... timolol is used to treat eye conditions, including glaucoma and ocular hypertension, in which increased pressure can ... by your doctor.Dorzolamide and timolol combination controls glaucoma and ocular hypertension but does not cure them. ...
Sanseau, Ana; Sampaolesi, Juan; Suzuki, Emilio Rintaro; Lopes, Joao Franca; Borel, Hector
To assess ocular discomfort upon instillation and patient preference for brinzolamide/timolol relative to dorzolamide/timolol, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a multicenter, prospective, patient-masked, randomized, crossover study. On day 0, patients received one drop of brinzolamide/timolol in one eye and one drop of dorzolamide/timolol in the contralateral eye. On day 1, patients were randomly assigned to receive one drop of either brinzolamide/timolol or dorzolamide/timolol in both eyes; on day 2, patients received one drop of the alternate treatment in both eyes. Measures included a patient preference question on day 2 (primary) and mean ocular discomfort scale scores on days 1 and 2 (secondary). Safety assessments included adverse events, visual acuity, and slit-lamp examinations. Of 120 patients who enrolled, 115 completed the study. Of these, 112 patients instilled both medications and expressed a study medication preference on day 2. A significantly greater percentage preferred brinzolamide/timolol to dorzolamide/timolol (67.0% versus 30.4%; P < 0.001). The ocular discomfort (expressed as mean [standard deviation]) with brinzolamide/timolol was significantly lower than with dorzolamide/timolol (day 2:1.9 [2.3] versus 3.7 [2.8], respectively [P = 0.0003]; both days combined: 2.1 [2.5] versus 3.5 [2.9], respectively [P = 0.00014]). On day 1, five patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol reported five nonserious adverse events (AEs): flu (n = 1), bitter taste (n = 2), and headache (n = 2). Four events, bitter taste (two events) and headache (two events), were considered related to brinzolamide/timolol. Events were mild in intensity, except bitter taste of moderate intensity reported by one patient. No AEs were reported at day 2. All AEs resolved without additional treatment. No clinically relevant changes from baseline were observed in best-corrected visual acuity or slit-lamp examinations of ocular signs. Patients had less
Uusitalo, Hannu; Kähönen, Mika; Ropo, Auli; Mäenpää, Jukka; Bjärnhall, Gunilla; Hedenström, Hans; Turjanmaa, Väinö
The purpose of the study was to compare the systemic safety and risk-benefit ratio of 0.1% timolol hydrogel and 0.5% aqueous timolol eye drops in the treatment of glaucoma. An 8-week randomised, double-blind, cross-over, multicentre study. A total of 25 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, or ocular hypertension was enrolled. After completing a wash-out period, patients were randomly chosen to receive either 0.1% timolol hydrogel once daily or 0.5% aqueous timolol eye drops twice daily. Intraocular pressure and heart rate during rest and exercise, head-up tilt test results, spirometry readings, and plasma concentrations of timolol were recorded. The risk-benefit ratio was determined by calculating the ratio between several heart rate endpoints and the change in intraocular pressure (IOP). The mean drug-induced change in the peak heart rate during exercise was -13.5 beats/min (SD 7.6) in the 0.5% aqueous timolol group and -5.1 beats/min (SD 6.7) in the 0.1% timolol hydrogel group (P<0.001; 95% CI 4.06-12.18). There was no significant difference in the IOP-reducing efficacy between these compounds. The risk-benefit ratio was significantly improved when 0.1% timolol hydrogel was used, compared with 0.5% aqueous timolol in the exercise test. In the head-up tilt test the risk-benefit ratio was significantly improved at rest (P<0.05), at 1 min (P<0.05) and at 5 min (P<0.001) after patients had received 0.1% timolol hydrogel. There were, however, no differences in spirometry readings. After patients had been treated with 0.1% timolol hydrogel, plasma concentrations of timolol were 1/6 (at peak) and 1/50 (at trough) of those of 0.5% aqueous timolol. Drug-induced changes in the peak heart rate, and head-up tilt test results as well as plasma concentrations of timolol, were significantly more pronounced after treatment with 0.5% aqueous timolol than with 0.1% timolol hydrogel. Because of the statistically similar IOP-reducing efficacy of these
Shen, Jie; Bejanian, Marina
Purpose Many patients with glaucoma require combination therapies to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. Ocular hypotensives often contain a preservative (eg, benzalkonium chloride [BAK]), but preservative-free (PF) formulations have been developed for patients with sensitivity. A Phase III study found the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim, Ganfort®) PF to be equivalent to that of preserved bim/tim, although a trend favoring bim/tim PF was observed. As BAK is a corneal penetration enhancer, this literature review aims to explain these findings by exploring the relationship between timolol concentration and its IOP-lowering effect. Methods Systematic searches were performed in Scopus and PubMed for clinical trials published in English between 1960 and July 2014 using the keywords “timolol”, “intraocular pressure”, and the concentrations “1%, 0.5%, OR 0.25%”. Articles that directly compared IOP-lowering effects of ≥2 concentrations of timolol were identified by manual screening, and cross-checked for duplication. Results Seventeen studies that included 10–371 patients were evaluated; the majority were randomized (16/17), double-masked (14/17), and enrolled patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (12/17). All studies investigated timolol in preserved formulations. Timolol concentrations tested ranged from 0.008% to 1.5%. Of 13 studies comparing timolol 0.25% versus 0.5%, two found the 0.25% dose to have greater IOP-lowering effects, and three reported the opposite; eight reported similar IOP lowering. Results also indicate that timolol 0.5% may be more effective than higher concentrations. Conclusion The evidence suggests that timolol may have an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve, and that its optimal IOP-lowering concentration is between 0.25% and 0.5%. Compared with bim/tim, removal of the permeability enhancer BAK in bim/tim PF could have resulted in a lower timolol
Lee, V H; Luo, A M; Li, S Y; Podder, S K; Chang, J S; Ohdo, S; Grass, G M
The authors determined whether the ocular absorption of topically applied timolol in the pigmented rabbit was affected significantly by coadministration with either pilocarpine or epinephrine in the same drop to explain the nonadditivity in intraocular pressure lowering (IOP) seen clinically. They instilled 25 microliters of 0.65% timolol maleate solution (equivalent to 0.5% timolol), both in the presence and absence of 2.6% pilocarpine nitrate or 1% epinephrine bitartrate, into pigmented rabbit eyes. The time course of timolol concentration in the conjunctiva, anterior sclera, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, aqueous humor, iris-ciliary body, and lens was monitored for 360 min by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The area under the timolol concentration-time curve in all but one of the anterior segment tissues was reduced by 20-50% (mean, 40%) when timolol was coadministered with pilocarpine and by 20-70% (mean, 42%) when timolol was coadministered with epinephrine. Such an effect was not a result of alterations in corneal permeability or aqueous humor turnover rate, nor was it related to the extent of systemic absorption caused by pilocarpine and epinephrine. Rather, the reduction in ocular timolol absorption may have been caused by the accelerated washout of timolol by tears stimulated by the coadministered drugs and, to a lesser extent, by the loss of timolol through binding to the increased amount of tear proteins induced by the coadministered drugs. Thus, the nonadditivity in IOP lowering from timolol-pilocarpine and timolol-epinephrine combinations is probably caused by changes in precorneal timolol clearance.
... after you instill timolol eye drops or gel-forming solution.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had thyroid, heart, or lung disease; congestive heart failure; myasthenia gravis; or diabetes.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...
Shimizu, Yoshie; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Makiko; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki
We investigated the efficiency, safety and patient preference of switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% while maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog. We initially enrolled 44 eyes from 44 primary open angle glaucoma patients, and a total of 42 patients completed the study. All patients were under treatment with various prostaglandin F2α analogs and dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. While maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog, dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% was switched to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Adverse events and patient preferences, measured using a questionnaire at study initiation and at 24 weeks, were also noted. The IOP was 17.7±1.7, 16.8±2.6, 16.7±2.2, and 16.7±2.4 mmHg at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively, with no significant differences in IOP values at any time point (P=0.117, one-way analysis of variance). In addition, no significant differences were found in the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia or SPK score at any time point (all P>0.5, by Kruskal-Wallis test). Based on the evaluation of side effects using the questionnaire, stinging/burning was less common (P=0.042), while blurred vision was more common (P=0.003), after switching to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Regarding patient preferences, 13 patients (31%) preferred dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, 12 patients (29%) preferred brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, and 17 patients (40%) preferred neither. When switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, the IOP values and incidence of superficial punctate keratopathy and conjunctival hyperemia were sustained throughout the 24-week observation period, and the patient preferences were similar for the two regimens. However, differences were observed in the ocular sensations of stinging/burning with dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0
Shimizu, Yoshie; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Makiko; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki
Background We investigated the efficiency, safety and patient preference of switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% while maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog. Methods We initially enrolled 44 eyes from 44 primary open angle glaucoma patients, and a total of 42 patients completed the study. All patients were under treatment with various prostaglandin F2α analogs and dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. While maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog, dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% was switched to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Adverse events and patient preferences, measured using a questionnaire at study initiation and at 24 weeks, were also noted. Results The IOP was 17.7±1.7, 16.8±2.6, 16.7±2.2, and 16.7±2.4 mmHg at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively, with no significant differences in IOP values at any time point (P=0.117, one-way analysis of variance). In addition, no significant differences were found in the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia or SPK score at any time point (all P>0.5, by Kruskal–Wallis test). Based on the evaluation of side effects using the questionnaire, stinging/burning was less common (P=0.042), while blurred vision was more common (P=0.003), after switching to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Regarding patient preferences, 13 patients (31%) preferred dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, 12 patients (29%) preferred brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, and 17 patients (40%) preferred neither. Conclusion When switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, the IOP values and incidence of superficial punctate keratopathy and conjunctival hyperemia were sustained throughout the 24-week observation period, and the patient preferences were similar for the two regimens. However, differences were observed in the ocular sensations of stinging
Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial
Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina
Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. PMID:24667994
Mishra, P; Calvey, T N; Williams, N E; Murray, G R
A 69-yr-old man, who was concurrently being treated with pilocarpine nitrate and timolol maleate eye drops, developed a bradycardia and became hypotensive during halothane anaesthesia. Both timolol and pilocarpine were subsequently identified in a 24-h collection of urine. Timolol (but not pilocarpine) was detected in a sample of plasma removed during surgery; the plasma concentration of timolol (2.6 ng ml-1) was consistent with partial beta-adrenoceptor blockade. It is postulated that this action may have been enhanced during halothane anaesthesia with resultant bradycardia and hypotension. Pilocarpine may have had a contributory effect.
Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Degirmenci, Cumali; Karakoyun, Yunus Emre; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil
To evaluate the effect of bimatoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (BTFC), latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (LTFC), and travoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (TTFC) on 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. This prospective, observer-masked, randomized study included 50 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients were using hypotensive lipids and timolol maleate fixed combination treatment for ≥4 weeks and had an IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. Group 1 (n = 18) received BTFC, group 2 (n = 14) received LTFC, and group 3 (n = 18) received TTFC. All patients were hospitalized, and IOP was monitored for 24-h (10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00, 02:00, and 06:00). Mean diurnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 06:00 and 18:00, and mean nocturnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 22:00 and 02:00. Mean IOP and IOP variation in the three groups were compared. Mean 24-h IOP did not differ significantly between the three groups (group 1: 14.6 ± 2.9 mmHg; group 2: 14.1 ± 3.7 mmHg and group 3: 15.8 ± 2.0 mmHg; P > 0.05). Mean diurnal IOP variation was 4.6 ± 2.3 mmHg in group 1, 5.8 ± 2.4 mmHg in group 2, and 4.3 ± 1.7 mmHg in group 3, and mean nocturnal IOP variation was 3.2 ± 2.8 mmHg in group 1, 2.9 ± 1.9 mmHg in group 2, and 3.0 ± 1.6 mmHg group 3. There were not any significant differences in diurnal or nocturnal IOP variation between the three groups (P < 0.05). All three fixed combinations effectively controlled IOP for 24-h and had a similar effect on diurnal and nocturnal IOP variations.
Liu, John H K; Li, Ruixia; Nelson, Thomas R; Weinreb, Robert N
The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance to blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of rabbits receiving topical treatment with timolol. Eight (8) New Zealand albino rabbits received 20 mul of timolol treatment (vehicle, 0.1%, 0.33%, 1%, and 3.3%) on the right eye. Blood-flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery was determined in the treated eye using color Doppler imaging (CDI) with a 12-MHz linear ultrasound transducer prior to the treatment and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 h after the treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in both eyes, using a pneumatonometer at the same time points. Pourcelot's resistive index of blood flow was calculated, using the peak systolic velocity and the end diastolic velocity. A control experiment was performed with CDI obtained from the right eye when the left eye was treated with 1% timolol. In the eye treated with 1% and 3.3% timolol, a dose-dependent increase in the resistive index of blood flow occurred in the ophthalmic artery. No change in the resistive index occurred when the contralateral eye was treated with 1% timolol. Changes of IOP were not different between the two eyes under all the experimental conditions. Timolol, at all concentrations, caused a significant reduction of heart rate. A similar reduction of heart rate occurred when either eye was treated with 1% timolol. Topical treatment with timolol in rabbits can increase the resistance to blood flow in the ophthalmic artery. This effect is caused by a mechanism local to the eye and is not dependent on an IOP change.
The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity. Adding hydroxyethyl cellulose into a timolol solution increased its viscosity by forming a hydrogel and thus changed the rheology property. The compounded timolol gel exhibited thixotropy property allowing better and longer contact at sites of application. Experimental data from literature review showed desirable characteristics and measurable flux of timolol across human stratum corneum. Gel dosage form allows easy and precise application and maximizes timolol's therapeutic efficacy at the sites of application. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.
Erdogan, Haydar; Ozec, Ayse Vural; Caner, Cengiz; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Arici, Mustafa Kemal; Topalkara, Aysen
AIM To evalaute the effect of fixed-combination latanoprost 0.005%/timolol maleate 0.5% and dorzolamide hydrochloride 2%/timolol maleate 0.5% on postoperative intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification cataract surgery. METHODS This study is a prospective, randomized, double-masked and placebo-controlled. The study included 90 eyes of 90 patients which were scheduled to have phacoemulsification surgery. Patients were randomly assigned preoperatively to 1 of 3 groups (30 eyes of 30 patients). Two hour before surgery, the patients received one drop latanoprost/timolol (group 1), dorzolamide/timolol (group 2) and placebo (group 3, control group). The IOPs were measured at preoperative and postoperative 4, 8, and 24 hours. RESULTS The preoperative mean intraocular pressure was not statistically significant between both drug groups and control group. In group 1 and 2, the postoperative mean IOP [group1: (14.03±3.15)mmHg and group 2: (14.16±4.43)mmHg] at 24 hours were significantly lower than the control group [(16.93±3.70)mmHg, (P<0.05)]. In addition, the postoperative mean IOP of group 1 [(14.90±3.69)mmHg] at 8 hours was significantly lower than the control group [(17.70±3.89)mmHg, (P<0.05)], but there was no significant difference between group 2 [(16.16±5.23)mmHg] and control group at 8 hours (P>0.05). CONCLUSION When compared with placebo, the use of preoperative fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol is an effective method for preventing intraocular pressure elevation in 24 hours after phacoemulsification surgery, but did not completely prevent IOP spikes. PMID:22553640
de Jong, C; Stolwijk, T; Kuppens, E; de Keizer, R; van Best, J
Epithelial permeability and autofluorescence of the cornea were determined by fluorophotometry in 21 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using timolol medication with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and 2 weeks after changing to timolol medication without BAC. The investigation was performed to determine whether removal of BAC would reduce toxic effects on the cornea and complaints of sensations of burning or dry eye. Corneal epithelial permeability decreased significantly after changing medication (mean decrease per patient 27%, P = 0.025). Corneal autofluorescence increased significantly after changing medication suggesting an alteration in corneal metabolism (mean increase per patient 6%, P = 0.003). Timolol without BAC was found to be as effective as timolol with BAC in reducing intraocular pressure (P = 0.4). Removal of BAC from timolol resulted in an improvement of corneal epithelial barrier function and in a reduction of complaints. The improvement was found to be proportional to the duration of the preceding BAC-containing therapy.
Xu, Peng; Yu, Qian; Huang, Huizhen; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Wei
Topical application of timolol cream is effective and convenient for treating superficial infantile hemangiomas. Intralesional injection of corticosteroids, such as diprospan, is useful for the treatment of superficia infantile hemangiomas without systemic side effects. We conducted a self-controlled study to investigate whether a combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream would be more efficient than timolol cream alone in thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. Thirty-eight patients with 39 thick superficial infantile hemangiomas were recruited. Each lesion was randomly divided into two equal parts: one part was treated with topical timolol 0.5% cream (timolol cream group), while the other part was treated with injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol 0.5% cream (combined treatment group). Infants were followed every 4 weeks to determine whether injections should be continued, and timolol cream was applied four times daily for 5 months. During 5 months of treatment, three specialist physicians were invited to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The combined treatment group showed better lesion involution than did the timolol cream group regarding lesion thickness and color of lesions. The combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream is a suitable and safe strategy for thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dalla Costa, Renata; Prindaville, Brea; Wiss, Karen
Topical timolol maleate has recently gained popularity as a treatment for superficial infantile hemangiomas, but calculating a safe dose of timolol can be time consuming, which may limit the medication's use in fast-paced clinical environments. This report offers a simplified calculation of the maximum daily safe dosage as 1 drop of medication per kilogram of body weight. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dietrichson, P; Espen, E
Two different beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, atenolol and timolol, were separately compared with a placebo in the suppression of essential tremor. In two-week single-blind placebo-controlled studies with cross-over, timolol (5 mg twice daily) and atenolol (100 mg once daily) produced an equal reduction in sitting heart rate and sitting blood pressure. Timolol was effective in reducing tremor while atenolol failed to reduce tremor amplitude. These results indicate that essential tremor can be reduced but not blocked, by the adrenergic blocker timolol with both beta 1 and beta 2 blocking properties; but not by the relatively selective beta 1 blocking drug atenolol. Possibly, the tremor reduction is medicated by a peripheral effect on beta 2 adrenoreceptors.
Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, G; Wally, B; Rainer, G; Buehl, W; Aggermann, T; Kolodjaschna, J; Weigert, G; Polska, E; Eichler, H-G; Vass, C; Schmetterer, L
Background: There is evidence that perfusion abnormalities of the optic nerve head are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. There is therefore considerable interest in the effects of topical antiglaucoma drugs on ocular blood flow. A study was undertaken to compare the ocular haemodynamic effects of dorzolamide and timolol in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods: One hundred and forty patients with POAG or OHT were included in a controlled, randomised, double blind study in two parallel groups; 70 were randomised to receive timolol and 70 to receive dorzolamide for a period of 6 months. Subjects whose intraocular pressure (IOP) did not respond to either of the two drugs were switched to the alternative treatment after 2 weeks. Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow in the temporal neuroretinal rim and the cup of the optic nerve head. Pulsatile choroidal blood flow was assessed using laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation amplitude. Results: Five patients did not respond to timolol and were changed to the dorzolamide group, and 18 patients changed from dorzolamide treatment to timolol. The effects of both drugs on IOP and ocular perfusion pressure were comparable. Dorzolamide, but not timolol, increased blood flow in the temporal neuroretinal rim (8.5 (1.6)%, p<0.001 versus timolol) and the cup of the optic nerve head (13.5 (2.5)%, p<0.001 versus timolol), and fundus pulsation amplitude (8.9 (1.3)%, p<0.001 versus timolol). Conclusions: This study indicates augmented blood flow in the optic nerve head and choroid after 6 months of treatment with dorzolamide, but not with timolol. It remains to be established whether this effect can help to reduce visual field loss in patients with glaucoma. PMID:16170119
Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Bagheri, Mozhgan; Heydari, Mojgan; Hesaraki, Saeed
In this work, a rapid and simple colorimetric method based on the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed for the detection of the drug Timolol. The method used is based on the interaction of Timolol with the surface of the as-synthesized AgNPs, which promotes aggregation of the nanoparticles. This aggregation exploits the surface plasmon resonance through the electric dipole-dipole interaction and coupling among the agglomerated particles, hence bringing forth distinctive changes in the spectra as well as the color of colloidal silver. UV-vis spectrophotometery was used to monitor the changes of the localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at wavelengths of 400 and 550 nm. The developed colorimetric sensor has a wide dynamic range of 1.0 × 10-7 M-1.0 × 10-3 M for detection of Timolol with a low detection limit of 1.2 × 10-6 M. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Timolol concentration in ophthalmic eye-drop solution with a response time lower than 40 s.
Dietrichson, P; Espen, E
Two different beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, atenolol and timolol, were separately compared with a placebo in the suppression of essential tremor. In two-week single-blind placebo-controlled studies with cross-over, timolol (5 mg twice daily) and atenolol (100 mg once daily) produced an equal reduction in sitting heart rate and sitting blood pressure. Timolol was effective in reducing tremor while atenolol failed to reduce tremor amplitude. These results indicate that essential tremor can be reduced but not blocked, by the adrenergic blocker timolol with both beta 1 and beta 2 blocking properties; but not by the relatively selective beta 1 blocking drug atenolol. Possibly, the tremor reduction is medicated by a peripheral effect on beta 2 adrenoreceptors. Images PMID:7028921
Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Yusuf, Faraz; Sharma, Rajeev; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali
Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of eyelids and orbit in children. Recently, a topical beta blocker has been reported as an effective treatment for superficial capillary hemangiomas. We present a case report of two children having large capillary hemangiomas who responded well to topical treatment by 0.5% timolol maleate solution. After 12 months of treatment, the lesion has significantly reduced in size, thickness, and color in both cases. Thus, we conclude that long-term use of topical 0.5% timolol maleate solution is safe and effective in treating superficial capillary hemangiomas.
Attama, A A; Reichl, S; Müller-Goymann, C C
The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles sustained delivery system of timolol hydrogen maleate, a prototype ocular drug using a human cornea construct. Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles containing timolol with and without phospholipid were formulated by melt emulsification with high-pressure homogenization and characterized by particle size, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Drug transport studies through cornea bioengineered from human donor cornea cells were carried out using a modified Franz diffusion cell and drug concentration analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles possessed very small particles (42.9 +/- 0.3 nm, 47.2 +/- 0.3 nm, 42.7 +/- 0.7 nm, and 37.7 +/- 0.3 nm, respectively for SM-SLN 1, SM-SLN 2, SM-SLN 3, and SM-SLN 4) with low polydispersity indices, increased encapsulation efficiency (> 44%), and sustained in vitro release compared with unmodified lipid nanoparticles whose particles were greater than 160 nm. Permeation of timolol hydrogen maleate from the surface-modified lipid nanoparticles across the cornea construct was sustained compared with timolol hydrogen maleate solution in distilled water. Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles could provide an efficient way of improving ocular bioavailability of timolol hydrogen maleate.
Fuwa, Masahiro; Ueda, Kenji; Akaishi, Takahiro; Yamashita, Naoko; Kirihara, Tomoko; Shimazaki, Atsushi; Mano, Hidetoshi; Kawazu, Kouichi
To compare the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose tafluprost/timolol combination (Taf/T-FDC) with those of fixed-dose latanoprost/timolol combination (Lat/T-FDC) by measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, ocular pharmacokinetics, and ocular surface toxicity. The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC and Lat/T-FDC in ocular normotensive monkeys was evaluated at 4 and 8 h after instillation in study A, at 12, 14, 16, and 18 h after instillation in study B, and at 24, 26, 28, and 30 h after instillation in study C. Drug penetration into the eye was evaluated by measuring the concentrations of timolol, tafluprost acid (active metabolic form of tafluprost), and latanoprost acid (active metabolic form of latanoprost) using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after single instillation of Taf/T-FDC or Lat/T-FDC to Sprague Dawley rats. Cytotoxicity following 1-30 min exposure of SV40-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to Taf/T-FDC or Lat/T-FDC was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assays. Undiluted and 10-fold diluted solutions of each FDC were evaluated. The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC was almost equivalent to that of Lat/T-FDC at 4-8 h after instillation. The peak IOP reduction of Taf/T-FDC and Lat/T-FDC was observed at 8 h after instillation, and there is no difference between the two. The difference between them was observed at 24-30 h after instillation, and Taf/T-FDC demonstrated a significantly greater IOP-lowering effect than Lat/T-FDC at 24-30 h after instillation. The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC was sustained up to 30 h after instillation, while that of Lat/T-FDC had almost disappeared at 28 h after instillation. Timolol concentrations in aqueous humor after Taf/T-FDC instillation were higher than those after Lat/T-FDC instillation (Cmax, 3870 ng/mL vs 1330 ng/mL; AUCinf, 3970 ng·h/mL vs 1250 ng·h/mL). The concentrations of tafluprost acid
Fuwa, Masahiro; Ueda, Kenji; Akaishi, Takahiro; Yamashita, Naoko; Kirihara, Tomoko; Shimazaki, Atsushi; Mano, Hidetoshi; Kawazu, Kouichi
Purpose To compare the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose tafluprost/timolol combination (Taf/T-FDC) with those of fixed-dose latanoprost/timolol combination (Lat/T-FDC) by measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, ocular pharmacokinetics, and ocular surface toxicity. Methods The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC and Lat/T-FDC in ocular normotensive monkeys was evaluated at 4 and 8 h after instillation in study A, at 12, 14, 16, and 18 h after instillation in study B, and at 24, 26, 28, and 30 h after instillation in study C. Drug penetration into the eye was evaluated by measuring the concentrations of timolol, tafluprost acid (active metabolic form of tafluprost), and latanoprost acid (active metabolic form of latanoprost) using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after single instillation of Taf/T-FDC or Lat/T-FDC to Sprague Dawley rats. Cytotoxicity following 1–30 min exposure of SV40-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to Taf/T-FDC or Lat/T-FDC was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assays. Undiluted and 10-fold diluted solutions of each FDC were evaluated. Results The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC was almost equivalent to that of Lat/T-FDC at 4–8 h after instillation. The peak IOP reduction of Taf/T-FDC and Lat/T-FDC was observed at 8 h after instillation, and there is no difference between the two. The difference between them was observed at 24–30 h after instillation, and Taf/T-FDC demonstrated a significantly greater IOP-lowering effect than Lat/T-FDC at 24–30 h after instillation. The IOP-lowering effect of Taf/T-FDC was sustained up to 30 h after instillation, while that of Lat/T-FDC had almost disappeared at 28 h after instillation. Timolol concentrations in aqueous humor after Taf/T-FDC instillation were higher than those after Lat/T-FDC instillation (Cmax, 3870 ng/mL vs 1330 ng/mL; AUCinf, 3970 ng·h/mL vs 1250 ng·h/mL). The
Von Zup, M; Lassaline, M; Kass, P H; Miller, P E; Thomasy, S M
Brimonidine is an α 2 -adrenergic agonist that decreases aqueous humour production and may increase uveoscleral outflow. It has not been evaluated in normal or glaucomatous equine eyes. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of brimonidine in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), alone and in conjunction with timolol, as a treatment for equine glaucoma by comparing IOP in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol, respectively, with IOP in control eyes. A balanced crossover design with 16 horses receiving one of two treatments, brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol, during each of two 10-day study phases, was used. Four horses were randomly assigned to each of four combinations of treated eye (right or left) and drug order within the two 10-day study phases (brimonidine first or brimonidine-timolol first). Pupil size and conjunctival hyperaemia were assessed twice per day and IOP was measured three times per day using rebound tonometry in both eyes of 16 normal horses throughout two 10-day study periods (brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol) separated by an 18-day washout period. One eye of each horse was treated with brimonidine or brimonidine-timolol and the opposite eye was treated with balanced salt solution (BSS). There were no adverse effects and no significant changes in pupil size in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine or brimonidine-timolol. Average IOP in normal equine eyes treated with brimonidine (25.6 mmHg) was statistically higher than in eyes treated with brimonidine-timolol (24.6 mmHg) or BSS (24.5 mmHg). However, IOP differences were of ≤1 mmHg and thus not clinically important. Horses with normal eyes may not be as sensitive to the IOP-lowering effects of treatment as horses with glaucoma. Brimonidine and brimonidine-timolol are well tolerated in normal horses but do not decrease IOP. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.
Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation.
Nakakura, Shunsuke; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Baba, Yukio; Maruiwa, Futoshi; Ando, Nobuko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki
Objective To compare the safety and effectiveness of fixed-combination regimes (latanoprost– timolol and brinzolamide 1% compared to dorzolamide 1%/timolol and latanoprost) in open-angle glaucoma patients after switching from a combination of three topical antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods We conducted an open, randomized 12-week multicenter prospective study. We randomly allocated 39 patients who had been treated with three antiglaucoma eye drops (prostaglandin F2α analogues plus beta-blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) into two groups. Group A (n = 20) were treated with latanoprost–timolol and brinzolamide 1% therapy and Group B (n = 16) were treated with dorzolamide 1%/timolol and latanoprost. Thirty-six patients completed all 12 weeks of this study. The major clinical parameters measured were intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctive hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy and hyperpigmentation of eyelid at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks. Additionally noted were adverse events and patient preferences, measured using a questionnaire at study initiation and at 12 weeks. Results At baseline, IOPs were (Group A: 14.1 ± 2.9 mmHg, B: 14.5 ± 2.9 mmHg; P = 0.658), (Group A: 13.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, B: 14.3 ± 2.8 mmHg; P = 0.715) at 4 weeks, and (Group A: 14.1 ± 2.7 mmHg, B: 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P = 0.538) at 12 weeks. Among the groups, there was no significant difference at any time point after baseline (P = 0.923, 0.951, respectively). All adverse events were not remarkably different after therapy. In regards to patient preference before and after switching therapy, 10 patients (50%) in Group A and 10 patients (63%) in Group B preferred using fixed-combination eye drop therapy. Conclusions Effectiveness and safety were maintained in both groups after switching therapy. Overall, patients generally preferred using a fixed-combination therapy. PMID:22419858
Holmdahl, G.; Bengtsson, E.
A disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in rabbit eyes was elicited by use of topical prostaglandin E2(PGE2), infrared irradiation of the iris, or by subcutaneous alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). The aqueous flare provoked was measured quantitatively with a photoelectric instrument. The effect of the (topical) beta-adrenergic antagonist timolol maleate on the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier was tested. Timolol applied topically in very large doses had no effect on exogenously administered PGE2. However, even in a very small concentration applied topically, timolol reduced the flare response to both infrared irradiation and alpha-MSH. These results support the theory that the effect ofmore » alpha-MSH and infrared irradiation on the blood-aqueous barrier is dependent on intact beta-adrenergic receptor sites.« less
Cellular signaling associated with cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is composed of coupled mechanism among β 1-/β2-AR and Gs proteins with contribution of constitutive β3-AR coupling to Gi proteins. However, down-regulation of β-ARs in the heart under pathological conditions is mediated with a signaling G proteins-included mechanism. Additionally, there are serious conflicting data on this field in literature yet. Although some of these conflictions are generally related with either experimental protocols for different approaches or different animal models. To treat cardiovascular disorders, generally, various types of β-blockers are used while their action mechanisms are not fully known yet. Furthermore, although β-blockers are generally used to block the activated β-ARs, they can be used to scavenge free radicals under oxidative stress. Studies, in whole-system, organ or cellular levels, showed that some β-blockers, including timolol, have protective-actions against increased oxidative stress in diseased heart via ROSscavenging. Additionally, it has been mentioned that some β-blockers nicely prevented the development of heart failure in both experimental and clinical studies by restoring sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels, RyR2. Since diabetic cardiomyopathy is recognized due to its diminished responsiveness to β1-AR agonist stimulation in the heart with an up-regulation of β 3-AR, inducing a strong negative inotropic effect on left ventricular function, it has been shown that treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with timolol provided a marked cardio-protection. Importantly, it has been also documented that timolol treatment-dependent cardio-protection in diabetic rats includes basically prevention of RyR2- hyperphosphorylation, which, in turn, block Ca(2+)-leakage from SR via scavenging oxidative agents to control redox-state of cardiomyocytes. This action of timolol in diabetic heart is very similar to other known
Halpern, Michael T; Covert, David W; Robin, Alan L
PURPOSE: We compared differences associated with use of travoprost and latanoprost on both progression of perimetric loss over time and associated costs among black patients. METHODS: Patients with primary open-angle glaucome or ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to one of four arms in a 12-month, double-masked study: travoprost (0.004% or 0.0015%), latanoprost (0.005%), or timolol (0.5%). Forty-nine patients received 0.004% travoprost, 43 received latanoprost, and 40 received timolol. We applied algorithms found in published studies that link intraocular pressure (IOP) control to visual field progression and calculated the likelihood of visual field deterioration based on IOP data. This was used to estimate differences in medical care costs. RESULTS: The average IOP was lower for patients receiving travoprost than for patients receiving latanoprost or timolol (17.3 versus 18.7 versus 20.5 mm Hg respectively, P < .05). Travoprost-treated patients had a smaller predicted change in visual field defect score (VFDS) than latanoprost-treated patients and timolol-treated patients, and significantly fewer were expected to demonstrate visual field progression. Medical care costs would be higher for latanoprost-treated and timolol-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies have provided algorithms linking IOP control to changes in visual fields. We found that treatment with travoprost was associated with less visual field progression and potential cost savings. PMID:12545683
Lou, Heng; Wang, Hao; Zong, Ying; Cheng, Jin-Wei; Wei, Rui-Li
Prostaglandin-timolol fixed combinations (PG-timolol FCs) are now widely used to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. The efficacy and tolerability of these drugs are worthy of further exploration. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the three PG-timolol FCs. Pertinent randomized, controlled trials were identified through systematic searches of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials and the Chinese Biomedicine Database. The main efficacy measures were the weighted mean differences (WMDs) for the reduction from baseline to end of treatment in IOP at 9 am, 12 pm and 4 pm and diurnal curve. The main tolerability measures were the odds ratios (ORs) for the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia. Nine studies involving 991 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Latanoprost-timolol FC (LTFC) and travoprost-timolol FC (TTFC) were not significantly different in lowering IOP at diurnal mean, 9 am, 12 pm and 4 pm. Bimatoprost-timolol FC (BTFC) provided significantly greater efficacy in lowering IOP at the three measurement time points and over the mean diurnal curve than LTFC (diurnal curve: WMD = 0.88 mmHg [95% CI, 0.42 to 1.33]; 9 am: WMD = 1.27 mmHg [0.68 to 1.86]; 12 pm: WMD = 1.16 mmHg [0.85 to 1.46]; 4 pm: WMD = 0.61 mmHg [0.51 to 0.70]) and TTFC (diurnal curve: WMD = 1.94 mmHg [0.19 to 3.68]; 9 am: WMD = 0.68 mmHg [0.15 to 1.21]; 12 pm: WMD = 0.90 mmHg [0.41 to 1.39]; 4 pm: WMD = 1.06 mmHg [0.61 to 1.51]). The incidence of hyperemia was significantly higher with BTFC than LTFC (pooled ORs: 1.85 [1.09 to 3.13]). The incidence of hyperemia was not significantly higher with TTFC than LTFC (pooled ORs: 2.52 [0.85 to 7.46]), and was not significantly higher with BTFC than TTFC (pooled OR: 1.65 [0.48 to 5.70]). BTFC provided significantly greater efficacy in lowering IOP at
Herzog, C A; Aeppli, D P; Bache, R J
The effect of beta-adrenergic blockade with timolol (40 micrograms/kg) on myocardial blood flow during rest and graded treadmill exercise was assessed in 12 chronically instrumented dogs 10 to 14 days after myocardial infarction was produced by acute left circumflex coronary artery occlusion. During exercise at comparable external work loads, the heart rate-systolic blood pressure product was significantly decreased after timilol, with concomitant reductions of myocardial blood flow in normal, border and central ischemic areas (p less than 0.001) and increases in subendocardial/subepicardial blood flow ratios (p less than 0.05). In addition to the blunted chronotropic response to exercise, timolol exerted an effect on myocardial blood flow that was not explained by changes in heart rate or blood pressure. At comparable rate-pressure products during exercise, total myocardial blood flow was 24% lower after timolol (p less than 0.02) and flow was redistributed from subepicardium to subendocardium in all myocardial regions. Thus, timolol altered myocardial blood flow during exercise by two separate mechanisms: a negative chronotropic effect, and a significant selective reduction of subepicardial perfusion independent of changes in heart rate or blood pressure with transmural redistribution of flow toward the subendocardium.
Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Realini, Tony
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness globally, representing a significant public health concern. More than 60 million people are affected by glaucoma worldwide; as this population ages, the number is expected to increase. Glaucoma is a collection of heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical characteristics. The goal of treatment is to prevent significant visual dysfunction through reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). This is a review of the current literature about combination therapeutic regimens for the reduction of IOP, focusing on the risk : benefit profile of a fixed-combination therapy using travoprost and timolol. Since the debut of prostaglandin analogues in the 1990s, only modest innovation has occurred in glaucoma pharmacology. A growing body of research has established that the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) might not be the benign contributor expected of excipient ingredients. Thus, BAK-free treatments were developed, with the goal of IOP reduction without furthering ocular surface disease symptoms. The BAK-free travoprost/timolol combination represents an important addition to glaucoma medication options and may fill an unmet need in this therapeutic arena.
Epperla, Narendranath; Brilliant, Murray H; Vidaillet, Humberto
A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lightheadedness. He had started intranasal administration of ophthalmic timolol for the prevention of epistaxis associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia approximately 3 weeks earlier with excellent response. His heart rate was about half its normal rate, an ECG revealed sinus bradycardia, and it was determined he had significant cardiac issues in his family history. Essentially all other tests were normal. The discontinuation of the intranasal use of timolol resolved any further episodes of lightheadedness and bradycardia. It was determined through genetic testing that he is an intermediate metaboliser of CYP2D6, the main enzyme contributing to the metabolism of timolol. This explains the development of the bradycardia after intranasal timolol use. The metabolising variants of CYP2D6 need to be considered when prescribing medications metabolised by this enzyme, so possible adverse effects can be avoided. PMID:24518395
Konstas, Anastasios G P; Holló, Gabor
Medical therapy of glaucoma aims to maintain the patient's visual function and quality of life. This generally commences with monotherapy, but it is often difficult to reach the predetermined target pressure with this approach. Fixed combinations (FCs) are therefore selected as the next step of the medical therapy algorithm. By employing a prostaglandin/timolol fixed combination (PTFC) the desired target 24-hour intraocular pressure can be reached in many glaucoma patients with the convenience of once-a-day administration and the associated high rate of adherence. The current role and value of FCs in the medical therapy of glaucoma is critically appraised. Special attention is paid to the PTFCs and the emerging role of preservative-free PTFCs. This review summarizes existing information on the efficacy and tolerability of the new preservative-free tafluprost/timolol FC (Taptiqom®). The preservative-free tafluprost/timolol FC represents a promising stepwise treatment option for those patients whose intraocular pressure is insufficiently controlled with available monotherapy options. This novel FC has the potential to substantially improve glaucoma management and through evolution of the current glaucoma treatment paradigm, to become a core therapeutic option in the future. Nonetheless, future research is needed to better delineate the therapeutic role of current and future preservative-free FCs in glaucoma therapy.
Wei, Gang; Ding, Ping-Tian; Zheng, Jun-Min; Lu, Wei-Yue
In order to develop a thermosetting gel-based formulation, the ocular pharmacokinetics of timolol was studied utilizing microdialysis sampling technique after topical administration. A linear microdialysis probe was characterized and implanted in the anterior chamber of a rabbit. Dialysate samples collected from the aqueous humor (AH) were directly injected into the HPLC system without any pre-treatment and no interference was observed in the blank sample. The measured in vitro recovery of the probe was 57.67%; however, the in vivo recovery significantly decreased to 16.78% when assessed by the retrodialysis method, which was used to calculate the timolol concentration in AH. Although in the initial 15 min the drug concentrations in AH were comparable to that of the timolol solution, increased Cmax and significantly improved ocular bioavailability were obtained for the gel. When sodium deoxycholate (DC) was incorporated in the gel as a penetration enhancer, a 2-fold increment in the ocular bioavailability was achieved with an increased Cmax and significantly suspended Tmax. The results demonstrated that microdialysis coupled to HPLC is a powerful tool to investigate the ocular pharmacokinetic, and hence facilitates the design of ophthalmic formulations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Suić, Smiljka Popović; Laus, Katia Novak; Dosen, Vukosava Maricic; Ekert, Miroslav; Mandić, Zdravko; Bojić, Lovro
An open label, multi-center, 6 months observational study of new fixed combination (travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5%), in order to evaluate both efficacy (intraocular pressure lowering) and tolerability (patient and investigator satisfaction) of two dosing regimens--evening (PM) and morning (AM). After screening for enrollment, to 40 patients (79 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension), new fixed combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% was prescribed once a day in the evening (PM). Patients were enrolled according to each investigator decision on indication for travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination once a day, without washout period after previous medication. Intraocular pressure was measured at 9 AM at all time control points: at baseline, after 1 month, after 3 months and after 6 month. After 1 month, screening for nonresponders (criteria: 20% intraocular pressure lowering) and subjects with major side effects was performed. At second control visit, after 3 months PM dosing, intraocular pressure was measured and patients were instructed to continue once a day the same medication, but in the morning (AM) for consequent 3 months. After 1 month, reduction in mean intraocular pressure value was 21.66%. At the visit after 3 month, the mean intraocular pressure was 15.67 +/- 2.17 mm Hg (reduction 21.14%). 3 month after dosing regimen changed to AM (6 month after beginning of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% combination therapy), reduction in intraocular pressure value was 19.86%. The differences (mean +/- standard deviation) in intraocular pressure values after 1, 3 and 6 month were all highly statistically significant compared to baseline values. The tolerability was evaluated in five steps (Likert scale) ranging from unsatisfactory to excellent by both patient and investigator--taken at 3 and 6 month control visit. 95% of patients and 100% of investigators were satisfied with the possibility of choosing dosing regimen for travoprost 0
Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu
We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.
Weinreb, Robert N; Scassellati Sforzolini, Baldo; Vittitow, Jason; Liebmann, Jeffrey
To compare the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) ophthalmic solution 0.024% every evening (qpm) with timolol maleate 0.5% twice daily (BID) in subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Phase 3, randomized, controlled, multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group clinical study. Subjects aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of OAG or OHT in 1 or both eyes. Subjects were randomized (2:1) to a 3-month regimen of LBN 0.024% qpm or timolol 0.5% 1 drop BID. Intraocular pressure was measured at 8 am, 12 pm, and 4 pm of each postrandomization visit (week 2, week 6, and month 3). Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The primary efficacy end point was IOP in the study eye measured at each of the 9 assessment time points. Secondary efficacy end points included the proportion of subjects with IOP ≤18 mmHg consistently at all 9 time points and the proportion of subjects with IOP reduction ≥25% consistently at all 9 time points. Of 420 subjects randomized, 387 completed the study (LBN 0.024%, n = 264; timolol 0.5%, n = 123). At all 9 time points, the mean IOP in the study eye was significantly lower in the LBN 0.024% group than in the timolol 0.5% group (P ≤ 0.002). At all 9 time points, the percentage of subjects with mean IOP ≤18 mmHg and the percentage with IOP reduction ≥25% were significantly higher in the LBN 0.024% group versus the timolol 0.5% group (mean IOP ≤18 mmHg: 22.9% vs. 11.3%, P = 0.005; IOP reduction ≥25%: 34.9% vs. 19.5%, P = 0.001). Adverse events were similar in both treatment groups. In this phase 3 study, LBN 0.024% qpm demonstrated significantly greater IOP lowering than timolol 0.5% BID throughout the day over 3 months of treatment. Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% was effective and safe in these adults with OAG or OHT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kitazawa, Y; Smith, P; Sasaki, N; Kotake, S; Bae, K; Iwamoto, Y
Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of travoprost/timolol in a benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free fixed combination preserved with polyquaternium-1 (TRA/TIM BAK-free), with travoprost/timolol-fixed combination preserved with BAK (TRA/TIM), in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this prospective randomized controlled trial, subjects with IOP of at least 22 mm Hg in one or both eyes at 0900 h, and IOP of at least 21 mm Hg in one or both eyes at 1100 h and 1600 h at two eligibility visits were randomly assigned to receive either TRA/TIM BAK-free (n=195) or TRA/TIM (n=193), dosed once daily in the morning (0900 h) for 6 weeks. IOP was assessed at 0900 h, 1100 h, and 1600 h at each scheduled visit (baseline, 2 and 6 weeks after randomization). Results Mean IOP reduction across all visits and time points was 8.0 mm Hg in the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 8.4 mm Hg in the TRA/TIM group (P=0.0943). The difference in mean IOP between groups ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mm Hg across visits and time points, with a mean pooled difference of 0.4 mm Hg (95% CI: −0.1 to 0.8), demonstrating equivalence of the two formulations. The most common drug-related adverse event was hyperemia of the eye (ocular hyperemia and conjunctival hyperemia combined), occurring in 11.8% of the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 13.0% of the TRA/TIM group. Conclusion Travoprost/timolol BAK-free demonstrated equivalence to travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK in efficacy. No clinically relevant differences in the safety profiles of travoprost/timolol BAK-free and travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK were identified. PMID:21701528
Kitazawa, Y; Smith, P; Sasaki, N; Kotake, S; Bae, K; Iwamoto, Y
The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of travoprost/timolol in a benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free fixed combination preserved with polyquaternium-1 (TRA/TIM BAK-free), with travoprost/timolol-fixed combination preserved with BAK (TRA/TIM), in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, subjects with IOP of at least 22 mm Hg in one or both eyes at 0900 h, and IOP of at least 21 mm Hg in one or both eyes at 1100 h and 1600 h at two eligibility visits were randomly assigned to receive either TRA/TIM BAK-free (n=195) or TRA/TIM (n=193), dosed once daily in the morning (0900 h) for 6 weeks. IOP was assessed at 0900 h, 1100 h, and 1600 h at each scheduled visit (baseline, 2 and 6 weeks after randomization). Mean IOP reduction across all visits and time points was 8.0 mm Hg in the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 8.4 mm Hg in the TRA/TIM group (P=0.0943). The difference in mean IOP between groups ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mm Hg across visits and time points, with a mean pooled difference of 0.4 mm Hg (95% CI: -0.1 to 0.8), demonstrating equivalence of the two formulations. The most common drug-related adverse event was hyperemia of the eye (ocular hyperemia and conjunctival hyperemia combined), occurring in 11.8% of the TRA/TIM BAK-free group and 13.0% of the TRA/TIM group. Travoprost/timolol BAK-free demonstrated equivalence to travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK in efficacy. No clinically relevant differences in the safety profiles of travoprost/timolol BAK-free and travoprost/timolol preserved with BAK were identified.
Prospective, open-label, rater-blinded and self-controlled pilot study of the treatment of proliferating superficial infantile hemangiomas with 0.5% topical timolol cream versus 595-nm pulsed dye laser.
Ying, Hanru; Zou, Yun; Yu, Wenxin; Qiu, Yajing; Ma, Gang; Chang, Lei; Gu, Yifei; Lyu, Dongze; Lin, Xiaoxi
Topical timolol and 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) are both widely used in the treatment of superficial infantile hemangiomas (IH). However, to date, there is no reliable study comparing the therapeutic outcomes between the two treatment options. We designed the present study to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of timolol cream and PDL in the treatment of superficial proliferating IH. Twenty-one patients with superficial IH were included in the study. Each lesion was divided into two regions; one part was treated with 0.5% topical timolol cream four times daily, and the other part was treated monthly with PDL. Both treatments were continued for 2-6 months. Five independent and blinded assessors were asked to judge the results in both the topical timolol-treated and PDL-treated parts by comparing photographs taken before and after treatment. Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements after 3.39 sessions in the 2-month follow up. The average visual evaluation showed that PDL had significantly better results than topical timolol (6.55 ± 2.26 to 4.98 ± 2.92, P < 0.01). No patients experienced permanent side-effects during the treatment. Our short-term study revealed that PDL had better results compared with topical timolol cream application in the treatment of superficial proliferating IH. Further studies with longer follow-up time and larger sample size are required to validate our findings. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Ilechie, Alex; Abokyi, Samuel; Boateng, Gifty; Koffuor, George Asumeng
Background: Preserved versus nonpreserved formulations for ophthalmic use have been well described in the literature although not specifically in the African population where beta blockers are frequently used as the first-line therapy due to economic and availability issues. This study sought to determine the effect of preserved and preservative-free Timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy black Africans. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy nondry eye subjects aged 19–25 years were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 15) and differently treated with eye drops of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preservative-free timolol (PFT), benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only, and BAK-preserved timolol (BPT). Noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT) was measured using the keratometer at baseline and 30, 60, and 90 min after drop application. Results: No significant decline in NITBUT was observed following treatment with PFT and PBS. However, BAK treatment showed a positive time-dependent significant decline in NITBUT (P < 0.001) while a significant decline in the BPT-treated group was only found at 90 min (−3.52 s; P < 0.001). In comparison to the PFT-treated group, treatment with BAK and BPT showed significantly lower NITBUT (P < 0.001). Conclusion: BPT is associated with a significant decline in tear film stability in black Africans. This finding has implications in the management of glaucoma in patients with high-risk of dry eyes in this population. PMID:27226684
Frezzotti, Paolo; Fogagnolo, Paolo; Haka, Gentiana; Motolese, Ilaria; Iester, Michele; Bagaglia, Simone A; Mittica, Pietro; Menicacci, Cristina; Rossetti, Luca; Motolese, Eduardo
To evaluate the effects at 1 year of preservative-free timolol gel and preserved timolol eye drops on conjunctiva and tear parameters. Forty patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to the two treatment groups and compared with 20 healthy age-matched controls. Clinical tests (IOP, Schirmer I test, and lacrimal film break-up time BUT) and in vivo conjunctival confocal microscopy (IVCM) were performed in all patients at baseline and after 12 months. IVCM (HRT II Rostock Cornea Module; Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) was performed after topical anaesthesia in the four cardinal locations and at the corresponding limbus to analyse conjunctiva cells. The main IVCM outcomes were goblet cell density and epithelial regularity. IVCM and clinical parameters were similar in the three groups at baseline. After 12 months, intra-epithelial goblet cell density was significantly lower in the preserved (48.25 ± 7.70) than in the preservative-free beta-blocker group (86.83 ± 22.17, p < 0.001) and controls (88.9 ± 18.33, p < 0.001). The epithelial layer was significantly more regular in the preserved beta-blocker medication group than in the preservative-free beta-blocker group (p < 0.001) and the control group (p < 0.001). A significant reduction in both Schirmer I and BUT was found in the group of preserved timolol (respectively, 11.3 ± 2.97 and 8.12 ± 0.99) compared with preservative-free timolol (16.8 ± 1.83 and 11.27 ± 1.27, p < 0.001) and controls (17.8 ± 1.87 and 12.10 ± 1.28, p < 0.001). Based on our IVCM data, preservative-free beta-blocker gel induces less changes at ocular surface than preserved beta-blockers, a fact that should be considered to obtain less adverse effects and maximal adherence to treatment in a chronic condition such as glaucoma. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background Prospective, observational studies that enroll large numbers of patients with few exclusion criteria may better reflect actual ongoing clinical experience than randomized clinical trials. Our purpose was to obtain efficacy and safety information from a cohort of subjects exposed to latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (FC) for ≥18 months using a prospective, observational design. Methods In all, 577 office-based ophthalmologists in Germany switched 2339 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension to latanoprost/timolol FC for medical reasons. Follow-up visits were scheduled for every 6 months over 24 months; physicians followed usual care routines. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field status, optic nerve head findings, and adverse events were recorded. Efficacy parameters were evaluated for the per protocol (PP) population; the safety population included subjects receiving ≥1 drop of FC. Physicians rated efficacy, tolerability, and subject compliance at month 24. Results Of the 2339 subjects switched to latanoprost/timolol FC (safety population), the primary reasons for switching were inadequate IOP reduction (78.2%) and desire to simplify treatment with once-daily dosing (29.4%; multiple reasons possible). In all, 1317 (56.3%) subjects completed the study, and 1028 (44.0%) were included in the PP population. Most discontinuations were due to loss to follow-up. Change in mean IOP from baseline to month 6 was -4.0 ± 4.31 mmHg, a reduction that was maintained throughout (P < 0.05 for change at all time points). By investigator assessments, optic disc parameters and visual field were stable over 24 months, and there was no relationship between IOP reduction over 24 months and development of a visual field defect. More than 90% of physicians rated latanoprost/timolol FC as "very good" or "good" for efficacy (PP population), tolerability, and compliance. The FC was safe and well tolerated. No change in iris color was reported by most subjects (83
Rodríguez, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V
This study investigates how both bioadhesive polymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and alginate) and permeability enhancers (ethylene glycol- bis(2-aminoethylether)- N, N, N', N'- tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin) influence the permeability of the anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate through ex vivo bovine corneas. Our results showed that only the permeability enhancers alone were able to increase drug permeability, whereas the polymers significantly reduced drug permeation, and however, they increased the pre-corneal residence of timolol. Ternary systems (polymer-enhancer-drug) showed a reduced drug permeability compared to the polymers alone. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the epithelium surface confirmed there was no evidence of epithelial disruption caused by these formulations, suggesting that polymer-enhancer interactions reduce drug solubilization and counteract the disruptive effect of the permeability enhancers on the surface of the cornea. Further mucoadhesive tests, revealed a stable interaction of chitosan and hyaluronic acid with the epithelium, while alginate showed poor mucoadhesive properties. The differences in mucoadhesion correlated with the permeability of timolol maleate observed, i.e. formulations containing mucoadhesive polymers showed lower drug permeabilities. The results of the present study indicate polymers acting as an additional barrier towards drug permeability which is even more evident in the presence of permeability enhancers like EGTA and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. Then, this study highlights the need to adequately select additives intended for ocular applications since interactions between them can have opposite results to what expected in terms of drug permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Desai, Ankita R; Maulvi, Furqan A; Pandya, Mihir M; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Shailesh A; Shah, Dinesh O
Glaucoma is a chronic disease, which is currently treated using frequent high dose applications of an eye drop solution; this method is tedious, and most of patients are non-compliant to it. Contact lenses are emerging as a convenient option to sustain the release of ophthalmic drugs. However, the incorporation of a drug/formulation changes the optical and physical properties of contact lenses. Contact lens users have also reported pink eye syndrome; this makes contact lenses unsuitable to be accepted as a medical device. The objective of the present study was to design novel timolol and hyaluronic acid (comfort agent)-loaded semi-circular ring-implanted contact lenses that could uphold the release at therapeutic rates without compromising the critical lens properties. The drug-loaded rings were individually implanted within the periphery of the contact lenses using modified cast-moulding technology. Atomic force microscopy showed an average roughness of 12.38 nm for the implanted lens that was significantly lower as compared to that of the Freshlook contact lenses (116.27 nm). A major amount of timolol was leached (from 46.47 to 58.79%) during the monomer extraction and moist sterilization (autoclave) steps; therefore, the lenses were sterilized by radiation and packaged under dry conditions (dehydrated). The in vitro release data showed sustained release of timolol and hyaluronic acid up to 96 h. The in vivo drug release study on rabbit eyes showed the presence of timolol in tear fluid up to 72 h. The in vivo pharmacodynamics studies showed a reduction in IOP till 144 h with a low drug loading (154 μg) as compared to the case of a single instillation eye drop solution (250 μg). This study has demonstrated the successful application of implantation technology to co-deliver timolol and hyaluronic acid from contact lenses for an extended period of time to treat glaucoma.
Holló, Gábor; Ropo, Auli
We investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of preservative-free fixed and non-fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (XFG). A per protocol worse eye analysis was made on all XFG patients who participated in a recent 6 month, prospective, randomized, double-masked, parallel group, multicenter phase III study. The mean time-wise IOP decreased by 8.62 to 10.25 mmHg (31.8 to 36.7%) in the fixed dose combination arm (15 patients) and by 5.38 to 11.35 mmHg (21.3 to 41.2%) in the non-fixed combination arm (13 patients), respectively (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The results show that a preservative-free fixed dose combination of tafluprost and timolol provides a clinically significant IOP reduction in XFG, and may offer an advantage for the XFG patients with dry eye, due to its preservative-free nature.
Renieri, Giulia; Führer, Katrin; Scheithe, Karl; Lorenz, Katrin; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Thieme, Hagen
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free eye drops (dorzolamide/timolol) in routine management of preservative-sensitive glaucoma patients. Data from 2,298 glaucoma patients requiring intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and suffering from intolerance to benzalkonium chloride or active agents of previously used eye drops were valid for baseline and safety analysis in this prospective, open, noncomparative, multicenter, noninterventional study. Patients were treated with preservative-free dorzolamide/timolol eye drops for 12 weeks. Main efficacy endpoint was IOP reduction after 12 weeks of treatment. Two thousand forty-nine patients were considered for efficacy analysis. Tolerability was assessed by evaluating adverse drug reactions. Mean baseline IOP was 20.8 mmHg. Baseline IOP was reduced to 16.7 mmHg after 12 weeks of treatment corresponding to a mean absolute (percent) change of -4.1 mmHg (-17.3%). The proportion of patients with IOP ≤21 mmHg increased from 59.9% at baseline to 94.6% after 12 weeks. The most frequently reported ocular adverse drug reactions were burning eyes (2.4%) and hyperemia (0.9%). Local tolerability improved in 79.3% of patients compared to their previous glaucoma therapy. This observational study confirms the IOP lowering effect of preservative-free eye drops containing the fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol in a large patient's population. The drug was well tolerated and improved the local tolerability in the vast majority of patients.
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Naomi; Hizaki, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Masayo; Kuwayama, Yasuaki
This was the first exploratory randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy and safety of a preserved tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TAF/TIM) with a preserved latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (LAT/TIM). This prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, including normal-tension glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Following a 4-week LAT/TIM run-in period, eligible patients entered a 12-week treatment period, during which they received either LAT/TIM or TAF/TIM. The efficacy endpoint was the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline to week 12 and the safety endpoints included the changes from baseline to week 12 in superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) score, tear breakup time (TBUT), and hyperemia score, as well as adverse events (AEs). At week 6, ocular symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. In total, 131 patients provided informed consent. Of these, 115 completed the run-in period and were assigned to receive TAF/TIM (n = 60) or LAT/TIM (n = 55). At week 12, there were no significant differences between the TAF/TIM and LAT/TIM groups in the change from baseline in trough IOP and IOP at 4-6 h after instillation. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the change from baseline to week 12 in SPK score, TBUT, and hyperemia score. However, only in the TAF/TIM group, the total SPK score and the inferior cornea SPK score were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. Eye irritation and eye pain were significantly decreased in the TAF/TIM group compared with the LAT/TIM group. Two treatment-related AEs were reported in the TAF/TIM group (3.3%) and none in the LAT/TIM group, while no serious AEs were reported in either group. TAF/TIM is as effective as LAT/TIM in terms of IOP-reducing effect, with fewer ocular symptoms. TAF/TIM was associated with a significant improvement in SPK scores. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier
Inoue, Kenji; Okayama, Ryoko; Higa, Risako; Wakakura, Masato; Tomita, Goji
Latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% combined eyedrops were recently made available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, visual preservation effect, and adverse reactions of a one-year administration of this fixed combination. The subjects included 162 eyes from 162 patients diagnosed with either primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and using an unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%. The unfixed combination was discontinued and replaced with the latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination with no washout period. IOP was measured before (baseline) and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the change. The mean deviation value of Humphrey field analysis was compared. Adverse reactions were examined at every follow-up. No significant differences were found between mean IOP values obtained at baseline (mean ± standard deviation, 15.2 ± 3.3 mmHg) 3 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg), 6 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), 9 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), and 12 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg) after the change from the unfixed to the fixed combination of eyedrops (P = 0.212). In addition, no significant differences were observed between mean deviation values obtained at baseline (-9.11 ± 6.94 dB) and 12 months (-10.08 ± 7.24 dB) after the change (P = 0.114). Thirty-one patients discontinued the fixed combination within 12 months of replacement, due to an insufficient IOP decrease (20 patients, 12.3%) and adverse reactions (11 patients, 6.8%). Following replacement of two eyedrop medications (latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%) by one fixed combination (latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5%), IOP and visual field were preserved. However, 20% of the patients discontinued the new treatment because of an insufficient IOP decrease and complaints of adverse reactions.
A 6-month study comparing efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% versus each of its individual preservative-free components.
