding of the tibial component and anterior impingement of the anterior aspect of the tibial post were observed with tibial posterior slopes of at least 5° and 10°, respectively. Increased tibial posterior slope contributes to improved exercise efficiency during knee extension, however excessive tibial posterior slope should be avoided to prevent knee instability. Based on our computer simulation we recommend tibial posterior slopes of less than 5° in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Different Tibial Fixation Techniques on Initial Stability in Single-Stage Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision With Confluent Tibial Tunnels: A Biomechanical Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Treder, Maximilian; Schulze, Martin; Müller, Viktoria; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biaggio; Herbort, Mirco; Kösters, Clemens; Raschke, Michael J; Lenschow, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To kinematically and biomechanically compare 4 different types of tibial tunnel management in single-stage anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction with the control: primary ACL reconstruction using a robotic-based knee testing setup. Porcine knees and flexor tendons were used. One hundred specimens were randomly assigned to 5 testing groups: (1) open tibial tunnel, (2) bone plug technique, (3) biodegradable interference screw, (4) dilatation technique, and (5) primary ACL reconstruction. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system was used to simulate the KT-1000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) and pivot-shift tests. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing were performed. Anterior tibial translation increased significantly with all of the techniques compared with the intact ACL (P < .05). In the simulated KT-1000 test, groups 2 and 3 achieved results equal to those of primary ACL reconstruction (P > .05). The open tunnel and dilated tunnel techniques showed significantly greater anterior tibial translation (P < .05). The results of the simulated pivot-shift test were in accordance with those of the KT-1000 test. No significant differences could be observed regarding stiffness or maximum load to failure. However, elongation was significantly lower in the primary ACL reconstruction group compared with groups 1 and 3 (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Filling an incomplete and incorrect tibial tunnel with a press-fit bone plug or a biodegradable interference screw in a standardized laboratory situation provided initial biomechanical properties and knee stability comparable with those of primary ACL reconstruction. In contrast, the dilatation technique or leaving the malplaced tunnel open did not restore knee kinematics adequately in this model. Backup extracortical fixation should be considered because the load to failure depends on the extracortical fixation when an undersized interference screw is used for aperture fixation. Our

  12. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Changes in microarchitectural characteristics at the tibial epiphysis induced by collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis over time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Hyung; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Kwon-Yong; Kim, Dae Jun; Lim, Dohyung

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the time course of changes in the microarchitecture of the tibial epiphysis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although such information would be valuable in predicting risk of fracture. Therefore, we used in vivo microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) to assess patterns of microarchitectural alterations in the tibial epiphysis using collagen-induced RA in an animal model. Methods Bovine type II collagen was injected intradermally into the tails of rats for induction of RA. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo μ-CT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks following injection. Microarchitectural parameters were measured to evaluate alteration patterns of bone microarchitecture at the tibial epiphysis. Results The microarchitectural alterations in an RA group were significantly different from those in a control group from 0 to 4 weeks and from 4 to 8 weeks following injection (P < 0.05). The distribution of trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation from 0 weeks to 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that the patterns of microarchitectural alterations at the tibial epiphysis are strongly affected by collagen-induced progression of RA and entail a severe risk of fracture at the tibial epiphysis. This study represents a valuable first approach to tracking periodic and continuous changes in the microarchitectural characteristics of the tibial epiphysis with collagen-induced RA. PMID:23049249

  14. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  15. Lateral Tibial Slope is Increased with Patients with Early Graft Failure Following ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Engasser, William; Vanhees, Matthias; Collins, Mark S.; Dahm, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between lateral tibial slope and probability of early graft failure in patients who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were initially identified who experienced graft failure following primary ACL reconstruction and were revised between 1989 and 2009. Exclusion criteria were: clinical follow-up of less than four years, graft failure occurring greater than two years from primary surgery, skeletal immaturity, deep infection, lack of availability of preoperative MRI imaging, and history of previous trauma to the proximal tibia. This left 35 cases of early (within 2 years) failure of primary ACL reconstruction. These cases were matched to 35 controls that had undergone ACL reconstruction with a minimum of 4 years of clinical follow-up and no evidence of graft failure. Patients were matched by age, gender, date of primary surgery, and graft type. Lateral tibial slope was then determined on MRI imaging in blinded fashion. Results: All 35 cases failed within 2 years of primary ACL reconstruction. Mean time to failure in this group was 1 year (range 0.6-1.4 years). Mean follow-up of the matched control group was 6.9 years (range 4.0-13.9 years). Mean lateral tibial slope in the early ACL failure group was found to be 8.4 degrees, which was significantly larger than the control group at 6.5 degrees (p=0.02). The odds ratio for failure considering a 2 degree increase in tibial slope was 1.5 (95% CI 1.02-2.2), and continued to increase to 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) and 3.3 (95% CI 1.1-10) with 4 degree and 6 degree increases in tibial slope, respectively (Fig 1). No significant association was identified between graft type and primary ACL reconstruction failure. Conclusion: Increased lateral tibial slope is associated with an increased risk for early ACL graft failure, regardless of graft type. Orthopaedic surgeons should consider measuring lateral tibial slope as part of the

  16. Tibial slope correction combined with second revision ACL produces good knee stability and prevents graft rupture.

    PubMed

    Dejour, David; Saffarini, Mo; Demey, Guillaume; Baverel, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Mobile-bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: The Influence of Tibial Component Coronal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guang-Duo; Guo, Wan-Shou; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controversies about the rational positioning of the tibial component in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) still exist. Previous finite element (FE) studies were rare, and the results varied. This FE study aimed to analyze the influence of the tibial component coronal alignment on knee biomechanics in mobile-bearing UKA and find a ration range of inclination angles. Methods: A three-dimensional FE model of the intact knee was constructed from image data of one normal subject. A 1000 N compressive load was applied to the intact knee model for validating. Then a set of eleven UKA FE models was developed with the coronal inclination angles of the tibial tray ranging from 10° valgus to 10° varus. Tibial bone stresses and strains, contact pressures and load distribution in all UKA models were calculated and analyzed under the unified loading and boundary conditions. Results: Load distribution, contact pressures, and contact areas in intact knee model were validated. In UKA models, von Mises stress and compressive strain at proximal medial cortical bone increased significantly as the tibial tray was in valgus inclination >4°, which may increase the risk of residual pain. Compressive strains at tibial keel slot were above the high threshold with varus inclination >4°, which may result in greater risk of component migration. Tibial bone resection corner acted as a strain-raiser regardless of the inclination angles. Compressive strains at the resected surface slightly changed with the varying inclinations and were not supposed to induce bone resorption and component loosening. Contact pressures and load percentage in lateral compartment increased with the more varus inclination, which may lead to osteoarthritis progression. Conclusions: Static knee biomechanics after UKA can be greatly affected by tibial component coronal alignment. A range from 4° valgus to 4° varus inclination of tibial component can be recommended in mobile-bearing UKA. PMID

  18. Tibial component rotation during the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: is the anterior superior iliac spine an appropriate landmark?

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Chay, Suhwoo; Lim, Hong-Chul; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    No "ideal" landmark for tibial component rotation in medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested by a biomechanical and clinical study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) could provide a consistent rotational landmark of the tibial component during mobile-bearing medial UKA using computed tomography (CT). During sagittal tibial resection, we utilized the ASIS as a rotational landmark. In 47 knees that underwent postoperative CT scans after medial UKA, the tibial component position was assessed by drawing a line tangential to the lateral wall of the tibial component. Rotation of the tibial component was measured using two reference lines: a line perpendicular to the posterior cortical rim of the tibia (angle α) and Akagi's line (angle β). Instant bearing position and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) fossa involvement were also evaluated. External rotation of the tibial component relative to each reference line was considered positive values. The mean α and β angles were 8.0° ± 6.1° (range -4.0 to 24.3) and 8.7° ± 4.8° (range 1.9-25.2), respectively. Fourteen knees (29.8 %) showed PCL fossa involvement of the tibial resection margin. One bearing showed complete 180° rotation at 2 weeks postoperatively. Due to the wide variation and inherent difficulty of identifying the ASIS during the operation, it is not recommended for guidance of sagittal tibial resection during medial UKA. In cases of inappropriate tibia component rotation, risk of PE bearing spinning and iatrogenic PCL injury should be reminded after medial UKA. IV.

  19. Effects of tibial baseplate shape on rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: three-dimensional surgical simulation using osteoarthritis knees.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Ushio, Tetsuro; Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Akasaki, Yukio; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2018-01-01

    Placement of tibial component is expected to fulfill both maximum surface coverage and recommended anterior-posterior (AP) alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the tibial baseplate shape on AP axis. Virtual surgery of TKA was performed with three-dimensional bone models reconstructed from 77 osteoarthritis varus knees. Two differently designed tibial baseplates, symmetrically and anatomically, were set to the cut surface under posterior slopes of 0°, 3°, and 7°. The AP axes were defined by connecting the geometrical center of the cut surface with the medial edge (axis MED) and medial 1/3 (axis 1/3MED) of patella tendon attachment. We evaluated the overhang rates as well as the most fitting AP axis which passes through the geometric center. Overhang rates when aligned to axis MED were 12-25% for the symmetrical-type group and 13-22% for the anatomical-type group. Overhang rates when aligned to axis 1/3MED were 42-48% for the symmetrical-type group and 3-7% for the anatomical-type group. The most fitting AP axis of tibial baseplate was located 2.5° external to axis MED for the symmetrical-type group and around 3.3° internal to axis 1/3MED for the anatomical-type group. Symmetrically or anatomically designed tibial baseplates have their own favored AP axis and specific performance on coverage. When aligned to axis 1/3MED, anatomically designed tibial baseplates will effectively lower the mismatch rates compared to a symmetrically designed tibial baseplate. Orthopaedic surgeons are expected to place the tibial components to the cut surface during TKA with full understanding of the features between different baseplate designs, AP axes, and posterior slopes for an ideal tibial rotational position.

  20. Posterior tibial slope and further anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patient.

    PubMed

    Webb, Justin M; Salmon, Lucy J; Leclerc, Etienne; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2013-12-01

    An injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a multifactorial event influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Recently, the geometry of the proximal tibia has come under focus as a possible risk factor for an ACL injury. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with an increased risk of further ACL injuries in the previously ACL-reconstructed patient. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 200 consecutive patients with isolated ACL ruptures who underwent primary reconstruction with hamstring autografts were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study over 15 years. The posterior tibial slope was measured from a lateral knee radiograph by 2 blinded observers. The data were analyzed for the association between an increased posterior tibial slope and the incidence of further ACL injuries. Interobserver reliability of the posterior tibial slope measurements was assessed. Radiographs and follow-up were available for 181 of the 200 enrolled patients. Fifty patients had a further injury to either the ACL graft or the contralateral knee. The mean posterior tibial slope of those with a further ACL injury was 9.9° compared with 8.5° for those with no further injury (P = .001). The mean posterior tibial slope for those with both an ACL graft and contralateral ACL rupture was 12.9°. The odds of further ACL injuries after reconstruction were increased by a factor of 5, to an incidence of 59%, in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with increased odds of a further ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The increased risk is most pronounced in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°.

  1. Gait retraining and incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in army recruits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M; Spears, Iain R

    2014-09-01

    Gait retraining, comprising biofeedback and/or an exercise intervention, might reduce the risk of musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to examine the effect of a gait-retraining program on medial tibial stress syndrome incidence during a 26-wk basic military training regimen. A total of 450 British Army recruits volunteered. On the basis of a baseline plantar pressure variable (mean foot balance during the first 10% of stance), participants classified as at risk of developing medial tibial stress syndrome (n = 166) were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 83) or control (n = 83) group. The intervention involved supervised gait retraining, including exercises to increase neuromuscular control and flexibility (three sessions per week) and biofeedback enabling internalization of the foot balance variable (one session per week). Both groups continued with the usual military training regimen. Diagnoses of medial tibial stress syndrome over the 26-wk regimen were made by physicians blinded to the group assignment. Data were modeled in a survival analysis using Cox regression, adjusting for baseline foot balance and time to peak heel rotation. The intervention was associated with a substantially reduced instantaneous relative risk of medial tibial stress syndrome versus control, with an adjusted HR of 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.53). The number needed to treat to observe one additional injury-free recruit in intervention versus control at 20 wk was 14 (11 to 23) participants. Baseline foot balance was a nonspecific predictor of injury, with an HR per 2 SD increment of 5.2 (1.6 to 53.6). The intervention was effective in reducing incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in an at-risk military sample.

  2. Comparative reproducibility of TELOS™ and GNRB® for instrumental measurement of anterior tibial translation in normal knees.

    PubMed

    Bouguennec, N; Odri, G A; Graveleau, N; Colombet, P

    2015-05-01

    TELOS™ is among the reference tools for the instrumental measurement of anterior tibial translation during the initial work-up and follow-up of patients with injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). GRNB(®) is a non-irradiating but recently developed tool for which only limited data are available. The GRNB(®) offers better reproducibility than TELOS™ for measuring anterior tibial translation without rotation in normal knees. We retrospectively evaluated instrumental laxity measurements in normal knees. Data were available for 60 TELOS™ measurements (9kg load) and 57 GNRB(®) measurements (89N and 134N loads). For each instrument, we compared the absolute variation in anterior tibial translation between two measurements performed 6 months apart. For each GNRB(®) measurement, patellar pressure was recorded. No significant differences were found between mean (± SD) variations in translation between the two instruments. A greater than 2.5mm variation between the two measurements was significantly more common with TELOS™ than with GRNB(®) (P<0.05, Chi(2) test). GRNB(®) translation values did not correlate with patellar pressure. The GNRB(®) device offers greater reproducibility than TELOS™ when used to quantitate anterior tibial translation. The limited sample size may have prevented the detection of a significant difference between mean values. In addition, disadvantages of the TELOS™ include radiation exposure of the patient, operator-dependency of measurements made on the radiographs, and absence of a biofeedback system to limit hamstring contraction. GNRB(®) does have hamstring contraction biofeedback control but uses another parameter, namely, patellar pressure, for which the optimal value is unknown. Quadriceps and hamstring co-contraction induced by excessive patellar pressure may influence anterior tibial translation. The optimal patellar pressure value needs to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  3. A modified technique to reduce tibial keel cutting errors during an Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Tahara, Keitarou; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Bone cutting errors can cause malalignment of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA). Although the extent of tibial malalignment due to horizontal cutting errors has been well reported, there is a lack of studies evaluating malalignment as a consequence of keel cutting errors, particularly in the Oxford UKA. The purpose of this study was to examine keel cutting errors during Oxford UKA placement using a navigation system and to clarify whether two different tibial keel cutting techniques would have different error rates. The alignment of the tibial cut surface after a horizontal osteotomy and the surface of the tibial trial component was measured with a navigation system. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between these measurements. The following two techniques were used: the standard "pushing" technique in 83 patients (group P) and a modified "dolphin" technique in 41 patients (group D). In all 123 patients studied, the mean absolute keel cutting error was 1.7° and 1.4° in the coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. In group P, there were 22 outlier patients (27 %) in the coronal plane and 13 (16 %) in the sagittal plane. Group D had three outlier patients (8 %) in the coronal plane and none (0 %) in the sagittal plane. Significant differences were observed in the outlier ratio of these techniques in both the sagittal (P = 0.014) and coronal (P = 0.008) planes. Our study demonstrated overall keel cutting errors of 1.7° in the coronal plane and 1.4° in the sagittal plane. The "dolphin" technique was found to significantly reduce keel cutting errors on the tibial side. This technique will be useful for accurate component positioning and therefore improve the longevity of Oxford UKAs. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  4. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Rudolf; Qunaibi, Mutaz; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Mumme, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of gap formation in the interface metal-to-bone cement (p < 0.05). Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health. PMID:16262888

  5. Low Incidence of Neurovascular Complications After Placement of Proximal Tibial Traction Pins.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Garret; Gibson, Peter; Patel, Param; Koury, Kenneth; Sirkin, Michael; Reilly, Mark; Adams, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal tibial traction is a temporizing measure used preoperatively for femoral fractures to improve the length and alignment of the limb and provide pain relief. The goal of this study was to identify possible neurovascular morbidity associated with the use of bedside skeletal tibial traction to treat femur fractures. All femoral fractures treated with proximal tibial traction during a 10-year period at an urban level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The medical record was reviewed to determine whether a pin-related complication had occurred. Records also were reviewed to identify ipsilateral multi-ligamentous knee injuries that were not diagnosed until after the application of traction. In total, 303 proximal tibial traction pins were placed. A total of 7 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.60%-4.0%) pin-related neurologic complications and zero vascular complications were noted. All complications involved motor and/or sensory deficits in the distribution of the peroneal nerve. Of the 7 complications, 6 resolved fully after surgery and removal of the pin. After traction placement, 6 (2.0%) ipsilateral multiligamentous knee injuries were diagnosed. None of these patients had a neurovascular complication. This study suggests that bedside placement of proximal tibial traction for femoral fractures is associated with a low incidence of neurovascular complications and that traction can be safely placed at the bedside by residents. A thorough neurovascular examination should be performed before insertion, and care should be taken to identify the proper starting point and reduce soft tissue trauma during pin placement. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1004-e1008.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Posterior tibial tendon transfer: results of fixation to the dorsiflexors proximal to the ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Frank-Christiaan B M; Louwerens, Jan Willem K

    2007-11-01

    Most techniques for posterior tibial tendon transfer attach the posterior tibial tendon somewhere at the dorsum of the foot. Inadequate tendon length and difficulties in securing the tendon to bone or tendon can complicate these procedures. Performing the tenodesis proximal to the ankle joint can prevent these problems. The present study is the first to describe the results of posterior tibial tendon transfer through the interosseous membrane attaching only the posterior tibial tendon to the extensor tendons proximal to the ankle joint. We examined 13 feet in 12 patients with a foot-drop, equinovarus deformity, or both. The median (range) followup was 3.7 years (9 to 81 months) and the median age at surgery as 30 (13 to 59) years. Evaluation included recording patient satisfaction, use of ankle-foot orthoses (AFO), video-assisted gait analysis, physical examination, the Stanmore system, modified Ninković method, and complications. At followup, patient satisfaction was excellent to good in nine feet. Ten of the 11 feet that needed an AFO preoperatively did not need one after surgery. Gait analysis demonstrated a good to fair gait in 10 patients. Median dorsiflexion was 0 (-25 to 12) degrees, with dorsiflexion to a neutral position or beyond in nine feet. The Stanmore system and modified Ninković method showed excellent to good results in 10 feet. Three complications were recorded including one failed tendon transfer. Attachment of a split posterior tibial tendon to the extensor tendons proximal to the ankle joint provides results equivalent to other procedures and can be considered a viable operative alternative because it is less difficult and more straightforward than other techniques.

  7. [Tibial plateau fractures in alpine skiing--return to the slopes or career end?].

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Sandmann, G H; Martetschläger, F; Stöckle, U; Kraus, T M

    2014-03-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are among the most severe injuries of the knee joint and are often the result of sports accidents, especially skiing accidents. Between January 2003 and March 2009, a total of 37 skiers with tibial plateau fractures were treated operatively at Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (level I trauma center); 28 patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were included in this study. Sporting activity was determined at the time of injury and at the time of survey at an average follow-up of 49.0 months postoperatively. At the time of the survey, 92.9% of all patients were engaged in sports; only 12 of the 28 patients returned to skiing. Of the competitive athletes (n = 5 at time of injury) no patient returned to competition. The number of different sporting activities declined significantly from 6.4 before the injury to 4.6 after the injury. The activity duration per week, being 5.0 hours at the time of injury, declined to 4.4 hours, although the difference is statistically not significant. The Lysholm score, 97.5 points before accident, illustrated a significant decline to 84.4 points. Activity levels according to the Tegner scale declined significantly from 6.1 to 4.7 after the tibial plateau fracture. The majority of patients could not return to their previous level of activity. For patients playing competitive sports, the tibial plateau fracture can be a career ender. Overall, 92.9% of the patients returned to sports, but we noticed a post-injury shift toward activities with less impact. Only 12 of the 28 (42.9%) skiers with tibial plateau fractures returned to skiing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    PubMed

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  9. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique.

    PubMed

    Marx, Rudolf; Qunaibi, Mutaz; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Mumme, Thorsten

    2005-10-31

    One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of gap formation in the interface metal-to-bone cement (p < 0.05). Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health.

  10. The "Hoop" Plate for Posterior Bicondylar Shear Tibial Plateau Fractures: Description of a New Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2017-07-01

    High-energy fractures of the proximal tibia with extensive fragmentation of the posterior rim of the tibial plateau are challenging. This technique aims to describe a method on how to embrace the posterior rim of the tibial plateau by placing a horizontal precontoured one-third tubular plate wrapped around its corners. This method, which we named "hoop plating," is mainly indicated for cases of crushed juxta-articular rim fractures, aiming to restore cortical containment of the tibial plateau. Through a lateral approach with a fibular head osteotomy (Lobenhoffer approach), both anterolateral and posterolateral fragments are directly reduced and supported by a one-third tubular plate of adequate length. The plate is inserted from lateral to medial deep to all soft tissues, and its position is checked with fluoroscopy. The implant sits exactly on the posterior cortex of the tibial plateau and provides containment for the reduced juxta-articular posterior cortex and rim. We begin with immediate range of motion. Toe-touch weight-bearing with crutches is allowed with the operated knee in full extension. Weight-bearing is gradually increased only after 6 weeks as bone healing is taking place. Clinical follow-up is performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. If the radiological exam confirms that the fracture is healed, the patient is allowed to proceed to muscle strengthening and bear weight entirely. The "hoop plating" may be a good option for the management in cases of extensive posterior tibial plateau articular surface fracture and impaction with rim and posterior cortical wall fragmentation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  12. Peel-off injury at the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Seung-Bae; Kim, Sul-Gee; Park, In-Seop; Kim, Hyeong-Pyo; Kim, Sung-Hwan

    2010-09-01

    Careful review of the literature seldom reveals peel-off-type injuries at the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament in children. The purpose of this research is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of peel-off injuries at the tibial ligament-osseous junction of the posterior cruciate ligament in children. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between February 2001 and May 2007, 6 patients with diagnosed peel-off injuries at the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament were surgically treated. All patients were boys from 12 to 13 years of age (mean, 12.3 years). Plain radiographs were normal, but magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic findings revealed complete avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament at the tibial attachment without an osseous fragment. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentations, diagnostic tests, surgical procedures, and the results of the treatment. The mean follow-up was 37.3 months (range, 25-53 months). Five of the 6 patients had returned to their preinjury levels of activities. The mean side-to-side difference in posterior translation as measured with the KT-2000 arthrometer and stress radiographs was 2.3 mm (range, 0.7-5.2 mm) and 2.9 mm (range, 0.3-6.4 mm), respectively. The mean Lysholm score was 95 points (range, 90-100 points). According to the assessment with the International Knee Documentation Committee form, 2 patients were classified as A, 3 as B, and 1 as C. The authors could diagnose peel-off injuries at the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament in children by careful examinations and arthroscopic surgeries. Satisfactory outcomes without any complications were obtained through the arthroscopic reattachment and fixation using multiple sutures in the case of the avulsed stump that was not split.

  13. Giant early components of somatosensory evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation in cortical myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Saracino, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Enlarged cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials (giant SEPs) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) and abnormal somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) are observed in the majority of patients with cortical myoclonus (CM). Studies on simultaneous recordings of SEPs and SEFs showed that generator mechanism of giant SEPs involves both primary sensory and motor cortices. However the generator sources of giant SEPs have not been fully understood as only one report describes clearly giant SEPs following lower limb stimulation. In our study we performed a combined EEG-MEG recording on responses elicited by electric median and tibial nerve stimulation in a patient who developed consequently to methyl bromide intoxication CM with giant SEPs to median and tibial nerve stimuli. SEPs wave shapes were identified on the basis of polarity-latency components (e.g. P15-N20-P25) as defined by earlier studies and guidelines. At EEG recording, the SEP giant component did not appear in the latency range of the first cortical component for median nerve SEP (N20), but appeared instead in the range of the P37 tibial nerve SEP, which is currently identified as the first cortical component elicited by tibial nerve stimuli. Our MEG and EEG SEPs recordings also showed that components in the latency range of P37 were preceded by other cortical components. These findings suggest that lower limb P37 does not correspond to upper limb N20. MEG results confirmed that giant SEFs are the second component from both tibial (N43m-P43m) and median (N27m-P27m) nerve stimulation. MEG dipolar sources of these giant components were located in the primary sensory and motor area.

