Science.gov

Sample records for tio2 photocatalysts synthesis

  1. TiO2 (B) nanosheets mediate phase selective synthesis of TiO2 nanostructured photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Sun, Panpan; Kong, Lina; Wei, Yongan; Zheng, Han; Liu, Yichun

    2014-02-01

    Phase selective synthesis is particularly valuable in revealing performance of photocatalyst existing as several polymorphic phases. In this work, we develop a general soft chemical route that used a TiO2 (B) nanosheet as a precursor to synthesize TiO2 nanostructures of desired phase. Benefiting from the structural similarity and ultrathin thickness feature, TiO2 (B) nanosheet precursor can readily transform to pure phase of anatase, rutile and brookite as well as mixed phase of brookite/anatase. A possible dissolution-recrystallization mechanism is proposed for the phase transition of TiO2 (B) nanosheets to other phases. Photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the brookite/anatase mixture had the highest activity in degrading acetaldehyde under UV light irradiation, due to the synergistic effect of high crystallinity, large surface area and mixed phase structure.

  2. Synthesis of visible light-activated TiO 2 photocatalyst via surface organic modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dong; Xu, Yao; Hou, Bo; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan

    2007-05-01

    A visible light-activated TiO 2 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to sol-gel-hydrothermal synthesized TiO 2. The surface hydroxyls of TiO 2 nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex that was confirmed by the FT-IR and XPS spectra. Due to the existence of surface complex, the absorption edge of as-prepared TDI-modified TiO 2 nanomaterial extended well into visible region. Compared with unmodified TiO 2 and Degussa P25, the TDI-modified TiO 2 photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  3. [Preparation of weak light driven TiO2 multi composite photocatalysts via adsorption phase synthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Sun, Zhi-Xuan; Wu, Li-Guang

    2015-02-01

    Photodegradation of pollutions by TiO2 under irradiation of weak UV and visible lights was one of the key points to expand the application of heterogeneous photocatalysis. Based on the adsorption phase synthesis, N doping and co-doping with N and Fe2O3 were employed to prepare TiO2 multi composite photocatalysts. The activity of these photocatalyts was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl-orange illuminated under weak UV and visible lights. Via UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra, the effects on the light absorption and visible response expansion of catalysts caused by different conditions were explored, such as sintering temperature, doping content of N and co-doping. Followed that, the changes in the photocatalytic activities were studied under the irradiation of weak light. The results showed that, N doping could enhance the light absorption of the catalysts, thus significantly enhanced their photocatalytic activity illuminated under UV weak light. All N-doped photocatalysts had a higher activity than the commercial available P25 photocatalyst. The visible response of catalysts was expanded little caused by N doping, thereby most catalysts doped by single N element had no activity illuminated by weak visible light. Only the catalyst doped with 5% of N element showed a weak activity after calcined at 900 degrees C . Due to the synergy effects between N doping and Fe2O3 coupling, co-doping did not only enhance the light absorption of the catalysts, but also significantly expanded the visible response of catalysts. So, co-doped catalysts showed a good catalytic activity when excited by weak visible light.

  4. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-28

    A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). The La(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+) and Er(3+) doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. We further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products. PMID:26400095

  5. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-10

    In this paper, a two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE–TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE–TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu–TiO2more » NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10-3 s-1. The La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. Finally, we further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.« less

  6. Synthesis of rare earth doped TiO2 nanorods as photocatalysts for lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Zhao, Xueyuan; Cao, Lixin; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-28

    A two-step process is developed to synthesize rare earth doped titania nanorods (RE-TiO2 NRs) as photocatalysts for efficient degradation of lignin under simulated sunlight irradiation. In this approach, protonated titanate nanotubes with layered structures were first prepared by a hydrothermal approach, and rare earth metal ions were subsequently bound to the negatively charged surface of the synthesized titanate via electrostatic incorporation. The as-synthesized RE-TiO2 NRs after calcination generally showed much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than those of undoped TiO2 NRs or the commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst. Using methyl orange (MO) as a probing molecule, we demonstrate that Eu-TiO2 NRs are among the best for degrading MO, with an observed rate constant of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). The La(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+) and Er(3+) doped TiO2 NRs also showed higher photocatalytic efficiencies in degrading MO than the commercial P25 TiO2. We further demonstrate that lignin can be photodegraded effectively and rapidly at room temperature under simulated sunlight through two reaction routes, which could be important in controlling ways of lignin depolymerization or the formation of reaction products.

  7. Self-templated synthesis of TiO2 hierarchical structure photocatalyst with high efficiency and good sedimentation property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Xin; Liu, Baishan; Liu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The balance between highly efficient photocatalysis and a good emulsion/water extraction property is crucial for the practical application of TiO2 photocatalysts. The TiO2 hierarchical structure was synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment of H2Ti3O7 nanobelts with TiF4. The hydrolysis of TiF4 supplies the TiO2 nucleus, and HF, which is derived from the hydrolysis process, acts as a corrosive to etch the H2Ti3O7 nanobelt, resulting in a dynamic dissolution and precipitation process. The etching process resulted in self-generated TiF4 and initiated hydrolysis to generate new TiO2 primary particles. Induced by F etching process, Ti3+ defects were formed in the hierarchical structures, which was beneficial to the photocatalytic property. This hydrolysis-etching-hydrolysis process allows for template dissolution and self-assembly of anatase TiO2 nanobelts to form the TiO2 hierarchical structures. This process balances the nanominiaturization and sedimentation property requirements by the photocatalytic and emulsion/water extraction properties. This simple hydrolysis-etching-hydrolysis process can be applied to the synthesis of many other hierarchical structures.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetized Photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 by Heteroagglomeration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnah Dewi, Sari; Sutanto; Fisli, A.; Wardiyati, S.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic photocatalysts Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 have been prepared using heteroagglomeration method. Synthesis of magnetic photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 was carried out through four stages : (1) synthesis of photocatalyst TiO2 nanoparticles by TiCl4 coprecipitation in ammonia solution, (2) synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles through precipitation method using a mixture of Fe (III) / Fe (II) (2: 1 mole ratio) in ammonia solution, (3) coating with SiO2 through hydrolysis of silicate ion, (4) in the final stage, Fe3O4/SiO2 was mixed with TiO2 in hetero-agglomeration manner. Structure and morphology of resultan composites have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were confirmed that composite Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 succefully synthesized. The functionality photocatalyst of the particles was tested by eliminating of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The result showed the magnetite photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has phototacalytic and absorbtion properties so that it has good performance at dyes removal in water higher than pure TiO2, and capable to perform repeatition process at least 4 times.

  9. Novel TiO2/C nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization, and application as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elias; Zamora, Patricio P; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2012-02-15

    Novel TiO(2)/carbon nanocomposites were prepared through the pyrolysis of TiO(2)/poly(furfuryl alcohol) hybrid materials, which were obtained by the sol-gel method, starting from titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and furfuryl alcohol (FA) precursors. Six different TiO(2)/C samples were prepared based on different TiO(2) nanoparticle sizes and TiO(2)/FA ratios. All of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated effective FA polymerization onto the TiO(2) (anatase) nanoparticles, polymer conversion to disordered carbon following the pyrolysis, and a simultaneous TiO(2) anatase-rutile phase transition. The resulting TiO(2)/carbon composites were used as photocatalysts in the advanced oxidative process (AOP) for the degradation of reactive organic dyes in aqueous solution. The results indicate excellent photocatalytic performance (degradation of 99% of the dye after 60 min) with several advantages over traditional TiO(2)-based photocatalysts. PMID:22056275

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of TiO(2 nanoparticles on graphene for use as photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Zhu, Shenmin; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Yu, Ziyong; Liu, Qinglei; Li, Jingbo; Feng, Chuanliang; Zhang, Di

    2011-09-01

    Using ultrasonication we succeed in a controlled incorporation of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the graphene layers homogeneously in a few hours. The average size of the TiO(2) nanoparticles was controlled at around 4-5 nm on the sheets without using any surfactant, which is attributed to the pyrolysis and condensation of the dissolved TiCl(4) into TiO(2) by ultrasonic waves. The photocatalytic activity of the resultant graphene-TiO(2) composites containing 25 wt.% TiO(2) is better than that of commercial pure TiO(2). This is partly due to the extremely small size of the TiO(2) nanoparticles and partly due to the graphene-TiO(2) composite structure consisting of homogeneous dispersion of crystalline TiO(2) nanoparticles on the graphene sheets. As the graphene in the composites has a very good contact with the TiO(2) nanoparticles it enhances the photo-electron conversion of TiO(2) by reducing the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. PMID:21482166

  11. Synthesis of N-doped TiO2 Using Guanidine Nitrate: An Excellent Visible Light Photocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light active nitrogen-rich TiO2 photocatalyst have been synthesized by using guanidine nitrate as the doping material. The catalytic efficiency of the catalyst has been demonstrated by the decomposition of the dye, methyl orange (MO), and the pollutant, 2,4 d...