Pfeiffer, Norbert; Traverso, Carlo E; Lorenz, Katrin; Saarela, Ville; Liinamaa, Johanna; Uusitalo, Hannu; Astakhov, Yury; Boiko, Ernest; Ropo, Auli
The efficacy, safety and tolerability of the preservative-free (PF) fixed combination (FC) of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% (once daily) were compared to those of the individual components (PF tafluprost 0.0015% once daily and PF timolol 0.5% twice daily) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension inadequately controlled on prior timolol or prostaglandin monotherapy for 6 months. A stratified, double-masked, randomized, multicenter phase III study was conducted. A total of 189 prior timolol users were randomized within the timolol stratum (TS) to receive either FC (n = 95) or timolol 0.5% (TIM; n = 94). Furthermore, a total of 375 prior prostaglandin analog (PGA) users were randomized within the prostaglandin stratum (PS) to receive either FC (n = 188) or tafluprost 0.0015% (TAF; n = 187). To be eligible for participation in the study, the patients were required to have an intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≥22 mmHg when on timolol (TIM) or of ≥20 mmHg when on PGA in either treated eye at the screening and end-of-run-in visits. In addition to these, the study included visits at baseline, 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months and at a post-study visit. IOP was measured at 8 a.m., 10 a.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. In the TS, a significant reduction from baseline IOP was seen with FC and TIM throughout the study. Average diurnal IOP change from baseline at month 3 was -8.55 mmHg (32%) for FC and -7.35 mmHg (28%) for TIM. The model-based treatment difference (FC-TIM) was -0.885 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.745 to -0.024; p = 0.044] demonstrating the superiority of FC over TIM. In the PS, a significant reduction in IOP was seen with both FC and TAF throughout the study. The average diurnal IOP change from baseline at month 3 was -8.61 mmHg (33%) for FC and -7.23 mmHg (28%) for TAF. The model-based treatment difference (FC-TAF) was -1.516 mmHg (95% CI -2.044 to -0.988; p < 0.001) demonstrating the superiority of FC over TAF. In
Lancina, Michael G; Wang, Juan; Williamson, Geoffrey S; Yang, Hu
In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of DenTimol, a dendrimer-based polymeric timolol analog, as a glaucoma medication. A timolol precursor ( S)-4-[4-(oxiranylmethoxy)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]morpholine (OTM) was reacted with the heterobifunctional amine polyethylene glycol acetic acid (amine-PEG-acetic acid, M n = 2000 g/mol) via a ring opening reaction of an epoxide by an amine to form the OTM-PEG conjugate. OTM-PEG was then coupled to an ethylenediamine (EDA) core polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G3 to generate DenTimol using the N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)- N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/ N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling reaction. MALDI mass spectrometry, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, and HPLC were applied to characterize the intermediate and final products. Ex vivo corneal permeation of DenTimol was assessed using the Franz diffusion cell system mounted with freshly extracted rabbit cornea. The cytotoxicity of DenTimol was assessed using the WST-1 assay. Our results show that DenTimol is nontoxic up to an OTM equivalent concentration of 100 μM. DenTimol is efficient at crossing the cornea. About 8% of the dendrimeric drug permeated through the cornea in 4 h. Its IOP-lowering effect was observed in normotensive adult Brown Norway male rats. Compared to the undosed eye, an IOP reduction by an average of 7.3 mmHg (∼30% reduction from baseline) was observed in the eye topically treated with DenTimol (2 × 5 μL, 0.5% w/v timolol equivalent) in less than 30 min. Daily dosing of DenTimol for a week did not cause any irritation or toxicity as confirmed by the histological examination of ocular tissues, including the cornea, ciliary body, and retina.
Mundorf, Thomas K; Ogawa, Takahiro; Inui, Noritsugu; Naka, Hiroaki; Novack, Gary D; Crockett, R Stephens
A new formulation of timolol with sorbic acid, timolol-LA (TLA) (Istaloldagger), has been developed which increases its ocular bioavailability. In the present study, we desired to evaluate the ocular comfort and systemic bioavailability of TLA in healthy volunteers in comparison to standard timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (TIM). This study was a randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, crossover evaluation of 0.5% TLA and 0.5% TIM, bid, in 12 normal healthy volunteers. Visits were at Days 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 in each period, and there was a minimum 7 day interperiod washout. At all three post-dosing evaluation times (Day 1: Peak, Day 8: Trough, and Day 8: Peak), the 95% confidence interval for the difference between TLA and TIM was not more than 0.37 ng/mL. After administration of TLA, there was a greater incidence of burning/stinging and tearing, but not foreign body sensation, relative to TIM. In general, most symptoms were mild in intensity, and no subject discontinued treatment due to ocular discomfort. Both treatments decreased IOP to a similar level. TLA was relatively comfortable, with a safety profile consistent with further clinical development, and, with bid dosing (exaggerated [2X] that anticipated for clinical use), had a systemic bioavailability similar to that of TIM 0.5%, bid. The incidence of burning and stinging was higher with TLA than with TIM, although reports were mild in severity and did not result in any patient discontin uations. Although the results are of interest, further evaluation in a larger trial may be warranted.
Wu, Qizhen; Shi, Qingmei; Long, Jianhong; Li, Jiaguang; Guo, Yu; Lei, Shaorong
To determine drug dose and usage of timolol maleate eye drops in the treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma. Methods: A total of 250 superficial hemangioma infants were recruited and assigned into 5 groups (n=50 for each group): an external application group and 4 exterior coating groups (2, 4, 6, 8 times per day). We evaluated the therapeutic effect of different methods for drug application (external application or exterior coating) and the frequency for drug administration on superficial infantile hemangioma. Results: The external application group (twice a day and 0.5 hour per time) showed better effect than that in the exterior coating group with twice a day (P<0.001). The difference in therapeutic effect between the exterior coating group with 6 times a day and exterior coating group with twice a day or with 3 times a day was significant (P<0.001). The differences in drug efficacy were not found among the exterior coating group with 6 times a day, the exterior coating group with 8 times a day, or the external application group with twice a day (All P>0.05). Conclusion: Drug dose may affect the therapeutic effect of timolol maleate eye drops in superficial hemangioma infants, and exterior coating with 6 times a day may achieve the best curative effect.
Wu, Chun-jie; Huang, Qin-wan; Qi, Hong-yi; Guo, Ping; Hou, Shi-xiang
Studies on the influence of borneol on the penetration of puerarin eye drops and timolol maleate eye drops through the cornea, and evaluation of the ocular irritability were conducted to provide a theoretical basis for the application of borneol in enhancing corneal permeability. The cornea penetrative experiment in vitro was conducted to observe the quantitative change of puerarin and timolol maleate penetrated through the cornea after administering different dosages of borneol. The corneal hydration level and blinking frequency were recorded as irritability indexes in vitro and in vivo. The steady-flow J of high, middle and low dosage groups of puerarin eye drops with borneol were increased by 49%, 32%, 5% respectively, and permeability parameter Kp increased by 49%, 32%, 5% respectively, as compared to that of the control group. The steady-flow J of high dosage group of timolol maleate eye drops with borneol was increased by 5%; middle and low dosage groups with borneol were decreased by 6%, 3% respectively. The permeability parameter Kp of high dosage group increased by 5%, while middle and low dosage groups with borneol were decreased by 6%, 3% respectively, as compared to that of the control group. Evaluation showed no ocular irritability caused by borneol. The results of this study suggest that the promoting effect of borneol on the permeability of drugs through the cornea in vitro is selective, which indicates that borneol has the potential to be used as an ophthalmic penetration enhancer.
Sharpe, E D; Henry, C J; Mundorf, T K; Day, D G; Stewart, J A; Jenkins, J N; Stewart, W C
To compare the efficacy and safety of brimonidine 0.2% vs unoprostone 0.15%, both added to timolol maleate 0.5% each given twice daily. In this prospective, multi-centred, double-masked, crossover comparison, patients were randomized to one treatment group for a 6-week treatment period, and then crossed over to the opposite treatment. Measurements were performed at 0800, 1000, 1600, 1800, and 2000 h at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. In all, 33 patients entered this trial and 29 completed. The baseline trough intraocular pressure (IOP) was 23.3+/-2.4 and the diurnal curve IOP was 22.0+/-1.3 mmHg. For the brimonidine and timolol maleate treatment group, the trough IOP was 21.6+/-3.3 and the diurnal curve IOP was 19.8+/-2.1 mmHg, while the timolol and unoprostone treatment showed a trough IOP of 20.9+/-3.8 and a diurnal curve IOP of 19.3+/-2.4 mmHg. There was no significant difference between treatment groups at any time point for the diurnal curve, or in the reduction from baseline (P>0.05). Both treatments failed to statistically reduce the IOP from baseline at 1800 h. There was no difference between treatment groups regarding ocular and systemic unsolicited adverse events, but patients admitted to more dryness (P=0.02) and burning upon instillation (P<0.0001) with unoprostone by survey. Brimonidine 0.2% or unoprostone 0.15% added to timolol maleate 0.5% provide similar efficacy and safety throughout the daytime diurnal curve.
Park, Kyung Hea; Jang, Yong Hyun; Chung, Ho Yun; Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Seok-Jong
Although oral beta-blocker, propranolol, was shown excellent outcome for infantile hemangioma (IH) up to date, concern of side effects and reluctance of treatment-related cumbersome evaluations are major obstacles to employ. Instead, topical beta-blockers were recently introduced as an effective alternative, but few studies are reported. So we performed a retrospective study of IH treated with topical beta-blockers, timolol maleate 0.5%, and adjunctive role of pulsed dye laser from 2011 to 2014. Among 102 IH enrolled, 61 patients (59.8%) treated with only timolol maleate and 41 (40.2%) patients treated with combination of pulsed dye laser. A clinical review of medical records and evaluation at 4-8 weeks intervals using the physicians' Global Assessment Scores (GAS) and patients' parents' GAS at the latest visit. Physicians' GAS was used to grade the lesions compared with the baseline photo by two physicians' evaluation. And parents' GAS was assessed by direct or telephone interview. In the only timolol treatment group, mean change was within 47.0% improvement from baseline by physicians. In addition, adjunctive treatment of pulsed dye laser group showed 66.5% improvement. No side effects were found on both groups, and mean change was 54.5% improvement by overall parent assessments.
Lo, Jonathan S; Pang, Pierre M; Lo, Samuel C
Fixed combination glaucoma medication is increasingly used in glaucoma treatment. There is a lack of comparative study in the literature of non-beta blocker combination agents used adjunctively with a glaucoma agent in a different class. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) control and tolerability of non-beta blocker combination suspension with prostaglandin analogs (PGA) in patients with open angle glaucoma who were previously treated with beta blocker combination solution with PGA. Open-label retrospective review of patient records. This study looked at patients with open angle glaucoma taking dorzolamide/timolol solution with PGA that were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine combination suspension with PGA. This study reviewed the charts of all patients who were at least 21 years old with a clinical diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in at least one eye. Patients needed to have been treated with concomitant use of PGA and dorzolamide/timolol solution for at least one month. Patients using dorzolamide/timolol solution plus PGA with medication related ocular irritation were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine suspension with the same PGA. Best-corrected visual acuity, ocular hyperemia grading, slit lamp biomicroscopy and Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements, and patient medication preferences were assessed at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Forty eyes with open angle glaucoma. The mean age of the patients was 68 and 60% were females. The IOP before the switch was 17.2 and 16.5 (P=0.70) following the switch at 3 months. We found a decreasing trend of ocular hyperemia (P=0.064) and strong preference (P=0.011) for non-beta blocker combination suspension but no difference of visual acuity and slit lamp findings. Brinzolamide/brimonidine combination suspension when used adjunctively with PGA is equally effective. Patients in this study reported greatly reduced ocular redness and shorter
Kozobolis, Vassileios; Panos, Georgios D; Konstantinidis, Aristeidis; Labiris, Georgios
To compare the efficiency of brinzolamide/brimonidine fixed combination vs the dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination. Forty-four eyes of 44 patients were divided in 2 groups treated either with dorzolamide/timolol twice a day (group A) or with brinzolamide/brimonidine twice a day (group B). Complete ophthalmic examination including Goldmann applanation tonometry was performed before treatment administration and 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks afterwards. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured twice a day (morning at 9 AM and afternoon at 4 PM). At the end of the follow-up period (12 weeks), mean morning IOP reduction was 7.0 ± 2.8 mm Hg in group A and 8.4 ± 1.9 mm Hg in group B. A significant difference was found (p = 0.0343). In contrast, mean afternoon IOP reduction was 8.6 ± 2.7 mm Hg in group A and 7.9 ± 1.6 mm Hg in group B and no significant difference was found (p = 0.3413). No significant adverse effects were observed in either group. Brinzolamide/brimonidine seems to be an effective and safe alternative β-blocker free fixed combination, especially for patients with comorbidities, having its own antihypertensive profile.
Rolle, Teresa; Spinetta, Roberta; Nuzzi, Raffaele
The effects of preservatives of antiglaucoma medications on corneal surface and tear function have been widely shown in literature; it's not the same as regards the active compounds themselves. The purpose of our study was to compare Ocular Surface Disease (OSD) signs and symptoms of Tafluprost 0.0015% versus preservative free (PF) Timolol 0.1% eyedrops in ocular hypertensive (OH) and in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. A cross-sectional study included patients in monotherapy for at least 36 months with Tafluprost 0.0015% (27) or PF Timolol 0.1% (24) and 20 healthy age and sex-matched volunteers. All subjects underwent clinical tests (Schirmer I and break-up time), in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and were surveyed using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Glaucoma Symptoms Scale (GSS) questionnaires. The groups were compared with ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni's adjustment of p-values. No significant differences were found in questionnaires scores, clinical tests, IVCM variables between therapy groups. Tafluprost 0.0015% group showed significantly higher OSDI score, basal epithelial cells density, stromal reflectivity, sub-basal nerves tortuosity (p = 0.0000, 0.037, 0.006, 0.0000) and less GSS score, number of sub-basal nerves (p = 0.0000, 0.037) than controls but similar clinical tests results (p > 0.05). PF Timolol group had significantly higher OSDI score, basal epithelial cells density, stromal reflectivity and sub-basal nerve tortuosity (p = 0.000, 0.014, 0.008, 0.002), less GSS score, BUT and number of sub-basal nerves (p = 0.0000, 0.026, 0.003) than controls. Compared to PF Timolol 0.1%, Tafluprost 0.0015% showed similar safety with regards to tear function and corneal status and a similar tolerability profile. Both therapy groups show some alterations in corneal microstructure but no side effects on tear function except for an increased tear instability in PF Timolol 0.1% group
Two Phase 3 Clinical Trials Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Netarsudil to Timolol in Patients With Elevated Intraocular Pressure: Rho Kinase Elevated IOP Treatment Trial 1 and 2 (ROCKET-1 and ROCKET-2).
Serle, Janet B; Katz, L Jay; McLaurin, Eugene; Heah, Theresa; Ramirez-Davis, Nancy; Usner, Dale W; Novack, Gary D; Kopczynski, Casey C
To evaluate the efficacy and ocular and systemic safety of netarsudil 0.02% ophthalmic solution, a rho-kinase inhibitor and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Double-masked, randomized noninferiority clinical trials: Rho Kinase Elevated IOP Treatment Trial 1 and 2 (ROCKET-1 and ROCKET-2). After a washout of all pre-study ocular hypotensive medications, eligible patients were randomized to receive netarsudil 0.02% once daily (q.d.), timolol 0.5% twice a day (b.i.d.), and (ROCKET-2 only) netarsudil 0.02% b.i.d. Data through 3 months from both studies are provided in this report. Enrolled into the 2 studies were 1167 patients. Treatment with netarsudil q.d. produced clinically and statistically significant reductions from baseline intraocular pressure (P < .001), and was noninferior to timolol in the per-protocol population with maximum baseline IOP < 25 mm Hg in both studies (ROCKET-2, primary outcome measure and population, ROCKET-1, post hoc outcome measure). Netarsudil b.i.d. was also noninferior to timolol (ROCKET-2). The most frequent adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia, the incidence of which ranged from 50% (126/251, ROCKET-2) to 53% (108/203, ROCKET-1) for netarsudil q.d., 59% (149/253, ROCKET-2) for netarsudil b.i.d., and 8% (17/208, ROCKET-1) to 11% (27/251, ROCKET-2) for timolol (P < .0001 for netarsudil vs timolol). In 2 large, randomized, double-masked trials reported here, once-daily dosing of netarsudil 0.02% was found to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of patients with ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma. The novel pharmacology and aqueous humor dynamic effects of this molecule suggest it may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of ocular hypotensive medications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alezzandrini, Arturo; Hubatsch, Douglas; Alfaro, Rene
Fixed-combination glaucoma medications are commonly used to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy; however, ocular discomfort associated with eye drops can decrease adherence. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% (BRINZ/TIM-FC) in Latin American patients transitioned from fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% (BRIM/TIM-FC) because of insufficient IOP control or treatment intolerance. This 8-week, open-label, prospective study was conducted at six sites in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Enrolled patients were aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma (including primary, exfoliative, or pigment-dispersion glaucoma) or ocular hypertension with IOP of 19-35 mmHg in ≥1 eye at baseline (on BRIM/TIM-FC). Patients self-administered BRINZ/TIM-FC to both eyes at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. daily for 8 weeks. The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were mean IOP change from baseline at week 8 and percentage of patients achieving target IOP (≤18 mmHg) at week 8, respectively. Exploratory endpoints included patient and investigator preference for treatment at week 8. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed as the safety endpoint. Fifty patients (mean ± SD age, 66.7 ± 11.5 years) received BRINZ/TIM-FC, and 49 were included in the intent-to-treat population. Mean ± SD IOP was significantly reduced from baseline after 8 weeks of treatment with BRINZ/TIM-FC (-3.6 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test; 17.1% reduction). Overall, 55.3% of patients achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at week 8. Significantly more patients (89.4%) and investigators (95.7%) preferred BRINZ/TIM-FC to BRIM/TIM-FC (both P < 0.0001, exact binomial test). Of the 13 AEs observed, 8 were related to BRINZ/TIM-FC; the most common treatment-related AEs were eye irritation (n = 4) and abnormal sensation in the eye (n = 2). BRINZ/TIM-FC provides an
Qin, Fuhong; Zeng, Li; Zhu, Yongtao; Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei
The aim of this work was to assess the performance of resin as an ocular delivery system. Timolol maleate (TM) was chosen as the model drug and an ion exchange resin (IER) as the carrier. The drug-resin complex was prepared using an oscillation method and then characterized regarding particle size, zeta potential, morphology, and drug content. After in vitro drug release study and corneal permeation study were performed, in vivo studies were performed in New Zealand albino rabbits using a suspension with particles sized 4.8 ± 1.2 μm and drug loading at 43.00 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that drug released from the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension permeated the cornea and displayed a sustained-release behavior. Drug levels in the ocular tissues after administration of the drug-resin ophthalmic suspension were significantly higher than after treatment with an eye drop formulation but were lower in body tissues and in the plasma. In conclusion, resins have great potential as effective ocular drug delivery carriers to increase ocular bioavailability of timolol while simultaneously reducing systemic drug absorption.
Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Jafariazar, Zahra; Ghadjahani, Yasaman; Mahmoodi, Hoda; Mehtarpour, Farzaneh
The purpose of this study was preparation and evaluation of sustained release matrix type ocular mini-tablets of timolol maleate, as a potential formulation for the treatment of glaucoma. Following the initial studies on timolol maleate powder, it was formulated into ocular mini-tablets. The polymers investigated in this study included cellulose derivatives (HEC, CMC, EC) and Carbopol 971P. Mannitol was used as the solubilizing agent and magnesium stearate as the lubricant. Mini-tablets were prepared by through mixing of the ingredients, followed by direct compression. All the prepared formulations were evaluated in terms of physicochemical tests, including uniformity of weight, thickness, crushing strength, friability and in-vitro drug release. Four groups of formulations were prepared. The presence of different amounts of cellulose derivatives or Carbopol 971P, alone, was studied in group A formulations. In group B formulations, the effect of adding Carbopol 971P alongside different cellulose derivatives was investigated. Group C formulations were made by including mannitol as the solubilizing agent, alongside Carbopol 971P and a cellulose derivative. In group D formulations, mini-tablets were made using Carbopol 971P, alongside two different cellulose derivative. The selected formulation (C1) contained ethyl cellulose, Carbopol 971P, mannitol and magnesium stearate, which showed almost 100% drug release over 5 h. Based on kinetic studies, this formulation was found to best fit the zero-order model of drug release. However, the Higuchi and Hixson -Crowell models also showed a good fit. Hence, overall, formulation C1 was chosen as the best formulation. PMID:24734053
Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi
We evaluated the cytotoxicity of antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions preserved with the same concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in four cultured corneal and conjunctival cell lines. The viability of cell cultures was determined following the exposure of cells to timolol maleate, dorzolamide, and their fixed combination, Kosoputo(®) (MSD, a Japanese formulation of Cosopt(®) (Merck)), and two commercially available eyedrop solutions, 0.5% Timpotol(®) (containing 0.5% timolol maleate, MSD) and 1% Trusopt(®) (containing 1% dorzolamide, MSD) for varying exposure times and at various dilutions using the MTT and neutral red assays. All the three commercially available eyedrop solutions tested in this study were preserved with 0.005% BAK. The toxicity of each solution was compared using the % cell viability score (CVS) . Cell viability was also subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA, Dunnett's multiple comparison tests and a chi-square test. %CVS50/%CVS40/80s for the tested solutions were 53/-13 for 0.5% Timoptol(®), 100/88 for preservative-free 0.5% timolol maleate, 50/ -10 for 1% Trusopt(®), 72/100 for preservative-free 1% dorzolamide, and 44/-17 for Kosoputo(®). The results of statistical analysis were consistent to them. In conclusion, Kosoputo(®) had greater cytotoxicity than each component; however, in actual use it may have the advantages of reduced toxicity (side effect) due to reduced instillation frequency, and better patient adherence to the treatment regimen as well as a comparable pressure reduction effect.
Caça, Ihsan; Simsek, Hüseyin; Unlü, Kaan; Ari, Seyhmus; Keklikçi, Ugur
We compared latanoprost monotherapy therapy with timolol/ dorzolamide in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma to evaluate the effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and occurrence of adverse events. IOP and topical side effects were evaluated at the beginning, first, and third months. Mean IOP was decreased at the third month. The most common side effect was hyperemia (43.6%). We concluded that latanoprost reduces IOP better than fixed combination and its topical side effects are tolerable.
Naito, A; Izumi, H; Karita, K; Tamai, M
We clarified whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) response elicited by stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) is influenced by changes in the baseline of IOP level and by beta-adrenergic blockade. The CSN was stimulated electrically for 30 seconds (10 V, 0.1-100 Hz, 2 milliseconds pulse duration) in urethane (100 mg/kg i.v.)-chloralose (50 mg/kg i.v.)-anesthetized, paralyzed cats. The IOP was monitored manometrically, and a controlled saline infusion was delivered into the anterior chamber to gradually increase IOP. CSN stimulation was delivered at the various baseline IOP levels so obtained. When required, a beta-adrenergic blocker timolol (2%) was delivered into the conjunctival cul-de-sac. The normal IOP in our cats was 25+/-3 mmHg. This value decreased transiently on CSN stimulation. The amplitude of this IOP response depended on stimulus frequency and the pre-stimulus baseline IOP level. Topical administration of timolol increased the IOP response to CSN stimulation at a given baseline level. These results suggest that beta-adrenergic blockade increases the alpha-adrenergic mediated-IOP reduction elicited by CSN stimulation at given baseline IOP level.
Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol versus fixed-combination dorzolamide/brimonidine/timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a multicenter, prospective, crossover study.
García-López, Alfonso; Paczka, José A; Jiménez-Román, Jesús; Hartleben, Curt
Fixed-combination ocular hypotensives have multiple advantages, but triple-therapy dorzolamide/brimonidine/timolol (dorz/brim/tim) is only available in Latin and South America, and information on its relative efficacy is limited. This study compares the efficacy and tolerability of fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol (bim/tim) and dorz/brim/tim in Mexican patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this investigator-masked, crossover study, patients with unmet target intraocular pressure (IOP) on once-daily bim/tim or twice-daily dorz/brim/tim received the opposite medication for 3 months before returning to their pre-baseline medication for 3 months. IOP was evaluated before and after morning instillation at months 2, 3, 5 and 6. Primary endpoints were mean IOP change and Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI) score at each visit. The intent-to-treat population was the a priori analysis population, but due to the number of discontinuations, the per-protocol and intent-to-treat populations were used for the primary efficacy and sensitivity analyses, respectively. Seventy-eight and 56 patients were included in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, respectively. At month 3, statistically significant IOP reductions from baseline were observed in the bim/tim (P < 0.01) and dorz/brim/tim (P < 0.0001) groups, regardless of assessment time. At month 6, patients returned to bim/tim exhibited no significant IOP increase (regardless of assessment time), but patients returned to dorz/brim/tim exhibited a statistically significant IOP increase (P < 0.001) when assessed before instillation of study treatment. Results were similar in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analysis populations. In the per-protocol analysis, 70% of patients on bim/tim at month 3 had an IOP <14 mm Hg, which declined to 58% (P = 0.0061) at month 6 (ie, after 3 months of dorz/brim/tim treatment). In patients receiving dorz/brim/tim at month 3
Chacon, Anna; Mercer, Jessica
Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, benign condition characterized by multiple benign angiomatous nodules or plaques. Cutaneous lesions can be painful, pruritic, pulsatile, or potentially disfiguring resulting in significant morbidity. ALHE is a pathologic diagnosis featuring proliferations of capillary-sized vessels with epithelioid endothelial cells surrounded by larger, thick-walled vessels and accompanying eosinophils and lymphocytes. Surgery is generally required, however the skin lesions often recur after excision. ALHE is notoriously difficult to treat and many physicians would prefer a non-invasive treatment of choice. We report a case of ALHE that was successfully treated with the novel use of topical tacrolimus in a split-face trial with topical timolol solution.
Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Hegazy, Maha A; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Omran, Yasmin Rostom
Two smart and novel spectrophotometric methods namely; absorbance subtraction (AS) and amplitude modulation (AM) were developed and validated for the determination of a binary mixture of timolol maleate (TIM) and dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) in presence of benzalkonium chloride without prior separation, using unified regression equation. Additionally, simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra were developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the binary mixture namely; simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRS), ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), constant multiplication method (CM) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. They were applied to their pharmaceutical formulation and the results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported spectrophotometric method. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported one regarding both accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.
Solid state properties of 3-(4-N-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3, the synthetic precursor of popular drug timolol, have been investigated. The original solubility test, the data of X-ray diffraction and DSC methods indicate that the compound is prone to spontaneous resolution. Diol 3 crystallizing from both enantiopure or racemic feed material forms "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic molecular fragments, act as the basic supramolecular motif. The main chain conformation of the molecules in the crystals of diol 3 differs from that in the guaifenesin crystals, and this fact changes the absolute configuration of spiral columns formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds in crystals of 3 as compared with guaifenesin crystals.
Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Junsuke; Sakae, Shinsuke; Munemasa, Yasunari; Takagi, Hitoshi
Purpose. To examine the efficacy of ophthalmic rebamipide suspensions on ocular surface disorders induced by antiglaucoma eye drops. Patients and Methods. Forty eyes of 40 patients receiving latanoprost (0.005%) and timolol (0.5%) were included in this randomized prospective study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 20): the rebamipide-treated group and control group. Changes in intraocular pressure, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal epithelial barrier function were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after rebamipide administration. Furthermore, superficial punctate keratopathy severity was evaluated by scoring the lesion area and density. Results. There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure before and after rebamipide treatment. However, corneal epithelial barrier function improved significantly 4 and 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment. TBUT was partially, but significantly, increased (P = 0.02) 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment, whereas no significant change was observed at 4 weeks. Additionally, a significant decrease in area and density of keratopathy was observed 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment but not at 4 weeks. The control group showed no significant difference compared to baseline. Conclusions. Our data suggests that rebamipide treatment may reduce the occurrence of drug-induced ocular surface disorder.
Takagi, Yasutaka; Osaki, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kai, Yasuhiko
The intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and safety of tafluprost 0.0015%/timolol maleate 0.5% combination ophthalmic solution (Taf-TFC) were investigated in a real-world clinical setting. A prospective up to 2-year (more than 1 year) observational study has been initiated to collect data on the IOP, conjunctival hyperemia score, corneal staining score, and adverse events suffered by patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated at 3 months, and up to 2 years (more than 1 year) after initiating treatment with Taf-TFC. The 3-month findings are reported here. Among 439 patients enrolled at 100 institutions in Japan, most had normal tension glaucoma (45.3%) or primary open angle glaucoma (36.0%). Adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurred in 5.01%. The important ADRs were conjunctival hyperemia (five patients), blepharitis (four patients), and punctate keratitis (two patients). Serious adverse reactions occurred in two patients (three events). In 410 patients with data both before and after treatment, baseline mean IOP was 17.5 ± 5.0 mmHg, and it was significantly decreased after 1, 2, and 3 months (all P < 0.05, paired-t test). IOP was significantly reduced in patients switched to Taf-TFC from either prostaglandin or β-blocker monotherapy. IOP also decreased significantly in patients switched from a prostaglandin/timolol fixed combination, but not in patients switched from concomitant use of a prostaglandin analog and a β-blocker. The use of Taf-TFC did not worsen the adherence in most patients. Taf-TFC significantly reduced the IOP in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated in daily clinical practice with controllable or recoverable ADRs in short period. Taf-TFC was effective regardless of treatment patterns, and particularly, Taf-TFC significantly reduced IOP in cases in which requiring the second line therapy as insufficient of monotherapy. Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.