  14. Evaluation of different methods for measuring lateral tibial slope using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lipps, David B; Wilson, Annie M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Wojtys, Edward M

    2012-12-01

    Since lateral tibial slope (LTS) affects the amount of anterior tibial translation and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain during a dynamic maneuver, accurate measurements of LTS may be beneficial in screening people at a higher risk for ACL injury. Methods for measuring LTS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the proximal tibia include the midpoint and circle methods. No current studies have validated different LTS measurement methods using a proximal tibia MRI scan. We tested the null hypotheses that (1) LTS measurements were independent of the length of tibia imaged using the midpoint method, and (2) LTS measurements calculated from different methods (midpoint, circle, and full tibia) would not differ significantly. Controlled laboratory study. Blinded observers measured LTS from 3-tesla, 3-dimensional MRIs from 40 size-matched donors according to 1 circle method and 3 midpoint methods. Outcomes were then compared with the full-tibial anatomic axis (line connecting the center of 2 circles fit within the proximal and distal tibia) in 11 donors. Bonferroni-corrected paired t tests (significance, P < .005) were used to compare the 5 methods. The circle and full-tibia methods had the lowest interobserver and intraobserver variability, whereas the midpoint method with 10-cm tibia was the most variable. The midpoint method with 10-cm and 15-cm proximal tibia closely resembled LTS measurements with the full-tibial anatomic axis. The circle method, although repeatable, provided smaller numerical LTS measurements than the full-tibia and midpoint methods. Although LTS measurements using the midpoint method can resemble measurements made using the full tibia, the reliability of the midpoint method depends on the length of proximal tibia used. The circle method may be the preferred method for future studies since it was the most repeatable method and is independent of proximal tibial length. LTS measurements vary depending on the method used.

  15. The role of high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of knee laxity: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Cantin, O; Magnussen, R A; Corbi, F; Servien, E; Neyret, P; Lustig, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the indications for and outcomes of high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of patients with chronic knee laxity. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify surgical indications and results of high tibial osteotomy for the treatment of chronic knee laxity. Four distinct situations were identified in which a high tibial osteotomy may be advantageous: (1) anterior laxity with varus osteoarthritis, (2) chronic anterior laxity in the setting of varus with lateral ligamentous laxity, (3) chronic anterior laxity in the setting of a high tibial slope, and (4) chronic posterior laxity or posterolateral corner injury. A total of 24 studies were included in this report, including reports of the treatment of 410 knees as well as several review articles. The most frequently reported indication for that addition of HTO was anterior laxity in the setting of varus OA, which was noted to have good results, minimizing anterior knee laxity and allowing return to sports, while reducing the progression of osteoarthritis. More advanced cases in which lateral structures have also become stretched and incompetent are an excellent indication for HTO, with the need for subsequent lateral procedures dependent on the degree of varus laxity and especially hyperextension that is present. Excessive tibial slope has been identified as a cause of ACL reconstruction failure, and some authors have recommended addressing very high slope in revision cases. In knees with chronic posterior or posterolateral instability, correction of alignment first is generally recommended, with subsequent ligamentous procedures performed when instability persists. Knees with chronic instability pose a difficult treatment challenge. In all cases, the contribution of coronal plane alignment to varus-valgus knee stability must be carefully considered and addressed prior to ligament surgery. Sagittal plane alignment is also key and must not be overlooked. Such

  16. Traumatic Dislodgement of Tibial Polyethylene Insert after a High-Flex Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Astoul Bonorino, Juan Felix; Slullitel, Pablo Ariel Isidoro; Kido, Gonzalo Rodrigo; Bongiovanni, Santiago; Vestri, Renato; Carbó, Lisandro

    2015-01-01

    Many pathologic entities can produce a painful total knee replacement (TKR) that may lead to potential prosthetic failure. Polyethylene insert dissociation from the tibial baseplate has been described most frequently after mobile-bearing and cruciate-retaining TKRs. However, only 3 tibial insert dislocations in primary fixed-bearing High-Flex posterior-stabilized TKRs have been reported. We present a new case of tibial insert dislocation in a High-Flex model that shares similarities and differences with the cases reported, facilitating the analysis of the potential causes, which still remain undefined. PMID:26457215

  17. Traumatic Dislodgement of Tibial Polyethylene Insert after a High-Flex Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Astoul Bonorino, Juan Felix; Slullitel, Pablo Ariel Isidoro; Kido, Gonzalo Rodrigo; Bongiovanni, Santiago; Vestri, Renato; Carbó, Lisandro

    2015-01-01

    Many pathologic entities can produce a painful total knee replacement (TKR) that may lead to potential prosthetic failure. Polyethylene insert dissociation from the tibial baseplate has been described most frequently after mobile-bearing and cruciate-retaining TKRs. However, only 3 tibial insert dislocations in primary fixed-bearing High-Flex posterior-stabilized TKRs have been reported. We present a new case of tibial insert dislocation in a High-Flex model that shares similarities and differences with the cases reported, facilitating the analysis of the potential causes, which still remain undefined.

  18. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA

  19. Tibial Tuberosity Anteromedialization for Patellofemoral Chondral Disease: Prognostic Factors.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Federica; Rossi, Roberto; Governale, Giorgio; Marmotti, Antongiulio; Cherubini, Valeria; Cottino, Umberto; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo

    2017-06-01

    Tibial tuberosity anteromedialization (TTA) is a well-established treatment option for patellofemoral chondral disease that is resistant to nonoperative treatment. However, the prognostic factors of this procedure are unknown. To analyze the prognostic factors correlated with the midterm outcomes of TTA for patellofemoral chondral disease and determine the survivorship. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Indications of TTA for chondral disease included skeletal maturity, age <65 years,

  20. Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis Secondary to Fracture of the Tibial Plateau. A Prospective Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lizaur-Utrilla, Alejandro; Collados-Maestre, Isabel; Miralles-Muñoz, Francisco A; Lopez-Prats, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    A prospective matched cohort study was performed to compare outcomes of total knee arthroplasties (TKA) between 29 patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis (POA) after a fracture of tibial plateau and 58 patients underwent routine TKA. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. There were no significant differences in KSS, WOMAC, SF12 scores or range of motion. In the control group there were no complications. In the posttraumatic group, complications occurred in 4 patients (13.7%) (P=0.010) including partial patellar tendon detachment, superficial infection, skin necrosis, and knee stiffness. Only this last patient required revision for manipulation under anesthesia. Also, there was a revision for tibial aseptic loosening in each group. TKA is an effective treatment for POA after tibial plateau fracture. We recommend the prior removal of hardware, as well as tibial tubercle osteotomy when necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Complications and unplanned outcomes following operative treatment of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, David; Qatu, Abdullah; Haglin, Jack; Leucht, Phillip; Konda, Sanjit; Egol, Kenneth

    2017-10-01

    The operative management of tibial plateau fractures is challenging and post-operative complications do occur. The purpose of this study was three-fold. 1). To report complications and unplanned outcomes in patients who had sustained tibial plateau fractures and were operatively managed 2). To report predictors of these post-operative events 3). To report if differences in clinical outcomes exist in patients who sustained a post-operative event. Over 11 years, all tibial plateau fractures were prospectively followed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the validated Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) score. Demographics, initial injury characteristics, surgical details and post-operative events were prospectively recorded. Student's t-tests were used for continuous variables and chi-squared analysis was used for categorical variables. Binary logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were conducted for independent predictors of post-operative events and complications and functional outcomes, respectively. 275 patients with 279 tibial plateau fractures were included in our analysis. Ten patients (3.6%) sustained a deep infection. Six patients (2.2%) developed a superficial infection. One patient (0.4%) presented with early implant failure. Two patients (0.7%) developed a fracture nonunion. Eight patients (2.9%) developed a venous thromboembolism. Seventeen patients (6.2%) went on to re-operation for symptomatic implant removal. Nine patients (3.3%) underwent a lysis of adhesions procedure. Univariate analysis demonstrated bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (P<0.001), Moore fracture-dislocations (P=0.005), open fractures (P=0.022), and compartment syndrome (P=0.001) to be associated with post-operative complications and unplanned outcomes. Long-term functional outcomes were worse among patients who developed a post-operative complication or unplanned outcome (P=0.031). Orthopaedic trauma surgeons should be aware of complications and

  2. Comparison of fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Huys, Maxime; Pariat, Jacques; Roubineau, François; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Dubory, Arnaud

    2018-02-01

    There is no information comparing the results of fixed-bearing total knee replacement and mobile-bearing total knee replacement in the same patients previously treated by high tibial osteotomy. The purpose was therefore to compare fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee replacements in patients treated with previous high tibial osteotomy. We compared the results of 57 patients with osteoarthritis who had received a fixed-bearing prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy with the results of 41 matched patients who had received a rotating platform after high tibial osteotomy. The match was made for length of follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 17 years (range, 15-20 years). The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. The pre-operative knee scores had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. So was the case with the intra-operative releases, blood loss, thromboembolic complications and infection rates in either group. There was significant improvement in both groups of knees, and no significant difference was observed between the groups (i.e., fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing knees) for the mean Knee Society knee clinical score (95 and 92 points, respectively), or the Knee Society knee functional score (82 and 83 points, respectively) at the latest follow-up. However, the mean post-operative knee motion was higher for the fixed-bearing group (117° versus 110°). In the fixed-bearing group, one knee was revised because of periprosthetic fracture. In the rotating platform mobile-bearing group, one knee was revised because of aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship for revision at ten years of follow-up was 95.2% for the fixed bearing prosthesis and 91.1% for the rotating platform mobile-bearing prosthesis. Although we did manage to detect significant differences mainly in clinical and radiographic results between the two groups, we found no superiority or inferiority of the mobile

  3. Proximal Tibial Anterior Closing Wedge Osteotomy in Repeat Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Mogos, Stefan; Thaunat, Mathieu; Archbold, Pooler; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Freychet, Benjamin; Clechet, Julien; Chambat, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Physicians should consider an increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) as a risk factor for graft failure when proposing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-revision. To describe the surgical technique of combined ACL revision and proximal tibial anterior closing wedge osteotomy and to evaluate its clinical outcome in cases of recurrent graft failure with associated increased tibial slope. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, 5 combined ACL re-revisions with proximal tibial anterior closing wedge osteotomy were retrospectively evaluated after a mean 31.6 months' follow-up (range, 23-45 months). All patients reported subjective knee instability preoperatively and demonstrated increased laxity on physical examination. Intrinsic risk factors for graft failure (excessive tibial slope) were identified in all cases. Preoperative and postoperative functional assessments included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score along with the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale. The mean Lysholm score was 46.2 preoperatively (range, 26-69) and 87.8 (range, 60-100) postoperatively. The mean IKDC subjective score was 39.5 (range, 21.8-64.4) before surgery and 79.1 (range, 48.3-98.9) at the last follow-up. The mean Tegner activity score was 7.4 (range, 5-9) before the latest ACL injury and 7.2 (range, 5-9) at the last follow-up. The mean PTS was 13.6° (range, 13°-14°) preoperatively and 9.2° (range, 8°-10°) postoperatively (P = .0005). The mean differential anterior laxity was 10.4 mm (range, 8-14 mm), and this significantly decreased to 2.8 mm (range, 2-4 mm) at the last follow-up. Using the Kellgren-Lawrence classification to evaluate the presence of arthritis, 1 patient was grade 1, 3 patients were grade 2, and 1 patient was grade 3. Combined ACL re-revision with proximal tibial anterior closing wedge osteotomy restores knee stability and function with satisfactory clinical outcomes in patients who experience recurrent ACL ruptures

  4. Motion at the Tibial and Polyethylene Component Interface in a Mobile-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Gregory A; Clanton, Thomas O; Dunaway, Linda J; Lu, Minggen

    2016-08-01

    Normal biomechanics of the ankle joint includes sagittal as well as axial rotation. Current understanding of mobile-bearing motion at the tibial-polyethylene interface in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is limited to anterior-posterior (AP) motion of the polyethylene component. The purpose of our study was to define the motion of the polyethylene component in relation to the tibial component in a mobile-bearing TAA in both the sagittal and axial planes in postoperative patients. Patients who were a minimum of 12 months postoperative from a third-generation mobile-bearing TAA were identified. AP images were saved at maximum internal and external rotation, and the lateral images were saved in maximum plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. Sagittal range of motion and AP translation of the polyethylene component were measured from the lateral images. Axial rotation was determined by measuring the relative position of the 2 wires within the polyethylene component on AP internal and external rotation imaging. This relationship was compared to a table developed from fluoroscopic images taken at standardized degrees of axial rotation of a nonimplanted polyethylene with the associated length relationship of the 2 imbedded wires. Sixteen patients were included in this investigation, 9 (56%) were male and average age was 68 (range, 49-80) years. Time from surgery averaged 25 (range, 12-38) months. Total sagittal range of motion averaged 23±9 (range, 9-33) degrees. Axial motion for total internal and external rotation of the polyethylene component on the tibial component averaged 6±5 (range, 0-18) degrees. AP translation of the polyethylene component relative to the tibial component averaged 1±1 (range, 0-3) mm. There was no relationship between axial rotation or AP translation of the polyethylene component and ankle joint range of motion (P > .05). To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to measure axial and sagittal motion of the polyethylene component at the tibial

  5. Increased Lateral Tibial Plateau Slope Predisposes Male College Football Players to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Yaseen, Zaneb; van Eck, Carola F; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker

    2016-06-15

    There are conflicting reports regarding the role of osseous morphologic characteristics such as an increased tibial slope as associated with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Few studies have analyzed the role of a combination of osseous morphologic characteristics in matched case control studies. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between osseous morphologic characteristics and ACL injury in male college American-football players. Ninety male U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I college football players who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a knee injury between 2005 and 2014 were included. Subjects with an ACL injury (ACL-injured group) were matched for age, height, weight, and body mass index to subjects without an ACL injury (control group). Several osseous morphologic characteristics including medial and lateral condylar width, medial and lateral plateau width, notch width, bicondylar width, notch width index, and medial and lateral tibial slopes were measured and were compared between groups. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Significance was set at p < 0.05. According to univariable analysis, a narrower lateral femoral condyle (odds ratio, 0.82 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.68 to 0.97]), increased medial tibial plateau slope (odds ratio, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.85]), and increased lateral tibial plateau slope (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.15 to 1.78]) were significantly associated with ACL injury. Multivariable analysis revealed that increased lateral tibial slope (odds ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.70]) was the sole independent predictor of ACL injury. Based on this study, osseous morphology, specifically increased lateral tibial slope, is associated with ACL injury in male college football players. These data might help to improve prevention strategies to lower ACL injury. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete

  6. Combined tibial tubercle osteotomy with medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy minimizes changes in patellar height: a prospective cohort study with historical controls.

    PubMed

    Longino, P David; Birmingham, Trevor B; Schultz, William J; Moyer, Rebecca F; Giffin, J Robert

    2013-12-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for the treatment of varus gonarthrosis can be associated with inadvertent decreases in patellar height. Decreases in patellar height observed after medial opening wedge HTO can be minimized with the addition of a tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine patients undergoing medial opening wedge HTO with a concurrent TTO were matched with 29 controls who previously underwent medial opening wedge HTO without a TTO. Both groups had substantial varus malalignment (mean mechanical axis angle, -10° ± 3°) requiring large corrections. Measurements of patellar height and posterior tibial slope were calculated from standing lateral radiographs and compared preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Patellar height measures included the Blackburne-Peel index, Caton-Deschamps index, Miura-Kawamura index, Insall-Salvati ratio, and modified Insall-Salvati ratio. The changes in the Blackburne-Peel, Caton-Deschamps, and Miura-Kawamura indices were significantly less in the HTO/TTO group versus the HTO group. There were 3 of 29 (10%) new cases that met the radiographic criteria for patella infera in the HTO/TTO group versus 11 of 29 (38%) new cases of patella infera found postoperatively in the HTO group, suggesting an absolute risk reduction of 28% with TTO. The changes in the Blackburne-Peel and Caton-Deschamps indices were correlated to a larger preoperative varus deformity in the coronal plane (r = 0.52 and r = 0.41, respectively). The addition of a TTO when performing a medial opening wedge HTO minimizes the decreases in patellar height associated with the procedure.

  7. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-07-01

    Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Descriptive laboratory study. A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, -7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. The mean (±SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60-0.65), flexion (r = 0.64-0.66), lateral (r = 0.57-0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47-0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = -0.42 to -0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = -0.39 to -0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64-0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55-0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = -0.34 to -0.67) and medial knee force (r = -0.58 to -0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior tibial slope would lead to greater magnitude knee joint moments, specifically

  8. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Nesbitt, Rebecca J.; Shearn, Jason T.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. Purpose To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, −7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. Results The mean (6SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60–0.65), flexion (r = 0.64–0.66), lateral (r = 0.57–0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47–0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = −0.42 to −0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = −0.39 to −0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64–0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55–0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = −0.34 to 20.67) and medial knee force (r = −0.58 to −0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. Conclusion The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior

  9. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. Methods sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. Results in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. Conclusion the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL. PMID:26229829

  10. The measurement of tibial torsion by magnetic resonance imaging in children: the comparison of three different methods.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Bayrak, Alkan; Cumen, Huseyin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Inci, Ercan; Avkan, Mustafa Cevdet

    2015-12-01

    There is no consensus about the measurement techniques to determine the tibial torsion by using MRI. The primary research question of this study was to find out which MRI-based tibial torsion measurement method is more reliable and reproducible. Secondly, we compared tibial torsion values measured by three measurement methods in T1- and T2-weighted images. We retrospectively analyzed voluntary children performed MRI for determination of the lower limb torsional alignment after the surgical treatment between January 2013 and December 2013. Thirty-four extremities of 17 patients were included in the present study. The mean age of patients was 7.3 years (range 3-12 years). The transmalleolar, posterior intermalleolar and anterior talus angles were used for the measurement of tibial torsion. All tibial torsion measurements were calculated by three blinded observers in T1- and T2-weighted images, and these measurements were repeated blindly after 2 months. All measured intra- and interobserver intra-class correlations were greater than 0.60. The best scores were achieved with the anterior talus angle. It was followed by the posterior malleolar angle and the intermalleolar angle, respectively. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between tibial torsion values measured by each observer in T1- and T2-weighted images of each method. MRI-based tibial torsion measurements were reliable and reproducible for all three methods. But we think that the anterior talus angle and the posterior malleolar angle are easier and more successful in determination of the tibial torsion. Also, both T1- and T2-weighted images can be used successfully for this purpose.

  11. Effects of tarsal tunnel release and stabilization procedures on tibial nerve tension in a surgically created pes planus foot.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T; Daniels, T R

    1998-11-01

    An in vitro study was performed on 11 cadaver legs to study the effects of tarsal tunnel release, distraction calcaneocuboid arthrodesis, and triple arthrodesis on tibial nerve tension in surgically created pes planus feet. Baseline tibial nerve tension was measured during maximal dorsiflexion, eversion, combined dorsiflexion-eversion, and cyclical load with varying degrees of internal rotation. These measurements were repeated on the same leg after each surgical procedure. This study demonstrated that a tarsal tunnel release significantly increased nerve tension during eversion, dorsiflexion-eversion, and cyclical load compared with the pes planus foot. Both triple arthrodesis and distraction calcaneocuboid arthrodesis were effective at decreasing tibial nerve tension; the former was more effective than the latter. Procedures producing skeletal instability, such as ligament release producing a pes planus deformity and a tarsal tunnel release, increased tibial nerve tension. Procedures that corrected deformity and increased stability decreased tibial nerve tension. If increased tibial nerve tension plays a role in the pathophysiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome, then this needs to be considered for treatment of patients with this syndrome.

  12. Anatomic dissection of the tibialis posterior muscle and its correlation to medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A; O'Brien, T; Bunce, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors attempt to redefine the anatomic origin of the tibialis posterior muscle, and correlate it with the location of medial tibial stress syndrome that occurs in the lower third of the tibia. Contrary to what is commonly described, the authors show on all ten dissected specimens, that the origin of the tibialis posterior does include a portion of the lower third of the tibia. The mean distance from tibialis posterior's origin to the medial malleolus was only 7.77 cm. In addition, to further explain lower leg pain, the authors investigated the crossing point of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus; a mean distance for this to occur in the same ten specimens was 8.16 cm. proximal to the medial malleolus. These findings provide insight to anatomic reasons behind biomechanical factors responsible for medial tibial stress syndrome. This is also important to consider when performing surgery for a deep compartment syndrome.

  13. Arthroscopic treatment of tibial eminence fracture: a systematic review of different fixation methods.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Osti, Raffaella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Arthroscopy procedures are the gold standard for the management of tibial spine avulsion. This review evaluates and compares different arthroscopic treatment options for tibial spine fractures. PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases were systematically searched with no limit regarding the year of publication. An arthroscopic approach compared with arthrotomy reduces complications such as soft-tissue lesions, post-operative pain and length of hospitalization. The use of suture techniques, compared to cannulated screw technique, avoids a second surgery for removal of the screws, but requires longer immobilization and partial weight bearing. Clinical outcomes and radiographic results do not seem to differ in relation to the chosen method of fixation. Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to define the best choice in terms of clinical outcomes, function and complications. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection.

  15. The anteromedial tibial rim sign: an indicator of patellotibial impaction in acute anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Robert D; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Burch, Michael; Javadi, Ariyan; Newton, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We have encountered unexplained anteromedial tibial rim edema in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Our goal was to determine the incidence, internal derangements, and mechanism of injury in patients with anteromedial tibial rim edema (rim sign). A retrospective review of ACL tears diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging over 7 years was performed. Patients were dichotomized into those with and without a rim sign. There were 132 acute ACL tears. Individuals with a rim sign (31, 23%) had more contusions, fractures, ligament tears (P < 0.001), posterolateral corner injuries (P = 0.001), and posterior horn lateral meniscus tears (P = 0.042) than those without. Five individuals demonstrated edema in the inferior patella, consistent with patellotibial impaction. The rim sign is common in ACL tears, indicating greater internal derangement. The rim sign represents patellotibial impaction with edema rarely present in the patella.

  16. [Posttraumatic deformities of the knee joint : Intra-articular osteotomy after malreduction of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Krause, M; Frings, J; Drenck, T; Akoto, R; Müller, G; Madert, J

    2016-10-01

    Malreduction of tibial head fractures often leads to malalignment of the lower extremity, pain, limited range of motion and instability. The extent of the complaints and the degree of deformity requires an exact analysis and a standardized approach. True ligamentous instability should be distinguished from pseudoinstability of the joint. Also extra- and intra-articular deformities have to be differentiated. In intra-articular deformities the extent of articular surface displacement, defects and clefts must be accurately evaluated. A specific surgical approach is necessary, which allows adequate visualization, correct osteotomy and refixation of the fractured area of the tibial head. In the long-term course good clinical results are described for intra-articular osteotomies. If the joint is damaged to such an extent that it cannot be reconstructed or in cases of advanced posttraumatic osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty may be necessary; however, whenever possible and reasonable, anatomical reconstruction and preservation of the joint should be attempted.

  17. Bilateral tibial stress fracture in a young man due to hypercalciuric osteoporosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ofluoglu, Demet; Ofluoglu, Onder; Akyuz, Gulseren

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is commonly thought of as a disease of postmenopausal women, and older men have a lower risk of fracture than women. A stress fracture is an overuse injury and an important cause of disability in the athletic population. Presented here is a 30-year-old healthy man with pain on the anterior surface of the bilateral tibia. He did not communicate any trauma or overuse activity. The neurologic and locomotor system examinations were normal. Radiological examinations revealed tibial stress fractures in both left and right tibia and he had low bone mineral density. Routine hematological tests, bone resorption and formation markers were normal, except for hypercalciuria. After analyzing the results of these tests, the patient was diagnosed with bilateral tibial stress fractures due to hypercalciuric secondary osteoporosis. Osteoporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atraumatic insufficiency fractures, especially in young healthy adults.

  18. Arthroscopic Reduction and Fixation of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures by a Stainless Steel Wiring Technique.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed M; Bayoumy, Maysara Abdelhalim; Elkady, Hesham A; Abdelkawi, Ayman Farouk

    2017-12-01

    Several techniques of arthroscopic treatment of tibial spine avulsion fractures have been described in the literature. These techniques include the use of various fixation devices such as screws, K-wires, wiring, sutures, and suture anchors. In this study, we evaluate a new wiring technique for the treatment of these injuries. This technique involves fixation by stainless steel tension wires passed over the fractured spine and tied over a bone bridge. The advantages of this technique are that it aids in reduction, allows for compression of the tibial spine fragment anatomically in its fracture bed, provides stable fixation in difficult comminuted fractures, and allows for early mobilization and weight bearing because of the solid fixation.