  12. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted photocatalysts containing low TiO2 loading: Evaluation for the degradation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    de Escobar, Cícero Coelho; Lansarin, Marla Azário; dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch

    2016-04-01

    A molecularly imprinted (MI) photocatalyst containing a low TiO2 loading (7.00-16.60mgL(-1) of TiO2) was prepared via an acid-catalyzed sol-gel route using different classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., Atorvastatin, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Tioconazole, Valsartan, Ketoconazole and Gentamicine) as the template. Herein, our main goal was to test the hypothesis that photocatalysts based on molecular imprinting may improve the degradation performance of pharmaceutical compounds compared to that of a commercial sample (Degussa P25) due to presence of specific cavities in the silica domain. To elucidate certain trends between the performance of photocatalysts and their structural and textural properties, as well the effect of the structure of the drugs on molecular imprinting, the data were analyzed in terms of pore diameter, pore volume, surface area, zeta potential and six-membered ring percentage of silica. In comparison to the commercial sample (P25), we have shown that adsorption and degradation were enhanced from 48 to 752% and from 5 to 427%, respectively. A comparison with the control system (non-imprinted) indicates that the increased performance of the MI systems was due to the presence of specific cavities on the silica domain, and the textural and structural aspects also support this conclusion. The MI photocatalyst was reusable for seven cycles of reuse in which approximately 60% of its photocatalytic efficiency was preserved for the system containing Diclofenac as the template. PMID:26800507

  13. Synthesis of carbon containing TiO2 nano powders by aerosol flame deposition for photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gyeong-Taek; Kim, Yeon-Hong; Jeong, Hyung-Gon; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Ohk, Seung-Ho; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2008-09-01

    In-situ carbon-doped-TiO2 nano-powder was prepared by an AFD (aerosol flame deposition) technique using ethanol and isopropanol, and the photocatalytic activity of the prepared powder was examined. There were no significant effect of the solvents on the phase of the prepared TiO2, but the level of carbon in the deposits prepared with ethanol was lower than that prepared with isopropanol. Also, the average sizes of the particles prepared with ethanol were slightly smaller than that formed with isopropanol. All the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity in the decomposing of methylene blue (MB). We even observed photocatalytic activity of the powder under visible light irradiation, although the decomposition rate of MB under this irradiation was slightly slower than under UV-A light irradiation. PMID:19049067

  14. SURFACTANT TEMPLATED SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE DESTRUCTION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the symposium, we will present the synthesis and properties of the mesoporous TIO2 films and membranes and fundamental and systematic study on the decomposition pathway of such biological toxins.

  15. XAFS Study on TiO2 Photocatalyst Loaded on Zeolite Synthesized from Steel Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Ohmichi, Tetsutaro; Mori, Kosuke; Katayama, Iwao; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2007-02-02

    The convenient route for the synthesis of Y-zeolites by utilizing steel slag as a material source was developed. Through hydrothermal treatment, well-crystallized Y-zeolite was obtained. We also synthesized TiO2-loaded Y-zeolites by an impregnation method. The structure of titanium oxide species highly dispersed on the zeolite, which couldn't be detected by XRD patterns, was investigated by XAFS analysis. Photocatalytic activity for decomposition of 2-propanol in liquid phase was found to be enhanced by the hydrophobic surface property of zeolite. It has been demonstrated that the zeolite synthesized from steel slag would be applicable as a promising support of TiO2 photocatalyst.

  16. One-dimensional mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: Rational design, synthesis and application as high-performance photocatalyst in visible and UV light region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Yaping; Chen, Haoxin; Guo, Jinxue; Meng, Alan; Li, Chunfang

    2014-10-01

    An ideal photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants should combine the features of efficient visible light response, fast electron transport, high electron-hole separation efficiency, and large specific surface area. However, these requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. In this work, we develop a rational synthesis strategy for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell composites. In this strategy, FeOOH nanorods are firstly coated by TiO2 shell, followed by a calcination process. The as-prepared composites are thoroughly investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. Endowed with the advantages of its composition and specific structural features, the presented sample possesses the combined advantages mentioned above, thus delivering evidently enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation and Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. And the possible mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic performance is proposed.

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films as an efficient photocatalyst by polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Hwang, Soo Min; Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-05-12

    Thermally stable mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with pore size of 50 nm have been synthesized by adopting the polymeric micelle-assembly method. A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide), which serves as a template for the mesopores, was utilized to form polymeric micelles. The effective interaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the polymeric micelles enabled us to fabricate stable mesoporous films. By changing the molar ratio of TEOS and TTIP, several mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with different compositions can be synthesized. The presence of amorphous SiO2 phase effectively retards the growth of anatase TiO2 crystal in the pore walls and retains the original mesoporous structure, even at higher temperature (650 °C). These TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films are of very high quality, without any cracks or voids. The addition of SiO2 phase to mesoporous TiO2 films not only adsorbs more organic dyes, but also significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity compared to mesoporous pure TiO2 film without SiO2 phase.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films as an efficient photocatalyst by polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Hwang, Soo Min; Sun, Ziqi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-05-12

    Thermally stable mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with pore size of 50 nm have been synthesized by adopting the polymeric micelle-assembly method. A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide), which serves as a template for the mesopores, was utilized to form polymeric micelles. The effective interaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the polymeric micelles enabled us to fabricate stable mesoporous films. By changing the molar ratio of TEOS and TTIP, several mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films with different compositions can be synthesized. The presence of amorphous SiO2 phase effectively retards the growth of anatase TiO2 crystal in the pore walls and retains the original mesoporous structure, even at higher temperature (650 °C). These TiO2/SiO2 hybrid films are of very high quality, without any cracks or voids. The addition of SiO2 phase to mesoporous TiO2 films not only adsorbs more organic dyes, but also significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity compared to mesoporous pure TiO2 film without SiO2 phase. PMID:24710980

  19. TiO2 Nanotubes/MWCNTs Nanocomposite Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Under UV-Vis Light Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao-Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-03-01

    Nanocomposite of TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2NTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method and firstly used in photocatalytic hydrogen production. The obtained TiO2 NTs/MWCNTs composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectrum and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the MWCNTs were decorated with well dispersed anatase TiO2 nanotubes with a diameter of 8-15 nm. A slight blue shift and weak symmetry was observed for the strongest Raman peak which resulted from strain gradients originating from interface integration between TiO2 nanotubes and MWCNTs. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water splitting using Na2S and Na2SO3 as sacrificial reagents under UV-vis light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with P25 has been observed for the resulted samples. The nanocomposite with optimized MWCNTs content of 1% displayed a hydrogen production rate of 161 u mol/h/g. Good photocatalytic stability of the as-synthesized samples was observed as well.

  20. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Zn 2+-TiO 2/AC composite photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xincheng; Jiang, Jianchun; Sun, Kang; Cui, Dandan

    2011-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) supported Zn 2+-TiO 2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption, diffuse reflectance UV/VIS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using toluene as a pollution target, the photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst was evaluated. The results showed that prepared photocatalyst was obviously helpful for the removal of toluene in air. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene by Zn 2+-TiO 2/AC reached 100% for 40 min and remained 75% after 160 min, while degradation by TiO 2 was only 30%. It indicated that the photocatalytic activity of prepared photocatalyst was enhanced. It is due to Zn 2+-doping increased the oxidation and reduction of hole-electron pairs, which was the important factor in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of stable nanoporous polymeric bases-crystalline TiO2 nanocomposites: visible light active and efficient photocatalysts for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fujian; Kong, Weiping; Wang, Liang; Noshadi, Iman; Zhang, Zhonghua; Qi, Chenze

    2015-02-01

    Visible light active and stable nanoporous polymeric base-crystalline TiO2 nanocomposites were solvothermally synthesized from in situ copolymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) with 1-vinylimidazolate (VI) or 4-vinylpyridine (Py) in the presence of tetrabutyl titanate without the use of any other additives (PDVB-VI-TiO2-x, PDVB-Py-TiO2-x, where x stands for the molar ratio of TiO2 to VI or Py), which showed excellent activity with respect to catalyzing the degradation of organic pollutants of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and rhodamine-B (RhB). TEM and SEM images show that PDVB-VI-TiO2-x and PDVB-Py-TiO2-x have abundant nanopores, and TiO2 nanocrystals with a high degree of crystallinity were homogeneously embedded in the PDVB-VI-TiO2-x and PDVB-Py-TiO2-x, forming a stable ‘brick-and-mortar’ nanostructure. PDVB-VI and PDVB-Py supports act as the glue linking TiO2 nanocrystals to form nanopores and constraining the agglomeration of TiO2 nanocrystals. XPS spectra show evidence of unique interactions between TiO2 and basic sites in these samples. UV diffuse reflectance shows that PDVB-VI-TiO2-x and PDVB-Py-TiO2-x exhibit a unique response to visible light. Catalytic tests show that the PDVB-VI-TiO2-x and PDVB-Py-TiO2-x were active in catalyzing the degradation of PNP and RhB organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. The enhanced activities of the PDVB-VI-TiO2-x and PDVB-Py-TiO2-x were ascribed to synergistic effects between abundant nanopores and the unique optical adsorption of visible light in the samples.