Kitamura, Kazuyoshi; Chiba, Tatsuya; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Ishijima, Kiyotaka; Omoto, Shu; Kashiwagi, Fumiko; Godo, Takashi; Kogure, Satoshi; Goto, Teruhiko; Shibuya, Takashi; Tanabe, Jhoji; Tsukahara, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tadaharu; Tokunaga, Takaharu; Hosaka, Osamu; Saito, Tetsunori
Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of switching from prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy to tafluprost/timolol fixed-combination (Taf/Tim) therapy. Subjects and Methods Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, or ocular hypertension who had received PGA monotherapy for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients were examined at 1, 2, and 3 months after changing therapies. Subsequently, the patients were returned to PGA monotherapy. The examined parameters included intraocular pressure (IOP) and adverse events. A questionnaire survey was conducted after the switch to Taf/Tim therapy. Results Forty patients with a mean age of 66.5 ± 10.3 years were enrolled; 39 of these patients completed the study protocol. Switching to Taf/Tim significantly reduced the IOP from 18.2 ± 2.6 mmHg at baseline to 14.8 ± 2.5 mmHg at 1 month, 15.2 ± 2.8 mmHg at 2 months, and 14.9 ± 2.5 mmHg at 3 months (P < 0.001). Switching back to the original PGA monotherapy returned the IOP values to baseline levels. Taf/Tim reduced the pulse rate insignificantly. No significant differences were observed in blood pressure, conjunctival hyperemia, or corneal adverse events. A questionnaire showed that the introduction of Taf/Tim did not significantly influence symptoms. Conclusions Compared with PGA monotherapy, Taf/Tim fixed-combination therapy significantly reduced IOP without severe adverse events. PMID:29675274
Fang, Yuan; Ling, Zhihong; Sun, Xinghuai
Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs). In the People’s Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in the People’s Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People’s Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons of BTFC with other fixed-combination drugs, and treatment adherence and persistence with treatment in Chinese patients are unknown and will require further study. PMID:25999695
Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan
Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery, anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses. Parameters used for engineering included flow rates ranging from 8 to 15μL/min and a novel EHD deposition system was used; capable of hosting four lenses, masked template and a ground electrode to direct charged atomised structures. SEM analysis of the electrospun structures confirmed the presence of smooth nano-fibers; whilst thermal analysis confirmed the stability of all formulations. In vitro release studies demonstrated a triphasic release; initial burst release with two subsequent sustained release phases with most of the drug being released after 24h (86.7%) Biological evaluation studies confirmed the tolerability of all formulations tested with release kinetics modelling results showing drug release was via quasi-Fickian or Fickian diffusion. There were evident differences (p<0.05) in TM release dependant on permeation enhancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Korogiannaki, Myrto; Guidi, Giuliano; Jones, Lyndon; Sheardown, Heather
This study was designed to assess the impact of a releasable wetting agent, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), on the release profile of timolol maleate (TM) from model silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as an alternative wetting agent for comparison. The model lenses consisted of a hydrophilic monomer, either 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or N,N-dimethylacrylamide and a hydrophobic silicone monomer of methacryloxypropyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane. The loading of the wetting and the therapeutic agent occurred during the synthesis of the silicone hydrogels through the method of direct entrapment. The developed materials were characterized by minimal changes in the water uptake, while lower molecular weight of HA improved their surface wettability. The transparency of the examined silicone hydrogels was found to be affected by the miscibility of the wetting agent in the prepolymer mixture as well as the composition of the developed silicone hydrogels. Sustained release of TM from 4 to 14 days was observed, with the drug transport occurring presumably through the hydrophilic domains of the silicone hydrogels. The release profile was strongly dependent on the hydrophilic monomer composition, the distribution of hydrophobic (silane) domains, and the affinity of the therapeutic agent for the silicone hydrogel matrix. Noncovalent entrapment of the wetting agent did not change the in vitro release duration and kinetics of TM, however the drug release profile was found to be controlled by the simultaneous release of TM and HA or PVP. In the case of HA, depending on the HA:drug ratio, the release rate was decreased and controlled by the release of HA, likely due to electrostatic interactions between protonated TM and anionic HA. Overall, partitioning of the drug within the hydrophilic domains of the silicone hydrogels as well as interactions with the wetting agent determined the drug release profile. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pellegrino, Marcella; D'Oria, Luisa; De Luca, Carmen; Chiaradia, Giacomina; Licameli, Angelo; Neri, Caterina; Nucci, Marta; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro; De Santis, Marco
There are many contradictions about pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes after topical use of timolol alone or timolol in combination with other antiglaucoma medications. Seventy-five pregnant women exposed to antiglaucoma medications were followed prospectively by phone interviews. 27 women used timolol as monotherapy, 48 women used timolol as a part of multidrug therapy. We selected a control group of 187 healthy pregnant women. Topical use of timolol alone or timolol in combination with other antiglaucoma medications does not influence pregnancy or fetal/neonatal outcomes. Beta-blocker is the first choice treatment for glaucoma in pregnancy but, when necessary, multidrug therapy should not to be excluded. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hommer, A; Wickstrøm, J; Friis, M M; Steeds, C; Thygesen, J; Ferreras, A; Gouws, P; Buchholz, P
To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. A decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was constructed. Since no head-to-head studies comparing the three treatment options exist, the analysis was based on an indirect comparison. Hence, the model was based on efficacy data from five randomized, controlled, clinical studies. The studies were comparable with respect to study design, time horizon, patient population and type of end point presented. The measure of effectiveness was the percentage reduction of the intraocular pressure level from baseline. The cost evaluated was the cost of medication and clinical visits to the ophthalmologist. All drug costs were market prices inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. The analysis showed that fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol was more effective and less costly than fixed-combination travoprost/timolol and fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol in three out of the five countries analyzed. In two countries, bimatoprost/timolol was less costly than latanoprost/timolol, and cost the same as travoprost/timolol. This cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily was a cost-effective treatment option for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. This study was limited by available clinical data: without a head-to-head trial, indirect comparisons were necessary. In the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Italy, and Spain, from a health service viewpoint, bimatoprost/timolol was a slightly more effective as well as less costly treatment strategy
Ilka, Roya; Mohseni, Mojdeh; Kianirad, Mehran; Naseripour, Masood; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Mehravi, Bita
Despite frequent scientific efforts, efficient ocular drug delivery is a major challenge for pharmaceutical scientists. Poor bioavailability of ophthalmic solutions can be overcome by using smart ophthalmic drug-delivery systems. In this research, loading and delivery of Timolol Maleate (TM) through the cornea by synthesized nanoparticles based on biopolymers (chitosan-alginate) were studied. The physico-chemical properties of these nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Loading and release were evaluated by a UV-vis spectrometer and the ex vivo permeation study was carried out using the Franz Diffusion Cell and fluorescent microscopy studies. The results indicated that morphology and size of nanoparticles were spherical and in the range of 80-100nm. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency were about 42% and 94% respectively. They illustrated a burst release in the first hour followed by a slower and more sustained drug release during the next 24h. Also, the results indicated that the cornea penetration of TM loaded in nanoparticles was twice than that of TM. Hence, this nanocarrier can be considered as a suitable candidate for controlled TM delivery and release through the cornea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seo, Du Ri; Ha, Seung Joo
To compare the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) lowering effects of preservative-free tafluprost and dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination (DTFC) using dynamic contour tonometry. In total, 66 eyes of 66 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) (n = 34) or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (n = 32) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: the preservative-free tafluprost-treated group (n = 33) and the preservative-free DTFC-treated group (n = 33). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). OPA was measured using dynamic contour tonometry; corrected OPA (cOPA) was calculated at baseline and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. After 6 months of treatment, tafluprost significantly reduced IOP (P < 0.001). The OPA lowering effects differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P = 0.003). The cOPA-lowering effect of tafluprost (1.09 mmHg) was significantly greater than that of DTFC (0.36 mmHg) after 6 months of treatment (P = 0.01). Tafluprost and DTFC glaucoma treatments provided marked OPA and IOP lowering effects. Tafluprost had a greater effect than DTFC; thus, this drug is recommended for patients at risk of glaucoma progression, due to the high OPA caused by large fluctuations in IOP.
Ebigwai, Joseph Kayefor; Edu, Esther Aja; Itam, Edisua Hogan; Mofunanya, Ann Jerry
Aqueous crude cold-water extract from the fruiting body of the culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus was assessed for activity against increased intra-ocular pressure (IOP) in mice. A 0.1% dexamethasone instillation was used to raise the intra-ocular pressure in the animals above the 21-mmHg threshold limit. The extract has intrinsic anti-hypertensive properties that are dose dependent. A comparison analysis indicated that 150 mg/mL of the crude extract produced 57.69% reduction in the intra-ocular pressure, while doses of 100 mg/ mL and 200 mg/mL produced 44.78% and 70.03% IOP reduction, respectively, compared with timolol maleate with 57.69%. The results were significant at 0.05 confidence limit (p < 0.05) when compared to a placebo and therefore support its use for the treatment of increased intra-ocular pressure.
Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled solutions for challenging drug delivery targets. While the eye presents numerous emerging opportunities for delivery, analysis and sensing; issues persist for conventional applications. This includes liquid phase formulation localisation on the ocular surface once administered as formulated eye-drops; with the vast majority of dosage (>90%) escaping from the administered site due to tear production and various drainage mechanisms. The work presented here demonstrates a single needle electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering process to nano-coat (as an on demand and controllable fiber depositing method) the surface of multiple contact lenses rendering formulations to be stationary on the lens and at the bio-interface. The coating process was operational based on ejected droplet charge and glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) was used to demonstrate surface coating optimisation, bio-surface permeation properties (flux, using a bovine model) and various kinetic models thereafter. Polymers PVP, PNIPAM and PVP:PNIPAM (50:50%w/w) were used to encapsulate the active. Nano-fibrous and particulate samples were characterised using SEM, FTIR, DSC and TGA to confirm structural and thermal stability of surface coated formulations. More than 52% of nano-structured coatings (for all formulations) were <200nm in diameter. In vitro studies show coatings to exhibit biphasic release profiles; an initial burst release followed by sustained release; with TM-loaded PNIPAM coating releasing most drug after 24h (89.8%). Kinetic modelling (Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas) was indicative of quasi-Fickian diffusion whilst biological evaluation demonstrates adequate ocular tolerability. Results from permeation studies indicate coated lenses are ideal to reduce dosing regimen, which in turn will reduce systemic drug absorption. Florescent microscopy demonstrated probe and probe embedded coating behaviour from lens surface in vitro. The multiple lens surface coating
Brief, Gerrett; Lammich, Tobias; Nagel, Edgar; Pfennigsdorf, Sabine; Spraul, Christoph W; Ho, Selwyn
Objective To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol (BTFC) in a large patient sample in a clinical setting. Methods In this multicenter, observational, noncontrolled, open-label study, patients (n = 1862) with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with BTFC. Assessments were made at baseline, six weeks, and three months. Results Prior to starting BTFC, 92.3% of patients were taking other ocular hypotensive medications. In the overall group at three months, mean intraocular pressure was reduced from baseline (21.7 ± 4.5 mmHg and 21.8 ± 4.9 mmHg for the right and left eye, respectively) to 16.1 ± 3.0 mmHg for each eye (P < 0.0001). The majority of patients (92%) reported no adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events (in >1% of patients) were eye irritation, and ocular and conjunctival hyperemia. Adherence to treatment was generally better than (35.4%) or the same as (57.5%) with prior therapy. BTFC tolerability was rated as excellent or good by 92.3% of physicians and 85.8% of patients. Conclusions In a large group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, treatment with BTFC was associated with consistent reductions in IOP, improved adherence to treatment, and good tolerability. PMID:20957059
A combination of antiglaucoma medications is indicated if monotherapy is not sufficient to achieve the predefined target pressure and/or in case of a progression of glaucomatous damage or conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Most recently many fixed combinations with two active compounds have become available for the medical treatment of glaucoma. Compared to non-fixed combinations, these drugs offer a much easier use for the patients. Fixed combinations have to be applied less frequently which may improve adherence. Furthermore, they most likely contain a lower amount of toxic preservatives compared to non-fixed combinations. And finally, fixed combinations may eliminate the risk of a "washout" of the first medication by using the second product of a non-fixed combination too soon after the first drop has been installed. This review aims to examine the most important aspects of IOP-lowering fixed and non-fixed combinations in glaucoma management with a clear focus on the results obtained with fixed combinations. In Germany, fixed combinations with the compositions dorzolamide/timolol (FCDT), brinzolamide/timolol (FCBRINT), latanoprost/timolol (FCLT), travoprost/timolol (FCTT), bimatoprost/timolol (FCBIMT), brimonidine/timolol (FCBT), pilocarpine/timolol (FCPT) and metipranolol/timolol (FCMT) are approved for the medical management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The results of clinical studies comparing fixed combinations with their active ingredients and with the corresponding non-fixed combinations will be discussed. Furthermore - if available - the results of direct comparisons of the efficacy and safety of different IOP-lowering fixed combinations are summarised. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Weinreb, Robert N; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Martin, Keith R; Kaufman, Paul L; Vittitow, Jason L
To compare the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) 0.024% with timolol maleate 0.5% in subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Pooled analysis of two phase 3, randomized, multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group, noninferiority trials (APOLLO and LUNAR), each with open-label safety extension phases. Adults with OAG or OHT were randomized 2:1 to double-masked treatment with LBN once daily (qd) or timolol twice daily (bid) for 3 months followed by open-label LBN treatment for 3 (LUNAR) or 9 (APOLLO) months. IOP was measured at 8 AM, 12 PM, and 4 PM at week 2, week 6, and months 3, 6, 9, and 12. Of the 840 subjects randomized, 774 (LBN, n=523; timolol crossover to LBN, n=251) completed the efficacy phase, and 738 completed the safety extension phase. Mean IOP was significantly lower with LBN versus timolol at all 9 evaluation timepoints during the efficacy phase (P<0.001). A significantly greater proportion of LBN-treated subjects attained a mean IOP ≤18 mm Hg and IOP reduction ≥25% from baseline versus timolol-treated subjects (P<0.001). The IOP reduction with LBN was sustained through the safety phase; subjects crossed over from timolol to LBN experienced additional significant IOP lowering (P≤0.009). Both treatments were well tolerated, and there were no safety concerns with long-term LBN treatment. In this pooled analysis of subjects with OAG and OHT, LBN 0.024% qd provided greater IOP-lowering compared with timolol 0.5% bid and maintained lowered IOP through 12 months. LBN demonstrated a safety profile comparable to that of prostaglandin analogs.
Hegde, Rahul Rama; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava
Ocular drug delivery system always remained associated with lots of difficulties and faced issues of poor drug absorption and poor bioavailability. Timolol maleate is a nonspecific beta blocker used for reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma. Timolol maleate is absorbed systemically and is contraindicated in asthmatic patients. This study is focused to deliver Timolol maleate by a water/oil microemulsion to extend the time of reduced intraocular pressure of glaucomatous rabbit's eye measured by using a Schoetz tonometer. The microemulsion is prepared by mixing the oily components with two nonionic surfactants, drug and water, and evaluated for the physicochemical, in vitro and in vivo parameters. The colloidal system demonstrates monodisperse distribution behavior and exhibits a uniform size distribution of finite width. In vitro drug release from microemulsion was found to follow Higuchi's pattern followed by a zero-order drug release by the emulsion. Ex vivo permeation through goat cornea revealed delayed release of Timolol maleate from microemulsion as compared with its aqueous solution. A reduction in intraocular pressure is seen lasting for 12 h compared to aqueous eye drop that lasted for only 5 h. CONCLUSION. In vivo reduction of intraocular pressure revealed a similar efficacy for once daily dosed 0.3% Timolol maleate in microemulsion formulation compared to 0.5% concentration in both microemulsion as well as aqueous formulation. The possible outcome of dose reduction will reduce the cardiovascular side effects generally reported with Timolol maleate eye drops.
... and other problems. In addition to taking medication, making lifestyle changes will also help to control your ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.
24-Hour Efficacy and Ocular Surface Health with Preservative-Free Tafluprost Alone and in Conjunction with Preservative-Free Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients Insufficiently Controlled with Preserved Latanoprost Monotherapy.
Konstas, Anastasios-Georgios; Boboridis, Konstadinos G; Kapis, Paraskevas; Marinopoulos, Konstantinos; Voudouragkaki, Irini C; Panayiotou, Dimitrios; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Katsanos, Andreas; Quaranta, Luciano
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 24-h efficacy, tolerability, and ocular surface health with preservative-free (PF) tafluprost and a PF triple drug regimen comprising tafluprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients who were insufficiently controlled with preserved branded or generic latanoprost monotherapy and who exhibited signs or symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD). Prospective, observer-masked, crossover, comparison. Eligible consecutive open-angle glaucoma patients were randomized to either PF tafluprost or the triple PF regimen for 3 months. They were then crossed over to the opposite therapy for another 3 months. At the end of the latanoprost run-in period and after each PF treatment period, patients underwent habitual 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring with Goldmann tonometry in the sitting position (at 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00) and Perkins tonometry in the supine position (at 02:00 and 06:00). Tolerability and selected ocular surface parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of each treatment period. Forty-three open-angle glaucoma patients completed the trial. Mean 24-h IOP on preserved latanoprost was 22.2 ± 3.9 mmHg. Compared with latanoprost monotherapy, PF tafluprost obtained a greater reduction in mean, peak, and fluctuation of 24-h IOP including the 02:00 and 06:00 time points (P < 0.05). With the exception of 24-h fluctuation, the triple PF regimen provided significantly lower IOP parameters than latanoprost or PF tafluprost (P < 0.001). Finally, PF tafluprost therapy displayed significantly improved tear film break-up times (6.7 vs 6.0 s), corneal staining (1.3 vs 2.2), and Schirmer I test results (9.1 vs 8.2 mm) compared with the preserved latanoprost baseline (all P < 0.01). The triple PF regimen demonstrated similar tear film break-up times (6.1 vs 6.0 s) and Schirmer I test results (8.2 vs 8.2 mm) to latanoprost, but revealed a significant
Ammar, David A.
Purpose We investigated the potential short and long-term effects in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells of various topical glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives. Methods We tested the fixed combination medications 0.004% travoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK; DuoTrav®), or with 0.001% polyquad (PQ; DuoTrav® BAK-free); and 0.005% latanoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (Xalacom®). Also tested was a range of BAK concentrations (0.001%–0.020%) in balanced salt solution (BSS). Cells were treated for 25 min at 37 °C with solutions diluted 1:10 and 1:100 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. The percentage of live cells was determined immediately after treatment through the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM. To determine any long-term effects, we assayed release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and apoptosis 24 h after treatments. Results BAK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in TM cell viability, ranging from 71±5% live cells at 0.001% BAK (diluted 1:10) to 33±3% live cells at 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:10). Travoprost (0.004%) plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.015% BAK had statistically fewer live TM cells (79±7%) than the same preparation preserved with 0.001% polyquad® (PQ; 93±1%; p<0.001). Latanoprost plus timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (29±9% live cells) was similar to the 0.020% BAK (33±3%) treatment. However, travoprost plus timolol preserved in 0.015% BAK had significantly more live cells (83±12%) than the 1:10 dilution of 0.015% BAK (49±10%). We also found 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:100) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular MMP-9 at 24 h. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the substitution of the preservative BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater in vitro viability of TM cells. Travoprost with timolol, but not latanoprost with timolol, countered some of the toxic
Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y
We investigated the potential short and long-term effects in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells of various topical glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives. We tested the fixed combination medications 0.004% travoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK; DuoTrav®), or with 0.001% polyquad (PQ; DuoTrav(®) BAK-free); and 0.005% latanoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (Xalacom(®)). Also tested was a range of BAK concentrations (0.001%-0.020%) in balanced salt solution (BSS). Cells were treated for 25 min at 37 °C with solutions diluted 1:10 and 1:100 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. The percentage of live cells was determined immediately after treatment through the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM. To determine any long-term effects, we assayed release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and apoptosis 24 h after treatments. BAK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in TM cell viability, ranging from 71±5% live cells at 0.001% BAK (diluted 1:10) to 33±3% live cells at 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:10). Travoprost (0.004%) plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.015% BAK had statistically fewer live TM cells (79±7%) than the same preparation preserved with 0.001% polyquad® (PQ; 93±1%; p<0.001). Latanoprost plus timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (29±9% live cells) was similar to the 0.020% BAK (33±3%) treatment. However, travoprost plus timolol preserved in 0.015% BAK had significantly more live cells (83±12%) than the 1:10 dilution of 0.015% BAK (49±10%). We also found 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:100) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular MMP-9 at 24 h. These results demonstrate that the substitution of the preservative BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater in vitro viability of TM cells. Travoprost with timolol, but not latanoprost with timolol, countered some of the toxic BAK effects. BAK treatment
Gao, Ying; Wu, Lingling; Li, Aijun
To determine and compare the daily cost of various glaucoma medications in China. The majority of glaucoma medications commercially available in China were included in this research. The total number of drops in 1 bottle of each medication was counted drop by drop. The mean volume per bottle of each medication was calculated. The cost per drop, number of days for both eyes usage per bottle, and daily cost was calculated. (1) The volume per drop ranged from 0.03 mL (brinzolamide 1%, travoprost 0.004%, bimatoprost 0.03%, and latanoprost 0.005%) to 0.05 mL (timolol 0.5%-Chengrui and pilocarpine 0.5% and 2%-Zhenrui). (2) The cost per bottle ranged from $0.69 (US dollar) (timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er) to $40.78 (latanoprost 0.005%). (3) The number of days for both eyes usage per bottle ranged from 52 days (bimatoprost 0.03%) to 11 days (pilocarpine nitrate 0.5%-Zhenrui). (4) The daily cost for both eyes usage from expensive to cheap were latanoprost 0.005%-$0.91, travoprost 0.004%-$0.77, brimonidine 0.2%-$0.61, bimatoprost 0.03%-$0.46, D-timolol 1%-$0.36, brinzolamide 1%-$0.34, pilocarpine 2%-Zhenrui-$0.28, levobunolol 0.5%-$0.25, betaxolol 0.25%-$0.24, pilocarpine 0.5%-Zhenrui-$0.18, pilocarpine 2%-Huming-$0.16, carteolol 1%-Mikelan-$0.15, carteolol 2%-Mikelan-$0.15, pilocarpine 1%-Huming-$0.10, timolol 0.5%-Chengrui-$0.08, timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er-$0.03. The daily cost of glaucoma medications in China ranged much more wildly than developed countries. These data may be useful in selecting medications for glaucoma therapy. The ophthalmic solution of prostaglandins is powerful in reducing intraocular pressure. However, its high price should be considered when selecting glaucoma medications in China.
Battistini, F D; Tártara, L I; Boiero, C; Guzmán, M L; Luciani-Giaccobbe, L C; Palma, S D; Allemandi, D A; Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E
The aim of this work was to obtain information concerning the properties of ophthalmic formulations based on hyaluronic-drug ionic complexes, to identify the factors that determine the onset, intensity and duration of the pharmacotherapeutic effect. Dispersions of a complex of 0.5% w/v of sodium hyaluronate (HyNa) loaded with 0.5% w/v of timolol maleate (TM) were obtained and presented a counterionic condensation higher than 75%. For comparison a similar complex obtained with hyaluronic acid (HyH) was also prepared. Although the viscosity of HyNa-TM was significantly higher than that of HyH-TM, in vitro release of TM from both complexes showed a similar extended drug release profile (20-31% over 5h) controlled by diffusion and ionic exchange. Ocular pharmacokinetic study performed in normotensive rabbits showed that HyNa-TM complex exhibited attractive bioavailability properties in the aqueous humor (AUC and Cmax significantly higher and later Tmax) compared to commercial TM eye-drops. Moreover, a more prolonged period of lowered intra-ocular pressure (10h) and a more intense hypotensive activity was observed after instillation of a drop of HyNa-TM as compared to the eye-drops. Such behavior was related to the longer pre-corneal residence times (400%) observed with HyNa-TM complex. No significant changes in rabbit transcorneal permeation were detected upon complexation. These results demonstrate that the ability of HyNa to modulate TM release, together with its mucoadhesiveness related to the viscosity, affected both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. The HyNa-TM complex is a potentially useful carrier for ocular drug delivery, which could improve the TM efficacy and reduce the frequency of administration to improve patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi
We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing antiglaucoma eyedrops. We prepared cell cultures of SIRC, BCE C/D-1b, RC-1, and Chang conjunctiva. The viability of cell cultures was determined using the MTT and neutral red assays. The cell viability score (CVS) was used to compare the toxicity of test solutions. %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 of each eyedrop solution were 71 and 26 for Lumigan(®) (0.002% bimatoprost with 0.005% BAK), 100 and 99 for Tapros(®) (0.0015% tafluprost, a new formula from 2010 with 0.001% BAK), 39 and -29 for 2% Trusopt(®) (2% dorzolamide with 0.0075% BAK), 28 and -43 for Xalacom(®) (latanoprost/0.5% timolol with 0.02% BAK), 88 and 66 for DuoTrav(®) (travoprost/0.5% timolol with no BAK), 36 and -35 for Cosopt(®) (2% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol with 0.0075% BAK) and 53 and -1 for Combigan(®) (0.15% brimonidin/0.5% timolol with 0.005% BAK). Only Xalacom(®) and Tapros(®) did not show an apparent decrease in %CVS as compared to the corresponding concentration of BAK. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of tested eyedrops was dependent on BAK. Only the eyedrops containing latanoprost or tafluprost showed a reduction in the cytotoxicity of BAK.
Chen, Jennifer C; Schmid, Katrina L; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H
Increased susceptibility to nearwork-induced accommodative adaptation has been suggested as a risk factor for myopia development. We investigated whether accommodative adaptation may explain in part the high prevalence of myopia in Hong Kong children and examined the effect of beta-antagonism with topical timolol maleate on accommodative adaptation. Thirty children (10 emmetropes and 20 myopes) aged between 8 and 12 years were recruited. Tonic accommodation was measured before and after 5 min of video game-playing using an open-field Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Measurements were repeated 30 min after timolol instillation. Children with progressing myopia demonstrated accommodative adaptation following the near task, whereas stable myopes showed counter-adaptive, hyperopic accommodative changes. Timolol increased the magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the stable myopes but had little effect on responses of the progressing myopes or emmetropes. Neuropharmacological modulation of the accommodative system may have a possible etiological role in the progression of myopia.
Dorzolamide and brinzolamide are topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) indicated for patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. An evidence-based review of clinical trials of dorzolamide and brinzolamide was undertaken to determine an effect of these medications on visual function (primarily visual field) in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Using the keywords 'dorzolamide' and 'brinzolamide', all articles describing trials of these medications reporting on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field from September 1966 to July 2009 were found in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. No information from other sources was included in this review. A relatively modest number of trials was identified, where impact of therapy on one or more of the visual function modes was reported. In the studies of less than 1 year duration (3 days to 1 year, 23 studies) in all but three studies treatment with topical CAIs did not influence visual function, in two studies with dorzolamide some improvement in the contrast sensitivity was observed and in one open-label retrospective no-control-group study with dorzolamide visual field indices improved significantly. A different picture was seen in long-term studies, which were designed and powered to detect changes in visual field. One large study (European Glaucoma Prevention Study) with dorzolamide versus placebo failed to detect significant protective effect of the drug on glaucoma occurrence in ocular hypertensives. Several interesting aspects of this study are discussed in detail. The other two long-term studies reported on the superiority of adding dorzolamide over timolol therapy alone, and the superiority of the combination of dorzolamide and timolol over brinzolamide and timolol in terms of improving ocular blood flow (retrobulbar Color Doppler Imaging--CDI parameters) as well as in terms of visual field preservation in glaucoma patients over 4 to 5 years. For the first time one study could demonstrate
Efficacy and Tolerability of Travoprost 0.004%/Timolol 0.5% Fixed-Dose Combination for the Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Inadequately Controlled with Beta-Blocker Monotherapy.
Lerner, Simon Fabian; Park, Ki Ho; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Erichev, Valeriy; Paczka, Jose A; Roberts, Timothy V
Objective . To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TTFC) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) inadequately controlled on beta-blocker monotherapy. Methods . In this phase IV, open-label study, 156 patients on beta-blocker monotherapy with mean intraocular pressure (IOP) between 18 and 32 mmHg were randomized (no washout period) to receive TTFC for 8 weeks (TTFC group) or to continue beta-blocker monotherapy for 4 weeks followed by TTFC for the remaining 4 weeks (beta-blocker group). Results . The mean IOP (±standard deviation) at baseline in the TTFC and beta-blocker groups was 22.5 ± 2.5 mmHg and 22.2 ± 2.3 mmHg, respectively, and at weeks 4 and 8, was 16.7 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively, in TTFC group and 21.1 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively, in the beta-blocker group. There was a significant least squares mean difference between TTFC and beta-blocker in 8 a.m. IOP at week 4 (-4.6 mmHg; one-sided 95% confidence interval [-inf, -3.9]; p < 0.0001 [primary endpoint]); the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was within the prespecified limit (<0). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion . Superior IOP control was achieved with TTFC in patients with OAG or OHT previously uncontrolled with beta-blockers. No new safety findings were identified. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02003391.
Yang, Hu; Tyagi, Puneet; Kadam, Rajendra S; Holden, Christopher A; Kompella, Uday B
We report a novel hybrid polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer hydrogel/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle platform (HDNP) for codelivery of two antiglaucoma drugs, brimonidine and timolol maleate. This platform was not cytotoxic to human corneal epithelial cells. Cellular uptake of Nile red-encapsulating PLGA nanoparticles was significantly increased by dendrimer hydrogel. A prolonged residence time of nanoparticles was demonstrated through investigation of FluoSpheres loaded into dendrimer hydrogel. Both brimonidine and timolol maleate were slowly released in vitro over a period of 28-35 days. Following topical administration of one eye drop (30 μL of 0.7% w/v brimonidine and 3.5% w/v timolol maleate) in normotensive adult Dutch-belted male rabbits, the HDNP formulation resulted in a sustained and effective IOP reduction (18% or higher) for 4 days. Furthermore, the HDNP maintained significantly higher concentrations of brimonidine in aqueous humor and cornea as well as timolol maleate in the aqueous humor, cornea, and conjunctiva up to 7 days as compared to saline, DH, and PLGA nanoparticle dosage forms, without inducing ocular inflammation or discomfort. Histological analysis of the cornea and conjunctiva did not reveal any morphological or structural changes. Our work demonstrated that this new platform is capable of enhancing drug bioavailability and sustaining effective IOP reduction over an extended period of time. This newly developed platform can greatly reduce dosing frequency of topical formulations, thus, improving long-term patient compliance and reducing enormous societal and economic costs. Given its high structural adaptability, many other chronic ocular diseases would benefit from long-lasting drug delivery of this new platform.
Popovic, Marko; Chan, Clara; Lattanzio, Nisha; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Schlenker, Matthew B
Medication cost for the same indication can vary considerably and can affect patient compliance. In this comparative cost analysis of commonly prescribed ophthalmology medications, the differences in cost between generic and brand name medications as well as different medications within an individual drug class were evaluated. Eye preparations from the Ontario Drug Benefit Formulary were identified, and further agents commonly prescribed by ophthalmologists were included. The standardized prescription drug cost, which includes the cost of the medication, mark-up, and dispensing cost, was provided by Ontario Shoppers Drug Mart stores in July 2016 for 103 common medications using typical dosages and durations. Based on medication class, the highest and lowest cost medications were antiallergy agents (Zaditor [ketotifen], Vasocon [naphazoline]), antibiotic ophthalmic solutions (Vigamox [moxifloxacin], generic ciprofloxacin), oral antibiotics (Cipro [ciprofloxacin], generic cephalexin), antibiotic ophthalmic ointments (generic erythromycin, Tobrex [tobramycin]), antiviral treatment (Valtrex [oral valacyclovir], Viroptic [topical trifluridine]), blepharitis treatment (Zithromax [oral azithromycin], generic oral tetracycline), beta-adrenergic inhibitors (Timoptic [topical timolol], generic topical timolol), topical prostaglandin analogues (Xalatan [latanoprost], generic travoprost), oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (methazolamide, acetazolamide), topical carbonic anhydrase solutions (Trusopt preservative-free [dorzolamide], Azopt [brinzolamide]), topical alpha-adrenergic agonists (Alphagan [brimonidine], generic brimonidine), topical muscarinic agonists (Isopto carpine [pilocarpine], Diocarpine [pilocarpine]), topical combination glaucoma agents (Cosopt [dorzolamide-timolol], generic dorzolamide-timolol), topical lubricants (Lacri-lube, Isopto tears), topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Acuvail [ketorolac], Ilevro [nepafenac]), and steroids (Durezol
Cao, Yanxia; Zhang, Can; Shen, Wenbin; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Ping, Qineng
A novel copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-chitosan (PNIPAAm-CS), was investigated for its thermosensitive in situ gel-forming properties and potential utilization for ocular drug delivery. The thermal sensitivity and low critical solution temperature (LCST) were determined by the cloud point method. PNIPAAm-CS had a LCST of 32 degrees C, which is close to the surface temperature of the eye. The in vivo ocular pharmacokinetics of timolol maleate in PNIPAAm-CS solution were evaluated and compared to that in conventional eye drop solution by using rabbits according to the microdialysis method. The C(max) of timolol maleate in aqueous fluid for the PNIPAAm-CS solution was 11.2 microg/ml, which is two-fold higher than that of the conventional eye drop, along with greater AUC. Furthermore, the PNIPAAm-CS gel-forming solution of timolol maleate had a stronger capacity to reduce the intra-ocular pressure (IOP) than that of the conventional eye drop of same concentration over a period of 12 h. In addition, the MTT assay showed that there is little cytotoxicity of PNIPAAm-CS at concentration range of 0.5-400 microg/ml. These results suggest that PNIPAAm-CS is a potential thermosensitive in situ gel-forming material for ocular drug delivery, and it may improve the bio-availability, efficacy, and compliance of some eye drugs.