  19. Evaluation of tibial torsion in Yorkshire Terriers with and without medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Krotscheck, Ursula; Thompson, Margret S; Todhunter, Rory J; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2012-11-01

    To determine if medial patellar luxation (MPL) in Yorkshire Terriers is associated with tibial torsion. Prospective cross-sectional study. Yorkshire Terriers (n = 30; 60 tibiae). Each MPL was graded using a categorical grading scheme. Computed tomography of the tibiae was performed and tibial torsion angle (TTA) was assessed. MPL grade was analyzed with a general linear model where the independent variables include sex, neutering status, age, weight, and TTA. Factors that had collective impact on MPL grade were TTA, age, and weight squared. As MPL grade increased, TTA decreased by 0.05° and age increased by 0.13 years. As weight increased, MPL decreased. There was no effect (P > .05) from scorers, side, and neutering status. Body weight squared, TTA, and age affect MPL grade, suggesting that a torsional deformity may contribute to the development of MPL in Yorkshire terriers along with weight and age. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of tibial eminence fracture: a systematic review of different fixation methods

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Osti, Raffaella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopy procedures are the gold standard for the management of tibial spine avulsion. This review evaluates and compares different arthroscopic treatment options for tibial spine fractures. Source of data PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases were systematically searched with no limit regarding the year of publication. Areas of agreement An arthroscopic approach compared with arthrotomy reduces complications such as soft-tissue lesions, post-operative pain and length of hospitalization. Areas of controversy The use of suture techniques, compared to cannulated screw technique, avoids a second surgery for removal of the screws, but requires longer immobilization and partial weight bearing. Growing points Clinical outcomes and radiographic results do not seem to differ in relation to the chosen method of fixation. Areas timely for developing research Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to define the best choice in terms of clinical outcomes, function and complications. PMID:27151952

  1. An experimental approach to determining fatigue crack size in polyethylene tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Carly A; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2016-02-01

    A major limiting factor to the longevity of prosthetic knee joints is fatigue crack damage of the polyethylene tibial insert. Existing methods to quantify fatigue crack damage have several shortcomings, including limited resolution, destructive testing approach, and high cost. We propose an alternative fatigue crack damage visualization and measurement method that addresses the shortcomings of existing methods. This new method is based on trans-illumination and differs from previously described methods in its ability to non-destructively measure subsurface fatigue crack damage while using a simple and cost-effective bench-top set-up. We have evaluated this method to measure fatigue crack damage in two tibial inserts. This new method improves on existing image-based techniques due to its usability for subsurface damage measurement and its decreased reliance on subjective damage identification and measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection. PMID:25829557

  3. Prevention of equinus deformity during tibial lengthening. Comparison of passive stretching with an orthosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Kurokawa, T; Matsushita, T; Ou, W; Okazaki, H; Takahashi, M

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed 28 tibial lengthenings in 14 patients with achondroplasia at an average age of 15 years, and compared the effectiveness of physiotherapy and an orthosis in preventing an equinus deformity. Physiotherapy of 15 min a day was ineffective even when the patients were able to walk. An orthosis worn for 16 h a day prevented equinus deformity up to at least 50% of lengthening, and the difference from physiotherapy was significant at more than 30% of lengthening.

  4. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Effectiveness of ilizarov frame fixation on functional outcome in aseptic tibial gap non-union.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Khan, Rana Dawood; Maqbool, Muhammad Asif; Yasin, Ajmal

    2015-11-01

    The Objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of Ilizarov frame fixation on functional outcome in aseptic tibial gap non-union cases. In this clinical study, 15 cases of post-traumatic aseptic tibial gap non-union were selected in department of orthopedics, Allied Hospital Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan, during years 2013-2014. After blood analysis and clinical assessment, the aseptic gap nonunion cases underwent ilizarov frame fixation for their problem. They were taught about care of ilizarov fixator and pin tract. They were called on regular basis and pre and post-surgery functional outcome was measured by modified functional evaluation system by Karlstrom-Olerud. Out of the 15 patients, 12 (80%) with road traffic accident, 2 (13.3 %) with gunshot injury and 1(6.66%) with fall from height; 9(60%) were treated by compression technique (fig.1,2,7,8,11), 4(2.66%) with compression-distraction (fig.3,10) and 2 (13.3 %) were treated using distraction-compression technique (bone transport) (fig.4,5,6). Mean gap was 6.33cm (range 2-12cm). Duration of tibial gap union was average 10.60 months (minimum 8 months, maximum 15 months) and union was achieved in all the cases in mean time of 25.20 weeks (minimum 13 weeks, maximum 57 weeks). Patients remained in ilizarov fixator frame for average 6.80 months (range minimum 4, maximum 13 months). Pin tract infection and pain were common Complications. The functional outcome was measured by modified functional evaluation system by Karlstrom-Olerud 5 showed good, 4 satisfactory, 4 moderate and 2 poor results. The Ilizarov technique is an effective method in treating the aseptic tibial gap non-union. Patient\\'s motivation and co-operation played an important role in good to excellent outcomes.

  6. Surgical Navigation Improves the Precision and Accuracy of Tibial Component Alignment in Canine Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kaleigh M; Hutter, Erin; Siston, Robert A; Bertran, Judith; Allen, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether computer-assisted surgical navigation improves the accuracy of tibial component alignment in canine total knee replacement (TKR). Retrospective radiographic review and prospective ex vivo study. Canine TKR radiographs (n = 17 sets) and canine cadaveric stifles (n = 12). Radiographs from TKR surgical workshops were reviewed to determine the incidence and magnitude of tibial component malalignment. Tibial component alignment was compared after either standard ("surgeon-guided") component placement or computer-assisted ("navigation-guided") placement. Results were compared against the current recommendations of a neutral (0° varus-valgus) ostectomy in the frontal plane and 6° of caudal slope in the sagittal plane. A prospective cadaveric study was then undertaken by performing TKR in 12 canine stifle joints. Malalignment of >3° in the frontal and sagittal planes was identified in 12% and 24% of the radiographs from the retrospective review, respectively. Surgical navigation reduced both the mean error (P = .007) and the variability in frontal plane alignment (P < .001) as compared with surgeon-guided procedures. The mean error in sagittal plane alignment was not significantly different (P = .321), but variability in alignment was significantly lower when navigation was used (P = .008). Surgical navigation significantly improved accuracy and decreased variability in tibial component alignment in canine TKR. Clinical trials would be required to determine whether these improvements in surgical accuracy lead to better clinical outcomes in terms of joint function and a reduction in long-term implant wear. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Use of a gyroscope sensor to quantify tibial motions during a pivot shift test.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Per Henrik; Markolf, Keith L; Foster, Brock; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the use of a gyroscope sensor to record rotations of the tibia about its long axis during a clinical pivot shift examination. Ten patients with a unilateral ACL injury were tested under anaesthesia prior to surgery. Each ankle was placed in neutral position, wrapped and stabilized with athletic tape, and a small aluminium plate was taped to the bottom of the foot. A data recovery module was attached to the bottom of each plate using a swivel bracket that allowed alignment of the gyro axis with the long axis of the tibia. The module contained a triaxial gyroscope, battery and circuitry for wireless data broadcast to a laptop computer. Ten pivot shift tests were performed on both knees, and the surgeon's clinical grading of the pivot shift was noted for each limb. Mean values (10 trials) of peak tibial rotational velocity and integrated tibial rotation were compared between knees for each patient during the pivot shift reduction event (external tibial rotation during knee flexion). Five patients (50%) had significantly greater tibial rotation in their injured knee, four showed no difference between knees, and one had significantly greater rotation in the normal knee (p < 0.05). Seven patients (70%) showed greater peak rotational velocity in their injured knee, and three had no difference between the knees (p < 0.05). Correlations of rotation and rotational velocity with clinical pivot shift grade were weak (r2 = 0.09 and 0.19, respectively). Foot gyroscope measurements did not correctly identify the injured limb in all patients. Peak rotational velocity during the reduction event was a better indicator of ACL deficiency than the integrated rotation. If this technology is to be more useful clinically, gyroscope data may have to be combined with accelerometer data, perhaps with sensors mounted on both the tibia and femur. Diagnostic case-control study, Level III.

  8. Declining tibial curvature parallels ∼6150 years of decreasing mobility in Central European agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Davies, Thomas G; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Long bones respond to mechanical loading through functional adaptation in a suite of morphological characteristics that together ensure structural competence to in vivo loading. As such, adult bone structure is often used to make inferences about past behavior from archaeological remains. However, such biomechanical approaches often investigate change in just one aspect of morphology, typically cross-sectional morphology or trabecular structure. The relationship between longitudinal bone curvature and mobility patterns is less well understood, particularly in the tibia, and it is unknown how tibial curvature and diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry interact to meet the structural requirements of loading. This study examines tibial curvature and its relationship with diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry (CSG) and body size in preindustrial Central Europeans spanning ∼6150 years following the introduction of agriculture in the region. Anteroposterior centroid displacement from the proximo-distal longitudinal axis was quantified at nine diaphyseal section locations (collectively representative of diaphyseal curvature) in 216 tibial three-dimensional laser scans. Results documented significant and corresponding temporal declines in midshaft centroid displacement and CSG properties. Significant correlations were found between mid-diaphyseal centroid displacement and all mobility-related CSG properties, while the relationship weakened toward the diaphyseal ends. No significant relationship was found between centroid displacement and body size variables with the exception of the most distal section location. Results support a relationship between tibial curvature and cross-sectional geometry among prehistoric Central European agricultural populations, and suggest that changes in mechanical loading may have influenced a suite of morphological features related to bone adaptation in the lower limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Use of a virtual 3D software for planning of tibial plateau fracture reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Suero, Eduardo M; Hüfner, Tobias; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Citak, Musa

    2010-06-01

    Anatomical reconstruction of tibial plateau fractures is necessary to prevent pain, axial malalignment, knee join instability and posttraumatic arthritis. Computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction is helpful in the accurate preoperative evaluation and reduction planning of the fracture site. The aim of this study was to describe the application of a virtual 3D reconstruction and segmentation software in the preoperative planning of tibial plateau fractures. CT scans of five tibial plateau fractures were preoperatively evaluated using the 3D planning software. Manual colour-coded segmentation was performed. The amount of time required for each planning session was recorded. Successful 3D reconstruction and segmentation was achieved in all cases. The mean time required for 3D virtual planning was 174.8 min (range 69-124 min). The mean time required for 3D virtual planning of B-type fractures was 96.5 min (range 69-124 min; SD=38.891 min; CI=349.421). The mean time required for planning of C-type fractures was 227 min (range 167-294 min; SD=63.789 min; CI=158.460) (Table 1). Successful segmentation was achieved in all cases. The 3D planning capabilities of this software may be a valuable tool for surgeons in learning about the nature of the injury in tibial plateau fracture cases and in formulating an appropriate surgical plan. However, the time requirement for the 3D reconstruction and segmentation analysis may be a current deterrent for its use in the clinical setting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Supracutaneous plating using a locking plate for the treatment of a tibial fracture in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Nicetto, Tommaso; Longo, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Radiographs revealed a slightly displaced long oblique diaphyseal tibial fracture with bone fissures running distally in a 2-year-old, 4.5 kg cat that had been hit by a car. An angle stable implant was applied in a supracutaneous fashion. The patient tolerated the external implant and had a satisfactory functional recovery. Radiographic follow-up after 60 days revealed sign of osseous union; therefore, the plate was removed. PMID:28588330

  11. Race and Ethnicity Have a Mixed Effect on the Treatment of Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Driesman, Adam; Mahure, Siddharth A; Paoli, Albit; Pean, Christian A; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether racial or economic disparities are associated with short-term complications and outcomes in tibial plateau fracture care. Retrospective cohort study. All New York State hospital admissions from 2000 to 2014, as recorded by the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Thirteen thousand five hundred eighteen inpatients with isolated tibial plateau fractures (OTA/AO 44), stratified in 4 groups: white, African American, Hispanic, and other. Closed treatment and operative fixation of the tibial plateau. Hospital length of stay (LOS, days), in-hospital complications/mortality, estimated total costs, and 30-day readmission. There were no significant differences regarding in-hospital mortality, infection, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, or wound complications between races, even when controlling for income. There was a higher rate of nonoperatively treated fractures in the racial minority populations. Minority patients had on average 2 days longer LOS compared with whites (P < 0.001), costing on average $4000 more per hospitalization (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression found that neither race nor estimated median family income were independent risk factors for readmission. Although nature of initial injury, use of external fixator, comorbidity burden, age, insurance type, and LOS were independent risk factors for readmission, race and estimated median family income were not. In patients who sustained a tibial plateau fracture, race and ethnicity seemed to affect treatment choice, but once treated racial minority groups did not demonstrate worse short-term complications, including increased mortality and postoperative readmission rates. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Quantification of third body damage to the tibial counterface in mobile bearing knees.

    PubMed

    Jones, V C; Williams, I R; Auger, D D; Walsh, W; Barton, D C; Stone, M H; Fisher, J

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen pairs of explanted low contact stress (LCS) tibial interface components: six rotating platform (RP), six meniscal (MN) and two anterior-posterior (AP) glide designs, have been analysed with particular attention paid to the condition of the tibial counterfaces. The average surface roughness, Ra, for the tibial trays ranged from 0.01 to 0.087 micron, significantly greater than the unworn control measurement of 0.008 micron. The scratch geometry analysis showed that the scratch peaks were found to be consistently of a lower aspect ratio than the scratch valleys and under 1 micron in height (average asperity height Rp = 0.52 micron, aspect ratio delta p = 0.01, average asperity depth Rv = 1.10 microns, delta v = 0.05). The largest scratches were 3-4 microns in both Rp and Rv. In vitro tests have shown that ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear increases in the presence of counterface scratches perpendicular to the direction of motion. In these explants, the unidirectional motion produced scratches parallel to the direction of sliding which is predicted to produce a smaller increase in UHMWPE wear. Other designs in mobile bearing knees have less constrained motion at the tibial counterface and this has been shown to accelerate wear; it may also lead to a further increase in wear in the presence of third body scratches. It may be possible in future knee designs to reduce this type of wear damage by introducing alternative materials or coatings which are more resistant to scratching and surface roughening.

  13. Tibial Lengthening Using a Fixator-Assisted Lengthening Plate: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Agir, Ismail; Gumustas, Seyitali; Serbest, Sancar; Uludag, Abuzer; Celik, Suat

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many techniques that are used for limb lengthening. Lengthening a limb over a plate is an alternative choice used in children or when using an intramedullary nail is difficult. Objectives In this study, we presented a new technique for tibial lengthening using a monolateral external fixator over a lengthening plate. Materials and Methods For tibial lengthening, a monolateral external fixator was attached to the composite bone model medially. After a corticotomy was performed, the lengthening plate was placed laterally. Three locking screws were inserted proximally, and two cortical screws were inserted into a lengthening hole that was 1 cm below the osteotomy site. We avoided contact between the screws of the lengthening plate and the pins of the external fixator. During bone lengthening with the monolateral external fixator, the screws at the lengthening hole were able to slide distally with the distal segment of the tibia to allow for tibial elongation. Two locking screws were fixed at the distal locking holes of the plate when the bone elongation was complete. The external fixator was then removed. Results The fixator-assisted lengthening plate allowed bone lengthening without malalignment. There were no mechanical problems associated with the external fixator during the lengthening process. Plate osteosynthesis was stable after the fixator was removed. There was no contact between the screws of plate and the Schanz pins of the external fixator under C-arm fluoroscopy. Conclusions The fixator-assisted lengthening plate technique helps to maintain the stability and alignment at both sides of an osteotomy during tibial elongation. It allows the early removal of the external fixator immediately after lengthening is completed. This technique can be applied in children with open physes and in patients with a narrow medullary canal who are unsuitable for limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. PMID:28184364

  14. Treatment of complicated tibial plateau fractures with dual plating via a 2-incision technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Fan, De-gang; Ma, Bao-an; Sun, Si-guo

    2012-03-07

    The operative treatment of complicated bicondylar fractures of the tibial plateau remains a challenge to most surgeons. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of dual plating via a 2-incision technique for the repair of complicated bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. A series of consecutive patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a double buttress plate or a combination of locking plate and buttress plate via a 2-incision technique between March 2004 and March 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiological and clinical results and complications of the 2 different fixation methods were compared. Seventy-nine patients matching the criteria of this study were followed up for at least 24 months. All of the fractures healed, with 3 cases of deep infection, 7 cases of secondary loss of reduction, 3 cases of secondary loss of alignment, and 10 cases of knee instability. At 24-month follow-up, mean Hospital for Special Surgery scores were 77.8±9.4 and 79.0±7.9 in the double buttress plate group and combination group, respectively. No significant differences in clinical or radiographic outcomes were found between the 2 groups, except that the combination group needed less bone graft. Dual plating with 2 incisions provided good exposition for the reduction and fixation of complicated bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Using a combination of locking plate and buttress plate reduced the amount of bone graft compared with the double buttress plate technique. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Contact Kinematics Correlates to Tibial Component Migration Following Single Radius Posterior Stabilized Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Perry, Kevin I; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-03-01

    Contact kinematics between total knee arthroplasty components is thought to affect implant migration; however, the interaction between kinematics and tibial component migration has not been thoroughly examined in a modern implant system. A total of 24 knees from 23 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with a single radius, posterior stabilized implant were examined. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis at 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years to measure migration of the tibial component in all planes. At 1 year, patients also had standing radiostereometric analysis examinations acquired in 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of flexion, and the location of contact and magnitude of any condylar liftoff was measured for each flexion angle. Regression analysis was performed between kinematic variables and migration at 1 year. The average magnitude of maximum total point motion across all patients was 0.671 ± 0.270 mm at 1 year and 0.608 ± 0.359 mm at 2 years (P = .327). Four implants demonstrated continuous migration of >0.2 mm between the first and second year of implantation. There were correlations between the location of contact and tibial component anterior-posterior tilt, varus-valgus tilt, and anterior-posterior translation. The patients with continuous migration demonstrated atypical kinematics and condylar liftoff in some instances. Kinematics can influence tibial component migration, likely through alterations of force transmission. Abnormal kinematics may play a role in long-term implant loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in treatment of overactive bladder: when should retreatment be started?

    PubMed

    Marchal, Cristobal; Herrera, Bernardo; Antuña, Francisco; Saez, Felipe; Perez, Juan; Castillo, Elisabeth; Cantero, Juan; Milla, Francisco; Machuca, Javier; Redondo, Maximino; Galacho, Alejandro

    2011-11-01

    To study the response to posterior tibial nerve stimulation in patients with overactive bladder refractory to medical treatment. A cohort of 53 patients were treated by posterior tibial nerve stimulation and followed up for a maximum of 24 months. All patients completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Short Form quality of life questionnaire and kept a urination diary to record the daytime urination frequency and night-time urination frequency. Urodynamic studies were also conducted. At 6 months of follow-up, a cure/improvement rate of 92.4% (49 of 53 cases) had been achieved. Ten patients were given additional treatment and were excluded from subsequent follow-up analysis. At 12 months of follow-up, a cure/improvement rate of 91.69% had been achieved (39 of 43). At 24 months of follow-up, of the 16 patients initially included during the first year, a cure/improvement rate of 62.5% had been achieved (10 of 16). The first sensation of bladder filling had increased by the end of treatment, with differences observed before and after posterior tibial nerve stimulation (P ≤ .001). The average post-treatment bladder capacity had increased by 72.7 mL compared with the initial value (P ≤ .001). At 24 months of follow-up, the group of 16 patients evaluated recorded a significant worsening of night-time urination frequency (P ≤ .05) and quality of life (P ≤ .01). Posterior tibial nerve stimulation is a good option for the treatment of overactive bladder. In our series, the optimal point to start retreatment would be at 24 months after therapy completion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended Exposure in Difficult Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    RADULESCU, Radu; BADILA, Adrian; NUTIU, Octavian; JAPIE, Ionut; TERINTE, Silvia; RADULESCU, Dragos; MANOLESCU, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: In some total knee arthroplasty cases, the usual medial parapatellar approach does not allow the appropriate patellar eversion and the desired exposure of the knee joint. Partial disinsertion of the patellar tendon doesn't substantially improve the surgical exposure and can lead to extensor apparatus weakening and complete secondary ruptures, while the V-Y quadricipital plasty leads to post-op immobilization of the knee, which delays the functional rehabilitation, with negative impact on the range of motion. The tibial tubercle osteotomy, however, allows an extension of the approach in total knee arthroplasty, without endangering the quadricipital extensor apparatus. Material and Methods: In this study we analysed the post-operative results of 11 cases of primary total knee arthroplasty in which a frontal plane osteotomy of the tibial tubercle was performed in addition to the standard medial parapatellar approach, as a result of the patients associated conditions, like rheumatoid arthritis with an extension deficit higher than 150, previous knee synovectomy by arthrotomy, progressive genu varum with more than 150 deviation, varus deviation of the lower limb with previous closing wedge proximal tibial osteotomy or patellar fractures with vicious consolidation. Outcomes: Overall, the results were more than satisfactory with a significant increase in the patients mean range of motion and Knee Society Score. There were some post-op issues in some of the patients, but they were adressed accordingly, having no long-term impact on the results. Conclusions:. We could thus conclude that, in special cases, the frontal plane tibial tubercle osteotomy is an effective technique which can provide a wide approach with appropriate protection of the knee extensor apparatus. PMID:24790673

  18. Effect of tibial tubercle elevation on biomechanics of the entire knee joint under muscle loads.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Adl, A; Mesfar, W

    2007-03-01

    Anterior elevation of the tibial tubercle, known as Maquet procedure, is performed to reduce excessive patellofemoral contact stresses in knee joints with patellofemoral osteoarthritis and anterior pain. Previous investigations, however, have entirely focused on the likely effect of tibial tubercle elevation procedure on biomechanics of contact at the patellofemoral joint with no attention what-so-ever to associated alterations in biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint. Using a validated 3D nonlinear finite element model of the entire knee joint, the effect of 1.25 cm and 2.5 cm tubercle elevations on the entire knee joint biomechanics was investigated under constant quadriceps load of 411 N alone or combined with hamstrings co-activation of 205.5 N under joint angles of 0-90 degrees. Results confirm the effectiveness of this procedure in reducing patellofemoral contact forces, especially at smaller flexion angles. Maximum contact stress substantially decreased at full extension but increased at 90 degrees. Substantial effects of tuberosity elevation on tibial kinematics, cruciate ligament forces, tibiofemoral contact forces and extensor lever arm were found. The posterior cruciate ligament and tibiofemoral contact forces at larger flexion angles considerably increased whereas the anterior cruciate ligament and tibiofemoral contact forces at near full extension angles decreased. Overall, the extent of changes depended on the magnitude of anterior elevation, joint flexion angle and loading considered. Biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint were significantly influenced by tibial tubercle elevation. Current results advocate the need for an integral view of the entire knee joint in management of various joint disorders rather than a view in which each component is considered and treated in isolation with no due attention to perturbations caused and associated consequences.

  19. Acute compartment syndrome in children and teenagers with tibial shaft fractures: incidence and multivariable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shore, Benjamin J; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Zurakowski, David; Gelbard, Estee; Hedequist, Daniel J; Matheney, Travis H

    2013-11-01

    To identify the incidence of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in children and teenagers with tibial shaft fractures and report associated risk factors. Retrospective Case Control. Level 1 pediatric trauma hospital. Two hundred sixteen tibial shaft fractures in 212 patients (160 males and 52 females; median age, 13 years) over a 5-year period were reviewed. One hundred thirty-two (61%) fractures were treated with closed reduction and casting, 36 with external fixation, 27 with locked intramedullary nails, and 21 with flexible intramedullary nails. ACS was diagnosed clinically or by intracompartment pressure. Multivariable logistic regression analysis tested age, gender, weight, physeal status, mechanism of injury, time to surgery, fracture type, and treatment intervention as possible risk factors for development of ACS. There were 25 (11.6%) cases of ACS. Multivariable predictors of ACS included age of 14 years and older (22/96 = 23% vs. 3/120 = 3%, P < 0.001) and motor vehicle accident (MVA) (13/57 = 23% vs. 12/159 = 8%, P < 0.001). Incidence of ACS was 48% among patients aged 14 years and older, who sustained MVA (12/25). Gender, physeal status, time to surgery, and surgical fixation were not predictive of ACS. This is the largest study in children and teenagers reporting the incidence of ACS from tibial shaft fractures. The incidence of 11.6% is higher than previously reported and much higher in patients older than14 years of age and involved in an MVA. Surgeons should be especially aware and suspicious of this diagnosis in teenagers with tibial shaft fractures. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Supracutaneous plating using a locking plate for the treatment of a tibial fracture in a cat.