  2. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti3+-doped TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti3+-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti4+ on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti3+-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity. PMID:26044406

  3. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-06-05

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti(4+) on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4/TiO2 magnetic and photocatalyst bifunctional core-shell with superparamagnetic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrad, F.; Helmi Rashid Farimani, M.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Rezaee Roknabadi, M.; Karimipour, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this research a simple method has been presented to coat magnetic nanoparticles with TiO2. Firstly, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been prepared using a co-precipitation method. Thereafter, in order to achieve particles with better dispersibility, the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been modified with the help of trisodium citrate as stabilizer. Afterward, Fe3O4 / TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites were synthesized by the Stöber method. The prepared samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD results show the formation of two compounds of crystalline magnetite and brookite-type TiO2 . TEM images confirmed the formation of their core-shell structure. The surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles using trisodium citrate was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Magnetic studies also indicated that prepared core-shells exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Combining this property with the photocatalytic ability of TiO2 could result in a synthesized nanocomposite with different medical and environmental applications.

  5. Stable semiconductor black phosphorus (BP)@titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid photocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Uk Lee, Hyun; Lee, Soon Chang; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Kim, Yooseok; Park, So Young; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials have emerged as new fields. Due to the zero-band-gap nature of graphene and the low photocatalytic performance of MoS2, more advanced semiconducting 2D materials have been prompted. As a result, semiconductor black phosphorus (BP) is a derived cutting-edge post-graphene contender for nanoelectrical application, because of its direct-band-gap nature. For the first time, we report on robust BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts offering enhanced photocatalytic performance under light irradiation in environmental and biomedical fields, with negligible affected on temperature and pH conditions, as compared with MoS2@TiO2 prepared by the identical synthesis method. Remarkably, in contrast to pure few layered BP, which, due to its intrinsic sensitivity to oxygen and humidity was readily dissolved after just several uses, the BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts showed a ~92% photocatalytic activity after 15 runs. Thus, metal-oxide-stabilized BP photocatalysts can be practically applied as a promising alternative to graphene and MoS2. PMID:25732720

  6. Stable semiconductor black phosphorus (BP)@titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uk Lee, Hyun; Lee, Soon Chang; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Kim, Yooseok; Park, So Young; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few decades, two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials have emerged as new fields. Due to the zero-band-gap nature of graphene and the low photocatalytic performance of MoS2, more advanced semiconducting 2D materials have been prompted. As a result, semiconductor black phosphorus (BP) is a derived cutting-edge post-graphene contender for nanoelectrical application, because of its direct-band-gap nature. For the first time, we report on robust BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts offering enhanced photocatalytic performance under light irradiation in environmental and biomedical fields, with negligible affected on temperature and pH conditions, as compared with MoS2@TiO2 prepared by the identical synthesis method. Remarkably, in contrast to pure few layered BP, which, due to its intrinsic sensitivity to oxygen and humidity was readily dissolved after just several uses, the BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts showed a ~92% photocatalytic activity after 15 runs. Thus, metal-oxide-stabilized BP photocatalysts can be practically applied as a promising alternative to graphene and MoS2.

  7. Synergetic effects in novel hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Centi, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The synergistic effect between fluorine and hydrogen in hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 photocatalysts is evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of atrazine. The interaction between fluorine and hydrogen species in hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 overcomes the limitations of individual F-doped TiO2 and hydrogenated TiO2 photocatalyst properties. Hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 is photo-active under UV, visible and infrared light illumination with efficient electrons and holes separations. The optimized concentration of surface vacancies and Ti3+ centers coupled with enhanced surface hydrophilicity facilitates the production of surface-bound and free hydroxyl radicals. The surface of the catalyst contains dbnd Tisbnd F, dbnd Tisbnd OH, dbnd Tisbnd Ovacancy and dbnd Tisbnd H bonds as evidenced by XPS, Raman, FTIR and HR-TEM analysis. This combination also triggers the formation of new Ti3+ occupied states under the conduction band of hydrogenated F-doped TiO2. Moreover, the change in the pore structure from cylindrical to slits and larger surface area facilitates surface charge interactions. The thermal stability is also enhanced and a single anatase phase is obtained. The size of the particles of hydrogenated F-doped TiO2 is also uniform with defined and homogeneous crystal structure. This synergetic effect between fluorine and hydrogen opens up new alternatives in improving the properties of TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity.

  8. One-pot approach for synthesis of N-doped TiO2/ZnFe2O4 hybrid as an efficient photocatalyst for degradation of aqueous organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunjin; Qin, Jiacheng; Chen, Hao; Wei, Fengyu; Liu, Xueting; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Shaobin

    2015-06-30

    N-doped TiO2/ZnFe2O4 catalysts were successfully prepared by coupling nitrogen modified TiO2 with ZnFe2O4 via a one-pot vapor-thermal method. The physicochemical properties of the as-prepared catalysts have been characterized using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The UV-vis-light-driven photocatalytic activities of the hybrids were evaluated and the effects of the amount of photocatalyst, different types of dyes, catalyst stability on photodegradation of organic dyes were investigated. Moreover, degradation kinetics and mechanism as well as the roles of N doping, ZnFe2O4 and TiO2 have been analyzed. It was revealed that N-doped TiO2/ZnFe2O4 exhibited an improved performance compared with TiO2/ZnFe2O4 or ZnFe2O4 because of the formation of a heterostructure at the interface as well as the introduction of N species. Active species such as holes, electrons, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radicals involved in the photodegradation process were detected by using different types of scavengers. Because of ZnFe2O4 in the hybrid, the catalyst shows ferromagnetism, and thus, the hybrid catalyst is easily isolated from the reaction mixture after the photocatalytic experiments. This work not only offers a simple method for the fabrication of N doped TiO2/ZnFe2O4 hybrids, but also provides an effective and conveniently recyclable photocatalyst for the purification of water.

  9. Design of Novel Visible Light Active Photocatalyst Materials: Surface Modified TiO2.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michael; Iwaszuk, Anna; Lucid, Aoife K; Carey, John J; Fronzi, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Work on the design of new TiO2 based photocatalysts is described. The key concept is the formation of composite structures through the modification of anatase and rutile TiO2 with molecular-sized nanoclusters of metal oxides. Density functional theory (DFT) level simulations are compared with experimental work synthesizing and characterizing surface modified TiO2 . DFT calculations are used to show that nanoclusters of metal oxides such as TiO2 , SnO/SnO2 , PbO/PbO2 , ZnO and CuO are stable when adsorbed at rutile and anatase surfaces, and can lead to a significant red shift in the absorption edge which will induce visible light absorption; this is the first requirement for a useful photocatalyst. The origin of the red shift and the fate of excited electrons and holes are determined. For p-block metal oxides the oxidation state of Sn and Pb can be used to modify the magnitude of the red shift and its mechanism. Comparisons of recent experimental studies of surface modified TiO2 that validate our DFT simulations are described. These nanocluster-modified TiO2 structures form the basis of a new class of photocatalysts which will be useful in oxidation reactions and with a correct choice of nanocluster modified can be applied to other reactions. PMID:26833714

  10. Improvement of Ultrasonic Disinfection Power Using TiO2 Photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjour, Mahmoud Farshbaf; Ogino, Chiaki; Matsumura, Susumu; Nakamura, Shinichi; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2005-03-01

    The disinfection power of an ultrasonic system was enhanced using TiO2-photocatalyst in the irradiating solutions. Cultures of Legionella were used in the irradiation system with and without TiO2. A significant decrease in the concentration of viable cells was observed during irradiation in the presence of TiO2. The rate of cell killing was higher in the presence of TiO2 than it was with Al2O3, and was proportional to the amount of TiO2 used in the irradiating samples. There was no significant effect of cell concentration on the rate of cell killing in the range of 103 to 107 CFU/ml. Addition of OH radical scavengers such as glutathione, ascorbic acid and histidine to the irradiating solutions reduced the rate of disinfection, thus indicating the primary role of OH radicals in this process.

  11. Dramatic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Xu, Bolian; Fan, Yining

    2013-02-01

    The mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalysts with different anatase/rutile/brookite ratios and high specific surface area (157-218 m2/g) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 100 °C and the effect of rutile content in TiO2 on the BET surface area, light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers was studied and correlated to the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Rutile content increased from 0% to 100% by increasing the amount of TiCl4 in aqueous phase and the initial pH value of reaction solution played an important role in the phase composition of TiO2. The photocatalytic mechanism of mixed-phase TiO2 was discussed.