Yorio, T; DeLoach, G; Satumtira, N
The effects of antiglaucoma drugs on [32P]-orthophosphate incorporation into phospholipids of iris and ciliary process were investigated. Both iris and ciliary process rapidly incorporated 32Pi into the major phospholipids, with the acidic phosphoinositides demonstrating a greater labelling than phosphatidylcholine, indicating a greater turnover. The muscarinic agonists, carbachol and pilocarpine, stimulated 32Pi-labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in both iris and ciliary process. These effects were blocked by atropine, suggesting that the response was mediated through muscarinic receptors. The beta blocking ocular hypotensive drugs, propranolol, timolol and atenolol, produced varying effects on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of iris and ciliary process. Propranolol stimulated 32Pi-labelling into phosphatidylinositol 4', 5' bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4' phosphate (PIP), PI and PA. Timolol decreased 32Pi-incorporation into PIP2 and PI, whereas atenolol, a selective beta 1 antagonist, had no significant effect on 32Pi-labelling of phospholipids. The above findings on propranolol agree with previous observations which demonstrated that propranolol redirects glycerolipid metabolism through multiple effects on the enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis, particularly in stimulating phosphatidylinositol kinases. The results with timolol suggest that this drug may decrease phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The effects of these ocular hypotensive, non-selective beta blocking drugs on phospholipid turnover may ultimately limit the accumulation of breakdown products which could serve as cellular messengers.
Denis, P; Le Pen, C; Umuhire, D; Berdeaux, G
To compare the effectiveness of two treatment sequences, latanoprost-latanoprost timolol fixed combination (L-LT) versus travoprost-travoprost timolol fixed combination (T-TT), in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). A discrete event simulation (DES) model was constructed. Patients with either OAG or OHT were treated first-line with a prostaglandin, either latanoprost or travoprost. In case of treatment failure, patients were switched to the specific prostaglandin-timolol sequence LT or TT. Failure was defined as intraocular pressure higher than or equal to 18 mmHg at two visits. Time to failure was estimated from two randomized clinical trials. Log-rank tests were computed. Linear functions after log-log transformation were used to model time to failure. The time horizon of the model was 60 months. Outcomes included treatment failure and disease progression. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Latanoprost treatment resulted in more treatment failures than travoprost (p<0.01), and LT more than TT (p<0.01). At 60 months, the probability of starting a third treatment line was 39.2% with L-LT versus 29.9% with T-TT. On average, L-LT patients developed 0.55 new visual field defects versus 0.48 for T-TT patients. The probability of no disease progression at 60 months was 61.4% with L-LT and 65.5% with T-TT. Based on randomized clinical trial results and using a DES model, the T-TT sequence was more effective at avoiding starting a third line treatment than the L-LT sequence. T-TT treated patients developed less glaucoma progression.
de Vries, B; Roffel, A F; Zaagsma, J; Meurs, H
In the present study, we investigated the effect of fenoterol-induced constitutive beta(2)-adrenoceptor activity on muscarinic receptor agonist- and histamine-induced bovine tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips were incubated with 10 microM fenoterol or vehicle for various periods of time (5, 30 min, 18 h) at 37 degrees C. After extensive washout (3 h, 37 degrees C), isometric contractions were measured to the full muscarinic receptor agonist methacholine, the partial muscarinic receptor agonist 4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium (McN-A-343) and histamine. Fenoterol treatment significantly reduced the sensitivity (pEC(50)) to methacholine in a time-dependent manner, without affecting maximal contraction (E(max)). Fenoterol treatment similarly reduced the pEC(50) of McN-A-343 and histamine; however, E(max) values were also reduced, to approximately 70% of control after 18-h treatment. The inverse agonist timolol, having no effect on control preparations, consistently restored the reduced pEC(50) and E(max) values of the contractile agonists. Remarkably, in the presence of timolol the pEC(50) values of McN-A-343 and histamine in fenoterol-treated airways were significantly enhanced compared to controls. In conclusion, fenoterol-induced constitutive beta(2)-adrenoceptor activity reduces muscarinic receptor agonist- and histamine-induced contractions of bovine tracheal smooth muscle, which can be reversed by the inverse agonist timolol. Moreover, after beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist treatment, inverse agonism by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may cause enhanced airway reactivity to contractile mediators.
Cheng, Jin-Wei; Cai, Ji-Ping; Wei, Rui-Li
To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction achieved by the most frequently prescribed antiglaucoma drugs in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Fifteen randomized clinical trials reported 25 arms for peak IOP reduction, 16 arms for trough IOP reduction, and 13 arms for diurnal curve IOP reduction. Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The patients had to be diagnosed as having NTG. Methodological quality was assessed by the Delphi list on a scale from 0 to 18. The pooled 1-month IOP-lowering effects were calculated using the 2-step DerSimonian and Laird estimate method of the random effects model. Absolute and relative reductions in IOP from baseline for peak and trough moments. Quality scores of included studies were generally high, with a mean quality score of 12.7 (range, 9-16). Relative IOP reductions were peak, 15% (12%-18%), and trough, 18% (8%-27%) for timolol; peak, 14% (8%-19%), and trough, 12% (-7% to 31%) for dorzolamide; peak, 24% (17%-31%), and trough, 11% (7%-14%) for brimonidine; peak, 20% (17%-24%), and trough, 20% (18%-23%) for latanoprost; peak, 21% (16%-25%), and trough, 18% (14%-22%) for bimatoprost. The differences in absolute IOP reductions between prostaglandin analogues and timolol varied from 0.9 to 1.0 mmHg at peak and -0.1 to 0.2 mmHg at trough. Latanoprost, bimatoprost, and timolol are the most effective IOP-lowering agents in patients with NTG.
Suzuki, Emilio Rintaro; Suzuki, Cibele Lima Belico
Travoprost is a prostaglandin analog used in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). The IOP-lowering efficacy of travoprost has been shown to be similar to that of other prostaglandins, including latanoprost and bimatoprost. When compared with fixed combinations of timolol and either latanoprost or dorzolamide, travoprost alone can reduce mean IOP in a similar or superior manner. Concomitant therapy of travoprost and timolol can reach even greater IOP reductions than fixed combinations at some time points, but with no difference in the early morning, when IOP is usually higher. In addition, the long duration of action of travoprost can also provide better control of IOP fluctuation, probably due to its stronger prostaglandin F receptor mechanism. The side effects of travoprost do not represent a risk to the vision or health of the patient. The proven efficacy and safety combined with convenient once-daily dosing for travoprost increases patient compliance with treatment for glaucoma. PMID:21060666
Hoy, Sheridan M
Latanoprostene bunod ophthalmic solution 0.024% (hereafter referred to as latanoprostene bunod 0.024%) [Vyzulta™] is a nitric oxide (NO)-donating prostaglandin F 2α analogue approved in the USA for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension. It is thought to lower IOP by increasing aqueous humour outflow through the uveoscleral pathway (mediated by latanoprost acid) and increasing the facility of aqueous humour outflow through the trabecular meshwork pathway (mediated by NO). Results from two multinational, phase III studies (APOLLO and LUNAR) and a pooled analysis of these studies demonstrated the noninferiority of latanoprostene bunod 0.024% to timolol ophthalmic solution 0.5% (hereafter referred to as timolol 0.5%) in terms of IOP-lowering efficacy over 3 months in patients with OAG or ocular hypertension, with the superiority of latanoprostene bunod 0.024% over timolol 0.5% subsequently demonstrated in APOLLO and the pooled analysis. Moreover, there was no apparent loss of IOP-lowering effect in subsequent safety extension periods of up to 9 months. The IOP-lowering efficacy seen in APOLLO and LUNAR was confirmed in a phase III study (JUPITER) in Japanese patients, with IOP reductions observed early (week 4) and maintained over the longer-term (12 months). Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% was well tolerated over up to 12 months in these studies, with most ocular treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) being mild to moderate in severity. Thus, current evidence indicates once-daily latanoprostene bunod 0.024% is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for the reduction of IOP in adults with OAG or ocular hypertension.
Dees, D Dustin; Spahn, Kate J; Wagner, Lynsey Smith; Greller, Andrew; Paglia, Danielle; Armour, Micki D; Madsen, Richard
To determine whether topical hypotensive medications prevent postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) after phacoemulsification. 52 client-owned dogs (88 eyes). Diabetic and nondiabetic dogs having undergone phacoemulsification were included in this retrospective study. The control group received no ocular hypotensive medications. The treatment groups received latanoprost, dorzolamide, or dorzolamide/timolol, beginning immediately after surgery, for 2-week duration. IOPs were obtained at initial examination followed by 4 h, 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days postoperatively. POH was defined as an IOP above 20 mmHg (POH20) or 25 mmHg (POH25). POH20 occurred in 33 of 87 eyes (37.93%), including 11 of 21 eyes (52.38%) in the control group, three of 23 eyes (13.04%) in the latanoprost group, eight of 15 eyes (53.33%) in the dorzolamide group, and 11 of 28 eyes (39.29%) in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Active treatment groups were compared to the control group, and the overall group effect was not significant (P = 0.11). POH25 occurred in 22 of 86 eyes (25.58%), including seven of 21 eyes (33.33%) in the control group, two of 23 eyes (8.70%) in the latanoprost group, five of 15 eyes (33.33%) in the dorzolamide group, and eight of 27 eyes (29.63%) in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Active treatment groups were compared to the control group, and the overall group effect was not significant (P = 0.31). Intraoperative use of intracameral tissue plasminogen activator significantly decreased the chances of POH25 (P = 0.0063). The latanoprost group had a substantially lower percentage of POH 20 and POH25 compared to the control and other active treatment groups, although statistical significance was not achieved. Intraoperative intracameral tissue plasminogen activator decreased the incidence of POH25. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Sato, T; Muto, T; Ishibashi, Y; Roy, S
In this study the acute effect of the topically-delivered non-selective beta-blockers timolol and carteolol, and the selective beta-blocker betaxolol, were evaluated with respect to ocular blood flow, intraocular pressure (IOP) and vessel resistance in rabbits' eyes. In a double masked randomized design, one eye of each subject (n = 9) received two drops of 0.5 % timolol or 2 % cartelol or 0.5 % betaxolol ophthalmic solution and a separate group of nine rabbits received two drops of placebo consisting of physiological saline in both eyes to serve as control. Using hydrogen clearance method, ciliary body blood flow (CiBF), choroidal blood flow (CBF), and retinal blood flow (RBF) were measured. IOP and systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) of each subject were measured under same condition before and after the administration of respective drugs to calculate the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) and vessel resistance. In timolol- and carteolol-treated eyes significant reduction was observed in IOP (p < 0.01), CiBF (p < 0.01), CBF (p < 0.01) and RBF (p < 0.01) compared to control eyes. However, in betaxolol-treated eyes a marginal reduction in IOP was observed accompanied by significant increase in CiBF (p < 0.01) and RBF (p < 0.05). The non-selective beta-blocker-treated eyes tended to have increased vessel resistance, whereas, selective beta-blocker-treated eyes tended to have decreased vessel resistance. Our current results comparing non-selective and selective beta-blockers suggest that the selective beta-blocker betaxolol may be more appropriate for maintenance of retinal blood flow in situations with low perfusion. Currently the mechanism for regulation of IOP is unclear; however, the findings from this study indicate that decreased CiBF may contribute to reduction in IOP.
Roy Chowdhury, Uttio; Rinkoski, Tommy A.; Bahler, Cindy K.; Millar, J. Cameron; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Holman, Bradley H.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Overby, Darryl R.; Stoltz, Kristen L.; Dosa, Peter I.; Fautsch, Michael P.
Purpose Cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) is a water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener that has shown ocular hypotensive properties in ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. To determine its mechanism of action, we assessed the effect of CKLP1 on aqueous humor dynamics and in combination therapy with existing ocular hypotensive agents. Methods Outflow facility was assessed in C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo eye perfusions and by in vivo constant flow infusion following CKLP1 treatment. Human anterior segments with no trabecular meshwork were evaluated for effect on pressure following CKLP1 treatment. CKLP1 alone and in combination with latanoprost, timolol, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 were evaluated for effect on intraocular pressure in C57BL/6 mice and Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits. Results CKLP1 lowered episcleral venous pressure (control: 8.9 ± 0.1 mm Hg versus treated: 6.2 ± 0.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001) but had no detectable effect on outflow facility, aqueous humor flow rate, or uveoscleral outflow. Treatment with CKLP1 in human anterior segments without the trabecular meshwork resulted in a 50% ± 9% decrease in pressure, suggesting an effect on the distal portion of the conventional outflow pathway. CKLP1 worked additively with latanoprost, timolol, and Y27632 to lower IOP, presumably owing to combined effects on different aspects of aqueous humor dynamics. Conclusions CKLP1 lowered intraocular pressure by reducing episcleral venous pressure and lowering distal outflow resistance in the conventional outflow pathway. Owing to this unique mechanism of action, CKLP1 works in an additive manner to lower intraocular pressure with latanoprost, timolol, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. PMID:29114841
Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Safronova, M A; Tarash, O S; Dimaksyan, M V
to evaluate ocular hypotensive efficacy of parenteral metoprolol in an experiment. A total of 3 series of experiments on 24 rabbits were performed. The first series involved a single subconjunctival injection of 0.3 mg of metoprolol in the right eye, while the left served as a control. During the second series the rabbits received 0.5 mg of metoprolol intramuscularly. The third series also implied a subconjunctival injection of 0.3 mg of metoprolol in the right eye, however, supplemented with timolol 0.5% instilled in the left. In all rabbits tonometry was performed before the injection and then in 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy were also performed before and 1, 3, and 7 days after the injection. The maximum reduction (down to 30% from the baseline) of intraocular pressure (IOP) was registered in intramuscular metoprolol rabbits. Subconjunctival metoprolol was associated with a faster and more pronounced decrease in IOP as compared to timolol instillations. In case of local or systemic parenteral administration the hypotensive effect of metoprolol lasts for more than a day.
Keshmirian, J; Nogrady, T
Norepinephrine (NE) induces three pharmacological effects in Brachionus plicatilis. As a result of excitation the rate of ciliary motion and swimming increases, and the animals flip their foot constantly at a rapid rate. This rapid foot flipping was used as a specific model to measure adrenergic effects in B. plicatilis. Phenylephrine induces the same effect at identical efficacy, while isoproterenol and salbutamol, two beta-agonists, show one-half and one-tenth NE efficacy. The beta blocker propranolol and the alpha blocker tolazoline both antagonize foot flipping induced by NE. However, propranolol shows antagonism because it causes foot paralysis by itself. Timolol, another beta blocker but without the membrane effect of propranolol, does not antagonize the alpha receptor mediated NE effect, nor does it cause foot paralysis. Propranolol, timolol and tolazoline also show agonist activity, inducing foot flipping. NE does not antagonize the foot paralysis induced by propranolol, only its anesthetic effect by delaying its onset. These results indicate that the foot flipping induced by NE is a receptor-mediated alpha adrenergic effect, while the foot paralysis is caused by membrane phenomena.
Lipner, Shari R
Port wine stains (PWS) pose a therapeutic challenge. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the treatment of choice; however, treatment is often ineffective and recurrences are common. This article provides a review of topical therapies that have been investigated to improve efficacy of PDL for the treatment of PWS. A literature search was performed through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL, using the search terms "port wine stain," "pulsed dye laser," and "topical." Clinical trials have investigated the topical agents, timolol, imiquimod, and rapamycin (RPM) in combination with PDL for the treatment of PWS. Topical timolol with PDL failed to show improved efficacy compared with PDL alone. Two clinical trials using imiquimod and PDL showed enhanced blanching of PWS compared with controls. Rapamycin and PDL were more effective than controls for facial PWS, but not for nonfacial PWS. Topical imiquimod and RPM have shown some efficacy in treating PWS with PDL, but to date there is no topical adjuvant to PDL that reliably improves results for PWS.
Ganekal, Sunil; Dorairaj, Syril; Jhanji, Vishal; Kudlu, Krishnaprasad
To evaluate the effect of 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% diltiazem eye drops on intraocular pressure (IOP) in steroid-induced glaucoma in rabbit eyes. A total of 18 rabbits with steroid-induced glaucoma were divided into three groups (A, B and C; n = 6 each). Right eyes in groups A, B and C received 0.5% diltiazem, 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% timolol eye drops twice daily for 12 days, respectively; whereas, left eyes received distilled water. IOP was measured with Tono-pen XL at baseline, day 4, day 8, and day 12 of treatment. Both 0.5% diltiazem and 0.125% verapamil eye drops significantly reduced IOP compared to control eyes (p < 0.05). Reduction of IOP by 0.5% diltiazem, 0.125% verapamil eye drops were comparable to 0.5% timolol. No surface toxicity or systemic side effects were noted during the study period. Calcium channel blockers, verapamil, and diltia-zem significantly reduced IOP in rabbiteyes. This group of drugs may have a potential role in treatment of glaucoma How to cite this article: Ganekal S, Dorairaj S, Jhanji V, Kudlu K. Effect of Topical Calcium Channel Blockers on Intraocular Pressure in Steroid-induced Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2014;8(1):15-19.
In order to normalize the condition of pseudomyopia, the following can be summarized: One percent cyclopentolate was effective in 63%, and 0.4% tropicamide was effective in 59% of the cases. With a value of 68% after labetalol eye drops there were no significant differences in efficacy between this drug and the above cycloplegics. In subjects treated only with placebo, 4 out of 16 eyes, i.e. 25% were relieved. A significant difference (P less than 0.01) was found between the results with the above 3 drugs and placebo. On the other hand, the efficacy of 0.25% timolol (effect in 28%) and chemical X (effect in 37%) were not significantly different from the effect of placebo, though the results with chemical X encourage further trials. It can be postulated that by releasing an abnormal tension cycloplegics reduce the myopic condition. Regarding the hypotensive action of beta-adrenergic blockers on intraocular pressure, it presumably depends mainly on inhibition of secretion in the ciliary body. The fact that labetalol appeared effective, and timolol not, in treatment trials of slight myopia might imply that the mechanism behind an effect of labetalol on slight myopia is not merely a beta-adrenergic blocking action.
Holden, Christopher A; Tyagi, Puneet; Thakur, Ashish; Kadam, Rajendra; Jadhav, Gajanan; Kompella, Uday B; Yang, Hu
Dendrimer hydrogel (DH), made from ultraviolet-cured polyamidoamine dendrimer G3.0 tethered with three polyethylene glycol (PEG, 12,000 Da)-acrylate chains (8.1% w/v) in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS), was studied for the delivery of brimonidine (0.1% w/v) and timolol maleate (0.5% w/v), two antiglaucoma drugs. DH was found to be mucoadhesive to mucin particles and nontoxic to human corneal epithelial cells. DH increased the PBS solubility of brimonidine by 77.6% and sustained the in vitro release of both drugs over 56-72 hours. As compared to eye drop formulations (PBS-drug solutions), DH brought about substantially higher human corneal epithelial cells uptake and significantly increased bovine corneal transport for both drugs. DH increased timolol maleate uptake in bovine corneal epithelium, stroma, and endothelium by 0.4- to 4.6-fold. This work demonstrated that DH can enhance the delivery of antiglaucoma drugs in multiple aspects and represents a novel platform for ocular drug delivery. Dendrimer hydrogel was studied as agent for simultaneous delivery of two anti-glaucoma drugs, one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic. Superiority over standard PBS-based formulation was clearly demonstrated for both drugs. The work may be a novel platform for ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morsi, Nadia M; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Dawoud, Marwa H S
Timolol Maleate (TiM), a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker, is a potent highly effective agent for management of hypertension. The drug suffers from poor oral bioavailability (50%) due to its first pass effect and a short elimination half-life of 4 h; resulting in its frequent administration. Transdermal formulation may circumvent these problems in the form of protransfersomes. The aim of this study is to develop and optimize transdermal protransfersomal system of Timolol Maleate by film deposition on carrier method where protransfersomes were converted to transfersomes upon skin hydration following transdermal application under occlusive conditions. Two 2 3 full factorial designs were employed to investigate the influence of three formulation variables which were; phosphatidyl choline: surfactant molar ratio, carrier: mixture and the type of SAA each on particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and release rate. The optimized formulation was evaluated regarding permeation through hairless rat skin and compared with oral administration of aqueous solution on male Wistar rats. Optimized protransfersomal system had excellent permeation rate through shaved rat skin (780.69 μg/cm 2 /h) and showed six times increase in relative bioavailability with prolonged plasma profile up to 72 h. A potential protransfresomal transdermal system was successfully developed and factorial design was found to be a smart tool in its optimization.
Fiscella, Richard G; Green, Amy; Patuszynski, Daniel H; Wilensky, Jacob
To determine the calculated daily patient cost (cost minimization) of medical glaucoma therapy and review cost trends. Experimental, controlled, prospective study. The actual volume of various glaucoma medications or glaucoma medications with redesigned bottles was determined for most commercially available sizes of the tested products. The drops per milliliter based on the actual volume and the daily costs of the dosage schedules recommended by the manufacturers were compared. The cost of each bottle of medication was determined from the average wholesale price (AWP) in the United States. A comparison to 1999 prices where applicable will be analyzed to review costing trends. The generic timolol products (range, US dollars 0.38-US dollars 0.46 per day) were similar on a cost per day basis vs Betimol (Santen, Napa Valley, California, USA), Optipranolol (Bausch and Lomb Pharmaceuticals, Tampa, Florida, USA) and Timoptic (Merck, West Point, Pennsylvania, USA). Their percentage cost increase ranged from 5% to 22% since 1999, except for generic timolol XE gel-forming solution (48%). Betagan (Allergan, Irvine, California, USA), Betoptic S (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA), and Ocupress (Novartis, Duluth, Georgia, USA) ranged from US dollars 0.88 to US dollars 1.11 per day, and their percentage cost increase ranged from 33% to 53%. Some brand-only products have raised their AWPs a greater percentage, including Betoptic S (37%), Iopidine (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (50%), Ocupress (Novartis Ophthalmics, Duluth, Georgia, USA) (53%), and Pilopine gel (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) (32%). The mean cost per day for the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Azopt (Alcon Laboratories; US dollars 1.33 per day) and Trusopt (Merck; US dollars 1.05 per day) differed from 1999 when prices were almost identical. Cosopt (Merck; timolol 0.5% plus dorzolamide 2%, US dollars 1.04 per day) was less than the cost of separate bottles of a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Adelli, Goutham R.; Bhagav, Prakash; Taskar, Pranjal; Hingorani, Tushar; Pettaway, Sara; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Repka, Michael A.; Majumdar, Soumyajit
Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized. Aqueous solubility and in vitro transcorneal permeability of THC and the prodrugs, in the presence of various surfactants and cyclodextrins, were determined. Two formulations were evaluated for therapeutic activity in the α-chymotrypsin induced rabbit glaucoma model, and the results were compared against controls comprising of THC emulsion and marketed timolol maleate and pilocarpine eye drops. Results THC-Val-HS demonstrated markedly improved solubility (96-fold) and in vitro permeability compared to THC. Selected formulations containing THC-Val-HS effectively delivered THC to the anterior segment ocular tissues in the anesthetized rabbits: 62.1 ng/100 μL of aqueous humor (AH) and 51.4 ng/50 mg of iris ciliary bodies (IC) (total THC). The duration and extent of IOP lowering induced by THC-Val-HS was 1 hour longer and 10% greater, respectively, than that obtained with THC and was comparable with the pilocarpine eye drops. Timolol ophthalmic drops, however, exhibited a longer duration of activity. Both THC and THC-Val-HS were detected in the ocular tissues following multiple dosing of THC-Val-HS in conscious animals. The concentration of THC in the iris-ciliary bodies at the 60- and 120-minute time points (53 and 57.4 ng/50 mg) were significantly greater than that of THC-Val-HS (24.2 and 11.3 ng/50 mg). Moreover, at the two time points studied, the concentration of THC was observed to increase or stay relatively constant, whereas THC-Val-HS concentration decreased
Naka, Tomonori; Ide, Soichiro; Nakako, Tomokazu; Hirata, Mikie; Majima, Yuki; Deyama, Satoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Minami, Masabumi
We previously demonstrated the critical role of noradrenergic transmission within the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) in pain-induced aversion. We showed that activation of β-adrenoceptors in this brain region by intra-vBNST injection of isoproterenol, a β-adrenoceptor agonist, produced aversive responses. In the present study, we examined the effects of a β-adrenoceptor agonist injected into the vBNST on food intake and anxiety-like behaviors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral intra-vBNST injection of isoproterenol (3 and 10 nmol/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake; this suppressive effect was reversed by co-administration of timolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. Dose-dependent (10 and 30 nmol/side) induction of anxiety-like behaviors by isoproterenol was observed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, which was also reversed by co-administration of timolol. Off-site control injections of isoproterenol into the lateral ventricle did not show any significant effect in the food consumption and EPM tests. These results suggest that the vBNST is one of the neuroanatomical substrates which may be involved in the close relationship between negative affective states and reduction of food intake, and that noradrenergic transmission within this brain region plays a critical role in inducing anxiety-like behaviors and reduced food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nishiyama, K; Nishiyama, A; Pfeffer, M A; Frohlich, E D
To determine quantitatively organ blood flow distribution as the result of lifelong beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, 23 and 24 normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, respectively, were treated from conception with tap water (control; 10 WKY and 8 SHR), propranolol (0.5 mg/ml drinking water; 6 WKY and 8 SHR), or timolol (0.5 mg/ml drinking water; 7 WKY and 8 SHR) via placental circulation, mothers' milk, and drinking water. At 12 weeks of age all six groups were studied hemodynamically under ether anesthesia using an electromagnetic flowmeter and radioactive carbonized (15 micrometer) microspheres. Untreated SHR demonstrated normal cardiac output (CO) and CO distribution to all organs except for myocardium and testes, thereby confirming our previous work. With either propranolol or timolol treatment the course of development and maintenance of arterial pressure was no different than the pure-tap-water-fed WKY and SHR despite an approximate 30% reduction in CO. Further, with both beta-receptor antagonists CO distribution was significantly reduced to skeletal muscle (p less than 0.001), unchanged to the heart, and increased (p less than 0.05) to the remaining organs (including kidneys and brain) in both groups. Thus, as a result of lifelong beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, CO was reduced; and this was associated with a redistribution of blood flow so that flow to the kidney, brain, and splanchnic organs could be maintained at the expense of skeletal muslce perfusion.
Tlougan, Brook E; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Orlow, Seth J
A six-week-old girl presented with a segmental, focally atrophic, vascular patch in the diaper area, present since birth. It had undergone minimal proliferation, but had ulcerated. Evaluation to rule out LUMBAR (Lower body hemangioma/Lipoma or other cutaneous anomalies, Urogenital anomalies, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal/Arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies) syndrome, which included ultrasound and Doppler examination of the abdomen, spine, and pelvis, was negative. We report a unique case of an ulcerated, segmental abortive hemangioma of the anogenital area with excellent clinical response to topical timolol gel.
Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A
The effects of intravenous doses of propranolol, sotalol, timolol, atenolol and placebo on exercise-induced tachycardia and exercise-induced increases in hand tremor were assessed in four healthy volunteers. All active drugs produced significant reductions in exercise-induced tachycardia. Exercise caused consistent significant increases in hand tremor which were blocked by the three non-cardioselective drugs but not by atenolol or placebo. The blockade of exercise-induced hand tremor is suggested as a possible test for the assessment of the selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor blockade in man. PMID:2874824
Armour, J Andrew; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Pagé, Pierre; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Vermeulen, Michel; Nadeau, Réginald; Cardinal, René
We sought to determine the sites of origin of atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by activating mediastinal nerves, as well as the response of such arrhythmias to autonomic modulation. Under general anaesthesia, atrioventricular block was induced after thoracotomy in 19 canines. Brief trains of 5 electrical stimuli were delivered to right-sided mediastinal nerves during the atrial refractory period. Unipolar electrograms were recorded from 191 right and left atrial epicardial sites under several conditions, i.e. (i) with intact nervous systems and following (ii) acute decentralization of the intrathoracic nervous system or administration of (iii) atropine, (iv) timolol, (v) hexamethonium. Concomitant right atrial endocardial mapping was performed in 7 of these dogs. Mediastinal nerve stimulation consistently initiated bradycardia followed by atrial tachyarrhythmias. In the initial tachyarrhythmia beats, early epicardial breakthroughs were identified in the right atrial free wall (28/50 episodes) or Bachmann bundle region (22/50), which corresponded to endocardial sites of origin associated with the right atrial subsidiary pacemaker complex, i.e. the crista terminalis and dorsal locations including the right atrial aspect of the interatrial septum. Neuronally induced responses were eliminated by atropine, modified by timolol and unaffected by acute neuronal decentralization. After hexamethonium, responses to extra-pericardial but not intra-pericardial nerve stimulation were eliminated. It is concluded that concomitant activation of cholinergic and adrenergic efferent intrinsic cardiac neurons induced by right-sided efferent neuronal stimulation initiates atrial tachyarrhythmias that originate from foci anatomically related to the right atrial pacemaker complex and tissues underlying major atrial ganglionated plexuses.
Kolomeyer, Anton M; Kodati, Shyam
To report a case of lamotrigine-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU)-atypical Cogan syndrome. Case report. A 16-year-old boy with traumatic brain injury and seizures presented to the emergency department with facial swelling, rash, and back pain several days after increasing lamotrigine dose secondary to a breakthrough seizure. Creatinine, urine β2 microglobulin, and eosinophils were elevated. Antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and complement were normal. Renal biopsy showed acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. Lamotrigine was discontinued, intravenous steroids were initiated, and the patient was discharged on Ativan and prednisone. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with bilateral anterior uveitis (vision 20/30 bilaterally) and started on prednisolone and cyclopentolate. Two months later, he developed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the right eye (vision 20/70) and bilateral ocular hypertension for which timolol-brimonidine and dorzolamide were added. Neuroimaging and hypercoagulability workup was unremarkable. Vision and intraocular pressure improved, while uveitis remained recalcitrant. Several months later, the patient developed central serous retinopathy in the right eye (vision 20/30). Prednisone was stopped but restarted due to methotrexate intolerance. A month later, he reported dizziness and was diagnosed with severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed foci of perivascular, subcortical, and cochlear enhancement. Transtympanic Decadron injections and infliximab infusions were initiated. At the final visit, vision remained at 20/30 with trace anterior chamber reaction bilaterally while on timolol-brimonidine, dorzolamide, and prednisolone. An idiosyncratic drug reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of TINU-atypical Cogan syndrome.