    PubMed

    Nicetto, Tommaso; Longo, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Radiographs revealed a slightly displaced long oblique diaphyseal tibial fracture with bone fissures running distally in a 2-year-old, 4.5 kg cat that had been hit by a car. An angle stable implant was applied in a supracutaneous fashion. The patient tolerated the external implant and had a satisfactory functional recovery. Radiographic follow-up after 60 days revealed sign of osseous union; therefore, the plate was removed.

  1. Pes planus in patients with posterior tibial tendon insufficiency: asymptomatic versus symptomatic foot.

    PubMed

    Dyal, C M; Feder, J; Deland, J T; Thompson, F M

    1997-02-01

    Bilateral weightbearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were analyzed in 43 patients with a clinical diagnosis of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency by two independent observers. The radiographs of each patient's asymptomatic foot was considered to serve as the control for the preexistance of pes planus. The radiographs were assessed for the severity of flatfoot deformity, the degree of talonavicular coverage, the talometatarsal angle, the calcaneometatarsal angle, the cuneiform to ground height and the cuneiform to fifth metatarsal height. Interobserver correlations were assessed. Results indicated that there was a high interobserver correlation for the values measured, making these angles reproducible among observers. Strong correlations were found in the degree of severity of flatfoot deformity between the asymptomatic and symptomatic feet as well as the values used to assess pes planus (i.e., similar radiographic measurements on the opposite side). The data suggest that patients with posterior tibial tendon insufficiency often have a preexisting flatfoot. This substantiates our belief that a preexisting flexible flatfoot, although far from the determining factor, is one of several etiological factors in the development of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency.

  2. Engineering a trans-tibial prosthetic socket for the lower limb amputee.

    PubMed

    Laing, Sheridan; Lee, Peter Vs; Goh, James Ch

    2011-05-01

    This review addresses the different prosthetic socket designs for trans-tibial amputees, the biomechanics behind the designs and the current state of the field. Of particular focus is the classic patella-tendon bearing (PTB) socket and the more recent sockets manufactured using pressure casting techniques and the theory, biomechanics and clinical implications of the two designs. Methods to examine and compare these designs are also addressed. Journal papers by various investigators which have clinical significance/impact on the field of trans-tibial socket design were chosen for this review. Articles were chosen over a period of over 50 years to demonstrate the evolution of knowledge. The engineering of the trans-tibial socket has been largely subjected to empirical derivations and biomechanical theory that remains, for the most part, unproven. The fundamental principles of the PTB socket have been widely refuted. Hydrostatic theory based on pressure casting techniques, on the other hand, provides an optimal scenario to produce a more uniform stump/socket interface pressure. Preliminary studies indicate the pressure casting technique has the potential to produce comfortable sockets, providing an alternative to the PTB design. Various studies have been attempted to quantitatively compare the 2 types of socket designs. However, further quantitative biomechanical studies are needed to explain the fundamental theory surrounding the pressure cast technique. Methods that could help further understand the pressure cast concept include amputee gait analysis, stump/socket interface pressure measurements, computer aided socket design and finite element modelling techniques.

  3. [BIOMECHANICAL STUDY ON SUTURE WITH NECKWEAR-KNOT-LOOP-LIGATURE FOR TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURES].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangtao; Shen, Xuezhen; Liu, Chang; Qi, Wei; Qu, Feng; Yuan, Bangtuo; Zhao, Gang; Guo, Qi; Li, Hongliang; Lu, Xi; Zhu, Juanli; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yujie

    2015-09-01

    To study the biomechanical stability of neckwear-knot-loop-ligature fixation for tibial eminence avulsion fractures by comparing with cannulated screw fixation and suture anchor fixation. Twenty-four fresh porcine knee joints were selected. After the model of tibial eminence avulsion fracture (type III) was made, 24 samples were randomly divided into 3 groups: neckwear-knot-loop-ligature group (group A), cannulated screw group (group B), and suture anchor group (group C), 8 samples in each group. The Universal electromagnetic and mechanical testing machines were used for the biomechanical tests. After 200 cyclic tests, pull-out test was done until fixation failure. The maximum failure load, yield load, stiffness, and displacement were measured. Failure mode: the displacement was beyond limit in 8 samples of group A; screws extraction (5 samples) and bone fragment re-fracture (3 samples) were observed in group B; and suture anchor extraction (4 samples), suture rupture (3 samples), and suture thread cutting (1 sample) were found in group C. Biomechanical test: From groups A to C, the maximum failure load and yield load showed significant decreasing tendency (P<0.05), but the displacements showed significant increasing tendency (P<0.05). The stiffness also gradually decreased, but differences was not significant (P>0.05). Compared with cannulated screw and suture anchor, neckwear-knot-loop-ligature fixation for tibial eminence avulsion fracture has good biomechanical performance and the advantages of firm fixation and simple operation.

  4. Functional results of posterior tibial tendon reconstruction, calcaneal osteotomy, and gastrocnemius recession.

    PubMed

    Kou, Joseph X; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Kippe, Matthew; Fortin, Paul T

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to assess and provide prospective outcome data following reconstruction of Stage II posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, as well as evaluate the effect of reconstruction with gastrocnemius recession on plantarflexion strength. A prospective evaluation of 24 patients undergoing reconstruction for Stage II posterior tibial tendon insufficiency was granted IRB approval. The reconstructive procedures consisted of a flexor digitorum longus transfer, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, lateral column lengthening, and gastrocnemius recession. Patients were asked to complete multiple outcome measures preoperatively, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. A dynamometer was utilized to evaluate peak torque plantarflexion preoperatively, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. In the study, 14 patients completed preoperative surveys, and 23 patients had 2-year followup. Patients were highly satisfied with the results of their surgery. All outcome measures showed statistically significant improvement. Improvement was seen at 6 months, but results continued to improve at the 1-year mark. By the second year, improvement largely reached a plateau. Biodex testing showed no loss of plantarflexion strength after reconstruction and gastrocnemius recession. Reconstruction of the flexible adult acquired flatfoot with FDL transfer, double calcaneal osteotomy, and gastrocnemius recession yielded excellent functional results for the treatment of Stage II posterior tibial tendon insufficiency. Plantarflexion weakness was not found to be a concern. A good functional outcome can be anticipated after the early postoperative period. However, it should be expected to take at least 1 year for maximal benefit.

  5. Effect of tibial tray design on cement morphology in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Ulf J; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Nagel, Katrin

    2014-11-29

    Improvements to enforce primary fixation in cemented total knee arthroplasty have been suggested to be a key issue for long-term survival. In this context, it has been questioned whether specific implant design features influence bone cement morphology and hence primary interface strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the influence of cement pockets on the tibial tray on cement penetration in the tibia. Eight paired cadaveric, human tibiae were available for investigation. One side of a pair was implanted with a fixed bearing tibial tray (FB) featuring cement pockets on the undersurface, while in the other side, a mobile bearing platform (MB) without cement pockets was used. Specimens underwent computed tomography analysis of the cement morphology as well as BMD assessment. While bone cement layer between implant and bone surface was thicker in the FB group (p = 0.032), bone cement penetration was not influenced by implant design (p = 0.529). The present study suggests that cement pockets do not alter or enforce bone cement penetration under the tibial tray in an in vitro scenario.

  6. Tibial tuberosity advancement in small-breed dogs using TTA Rapid implants: complications and outcome.

    PubMed

    Dyall, B; Schmökel, H

    2017-06-01

    To assess the perioperative complications and the outcome when treating small-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with tibial tuberosity advancement using the TTA Rapid implant. 40 dogs (48 stifles) with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency and body weight of 15 kg or less. Diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy or arthrotomy, followed by tibial tuberosity advancement surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the dogs were re-evaluated with clinical examination and radiography. Mid- to long-term outcome was assessed using client questionnaire. Intraoperative complications consisted of four osteotomy-related fissures through the cranial cortex; two complete fissures were stabilised with a screw, the others healed without intervention. After surgery there were two tibial fractures and two incisional complications. Six weeks postoperatively, limb function was good to excellent in 43 dogs (94%). Two late meniscal injuries occurred. The overall major complication rate was 7/48 14·6%). Mid- to long-term follow-up information was available for 43 stifles: 34 stifles (79%) were free of lameness at a median of 72 weeks postoperatively. The outcome was rated excellent by 88% of the clients and good by 7%. The use of TTA Rapid implants is an alternative for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in small-breed dogs, with complication rates comparable to those recorded in larger breeds and to other techniques, and with a high degree of owner satisfaction. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Lateral epicondylar femoral avulsion fracture combined with tibial fracture: a counterpart to the arcuate sign.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Yang, Bo Kyu; Ryu, Ho Kwang

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of femoral avulsion of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) with complete tear of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and popliteus tendon accompanied by demonstrable posterolateral rotary instability (PLRI) of the knee. A 55-year-old man was involved in a road traffic accident. Radiographs revealed an avulsion fracture of the lateral epicondyle of the femur and a fracture of the tibial shaft. An MRI scan showed the lateral epicondyle was avulsed by the LCL and the popliteus tendon. The PCL signal was absent. The tibial shaft fracture was fixed with an intra medullary nail. Sagging of the tibia, with loss of prominence of tibial tuberosity and a positive posterior drawer test, demonstrated a complete tear of the PCL. The avulsion fracture of the lateral epicondyle was treated by an open reduction and internal fixation with two staples. A ligament can be avulsed at either end, and to our knowledge, this pattern of injury as a counterpart to arcuate sign has never been documented in the literature. It is important not to dismiss a small avulsion fracture around the knee joint as insignificant, as it could indicate the presence of a major ligamentous injury.

  8. [The development of gait in the hemiplegic patient after selective tibial neurotomy].

    PubMed

    Caillet, F; Mertens, P; Rabaseda, S; Boisson, D

    1998-09-01

    Spastic Foot may constitute a severe functional deficit leading to instability in stance and inappropriate prepositioning of the foot for its initial contact with the ground. The purpose of the study was to analyze the results of selective tibial neurotomy on gait. After clinical examination of nine hemiplegic patients, gait was recorded before surgery and six months after. Three-dimensional bilateral kinematic data were obtained with a motion measurement system (VICON), and muscular electrical activity on affected side was detected with surface electrodes. The patient walked barefoot, with his free velocity, on a ten meter track in the lab. An analogic visual scale was used by the patient to evaluate gait discomfort. After neurotomy, triceps surae spasticity decreased and passive motion of ankle increased. Gait comfort was better, claw toes and sore skin disappeared. Kinematics data were modified by neurotomy in all patients. On the affected side, ankle dorsiflexion improved during stance for five patients and residual motricity improved during the swing phase for two patients. Stance knee hyperextension was corrected in the five patients. EMG data: Selective tibial neurotomy caused disappearance of triceps surae peak activity at the beginning of the stance phase and at the end of swing phase. The time activity of the other muscles did not change. Selective tibial neurotomy can cure foot deformity and modify ankle motion during gait. It corrects knee hyperextension during stance phase.

  9. Comparison of tibial plateau angles in small and large breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lillian; Townsend, Katy L.; Au, Jennifer; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease can affect dogs of all sizes. The literature describing tibial plateau angle (TPA) in small breed dogs is limited. A retrospective study was conducted in unselected dogs presented for stifle or tibial examination to compare TPA in small breed dogs (n = 146 dogs, 185 stifles) versus large breed dogs (n = 200 dogs, 265 stifles). Small breed dogs had a mean TPA 3.1° ± 0.6° higher than large breed dogs. There were higher TPAs in spayed females and castrated males for all dogs compared with intact males (3.6° ± 1.0° and 2.7° ± 1.0°, respectively). Dogs with unilateral and bilateral CCL disease had higher TPAs compared to dogs with intact CCLs (2.0° ± 0.7° and 2.5° ± 0.8°, respectively). Tibial morphology differs between large and small breed dogs; however, the significance of the impact of TPA on CCL disease in small breed dogs is unknown. PMID:26028684

  10. Analysis of different bicruciate-retaining tibial prosthesis design using a three dimension finite element model

    PubMed Central

    He, Peiheng; Li, Xing; Huang, Shuai; Liu, Minghao; Chen, Weizhi; Xu, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    The recent interest in bicruciate-retaining prostheses has aimed to address the need for an implant that can mimic a natural knee. Arguments have always existed about survivorship, including loosening and subsidence, as well as tibial preparation in bicruciate-retaining tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of a new modular design and other bicruciate-retaining designs using a three-dimensional finite element model under different load conditions to discover which prosthesis was more suitable. We also evaluated related parameters (the third principal stress, shear stress, micromotion, and von Mises stresses) to compare the characteristics of different bicruciate-retaining designs. The biomechanics of the bicruciate-retaining tibial prosthesis can be influenced by the style of the designed prosthesis and gait loading. The new modular design showed stability and moderated the third principal stress, leading to less shear stress and stress shield, suggesting that this type of design can avoid knee prosthesis loosening and subsidence. Therefore, the new design may be used as a more suitable prosthesis for future bicruciate-retaining implant application. PMID:28560009

  11. Masquelet technique with external locking plate for recalcitrant distal tibial nonunion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2017-12-01

    In the present retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the results of treatment for recalcitrant distal tibial nonunion using Masquelet technique with locking plate as a definitive external fixator. We included 15 consecutive cases of distal tibial nonunion treated at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. The reconstructive procedure comprised debridement of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization with an external locked plate, defect filling with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique). All patients were followed-up for at least one year. Fracture union occurred in all cases after a median of 6.5 months (range, 5-12 months). Mean ankle motion ranged from 12.3 (range, 5-20) degrees of dorsiflexion to 35 (range, 5-55) degrees of plantar flexion. At the final follow-up, the median Iowa ankle score was 83 (range, 68-91). Eight patients had excellent scores, six had good scores, and one had fail score. Although the current study involved only a small number of patients and the intervention comprised two stages, we consider that the used protocol is a simple and valuable alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant distal tibial nonunion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in High Medial Tibial Open Wedge Osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Samani, Seyed Salman; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Omidi Kashani, Farzad; Mahdavian Naghashzargar, Reza; Razi, Shiva

    2013-04-01

    Angular deformities about the knee are one of the common disorders. High Tibial osteotomy is a way of correcting the deformity. Although the general agreement is focused toward the open wedge technique, discussion about the type of device is a subject to debate. This current study has attempted to evaluate the results of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in high medial open wedge osteotomies of the tibia. In this cross-sectional study, 16 patients with genuvarum undergone high medial tibial open wedge osteotomy and fixed by Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate. At the time of the last follow up visit, Lysholm score was gathered. The mean follow-up time was 9.33 ± 1.87 month. The average age was 45.13 ± 7.25 years. Three patients were male and 13 patients were female. The lysholm score showed a significant difference before and after surgery. The ODSCP has many advantages over the other type of plates. It can help the surgeon to operate with a relaxed mind and it is advisable for high tibial medial open wedge osteotomies.

  13. Arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament tibial inlay reconstruction: a surgical technique that may influence rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Salata, Michael J; Sekiya, Jon K

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of isolated complete posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries remains a controversial topic. Proponents for reconstruction cite the premature development of arthritis in the medial and patellofemoral compartments as a compelling reason to offer reconstruction. Currently, no consensus exists about which technique should be used to reconstruct the PCL. Surgical technique. A MEDLINE and PUBMED search was performed using the following combination of keywords for the years 1985-2009: PCL, posterior cruciate ligament, and rehabilitation. The reviewed articles were those that addressed rehabilitation of the PCL after reconstruction and were written in the English language. This PCL reconstruction technique may be more inherently stable and allow a more progressive rehabilitation program. There are unique features of all-arthroscopic, double-bundle, allograft reconstruction of the PCL that allow a more aggressive approach in PCL reconstruction rehabilitation. The stability afforded by the anatomic press-fit tibial plug and the augmented tibial and augmented femoral fixation are a plus. The anatomic position of the tibial insertion avoids the "killer turn" of the transtibial approach, limiting concerns for graft abrasion with range of motion and resultant elongation. The outside-in method for the femoral tunnels also minimizes the abrasion that can occur at the "critical corner."

  14. Differences in tibial rotation during walking in ACL reconstructed and healthy contralateral knees

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, Sean F.; Chaudhari, Ajit M. W.; Dyrby, Chris O.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that in patients with a successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the internal-external rotation, varus-valgus, and knee flexion position of reconstructed knees would be different from uninjured contralateral knees during walking. Twenty-six subjects with unilateral ACL reconstructions (avg 31 yrs, 1.7 m, 68 kg, 15 female, 24 mo past reconstruction) and no other history of serious lower limb injury walked at a self-selected speed in the gait laboratory, with the uninjured contralateral knee as a matched control. Kinematic measurements of tibiofemoral motion were made using a previously-described point-cluster technique. Repeated-measures ANOVA (α=0.017) was used to compare ACL-reconstructed knees to their contralateral knees at four distinct points during the stance phase of walking. An offset towards external tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed knees was maintained over all time points (95%CI 2.3±1.3°). Twenty-two out of twenty-six individuals experienced an average external tibial rotation offset throughout stance phase. Varus-valgus rotation and knee flexion were not significantly different between reconstructed and contralateral knees. These findings show that differences in tibial rotation during walking exist in ACL reconstructed knees compared to healthy contralateral knees, providing a potential explanation why these patients are at higher risk of knee osteoarthritis in the long-term. PMID:20181339

  15. Incidence of complications associated with tibial tuberosity advancement in Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    de Lima Dantas, Brigite; Sul, Rui; Parkin, Tim; Calvo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively review and describe the incidence of complications associated with tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) surgical procedures in a group of Boxer dogs (n = 36 stifles) and compare the data with a non-Boxer control population (n = 271 stifles). Retrospective analysis of medical records to identify all dogs that underwent TTA surgery due to cranial cruciate ligament disease. These records were categorized into two groups: Boxer dogs and non-Boxer dogs (controls - all other breeds). Of the 307 stifles included, 69 complications were reported in 58 joints. The complication rate differed significantly for Boxer dogs (16/36 stifles) and non-Boxer dogs (42/271 stifles), corresponding to an odds ratio of 5.8 (confidence interval: 1.96-17.02; p-value <0.001). Boxer dogs were more likely to undergo revision surgery and to develop multiple complications. The incidence of tibial tuberosity fractures requiring surgical repair (2/36 versus 1/271) and incisional infections requiring antibiotic treatment (three in each group) was significantly higher in the Boxer group. Boxer dogs had more major and multiple complications after TTA surgery than the control non-Boxer group; these complications included higher rates of revision surgery, tibial tuberosity fractures requiring stabilization, and infection related complications. The pertinence and value of breed-specific recommendations for cranial cruciate ligament disease appears to be a subject worthy of further investigation.

  16. [Comparison of efficacies for two surgical methods in the treatment of medial tibial-femoral osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-qing; Gao, Shi-jun; Li, Tong; Lu, Bo; Shao, De-cheng; Wang, Jian-chao

    2012-01-03

    To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical methods in the treatment of medial tibial-femoral osteoarthritis. Between October 2007 and June 2010, a total of 22 cases (25 knees) with severe osteoarthritis in medial tibial-femoral compartment underwent minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) with Sled prosthesis after arthroscopic procedure. And its clinical efficacy was compared with that of 22 cases (25 knees) undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with Gemini MKII prosthesis almost simultaneously. There were no significant difference in general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the TKA group, the UKA group had a smaller blood loss ((148 ± 26) vs (278 ± 36) ml), a shorter operative duration ((68 ± 12) vs (86 ± 12) min), a faster progress of resuming 90° flexion ((3.18 ± 1.8) vs (9.1 ± 2.2) d) and an earlier off-bed time (P < 0.05). All patients were followed up for 6 - 34 months. There was no significant difference in KSS (Knee Society Score), function score or WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) score between 2 groups at the last follow-up (P > 0.05). The treatment of medial tibial-femoral osteoarthritis with minimally invasive UKA is superior to that with TKA in that it is less invasive, there is a faster recovery of joint functions and no significant difference exists in the mid-term clinical efficacies between them.

  17. Severe open tibial fractures in combat trauma: management and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Bennett, P M; Fries, C A; Kendrew, J M; Midwinter, M J; Rickard, R F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the pattern of severe open diaphyseal tibial fractures sustained by military personnel, and their orthopaedic-plastic surgical management.The United Kingdom Military Trauma Registry was searched for all such fractures sustained between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered on demographics, injury, management and preliminary outcome, with 49 patients with 57 severe open tibial fractures identified for in-depth study. The median total number of orthopaedic and plastic surgical procedures per limb was three (2 to 8). Follow-up for 12 months was complete in 52 tibiae (91%), and half the fractures (n = 26) either had united or in the opinion of the treating surgeon were progressing towards union. The relationship between healing without further intervention was examined for multiple variables. Neither the New Injury Severity Score, the method of internal fixation, the requirement for vascularised soft-tissue cover nor the degree of bone loss was associated with poor bony healing. Infection occurred in 12 of 52 tibiae (23%) and was associated with poor bony healing (p = 0.008). This series characterises the complex orthopaedic-plastic surgical management of severe open tibial fractures sustained in combat and defines the importance of aggressive prevention of infection.

  18. The AO unreamed tibial nail: a 14-month follow-up of the 1992 TT experience.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, I D; Lovell, M; Casserley, H; Green, A D

    1994-09-01

    This paper reports early experiences with the immediate use of the AO unreamed tibial nail, the immediate complications and the 14 months follow-up of 13 patients with Gustilo grades I, II and IIIa open tibial fractures. The nail insertion technique was found to be clear and quickly acquired by the surgeons unfamiliar with it. There were two equipment complications associated with insertion and one early compartment syndrome. Two patients needed a split skin graft and one other patient required hyperbaric oxygen therapy with a split skin graft to bring about impact wound closure. At 14 months two nails had been electively removed. There had been four cases of locking bolt failure leading to metalwork exchange in two cases, metalwork exchange and bone graft in one case and nail removal in one cases. Two patients had undergone bone graft with nail removal or exchange. Five patients had undergone no further bony procedures. Four patients had not achieved bony union. There were no cases of early or late bone or soft-tissue infection. The authors suggest that the unreamed nail principle has a valuable place in the early management of open tibial fractures.

  19. Selective activation of the human tibial and common peroneal nerves with a flat interface nerve electrode.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, M A; Freeberg, M; Pinault, G J C; Anderson, J; Hoyen, H; Tyler, D J; Triolo, R J

    2013-10-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE's ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae, were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Estimated joint moments suggest that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment.

  20. Selective activation of the human tibial and common peroneal nerves with a flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefer, M. A.; Freeberg, M.; Pinault, G. J. C.; Anderson, J.; Hoyen, H.; Tyler, D. J.; Triolo, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. Approach. During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE's ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. Main results. With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae, were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Significance. Estimated joint moments suggest that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment.

  1. Collagen fibre arrangement in the tibial plateau articular cartilage of man and other mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    KÄÄB, M. J.; AP GWYNN, I.; NÖTZLI, H. P.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental animal models are frequently used to study articular cartilage, but the relevance to man remains problematic. In this study animal models were compared by examination of the collagen fibre arrangement in the medial tibial plateau of human, cow, pig, dog, sheep, rabbit and rat specimens. 24 cartilage samples from each species were prepared and maximum cartilage thickness in the central tibial plateau measured. Samples were fixed, dehydrated, freeze-fractured and imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low magnification, 2 different arrangements of collagen fibres were observed: leaf-like (human, pig, dog) and columnar (cow, sheep, rabbit, rat). The porcine collagen structure was the most similar to that of man. This arrangement was consistent from the radial to the upper zones. Under higher magnification at the surface of the leaves, the collagen was more randomly oriented, whereas the columns consisted of parallel collagen fibrils. The maximum thickness of cartilage did not correlate with the type of collagen arrangement but was correlated with the body weight of the species (r=0.785). When using animal models for investigating human articular cartilage function or pathology, the differences in arrangement of collagen fibres in tibial plateau cartilage between laboratory animals should be considered especially if morphological evaluation is planned. PMID:9758134

  2. Handling of the tibial muscle envelope in tibial plateau levelling osteotomy - to elevate or not? A clinical study of 40 dogs.