  12. Visible-light responsive dye-modified TiO 2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dong; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan

    2008-03-01

    A series of dye-modified TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized using dye Chrysoidine G (CG), tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), and commercial TiO 2 (Degussa P25) as starting materials. TDI was used as a bridging molecule whose two -NCO groups reacted with Ti-OH of TiO 2 and -NH 2 groups of CG, respectively. As a result, special organic complexes were formed on the TiO 2 surface via stable π-conjugated chemical bonds between TiO 2 and dye molecules, confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis spectra. Due to the existence of π-conjugated surface organic complexes, the as-synthesized photocatalysts showed a great improvement in visible absorption (400-550 nm). Methylene blue, as a photodegradation target, was used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance, and the dye-modified TiO 2 exhibited much better activity under the visible light irradiation than bare TiO 2.

  13. DC corona ozone generation enhanced by TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekã¡Rek, S.

    2008-12-01

    Non-thermal electrical discharges, such as corona discharge are apart of the source of ozone, charged, and excited species and acoustic noise also the source of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths. The important component of this radiation from the standpoint of photocatalyst activation is the ultraviolet radiation. We studied the role of UV radiation on corona discharge ozone production by placing the titanium dioxide photocatalyst into the discharge region. We used hollow needle to mesh DC corona discharge at atmospheric pressure with TiO2 globules on the mesh. The discharge was enhanced by the flow of air through the needle. We found that for the needle biased negatively addition of TiO2 photocatalyst on the mesh electrode drastically increases discharge ozone production as well as the ozone production yield. These quantities are also influenced by the mass of the used photocatalyst and its distribution in the discharge chamber.

  14. Study of adsorption and degradation of dimethylphthalate on TiO2-based photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Melián, E.; Henríquez-Cárdenes, E.; González Díaz, O.; Doña Rodríguez, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    This work studied the degradation and adsorption of dimethylphthalate (DMP) using various TiO2-based photocatalysts: TiO2 Aeroxide P25, Kronos vlp7000, Hombikat UV-100, Kemira 650 and a synthesized photocatalyst named SG750. As the photocatalysts with mixed anatase and rutile phases, P25 and SG750, showed greater activity than those of pure phase, an in-depth study was undertaken of these two catalysts in the adsorption and degradation of DMP. The degradation results were fitted with a high degree of correlation to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and those for adsorption to the Freundlich model. The Freundlich constants showed good correlation with FTIR observations of the DMP-P25 and DMP-SG750 interactions. These two photocatalysts were additionally modified by photodeposition with Pt and Au (0.5-1.5 wt%) to study the effect of these metals on degradation and mineralization kinetics.

  15. Phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalysts combined with different pulsed discharge systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Jiani; Wang, Xiaoping; Xin, Qing; Cong, Yanqing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chunjuan

    2013-11-01

    Films of TiO2 nanotubes distributed over the inner surface of a discharge reactor cylinder (CTD) or adhered to a stainless steel electrode surface (PTD) in a discharge reactor were compared with a single-discharge (SD) system to investigate their efficiencies in phenol degradation. Morphology studies indicated that the TiO2 film was destroyed in the PTD system, but that there was no change in the CTD system after discharge. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the anatase phase of the original sample was preserved in the CTD system, but that an anatase-to-rutile phase transformation occurred in the PTD system after discharge. The highest efficiencies of phenol degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were observed in the CTD system, and there was no decrease in phenol degradation efficiency upon reuse of a TiO2 film, indicating high catalysis activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalysts in the combined treatment. TiO2 photocatalysts favored the formation of hydrogen peroxide and disfavored the formation of ozone. A greater degree of oxidation of intermediates and higher energy efficiency in phenol oxidation were observed with the TiO2-plasma systems, especially in the CTD system, compared to those with the SD system.

  16. TiO2 impregnated graphene nanostructures: An effectual photocatalysts for water remediation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Durgalakshmi, D.; Balakumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication of nanohybrid TiO2 impregnated Graphene nanostructures by modified Hummer's method. The chemically impregnated TiO2-Graphene hybrid nanostructures drastically enhanced their photodegradation activity of methylene blue (MB) dye in an aqueous medium compare to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was ascribed by a heterojunction between TiO2-Graphene interfaces. It remarkably decreased the recombination rate and likewise increased the number of holes participating in the photodegradation process, confirmed by XPS analysis. This study can provide a new insight for constructing the hybrid photocatalysts, which can be used in environmental pollution and water treatment applications.

  17. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-12-01

    TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl4 as Ti source, MoS2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, UV-vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (kapp) (2.304 h-1) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h-1); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS2 and TiO2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation of MO due to the efficient electron transfer process and better absorption property of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalyst.

  18. Efficient removal of toluene and benzene in gas phase by the TiO2/Y-zeolite hybrid photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masato; Hidaka, Manabu; Anpo, Masakazu

    2012-10-30

    Efficient removal of toluene or benzene molecules thinly diffused in gas phase was achieved by using TiO(2)/Y-zeolite hybrid photocatalysts. TiO(2) of 10 wt% hybridized with a hydrophobic USY zeolite showed higher photocatalytic reactivity as compared to TiO(2) hybridized with hydrophilic H-Y or Na-Y zeolites. This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the hydrophobic USY zeolite efficiently adsorbs the organic compounds and smoothly supplies them onto the TiO(2) photocatalyst surface. However, the toluene or benzene molecules, which are strongly trapped on the hydrophilic H(+) or Na(+) sites of zeolite, cannot diffuse onto the TiO(2) surfaces, resulting in lower photocatalytic reactivity. Although the adsorption capacity of the pure TiO(2) sample rapidly deteriorated, the TiO(2)/Y-zeolite hybrid system maintained a high adsorption efficiency to remove such aromatic compounds for a long period. PMID:22947182

  19. Modulating TiO2 photocatalyst by Al doping: Density functional theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya Fei; Li, Can; Lu, Song; Gong, Yin Yan; Niu, Leng Yuan; Liu, Xin Juan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, systematic study of the thermal stability, crystal structure and electronic properties of Al doped TiO2 were studied by the first principles calculations. The results showed that Al atoms preferentially occupying the interstitial site under Ti-rich condition, but substituting the Ti atom under O-rich condition. In contrast to pure TiO2, the values of VBM and CBM are reduced for Al substituting Ti doped mode, but increased for Al interstitial atom doped mode. Thus, we can modulate the preparation condition and dosage concentration for preparing the optimal photocatalyst.

  20. Metal oxide nanocluster-modified TiO2 as solar activated photocatalyst materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronzi, Marco; Iwaszuk, Anna; Lucid, Aoife; Nolan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    In this review we describe our work on new TiO2 based photocatalysts. The key concept in our work is to form new composite structures by the modification of rutile and anatase TiO2 with nanoclusters of metal oxides and our density functional theory (DFT) level simulations are validated by experimental work synthesizing and characterizing surface-modified TiO2. We use DFT to show that nanoclusters of different metal oxides, TiO2, SnO/SnO2, PbO/PbO2, NiO and CuO can be adsorbed at rutile and anatase surfaces and can induce red shifts in the absorption edge to enable visible light absorption which is the first key requirement for a practical photocatalyst. We furthermore determine the origin of the red shift and discuss the factors influencing this shift and the fate of excited electrons and holes. For p-block metal oxides we show how the oxidation state of Sn and Pb can be used to tune both the magnitude of the red shift and also its mechanism. Finally, aiming to make our models more realistic, we present some new results on the stability of water at rutile and anatase surfaces and the effect of water on oxygen vacancy formation and on nanocluster modification. These nanocluster-modified TiO2 structures form the basis of a new class of photocatalysts which will be useful in oxidation reactions and with the suitable choice of nanocluster modifier can be applied to CO2 reduction.

  1. Comparative study of (N, Fe) doped TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larumbe, S.; Monge, M.; Gómez-Polo, C.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of N and Fe doping on the structural, optical, photocatalytic and magnetic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles is analyzed. Undoped, N and Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as the alkoxyde precursor and iron (III) nitrate and urea were the employed precursors to obtain Fe and N doped TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA) enabled the analysis of the thermal decomposition process and the final calcination temperature. X-Ray Diffraction patterns of the calcined nanoparticles displayed a monophasic anatase structure in all the samples with mean crystallite diameter around 4-6 nm. The introduction of Fe or N induced a red-shift in the absorption spectra. Such a red-shift is characterized by a decrease in the band-gap energy and the occurrence of an absorption (Urbach) tail in the visible region. Finally, the photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated under UV and Visible light, obtaining an improvement of the kinetic constants in the nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles with respect to undoped and Fe doped TiO2. The differences in the photocatalytic response under Fe and N doping are also analyzed in terms of the magnetic response of the analyzed photocatalysts.