Yang, Qiang; Cho, Kin-Sang; Chen, Huihui; Yu, Dekuang; Wang, Wan-Heng; Luo, Gang; Pang, Iok-Hou; Guo, Wenyi; Chen, Dong Feng
To characterize the microbead-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) mouse model and investigate its potential use for preclinical screening and evaluation of ocular hypotensive agents, we tested the model's responses to major antiglaucoma drugs. Adult C57BL/6J mice were induced to develop OHT unilaterally by intracameral injection of microbeads. The effects of the most commonly used ocular hypotensive drugs, including timolol, brimonidine, brinzolamide, pilocarpine, and latanoprost, on IOP and glaucomatous neural damage were evaluated. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve axons were quantitatively assessed using immunofluorescence labeling and histochemistry. Thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) was also assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A microbead-induced OHT model promptly responded to drugs, such as timolol, brimonidine, and brinzolamide, that lower IOP through suppressing aqueous humor production and showed improved RGC and axon survival as compared to vehicle controls. Accordingly, SD-OCT detected significantly less reduction of GCC thickness in mice treated with all three aqueous production suppressants as compared to the vehicle contol-treated group. In contrast, drugs that increase aqueous outflow, such as pilocarpine and latanoprost, failed to decrease IOP in the microbead-induced OHT mice. Microbead-induced OHT mice carry dysfunctional aqueous outflow facility and therefore offer a unique model that allows selective screening of aqueous production suppressant antiglaucoma drugs or for studying the mechanisms regulating aqueous humor production. Our data set the stage for using GCC thickness assessed by SD-OCT as an imaging biomarker for noninvasive tracking of neuronal benefits of glaucoma therapy in this model.
Kues, H A; Monahan, J C; D'Anna, S A; McLeod, D S; Lutty, G A; Koslov, S
Previous studies in our laboratory have established that pulsed microwaves at 2.45 GHz and 10 mW/cm2 are associated with production of corneal endothelial lesions and with disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the non-human primate eye. In the study reported here we examined ocular damage in monkeys (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) following topical treatment with one of two ophthalmic drugs (timolol maleate and pilocarpine) that preceded exposure to pulsed microwaves. Anesthetized monkeys were sham exposed or exposed to pulsed, 2.45 GHz microwaves (10 microseconds, 100 pps) at average power densities of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, or 15 mW/cm2 4 h a day for 3 consecutive days (respective SARs were 0.052, 0.26, 1.3, 2.6, and 3.9 W/kg). Immediately before microwave exposure, one or both eyes were treated topically with one drop of 0.5% timolol maleate or of 2% pilocarpine. Following administration of a drug, we observed a significant reduction in the power-density threshold (from 10 to 1 mW/cm2) for induction of corneal endothelial lesions and for increased vascular permeability of the iris. Diagnostic procedures (in vivo specular microscopy and fluorescein iris angiography) were performed following each exposure protocol. In addition, increased vascular permeability was confirmed with horseradish peroxidase tracer techniques. Although we did not measure intraocular temperatures in experimental animals, the results suggest that a mechanism other than significant heating of the eye is involved. Our data indicate that pulsed microwaves at an average SAR of 0.26 W/kg, if administered after pretreatment with ophthalmic drugs, can produce significant ocular effects in the anesthetized primate.
Gagandeep; Garg, Tarun; Malik, Basant; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K
In the present work polymeric nano-fiber patches was developed for the effective treatment of glaucoma using timolol maleate and dorzolamide hydrochloride as model drugs. The nano-fibers were prepared by electrospinning technique and were characterized on the basis of fiber diameter, morphology, entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release behavior, etc. Final formulations were inserted in the cul-de-sac of glaucoma induced rabbits and the efficacy of the formulation was evaluated. The results clearly indicated the potential of the developed formulation for occur drug delivery. There was a significant fall in the intraocular pressure compared to commercial eye drops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dhiman, K S; Adhoor, Veeranagouda S; Agarwal, Riju; Mehta, Amit J
Primary open angle glaucoma is an insidious and chronic vision-threatening eye ailment due to neuro-retino-optic nerve degeneration, which may be due to the raised intraocular pressure (IOP) or due to independent factors. Management of glaucoma is mainly concentrated on lowering IOP that requires lifetime topical medication, different ocular medicaments for lowering of IOP, and surgical interventions, but it has its own limitations to control the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and this is the reason behind the use of alternative neuroprotective adjuvants. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Ayurvedic line of management of progressive GON. Ingredients of trial drug Vara Fort powder ( Chakshushya Rasayana ) were procured from the Institute Pharmacy, except Swarnamakshika Bhasma , which was purchased from Dhootapapeshwar Pharmaceuticals. The patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, attending outpatient and inpatient departments, irrespective of their sex, race, religion, occupation, etc., were selected and divided into two groups with open-labeled randomization. In Group A, in addition to betaxolol (0.1%) or timolol (0.5%) (non-iobrim), Chakshushya Rasayana 6 g/day orally with Triphala Ghrita and honey along with Koshtha-Shuddhi (body-microchannel clearing treatment) protocol was tried. Nasya (oleation through nasal route) with Jeevantyadi Taila and Tarpana (eye satiation) with Go-Ghrita were also performed. In Group B (control), brimonidine (iobrim) 0.2% eye drop was used for 3 months. Significant improvement was observed in subjective parameters in Group A such as blurred vision, frequent change of presbyopic glasses, and delayed dark adaptation. Chakshushya Rasayana , if administered in a systematic approach along with a modern topical betaxolol or timolol eye drops, has a definite role in improving the lost retinal sensitivity as much as up to 12 dB in 3 months duration.
Kanno, M.; Araie, M.; Koibuchi, H.; Masuda, K.
AIMS—To study the effects of topical nipradilol, a non-selective β blocker with α blocking and nitroglycerin-like activities, on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humour dynamics in normal humans and in patients with ocular hypertension. METHODS—Nipradilol (0.06%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%) was applied to normal volunteers (n = 12) to test for IOP lowering effects. In a second group of normal volunteers (n = 11), nipradilol (0.125% and 0.25%) and timolol (0.5%) were compared for IOP lowering effects. After a single administration of 0.25% nipradilol, IOP, flare intensity in the anterior chamber, aqueous flow, uveoscleral outflow, tonographic outflow facility, and episcleral venous pressure were either directly measured or mathematically calculated. Topical nipradilol (0.25%) was administered to 24 patients with ocular hypertension twice daily for 8 weeks. RESULTS—Administration of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP with a maximum reduction of 4.2 mm Hg lasting 12 hours. A single instillation of both 0.25% nipradilol and 0.5% timolol reduced the IOP in normotensive human subjects to the same degree. A single instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased the aqueous flow rate in the treated eye by 20%. Nipradilol produced no significant effect in tonographic outflow facility or episcleral venous pressure, but uveoscleral outflow was increased. In patients with ocular hypertension, twice daily instillation of 0.25% nipradilol decreased IOP without tachyphylaxis for the 8 week test period. CONCLUSION—Topical nipradilol (0.25%) reduced IOP by decreasing the aqueous flow rate and probably also by increasing uveoscleral outflow. Nipradilol should be further investigated as a new antiglaucoma drug. PMID:10684841
Iester, Michele; Telani, Serena; Frezzotti, Paolo; Motolese, Ilaria; Figus, Michele; Fogagnolo, Paolo; Perdicchi, Andrea
To determine whether there were ocular surface changes in glaucomatous patients treated with preservatives beta-blockers who switched to preservative-free beta-blockers. This was a prospective, longitudinal, open-labeled study. One hundred thirty-two patients with primary open angle glaucoma treated with a preserved beta-blocker were enrolled. All the patients underwent perimetric and gonioscopic examination, complete ophthalmologic examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, evaluation of ocular surface, Schirmer's test, blood pressure and heart rate at baseline and 1-3 months after changing the medical treatment to a preservative-free timolol 0.1% (Timogel 0.1; Thea). At baseline, after 1 month and at the end of the study (3 months), all patients underwent a questionnaire on the visual quality and symptoms and on the quality of life (QoL). Data were analyzed by t-test when the distribution of the data was normal, by Mann-Whitney when the distribution was not normal. No significant difference was found for IOP before switching from preserved beta-blockers to preservative-free ones. No significant difference was found in blood pressure and heart rate. However, a statistically significant difference was found for abnormal fluorescein staining of the cornea and conjunctiva, eyelid erythema, conjunctival hyperemia, and follicular hyperplasia. A significant difference was found for break-up time (from 9.38±4.7 s at baseline to 10.64±4.7 s after 3 months) and Schirmer's test (from 12.9±5.96 mm at baseline to 14.2±5.87 mm after 3 months). The questionnaire showed that the patient improved the dryness and foreign body sensation. In glaucomatous patients, preservative-free 0.1 timolol treatment improved their QoL. Similar dry eye signs or symptoms improved after 3 months of treatment reducing dryness, hyperemia, follicular hyperplasia, and foreign body sensation.
Loma, Patricia; Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Perez de Lara, Maria Jesus; Pintor, Jesus
The effect of the dinucleotide P(1), P(4)-Di (adenosine-5') tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in improving adrenergic anti-glaucomatous delivery by modifying the tight junction proteins of the corneal epithelium was evaluated. Stratified human corneal epithelial cells (HCLE) were treated with Ap4A (100 μM) for 5 min and TJ protein levels and barrier function were analysed by western blotting and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), respectively. Western blot experiments showed a significant reduction at 2 h (45% reduction of ZO-1 and 65% reduction of occludin protein levels) as compared to non-treated (control) cells. Two hours after Ap4A treatment, TEER values were significantly reduced (65% as compared to control levels (p < 0.001)), indicating an increase in corneal barrier permeability. Topical application of Ap4A in New Zealand white rabbits two hours before the instillation of the hypotensor compounds (the α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, brimonidine and the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, timolol), improved the delivery of these compounds to the anterior chamber as well as their hypotensive action on the intraocular pressure. The results obtained showed that, when Ap4A was topically applied two hours before the adrenergic compounds, the concentration of brimonidine in the aqueous humour increased from 64.3 ± 5.3 nM to 240.6 ± 8.6 nM and from 58.9 ± 9.2 nM to 183.7 ± 6.8 nM in the case of timolol, which also produces a more profound effect on IOP. Therefore, Ap4A treatment results in a better entrance of adrenergic anti-glaucomatous compounds within the eye and consequently improved therapeutic efficiency by increasing corneal epithelial barrier permeability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gómez, Ricardo; Caballero, Ricardo; Barana, Adriana; Amorós, Irene; De Palm, Sue-Haida; Matamoros, Marcos; Núñez, Mercedes; Pérez-Hernández, Marta; Iriepa, Isabel; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva
We hypothesize that some drugs, besides flecainide, increase the inward rectifier current (IK1) generated by Kir2.1 homotetramers (IKir2.1) and thus, exhibit pro- and/or antiarrhythmic effects particularly at the ventricular level. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the effects of propafenone, atenolol, dronedarone, and timolol on Kir2.x channels. Currents were recorded with the patch-clamp technique using whole-cell, inside-out, and cell-attached configurations. Propafenone (0.1 nM-1 µM) did not modify either IK1 recorded in human right atrial myocytes or the current generated by homo- or heterotetramers of Kir2.2 and 2.3 channels recorded in transiently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. On the other hand, propafenone increased IKir2.1 (EC50 = 12.0 ± 3.0 nM) as a consequence of its interaction with Cys311, an effect which decreased inward rectification of the current. Propafenone significantly increased mean open time and opening frequency at all the voltages tested, resulting in a significant increase of the mean open probability of the channel. Timolol, which interacted with Cys311, was also able to increase IKir2.1. On the contrary, neither atenolol nor dronedarone modified IKir2.1. Molecular modelling of the Kir2.1-drugs interaction allowed identification of the pharmacophore of drugs that increase IKir2.1. Kir2.1 channels exhibit a binding site determined by Cys311 that is responsible for drug-induced IKir2.1 increase. Drug binding decreases channel affinity for polyamines and current rectification, and can be a mechanism of drug-induced pro- and antiarrhythmic effects not considered until now. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Jonsdottir, I H; Johansson, C; Asea, A; Johansson, P; Hellstrand, K; Thorén, P; Hoffmann, P
We have recently shown that in vivo natural cytotoxicity is enhanced after chronic exercise in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In the present report, we have studied the duration of this augmentation and some possible mechanisms involved. Exercise consisted of voluntary running for 4-5 weeks, with the running distance ranging from 2.7-15.6 km day(-1) during the last week of running. In vivo cytotoxicity was measured as clearance of injected 51Cr-labelled YAC-1 lymphoma cells from the lungs. The in vivo natural cytotoxicity was increased in running SHRs, and also in SHRs that had their running wheel locked for 24 and 48 h prior to the experiment, and was still present after 96 h. The enhancement of in vivo cytotoxicity after 5 weeks of exercise was abolished after an acute injection of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist timolol (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.v.), indicating that catecholamines are involved in this augmentation. Interestingly, 24 h after the last exercise bout, the increased natural cytotoxicity could be blocked by timolol. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone given subcutaneously for 7 days by osmotic pumps (6 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) could not reverse the increased in vivo cytotoxicity seen in the running SHRs, suggesting that opioid receptor mechanisms are not involved, or at least not the naloxone-sensitive mu-receptor. Natural immunity was not influenced by the histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine, either in controls or in runners, indicating that the natural killer cell-regulatory effect of histamine is not present in SHRs and does not seem to be involved in the exercise-induced changes in natural immune function. We conclude that the augmentation of in vivo natural cytotoxicity after voluntary chronic exercise in rats is long-lasting and that the augmentation is partly mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors.
Gomes, Ana; Costa, David; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda
The therapeutic effects of beta-blockers are normally explained by their capacity to block the beta-adrenoceptors, however, some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects shown by this group of compounds have already been associated with the antioxidant properties that some of them seem to possess. The beta-blockers atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol, and carvedilol were tested for their putative scavenging activity for ROS (O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), HO(.), HOCl, and ROO(.)) and RNS ((.)NO and ONOO(-)). Some of the studied compounds are effective ROS and/or RNS scavengers, these effects being possibly useful in preventing oxidative damage verified in hypertension as well as in other cardiovascular diseases that frequently emerge in association with oxidative stress.
Uzunel, Umut Duygu; Yüce, Berna; Küsbeci, Tuncay; Ateş, Halil
We present a case of transpupillary argon laser cyclophotocoagulation (TALC) in a patient with traumatic aniridia and aphakia secondary to blunt trauma who had previous bilateral trabeculectomy. Four months after the trauma the patient’s intraocular pressure (IOP) rose to 35 mmHg despite topical antiglaucomatous medication. Inferior 180 degrees cyclophotocoagulation was performed with transpupillary argon laser in the first session and his IOP fell to values of 12-17 mmHg. Twelve weeks after TALC, his IOP rose to 22 mmHg and we had to apply TALC to the residual ciliary processes. Seven months later his IOP was 13 mmHg with topical dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost administration. TALC may be an effective treatment alternative for lowering IOP in patients with visible ciliary processes who do not respond to conventional medical or laser treatment. PMID:27800256
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
[Methoxy-11c]PD-153035; Afamelanotide, Agalsidase beta, Alemtuzumab, Alkaline phosphatase, Amlodipine, Anecortave acetate, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate, Brivudine; Canakinumab, Cetuximab, Chlorotoxin, Cinaciguat; Dapagliflozin, Decitabine, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Elagolix sodium, Eplerenone, Eritoran tetrasodium, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Ezetimibe; Fospropofol disodium; G-207, Gabapentin enacarbil, Gefitinib, Golimumab; Human plasmin; Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Insulin glargine, Insulin glulisine, Istaroxime, Ixabepilone; KLH; Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone; Miglustat, Mitumprotimut-T, MP-470; Oblimersen sodium, Olmesartan medoxomil; P53-SLP, PAN-811, Patupilone, Pazopanib hydrochloride, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Pemetrexed disodium, Plitidepsin, Pregabalin; Rasagiline mesilate, Rotigotine; SCH-697243, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sumatriptan succinate/naproxen sodium, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, TMC-207; V-211, Valganciclovir hydrochloride; Zolpidem tartrate. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
TALMACIU, MONA MARIA; BODOKI, EDE; OPREAN, RADU
Background and aim Beta-adrenergic antagonists have been established as first line treatment in the medical management of hypertension, acute coronary syndrome and other cardiovascular diseases, as well as for the prevention of initial episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices, glaucoma, and have recently become the main form of treatment of infantile hemangiomas. The aim of the present study is to calculate for 14 beta-blockers several quantum chemical descriptors in order to interpret various molecular properties such as electronic structure, conformation, reactivity, in the interest of determining how such descriptors could have an impact on our understanding of the experimental observations and describing various aspects of chemical binding of beta-blockers in terms of these descriptors. Methods The 2D chemical structures of the beta-blockers (14 molecules with one stereogenic center) were cleaned in 3D, their geometry was preoptimized using the software MOPAC2012, by PM6 method, and then further refined using standard settings in MOE; HOMO and LUMO descriptors were calculated using semi-empirical molecular orbital methods AM1, MNDO and PM3, for the lowest energy conformers and the quantum chemical descriptors (HLG, electronegativity, chemical potential, hardness and softness, electrophilicity) were then calculated. Results According to HOMO-LUMO gap and the chemical hardness the most stable compounds are alprenolol, bisoprolol and esmolol. The softness values calculated for the study molecules revolve around 0.100. Propranolol, sotalol and timolol have among the highest electrophilicity index of the studied beta-blocker molecules. Results obtained from calculations showed that acebutolol, atenolol, timolol and sotalol have the highest values for the electronegativity index. Conclusions The future aim is to determine whether it is possible to find a valid correlation between these descriptors and the physicochemical
Dahane, S; Martínez Galera, M; Marchionni, M E; Socías Viciana, M M; Derdour, A; Gil García, M D
This paper reports the first application of the silica based mesoporous material MCM-41 as a sorbent in solid phase extraction, to pre-concentrate pharmaceuticals of very different polarity (atenolol, nadolol, pindolol, timolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, betaxolol, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid and meclofenamic acid) in surface waters. The analytes were extracted from 100mL water samples at pH 2.0 (containing 10(-3) mol/L of sodium chloride) by passing the solution through a cartridge filled with 100 mg of MCM-41. Following elution, the pharmaceuticals were determined by micro-liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. Two selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored per compound, the most intense one being used for quantification and the second one for confirmation. Matrix effect was found in real waters for most analytes and was overcome using the standard addition method, which compared favorably with the matrix matched calibration method. The detection limits in solvent (acetonitrile:water 10:90, v/v) ranged from 0.01 to 1.48 μg/L and in real water extracts from 0.10 to 3.85 μg/L (0.001-0.0385 μg/L in the water samples). The quantitation limits in solvent were in the range 0.02-4.93 μg/L, whereas in real water extracts were between 0.45 and 10.00 μg/L (0.0045 and 0.1000 μg/L in the water samples). When ultrapure water samples were spiked at two concentration levels of each pharmaceutical (0.1 and 0.2 μg/L) and quantified using solvent based calibration graphs, recoveries were near 100%. However, recoveries for most pharmaceuticals were comparable or better than de described above, when river water samples (spiked at the same concentration levels) were quantified by the standard addition method and slightly worse using the matrix matched calibration method. Five real samples (two rivers, one dam and two fountain water samples) were analyzed by the developed method, atenolol
Temporarily implanted devices, such as drug-loaded contact lenses, are emerging as the preferred treatment method for ocular diseases like glaucoma. Localizing the delivery of glaucoma drugs, such as timolol maleate (TM), can minimize adverse effects caused by systemic administration. Although eye drops and drug-soaked lenses allow for local treatment, their utility is limited by burst release and a lack of sustained therapeutic delivery. Additionally, wet transportation and storage of drug-soaked lenses result in drug loss due to elution from the lenses. Here we present a nanodiamond (ND)-embedded contact lens capable of lysozyme-triggered release of TM for sustained therapy. We find that ND-embedded lenses composed of enzyme-cleavable polymers allow for controlled and sustained release of TM in the presence of lysozyme. Retention of drug activity is verified in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. These results demonstrate the translational potential of an ND-embedded lens capable of drug sequestration and enzyme activation. PMID:24506583
Silberstein, Stephen D.
Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585
Boyko, E V; Simakova, I L; Yakushev, D Yu; Ignat'ev, S A; Alekseev, I B; Mel'nikova, N V; Alyab'ev, M V; Mal'tsev, D S
to determine the frequency and severity of dry eye syndrome (DES) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients that are newly diagnosed or already receiving beta blocker instillation therapy. A total of 127 patients (190 eyes) with POAG were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 55 newly diagnosed patients (88 eyes), group 2-72 POAG patients (102 eyes) instilling timolol 0.5% twice daily into the affected eye. The control group included 20 patients (40 eyes) aged 60-88 years (73.6 ± 9.2 years on average) with early age-related cataract. DES was found in 69 POAG patients (79%) who was just starting their topical hypotensive therapy and 85 of those (84%) under treatment (p = 0.39). One should take into account when prescribing ocular hypotensive therapy that newly diagnosed POAG patients usually already suffer from a dry eye. The use of topical beta blockers that contain preservatives exacerbates dry eye signs and symptoms in these patients.
Shah, Shima; Theodossiades, Julia; Chapman, Kristin; Murdoch, Ian
Glaucoma is a chronic ocular disease, which is usually managed with long-term daily medical therapy, in the form of eye drops. Patients who are intolerant to preservatives in topical medicines require preservative-free versions. From early 2011 patients attending Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK, started to report recurring problems with the supply of the following preservative-free glaucoma medications: Timolol 0.25% (Timoptol 0.25%, MSD UK); Dorzolamide (Trusopt, MSD UK); Dorzolamide and Timolol 0.5% (Cosopt, MSD UK). This study investigates the impact of the supply problems of these medications at Moorfields Eye Hospital from a patient, administrative and clinical perspective. Information was sought by interviewing both patients and hospital staff, and by a retrospective case note review between April 2010 and May 2013. Many hospital roles, both administrative and clinical, were involved in attempting to resolve the impact of the supply problems. All staff reported a considerable increase in their workload. At the peak of the problem, the glaucoma secretaries received about 150 enquiries per week. A review of 83 sets of patient notes, retrieved from a random sample of 125 patients, showed that 22% encountered a supply problem. Of these, more than one-third attended Moorfields Eye Hospital Accident & Emergency (A&E) for repeat supplies and 89% eventually had their medication changed. In telephone interviews with 39 of a random sample of 50 patients (a subset of the 83 notes retrieved), 59% of the interviewees reported a supply problem. Of these, one-third attended Moorfields Eye Hospital A&E for repeat supplies and half eventually required an alternative medication. Some patients reported going to considerable lengths to obtain ongoing supplies in the community. This study shows that medication supply problems can have a major impact on patients and hospital services. Supply problems occur across many fields of medicine and with increasing frequency. The
Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A
The effects of intravenous propranolol 100 micrograms kg-1, sotalol 500 micrograms kg-1, timolol 7.8 micrograms kg-1, atenolol 125 micrograms kg-1 and placebo on essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor were studied. These beta-adrenoceptor blocker doses produced equal reduction of standing-induced tachycardia in essential tremor patients. Atenolol produced significantly less reduction of essential and isoprenaline-induced tremor than the non-selective drugs, confirming the importance of beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade in these effects. Propranolol and sotalol produced equal maximal inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tremor but propranolol was significantly more effective in reducing essential tremor. The rate of development of the tremorolytic effect was similar in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremors but all tremor responses developed significantly more slowly than the heart rate responses. It is proposed that these results indicate that the tremorolytic activity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is exerted via the same beta 2-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment which is thought to be in the muscle spindles.
Abila, B; Wilson, J F; Marshall, R W; Richens, A
The effects of intravenous propranolol 100 micrograms kg-1, sotalol 500 micrograms kg-1, timolol 7.8 micrograms kg-1, atenolol 125 micrograms kg-1 and placebo on essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor were studied. These beta-adrenoceptor blocker doses produced equal reduction of standing-induced tachycardia in essential tremor patients. Atenolol produced significantly less reduction of essential and isoprenaline-induced tremor than the non-selective drugs, confirming the importance of beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade in these effects. Propranolol and sotalol produced equal maximal inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tremor but propranolol was significantly more effective in reducing essential tremor. The rate of development of the tremorolytic effect was similar in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremors but all tremor responses developed significantly more slowly than the heart rate responses. It is proposed that these results indicate that the tremorolytic activity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in essential, physiological and isoprenaline-induced tremor is exerted via the same beta 2-adrenoceptors located in a deep peripheral compartment which is thought to be in the muscle spindles. PMID:2866785
Valizadeh, Maryam; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza
In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR) as intelligent methods coupled with UV spectroscopy for simultaneous quantitative determination of Dorzolamide (DOR) and Timolol (TIM) in eye drop. Several synthetic mixtures were analyzed for validating the proposed methods. At first, neural network time series, which one type of network from the artificial neural network was employed and its efficiency was evaluated. Afterwards, the radial basis network was applied as another neural network. Results showed that the performance of this method is suitable for predicting. Finally, support vector regression was proposed to construct the Zilomole prediction model. Also, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean recovery (%) were calculated for SVR method. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them. Also, the effect of interferences was investigated in spike solutions.
Juretić, Marina; Cetina-Čižmek, Biserka; Filipović-Grčić, Jelena; Hafner, Anita; Lovrić, Jasmina; Pepić, Ivan
The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of surface active ophthalmic excipients on the corneal permeation of ophthalmic drugs using in vitro (HCE-T cell-based model) and ex vivo (freshly excised porcine cornea) models. The permeation of four ophthalmic drugs (i.e., timolol maleate, chloramphenicol, diclofenac sodium and dexamethasone) across in vitro and ex vivo corneal models was evaluated in the absence and presence of four commonly used surface active ophthalmic excipients (i.e., Polysorbate 80, Tyloxapol, Cremophor® EL and Pluronic® F68). The concentration and self-aggregation-dependent effects of surface active ophthalmic excipients on ophthalmic drug permeability were studied from the concentration region where only dissolved monomer molecules of surface active ophthalmic excipients exist, as well as the concentration region in which aggregates of variable size and dispersion are spontaneously formed. Neither the surface active ophthalmic excipients nor the ophthalmic drugs at all concentrations that were tested significantly affected the barrier properties of both corneal models, as assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) monitoring during the permeability experiments. The lowest concentration of all investigated surface active ophthalmic excipients did not significantly affect the ophthalmic drug permeability across both of the corneal models that were used. For three ophthalmic drugs (i.e., chloramphenicol, diclofenac sodium and dexamethasone), depressed in vitro and ex vivo permeability were observed in the concentration range of either Polysorbate 80, Tyloxapol, Cremophor® EL or Pluronic® F68, at which self-aggregation is detected. The effect was the most pronounced for Cremophor® EL (1 and 2%, w/V) and was the least pronounced for Pluronic® F68 (1%, w/V). However, all surface active ophthalmic excipients over the entire concentration range that was tested did not significantly affect the in vitro
Appelrath, M; Glaeske, G
Until now six ophthalmic agents have undergone the German early benefit assessment according to § 35a Social Security Code (SGB) V in a total of eleven indications. Only one agent (ocriplasmin) was recognized by the Federal Joint Committee as having an added benefit based on submitted study data for a subpopulation (indication of a considerable added benefit, limited for 5 years) and another agent, idebenone, received an added benefit due to its orphan drug designation (proof of a not quantifiable added benefit, limited for 2 years). All remaining agents (aflibercept, bromfenac, nepafenac and tafluprost/timolol) were not recognized as having an added benefit. The analysis showed that there was a lack of suitable evidence. Some reasons for the inappropriateness of the conducted trials for the usage in the early benefit assessment are the comparative therapy, the patient population included or the dosage regimens. For two agents (bromfenac and nepafenac) the pharmaceutical company did not even submit a value dossier. The examples from ophthalmology illustrate the methodological and procedural shortcomings of the assessment process and that results of an early benefit assessment should be interpreted with caution.
Eliahu, Shay; Martín-Gil, Alba; de Lara, María Jesús Perez; Pintor, Jesús; Camden, Jean; Weisman, Gary A.; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Fischer, Bilha
Extracellular nucleotides can modify the production or drainage of the aqueous humor via activation of P2 receptors and therefore affect the intraocular pressure (IOP). We have synthesized slowly hydrolyzable nucleoside di- and triphosphate analogues, 1, and 8–14. Analogues 8–14 were completely resistant to hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase over 30 min at 37 °C. In human blood serum, analogues 8–14 exhibited high stability, e.g., analogues 9 and 10–14 were only 15% and 0% degraded after 24 h, respectively. Moreover, analogues 8–14 were highly stable at pH 1.4 (t1/21 h–30 days). Analogues 8–14 were agonists of the P2Y1 receptor (EC50 0.57–9.54μM). Ocular administration of most analogues into rabbits reduced IOP, e.g., analogue 9 reduced IOP by 32% (EC50 95.5 nM). Analogue 9 was more effective at reducing IOP than several common glaucoma drugs and represents a promising alternative to timolol maleate, which cannot be used for the treatment of patients suffering from asthma or cardiac problems. PMID:20337495
Al-Ghannam, S M
A simple, extraction-free spectrophotometric method is proposed for the analysis of some beta-blockers, namely atenolol, timolol and nadolol. The method is based on the interaction of the drugs in chloroform with 0.1% chloroformic solutions of acidic sulphophthalein dyes to form stable, yellow-coloured, ion-pair complexes peaking at 415 nm. The dyes used were bromophenol blue (BPB), bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromocresol purple (BCP). Under the optimum conditions, the three drugs could be assayed in the concentration range 1-10 microg ml(-1) with correlation coefficient (n = 5) more than 0.999 in all cases. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 in all cases and the conditional stability constant (K(F)) of the complexes have been calculated. The free energy changes (DeltaG) were determined for all complexes formed. The interference likely to be introduced from co-formulated drugs was studied and their tolerance limits were determined. The proposed method was then applied to dosage-forms the percentage recoveries ranges from 99.12-100.95, and the results obtained were compared favorably with those given with the official methods.
Alarcón, Liliana P.; Baena, Yolima; Manzo, Rubén H.
This paper reports the in vitro characterization of the interaction between the phosphate groups of DNA and the protonated species of drugs with basic groups through the determination of the affinity constants, the reversibility of the interaction, and the effect on the secondary structure of the macromolecule. Affinity constants of the counterionic condensation DNA–drug were in the order of 106. The negative electrokinetic potential of DNA decreased with the increase of the proportion of loading drugs. The drugs were slowly released from the DNA–drug complexes and had release kinetics consistent with the high degree of counterionic condensation. The circular dichroism profile of DNA was not modified by complexation with atenolol, lidocaine, or timolol, but was significantly altered by the more lipophilic drugs benzydamine and propranolol, revealing modifications in the secondary structure of the DNA. The in vitro characterization of such interactions provides a physicochemical basis that would contribute to identify the effects of this kind of drugs in cellular cultures, as well as side effects observed under their clinical use. Moreover, this methodology could also be projected to the fields of intracellular DNA transfection and the use of DNA as a carrier of active drugs. PMID:28054999
Lee, Dasom; Cho, Seungkwon; Park, Hwa Sung; Kwon, Inchan
Ocular drug delivery through hydrogel contact lenses has great potential for the treatment of ocular diseases. Previous studies showed that the loading of lipophilic vitamin E to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses was beneficial in ocular drug delivery. We hypothesized that vitamin E loading to another type of popular hydrogel contact lenses, pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses, improves ocular drug delivery by increasing the drug loading or the duration of drug release. Loading of vitamin E to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses significantly increased the loading of a hydrophilic drug surrogate (Alexa Fluor 488 dye) and two hydrophilic glaucoma drugs (timolol and brimonidine) to the lenses by 37.5%, 19.1%, and 18.7%, respectively. However, the release duration time was not significantly altered. Next, we hypothesized that the lipophilic nature of vitamin E attributes to the enhanced drug loading. Therefore, we investigated the effects of co-loading of another lipophilic vitamin, vitamin A, on drug surrogate delivery. We found out that vitamin A loading also increased the loading of the drug surrogate to pHEMA-hydrogel contact lenses by 30.3%. Similar to vitamin E loading, vitamin A loading did not significantly alter the release duration time of the drug or drug surrogate.