    PubMed

    von Pfeil, D J F; Edwards, M R; Nelson, N C

    2013-01-01

    To compare the outcome of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedure, using a 6-hole 3.5 mm locking TPLO plate and performed with the muscle elevation technique (ET) and placement of sponges, to the TPLO without performing these steps (non-elevation-technique [NET]). Medical records and radiographs of dogs with ET (n = 21) or NET (n = 19) were retrospectively reviewed. Signalment, TPLO procedure side, meniscal treatment, surgery time, haemorrhage, pre- and postoperative tibial plateau angle, assistant, amount of rehabilitation, bone healing (cortical, osteotomy, combined healing scores), complications, limb function, recovery time and follow-up were recorded and analysed using multivariate analysis. A value of p <0.05 was considered significant. Surgery time was significantly shorter with the NET (68.5 min ± 3.4) than with the ET (87.8 min ± 3.4) (p <0.01). No significant differences were detected for all other evaluated factors. Soft tissue trauma was minimal and none of the dogs suffered severe haemorrhage. The bone healing scores with the NET and the ET were not significantly different (p = 0.1, p = 0.2, p = 0.1). Complications were rare, minor and not significantly different between groups (p = 0.73). The results of this in vivo study indicate that NET is a feasible technique that can be considered for the clinical setting.

  3. Tibial Fractures in Alpine Skiing and Snowboarding in Finland: A Retrospective Study on Fracture Types and Injury Mechanisms in 363 Patients.

    PubMed

    Stenroos, A; Pakarinen, H; Jalkanen, J; Mälkiä, T; Handolin, L

    2016-09-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding share the hazards of accidents accounting for tibial fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury of tibial fractures taking place in downhill skiing and snowboarding. All patients with tibial fracture due to alpine skiing or snowboarding accident treated in four trauma centers next to the largest ski resorts in Finland were analyzed between 2006 and 2012. The hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for data collection: equipment used (skis or snowboard), age, gender, and mechanism of injury. Fractures were classified according to AO-classification. There were 342 skiing and 30 snowboarding related tibial fractures in 363 patients. Tibial shaft fracture was the most common fracture among skiers (n = 215, 63%), followed by proximal tibial fractures (n = 92, 27%). Snowboarders were most likely to suffer from proximal tibial fracture (13, 43%) or tibial shaft fracture (11, 37%). Snowboarders were also more likely than skiers to suffer complex AO type C fractures (23% vs 9%, p < 0.05). Adult skiers had both wider variety of fractures and higher prevalence of proximal tibial fractures compared to children (49% vs 16%, p < 0.05). Skiers typically got injured due to falling down on the same level (70%) and snowboarders due to loss of control while jumping (46%). The most important finding was the relatively high number of the tibial plateau fractures among adult skiers. The fracture patterns between snowboarding and skiing were different; the most common fracture type in skiers was spiral tibial shaft fracture compared to proximal tibial fractures in snowboarders. Children had more simple fractures than adults. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2016.

  4. Association of physical activity and physical performance with tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Venn, Alison; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Cross, Marita; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2015-10-26

    Physical activity has been recommended to patients with knee osteoarthritis for improving their symptoms. However, it is still controversial if physical activity has effects on joint structures including cartilage volume. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between physical activity and performance measured 5 years prior and tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults. Subjects broadly representative of the Australian population (n = 328, aged 31-41 years, female 47.3 %) were selected from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. They underwent T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of their knees. Tibial bone area and cartilage volume were measured from MRI. Physical activity (measured using long international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)) and performance measures (long jump, leg muscle strength, physical work capacity (PWC170)) were measured 5 years prior. In multivariable analyses, total physical activity (min/week) (β: 0.30 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.47), vigorous (β: 0.54 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.94), moderate (β: 0.34 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.01,0.67), walking (β: 0.40 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.07,0.72) and IPAQ category (β: 182.9 mm(3), 95 % CI: 51.8,314.0) were positively associated with total tibial cartilage volume but not tibial bone area. PWC170, long jump and leg muscle strength were positively and significantly associated with both total tibial cartilage volume and total tibial bone area; and the associations with tibial cartilage volume decreased in magnitude but remained significant for PWC170 and long jump after further adjustment for tibial bone area. While tibial bone area is affected only by physical performance, total tibial cartilage volume can be influenced by both physical activity and performance in younger adults. The clinical significance suggests a beneficial effect for cartilage but the bone area association was restricted to performance suggesting other factors

  5. The use of a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system to accurately reproduce the clinical dial test.

    PubMed

    Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H; Jacobs, C; Branch, T P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee

  6. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  7. Radiographic assessment of the thickness lost from polyethylene tibial inserts that had been sterilized differently.

    PubMed

    Collier, Matthew B; Engh, C Anderson; Hatten, Kyle M; Ginn, Stuart D; Sheils, Todd M; Engh, Gerard A

    2008-07-01

    Archived serial radiographs of knee replacements provide indirect evidence of the clinical performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tibial bearings. Our purpose was to determine the loss of thickness in polyethylene tibial inserts that were of the same design but had been sterilized differently. Four hundred and sixteen knees with an Anatomic Modular Knee primary total knee replacement had five to eighteen years of follow-up and a posterior cruciate ligament-retaining polyethylene tibial insert that had been sterilized with either gamma radiation in air (from 1987 to 1993) or gamma radiation in an inert gas (from 1993 to 1995), or by means of a nonirradiation gas-plasma method (from 1995 to 2001). Readings were taken from 1975 weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs of the knee on which the top surface of the metal tibial tray had nearly projected as a line. In each tibiofemoral compartment, loss of polyethylene thickness was calculated as the standard thickness of the insert minus the measured magnification-corrected thickness. For each sterilization method, thickness loss was plotted versus the corresponding follow-up time, and a mixed linear regression model was used to quantify the change in thickness over time. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine whether loss of thickness was associated with implant factors, patient variables, and early postoperative limb alignment. According to the mixed model regression coefficients, loss of medial compartment thickness was greatest for inserts that had been sterilized with gamma radiation in air (0.15 mm/yr), least for those sterilized with gamma radiation in an inert gas (0.02 mm/yr), and of an intermediate magnitude for those sterilized with a nonirradiation method (0.06 mm/year); loss of lateral compartment thickness ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 mm/yr. Notably, no insert irradiated in an inert gas showed a loss of thickness of >1 mm, and no nonirradiated insert showed a loss of >2 mm

  8. Bypass versus endovascular intervention for healing ischemic foot wounds secondary to tibial arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Abhisekh; Henry, Jon C; Avgerinos, Efthimios D; Boitet, Aureline; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Leers, Steven A; Hager, Eric S

    2018-01-11

    Pedal (inframalleolar) bypass is a long-standing therapy for tibial arterial disease in patients with ischemic tissue loss. Endovascular tibial intervention is an appealing alternative with lower risks of perioperative mortality or complications. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of these two treatment modalities with respect to patency and limb-related clinical outcomes. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting between 2006 and 2013 with ischemic foot wounds and infrapopliteal arterial disease who underwent a revascularization procedure (either open surgical bypass to an inframalleolar target or endovascular tibial intervention). Data were collected on baseline demographics and comorbidities, procedural details, and postprocedure outcomes. The primary outcome was successful healing of the index wound, with mortality, major amputation, and patency assessed as secondary outcomes. We identified 417 patients who met our eligibility criteria; 105 underwent surgical bypass and 312 underwent endovascular intervention, with mean follow-up of 25.0 and 20.2 months, respectively (P = .08). The endovascular patients were older at baseline (P = .009), with higher rates of hyperlipidemia (P = .02), prior cerebrovascular accidents (P = .04), and smoking history (P = .04). Within 30 days postoperatively, there was no difference in mortality (P = .31), but bypass patients had longer hospital length of stay (P < .0001), higher rate of discharge to nursing facility (P < .001), and higher rates of myocardial infarctions (P = .03) and wound complications (P < .001). At 6 months, the rate of wound healing was 22.4% in the bypass group compared with 29.0% in the endovascular group (P = .02). At 1 year, survival was higher after bypass (86.2% vs 70.4%; P < .0001), but freedom from major amputation was similar (84.9% vs 82.8%; P = .42). Primary patency (53.1% vs 38.2%; P = .002) and primary assisted patency (76.6% vs 51.7%; P < .0001

  9. The Impact of Computed Tomography on Decision Making in Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Messias, Andre Marcio Vieira; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2018-02-14

    Schatzker introduced one of the most used classification systems for tibial plateau fractures, based on plain radiographs. Computed tomography brought to attention the importance of coronal plane-oriented fractures. The goal of our study was to determine if the addition of computed tomography would affect the decision making of surgeons who usually use the Schatzker classification to assess tibial plateau fractures. Image studies of 70 patients who sustained tibial plateau fractures were uploaded to a dedicated homepage. Every patient was linked to a folder which contained two radiographic projections (anteroposterior and lateral), three interactive videos of computed tomography (axial, sagittal, and coronal), and eight pictures depicting tridimensional reconstructions of the tibial plateau. Ten attending orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to the cases, were granted access to the homepage and assessed each set of images in two different rounds, separated to each other by an interval of 2 weeks. Each case was evaluated in three steps, where surgeons had access, respectively to radiographs, two-dimensional videos of computed tomography, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. After every step, surgeons were asked to present how would they classify the case using the Schatzker system and which surgical approaches would be appropriate. We evaluated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the Schatzker classification using the Kappa concordance coefficient, as well as the impact of computed tomography in the decision making regarding the surgical approach for each case, by using the chi-square test and likelihood ratio. The interobserver concordance kappa coefficients after each assessment step were, respectively, 0.58, 0.62, and 0.64. For the intraobserver analysis, the coefficients were, respectively, 0.76, 0.75, and 0.78. Computed tomography changed the surgical approach selection for the types II, V, and VI of Schatzker ( p  < 0.01). The addition of

  10. Early Revision Surgery for Tibial Plateau Non-union and Mal-union.

    PubMed

    Van Nielen, Dominic L; Smith, Christopher S; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Although relatively rare, non-unions and mal-unions of tibial plateau fractures present significant challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. With careful pre-operative planning, tibial plateau mal-union or non-union revision surgery with intra-articular and varus opening osteotomies can provides good functional results when performed early (within 1 year) after primary surgical procedure. We present our treatment algorithm for approaching and treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Our aim is to give surgeons treating these difficult injuries an overview of the pertinent literature as well as describe the challenges and pitfalls we have experienced when treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Using two case examples from our institution, one for mal-union and one for mal-reduction, we describe our treatment algorithm and surgical technique for managing these difficult injuries. We also provide a brief literature review outlining relevant studies and summarizing outcomes for similar injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of determining the methods and outcomes commonly reported in the literature regarding revision surgery following tibial plateau non-union or mal-union. Due to the nature of revision surgery, there are no long-term randomized trials dealing with outcomes, but rather several smaller case series exist from which larger conclusions have to be drawn. To date, we have successfully treated approximately 35 patients with this technique, and clinical follow-up continues to show good functional outcomes with reduced pain and little radiographic evidence of arthritic changes. Restoring long leg alignment, anatomic reduction of the articular surface, and achieving stable internal fixation are paramount in achieving the best long-term outcome. Due to the shallow soft tissue envelope around the proximal tibia, and the tendency for these fractures to fall into progressive valgus collapse, these

  11. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  12. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation. Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups. The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5–24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P < .05). In group A, 5 cases had postoperative complications and 1 in group B (P < .05). The mean bone healing time in group A was 6.9 months (range: 5–9 months) and 6.0 months (range: 5–8 months) in group B (P > .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P < 0.05). In group A, the mean knee joint range of motion was 122° (range: 95°–150°) and 135° (range: 100°–160°) in group B (P > 0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05). External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation. PMID:29019890

  13. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P < .05). In group A, 5 cases had postoperative complications and 1 in group B (P < .05). The mean bone healing time in group A was 6.9 months (range: 5-9 months) and 6.0 months (range: 5-8 months) in group B (P > .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P < 0.05). In group A, the mean knee joint range of motion was 122° (range: 95°-150°) and 135° (range: 100°-160°) in group B (P > 0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  14. Comparison of three fixation methods in treatment of tibial fracture in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lixiang; Liu, Yang; Lin, Chuanlu; Zhou, Yifei; Feng, Yongzeng; Shui, Xiaolong; Yu, Kehe; Lu, Xiaolang; Hong, Jianjun; Yu, Yang

    2017-11-21

    Tibial fractures are the most common musculoskeletal injury in adolescents. The optimal management of tibial fractures in adolescents is controversial. In this study, we compared the outcomes including complications of three fixation methods in tibial fractures of adolescents and explored the factors associated with the complications. A retrospective cohort study about 83 diaphyseal tibial fractures in 79 children and adolescents, who were treated with plate fixation (PF), elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation (ESINF), or external fixation (EF), was conducted. After adjustment for age, weight, energy of the injury, polytrauma, fracture level and pattern, and extent of comminution, treatment outcomes were compared in accordance with the length of the hospital stay, time to union, and complication rates including many factors. The mean age of the patients was 13.4 years, and their mean weight was 44.2 kg. There was a loss of reduction in two of 33 fractures treated with ESINF and four of 13 treated with EF (P < 0.001). At the time of final follow-up, three patients (two treated with EF and one treated with ESINF) had ≥2.0 cm of shortening. Four of the 32 patients (33 fractures) treated with ESINF underwent a reoperation (two due to loss of reduction and one each because of delayed union and nonunion). Six patients treated with EF required a reoperation (four due to loss of reduction, one for malunion and one for replacement of a pin complicated by infection). Two fracture treated with PF required refixation attributing to nonunion and malunion. A multivariate analysis with adjustment for baseline differences showed that EF was associated with a 7.56-times (95% confidence interval 3.74-29.87) greater risk of loss of reduction and/or malunion than ESINF. All three treatments had satisfactory outcomes, and EF was correlated with the highest rate of complications in our series of adolescents treated with a tibial fracture. However, we cannot currently

  15. Radiographic results of an accelerometer-based, handheld surgical navigation system for the tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Cross, Michael; Deshmane, Prashant; Jerabek, Seth; Kang, Michael; Mayman, David J

    2011-10-05

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), intramedullary and extramedullary tibial alignment guides are not proven to be highly accurate in obtaining alignment perpendicular to the mechanical axis in the coronal plane. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of an accelerometer-based, handheld surgical navigation system in obtaining a postoperative tibial component alignment within 2° of the intraoperative goal in both the coronal and sagittal planes. A total of 151 TKAs were performed by 2 surgeons using a handheld surgical navigation system to perform the tibial resection. Postoperatively, standing anteroposterior hip-to-ankle radiographs and lateral knee-to-ankle radiographs were performed to determine the varus/valgus alignment and the posterior slope of the tibial components relative to the mechanical axis in both the coronal and sagittal planes. Findings showed that 95.3% of the tibial components were placed within 2° of the intraoperative goal in the coronal plane and 96.1% of the components were placed within 2° of the intraoperative goal in the sagittal plane. Overall, mean postoperative lower-extremity alignment was -0.3°±2.1°, with 97% of patients having an alignment within 3° of a neutral mechanical axis. The handheld surgical navigation system improves the accuracy of the tibial resection and subsequent tibial component alignment in TKA. It is able to combine the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery systems with the ease of use and familiarity of conventional, extramedullary alignment systems, and the ability to adjust both the coronal and sagittal alignments intraoperatively may prove clinically useful in TKA. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Crosslink Density Is Reduced and Oxidation Is Increased in Retrieved Highly Crosslinked Polyethylene TKA Tibial Inserts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Esposito, Christina I; Burket, Jayme C; Wright, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The wear resistance of highly crosslinked polyethylene depends on crosslink density, which may decrease with in vivo loading, leading to more wear and increased oxidation. The relationship among large and complex in vivo mechanical stresses, breakdown of the polyethylene crosslinks, and oxidative degradation is not fully understood in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We wished to determine whether crosslink density is reduced at the articular surfaces of retrieved tibial inserts in contact areas exposed to in vivo mechanical stress. (1) Does polyethylene crosslink density decrease preferentially in regions of the articular surface of thermally stabilized crosslinked polyethylene tibial components exposed to mechanical stress in vivo; and (2) what is the ramification of decreased crosslink density in TKA in terms of accompanying oxidation of the polyethylene? From May 2011 to January 2014, 90 crosslinked polyethylene tibial components were retrieved during revision surgery as a part of a long-standing implant retrieval program. Forty highly crosslinked polyethylene tibial inserts (27 posterior-stabilized designs and 13 cruciate-retaining designs) retrieved for instability (15 cases), stiffness (11), infection (six), aseptic loosening (four), pain (two), and malposition (two) after a mean time of 18 months were inspected microscopically to identify loaded (burnished) and unloaded (unburnished) regions on the articular surfaces. Swell ratio testing was done according to ASTM F2214 to calculate crosslink density and infrared spectroscopy was used according to ASTM F2102 to measure oxidation. The region of the tibial insert influenced crosslink density. Loaded surface regions had a mean crosslink density of 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.19) mol/dm 3 , lower than the other three regions (loaded subsurface, unloaded surface, and unloaded subsurface), which had crosslink densities of 0.21 (95% CI, 0.21-0.22; p < 0.01) mol/dm 3 . Peak oxidation levels were higher

  17. Comparison of glenohumeral contact pressures and contact areas after glenoid reconstruction with latarjet or distal tibial osteochondral allografts.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Gupta, Deepti; Ghodadra, Neil; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Shewman, Elizabeth; Wang, Vincent M; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Provencher, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts offers the theoretical advantage over Latarjet reconstruction of improved joint congruity and a cartilaginous articulation for the humeral head. Hypothesis/ To investigate changes in the magnitude and location of glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces after (1) the creation of a 30% anterior glenoid defect and subsequent glenoid bone augmentation with (2) a flush Latarjet coracoid graft or (3) a distal tibial osteochondral allograft. It was hypothesized that the distal tibial bone graft would best normalize glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissues and randomly tested in 3 static positions of humeral abduction with a 440-N compressive load: 30°, 60°, and 60° of abduction with 90° of external rotation (ABER). Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially using a digital pressure mapping system for (1) the intact glenoid, (2) the glenoid with a 30% anterior bone defect, and (3) the glenoid after reconstruction with a distal tibial allograft or a Latarjet bone block. Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts resulted in significantly higher glenohumeral contact areas than reconstruction with Latarjet bone blocks in 60° of abduction (4.87 vs. 3.93 cm2, respectively; P < .05) and the ABER position (3.98 vs. 2.81 cm2, respectively; P < .05). Distal tibial allograft reconstruction also demonstrated significantly lower peak forces than Latarjet reconstruction in the ABER position (2.39 vs. 2.61 N, respectively; P < .05). Regarding the bone loss model, distal tibial allograft reconstruction exhibited significantly higher contact areas and significantly lower contact pressures and peak forces than the 30% defect model at all 3 abduction positions. Latarjet reconstruction also followed this same pattern, but

  18. A method used to access the functional outcome of tibial posterior tendon transfer for foot drop in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Reis, Felipe J J; Knackfuss, Irocy; Verçosa, Nubia; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia; Gomes, Maria Kátia

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to access the postoperative functional results of posterior tibial tendon transfer for foot drop as a consequence of nerve palsy in leprosy. Thirteen patients (9 males and 4 females) with ages ranging from 9 to 69 years were submitted to posterior tibial tendon transfer by the circumtibial route to correct foot drop in leprosy. The length of postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. The Stanmore system was used as a method for evaluating the functional results of postoperative posterior tibial tendon transfer. This system is made up of 7 different categories and the total score is 100. According to the Stanmore system, the results were poor in 1 patient (7.6%), moderate in 2 feet (15.3%), good in 5 feet (38.4%), and excellent in 5 feet (38.4%). All the patients were satisfied with the final outcome. The posterior tibial tendon transfer for foot drop in leprosy was efficient in restoring normal function of the foot and gait without changing foot posture. In the absence of a standardized method for assessing the results of posterior tibial tendon transfer, the Stanmore system seems to be a good tool for an objective evaluation.

  19. Raised compartment pressures are frequently observed with tibial shaft fractures despite the absence of compartment syndrome: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kelvin Lor Kah; Sing, Nicholas Yeoh Ching; Wong, Khai Phang; Huat, Andy Wee Teck

    2017-01-01

    To measure the intracompartmental pressures surrounding tibial fractures not exhibiting any clinical evidence of compartment syndrome. Our hypothesis was that pressures often exceed the recommended threshold of fasciotomy despite the absence of compartment syndrome, and hence diagnosis based on pressure measurements alone is unreliable. Thirteen consecutive patients with closed tibial shaft fractures without clinical suspicion of compartment syndrome, and who were planned for intramedullary nailing, were prospectively enrolled. Compartment pressures ( P) in all four compartments of the affected leg were measured at the start of surgery and immediately after tibial reaming, and differential pressures (delta P) were calculated based on the diastolic blood pressure prior to induction of anaesthesia. No patients required reoperation in the post-operative period, as a result of an undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Using commonly quoted threshold pressure criteria, 62% (using P > 30 mmHg) and 23% of patients (using delta P < 30 mmHg) have been incorrectly diagnosed with compartment syndrome. We conclude that raised compartment pressures are frequently seen in patients with tibial shaft fractures; but in most cases, it does not equate to the presence of compartment syndrome. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome based on intracompartmental pressure measurements alone may result in unnecessary fasciotomies in a sizeable number of patients. Compartment syndrome remains a clinical diagnosis, and one which always needs to be considered when managing tibial fractures.

  20. Measurement of tibial nerve excursion during ankle joint dorsiflexion in a weight-bearing position with ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability of peripheral nerves to stretch and slide is thought to be of paramount importance to maintain ideal neural function. Excursion in peripheral nerves such as the tibial can be measured by analysis of ultrasound images. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of longitudinal tibial nerve excursion as the ankle moved from plantar flexion to dorsiflexion in a standardised weight-bearing position. The reliability of ultrasound imaging to measure tibial nerve excursion was also quantified. Methods The tibial nerve was imaged over two separate sessions in sixteen asymptomatic participants in a weight-bearing position. Longitudinal nerve excursion was calculated from a three-second video loop captured by ultrasound imaging using frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the intra-rater reliability. Standard error of the measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated to assess measurement error. Results Mean nerve excursion was 2.99 mm SEM ± 0.22 mm. The SRD was 0.84 mm for session 1 and 0.66 mm for session 2. Intra-rater reliability was excellent with an ICC = 0.93. Conclusions Assessment of real-time ultrasound images of the tibial nerve via frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis is a reliable non-invasive technique to assess longitudinal nerve excursion. The relationship between foot posture and nerve excursion can be further investigated. PMID:22397397

  1. Landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation in the initial contact period of one-leg forward hops.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, S-Y; Yang, C-Y; Wu, C-D; Chang, C-W

    2017-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore anterior tibial translation but not tibial rotation. This study aimed to explore landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation at landing when the ACL is most vulnerable. Three groups of male subjects (50 ACLRs, 26 basketball players, and 31 controls) participated in one-leg forward hop tests for determining the tibial rotatory landing strategies adopted during the initial landing phase. The differences in knee kinematics and muscle activities between internal and external tibial rotatory (ITR, ETR) landing strategies were examined. A higher proportion of basketball players (34.6%) were found to adopt ITR strategies (controls: 6.5%), exhibiting significantly greater hopping distance and knee strength. After adjusting for hopping distance, subjects adopting ITR strategies were found to hop faster with straighter knees at foot contact and with greater ITR and less knee adduction angular displacement during the initial landing phase. However, significantly greater angular displacement in knee flexion, greater medial hamstring activities, and greater co-contraction index of hamstrings and medial knee muscles were also found during initial landing. Our results support the importance of the recruitments of medial hamstrings or the local co-contraction in assisting the rotatory control of the knee during initial landing for avoiding ACL injuries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ipsilateral fibular transfer as a salvage procedure for large traumatic tibial defects in children in an austere environment.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Andre J; Keenan, O J F; Tubb, C; M Wood, A; Rowlands, T; Christensen, S E

    2016-12-01

    Large tibial defects present a challenging scenario for the orthopaedic surgeon, particularly in the paediatric patient. Most management options, such as the vascularised fibular graft or Ilizarov technique, require microsurgical techniques or specialist equipment. In an austere environment, acute shortening or limb amputation may be most appropriate. However, limb salvage may be achieved by ipsilateral fibular transfer. In a one-stage operation, the fibular graft is harvested and either placed in the tibial defect in an intramedullary position or secured to the tibia with screws. We present two paediatric cases where this approach was used to preserve the lower limb despite extensive explosive trauma. In the first case, an 11 cm tibial defect was managed with an ipsilateral fibular graft. The graft was placed in an intercalary position proximally, with medial displacement of the ankle and fixation of the fibula as a strut graft. In the second case, a 10 cm tibial defect was managed with an ipsilateral fibular graft, using intercalary placement proximally and distally. Both children returned to weight bearing with crutches within several months of surgery. For large tibial defects, ipsilateral fibular transfer is an effective one-stage operation that represents a viable alternative to amputation in austere environments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, M S; Samani, A; Olesen, C G; Kersting, U G; Madeleine, P