  2. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic dyes with visible-light-driven codoped TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang; Zeng, Fanbin

    2011-06-01

    A novel copper (II) and zinc (II) codoped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O and copper(Il) nitrate as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photo-luminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed undoped and Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles mainly including anatase phase and a tiny amount of Zn- and Cu-oxides exist in the mixed system, which is attributed to the decomposition of copper and zinc nitrates in the TiO2 gel to form CuO and ZnO and randomly dispersed on the TiO2 surface. On the basis of the optical characterization results, we found that the codoping of copper (II) and zinc (II) resulted a red shift of adsorption and lower recombination probability between electrons and holes, which were the reasons for high photocatalytic activity of Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light (λ > 400 nm). The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested for degradation of methyl orange (MO) in solutions. The results indicated that the visible-light driven capability of the codoped catalyst were much higher than that of the pure TiO2 catalyst under visible irradiation. Because of the synergetic effect of copper (II) and zinc (II) element, the Zn, Cu-codoped TiO2 catalyst will show higher quantum yield and enhance absorption of visible light. In the end, a key mechanism was proposed in order to account for the enhanced activity.

  3. PbO-modified TiO2 thin films: a route to visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bhachu, Davinder S; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-01-21

    PbO clusters were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium dioxide (anatase) films on glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The as-deposited PbO/TiO2 films were then tested for visible light photocatalysis. This was monitored by the photodegradation of stearic acid under visible light conditions. PbO/TiO2 composite films were able to degrade stearic acid at a rate of 2.28 × 10(15) molecules cm(-2) h(-1), which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than what has previously been reported. The PbO/TiO2 composite film demonstrated UVA degradation of resazurin redox dye, with the formal quantum yield (FQY) and formal quantum efficiency (FQE) exceeding that of a TiO2 film grown under the same conditions and Pilkington Activ, a commercially available self-cleaning glass. This work correlates with computational studies that predicted PbO nanoclusters on TiO2 form active visible light photocatalysts through new electronic states through PbO/TiO2 interfacial bonds resulting in new electronic states above the valence band maximum in TiO2, shifting the valence band upward as well as more efficient electron/hole separation with hole localization on PbO particles and electron on the TiO2 surface.

  4. PbO-modified TiO2 thin films: a route to visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bhachu, Davinder S; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-01-21

    PbO clusters were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium dioxide (anatase) films on glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The as-deposited PbO/TiO2 films were then tested for visible light photocatalysis. This was monitored by the photodegradation of stearic acid under visible light conditions. PbO/TiO2 composite films were able to degrade stearic acid at a rate of 2.28 × 10(15) molecules cm(-2) h(-1), which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than what has previously been reported. The PbO/TiO2 composite film demonstrated UVA degradation of resazurin redox dye, with the formal quantum yield (FQY) and formal quantum efficiency (FQE) exceeding that of a TiO2 film grown under the same conditions and Pilkington Activ, a commercially available self-cleaning glass. This work correlates with computational studies that predicted PbO nanoclusters on TiO2 form active visible light photocatalysts through new electronic states through PbO/TiO2 interfacial bonds resulting in new electronic states above the valence band maximum in TiO2, shifting the valence band upward as well as more efficient electron/hole separation with hole localization on PbO particles and electron on the TiO2 surface. PMID:24354409

  5. Study on nanomagnets supported TiO2 photocatalysts prepared by a sol-gel process in reverse microemulsion combining with solvent-thermal technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Hansheng; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Shiying; Wu, Qin; Liu, Changhao

    2009-09-30

    A sol-gel process in reverse microemulsion combined with solvent-thermal technique was developed for synthesizing a series of nanomagnets supported TiO(2) (TiO(2)/NMs) photocatalysts in this study. The structure of TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), TG-DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, TEM, BET, and VSM. The influence of CoFe(2)O(4) dosage on the photocatalytic activity and magnetism of TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts was investigated. The results showed that nanosized anatase TiO(2) were uniformly coated on spinel CoFe(2)O(4) in the prepared TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts. They possessed typical ferromagnetic hysteresis and performed better photocatalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue than TiO(2) prepared by the same method. The existence of CoFe(2)O(4) nanomagnets played an important role on the crystalline grain size of TiO(2) and the specific surface area of the prepared TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts, thus had an important influence on its photocatalytic performance and magnetism. The photocatalytic performance of TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts is related to their specific surface area, crystalline grain sizes of TiO(2) and particle size, as well as the doping effect of Fe(3+). The highest photocatalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue for TiO(2)/NMs photocatalysts at the CoFe(2)O(4) content of 20wt.% was achieved, with k(p) 28.32% higher than that of pure TiO(2) photocatalyst. Moreover, the experiments on recycled use of TiO(2)/NMs photocatalyst demonstrated a good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity.

  6. Quick and Facile Preparation of Visible light-Driven TiO2 Photocatalyst with High Absorption and Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yucheng; Zhang, Ting; Le, Ling; Ruan, Xuefeng; Fang, Pengfei; Pan, Chunxu; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Wei, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Self-doping TiO2 has recently attracted considerable attention for its high photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. However, the literature reported synthetic methods until now were very time-consuming. In this study, we establish a quick and facile method for obtaining self-doping TiO2 with the use of directly treated commercial P25 at a desired temperature for only 5 min through spark plasma sintering technology. With the using of this method, the modified P25 samples exhibit significantly high photoelectric and photocatalytic performance. Furthermore, the sample prepared at 600°C exhibits the optimum catalytic activity. The photodegradation and H2 evolution rates of this samples are significantly higher than those of unmodified P25 sample under visible-light irradiation. The physical origin of the visible-light absorption for the modified P25 samples is investigated in detail according to their structural, optical, and electronic properties. This work will provide a quick and facile method for the large-scale synthesis of visible-light driven photocatalyst for practical applications. PMID:25391987

  7. TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites as alternative energy storage substances for photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ngaotrakanwiwat, Pailin; Meeyoo, Vissanu

    2012-01-01

    TiO2-V2O5 was prepared and evaluated as an energy storage material for photocatalysts with high capacity and initial charging rate. The compound was successfully obtained by sol-gel technique and effects of compound composition and calcination temperature on the energy storage ability were investigated. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveals that the compound of Ti:V molar ratio equal to 1:0.11 calcined at 550 degrees C exhibited superior energy storage ability than parent substances and 1.7-times higher capacity and 2.3-times higher initial charging rate compared to WO3, indicating that the compound is a remarkable alternative to conventional energy storage substances.

  8. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiao; Lima, Diana Q.; Chi, Miaofang; Yin, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  9. An effective method for the preparation of high temperature stable anatase TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Rachel; Synnott, Damian W.; McCormack, Declan E.; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-05-01

    An efficient, rapid and straightforward method for the preparation of nitrogen and fluorine (N, F) codoped high temperature stable anatase using a microwave pre-treatment is reported. Using a single source, ammonium fluoride (NH4F) for both nitrogen and fluorine, effective doping of the precursor titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) was possible. These samples were characterised for their structural and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform IR (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. In terms of the anatase to rutile transition enhancement using a novel microwave assisted technique, the sample prepared in a composition of 1:8 TiO2: NH4F at 1200 °C was seen to be most effective, having stable anatase present at 57.1% compared to undoped TiO2 being 100% rutile from 900 °C. This method involves the production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH4TiOF3) at low temperatures. The inclusion of these intermediates greatly reduces the particle size growth and delays the anatase to rutile transition. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was studied by analysing the degradation of an organic dye, rhodamine 6G as a model system and the rate constant was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetics. These results showed that the doped sample (0.0225 min-1) was three times more active than the undoped sample (0.0076 min-1) and over seven times faster than the commercial TiO2 photocatalyst standard Degussa P-25 calcined at 1200 °C (0.0030 min-1). The formation of intermediate compounds, oxofluorotitanates, was identified as the major reason for a delay in the anatase to rutile transition.

  10. Integrated ternary nanocomposite of TiO2/NiO/reduced graphene oxide as a visible light photocatalyst for efficient degradation of o-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated a novel approach for the synthesis of an integrated ternary nanocomposite which could act as a good photo-catalyst under visible light irradiation for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous environments. The photo-catalyst included nickel oxide (NiO) as a dopant, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a good carbon basal support for enhancement of the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2. Under irradiation with visible light, the ternary nanocomposite (TiO2/NiO-RGO) system generates e(-)/h(+) pairs, and then reacts with H2O and O2(-) molecules to produce oxy-radicals which can be used for the mineralization of o-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. The characteristic of all photo-catalysts were investigated by UV-Vis analysis, with surface area and pore size measurements by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), crystallinity by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and morphology by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The functional groups were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy before and after o-chlorophenol degradation. TiO2/NiO-RGO was capable of achieving 88.4% photo-degradation of 100 mg/L o-chlorophenol (100 mL) within 8 h with addition of 0.01% H2O2 under visible light irradiation at pH 6.5. The photo-degradation followed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The TiO2/NiO-RGO nanocomposite retained its high removal efficiency, even after four photo-catalytic cycles.