Ntora, Efthalia; Ziakas, Nikolaos
A 38-year-old woman with advanced keratoconus initially developed Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) in the left eye after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. During the uneventful surgery, a 7-mm-wide pupil unresponsive to light was noticed. On the first postoperative day, intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated up to 45 mmHg with shallow anterior chamber (AC). A peripheral iridotomy in 2 o’clock position was conducted and a fixed combination of brinzolamide 1% and timolol 0.5% was administered topically. In the subsequent postoperative period, IOP was successfully reduced, but the patient reported severe photophobia, glare, and decreased vision. Twelve months after surgery, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200, the fixed-dilated pupil persisted, iris was atrophic, and lens opacities were detected. She was submitted for phacoemulsification cataract surgery combined with iridoplasty using the closed chamber slipping suture technique. Three months after surgery, her BCVA was 20/25, pupil diameter remained stable at 4 mm, and glare symptoms were significantly reduced. A very adequate cosmetic outcome was also achieved. Iridoplasty in postkeratoplasty patient with unilateral UZS was effective in improving patient's visual function disability and restoring residual anisocoria. This technique can be applied as a single procedure or combined with another one for the management of UZS. PMID:29118500
Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Avadhanam, Venkata; Vasquez Perez, Alfonso; Liu, Christopher
To describe the practice of and recent developments in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. Formal psychological assessment and support have been described. A sub-aqua system for fashioning the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis lamina; adoption of thicker laminae; use of bisphosphonate drugs; advances in laminar imaging; and use of bone augmentation and bone morphogenetic protein have been described for prevention, detection, and management of laminar resorption. Two systems of optical cylinders available commercially. A stepladder approach to buccal mucous membrane overgrowth onto the optical cylinder has been described, including use of mitomycin-C. Orbital decompression has been used for cosmetic improvement. Detection of glaucoma may be aided by an intraocular pressure sensor, whereas surgical treatment is mainly by way of glaucoma drainage devices, as endolaser ciliary ablation and recti muscle disinsertion and reinsertion not having prolonged and significant long-term beneficial effect. Sublingual timolol has been described. The use of endoscopy has been proposed for preoperative evaluation of the posterior segment, ciliary ablation and for vitreoretinal surgery although wide-angle viewing systems remains standard practice. The osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis is the procedure of choice for rehabilitation of corneal blindness for end-stage ocular surface disease, serving a completely different patient group to the Boston Type 1 KPro.
Fleischman, David; Kim, Bryan
Surgical management of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in an eye with scarred conjunctiva, an encircling band, and silicone oil has limited options. By combining the flow restrictor of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, California) and the capsule of the encircling band as a conduit for aqueous flow, immediate pressure reduction could theoretically be achieved in eyes with limited conjunctival mobilization. This is a description of a surgical technique in a case of a patient with multiple ocular surgeries with uncontrolled multimechanism glaucoma despite using all available topical and oral glaucoma medications. A combination of the Ahmed valve with a modification of the Schocket shunt technique was used in this case of an encircling band and poor conjunctiva. At 10-month follow-up, the patient maintains controlled pressures on dorzolamide-timolol drops. The combined Ahmed-Schocket (or Schockmed) technique may be another surgical option for management of uncontrolled IOP in cases of scarred conjunctiva and encircling bands needing immediate pressure reduction. A novel surgical option for uncontrolled glaucoma in eyes with poor conjunctiva and encircling bands. How to cite this article: Fleischman D, Kim B. Schockmed Valve: A Novel Surgical Option for Uncontrolled Glaucoma in Eyes with Poor Conjunctiva and Encircling Bands. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(3):120-124.
Hahne, Matthias; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Guzman, Gustavo; Brandner, Johanna M; Haltner-Ukomado, Eleonore; Wätzig, Hermann; Reichl, Stephan
The use of ophthalmic drugs has increased consistently over the past few decades. Currently, most research is conducted using in vivo and ex vivo animal experiments; however, they have many disadvantages, including ethical concerns, high costs, the questionable extension of animal results to humans, and poor standardization. Although several cell culture-based cornea models have been developed, none have been validated and accepted for general use. In this study, a standardized, three-dimensional model of the human cornea (Hemicornea, HC) based on immortalized human corneal cells and cultivated in serum-free conditions was developed for drug absorption studies and prevalidated using compounds with a wide range of molecular characteristics (sodium fluorescein, rhodamine B, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran, aciclovir, bimatoprost, dexamethasone, and timolol maleate). The HC model was independently cultured in three different laboratories, and the intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility was analyzed and compared with the rabbit cornea. This analysis showed that the HC has a barrier in the same range as excised animal corneas, although with a higher reproducibility and lower variability. Because of the demonstrated transferability, the HC represents a promising in vitro alternative to the use of ex vivo tissue and offers a well-defined and standardized system for drug absorption studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Karaśkiewicz, Joanna; Penkala, Krzysztof; Mularczyk, Maciej; Lubiński, Wojciech
To evaluate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function after intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction measured by pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in patients with newly diagnosed, non-treated preperimetric and early stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Twenty-four eyes from 24 patients with POAG: 11 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 13 eyes with early glaucoma received Ganfort ® (bimatoprost + timolol) once a day for a period of 1 month. Before and after the treatment, following measurements were analyzed: IOP, mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP), peak time of P50 and amplitude of P50 and N95 waves in PERG (ISCEV standard 2012). Correlations between PERG P50 and N95 waves, IOP and MOPP were calculated. After therapy, IOP significantly decreased in all eyes, on average 31%. Significant increase in MOPP in all eyes on average 14% was detected. PERG amplitude of P50 and N95 waves increased in 75 and 79% eyes, respectively, on average P50 by 28% and N95 by 38%. There were no significant interactions between the change of PERG parameters in time and stage of glaucoma. Significant IOP-lowering therapy can improve RGC function measured by PERG, in patients with preperimetric and early stages of POAG.
Wadhwa, Sheetu; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani R; Vyas, S P
In clinical practices, solution of dorzolamide hydrochloride (DH) and timolol maléate (TM) is recommended for the treatment of glaucoma. However, low drug-contact time and poor ocular bioavailability of drugs due to drainage of solution, tear turnover and its dilution or lacrimation limits its uses. In addition, systemic absorption of TM may induce undesirable cardiovascular side effects. Chitosan (CS) is a polycationic biodegradable polymer which provides sustained and local delivery of drugs to the ocular sites. Hyaluronic acid (HA) also provides synergistic effect for mucoadhesion in association with chitosan. In the present study, hyaluronic acid modified chitosan nanoparticles (CS-HA-NPs) loaded with TM and DH were developed and characterized. The CS-HA-NPs were evaluated for size, shape, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and mucoadhesive strength. The in vitro release study was also performed in PBS pH 7.4. The ocular irritation potential of CS-HA-NPs was estimated using draize test on albino rabbits. A significant reduction in IOP level was obtained using CS-HA-NPs as compared to plain solution of drug and a comparable higher reduction in IOP level was observed as to CS-NPs. These results suggest that HA potentialy enhance the mucoadhesiveness and efficiency of CS-NPs and may be promising carrier for ocular drug delivery.
Chou, A; Hori, S; Takase, M
Subconjunctival injection of 0.2 ml of the following solutions was carried out once a day for two weeks in the albino and pigmented rabbit: commercial 0.5% timolol or 1% befunolol ophthalmic solutions, both containing benzalkonium chloride, and also these drug solutions containing no preservative, ophthalmic base solutions containing benzalkonium chloride, physiological saline solution or phosphate buffer solution. One week after daily injections of the commercial drug solutions or base solutions with benzalkonium chloride, the electroretinogram (ERG) showed a marked reduction in the a- and b-wave amplitudes in the pigmented rabbit, but the ERG changes were slight in the albino rabbit. After two weeks of injections, histological studies of the pigmented rabbit eyes revealed retinal detachment, visual cell loss and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid; the changes in the albino rabbit eyes were minimal. Injections of the beta-blockers containing no benzalkonium resulted in no significant changes in the ERG or in the tissue structures of all rabbits. Injections of only physiological saline or phosphate buffer had no deleterious effects. Therefore, the ocular toxicity of the beta-blockers was thought to be minor and the toxic effects seen in this study were thought to be due to benzalkonium chloride, which possibly accumulates in the ocular pigments.
Kaufman, Paul L
Intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering has been demonstrated to slow the progression or onset of visual field loss in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Pharmacological lowering of IOP is the most common initial intervention in patients with OAG or OHT, however, many patients will require more than one therapy to achieve target IOP. Latanoprostene bunod is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-donating prostaglandin F2α analog for the reduction of IOP. Areas covered: Current knowledge concerning the mechanism of action of latanoprostene bunod is presented. Additionally, clinical safety and efficacy data from published Phase 1 (KRONUS), Phase 2 (VOYAGER, CONSTELLATION) and Phase 3 (APOLLO, LUNAR, JUPITER) studies are reviewed. Expert opinion: Latanoprostene bunod is a dual mechanism, dual pathway molecule, consisting of latanoprost acid, which is known to enhance uveoscleral (unconventional) outflow by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase expression and remodeling of the ciliary muscle's extracellular matrix, linked to an NO-donating moiety, which enhances trabecular meshwork/Schlemm's canal (conventional) outflow by inducing cytoskeletal relaxation via the soluble guanylyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (sGC-cGMP) signaling pathway. Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% solution applied topically once daily appears more effective in reducing IOP in OHT and OAG subjects than either latanoprost or timolol, with a side effect profile similar to that of latanoprost.
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
, fluvastatin sodium, fondaparinux sodium; Gaboxadol, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, gelclair, gemcitabine, gemfibrozil, glibenclamide, glyminox; Haloperidol, heparin sodium, HPV 16/HPV 18 vaccine, human insulin, human insulin; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, indium 111 (111In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, infliximab, INKP-100, iodine (I131) tositumomab, IoGen, ipratropium bromide, ixabepilone; L-870810, lamivudine, lapatinib, laquinimod, latanoprost, levonorgestrel, licochalcone a, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lorazepam, lovastatin; Maraviroc, maribavir, matuzumab, MDL-100907, melphalan, methotrexate, methylprednisolone, mitomycin, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, MK-0431, MN-001, MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef, MRKAd5gag, MVA.HIVA, MVA-BN Nef, MVA-Muc1-IL-2, mycophenolate mofetil; Nelfinavir mesilate, nesiritide, NSC-330507; Olanzapine, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, oral insulin, osanetant; PA-457, paclitaxel, paroxetine, paroxetine hydrochloride, PCK-3145, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, perillyl alcohol, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, porfiromycin, prasterone, prasugrel, pravastatin sodium, prednisone, pregabalin, prinomastat, PRO-2000, propofol, prostate cancer vaccine; Rasagiline mesilate, rhBMP-2/ACS, rhBMP-2/BCP, rhC1, ribavirin, rilpivirine, ritonavir, rituximab, Ro-26-9228, rosuvastatin calcium, rosuvastatin sodium, rubitecan; Selodenoson, simvastatin, sirolimus, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, SS(dsFv)-PE38, St. John's Wort extract, stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tafenoquine succinate, talaglumetad, tanomastat, taxus, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tempol, tenofovir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone enanthate, TH-9507, thalidomide, tigecycline, timolol maleate, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, torcetrapib, trabectedin, travoprost, travoprost/timolol, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, varenicline, VEGF-2 gene therapy, venlafaxine hydrochloride
Zhang, Qian; Chantasart, Doungdaw; Li, S Kevin
Although topical administration of β-blockers is desired because of the improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced systemic adverse effects compared with systemic administration in the treatment of infantile hemangioma, the permeation of β-blockers across skin under finite dose conditions has not been systematically studied and an effective topical β-blocker formulation for skin application is not available. The present study evaluated the permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, and timolol across human epidermal membrane (HEM) from a topical gel in Franz diffusion cells in vitro under various dosing conditions. The effects of occlusion and dosing volume on percutaneous absorption of β-blockers from the gel were studied. The permeation data were compared with those of finite dose diffusion theory. The results showed that skin permeation of β-blockers generally could be enhanced two to three times by skin occlusion. The cumulative amounts of β-blockers permeated across HEM increased with increasing dosing volume. An adequate fit was obtained between the theoretical curve and experimental permeation data, indicating that the experimental results of the gel are consistent with finite dose diffusion theory. In conclusion, the findings suggest the feasibility of using topical gels of β-blockers for infantile hemangioma treatment and topical application with skin occlusion is preferred. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
El-Didamony, A. M.; Shehata, A. M.
Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the assay of bisoprolol fumarate (BSF), propranolol hydrochloride (PRH), and timolol maleate (TIM) either in bulk or in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) and eriochrome black T in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 428 and 518 nm for MO and EBT, respectively. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.6, 0.8-5.6 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with MO and 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.2, and 0.8-8.0 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with EBT. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1 : 1 in all cases. The proposed methods were successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed methods can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.
Chantasart, Doungdaw; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin
Purpose β-Blockers have recently become the main form of treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Due to the potential systemic adverse effects of β-blockers, topical skin treatment of the drugs is preferred. However, the effect and mechanism of dosage form pH upon skin permeation of these weak bases is not well understood. To develop an effective topical skin delivery system for the β-blockers, the present study evaluated skin permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, timolol, and atenolol. Methods Experiments were performed in side-by-side diffusion cells with human epidermal membrane (HEM) in vitro to determine the effect of donor solution pH upon the permeation of the β-blockers across HEM. Results The apparent permeability coefficients of HEM for the β-blockers increased with their lipophilicity, suggesting the HEM lipoidal pathway as the main permeation mechanism of the β-blockers. The pH in the donor solution was a major factor influencing HEM permeation for the β-blockers with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the permeability coefficient per pH unit increase. This permeability versus pH relationship was found to deviate from theoretical predictions, possibly due to the effective stratum corneum pH being different from the pH in the donor solution. Conclusions The present results suggest the possibility of topical treatment of hemangioma using β-blockers. PMID:23208385
Chantasart, Doungdaw; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin
β-Blockers have recently become the main form of treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Due to the potential systemic adverse effects of β-blockers, topical skin treatment of the drugs is preferred. However, the effect and mechanism of dosage form pH upon skin permeation of these weak bases is not well understood. To develop an effective topical skin delivery system for the β-blockers, the present study evaluated skin permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, timolol, and atenolol. Experiments were performed in side-by-side diffusion cells with human epidermal membrane (HEM) in vitro to determine the effect of donor solution pH upon the permeation of the β-blockers across HEM. The apparent permeability coefficients of HEM for the β-blockers increased with their lipophilicity, suggesting the HEM lipoidal pathway as the main permeation mechanism of the β-blockers. The pH in the donor solution was a major factor influencing HEM permeation for the β-blockers with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the permeability coefficient per pH unit increase. This permeability versus pH relationship was found to deviate from theoretical predictions, possibly due to the effective stratum corneum pH being different from the pH in the donor solution. The present results suggest the possibility of topical treatment of hemangioma using β-blockers.
Beaulieu, G; Jaramillo, J; Cummings, J R
Cetamolol, a new beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial agonist activity and cardioselectivity, was studied in vivo to determine its membrane-stabilizing effects. Comparisons were carried out with atenolol, pindolol, practolol, propranolol, timolol, dexpropranolol, lidocaine, and procaine. The following results indicated that cetamolol lacked membrane-stabilizing activity: (i) failure to cause local anesthesia on the rabbit cornea and motor nerve of the rat tail; (ii) ineffectiveness in reversing ventricular arrhythmias induced by coronary artery litigation in dogs; (iii) failure to reduce cardiac automaticity in catecholamine-depleted dogs as determined by the rate of a subatrial rhythm during ventricular (vagal) escape; and (iv) lack of a significant increase in atrioventricular conduction time in vagotomized or atropinized dogs in contrast to the effect in normal dogs indicating a reflex effect of cetamolol. Other results include a restoration of sinus rhythm in dogs with ventricular tachycardia induced by ouabain, and a dose-related decline in the force of cardiac contraction in anesthetized dogs at doses from 3 to 15 mg/kg, which occurred after an initial increase in force owing to intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Although the mechanisms for the latter two effects are not clear at this time, explanations other than membrane-stabilizing activity have been considered in view of the other findings. It is concluded that cetamolol lacks membrane-stabilizing activity even at inordinately high doses.
Shen, Huilian; Fuchino, Yuta; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Nomura, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for epilepsy and depression and has cognition-enhancing effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The hippocampus is widely recognized to be related to epilepsy, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. One possible mechanism of VNS involves its effect on the hippocampus; i.e. it increases the release of noradrenaline in the hippocampus. However, the effect of VNS on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is unknown. To determine whether VNS modulates neurotransmission in the hippocampus, we examined the effects of VNS on perforant path (PP)-CA3 synaptic transmission electrophysiologically in anaesthetized rats. VNS induces a persistent enhancement of PP-CA3 field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Arc, an immediate early gene, was used to identify active brain regions after VNS. The locus coeruleus (LC), which contains the perikarya of noradrenergic projections, harboured more Arc-positive cells, as measured by in-situ hybridization, after 10-min VNS. In addition, electrical lesions of LC neurons or intraventricular administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist timolol prevented the enhancement of PP-CA3 responses by VNS. In conclusion, the protracted increase in PP-CA3 synaptic transmission that is induced by VNS entails activation of the LC and β-adrenergic receptors. Our novel findings suggest that information from the periphery modulates synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.
León Blanco, José M; González-R, Pedro L; Arroyo García, Carmen Martina; Cózar-Bernal, María José; Calle Suárez, Marcos; Canca Ortiz, David; Rabasco Álvarez, Antonio María; González Rodríguez, María Luisa
This work was aimed at determining the feasibility of artificial neural networks (ANN) by implementing backpropagation algorithms with default settings to generate better predictive models than multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The study was hypothesized on timolol-loaded liposomes. As tutorial data for ANN, causal factors were used, which were fed into the computer program. The number of training cycles has been identified in order to optimize the performance of the ANN. The optimization was performed by minimizing the error between the predicted and real response values in the training step. The results showed that training was stopped at 10 000 training cycles with 80% of the pattern values, because at this point the ANN generalizes better. Minimum validation error was achieved at 12 hidden neurons in a single layer. MLR has great prediction ability, with errors between predicted and real values lower than 1% in some of the parameters evaluated. Thus, the performance of this model was compared to that of the MLR using a factorial design. Optimal formulations were identified by minimizing the distance among measured and theoretical parameters, by estimating the prediction errors. Results indicate that the ANN shows much better predictive ability than the MLR model. These findings demonstrate the increased efficiency of the combination of ANN and design of experiments, compared to the conventional MLR modeling techniques.
Jonsdottir, I H; Johansson, C; Asea, A; Hellstrand, K; Hoffmann, P
The influence of acute mental stress and the effect of electrically induced skeletal muscle contractions on natural cytotoxicity in vivo was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats Natural cytotoxicity in vivo was measured as the clearance of injected 51Cr-labelled YAC-1 lymphoma cells from the lungs, which are specifically lysed by natural killer cells. The mental stress consisted of an air jet directed towards the animals in their cage for 25 min. During the mental stress there was a significant increase in natural cytotoxicity. Thus, retained radioactivity in the lungs was decreased to 74 +/- 6% of the control levels which was set to 100% (P < 0.01). This augmentation of YAC-1-cell clearance could be blocked with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist Timolol. Two hours after termination of the air stress, in vivo cytotoxicity had returned to control levels. In contrast, acute physical stress, consisting of electrically induced muscle contractions for 60 min, had no significant effects on in vivo cytotoxicity, either during the stimulation or 1, 2 or 24 h after the stimulation. Further, significantly increased plasma levels of adrenaline were seen after the air jet stress, but not after muscle stimulation. There were no significant changes in plasma noradrenaline levels either after air stress or muscle stimulation. These results indicate that changes in in vivo cytotoxicity after mild mental stress are dependent on increased plasma catecholamine levels while acute physical stress without changes in catecholamine levels, does not influence in vivo cytotoxicity.
Prichard, B N
All beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs that have been described share the common property of being competitive inhibitors. They differ in their associated properties, the presence or absence of cardioselectivity, membrane stabilizing activity, and partial agonist activity. Recently some beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs have been reported which also possess alpha-adrenoceptor blocking activity. The associated properties have been used as a basis for classifying beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs (Fitzgerald, 1969, 1972). The presence or absence of cardioselectivity is most useful for dividing beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. The non-selective drugs (Division I) can be further divided according to the presence or absence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) and membrane stabilizing activity (Fitzgerald's groups I-IV). Group I possess both membrane activity and ISA, e.g. alprenolol, oxprenolol, group II just membrane action, e.g. propanolol, group III ISA but no membrane action, e.g. pindolol. Fitzgerald placed pindolol in group I but should be placed in group III as it possesses a high degree of beta-adrenoceptor blocking potency in relation to its membrane activity (Prichard, 1974). Finally drugs in group IV have neither ISA nor membrane action, e.g. sotalol, timolol. The cardioselective drugs (Division II) can be similarly sub-divided into groups I-IV according to the presence or absence of ISA or membrane action (Fitzgerald grouped all these together as group V). Lastly there are new beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs which in addition have alpha- adrenergic receptor blocking properties (Division III). PMID:26370
Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Chauhan, Anuj
About 70% of eyedrops contain benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms. While preservatives are mandated to maintain sterility, many patients exhibit irritation and toxicity to such compounds. We propose to mitigate the ocular toxicity in the ocular formulations without compromising sterility by designing a device that can be incorporated into an eyedrops bottle to selectively remove the preservatives during the process of drop instillation. Here, we specifically focus on macroporous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) gel due to its excellent biocompatibility and high partition coefficient for BAK. In addition to specific selectivity for BAK, the device also requires high hydraulic permeability to allow drop dispensing without excessive pressure drop. The pHEMA monolith can remove nearly 100% of contained BAK from a 25 ml, 0.012% BAK solution with negligible uptake of the hydrophilic drugs such as timolol and dorzolamide. The filter, however, had to be pre-equilibrated with hydrophobic drugs to reach a high separation of BAK without reducing the concentration of the active drug. The average hydraulic permeability of the filter was 0.025 Darcy, which is about 5-fold lower than the ideal value. Incorporation of a pHEMA macroporous gel into an eyedrops bottle can virtually eliminate the exposure of the eyes to the preservatives without compromising the sterility. Our novel design can eliminate the preservative induced toxicity from eyedrops thereby impacting hundreds of millions of patients with chronic ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma and dry eyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kulkarni, Giriraj T; Sethi, Nitin; Awasthi, Rajendra; Pawar, Vivek Kumar; Pahuja, Vineet
Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure, which results in damage to the optic nerve. The existing therapy with conventional eye drops is inefficient due to nasolachrymal drainage, resulting in a reduced corneal residence of the drug. The objective was to develop controlled-release ocular films of timolol maleate using natural hydrogel from Tamarindus indica seeds as a sustaining and film-forming agent, to overcome the problems associated with eye drops. The hydrogel was isolated using hot aqueous extraction followed by precipitation with ethanol. Six batches of ocular films were prepared and evaluated for drug content, weight variation, thickness, diameter and in vitro release profile. The ideal batch of the films was subjected to stability, pharmacodynamic and ocular safety studies. The yield of the hydrogel was 58.29%. The thickness of the ocular films was in the range of 0.17 to 0.25 mm and the weight of the films was found to increase with the increase in polymer content. The drug release from the films was found to be controlled over a period of 8 h. The films were found to be stable and were able to reduce the intraocular pressure for 24 h in a more efficient manner than the eye drops. The films were found to be practically non-irritating to the eye. It can be concluded that the hydrogel from tamarind seeds can be used as a film-forming and release-controlling agent for the development of an ocular drug delivery system for the effective therapy of glaucoma.
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
ABT-869, Acadesine, Acetylsalicylic acid/omeprazole, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AEG-35156, Agatolimod sodium, Albiglutide, Alemtuzumab, Alipogene tiparvovec, Alogliptin benzoate, AMG-386, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Apremilast, Aripiprazole, Asoprisnil, Atorvastatin/fenofibrate, AVN-944, Axitinib; Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BHT-3021, BI-2536, Biapenem, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, CD-NP, Cediranib, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Ciclesonide, CK-1827452,Clevudine, Clofarabine, CSL-360, CYT-997; Dapagliflozin, Darinaparsin, Denosumab, Densiron 68, Desloratadine, Dulanermin; Edoxaban tosilate, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fidaxomicintiacumiv, Fulvestrant; G-207, GCR-8015, Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), Glufosfamide; HPV16L1E7CVLP; Ibutamoren mesilate, Imatinib mesylate, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Iodine (I131) tositumomab, Istaroxime, ITMN-191, Ixabepilone; JZP-4, Lenalidomide; Levetiracetam, Linaclotide acetate, Liposomal cytarabine/daunorubicin, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liraglutide, LY-518674; Milatuzumab, MMR-V, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Niacin/simvastatin; Obatoclax mesylate, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pazufloxacin, PBT-2, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perampanel, PfCP2.9, Pitavastatin calcium, Poly I:CLC, Pomalidomide, Pralatrexate, Pramlintide acetate, Prucalopride; rhGAD65, Roflumilast; RTS,S/AS02D; SCH-530348, Semagacestat, Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, SIR-Spheres, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafluprost, Tanespimycin, Teduglutide, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tiotropium bromide, TMC-435350, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Travoprost/timolol, Triciribine
Rehnqvist, N; Olsson, G
A survey of the literature concerning 20 years' experience of beta-blockade after myocardial infarction indicates that several positive effects are achieved and that these are neither marginal nor transient. Mortality is reduced during the first year from about 10 to 7%. This has been shown for the individual beta-blockers metoprolol, propranolol, and timolol, and also when the data on all beta-blocker trials have been pooled. The effect is further enhanced if therapy continues. Patients at high risk of mortality can be separated fairly accurately from those at low risk. Thus, prophylactic treatment with the sole purpose of reducing mortality can be individualized. Effects on reinfarction are also already present after 1 year and are enhanced during further follow-up. It has not yet been possible, however, to identify those patients in whom this end-point will not be influenced. Furthermore, during extended follow-up, the proportion of asymptomatic patients who are free of side effects increases during treatment with beta-blockade, whereas it decreases during placebo therapy, due mostly to increased numbers of patients suffering from complications such as reinfarction, angina pectoris, cerebrovascular incidents, arrhythmias, or disturbances in the peripheral circulation. Twenty percent of patients experienced improved fitness when beta-blockade treatment was withdrawn, which balances the beneficial effects. No other drugs have been shown to have comparable beneficial effects. We conclude that the practical implications of the clinical trials indicate that beta-blockade should be continued for at least 3 years after myocardial infarction in patients without severe side effects.
Rimpelä, Anna-Kaisa; Hagström, Marja; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto
Melanin binding affects drug distribution and retention in pigmented ocular tissues, thereby affecting drug response, duration of activity and toxicity. Therefore, it is a promising possibility for drug targeting and controlled release in the pigmented cells and tissues. Intracellular unbound drug concentrations determine pharmacological and toxicological actions, but analyses of unbound vs. total drug concentrations in pigmented cells are lacking. We studied intracellular binding and cellular drug uptake in pigmented retinal pigment epithelial cells and in non-pigmented ARPE-19 cells with five model drugs (chloroquine, propranolol, timolol, diclofenac, methotrexate). The unbound drug fractions in pigmented cells were 0.00016-0.73 and in non-pigmented cells 0.017-1.0. Cellular uptake (i.e. distribution ratio Kp), ranged from 1.3 to 6300 in pigmented cells and from 1.0 to 25 in non-pigmented cells. Values for intracellular bioavailability, F ic , were similar in both cells types (although larger variation in pigmented cells). In vitro melanin binding parameters were used to predict intracellular unbound drug fraction and cell uptake. Comparison of predictions with experimental data indicates that other factors (e.g. ion-trapping, lipophilicity-related binding to other cell components) also play a role. Melanin binding is a major factor that leads to cellular uptake and unbound drug fractions of a range of 3-4 orders of magnitude indicating that large reservoirs of melanin bound drug can be generated in the cells. Understanding melanin binding has important implications on retinal drug targeting, efficacy and toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chidiac, P; Nouet, S; Bouvier, M
Sustained stimulation of several G protein-coupled receptors is known to lead to a reduction in the signaling efficacy. This phenomenon, named agonist-induced desensitization, has been best studied for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) and is characterized by a decreased efficacy of beta-adrenergic agonists to stimulate the adenylyl cyclase activity. Recently, several beta-adrenergic ligands were found to inhibit the spontaneous agonist-independent activity of the beta 2AR. These compounds, termed inverse agonists, have different inhibitory efficacies, ranging from almost neutral antagonists to full inverse agonists. The current study was undertaken to determine whether, as is the case for agonists, desensitization can affect the efficacies of inverse agonists. Agonist-promoted desensitization of the human beta 2AR expressed in Sf9 cells potentiated the inhibitory actions of the inverse agonists, with the extent of the potentiation being inversely proportional to their intrinsic activity. For example, desensitization increased the inhibitory action of the weak inverse agonist labetalol by 29%, whereas inhibition of the spontaneous activity by the strong inverse agonist timolol was not enhanced by the desensitizing stimuli. Interestingly, dichloroisoproterenol acted stochastically as either a weak partial agonist or a weak inverse agonist in control conditions but always behaved as an inverse agonist after desensitization. These data demonstrate that like for agonists, the efficacies of inverse agonists can be modulated by a desensitizing treatment. Also, the data show that the initial state of the receptor can determine whether a ligand behaves as a partial agonist or an inverse agonist.
Nomura, S; Hashimoto, M
Latanoprost is a novel prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) derivative. Topically applied latanoprost into the glaucomatous monkey eyes lowered intraocular pressure (IOP). Latanoprost, however, failed to produce the hypotensive effect in either rabbit or cat eyes. This species difference may be attributed to its high selectivity for the FP receptor and differences in prostaglandin receptor subtypes existed in the eye amongst these species. In ligand binding studies with bovine corpus luteum cell membranes, the Kd value for the FP receptor of latanoprost was the same as that for PGF2 alpha, 2.8 nM. Latanoprost augmented uveoscleral outflow (Uv) in monkeys without affecting trabecular outflow or outflow facility like PGF2 alpha. Although the precise mechanism of the increase in Uv is not fully understood, it is suggested that a decrease in extracellular matrix components in ciliary muscle may contribute to the increase in Uv. On the other hand, an increase in blood flow at the optic nerve head and neuroprotective action in addition to the IOP lowering effect may contribute to the efficacy of latanoprost in glaucoma therapy. Only tolerable conjunctival hyperemia was seen in rabbits. A phase III clinical trial revealed latanoprost (0.005%) once daily produced sustained reduction of IOP in ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma patients to a greater extent than timolol did. Furthermore, the effects of latanoprost on aqueous humor dynamics in normal human volunteers were similar to those in monkeys, indicating that latanoprost lowers IOP by the increase in Uv in humans.