    2011-08-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinematics and surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals between patients with medial tibial stress syndrome and healthy controls during gait. Fourteen patients diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome and 11 healthy controls were included from an orthopaedic clinic. SEMG from tibialis anterior and the soleus muscles as well as midfoot kinematics were recorded during 20 consecutive gait cycles. Permuted sample entropy and permutation entropy were used as a measure of complexity from SEMG signals and kinematics. SEMG signals in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome were characterized by higher structural complexity compared with healthy controls (p<0.001) while it was the opposite for the midfoot kinematics (p=0.01). Assessing the complexity of midfoot kinematics and SEMG activation pattern enabled a precise characterization of gait in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome. The reported inverse relationship in foot kinematics and SEMG complexity most likely point towards separated control processes governing gait variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of extra-articular starting point and transtibial femoral drilling on the intra-articular aperture of the tibial tunnel in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Gerdeman, Andrew C; Miller, Chealon D; Hart, Joseph M; Gaskin, Cree M; Golish, S Raymond; Clancy, William G

    2010-04-01

    The recent emphasis on more horizontal femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions requires placing a femoral tunnel lower on the lateral wall of the notch. Some surgeons have advocated moving the starting point of the tibial tunnel farther medial to achieve this more horizontal tunnel. To compare tibial tunnel aperture changes with transtibial femoral tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty match-paired cadaveric knees (10 specimens) were randomized into 2 groups with equal right and left knee distribution. Ten of the knees underwent tibial tunnel drilling from a medial starting point (group 1), and the corresponding opposite knee of each cadaveric specimen had the tibial tunnel drilled from a central starting point (group 2). Computerized tomography (CT) with thin slices and 3-dimensional reconstruction was used to obtain the dimensions of the apertures, area of the apertures, angles of the tunnels, and location of the starting point and ending point of the tunnels. We also determined the location of the femoral tunnels in the notch for each of the groups. The 10 knees with medial starting points underwent transtibial femoral tunnel drilling and were restudied with CT to evaluate changes in tibial tunnel characteristics. The 10 knees with central starting points underwent femoral drilling from an anteromedial arthroscopic portal. Central tibial tunnels were slightly larger than medial tibial tunnels before femoral drilling (106.3 mm(3) vs 92.4 mm(3)). After femoral drilling through the medial tunnels, the apertures were larger than the central tibial apertures (118.6 mm(3) vs 106.3 mm(3)). Medial tibial tunnels resulted in an intra-articular aperture that was farther from the tibial tubercle (43.1 mm vs 16.3 mm), farther from the medial tibial plateau (38.3 mm vs 32.2 mm), and more acute in the coronal plane (50.4 degrees vs 79.3 degrees ). Medial tibial tunnels resulted in an intra-articular aperture

  6. Combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems in TKA reduces postoperative outliers of rotational alignment of the tibial component.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Shota; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kusayama, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Ken; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2018-02-01

    Rotational malpositioning of the tibial component can lead to poor functional outcome in TKA. Although various surgical techniques have been proposed, precise rotational placement of the tibial component was difficult to accomplish even with the use of a navigation system. The purpose of this study is to assess whether combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems replicate accurately the rotational alignment of tibial component that was preoperatively planned on CT, compared with the conventional method. We compared the number of outliers for rotational alignment of the tibial component using combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems (navigated group) with those of conventional method (conventional group). Seventy-two TKAs were performed between May 2012 and December 2014. In the navigated group, the anteroposterior axis was prepared using CT-based navigation system and the tibial component was positioned under control of the navigation. In the conventional group, the tibial component was placed with reference to the Akagi line that was determined visually. Fisher's exact probability test was performed to evaluate the results. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the number of outliers: 3 outliers in the navigated group compared with 12 outliers in the conventional group (P < 0.01). We concluded that combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems decreased the number of rotational outliers of tibial component, and was helpful for the replication of the accurate rotational alignment of the tibial component that was preoperatively planned.

  7. Computationally efficient prediction of bone-implant interface micromotion of a cementless tibial tray during gait.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Hemelaar, Pleun; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-07

    Cementless tibial fixation in total knee replacement (TKR) has potential for improved fixation and ease of revision. Achieving primary stability in cementless TKR is critical to the performance of the components. Excessive micromotion may prevent osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Computational finite element (FE) studies have been used to predict micromotion at the interface, but analysis of an entire activity cycle is computational expensive, prohibiting large numbers of analyses. Surrogate modeling methods can be used to train a numerical model to predict the response of an FE model. These models are computationally efficient and are suitable for high-volume or iterative analyses requiring probabilistic, statistical or optimization methods. The objective of this work was to train a surrogate model capable of predicting micromotion over the entire bone-implant interface. A proximal tibial bone with mapped material properties was virtually implanted with a tibial tray. A FE model, with six-degree-of-freedom loads sampled from telemetric patients during walking, was used to generate training data for the surrogate model. The linear response surrogate model was evaluated for six full gait cycles; the average and peak micromotion across the interface, and the percentage of bone-implant interface surface area experiencing micromotions less than 50 and greater than 150µm were calculated both as a function of the activity cycle and as the composite peak micromotion throughout the cycle. Differences in root-mean-square (RMS) micromotion between FE and surrogate models were less than 14µm. FE analysis time for a complete gait cycle was 15h, compared to 30s for the surrogate model. Surrogate models have significant potential to rapidly predict micromotion over the entire bone-implant interface, allowing greater range in loading conditions to be explored than is possible through conventional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Locked plating as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Xu, Ding; Wu, Jia; Chen, Yi-Heng

    2017-12-01

    This article is a systematic review of the published literature about the biomechanics, functional outcomes, and complications of a locked plate as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures. We searched the PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases to retrieve the relevant studies. Studies published in English and Chinese which assessed adult patients and more than 4 cases who had sustained any type of fresh tibial fracture treated with the external locking plate, provided that they reported functional outcomes, range of motion (ROM), union or complication rates, and the biomechanical studies of external locked plating are also included. The electronic search strategy revealed 248 studies, and 2 studies were identified as relevant through manual search of references. Finally, 12 studies were included in this systematic review. These consist of 3 pure biomechanical studies, 8 case series, and 1 study including both of biomechanics and case series. Due to the heterogeneity of biomechanical studies, we can only conclude that external locked plate shows inferior structural stiffness than internal locked plate. The clinical studies reported that external locked plating gave a satisfactory ROM of the knee and ankle, functional outcomes, union rate, and low complication rate. We can only conclude that external locked plate shows inferior structural stiffness than internal locked plate because of the heterogeneity of biomechanical studies. The clinical studies showed locked plating as an external fixator in treating tibial fractures can be considered as a safe and successful procedure. However, as yet, there is unconvincing evidence that it is superior to standard techniques with regards to clinical and functional outcomes. More and well-designed studies about this technique should be carried out.

  9. The effect of tibial tuberosity medialization and lateralization on patellofemoral joint kinematics, contact mechanics, and stability.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Joanna M; Lumpaopong, Punyawan; Dodds, Alexander L; Williams, Andy; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer is a common procedure to treat patellofemoral instability in patients with elevated TT-trochlear groove (TG) distances. However, the effects of TT lateralization or medialization on patellar stability, kinematics, and contact mechanics remain unclear. Progressive medialization and lateralization will have increasingly adverse effects on patellofemoral joint kinematics, contact mechanics, and stability. Controlled laboratory study. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were placed on a testing rig, with a fixed femur and tibia mobile through 90° of flexion. Individual quadriceps heads and the iliotibial band were separated and loaded with 205 N in anatomic directions using a weighted pulley system. Patellofemoral contact pressures and patellar tracking were measured at 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion using pressure-sensitive film behind the patella and an optical tracking system. The intact knee was measured with and without a 10-N patellar lateral displacement load, and recordings were repeated after TT transfer of 5, 10, and 15 mm medially and laterally. Statistical analysis used repeated-measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc analysis, and Pearson correlations. Tibial tuberosity lateralization significantly elevated lateral joint contact pressures, increased lateral patellar tracking, and reduced patellar stability (P<.048). There was a significant correlation between mean lateral contact pressure and the TT position (r=0.810, P<.001) at 10°. Tibial tuberosity medialization reduced lateral contact pressures (P<.002) and did not elevate peak medial contact pressures (P>.11). Progressive TT lateralization elevated lateral contact pressures, increased lateral patellar tracking, and reduced patellar stability. Medial contact pressure and tracking did alter with progressive TT medialization, but the changes were smaller. Lateral patellofemoral joint contact pressures increased with progressive lateralization

  10. Three-dimensional transfer of the tibial tuberosity for patellar instability with patella alta.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Oda, Shuhei; Hoshiyama, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Kenta; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Neo, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    Although patellar instability can be treated with several surgical procedures, the appropriate surgical treatment for patellar instability with patella alta has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study is to find out whether three-dimensional transfer of the tibial tuberosity elicits good knee functionality with improved patella alta and prevents further patellar dislocation. Twelve knees (10 patients) underwent surgery for patellar instability with patella alta from 2007 to 2011. The surgery performed was a three-dimensional transfer for the anteromedial distalization of the tibial tuberosity. Predisposing anatomical factors for patellar instability were evaluated preoperatively; femorotibial angle (FTA), patella alta (IS ratio), trochlear dysplasia (sulcus angle) and tilting angle (lateral tilt). The function of the knee was assessed before and after surgery by Lysholm and Kujala score. Before surgery, the IS ratio was 1.34 ± 0.13, lateral tilt was 22.4° ± 6.5°, and the sulcus angle was 151.7° ± 8.3°, indicating patella alta, laterality, and trochlear dysplasia. After surgery, the IS ratio and lateral tilt significantly improved to 0.95 ± 0.13, and 10.6° ± 3.4°, respectively. FTA and sulcus angle were not altered. Lysholm and Kujala score improved from 63.8 to 94.7 and 67.0 to 94.1 points, respectively. Most patients displayed good outcomes except for one patient who suffered re-dislocation by hitting their knee on the floor, 2.5 years after surgery. Three-dimensional tibial tuberosity transfer was shown to correct the patella position and result in a good clinical outcome. This method is introduced as an alternative surgery for patellar instability with patella alta.

  11. Arthroscopic Fixation of Tibial Eminence Fractures: A Biomechanical Comparative Study of Screw, Suture, and Suture Anchor.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Yu, Yang; Liu, Chunhui; Su, Xiangzheng; Liao, Weixiong; Li, Zhongli

    2018-01-31

    To compare biomechanical outcomes of 4 different arthroscopic techniques for fixation of tibial eminence fractures. Twenty-four skeletally mature, fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were divided into 4 comparison groups based on the fixation method: screw fixation (group A), traditional sutures fixation with 2 FiberWire sutures (group B), a modified suture technique with 2 FiberWire sutures that created neckwear knots to firmly trap the fracture fragment (group C), or suture anchors which was based on the suture bridge technique primarily used in the shoulder for repair of rotator cuff tears and greater tuberosity fractures (group D). A tibial eminence fracture was created in each knee for subsequent fixation. After fixation, each knee underwent cyclic loading of 100 N to assess the displacement change after 500 cycles of the fixation construct. Afterward, a single tensile failure test load was performed to assess the ultimate failure load, stiffness, and failure mode for each specimen. All specimens survived cyclic testing and were subsequently loaded to failure. Group C had the highest ultimate failure load (P < .05) and group D had the lowest displacement compared with the other 3 groups (P < .05). Different failure modes were found among the 4 groups. Suture fixation using the neckwear knots technique provides superior fixation with regard to higher ultimate failure load, and absorbable suture anchor fixation with the suture bridge technique provides less displacement under cyclic loading conditions. Both techniques exhibited superior biomechanical properties compared with traditional screw and suture fixation. The new techniques showed satisfactory biomechanical properties and provided more choice for surgeons in the treatment of tibial eminence fractures. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Total knee replacement with tibial tubercle osteotomy in rheumatoid patients with stiff knee.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ahmed Salem; Nassar, Wael Ahmed Mohamed; Fayyad, Tamer Abdelmeguid Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a well-proven modality that can provide pain relief and restore mobility for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with advanced joint destruction. Patellar ligament avulsion, especially in presence of poor bone quality and knee stiffness, is one of the special considerations that must be addressed in this unique population of patients. This study aimed to determine the functional results in a series of rheumatoid patients with stiff knee and end-stage joint destruction who underwent tibial tubercle osteotomy during TKA. Twenty-three knees in 20 patients (16 women; four men) at a mean age of 54 years with end-stage arthritis and knee stiffness due to RA were operated upon for TKA using tibial tubercle osteotomy as a step during the operation. Patients were reviewed clinically and radiographically with a minimum follow-up of two years. Complications were noted. Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score was recorded pre-operatively and at six and 12 months postoperatively. Union occurred at the osteotomy site in 21 of 23 cases. One case had deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There was no infection or periprosthetic fracture, and at last follow-up, no patient required revision. HSS score improved from 46 (15-60) pre-operatively to 85 (71-96) post-operatively. Tibial tubercle osteotomy during TKA in patients with RA and stiff knee is technically demanding yet proved to be effective in improving post-operative range of movement and minimising the complication of patellar ligament avulsion.

  13. Comparison of Tibial Intramedullary Nailing Guided by Digital Technology Versus Conventional Method: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Xu, Xian; Li, Xu; Wu, Wei; Cai, Junfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-06-12

    BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to compare clinical effects of intramedullary nailing guided by digital and conventional technologies in treatment of tibial fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-two patients (mean age 43 years, 18 males and 14 females) who were treated for tibial fractures from October 2010 to October 2012 were enrolled. They were sequentially randomized to receive intramedullary nailing guided by either digital technology (digital group, n=16) or conventional technology (conventional group, n=16). The operation time, fluoroscopy times, fracture healing time, distance between the actual and planned insertion point, postoperative lower limb alignment, and functional recovery were recorded for all patients. RESULTS The mean operation time in the digital group was 43.1±6.2 min compared with 48.7±8.3 min for the conventional technology (P=0.039). The fluoroscopy times and distance between the actual and planned insertion point were significantly lower in the digital group than in the conventional group (both P<0.001). The accuracy rate of the insertion point was 99.12% by digital technology. No difference was found in fracture healing time and good postoperative lower limb alignment between the digital and conventional groups (P=0.083 and P=0.310), as well as the effective rate (100% vs. 87.50%, P=0.144). CONCLUSIONS Intramedullary nailing guided by digital technology has many advantages in treatment of tibial fractures compared to conventional technology, including shorter operation time, reduced fluoroscopy times, and decreased distance between the actual and planned insertion point of the intramedullary nail.

  14. A case report and literature review on fabella syndrome after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehun; Chung, Haksun; Lee, Hyungmin; Choi, Young; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The fabella is a normal structure, but is occasionally reported to cause posterior knee pain. The aim of this study was to present fabella syndrome after high tibial osteotomy. A 55-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital due to about 1 year and 8 months of left knee pain. Sclerosis was observed in the anterior margin of the fabella in the preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) T2 image, and reactive bone marrow was found and was considered to be due to degeneration of the distal femur. Degenerative change (Kellgren and Lawrence-KL grade 2) of the left knee was observed, along with cartilage delamination corresponding to International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 in the patellofemoral joint. We present the first reported case of fabella syndrome in Korea, after high tibial osteotomy due to degenerative arthritis and varus deformity, rather than artificial joint surgery. We excised the fabella from the patient's knee. There was no evidence of recurrence during 5 months of postoperative follow-up. Posterolateral Corner including the fabella might have sustained increased tensile force causing symptoms due to compression of the fabella by the posterior joint of the posterior femoral condyle. We present the first reported case of fabella syndrome in Korea, after high tibial osteotomy due to degenerative arthritis and varus deformity, rather than artificial joint surgery. Collision syndrome caused by a fabella has previously been attributed to inconsistency of the joint surface due to excessive exercise and degenerative changes due to knee instability. We report this case since it appeared to involve collision syndrome due to mechanical change of an angular deformity.

  15. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-01-01

    AIM To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. METHODS Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. RESULTS Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION ACS in tibial fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome. PMID:28567342

  16. Effects of fatigue on running mechanics associated with tibial stress fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Clansey, Adam C; Hanlon, Michael; Wallace, Eric S; Lake, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of progressive fatigue on the parameters of running mechanics previously associated with tibial stress fracture risk. Twenty-one trained male distance runners performed three sets (Pre, Mid, and Post) of six overground running trials at 4.5 m.s(-1) (± 5%). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during each trial using a 12-camera motion capture system, force platform, and head and leg accelerometers. Between tests, each runner ran on a treadmill for 20 min at their corresponding lactate threshold (LT) speed. Perceived exertion levels (RPE) were recorded at the third and last minute of each treadmill run. RPE scores increased from 11.8 ± 1.3 to 14.4 ± 1.5 at the end of the first LT run and then further to 17.4 ± 1.6 by the end of the second LT run. Peak rearfoot eversion, peak axial head acceleration, peak free moment and vertical force loading rates were shown to increase (P < 0.05) with moderate-large effect sizes during the progression from Pre to Post tests, although vertical impact peak and peak axial tibial acceleration were not significantly affected by the high-intensity running bouts. Previously identified risk factors for impact-related injuries (such as tibial stress fracture) are modified with fatigue. Because fatigue is associated with a reduced tolerance for impact, these findings lend support to the importance of those measures to identify individuals at risk of injury from lower limb impact loading during running.

  17. Mechanical testing of a new osteotomy design for tibial tuberosity advancement using the Modified Maquet Technique.

    PubMed

    Brunel, L; Etchepareborde, S; Barthélémy, N; Farnir, F; Balligand, M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanical properties of the distal cortical hinge associated with a new osteotomy design for the Modified Maquet Technique (MMT). Ex vivo mechanical study. The osteotomy was started 10 mm caudal to the tibial tuberosity and extended over 150% of the length of the tibial crest; it was slightly curved distally to stay at a distance of 2 to 4 mm from the cranial cortex, according to the body weight. Ninety-six tibiae were tested in advancement, and 60 tibiae were axially loaded perpendicular to the tibial plateau, until failure of the crest. Desired advancement was measured using the common tangent method in 60 tibiae. Angle of opening, thickness, and area of the cortical hinge were recorded. Desired advancement of 6 mm, 9 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm was recorded in 16, 12, 18 and 14 tibiae respectively. Mean maximal advancement in these bones was 15.6 ± 6.4 mm, 20.8 ± 5.2 mm, 21.3 ± 5.2 mm and 22.7 ± 5.2 mm respectively. The desired advancement was reached in all but one tibia. Advancement was mainly influenced by the angle of opening and the stiffness of the cortical hinge. Mean ultimate load to failure was 6.12 ± 2.4 times the body weight. It was significantly associated with the body weight, thickness, and area of the cortical hinge. Mean maximal advancement was higher than clinically required without occurrence of fissure or fracture. Ultimate load to failure and maximal advancement could be predicted using calculated formulae.

  18. Fascicular Involvement of the Posterior Tibial Nerve as a Result of Perineural Ganglion Cyst at the Posterior Tibial Nerve in the Calf: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chilvana; Vishnubhakat, Surya Murthy; Narayan, Raj

    2015-12-01

    We report a 19-year-old woman with a 6-month history of nontraumatic left foot numbness associated with intermittent weakness. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography localized the lesion to the posterior tibial nerve, below the innervation to the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles. MRI of the left leg revealed a multiloculated cystic collection near the proximal tibiofibular joint. Surgical excision and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a ganglion cyst, in an atypical location distal to the popliteal fossa. We believe this is the first reported case of fascicular posterior tibial nerve involvement by a ganglion cyst in the calf.

  19. Type III fracture of the tibial tubercle with avulsion of the tibialis anterior muscle in the adolescent male athlete.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuo; Matsuda, Torahiro; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Iwase, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2004-09-01

    Type III fracture of the tibial tubercle by Watson-Jones, or type IIIa injury according to John Ogden's classification has been well described and its management is now well codified in standard orthopaedic textbooks. The authors present a case of type III fracture of the tibial tubercle associated with an avulsion of the tibialis anterior muscle. We demonstrated the effectiveness of bioabsorbable material for fixing the fracture preventing the need for removal of metalware, and that the anterior tibialis muscle had been stripped by the injury. A displaced type III fracture of the tibial tubercle may have an associated with avulsion of the tibialis anterior muscle, particularly in adolescent athletes. Prompt recognition and appropriate surgical treatment can give an excellent outcome.

  20. Tibial component fixation with a peri-apatite coating: evaluation by radiostereometric analysis in a canine total knee arthroplasty model.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew J; Leone, Kendall A; Dunbar, Michael J; Race, Amos; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Sacks, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    Cementless fixation for the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains problematic. Peri-Apatite (PA), a solution-deposited hydroxyapatite, is under investigation as an option for improving the fixation of cementless tibial components. In this study, radiostereometric analysis was used to document implant migration in 48 dogs that underwent TKA with cementless, PA-coated, or cemented tibial components. Migration at 12 weeks was similar in the 2 groups. At 12 months, there was greater migration in the PA-coated group, but the difference between the 2 groups was below the threshold considered clinically significant. In this canine TKA model, cementless fixation with PA performed less well than did cemented fixation, but not to a degree that would make a clinical difference in the short term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Posterior Tibial Arterial System Deficiency Mimicking Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Kyle P; Parcells, Bertrand W; Hosea, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old female competitive high school basketball player presented as an outpatient with a 3-month history of bilateral exertional calf pain. Patient history and compartment pressure measurements were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and the patient underwent bilateral fasciotomies. Postoperatively, her symptoms recurred and she was found to have a deficient posterior tibial arterial system bilaterally, as confirmed on advanced imaging. We advocate the careful consideration of vascular etiologies in athletes who present with exertional leg pain.

  2. Same-Level Fracture of the Tibial Metal Tray and Polyethylene Insert After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Yeal; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2016-07-01

    The authors report a case of failure fracture of the tibial metal tray and polyethylene insert at the same level in a 73-year-old woman 10 years after total knee arthroplasty using the AMK Total Knee System (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana). Causes of this fracture are analyzed and discussed, with the focus on the importance of component design, position, and size. The overall aim of this case report is for orthopedic surgeons to avoid this complication in total knee arthroplasty by paying attention to these controllable factors. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e787-e789.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Locking compression plate fixation of radial and tibial fractures in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, C S; Montavon, P M

    2005-01-01

    A six-month-old, male Bernese Mountain Dog in which radius-ulna and tibia-fibula concomitant fractures were treated each with a 3.5 mm Locking Compression Plate (LCP) is presented. Both fractures were approached and plated medially. The tibial fracture had to be revised with a 4.5 mm intramedullary nail and a new 3.5 mm LCP at the second post-operative day because of fixation breakdown. The follow-up radiographs taken at days 14 and 53 revealed uneventful healing of both fractures. Implants were removed 53 days after surgery.

  4. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Emily E.; Holmes, Shannon P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs. Study design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy) were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data. Results Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103) with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103). All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically

  5. Contact stress analysis of the tibial component of prosthetic knee implants.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, T M; Monaghan, J M

    1997-01-01

    The engineering problems associated with implantation into the human body of prosthetic knee implants and some of the outstanding issues facing engineering designers in this growing sector of orthopaedic medicine are described. The contact behaviour of polymeric tibial components was modelled using a stainless steel indentor in contact with an Araldite CT200 block which contained embedded strain gauges. The block was subjected to normal and sliding loads and the stresses in the block were evaluated using the strain data; the results were compared with results obtained from finite element analysis. The results are considered in the light of recent experience with non-conforming knee implants.