  11. Integrated ternary nanocomposite of TiO2/NiO/reduced graphene oxide as a visible light photocatalyst for efficient degradation of o-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated a novel approach for the synthesis of an integrated ternary nanocomposite which could act as a good photo-catalyst under visible light irradiation for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous environments. The photo-catalyst included nickel oxide (NiO) as a dopant, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a good carbon basal support for enhancement of the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2. Under irradiation with visible light, the ternary nanocomposite (TiO2/NiO-RGO) system generates e(-)/h(+) pairs, and then reacts with H2O and O2(-) molecules to produce oxy-radicals which can be used for the mineralization of o-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. The characteristic of all photo-catalysts were investigated by UV-Vis analysis, with surface area and pore size measurements by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), crystallinity by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and morphology by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The functional groups were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy before and after o-chlorophenol degradation. TiO2/NiO-RGO was capable of achieving 88.4% photo-degradation of 100 mg/L o-chlorophenol (100 mL) within 8 h with addition of 0.01% H2O2 under visible light irradiation at pH 6.5. The photo-degradation followed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The TiO2/NiO-RGO nanocomposite retained its high removal efficiency, even after four photo-catalytic cycles. PMID:27423769

  12. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in water using a biochar-supported TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun R; Kan, Eunsung

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports an effective heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in water using a biochar-supported TiO2 (biochar/TiO2). The biochar was used as a low cost and effective support for TiO2 to lower the recombination rate of electrons and electron holes during photocatalysis, allow efficient attachment of TiO2, increase adsorption capacity and help easy separation of the photocatalyst after use. The biochar/TiO2 showed much higher adsorption of SMX than the commercial TiO2 powder due to the hydrophobic interaction between the biochar and SMX. Particularly this study focused on the effects of water quality and operating conditions on the photocatalytic oxidation of SMX. The addition of low concentration of bicarbonate made drastic enhancement in SMX removal and mineralization while the final effluent showed high biotoxicity. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate exhibited slight enhancement in SMX removal efficiency. The photocatalyst loading and UV irradiation time also played their important roles in enhancement of SMX removal and mineralization. In overall the photocatalytic oxidation of SMX using the biochar/TiO2 at the selected catalyst loading and irradiation time (5 g biochar-supported TiO2 L(-1), 6 h) resulted in the high removal and mineralization of SMX and negligible toxicity.

  13. A visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays and graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chan, Donald K L; Cheung, Po Ling; Yu, Jimmy C

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are well-known efficient UV-driven photocatalysts. The incorporation of graphene quantum dots could extend the photo-response of the nanotubes to the visible-light range. Graphene quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by covalently coupling these two materials. The product was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The product exhibited high photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue and enhanced photocurrent under visible light irradiation. PMID:24991506

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Ce Co-doped TiO2 hollow fibers photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jingping; Sun, Xiaogang; Xing, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2014-07-01

    A series of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 (B, Ce-TiO2) photocatalytic materials with a hollow fiber structure were successfully prepared by template method using boric acid, ammonium ceric nitrate and tetrabutyltitanate as precursors and cotton fibers as template, followed by calcination at 500°C in an N2 atmosphere for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the morphology, crystal structure, surface structure, and optical absorption properties of the samples. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was studied by photodegradation phenol in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the TiO2 fiber materials have hollow structures, and the fiber structure materials showed better photocatalytic properties for the degradation of phenol than pure TiO2 under UV light. In the experiment condition, the photocatalytic activity of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 fibers was optimal of all the prepared samples. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of B, Ce co-doped TiO2 fiber photocatalyst was also confirmed, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 fibers remained above 90% of that of the fresh sample after being used four times. The material was easily removed by centrifugal separation from the medium. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  15. Characterization and activity of visible-light-driven TiO 2 photocatalyst codoped with nitrogen and cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Tang, Xinhu; Mo, Cehui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2008-04-01

    Nitrogen and cerium codoped TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel process with doping precursors of cerium nitrate and urea, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). Results indicate that anatase TiO 2 is the dominant crystalline type in as-prepared samples, and CeO 2 crystallites appear as the doping ratio of Ce/Ti reaches to 3.0 at%. The TiO 2 starts to transform from amorphous phase to anatase at 987.1 K during calcination, according to the TG-DSC curves. The XPS show that three major metal ions of Ce 3+, Ce 4+, Ti 4+ and one minor metal ion of Ti 3+ coexist on the surface. The codoped TiO 2 exhibits significant absorption within the range of 400-500 nm compared to the non-doped and only nitrogen-doped TiO 2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the codoped TiO 2 is demonstrated through degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

  16. Polyaniline nanotubes coated with TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@graphene oxide as a novel and effective visible light photocatalyst for removal of rhodamine B from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavami, Monireh; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Mohammadi, Reza; Koohi, Maryam; Haerizadeh, Bibi Narjes

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of polyaniline-nanotubes (PANI-NT), in the presence of TiO2 and γ-Fe2O3 functionalized graphene oxide (GO), gives a green and magnetically recyclable photocatalyst, TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO/PANI-NT. The later orchestrates 94% photocatalytic efficiency in removal of rhodamine B (RB) from water, under simulated solar light irradiation. This is far higher than the 36% observed in the presence of TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO alone, where PANI-NT is excluded from the structure. Morphology, composition, and structural properties of our economically sound photocatalyst are characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, RAMAN and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  17. Rapid destruction of the rhodamine B using TiO2 photocatalyst in the liquid phase plasma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodamine B (RhB) is widely used as a colorant in textiles and food stuffs, and is also a well-known water tracer fluorescent. It is harmful to human beings and animals, and causes irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity and chronic toxicity toward humans and animals have been experimentally proven. RhB cannot be effectively removed by biological treatment due to the slow kinetics. Therefore, RhB is chosen as a model pollutant for liquid phase plasma (LPP) treatment in the present investigation. Results This paper presents experimental results for the bleaching of RhB from aqueous solutions in the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst with LPP system. Properties of generated plasma were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy methods. The results of electrical-discharge degradation of RhB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the applied voltage, pulse width, and frequency. The oxygen gas addition to reactant solution increases the degradation rate by active oxygen species. The RhB decomposition rate was shown to increase with the TiO2 particle dosage. Conclusion This work presents the conclusions on the photocatalytic oxidation of RhB, as a function of plasma conditions, oxygen gas bubbling as well as TiO2 particle dosage. We knew that using the liquid phase plasma system with TiO2 photocatalyst at high speed we could remove the organic matter in the water. PMID:24041151

  18. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application.

    PubMed

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) - approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) - resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  19. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    PubMed Central

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  20. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide and Ag wrapped TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Sim, Lan Ching; Bahnemann, Detlef; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2015-10-01

    A well-organised reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and silver (Ag) wrapped TiO2 nano-hybrid was successfully achieved through a facile and easy route. The inherent characteristics of the synthesized RGO-Ag/TiO2 were revealed through crystalline phase, morphology, chemical composition, Raman scattering, UV-visible absorption, and photoluminescence analyses. The adopted synthesis route significantly controlled the uniform formation of silver nanoparticles and contributed for the absorption of light in the visible spectrum through localized surface plasmon resonance effects. The wrapped RGO nanosheets triggered the electron mobility and promoted visible light shift towards red spectrum. The accomplishment of synergised effect of RGO and Ag well degraded Bisphenol A under visible light irradiation with a removal efficiency of 61.9%.

  2. High-performance photodetectors and enhanced photocatalysts of two-dimensional TiO2 nanosheets under UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiao; Jiang, Yi-Lin; Li, Lin-Jie; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Mei-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and rapid electron transfer, two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets with ultrathin thicknesses are synthesized by using a bottom-up strategy and these self-assembled nanosheet (NS)-based photocatalysts and photodetectors were explored for the first time. The influence of calcination temperature on microstructures and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets were discovered and presented. The as-obtained TiO2 nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The following heat treatment process induced phase evolution from rutile to anatase. The TiO2 nanosheets calcined at 500 °C exhibited the best activity for photo-degradation of organic dyes under UV light irradiation. The obtained photodetector exhibits excellent performance with a high photocurrent to dark current ratio and fast response and recovery times. Additionally, we demonstrated that the device may have potential applications in the future low-power optoelectronics system.Due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and rapid electron transfer, two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets with ultrathin thicknesses are synthesized by using a bottom-up strategy and these self-assembled nanosheet (NS)-based photocatalysts and photodetectors were explored for the first time. The influence of calcination temperature on microstructures and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets were discovered and presented. The as-obtained TiO2 nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The following

  3. Influences of TiO2 phase structures on the structures and photocatalytic hydrogen production of CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanxu; Wang, Zhonglei; Huang, Weixin

    2016-12-01

    CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts employing TiO2 with different phase structures as well as P25 as supports were prepared, and their structures and activity for photocatalytic H2 production in methanol/water solution under simulated solar light were comparatively studied. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the TiO2 phase structure strongly affects the CuOx-TiO2 interaction and copper species in various CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts. The Cu2O-rutile TiO2 interaction is much stronger than the Cu2O-anatase TiO2 interaction, facilitates the interfacial charge transfer process within the Cu2O-rutile TiO2 heterojunction but disables supported Cu2O to catalyze the hole-participated methanol oxidation. The Cu2O-anatase TiO2 heterojunction with the appropriate Cu2O-anatase TiO2 interaction and thus the balancing efficiencies between the interfacial charge transfer process and hole-participated methanol oxidation is most photocatalytic active, and CuOx/P25 with the largest population of Cu2O-anatase TiO2 heterojunction exhibits the highest photocatalytic H2 production. These results provide novel insights in the applied surface science of CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts.