Furini, Cristiane R G; Behling, Jonny A K; Zinn, Carolina G; Zanini, Mara Lise; Assis Brasil, Eduardo; Pereira, Luiza Doro; Izquierdo, Ivan; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane
Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied. Here we investigate the effect of MPH infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on extinction memory in animals normally incapable of showing contextual fear conditioning (CFC) extinction because of weak training, and the possible mechanisms through which it acts during this process. For this, male Wistar rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region were submitted to a weak extinction protocol in a CFC apparatus. Animals that received intra-CA1 infusion of MPH (12.5μg/side) 20min before the extinction training (Ext Tr) expressed less freezing behavior than Veh-treated animals during both Ext Tr and extinction retention Test (Ext Test). Additionally, the administration of MPH+Timolol (1μg/side) or MPH+SCH23390 (1.5μg/side) intra-CA1 20min before the Ext Tr blocked the enhancing effect of the MPH on extinction learning. These results suggest that MPH in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is able to induce the consolidation of extinction memory and this process occurs through both β-adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goryński, Krzysztof; Kiedrowicz, Alicja; Bojko, Barbara
The current work describes the development and validation of a simple, efficient, and fast method using solid phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS/MS) for the concomitant measurement of eight beta-blockers and bronchodilators in plasma and urine. The presented assay enables quantitative determination of acebutolol, atenolol, fenoterol, nadolol, pindolol, procaterol, sotalol, and timolol. In this work, samples were prepared on a high-throughput platform using the 96-well plate format of the thin film solid phase microextraction (TFME) system, and a biocompatible extraction phase made of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance particles. Analytes were separated on a pentafluorophenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by gradient elution using an UPLC Nexera coupled with an LCMS-8060 mass spectrometer. The mobile phase consisted of water-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The linearity of the method was checked within therapeutic blood-plasma concentrations, and shown to adequately reflect typically expected concentrations of future study samples. Post-extraction addition experiments showed that the matrix effect ranged in plasma from 98% for procaterol to 115% for nadolol, and in urine, from 85% for nadolol and pindolol to 119% for atenolol. The method was successfully validated using Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, and met all acceptance criteria for bioanalytical assays at five concentration levels for all selected drugs. The final protocol can be successfully applied for monitoring concentrations of the selected drugs in both plasma and urine matrices obtained from patients or athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maulvi, Furqan A; Lakdawala, Dhara H; Shaikh, Anjum A; Desai, Ankita R; Choksi, Harsh H; Vaidya, Rutvi J; Ranch, Ketan M; Koli, Akshay R; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O
Glaucoma is commonly treated using eye drops, which is highly inefficient due to rapid clearance (low residence time) from ocular surface. Contact lenses are ideally suited for controlled drug delivery to cornea, but incorporation of any drug loaded particulate system (formulation) affect the optical and physical property of contact lenses. The objective of the present work was to implant timolol maleate (TM) loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticle-laden ring in hydrogel contact lenses that could provide controlled drug delivery at therapeutic rates without compromising critical lens properties. TM-implant lenses were developed, by dispersing TM encapsulated ethyl cellulose nanoparticles in acrylate hydrogel (fabricated as ring implant) and implanted the same in hydrogel contact lenses (sandwich system). The TM-ethyl cellulose nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion method at different ratios of TM to ethyl cellulose. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the transformation of TM to amorphous state. In vitro release kinetic data showed sustained drug release within the therapeutic window for 168h (NP 1:3 batch) with 150μg loading. Cytotoxicity and ocular irritation study demonstrated the safety of TM-implant contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbit tear fluid showed significant increase in mean residence time (MRT) and area under curve (AUC), with TM-implant contact lenses in comparison to eye drop therapy. In vivo pharmacodynamic data in rabbit model showed sustained reduction in intra ocular pressure for 192h. The study demonstrated the promising potential of implantation technology to treat glaucoma using contact lenses, and could serve as a platform for other ocular diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mandagere, Arun K; Thompson, Thomas N; Hwang, Kin-Kai
This paper describes a graphical model for simplifying in vitro absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination (ADME) data analysis through the estimation of oral bioavailability (%F) of drugs in humans and other species. This model integrates existing in vitro ADME data, such as Caco-2 permeability (P(app)) and metabolic stability (percent remaining - %R) in liver S9 or microsomes, to estimate %F into groups of low, medium, or high regions. To test the predictive accuracy of our model, we examined 21 drugs and drug candidates with a wide range of oral bioavailability values, which represent approximately 10 different therapeutic areas in humans, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs. In vitro data from model compounds were used to define the boundaries of the low, medium, and high regions of the %F estimation plot. On the basis of the in vitro data, warfarin (93%), indomethacin (98%), timolol (50%), and carbamazepine (70%) were assigned to the high %F region; propranolol (26%) and metoprolol (38%) to medium %F region; and verapamil (22%) and mannitol (18%) to the low %F region. Similarly, the %F of 11 drug candidates from Elastase Inhibitor, NK1/NK2 antagonist, and anti-viral projects in rats, guinea pigs, and dogs were correctly estimated. This model estimates the oral bioavailability ranges of neutral, polar, esters, acidic, and basic drugs in all species. For a large number of drug candidates, this graphical model provides a tool to estimate human oral bioavailability from in vitro ADME data. When combined with the high throughput in vitro ADME screening process, it has the potential to significantly accelerate the processes of lead identification and optimization.
Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne
To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sharifipour, Farideh; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Idani, Esmaeil; Hajizadeh, Maryam; Saki, Azadeh
To evaluate the effects of oxygen therapy on corneal edema after cataract surgery. Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Randomized controlled trial. Patients with severe corneal edema were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 (control) received conventional therapy including topical sodium chloride, timolol, and betamethasone. Group 2 received the same therapy in addition to systemic normobaric oxygen at a flow rate of 10 L/min for 1 hour twice daily for 3 weeks. Group 3 received conventional therapy and transcorneal oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min for 1 hour twice daily for 3 weeks. Preoperative pachymetry and specular microscopy were performed. Pachymetry was performed 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days postoperatively. At 1, 3 and 12 months, pachymetry and specular microscopy were performed. The study enrolled 45 patients. Preoperatively, there was no significant difference between the groups. Pachymetry was more than 1000 μm 1 day postoperatively in all patients. The preoperative pachymetry was restored in 14 days in Group 3 only. After 1 year, the endothelial cell count (ECC) was 1603 cells/mm(2), 1693 cells/mm(2), and 1911 cells/mm(2) with a loss of 37%, 32%, and 25% in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively (P = .034, Groups 1 and 3). Group 3 had a higher ECC than the control group at 3 months (P = .037) and 1 year (P = .025). One patient in Group 1 and 1 patient in Group 2 developed bullous keratopathy. Transcorneal oxygen decreased corneal edema more rapidly than conventional and systemic oxygen therapies and preserved more endothelial cells than conventional therapy. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A.G.M.; Teichert, Martina
Abstract Rationale, aims, and objectives Despite recommendations in prevailing guidelines to avoid the use of non‐selective (NS) β‐blockers in patients with asthma or COPD, on average, 10 patients per community pharmacy receive NS β‐blockers monthly. The aim of our study was to identify the reasons of prescribers and pharmacists to treat asthma and COPD patients with NS β‐blockers. Methods Fifty‐three community pharmacists in the Netherlands selected patients with actual concurrent use of inhalation medication and NS β‐blockers. For at least 5 patients, each pharmacist screened all medication surveillance signals and actions taken at first dispensing. Each pharmacist selected 3 different initial prescribers for a short interview to explore their awareness of the co‐morbidity and reasons to apply NS β‐blockers. Results Pharmacists identified 827 asthma/COPD patients with actual use of NS β‐blockers. From these, 153 NS β‐blocker prescribers were selected and interviewed (64 general practitioners, 45 ophthalmologists, 24 cardiologists, and 20 other prescribers). One hundred seven prescribers were aware of the drug‐disease interaction of the asthma or COPD co‐morbidity when initiating the NS β‐blocker, and 46 were not. From these, 40 prescribers did not consider the contraindication to be relevant. For 299 patients, medication surveillance signals and actions at first dispensing were retrieved. Patients used predominantly ocular timolol (39.8%), and the oral preparations propranolol (30.8%) and carvedilol (15.1%). In 154 cases, the pharmacy system generated a warning alert. Conclusions A substantial number of prescribers was unaware of the co‐morbidity or did not regard NS β‐blockers contraindicated, despite prevailing clinical guidelines. Improvement programs should target prescribers' awareness and knowledge of NS β‐blockers in patients with asthma or COPD. PMID:29319215
The association of a birth defect and a segmental hemangioma is well established, a consensus concerning evaluation and monitoring of infants with PHACE or LUMBAR syndromes has been published. The efficacy of propranolol in infantile hemangioma is proven; however there were still unresolved issues concerning the safety in children; after 8 years of use on thousands of children safety data collection did not show any unexpected side effects. Topical treatment of infantile hemangiomas with beta-blockers, such as timolol, is very popular, but recent publications revealed a significant systemic absorption that could be responsible for severe side effects, such as bradycardia, in low birthweight infants. As a consequence, this therapeutic option should be considered with caution. In the last 2 years mTOR inhibitors have been tested in low-flow vascular malformations with varying success, but progress remains to be done in the treatment of vascular abnormalities. Today, genetics has led to advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the future targeted therapies could probably be feasible. Skin barrier deficiency is responsible for the development of allergic phenomena in atopic patients, since it has been shown that sensibilisation, even to food, could probably be induced by skin contact. Unfortunately, the topical treatment with crisaborole, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, does not look like a revolution in children atopic dermatitis, its efficacy seems equivalent to emollient application. In the field of infectious diseases, changes in viral outbreaks are the most reported. Furthermore epidemic Zika virus, enteroviruses are responsible for expanded dermatological manifestations and also severe meningoencephalitis. Paraviral character of various eruptions, such as gloves and socks syndrome or eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is challenged. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Kadam, Rajendra S.
In vitro bovine eye tissue/phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4, partition coefficients (Kt:b), in vitro binding to natural melanin, and in vivo delivery at 1 h after posterior subconjunctival injection in Brown Norway rats were determined for eight β-blockers. The Kt:b was in the order intact tissue, dry weight method ≥ intact tissue, wet weight method corrected for tissue water and drug in tissue water ≫ intact tissue, wet weight method > homogenized tissue. In intact tissue methods, Kt:b followed the order choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) > trabecular meshwork > retina > sclera ∼ optic nerve; propranolol > betaxolol > pindolol ∼ timolol ∼ metoprolol > sotalol ∼ atenolol ∼ nadolol. Intact tissue, wet weight log (Kt:b) correlated positively with log D for all tissues (R2 of 0.7–0.9). Log (melanin binding capacity) correlated positively with choroid-RPE log (Kt:b) (R2 of 0.5). With an increase in concentration, Kt:b decreased in trabecular meshwork for all β-blockers and for some lipophilic β-blockers in choroid-RPE and sclera. With an increase in drug lipophilicity, in vivo tissue distribution increased in choroid-RPE, iris-ciliary body, sclera, and cornea but exhibited a declining trend in retina, vitreous, and lens. In vitro bovine intact tissue, wet weight Kt:b correlated positively with rat in vivo tissue/vitreous humor distribution for sclera, choroid-RPE, and retina (R2 of 0.985–0.993). In vitro tissue partition coefficients might be useful in predicting in vivo drug distribution after trans-scleral delivery. Less lipophilic solutes exhibiting limited nonproductive binding in choroid-RPE might exhibit greater trans-scleral delivery to the retina and vitreous. PMID:19926800
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
extract, synthetic human secretin; Taxus, telavancin hydrochloride, telithromycin, temoporfin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, teriparatide, testosterone gel, TG-1024, tirapazamine, travoprost, travoprost/timolol; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, voriconazole; Ximelagatran.
Mann, Amandeep; Tyndale, Rachel F.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is an enzyme that is expressed in liver and brain. It can inactivate neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and β-carbolines. Genetically slow CYP2D6 metabolizers are at higher risk for developing Parkinson’s disease, a risk that increases with exposure to pesticides. The goal of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of CYP2D6 in an in-vitro neurotoxicity model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells express CYP2D6 as determined by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and enzymatic activity. CYP2D6 metabolized 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin and the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine (1 μM) blocked 96 ± 1% of this metabolism, indicating that CYP2D6 is functional in this cell line. Treatment of cells with CYP2D6 inhibitors (quinidine, propanolol, metoprolol or timolol) at varying concentrations significantly increased the neurotoxicity caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) at 10 and 25 μM by between 9 ± 1 and 22 ± 5% (P < 0.01). We found that CYP3A is also expressed in SH-SY5Y cells and inhibiting CYP3A with ketoconazole significantly increased the cell death caused by 10 and 25 μM of MPP+ by between 8 ± 1 and 30 ± 3% (P < 0.001). Inhibiting both CYP2D6 and CYP3A showed an additive effect on MPP+ neurotoxicity. These data further support a possible role for CYP2D6 in neuroprotection from Parkinson’s disease-causing neurotoxins, especially in the human brain where expression of CYP2D6 is high in some regions (e.g. substantia nigra). PMID:20345925
Fea, Antonio M; Belda, Jose I; Rękas, Marek; Jünemann, Anselm; Chang, Lydia; Pablo, Luis; Voskanyan, Lilit; Katz, L Jay
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on one medication who underwent either implantation of two iStent inject® trabecular micro-bypass devices or received medical therapy consisting of a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol. Patients and methods Of 192 subjects who qualified for the study and were enrolled, 94 were randomized to surgery with implantation of two iStent inject® devices in the treated eye and 98 to receive medical therapy. Results At the month 12 visit, 94.7% of eyes (89/94) in the stent group reported an unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction of ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP, and 91.8% of eyes (88/98) in the medical therapy group reported an IOP reduction ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP. A 17.5% between-group treatment difference in favor of the iStent inject group was statistically significant (P=0.02) at the ≥50% level of IOP reduction. An IOP ≤18 mmHg was reported in 92.6% of eyes (87/94) in the iStent inject group and 89.8% of eyes (88/98) in the medical therapy group. Mean (standard deviation) IOP decreases from screening of 8.1 (2.6) mmHg and 7.3 (2.2) mmHg were reported in the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, respectively. A high safety profile was also noted in this study in both the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, as measured by stable best corrected visual acuity, cup-to-disc ratio, and adverse events. Conclusion These data show that the use of iStent inject is at least as effective as two medications, with the clinical benefit of reducing medication burden and assuring continuous treatment with full compliance to implant therapy as well as having a highly favorable safety profile. PMID:24855336
Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.
Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506
Ocansey, Stephen; Kyei, Samuel; Diafo, Ama; Darfor, Kwabena Nkansah; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Aglobitse, Peter B
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally, and treatment involves considerable cost to stakeholders in healthcare. However, there is infrequent availability of cost information and patterns of management, especially in developing countries. This study determined the cost of the medical management of POAG, adherence, and pattern of medication prescription in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving 891 Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) cases seen in the year 2012 at three referral facilities. Demographics, ocular history, resource consumption, medication, test, surgery and other related cost were extracted from 84 patients who had fully complied with their treatment to calculate total cost (TC) based on 2012 estimates. Glaucoma drugs prescribed to patients who had adhered to all their review visits within the period evident from case folders were recorded and analysed for the prescription pattern. Out of 891 POAG cases seen in 2012, 351(39.4 %) attended all the required review visits, but only 84 (9.4) had fully and continually adhered to all their treatment regimes. They comprised 41(48.8 %) males and 43(51.2 %) females with a mean age of 65 ± 14.8. Majority of the respondents were elderly above 60 year of age (65.5 %). The total estimated cost for the 84 cases in the year was GH¢ 81,237 ($40,619), comprising GH¢ 72,193 ($36,097) direct medication cost and GH¢9,045 ($4,523) direct non-medication cost (surgery and test cost), and an average of GH¢ 967 ($484) for a mean visit of 5.6 ± 1.1 in the year. A total of 673 glaucoma medications had been prescribed for 351 patients for the year, with timolol being the most prescribed (64.19 %) and monotherapy as the most adopted form of therapy (61.06 %). Age and income showed concurrent increase with cost (P ≤ 0.05). Cost of managing glaucoma constitutes a substantial financial burden and influenced the pattern of medication prescription.
Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Güngör, Barış; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Altay, Servet; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Toprak, Ercan; Yıldırım, Ersin; Çalık, Nazmi; Alper, Ahmet Taha; Gürkan, Kadir; Erdinler, İzzet; Osmonov, Damirbek
Summary Background Topical beta-blockers have a well-established role in the treatment of glaucoma. We aimed to investigate the outcome of patients who developed symptomatic atrioventricular (AV) block induced by topical beta-blockers. Methods All patients admitted or discharged from our institution, the Siyami Ersek Training and Research Hospital, between January 2009 and January 2013 with a diagnosis of AV block were included in the study. Subjects using ophthalmic beta-blockers were recruited and followed for permanent pacemaker requirement during hospitalisation and for three months after discontinuation of the drug. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in patients in whom AV block persisted beyond 72 hours or recurred during the follow-up period. Results A total of 1 122 patients were hospitalised with a diagnosis of AV block and a permanent pacemaker was implanted in 946 cases (84.3%) during the study period. Thirteen patients using ophthalmic beta-blockers for the treatment of glaucoma and no other rate-limiting drugs were included in the study. On electrocardiography, eight patients had complete AV block and five had high-degree AV block. The ophthalmic beta-blockers used were timolol in seven patients (55%), betaxolol in four (30%), and cartelol in two cases (15%). The mean duration of ophthalmic beta-blocker treatment was 30.1 ± 15.9 months. After drug discontinuation, in 10 patients the block persisted and a permanent pacemaker was implanted. During follow up, one more patient required pacemaker implantation. Therefore in total, pacemakers were implanted in 11 out of 13 patients (84.6%). The pacemaker implantation rate did not differ according to the type of topical beta-blocker used (p = 0.37). The presence of infra-nodal block on electrocardiography was associated with higher rates of pacemaker implantation. Conclusion Our results indicate that topical beta-blockers for the treatment of glaucoma may cause severe conduction abnormalities and when AV
Horackova, M; Huang, M H; Armour, J A
To determine the capacity of ATP to modify cardiomyocytes directly or indirectly via peripheral autonomic neurones, the effects of various purinergic agents were studied on long term cultures of adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes and their co-cultures with extracardiac (stellate ganglion) or intrinsic cardiac neurones. Ventricular myocytes and cardiac neurones were enzymatically dissociated and plated together or alone (myocytes only). Myocyte cultures were used for experiments after three to six weeks. The electrical and contractile properties of cultured myocytes and myocyte-neuronal networks were investigated. The spontaneous beating frequency of ventricular myocytes co-cultured with stellate ganglion neurones increased by approximately 140% (p < 0.001) following superfusion with 10(-5) M ATP. This effect was not modified significantly by tetrodotoxin or by beta adrenoceptor blockade (10(-5) M timolol), but was eliminated following application of the P2 antagonist suramin (10(-5) M). Basal spontaneous contractile rate was reduced by approximately 86% (p < 0.001) in the presence of suramin, indicating the existence of tonically active purinergic synaptic mechanisms in stellate ganglion neurone-myocyte cocultures. Suramin did not significantly affect non-innervated myocyte cultures. ATP increased myocyte contractile rate in intrinsic cardiac neurone-myocyte co-cultures by approximately 40% (p < 0.01) under control conditions, but when beta adrenergic receptors of tetrodotoxin sensitive neural responses were blocked, ATP induced greater augmentation (> 100%). In contrast, ATP induced much smaller effects in non-innervated myocyte cultures (approximately 26%, p < 0.01). Analogues of AT) showed the following order of potency: ATP > UTP > MSATP > beta gamma ATP > alpha beta ATP. Adenosine (10(-4) M) attenuated the beating frequency of myocytes in both types of co-culture, while not significantly affecting non-innervated myocyte cultures. The experimental model used
Objective To compare the effectiveness and side effects of migraine prophylactic medications. Design We performed a network meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently in duplicate and quality was assessed using both the JADAD and Cochrane Risk of Bias instruments. Data were pooled and network meta-analysis performed using random effects models. Data Sources PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Registry, bibliography of retrieved articles through 18 May 2014. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies We included randomized controlled trials of adults with migraine headaches of at least 4 weeks in duration. Results Placebo controlled trials included alpha blockers (n = 9), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 3), angiotensin receptor blockers (n = 3), anticonvulsants (n = 32), beta-blockers (n = 39), calcium channel blockers (n = 12), flunarizine (n = 7), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 6), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 1) serotonin agonists (n = 9) and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 11). In addition there were 53 trials comparing different drugs. Drugs with at least 3 trials that were more effective than placebo for episodic migraines included amitriptyline (SMD: -1.2, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.82), -flunarizine (-1.1 headaches/month (ha/month), 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.67), fluoxetine (SMD: -0.57, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.17), metoprolol (-0.94 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.4 to -0.46), pizotifen (-0.43 ha/month, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.21), propranolol (-1.3 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.0 to -0.62), topiramate (-1.1 ha/month, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.73) and valproate (-1.5 ha/month, 95% CI: -2.1 to -0.8). Several effective drugs with less than 3 trials included: 3 ace inhibitors (enalapril, lisinopril, captopril), two angiotensin receptor blockers (candesartan, telmisartan), two anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, levetiracetam), and several beta-blockers (atenolol, bisoprolol, timolol). Network meta-analysis found amitriptyline to be better than several other medications including
Prospective, non-interventional, multicenter study of the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of prostaglandin analog/prostamide-containing therapies in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension
Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Izgi, Belgin; Temel, Ahmet; Yildirim, Nilgun; Okka, Mehmet; Özcan, Altan; Yüksel, Nurşen; Elgin, Ufuk; Altan, Çiğdem; Ozer, Baris
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy, tolerability, safety, and usage patterns of prostaglandin analog/prostamide (PGA/P)-containing topical ocular hypotensives in ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma in the Turkish clinical setting. Methods This non-interventional, multicenter study enrolled previously treated patients who failed to achieve target IOP (or experienced unacceptable adverse events [AEs]) and were prescribed a PGA/P-containing IOP-lowering agent. Treatment was initiated at baseline (V1), and patients returned at weeks 4–6 (V2) and 8–12 (V3). The primary efficacy measure was the change in IOP from baseline at V3 in each eye. The secondary measures were physician’s assessment of IOP-lowering efficacy, patients (%) reaching target IOP determined at V1, hyperemia score, physician and patient assessment of study treatment tolerability at V3, and AE frequency/severity. A subgroup analysis of patients receiving the most common study treatment was conducted. All analyses were performed using the safety population (patients who received one or more doses and had any data available). Results Of 358 enrolled patients, 60.6% had primary open-angle glaucoma, 29.9% had secondary open-angle glaucoma (protocol amendment), and 13.1% had OHT; 13 patients had multiple diagnoses. At V3, the mean IOP change from baseline was ≥−4.2 mmHg (≥21.1%). IOP met or was lower than the target in 81.7% of patients, 95% exhibited none to mild conjunctival hyperemia (most common AE), and tolerability was rated good/very good by >91.1% of patients and physicians. The results were similar in patients who received the most common study treatment, bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim; n=310). Conclusion PGA/P-containing medications, including bim/tim, significantly reduced IOP in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma or OHT; most reached their target IOP or an IOP even lower
Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B
Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.
Li, Lu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Liwen; Li, Mu; Ji, Pingting; Gong, Jieling; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Hong
The goal of this study was to calculate the anterior chamber volume and assess aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo, under anesthetic condition. Gadolinium-contrast agent (Gd-DTPA, 234.5 mg/ml) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rat eyes via anterior chamber injection or instillation of 234.5 or 117.25 mg/ml Gd-DTPA in 0.2% azone as eye drops, and changes of Gd signal visualized by 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The safety of local application of Gd-DTPA and azone were performed after MRI scanning. The anterior chamber injection of Gd-DTPA (234.5 mg/ml) group was used for anterior chamber volume and aqueous inflow calculating. Serial changes in Gd-DTPA relative concentration in the anterior chamber was determined based on the initial Gd signal gray values and the initial relative concentration of Gd-DTPA after anterior chamber Gd-DTPA injection. The mean aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo was assessed based on changes in Gd-DTPA relative concentration and the anterior chamber volume. Eye drops of Gd-DTPA (234.5 mg/ml) in 0.2% azone readily allowed safe assessment of the aqueous inflow by 7.0 T MRI. Under anesthetic condition in vivo, the mean anterior chamber volume (ACV) in rats was 8493.6 ± 657.4 μm 3 , no differences were observed in the aqueous inflow measured by topical instillation of 234.5 mg/ml Gd-DTPA in 0.2% azone (0.182 ± 0.011 μl/min) between that measured by anterior chamber injection (0.165 ± 0.041 μl/min, P > 0.05), Timolol reduced aqueous inflow to 0.124 ± 0.020 μl/min (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that Gd-enhanced 7.0 T MRI allows evaluation of the Gd signal variation and anterior chamber volume in rats in vivo. The aqueous inflow calculation via non-invasive local application of 234.5 mg/ml Gd-DTPA can be assessed by the variability of relative concentration of Gd-DTPA in anterior chamber and ACV in vivo, under anesthetic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feely, J; Peden, N
There is an increasing use and variety of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (beta-blockers) available for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Recent comparative studies suggest that atenolol (200mg daily), metoprolol (200mg daily); acebutolol (400mg daily), oxprenolol ( 160mg daily), nadolol ( 80mg daily) and timolol (20mg daily) produce a beneficial clinical response equal to that seen with propranolol ( 160mg daily). Most beta-blockers reduce resting heart rate by approximately 25 to 30 beats/min, although a lesser reduction is seen with those possessing intrinsic sympathomimetic activity such as oxprenolol and pindolol. While earlier studies employing large doses of intravenous propranolol concluded that beta-blockade reduced myocardial contractility, more recent non-invasive studies suggest that the predominant cardiac effect is on heart rate. In patients with cardiac failure, beta-blockers may, however, produce a profound fall in cardiac output. Nevertheless, in combination with digoxin they may be useful in controlling the atrial fibrillation of thyrocardiac disease. beta-Blockers improve nervousness and tremor (although to a lesser extent with cardioselective agents) and severe myopathy, and they also reduce the frequency of paralysis in patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. There is often subjective improvement in sweating but usually no major effect on eye signs. Recent studies show a 10% reduction in oxygen consumption/basal metabolic rate with long term oral use of selective or nonselective beta-blockers. In addition, many agents (propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol and sotalol but not acebutolol, atenolol or oxprenolol) reduce circulating tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration by between 10 and 40%, although the clinical significance of this effect (if any) is not established. beta-Blockers may also have endocrinological effects on gastrin, cyclic AMP, catecholamines and other hormone levels. Given in adequate dosage, propranolol has been shown to
Tomillero, A; Moral, M A
[¹¹C]RAC; (18)F-Fluoromisonidazole; 89-12; 9-[¹⁸F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, ADMVA, ADXS-11-001, Aflibercept, Agatolimod sodium, AGS-004, Alglucosidase alfa, Aliskiren fumarate, Alvocidib hydrochloride, AMG-108, AMG-853, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BioMatrix Flex drug eluting stent, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Caspofungin acetate, Cediranib, Cetuximab, ChimeriVax-Dengue, Choriogonadotropin alfa, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cizolirtine citrate, Clofarabine, Cocaine conjugate vaccine, CX-717; Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, Dienogest, Diphencyprone, Doripenem, DTaP-HepB-IPV, Dutasteride; E-7010, Ecallantide, Ecstasy, Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Eszopiclone, Etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent EVT-201, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Ferumoxytol, Fesoterodine fumavate, Figitumumab, Filgrastim, Fingolimod hydrochloride, Fluticasone furoate, Fluval P, Fluzone, Fondaparinux sodium, Fulvestrant, Fungichromin; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, Gefitinib, GHB-01L1, GLY-230, GSK-1349572; Hib-MenCY-TT, Hib-TT, HPV-6/11/16/18, Hydrocodone bitartrate; IC-51, Icatibant acetate, Imatinib mesylate, Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Indetanib, Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin glargine, Insulin glulisine, Interferon-beta, Ispinesib mesylate, Ixabepilone; Laromustine, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, L-Citrulline, Lenalidomide, Lexatumumab, Linezolid, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lutropin alfa; Mapatumumab, MDX-066, MDX-1388, Mepolizumab, Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Metreleptin, Micafungin sodium, Mometasone furoate/oxymetazoline hydrochloride, Mx-dnG1, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nabiximols, Natalizumab
reaction to it were also found, similar to the mice experiments. In living monkeys the glial reaction in the LGN could be observed by means of positron emission tomography. 7. In the LGN of monkeys with experimental high IOP glaucoma, the M-cell system was preferentially damaged in the early stage, while in the later stages both the M- and P-cell systems were damaged. 8. In a single-instituted prospective double-blinded clinical trial, oral administration of nilvadipine at 4 mg/day, a DHP calcium-channel blocker, was found to significantly retard the visual field progression in normal tension glaucoma patients over 3 years, while significantly increasing the choroidal and optic nerve blood flow by about 35%. 9. A multi-instituted prospective double-blinded clinical trial in normal tension glaucoma patients revealed that the rate of MD deterioration under monotherapy with either topical nipradilol or timolol was around -0.05 dB/year, thought to be considerably slower than -0.25 dB/year, the commonly estimated rate of MD deterioration by pressure-independent damaging factors. The current results indicate the possibility of treatment of pressure-independent damaging factors of open-angle glaucoma in Japanese open-angle glaucoma patients with oral nilvadipine and topical anti-glaucoma agents.
Zhang, Linda; Weizer, Jennifer S; Musch, David C
Background Glaucoma is the international leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only currently known modifiable risk factor; it can be reduced by medications, incisional surgery, or laser trabeculoplasty (LTP). LTP reduces IOP by 25% to 30% from baseline, but early acute IOP elevation after LTP is a common adverse effect. Most of these IOP elevations are transient, but temporarily elevated IOP may cause further optic nerve damage, worsening of glaucoma requiring additional therapy, and permanent vision loss. Antihypertensive prophylaxis with medications such as acetazolamide, apraclonidine, brimonidine, dipivefrin, pilocarpine, and timolol have been recommended to blunt and treat the postoperative IOP spike and associated pain and discomfort. Conversely, other researchers have observed that early postoperative IOP rise happens regardless of whether people receive perioperative glaucoma medications. It is unclear whether perioperative administration of antiglaucoma medications may be helpful in preventing or reducing the occurrence of postoperative IOP elevation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of medications administered perioperatively to prevent temporarily increased intraocular pressure (IOP) after laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) in people with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 November 2016), Embase.com (1947 to 18 November 2016), PubMed (1948 to 18 November 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 18 November 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) ( www.controlled-trials.com); last searched 17 September 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 18 November 2016 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 18 November 2016. We did not use any date or