  6. Total knee arthroplasty following tibial plateau fracture: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Davidson, E; MacDonald, D J; White, T O; Keating, J F

    2015-04-01

    Radiological evidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after fracture of the tibial plateau is common but end-stage arthritis which requires total knee arthroplasty is much rarer. The aim of this study was to examine the indications for, and outcomes of, total knee arthroplasty after fracture of the tibial plateau and to compare this with an age and gender-matched cohort of TKAs carried out for primary osteoarthritis. Between 1997 and 2011, 31 consecutive patients (23 women, eight men) with a mean age of 65 years (40 to 89) underwent TKA at a mean of 24 months (2 to 124) after a fracture of the tibial plateau. Of these, 24 had undergone ORIF and seven had been treated non-operatively. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and > 60 months using the Short Form-12, Oxford Knee Score and a patient satisfaction score. Patients with instability or nonunion needed total knee arthroplasty earlier (14 and 13.3 months post-injury) than those with intra-articular malunion (50 months, p < 0.001). Primary cruciate-retaining implants were used in 27 (87%) patients. Complication rates were higher in the PTOA cohort and included wound complications (13% vs 1% p = 0.014) and persistent stiffness (10% vs 0%, p = 0.014). Two (6%) PTOA patients required revision total knee arthroplasty at 57 and 114 months. The mean Oxford knee score was worse pre-operatively in the cohort with primary osteoarthritis (18 vs 30, p < 0.001) but there were no significant differences in post-operative Oxford knee score or patient satisfaction (primary osteoarthritis 86%, PTOA 78%, p = 0.437). Total knee arthroplasty undertaken after fracture of the tibial plateau has a higher rate of complications than that undertaken for primary osteoarthritis, but patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction are comparable. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:532-8. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  8. [Establishment of Schatzker classification digital models of tibial plateau fractures and its application on virtual surgery].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-gang; Zuo, Li-xin; Pei, Guo-xian; Dai, Ke; Sang, Jing-wei

    2013-08-20

    To explore the establishment of Schatzker classification digital model of tibial plateau fractures and its application in virtual surgery. Proximal tibial of one healthy male volunteer was examined with 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT). The data were processed by software Mimics 10.01 and a model of proximal tibia was reconstructed. According to the Schatzker classification criteria of tibial plateau fractures, each type of fracture model was simulated.Screen-captures of fracture model were saved from different directions.Each type of fracture model was exported as video mode.Fracture model was imported into FreeForm modeling system.With a force feedback device, a surgeon could conduct virtual fracture operation simulation.Utilizing the GHOST of FreeForm modeling system, the software of virtual cutting, fracture reduction and fixation was developed.With a force feedback device PHANTOM, a surgeon could manipulate virtual surgical instruments and fracture classification model and simulate surgical actions such as assembly of surgical instruments, drilling, implantation of screw, reduction of fracture, bone grafting and fracture fixation, etc. The digital fracture model was intuitive, three-dimensional and realistic and it had excellent visual effect.Fracture could be observed and charted from optional direction and angle.Fracture model could rotate 360 ° in the corresponding video mode. The virtual surgical environment had a strong sense of reality, immersion and telepresence as well as good interaction and force feedback function in the FreeForm modeling system. The user could make the corresponding decisions about surgical method and choice of internal fixation according to the specific type of tibial plateau fracture as well as repeated operational practice in virtual surgery system. The digital fracture model of Schatzker classification is intuitive, three-dimensional, realistic and dynamic. The virtual surgery systems of Schatzker classifications make

  9. Electrical stimulation attenuates morphological alterations and prevents atrophy of the denervated cranial tibial muscle.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Favaretto, Idvaldo Aparecido; Bortoluci, Carlos Henrique Fachin; Santos, Thais Caroline Pereira Dos; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa, Geraldo Marco

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the animals were euthanized and histological and morphometric analyses were performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The Experimental Denervated Group and the Experimental Denervated and Treated Group had cross-sectional area of smaller fiber compared to the Final Control Group. However, there was significant difference between the Experimental Denervated Group and Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, showing that electrical stimulation minimized muscle atrophy. The Experimental Denervated and Treated Group and Initial Control Group showed similar results. Electrical stimulation through Russian current acted favorably in maintaining morphology of the cranial tibial muscle that was experimentally denervated, minimizing muscle atrophy. Investigar se a estimulação elétrica pela corrente russa é capaz de manter a morfologia do músculo tibial cranial de ratos desnervados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Inicial, Grupo Controle Final, Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado, Grupo Experimental Desnervado. A eletroestimulação foi realizada com um protocolo de corrente russa aplicada três vezes por semanas, durante 45 dias. Ao final, os animais foram eutanasiados e, em seguida, foram realizadas as análises histológica e morfométrica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, com nível de significância de p<0,05. Os Grupos Experimental Desnervado e o Grupo Experimental

  10. 3D printing-assisted osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Du, Di; Zhou, Zhibin; Lu, Nan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Jun; Zhao, Liangyu; Chen, Aimin

    2016-12-01

    Osteotomy and internal fixation are usually the most effective way to treat the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures, and the accuracy of the osteotomy is still a challenge for surgeons. This is a report of a series of prospectively study of osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral plateau fractures with the aid of 3D printing technology. A total of 7 patients with malunion of lateral tibial plateau fractures were enrolled in the study between September 2012 to September 2014 and completed follow up. CT image data were used for 3D reconstruction, and individually 3D printed models were used for accurate measurements and detail osteotomy procedures planning. Under the premeditated operation plan, the osteotomy operations were performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 2 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months or more. Mean age of the patients was 44 years (range 30-52 years), 3 cases were result of fall injuries, 2 were traffic accidents and 2 were sports injuries. Among the cases, one accompanied with craniocerebra trauma, one with pelvic fracture, one accompanied with both. According to the Schatzker Tibial Plateau classification, the original fracture type were 3 type I, 1 type II and 3 type III. The lateral tibial plateau collapse ranges from 4 mm-12mm, with an average of 9.4mm. All the operations were successfully completed, the average operation time was 77.1min (range 70-90 min), the average intraoperative blood loss was 121.4ml (range 90-180ml), the mean follow-up time was 14.4 months (range 12-18 months), and the average healing time of the osteotomy fragments was 12 weeks (range 11-13 weeks). The difference between preoperative and postoperative Rasmussen scores were statistically significant (P<0.05). All the patients were obtained functional recovery, with no complications. 3D printing technology is helpful to accurately design osteotomy operation, reduce the risk of postoperative deformity

  11. Giant Anterior Tibial Artery Pseudoaneurysm Successfully Treated on the USNS Mercy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Victoria S; Thompson, Kimberly A; Casey, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The need for an experienced vascular surgeon in the combat setting is not questioned; however, there is a paucity of literature exploring the utility of vascular surgery during an elective humanitarian mission. We herein present a case of a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery treated in the context of a humanitarian mission during Pacific Partnership 2015 aboard the United States Naval Ship Mercy. This case report demonstrates the necessity and unique opportunities for vascular surgeons to participate in humanitarian surgery. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Allografts with autogenous platelet-rich plasma for tibial defect reconstruction: a rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Wong, Keng Lin; David, Vikram; Pereira, Barry P

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for fresh-frozen allografts in tibial defect reconstruction in rabbits. 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial defect reconstruction with autografts (n=12), allografts without PRP (n=12), or allografts with PRP (n=12) and were observed for 12, 16, and 24 weeks (4 for each period). Tibias of the remaining 4 rabbits were used as donor allografts, and the remaining allografts were procured from recipient rabbits. A 1.5- cm cortical segment of the tibia was osteotomised, and then fixed with a 9-hole mini-compression plate and 2 cerclage wires. Allografts were stripped off the periosteum and soft tissues and medullary contents, and then stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. All allografts were deep frozen for at least 4 weeks before transplantation. 7 ml of whole blood was drawn to prepare 1 ml of PRP. The PRP was then mixed with 1.0 ml of human thrombin to form a platelet gel. The PRP gel was then packed into the medullary canal of the allograft and applied on the cortical surface before tibial defect reconstruction. Rabbits were sacrificed at 12, 16, and 24 weeks. The specimens were assessed for bone union at host-graft junctions and for bone resorption, new bone formation, callus encasement, and viable osteocyte counts. There were 4 specimens in each group at each observation period. Osteoid bridging the gap at host-graft junctions was noted in all specimens in the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups at week 12 and in the allograft-without-PRP group at week 24. Bone union in allografts without PRP was delayed. All indices for biological incorporation (resorption index, new bone formation index, callus encasement index, and viable osteocyte count) were significantly greater in the autograft than allograft-without-PRP groups, except for the resorption index at week 24, whereas the differences were not significant between the autograft and allograft-with-PRP groups. The differences between the 2

  13. Morphological changes in tibial tunnels after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Ohori, Tomoki; Mae, Tatsuo; Shino, Konsei; Tachibana, Yuta; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-09-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT) is crucial for the reliable and accurate evaluation of tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the tibial tunnel enlargement at the tunnel aperture and inside the tunnel and to clarify the morphological change at the tunnel footprint 1 year after the anatomic triple-bundle (ATB) ACL reconstruction using 3D CT models. Eighteen patients with unilateral ACL rupture were evaluated. The ATB ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon autograft was performed. 3D computer models of the tibia and the three tibial tunnels were reconstructed from CT data obtained 3 weeks and 1 year after surgery. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the two anterior and the one posterior tunnels were measured at the tunnel aperture and 5 and 10 mm distal from the aperture and compared between the two periods. The locations of the center and the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral edges of each tunnel footprint were also measured and compared between the two periods. The CSA of the posterior tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40.4%, whereas that of the anterior tunnels did not change significantly, although the enlargement rate was 6.1%. On the other hand, the CSA was significantly reduced at 10 mm distal from the aperture in the anterior tunnels. The enlargement rate in the posterior tunnel was significantly greater than that in the anterior tunnels at the aperture. The center of the posterior tunnel footprint significantly shifted postero-laterally. The anterior and posterior edges of the posterior tunnel footprint demonstrated a significant posterior shift, while the lateral edge significantly shifted laterally. There was no significant shift of the center or all the edges of the anterior tunnels footprint. The posterior tibial tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40% with the morphological change in the

  14. Co-contraction patterns of trans-tibial amputee ankle and knee musculature during gait

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Myoelectric control of upper extremity powered prostheses has been used clinically for many years, however this approach has not been fully developed for lower extremity prosthetic devices. With the advent of powered lower extremity prosthetic components, the potential role of myoelectric control systems is of increasing importance. An understanding of muscle activation patterns and their relationship to functional ambulation is a vital step in the future development of myoelectric control. Unusual knee muscle co-contractions have been reported in both limbs of trans-tibial amputees. It is currently unknown what differences exist in co-contraction between trans-tibial amputees and controls. This study compares the activation and co-contraction patterns of the ankle and knee musculature of trans-tibial amputees (intact and residual limbs), and able-bodied control subjects during three speeds of gait. It was hypothesized that residual limbs would have greater ankle muscle co-contraction than intact and able-bodied control limbs and that knee muscle co-contraction would be different among all limbs. Lastly it was hypothesized that the extent of muscle co-contraction would increase with walking speed. Methods Nine unilateral traumatic trans-tibial amputees and five matched controls participated. Surface electromyography recorded activation from the Tibialis Anterior, Medial Gastrocnemius, Vastus Lateralis and Biceps Femoris of the residual, intact and control limbs. A series of filters were applied to the signal to obtain a linear envelope of the activation patterns. A co-contraction area (ratio of the integrated agonist and antagonist activity) was calculated during specific phases of gait. Results Co-contraction of the ankle muscles was greater in the residual limb than in the intact and control limbs during all phases of gait. Knee muscle co-contraction was greater in the residual limb than in the control limb during all phases of gait. Conclusion Co

  15. Coronal tibial slope is associated with accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Stout, Alina C; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Ward, Robert J; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-07-19

    Accelerated knee osteoarthritis may be a unique subset of knee osteoarthritis, which is associated with greater knee pain and disability. Identifying risk factors for accelerated knee osteoarthritis is vital to recognizing people who will develop accelerated knee osteoarthritis and initiating early interventions. The geometry of an articular surface (e.g., coronal tibial slope), which is a determinant of altered joint biomechanics, may be an important risk factor for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to determine if baseline coronal tibial slope is associated with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis. We conducted a case-control study using data and images from baseline and the first 4 years of follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We included three groups: 1) individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, 2) individuals with common knee osteoarthritis progression, and 3) a control group with no knee osteoarthritis at any time. We did 1:1:1 matching for the 3 groups based on sex. Weight-bearing, fixed flexion posterior-anterior knee radiographs were obtained at each visit. One reader manually measured baseline coronal tibial slope on the radiographs. Baseline femorotibial angle was measured on the radiographs using a semi-automated program. To assess the relationship between slope (predictor) and incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis (outcomes) compared with no knee osteoarthritis (reference outcome), we performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex. The mean baseline slope for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, common knee osteoarthritis, and no knee osteoarthritis were 3.1(2.0), 2.7(2.1), and 2.6(1.9); respectively. A greater slope was associated with an increased risk of incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.15 per degree, 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.32) but not common knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0

  16. AN EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR MEASURING LATERAL TIBIAL SLOPE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Lipps, David B.; Wilson, Annie M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since lateral tibial slope (LTS) affects the amount of anterior tibial translation and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain during a dynamic maneuver, accurate measurements of lateral tibial slope may be beneficial in screening individuals at a higher risk for ACL injury. Methods for measuring LTS on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the proximal tibia include the midpoint and circle methods. There are no current studies that have validated different LTS measurements methods using a proximal tibia magnetic resonance imaging scan. Hypothesis We tested the null hypotheses that (1) LTS measurements were independent of the length of tibia imaged using the midpoint method, and (2) LTS measurements calculated from different methods (‘midpoint’, ‘circle’, and ‘full tibia’) would not differ significantly. Study Design Descriptive Laboratory Study Methods Blinded observers measured LTS from 3-Tesla 3D magnetic resonance images from 40 size-matched donors according to one circle method and three midpoint methods. Outcomes were then compared to the full tibial anatomical axis (line connecting the center of two circles fit within the proximal and distal tibia) in 11 donors. Bonferroni-correct paired t-tests (p < 0.005 significant) were used to compare the five methods. Results The circle and full tibia methods had the lowest inter- and intra-observer variability, while the midpoint method with 10 cm tibia was the most variable. The midpoint method with 10cm and 15 cm proximal tibia closely resembled LTS measurements with the full tibia anatomic axis. The circle method, while repeatable, provided smaller numerical LTS measurements than the full tibia and midpoint methods. Conclusions While LTS measurements using the midpoint method can resemble measurements made using the full tibia, the reliability of the midpoint method depends on the length of proximal tibia used. The circle method may be the preferred method for future studies since it was the

  17. Finite element simulation on posterior tibial tendinopathy: Load transfer alteration and implications to the onset of pes planus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Leung, Aaron Kam-Lun; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendinopathy is a challenging foot condition resulting in pes planus, which is difficult to diagnose in the early stage. Prior to the deformity, abnormal internal load transfer and soft tissue attenuation are anticipated. The objective of this study was to investigate the internal load transfer and strain of the ligaments with posterior tibial tendinopathy, and the implications to pes planus and other deformities. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images of a 28-year-old normal female. Thirty bones, plantar fascia, ligaments and tendons were reconstructed. With the gait analysis data of the model subject, walking stance was simulated. The onset of posterior tibial tendinopathy was resembled by unloading the tibialis posterior and compared to the normal condition. The load transfer of the joints at the proximal medial column was weaken by posterior tibial tendinopathy, which was compromised by the increase along the lateral column and the intercuneiforms during late stance. Besides, the plantar tarsometatarsal and cuboideonavicular ligaments were consistently over-stretched during stance. Particularly, the maximum tensile strain of the plantar tarsometatarsal ligament was about 3-fold higher than normal at initial push-off. Posterior tibial tendinopathy altered load transfer of the medial column and unbalanced the load between the proximal and distal side of the medial longitudinal arch. Posterior tibial tendinopathy also stretched the midfoot plantar ligaments that jeopardized midfoot stability, and attenuated the transverse arch. All these factors potentially contributed to the progress of pes planus and other foot deformities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Tibial tunnel widening after hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: comparison between Rigidfix and Bio-TransFix.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Yoo, Soon-Young; Victoroff, Brian N

    2013-01-01

    There is no study comparing tibial tunnel widening after hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions between RigidFix(r) and Bio-TransFix(r). Hamstring ACL reconstructions using RigidFix(r) in 56 patients and Bio-TransFix(r) in 41 with a minimum of 2years postoperative evaluation were reviewed. Tibial fixation was performed using Intrafix in both groups. On the anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs, the diameter of the tibial tunnel was measured at proximal, middle, and distal positions. Postoperative laxity evaluations were performed using Lachman test, pivot-shift test, and instrumented laxity testing using the KT-1000 arthrometer. On the AP and lateral radiographs, the average diameter of the tibial tunnel in the Bio-TransFix(r) group significantly increased after 6months compared to the immediate postoperative measurement (p=0.002 and p=0.002, respectively). However, the average diameter of the tibial tunnel in the RigidFix(r) group did not increase after 6months compared to the immediate postoperative measurement. Tunnel widening at 12months postoperatively in the Bio-TransFix(r) group was significantly more than that of the RigidFix(r) group on AP and lateral radiographs (p=0.012 and 0.016, respectively). Tunnel widening at 24months postoperatively showed a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively). Fifteen patients (36.6%) in the Bio-TransFix(r) group and 15 patients (26.8%) in the RigidFix(r) group showed tunnel widening. There were no significant differences in results of the Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and mean KT-1000 measurement between the two groups. The Bio-TransFix(r) group showed progressive tibial tunnel widening after 6months postoperatively but no clinical signs of instability. Level III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and radiographic predictors of acute compartment syndrome in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gamulin, Axel; Lübbeke, Anne; Belinga, Patrick; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Perneger, Thomas V; Zingg, Matthieu; Cunningham, Gregory

    2017-07-18

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between demographic, injury-related, clinical and radiological factors of patients with tibial plateau fractures and the development of acute compartment syndrome. All consecutive adult patients with intra-articular tibial plateau fractures admitted in our urban academic medical centre between January 2005 and December 2009 were included in this retrospective cohort study. The main outcome measurement was the development of acute compartment syndrome. The charts of 265 patients (mean age 48.6 years) sustaining 269 intra-articular tibial plateau fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Acute compartment syndrome occurred in 28 fractures (10.4%). Four patients presented bilateral tibial plateau fractures; of them, 2 had unilateral, but none had bilateral acute compartment syndrome. Non-contiguous tibia fracture or knee dislocation and higher AO/OTA classification (type 41-C) were statistically significantly associated with the development of acute compartment syndrome in multivariable regression analysis, while younger age (<45 years), male sex, higher Schatzker grade (IV-V-VI), higher tibial widening ratio (≥1.05) and higher femoral displacement ratio (≥0.08) were significantly associated in the analysis adjusted for age and sex. Two parameters related to the occurrence of ACS in tibial plateau fractures were highlighted in this study: the presence of a non-contiguous tibia fracture or knee dislocation, and higher AO/OTA classification. They may be especially useful when clinical findings are difficult to assess (doubtful clinical signs, obtunded, sedated or intubated patients), and should rise the suspicion level of the treating surgeon. In these cases, regular clinical examinations and/or intra-compartmental pressure measurements should be performed before and after surgery, even if acute compartment syndrome seemed unlikely during initial assessment. However, larger studies are mandatory to confirm and

  20. Preliminary investigation of residual limb plantarflexion and dorsiflexion muscle activity during treadmill walking for trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Silver-Thorn, Barbara; Current, Thomas; Kuhse, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Novel powered prosthetic ankles currently incorporate finite state control, using kinematic and kinetic sensors to differentiate stance and swing phases/sub-phases and control joint impedance and position or torque. For more intuitive control, myoelectric control of the ankle using the remnant residual limb dorsiflexors and plantarflexors, perhaps in concert with kinetic and kinematic sensors, may be possible. The specific research objective was to assess the feasibility of using myoelectric control of future active or powered prosthetic ankle joints for trans-tibial amputees. The project involved human subject trials to determine whether current techniques of myoelectric control of upper extremity prostheses might be readily adapted for lower extremity prosthetic control. Gait analysis was conducted for three unilateral trans-tibial amputee subjects during ambulation on an instrumented split belt treadmill. Data included ankle plantarflexor and dorsiflexor activity for the residual limb, as well as lower limb kinematics and ground reaction forces and moments of both the sound and prosthetic limbs. These data indicate that: 1) trans-tibial amputees retain some independent ankle plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscle activity of their residual limb; 2) it is possible to position surface electromyographic electrodes within a trans-tibial socket that maintain contact during ambulation; 3) both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors of the residual limb are active during gait; 4) plantarflexor and dorsiflexor activity is consistent during multiple gait cycles; and 5) with minimal training, trans-tibial amputees may be able to activate their plantarflexors during push-off. These observations demonstrate the potential for future myoelectric control of active prosthetic ankles. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying upper extremity prosthetic myoelectric signal acquisition, processing and control techniques to future myoelectric control of

  1. Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Cementless Porous Tantalum Monoblock Tibial Component: A Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Ivan; D'Apolito, Rocco; Sculco, Peter K; Poultsides, Lazaros A; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was introduced to improve the longevity of implants but has yet to be widely adopted because of reports of higher failure rates in some series. The cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component, in contrast, has shown successful short-term results, but long-term survivorship with this design is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the minimum 10-year clinical and radiographic results of the cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component in primary TKA. From March 2002 to March 2005, 33 patients (33 knees) underwent primary TKA with a cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component. All patients were followed clinically and radiographically for a minimum of 10 years (mean 11.5 years, range 10-13 years). No patients were lost to follow-up. The underlying diagnosis that led to the primary TKA was primary osteoarthritis in 31 knees and post-traumatic osteoarthritis in 2 knees. None of the components was revised. At a minimum 10-year follow-up, the survivorship with reoperation for any reason as end point was 96.9%. With tibial component revision for aseptic loosening or osteolysis as the end point survivorship was 100%. There was no radiographic evidence of tibial component loosening, subsidence, osteolysis, or migration at the time of the latest follow-up. The mean Knee Society knee scores improved from 56 points preoperatively to 93 points at the last clinical visit. The porous tantalum tibial monoblock component demonstrated excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes with no component revisions for aseptic loosening at a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [APPLICATION VALUE OF DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY IN REPAIR OF FOOT AND ANKLE WOUNDS WITH POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERIAL PERFORATOR FLAP].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyang; Zhang, Wenduo; Wei, Zairong; Wu, Bihua; Li, Hai; Sun, Guangfeng; Jin, Wenhu; Tang, Xiujun; Deng, Chengliang; Nie, Kaiyu

    2015-09-01

    To explore the application value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in repairing foot and ankle wounds with posterior tibial arterial perforator flaps. Between January 2010 and May 2014, 12 cases of foot and ankle wounds were repaired using posterior tibial arterial perforator flaps. There were 7 males and 5 females with an average age of 36 years (range, 22-54 years). The causes were machine injury in 2 cases, falling injury in 3 cases, and traffic accident injury in 7 cases. The disease duration ranged from 7 to 45 days (mean, 16 days). The size of wound ranged from 6 cm x 4 cm to 10 cm x 5 cm. Preoperative DSA was performed to observe the orientation and distribution of the posterior tibial arterial perforator and the relationship between perforator vessels. Correspondently, the flaps were designed and harvested. The size of flap ranged from 7 cm x 5 cm to 11 cm x 6 cm. The donor sites were repaired with skin grafts. Posterior tibial arterial perforator vessels send out ascending branches and descending branches while going down in the superficial layer. All branches were connected to form vertical chain-form anastamosis, and its orientation was consistent with limb vertical axis. According to DSA results, the flaps were designed and harvested easily. All flaps survived after operation. Meanwhile, wounds healed by first intention. All skin grafts at donor site survived. All patients were followed up 6 months. The flaps had good appearance, color, and texture. No ulcer was found. Affected feet had normal walking function. The size, distribution, and chain-form anastamosis condition of the posterior tibial arterial perforator vessels can be accurately observed by DSA, which provides imaging evidence for harvesting posterior tibial arterial perforator flaps and improves the success rate for repairing foot and ankle wounds.

  3. Influence of tibial rotation in total knee arthroplasty on knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Steinbrück, Arnd; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Müller, Tatjana; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar; Fottner, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although continuous improvements have been made, there is still a considerable amount of unsatisfied patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A main reason for this high percentage is anterior knee pain, which is supposed to be provoked by post-operative increased retropatellar peak pressure. Since rotational malalignment of the implant is believed to contribute to post-operative pain, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of tibial component rotation on knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure. Eight fresh-frozen knee specimens were tested in a weight-bearing knee rig after fixed-bearing TKA under a loaded squat from 20° to 120° of flexion. To examine tibial components with different rotations, special inlays with 3° internal rotation and 3° external rotation were produced and retropatellar pressure distribution was measured with a pressure-sensitive film. The kinematics of the patella and the femorotibial joint were recorded with an ultrasonic-based motion analysis system. Retropatellar peak pressure decreased significantly from 3° internal rotation to neutral position and 3° external rotation of the tibial component (8.5 ± 2.3 vs. 8.2 ± 2.4 vs. 7.8 ± 2.5 MPa). Regarding knee kinematics femorotibial rotation and anterior-posterior translation, patella rotation and tilt were altered significantly, but relative changes remained minimal. Changing tibial rotation revealed a high in vitro influence on retropatellar peak pressure. We recommend the rotational alignment of the tibial component to the medial third of the tibial tuberosity or even more externally beyond that point to avoid anterior knee pain after TKA.