  4. The Use of Nanoscale Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the Elimination of Soil-Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Lei; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chan, Hao; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Yang, Shu-Ru; Tsai, Hsin-Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO2-Pt) has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v) did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens. PMID:22384003

  5. Silica decorated TiO2 for virus inactivation in drinking water--simple synthesis method and mechanisms of enhanced inactivation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liga, Michael V; Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Jafry, Huma R; Barron, Andrew R; Li, Qilin

    2013-06-18

    A new method of modifying TiO2 photocatalysts with SiO2 is developed in which SiO2 nanoparticles are simply mixed with TiO2 in water under ambient conditions. This method does not require the use of toxic solvents or significant energy input. Although the SiO2 modification slightly reduces hydroxyl free radical production, the composite SiO2-TiO2 nanomaterials have markedly higher photocatalytic inactivation rates for a common surrogate virus, bacteriophage MS2 (up to 270% compared to the unmodified TiO2), due to the greatly improved adsorptive density and dark inactivation of MS2. The Langmuir isotherm describes the adsorption data well and shows that the TiO2 modified with 5% SiO2 has a maximum adsorption density qmax 37 times that of the unmodified TiO2. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model fits the photocatalytic inactivation kinetic data well. The SiO2-TiO2 material produces a greater maximum initial inactivation rate yet a lower intrinsic surface reaction rate constant, consistent with the reduced hydroxyl radical production and enhanced adsorption. These results suggest that modifying photocatalyst surface to increase contaminant adsorption is an important strategy to improve photocatalytic reaction efficiency. Simple and cheap synthesis methods such as that used in this study bring photocatalysis closer to being a viable water treatment option.

  6. Feasibility of Silver Doped TiO2/Glass Fiber Photocatalyst under Visible Irradiation as an Indoor Air Germicide

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Ag-TiO2 photocatalyst supported on glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF) prepared by a sol-gel method as an indoor air germicide. An experimental model was designed to investigate the bacterial disinfection efficiency of Staphylococcus (Staph), the most popular bacterium in hospitals in Korea, by the Ag-TiO2/GF photocatalyst. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1 to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) for photocatalytic disinfection of Staph. This study confirmed that Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF could work as an electron sink or donor to increase photocatalytic activity and promote the charge separation of electron-hole pairs generated from TiO2 after photon absorption. Ag also acts as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band of TiO2 to an acceptor (O2 gas) to promote photo-oxidation processes. The photocatalytic disinfection activity of Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then slightly decreased with further increasing silver content. The highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of Staph using 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF were 75.23% and 20 (CFU∙s−1∙cm−2) respectively. The medium level of humidity of 60% ± 5% showed better photocatalytic disinfection than the lower (40% ± 5%) or higher (80% ± 5%) levels. PMID:24658408

  7. TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lingling; Huang, Dongliang; Shi, Hefei; Gu, Mengbin; Li, Jilei; Dong, Fei; Luo, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    A novel visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on TiO2/carboxylate-rich porous carbon composite (TiO2/CRPC) was successfully synthesized by low temperature carbonization process in air. Sodium gluconate plays a crucial role in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. Different functional groups of sodium gluconate play synergetic roles in the formation of TiO2/CRPC. XRD and Raman spectra studies indicated that there are two different TiO2 crystalline phases existing in TiO2/CRPC, which are anatase and brookite, and the CRPC is amorphous. Via FT-IR and XPS spectra investigations, it was demonstrated that carboxylate group, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) forming functional group, was solidified into the CRPC and form the LMCT complex on TiO2 surface through the fabrication of TiO2/CRPC. Compared with the pure TiO2, TiO2/CRPC exhibit enhanced absorption in the UV and visible light region around 260-600 nm. The strong absorption in the visible light region gives TiO2/CRPC advantages over pure TiO2 for the degradation of organic pollutants. TiO2/CRPC can activate O2 in air under mild conditions and exhibit excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities. However, TiO2/C composite obtained by using glucose instead of sodium gluconate exhibits poor photocatalytic activity, which demonstrated that carboxylate-TiO2 complexes are responsible for the prominent photocatalytic properties of TiO2/CRPC under visible light irradiation.

  8. Enhanced sunlight photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 decorated novel combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelts for dye and bacterial degradation.

    PubMed

    Eswar, Neerugatti KrishnaRao; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-07-01

    This study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts using solution combustion derived TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for dye degradation and bacterial inactivation. Hydrothermal treatment of combustion synthesized TiO2 resulted in unique partially etched TiO2 nanobelts and Ag3PO4 was decorated using the co-precipitation method. The catalyst particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, BET surface area analysis, diffuse reflectance and electron microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the composites of Ag3PO4 with pristine combustion synthesized TiO2 and commercial TiO2 under sunlight were compared. Therefore the studies conducted proved that the novel Ag3PO4/unique combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelt composites exhibited extended light absorption, better charge transfer mechanism and higher generation of hydroxyl and hole radicals. These properties resulted in enhanced photodegradation of dyes and bacteria when compared to the commercial TiO2 nanocomposite. These findings have important implications in designing new photocatalysts for water purification.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution using a floating TiO2-expanded perlite photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Maciej; Żmudzki, Paweł; Kwiecień, Anna; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Krzek, Jan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), in aqueous solution using a novel floating TiO2-expanded perlite photocatalyst (EP-TiO2-773) and radiation from the near UV spectral range was studied. The process is important considering that SMX is known to be a widespread and highly persistent pollutant of water resources. SMX degradation was described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The products of the SMX photocatalytic degradation were identified. The effect of pH on the kinetics and mechanism of SMX photocatalytic degradation was explained.

  10. Fullerene C70 decorated TiO2 nanowires for visible-light-responsive photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Er-Chieh; Ciou, Jing-Hao; Zheng, Jia-Huei; Pan, Job; Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Jen-Hsien

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we have synthesized C60 and C70-modified TiO2 nanowire (NW) through interfacial chemical bonding. The results indicate that the fullerenes (C60 and C70 derivatives) can act as sinks for photogenerated electrons in TiO2, while the fullerene/TiO2 is illuminated under ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, in comparison to the pure TiO2 NWs, the modified TiO2 NWs display a higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. Moreover, the fullerenes also can function as a sensitizer to TiO2 which expand the utilization of solar light from UV to visible light. The results reveal that the C70/TiO2 NWs show a significant photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) in visible light region. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the effect of fullerenes on the photocatalytic properties of TiO2, the electron only devices and photoelectrochemical cells based on fullerenes/TiO2 are also fabricated and evaluated.

  11. Photodegradation of phenanthrene by N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Sirisaksoontorn, Weekit; Thachepan, Surachai; Songsasen, Apisit

    2009-07-15

    The photodegradation of phenanthrene has been catalyzed by nanostructures of TiO2 doped with nitrogen, N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 was prepared from the sol-gel reaction of Titanium(IV) bis(ethyl acetoacetato)diisopropoxide with 25% ammonia solution. The N-doped TiO2 was calcined at various temperatures from 300 to 700 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that N-doped TiO2 remained amorphous at 300 degrees C but anatase-to-rutile transformation started at 400 degrees C and was complete at 700 degrees C. The average particle size calculated from Scherrer's equation was in the range of 9-51 nm with surface area (S(BET)) of 253.7-4.8 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the incorporation of nitrogen atoms (Ti-N bond) in the N-doped catalyst. Moreover, the percentage of nitrogen determined by Elemental analysis was 0.236% of N-doped calcined at 400 degrees C. UV-Vis reflection spectra indicated that N-doped TiO2 calcined at 400 degrees C shifted to the higher absorption edge in the range of visible light. N-doped TiO2 calcined at 400 degrees C successfully catalyzed the photodegradation of phenanthrene (80% conversion) whereas N-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 degrees C and P25 TiO2 failed as catalysts.