  4. Surgical Fixation of Bilateral Simultaneous Avulsion Fractures of the Proximal Tibia in a 12-Year-Old with History of Conservatively Managed Unilateral Tibial Avulsion Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Musiienko, Dharsh; Law, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare, representing less than 3% of all epiphyseal and 1% of all physeal injuries in adolescents. Bilateral injuries are extremely rare. The specific anatomical and histological features of the proximal tibial epiphysis make it vulnerable to a specific fracture pattern that occurs when the tensile force of the quadriceps is greater than the fibrocartilaginous tissue underlying the tibial tuberosity. We report the first case to our knowledge of a 12-year-old boy who sustained simultaneous bilateral tibial avulsion fractures on the background of a previous conservatively managed unilateral tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture. We report this case for its uniqueness and as an educational review of the anatomy, the mechanism of injury, and the development of classifying these fractures and discussion of the stages of the growing physis that determine the treatment approach. PMID:28473935

  5. Femoral Version and Tibial Torsion are Not Associated With Hip or Knee Arthritis in a Large Osteological Collection.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Douglas S; Park, Paul J; Morris, William Z; Liu, Raymond W

    2017-03-01

    Tibial torsion and femoral anteversion are common rotational abnormalities in children, and their courses are most often benign and self-resolving. Although neither usually requires surgical treatment, the decision to perform a derotational osteotomy is usually based on the degree of functional impairment. Neither condition is thought to influence the development of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee; however, to date there have been no large scale studies confirming this. Tibial torsion and femoral version in 1158 cadaveric tibiae and femora were measured using a camera setup based on previously described radiographic landmarks. Any specimens with obvious traumatic, rheumatic, or metabolic abnormalities were excluded. Degenerative joint disease of the hip and knee were each graded from 0 to 6. Correlations between tibial torsion, femoral version, age, race, and sex with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joints were evaluated with multiple regression analysis. The mean and SDs of tibial torsion and femoral anteversion were 7.9±8.8 and 11.4±12.0 degrees, respectively. African Americans had significantly increased tibial torsion (5.1±8.7 vs. 9.2±8.5 degrees, P<0.0005) and greater femoral anteversion (14.1±11.9 vs. 10.2±11.8 degrees, P<0.0005) compared with whites. The average grades for hip and knee osteoarthritis were 3.1±1.4 and 2.7±1.4. Using multiple regression analysis neither tibial torsion nor femoral version were independent predictors of hip or knee arthritis (P>0.05 for all). This study confirmed previously reported differences in the rotational profiles between races and sexes. However, neither tibial torsion nor femoral anteversion had a significant influence on the development of arthritis of the hip or knee. These results support the practice of treating tibial torsion and femoral anteversion based on the symptomatology of the patient. Parents of asymptomatic children can be reassured that long-term consequences are unlikely.

  6. Augmentation of the lower leg: a new combined calf-tibial implant.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, Robert A

    2006-03-01

    The underdeveloped lower leg can be a source of embarrassment. Underdevelopment or atrophy may be associated with asymmetry, congenital deformity (tibial torsion, pes planus, genu valgus), traumatic nerve damage, or disease (polio). In some people, muscular development simply fails to respond to exercise. Augmentation of the calves with subfascial silicone implants has been practiced for 25 years and is a reliable procedure. The implant is placed through a transverse popliteal incision in a plane dissected between the gastrocnemius fascia and muscle. One or both heads of the gastrocnemius are augmented-a larger size is usually used medially. When the lower portion of the leg is also thin, and especially when there is tibial torsion, augmentation of the calf alone may exaggerate the deformity. A new one-piece combined medial calf-medial leg implant has been developed and used in 15 patients (n = 30 implants). Augmentation/correction has met with complete patient approval (except for one patient who wished to have a larger size). A new and effective implant to correct various deformities or lack of development of the lower leg is presented.

  7. Fourier analysis methodology of trabecular orientation measurement in the human tibial epiphysis

    PubMed Central

    HERRERA, M.; PONS, A. M.; ILLUECA, C.; ERADES, D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to quantify trabecular orientation are crucial in order to assess the exact trajectory of trabeculae in anatomical and histological sections. Specific methods for evaluating trabecular orientation include the ‘point counting’ technique (Whitehouse, 1974), manual tracing of trabecular outlines on a digitising board (Whitehouse, 1980), textural analysis (Veenland et al. 1998), graphic representation of vectors (Shimizu et al. 1993; Kamibayashi et al. 1995) and both mathematical (Geraets, 1998) and fractal analysis (Millard et al. 1998). Optical and computer-assisted methods to detect trabecular orientation of bone using the Fourier transform were introduced by Oxnard (1982) later refined by Kuo & Carter (1991) (see also Oxnard, 1993, for a review), in the analysis of planar sections of vertebral bodies as well as in planar radiographs of cancellous bone in the distal radius (Wigderowitz et al. 1997). At present no studies have applied this technique to 2-D images or to the study of dried bones. We report a universal computer-automated technique for assessing the preferential orientation of the tibial subarticular trabeculae based on Fourier analysis, emphasis being placed on the search for improvements in accuracy over previous methods and applied to large stereoscopic (2-D) fields of anatomical sections of dried human tibiae. Previous studies on the trajectorial architecture of the tibial epiphysis (Takechi, 1977; Maquet, 1984) and research data about trabecular orientation (Kamibayashi et al. 1995) have not employed Fourier analysis. PMID:11273050

  8. Shelf life and in vivo duration. Impacts on performance of tibial bearings.

    PubMed

    Currier, B H; Currier, J H; Collier, J P; Mayor, M B; Scott, R D

    1997-09-01

    Polyethylene has been used for more than 30 years as an orthopaedic bearing material; however, recently concern has been focused on the early failure of some polyethylene bearings. The damage seen in some bearings has been linked to gamma radiation sterilization performed in an air environment. Gamma sterilization in air has been documented to cause an increase in oxidation and degradation of mechanical properties that continue with time. However, not all retrieved bearings that are gamma sterilized in air exhibit the elevated oxidation and mechanical property degradation that lead to early component failure. Bearings that are gamma sterilized in air oxidize while sitting in inventory before implantation. Shelf oxidation rate was estimated based on analysis of a series of never implanted tibial bearings. This shelf oxidation rate allowed estimation of in vivo oxidation for retrieved tibial bearings of known sterilization date. Bearings with less than 1 year of shelf life after gamma sterilization in air had lower in vivo oxidation and better in vivo performance than did those with longer shelf life before implantation. Shelf time before implantation appears to be a significant factor in the success or failure of bearings that are gamma sterilized in air.

  9. Sex differences in the relationship between bone mineral density and tibial cartilage volume.

    PubMed

    Berry, Patricia A; Wluka, Anita E; Davies-Tuck, Miranda L; Wang, Yuanyuan; Strauss, Boyd J; Dixon, John B; Proietto, Joseph; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2011-03-01

    Although there is a well-established sex difference in the prevalence and severity of OA, the mechanism for this is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of BMD and BMC in explaining gender differences in knee cartilage volume. A total of 153 subjects aged 25-60 years, 81% female, were recruited. MRI was performed of the dominant knee. Cartilage volume was measured using validated methods. Total body BMD and content was measured using DXA. Total body BMC and BMD was significantly associated with medial cartilage volume in both sexes. However, the associations were stronger in men for BMC (B = 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.83; P for difference = 0.001) and BMD (B = 2242; 95% CI 443, 4041; P for difference = 0.05). Similar results were obtained in the lateral tibial compartment. No significant association was obtained between total body BMD and BMC and patella cartilage volume in either men or women. In this relatively healthy population, we found a positive relationship between total body BMD and BMC and tibial cartilage volume in the medial and lateral compartments. These relationships were stronger in men than women. Thus, the results of this study may provide some insight into the sex differences in knee cartilage volume, which may in turn facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of OA.

  10. Osteal macrophages promote in vivo intramembranous bone healing in a mouse tibial injury model.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kylie A; Chang, Ming K; Maylin, Erin R; Kohler, Thomas; Müller, Ralph; Wu, Andy C; Van Rooijen, Nico; Sweet, Matthew J; Hume, David A; Raggatt, Liza J; Pettit, Allison R

    2011-07-01

    Bone-lining tissues contain a population of resident macrophages termed osteomacs that interact with osteoblasts in vivo and control mineralization in vitro. The role of osteomacs in bone repair was investigated using a mouse tibial bone injury model that heals primarily through intramembranous ossification and progresses through all major phases of stabilized fracture repair. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that at least two macrophage populations, F4/80(+) Mac-2(-/low) TRACP(-) osteomacs and F4/80(+) Mac-2(hi) TRACP(-) inflammatory macrophages, were present within the bone injury site and persisted throughout the healing time course. In vivo depletion of osteomacs/macrophages (either using the Mafia transgenic mouse model or clodronate liposome delivery) or osteoclasts (recombinant osteoprotegerin treatment) established that osteomacs were required for deposition of collagen type 1(+) (CT1(+)) matrix and bone mineralization in the tibial injury model, as assessed by quantitative immunohistology and micro-computed tomography. Conversely, administration of the macrophage growth factor colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) increased the number of osteomacs/macrophages at the injury site significantly with a concurrent increase in new CT1(+) matrix deposition and enhanced mineralization. This study establishes osteomacs as participants in intramembranous bone healing and as targets for primary anabolic bone therapies. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Arthroscopic treatment for tibial "Peel off" tears in anterior cruciate ligament-case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Han, Kye Young; Yu, In Sang; Koh, Kyoung Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury was very common, and its reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic surgeries. A standard treatment option for ACL complete rupture in active young patients is debridement of remnant tissue and reconstruction with various types of tendon graft. However, "A tibial peel off tear" of ACL without bony avulsion can be treated using preservation of original ACL and trans-osseous pullout suture repair. The IKDC subjective score was 90, the objective score was A, and the Lysholm score was 95 at 24 months after surgery. KT-2000 arthrometer showed 2 mm side-to-side difference. Pivot shift test and Lachman test were negative, and there was no limitation in range of motion. Patient returned to full activities including sports and satisfied with the surgical results. In the postoperative MRI at 6 months after the surgery, the continuity of ACL was well maintained without any Cyclops lesion. We believe that trans-osseous pullout suture repair could be included as an alternative method in this "tibial peel off" type ACL injury instead of the usual removal of remnant tissue and reconstruction with a graft.

  12. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Brandon; Amer, Luke D; Warren, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally,more » the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.« less

  13. Secondary effects of knee braces on the intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment.

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J; Castro, W H; Hoffstetter, I; Reer, R

    1995-01-01

    In 31 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 33 years we investigated the intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment while running on a treadmill with, and without, a functional knee brace. All volunteers performed two test series with a constant running speed of 8 km/h. Prior to running, the pressure was documented in the supine, sitting and standing position as well as during running. The intracompartmental pressure in the supine position was significantly less without a brace compared to the pressure with a brace. This was also true for the sitting position and the standing position. While running on the treadmill the average pressure was also significantly higher with, than without, a brace. Running with a functional knee brace leads to increased intracompartmental pressure in the anterior tibial compartment and, as a consequence, may lead to a chronic compartment syndrome. Wearing a functional knee brace may cause secondary muscle ischemia and may be one reason for the increased incidence of injuries in athletes.

  14. [A new case of tibial stress fracture as a complication of knee osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Sy, M H; Diouf, S; Ndoye, A; Coumé, M

    1995-01-01

    Transverse stress fractures of the proximal tibia are associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. This uncommon complication is presented in this case report as a non-union form along with a literature review. A fifty nine year old black African woman who had a thirteen-year history of osteoarthritis in both knees, was seen for increasing pain in the proximal part of the left leg without demonstrative traumatism. This homemaker measured 155 cm for 85 kgs. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a non-united stress fracture of the proximal part of the tibia and bilateral osteoarthritis of the knee with varus deformity (40 degrees on the left). A compression plate with bone grafting was used for treatment of the tibial non-union. Eleven other cases have been published on the rheumatological and orthopaedical literature. All the twelve patients were female, elderly, overweight, had marked varus deformities and a long history of osteoarthritis of the knee. A non-united stress fracture was a complication of osteoarthritis in four cases and treated with a compression plate. Stress fractures of the proximal tibia are an unusual mechanical and an uncommon complication of osteoarthritis of the knee. Biomechanic is perhaps one of the possible explication of these tibial stress fractures.

  15. Changes in cardiac output and tibial artery flow during and after progressive LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A 3.0 MHz Pulsed Doppler velocity meter (PD) was used to determine blood velocities in the ascending aorta from the suprasternal notch before, during and after progressive 5 min stages of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in 7 subjects. Changes in stroke volume were calculated from the systolic velocity integrals. A unique 20 MHz PD was used to estimate bloodflow in the posterior tibial artery. With -20 torr mean stroke volume fell 11% and then continued to decline by 48% before LBNP was terminated. Mean tibial flow fell progressively with LBNP stress, due to an increase in reverse flow component and a reduction in peak forward flow and diameter. Stroke volume increased and heart rate fell dramatically during the first 15 sec of recovery. The LBNP was terminated early in 2 subjects because of vasovagal symptons (V). During V the stroke volume rose 86% which more than compensated for the drop in heart rate. This implies that V is accompanied by a paradoxical increase in venous return and that the reduction in HR is the primary cardiovascular event. During the first 15 sec of recovery these 2 subjects had a distinctive marked rise to heart rate reminiscent of the Bainbridge reflex.

  16. Clinical and radiological results of arthroscopically treated tibial spine fractures in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Basiglini, L.; Vadalà, A.; Ferretti, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to report the clinical and radiological long-term follow-up evaluation of young patients arthroscopically treated for anterior tibial eminence fracture. Ten patients (mean age: 13.5 years) were treated between 1992 and 2006. At follow-up they were clinically and radiologically evaluated. Moreover, they underwent assessment with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) forms, Lysholm and Tegner knee scales and measurement with the KT-1000 arthrometer. At a mean follow-up of 85.8 months, all of the patients reported a subjective good-excellent outcome. Objectively, the Lachman test was negative in seven patients and positive in three patients; six patients (60%) registered a slight (+) to mild (++) pivot-glide test. The mean value of KT-1000 arthrometer measurements was 3 mm; all knee scales showed satisfactory results. Radiological exam always showed good healing of the fracture. Fractures of the tibial spine often lead to anterior and rotational knee laxity. However, despite this instrumental finding, patients usually do not report any type of restriction in their functional or sports activities. PMID:19043709

  17. Tibial impact accelerations in gait of primary school children: The effect of age and speed.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Oren; Orland, Guy; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Steinberg, Nili

    2017-09-01

    Tibial stress fractures are associated with increased lower extremity loading at initial foot-ground contact, reflected in high peak positive acceleration (>8g) of the tibia in adults. There is no reported data on peak positive acceleration of the tibia in children during walking and running. The aim of this study was to establish tibial peak positive acceleration responses in children across a range of age and gait speeds. Twenty-four children aged 8.5±1.4years with no known gait pathology comprised two age groups; Young (7-9year, n=12) and Older (10-12 years, n=12). Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit comprising a tri-axial accelerometer was securely taped to the anteromedial aspect of the distal tibia to measure peak positive acceleration responses while walking and running on the treadmill at 3 different speeds (20% below baseline, baseline, and 20% above baseline). Results showed significant increase in peak positive acceleration with increased gait speed and greater variability in young children compared to older children. The study suggests that ground impact in walking, but not running, is mature by age 7 years. Future studies should explore strategies using peak positive acceleration responses to monitor ground impact during sport activities and its application in gait retraining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tibial nerve excursion during lumbar spine and hip flexion measured with diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shum, Gary L; Attenborough, Alison S; Marsden, Jon F; Hough, Alan D

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging provides a method for non-invasive in vivo measurement of nerve motion resulting from joint movement. This study measured the proximal excursion of the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve at the popliteal fossa during forward bending in healthy subjects. Long-axis image sequences of the nerve were analysed using frame-by-frame cross-correlation software that calculated the longitudinal and axial movement of the nerve. Proximal excursion was calculated from the hypotenuse of these values. The mean proximal excursion recorded was 12.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm, n = 24). The reliability of three repeat measurements was found to be excellent (ICC 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-0.99; SEM 0.7 mm, n = 21). The protocol described provides a reliable method for analysing tibial nerve movement that could prove useful in future clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective evaluation of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in 36 nonarticular tibial fractures in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Guiot, Laurent P; Déjardin, Loïc M

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for nonarticular tibial fractures stabilized using bone plates with or without an intramedullary rod (IMR). Prospective study. Dogs (n=28) and 8 cats. After closed reduction, fracture fixation was achieved using an epiperiosteal plate inserted percutaneously through epiphyseal small incisions. In some fractures, an IMR was inserted via medial parapatellar arthrotomy. Radiographs were recommended every 3 weeks until clinical union. Postoperative tibial length and alignment were compared with contralateral measurements (P<.05). Time to clinical union and complications were recorded. An IMR was used in 30.5% of the cases. Repaired tibiae were 1% shorter than contralateral tibiae (P<.05). Frontal and sagittal alignment were similar between repaired and contralateral tibiae (P>.05). Six dogs were lost for follow-up; owners indicated normal function. In 30 cases for which bone healing was documented, mean±SD healing time was 45±20.8 days; however, when considering the 23 cases, which completed preestablished scheduled follow-ups, healing time was 36±11.6 days. Minor complications occurred in 4 cases (11%). One major complication (3%) consisting of a plate fracture was successfully revised using MIPO with a larger plate. Consistent restoration of alignment was accomplished using MIPO techniques. Furthermore, MIPO appeared to yield faster healing times and lower complication rates than those reported with conventional plate osteosynthesis. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pingping; Lu, Shifeier; Zhou, Yinghong; Moromizato, Karine; Du, Zhibin; Friis, Thor; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of 25Mg, 28Si, 39K, 47Ti, 56Fe, 59Co, 77Se, 88Sr, 137Ba, and 208Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of 28Si, 77Se, 208Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla. PMID:27338361

  1. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Pingping; Lu, Shifeier; Zhou, Yinghong; Moromizato, Karine; Du, Zhibin; Friis, Thor; Xiao, Yin

    2016-06-21

    Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of (25)Mg, (28)Si, (39)K, (47)Ti, (56)Fe, (59)Co, (77)Se, (88)Sr, (137)Ba, and (208)Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of (28)Si, (77)Se, (208)Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla.

  2. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Brandon; Amer, Luke D; Warren, Christopher P; Cornwell, Phillip; Meneghini, R Michael

    2008-01-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally, the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.

  3. Economics of All-Polyethylene Versus Metal-Backed Tibial Prosthesis Designs.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Sayeed, Zain; Anoushiravani, Afshin; Schnur, Anne-Kathrin; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-05-01

    With the large number of total knee arthroplasties being performed and expectations that these numbers will be on the rise over the coming decades, efforts to provide cost-efficient care are of greater interest. The preferred design of knee arthroplasty implants has changed over time, with the original all-polyethylene tibial (APT) design being replaced by metal-backed tibial (MBT) components, as well as more recent considerations of newer APT designs. Modern APT components have been shown to have similar or superior outcomes than MBT components. Despite their limitations, APT components can be used to reduce the economic burden to the provider, medical institution, and health care system as a whole. There is a paucity of evidence-based literature directly comparing the cost associated with APT and MBT components. The purpose of this report is to review the literature to assess the available data regarding direct and indirect costs of both designs so that orthopedic surgeons can account for economic differences in everyday practice. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S61-S66.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Electrical stimulation attenuates morphological alterations and prevents atrophy of the denervated cranial tibial muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Favaretto, Idvaldo Aparecido; Bortoluci, Carlos Henrique Fachin; dos Santos, Thais Caroline Pereira; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa, Geraldo Marco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the animals were euthanized and histological and morphometric analyses were performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. Results The Experimental Denervated Group and the Experimental Denervated and Treated Group had cross-sectional area of smaller fiber compared to the Final Control Group. However, there was significant difference between the Experimental Denervated Group and Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, showing that electrical stimulation minimized muscle atrophy. The Experimental Denervated and Treated Group and Initial Control Group showed similar results. Conclusion Electrical stimulation through Russian current acted favorably in maintaining morphology of the cranial tibial muscle that was experimentally denervated, minimizing muscle atrophy. PMID:28444093

  5. All-polyethylene tibial components in octogenarians: survivorship, performance, and cost.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Alexander; Scott, Richard D; Barnes, C Lowry

    2014-01-01

    The ideal recipient for an all-polyethylene tibial (APT) component continues to be controversial. Several recent randomized clinical studies have demonstrated clinical efficacy of APT when compared to metal backed tibial (MBT) components in relation to survival and clinical outcomes measures, particularly in an elderly population. In this retrospective series, 166 knees in 130 patients (age > 80 years) received an APT component. Average follow-up for the living and deceased was 5.7 and 5.2 years, respectively. There were no APT failures at the time of most recent follow-up. Knee Society function score improved from 30 to 48. Almost all respondents reported either good or excellent satisfaction with their outcome. The average cost savings of using APT instead of MBT component can be substantial. We believe octogenarian patients represent the ideal population for an APT component, that functional outcomes and satisfaction levels will be acceptable to those patients, and that the component will outlast the remaining life of the patient while also potentially providing a substantial cost savings, compared with the cost of MBT components.

  6. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  7. Knee-simulator testing of conventional and cross-linked polyethylene tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Muratoglu, Orhun K; Bragdon, Charles R; Jasty, Murali; O'Connor, Daniel O; Von Knoch, Rebecca S; Harris, William H

    2004-10-01

    We compared the resistance to delamination and to adhesive/abrasive wear of conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene tibial inserts of a cruciate-retaining total knee design using a knee simulator. Both groups were tested after aggressive, accelerated aging, and 1 set of conventional inserts was studied without aging. Aging oxidized the conventional, but not the highly cross-linked, inserts. The simulated normal gait testing lasted for 5 and 10 million cycles for the conventional and highly cross-linked inserts, respectively. Aged conventional inserts showed delaminations, whereas none were observed in the unaged conventional and aged cross-linked inserts. Wear rates measured by the gravimetric method were 9 +/- 2 mm3, 10 +/- 4 mm3, and 1 +/- 0 mm3 per million cycles; by the metrologic method, they were 8 +/- 1 mm3, 9 +/- 2 mm3, and 3 +/- 0 mm3 for the unaged conventional, aged conventional, and aged highly crosslinked inserts, respectively. In the test model used, oxidation led to delamination, whereas increased cross-link density resulted in reduced adhesive/abrasive wear of tibial inserts.

  8. Tibial tuberosity advancement in 92 canine stifles: initial results, clinical outcome and owner evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dymond, N L; Goldsmid, S E; Simpson, D J

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes, complications and owners' evaluation of the tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) procedure in canine stifles. A retrospective study of hospital records was performed to identify dogs diagnosed with partial or complete cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture that had undergone TTA repair. Information obtained included signalment, period of lameness, surgical report, evidence of meniscal injury, postoperative recovery and peri-operative complications. Owners were asked to assess the long-term outcome. In a total of 72 dogs (median age, 6 years; median body weight, 34.8 kg), TTA was performed in 92 stifles. Twenty breeds were represented, with Labrador Retrievers and Rottweilers the most common. The period of lameness ranged from 3 days to 24 months. The median pre-operative lameness score was 3/4 and meniscal injury was present in 51 stifles. Minor complications occurred in 29% of cases. Major complications occurred in 6.5% of cases and consisted of meniscal injury and two tibial tuberosity fractures. All were successfully managed, with good limb function when subsequently assessed. In the owner evaluation, 96% reported moderate to great improvement postoperatively, with no lameness at rest and mild to no lameness after vigorous exercise. Clinical outcome and owner evaluations in this case series indicate favourable results can be expected when CCL-deficient stifles are treated with TTA. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Comparison of nerve growth factor-induced sensitization pattern in lumbar and tibial muscle and fascia.

    PubMed

    Weinkauf, Benjamin; Deising, Saskia; Obreja, Otilia; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Mense, Siegfried; Schmelz, Martin; Rukwied, Roman

    2015-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces profound hyperalgesia. In this study we explored patterns of NGF sensitization in muscle and fascia of distal and paraspinal sites. We injected 1 µg of NGF into human (n = 8) tibialis anterior and erector spinae muscles and their fasciae. The spatial extent of pressure sensitization, pressure pain threshold, and mechanical hyperalgesia (150 kPa, 10 s) was assessed at days 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21. Chemical sensitization was explored by acidic buffer injections (pH 4, 100 µl) at days 7 and 14. The mechanical hyperalgesia area was larger in tibial fascia than in muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were lower, tonic pressure pain ratings, and citrate buffer evoked pain higher in fascia than in muscle. Spatial mechanical sensitization differs between muscle and fascia. Thoracolumbar fasciae appear more sensitive than tibial fasciae and may be major contributors to low back pain,