  12. Photocatalytic water disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia using a fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Escrig, Daniel; Costa, Víctor

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are two of the most chlorine resistant microorganisms with notable adverse effects on humans. Our study shows that waters containing these two protozoa at low concentrations can be efficiently disinfected in continuous flow by using a commercial fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst. The efficiency of the photocatalytic disinfection is largely enhanced by adding a small concentration of chlorine. In this way, the residence time on the photoreactor can be considerably shortened. In contrast, under the same conditions and radiance power, UV light without any photocatalyst is significantly less efficient, particularly for G. lamblia. These results exemplify the advantages of the photocatalytic process for safe and complete water disinfection. PMID:19237757

  13. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. PMID:26197106

  14. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation.

  15. Probing interactions between TiO 2 photocatalyst and adsorbing species using quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morand, R.; Noworyta, K.; Augustynski, J.

    2002-10-01

    Photoactivity of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films is shown to be strongly affected by the presence in aqueous solution of salicylic acid, known to form Ti(IV)salicylate surface complexes. In particular, the photooxidation of methanol - an effective hole scavenger - at TiO 2 appears to be in part, or even completely inhibited by the additions of increasing amounts of salicylic acid. The chemisorption of salicylic and also phthalic acid on TiO 2 was followed using quartz crystal microbalance, QCM. The observed resonant frequency changes of the quartz crystal bearing TiO 2 films, accompanying increasing additions of the benzoic acids to the contacting solutions, indicate large displacement of water as a consequence of the adsorbent-imparted hydrophobicity of the interface.

  16. OXYGENATION OF HYDROCARBONS USING NANOSTRUCTURED TIO2 AS A PHOTOCATALYST: A GREEN ALTERNATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic saturated hydrocarbons by a photocatalytic oxidation process using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxygenated in both aqueous and gaseous...

  17. TiO2 Nanotubes with Open Channels as Deactivation-Resistant Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Weon, Seunghyun; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    We synthesized ordered TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and compared their photocatalytic activity with that of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP) film during the repeated cycles of photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene and acetaldehyde to test the durability of TNT as an air-purifying photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of TNT showed only moderate reduction after the five cycles of toluene degradation, whereas TNP underwent rapid deactivation as the photocatalysis cycles were repeated. Dynamic SIMS analysis showed that carbonaceous deposits were formed on the surface of TNP during the photocatalytic degradation of toluene, which implies that the photocatalyst deactivation should be ascribed to the accumulation of recalcitrant degradation intermediates (carbonaceous residues). In more oxidizing atmosphere (100% O2 under which less carbonaceous residues should form), the photocatalytic activity of TNP still decreased with repeating cycles of toluene degradation, whereas TNT showed no sign of deactivation. Because TNT has a highly ordered open channel structure, O2 molecules can be more easily supplied to the active sites with less mass transfer limitation, which subsequently hinders the accumulation of carbonaceous residues on TNT surface. Contrary to the case of toluene degradation, both TNT and TNP did not exhibit any significant deactivation during the photocatalytic degradation of acetaldehyde, because the generation of recalcitrant intermediates from acetaldehyde degradation is insignificant. The structural characteristics of TNT is highly advantageous in preventing the catalyst deactivation during the photocatalytic degradation of aromatic compounds.

  18. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-04-01

    (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of TiO2 microspheres; synthesis of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres; synthesis of Ag@Fe3O4@TiO2 nanospheres; SEM images of the as-prepared products: (a) Ag@Fe3O4, (b) Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2 and (c) Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 (Fig. S1); TEM images of the Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2 synthesized with adding different amount of TEOS (Fig. S2); SEM, TEM and EDS spectrum of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 NPs (Fig. S3); SEM and TEM images of as-prepared TiO2 microspheres (Fig. S4); nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution plot for as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2

  19. Why is anatase a better photocatalyst than rutile? - Model studies on epitaxial TiO2 films

    PubMed Central

    Luttrell, Tim; Halpegamage, Sandamali; Tao, Junguang; Kramer, Alan; Sutter, Eli; Batzill, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The prototypical photocatalyst TiO2 exists in different polymorphs, the most common forms are the anatase- and rutile-crystal structures. Generally, anatase is more active than rutile, but no consensus exists to explain this difference. Here we demonstrate that it is the bulk transport of excitons to the surface that contributes to the difference. Utilizing high –quality epitaxial TiO2 films of the two polymorphs we evaluate the photocatalytic activity as a function of TiO2-film thickness. For anatase the activity increases for films up to ~5 nm thick, while rutile films reach their maximum activity for ~2.5 nm films already. This shows that charge carriers excited deeper in the bulk contribute to surface reactions in anatase than in rutile. Furthermore, we measure surface orientation dependent activity on rutile single crystals. The pronounced orientation-dependent activity can also be correlated to anisotropic bulk charge carrier mobility, suggesting general importance of bulk charge diffusion for explaining photocatalytic anisotropies. PMID:24509651

  20. Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel/impregnation method as photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninsonti, Hathaithip; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Wetchakun, Natda; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified sol-gel method together with impregnation method. The samples were characterized by their physicochemical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties. XRD results indicated unloaded TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were all in the anatase phase with average crystallite size in the range of 10-13 nm. In addition, XPS analysis confirmed the presence of Au and Ag elements in Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated through the mineralization of formic acid under UV-light illumination. The results showed that Au-loading and Ag-loading could effectively improve the photocatalytic activities of TiO2. Furthermore, Au-loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than Ag-loaded TiO2.

  1. Synthesis of TiO2 and TiO2-Pt and their application in photocatalytic degradation of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenzhao; Ran, Xianqiang; Jiang, Xu; Min, Hongyang; Li, Dandan; Zou, Liyin; Fan, Jianwei; Li, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    The deposit of noble metal on titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered as an effective strategy to improve the activity of TiO2. In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using a sol-gel route followed by heat treatment at elevated temperatures (573 K, 773 K, and 973 K). TiO2-Pt catalyst (1 wt%) was prepared by depositing Pt on the surface of the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 and TiO2-Pt were used as heterogeneous catalysts to remove humic acid with UV-light (120 W) illumination. TiO2 prepared at low temperature with smaller particle size and larger specific surface area had stronger activity on humic acid degradation. Deposit of Pt would favor separation of photogenerated charges and enhance the photocatalyst activity, but its coating of the active site also inhibited degradation of humic acid. The addition of H202 enhanced degradation of humic acid for more active oxygen produced. Low pH (pH = 4) was helpful to adsorb humic acid on the surface of TiO2 and, correspondingly, enhance degradation of humic acid (44.4%).

  2. Solvothermal fabrication of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite photocatalysts and application for NO removal under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Chunhu; Wang, Liang; Sun, ShengNan; Yan, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalysts of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite (TiO2-rGO/ASC) with different contents of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method for NO removal under visible light irradiation. It was confirmed that 8% content of reduced graphene oxide presented the best NO photooxidation performance under visible light irradiation at 70 °C with 350-400 mg/m3 NO,5% O2 and 5% relative humidity. The reasons for improved activity were discussed, alloyed with the mechanism of producing CO. Detailed structural information of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL), which indicated that the introduction of rGO was responsible for well dispersion, smaller crystalline size, red shift of absorption band and suppressing quick photo-induced charges recombination of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts. Optimization of operational parameters with 70 °C, 8% O2 and 8% relative humidity were also obtained. Deactivation of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts for NO removal was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Regeneration experiments showed that thermal vapor regeneration would be optimal method owing to excellent regenerative capacity and inexpensive procedure.

  3. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-03-01

    A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA) precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV-visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO) dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  4. BiVO4 -TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation Formed Using the SILAR Method.

    PubMed

    Odling, Gylen; Robertson, Neil

    2016-09-19

    Composite photocatalyst films have been fabricated by depositing BiVO4 upon TiO2 via a sequential ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The photocatalytic materials were investigated by XRD, TEM, UV/Vis diffuse reflectance, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), XPS, photoluminescence and Mott-Schottky analyses. SILAR processing was found to deposit monoclinic-scheelite BiVO4 nanoparticles onto the surface, giving successive improvements in the films' visible light harvesting. Electrochemical and valence band XPS studies revealed that the prepared heterojunctions have a type II band structure, with the BiVO4 conduction band and valence band lying cathodically shifted from those of TiO2 . The photocatalytic activity of the films was measured by the decolourisation of the dye rhodamine 6G using λ>400 nm visible light. It was found that five SILAR cycles was optimal, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.004 min(-1) . As a reference material, the same SILAR modification has been made to an inactive wide-band-gap ZrO2 film, where the mismatch of conduction and valence band energies disallows charge separation. The photocatalytic activity of the BiVO4 -ZrO2 system was found to be significantly reduced, highlighting the importance of charge separation across the interface. The mechanism of action of the photocatalysts has also been investigated, in particular the effect of self-sensitisation by the model organic dye and the ability of the dye to inject electrons into the photocatalyst's conduction band. PMID:27257947

  5. Self-sterilizing and self-cleaning of silicone catheters coated with TiO(2) photocatalyst thin films: a preclinical work.

    PubMed

    Ohko, Y; Utsumi, Y; Niwa, C; Tatsuma, T; Kobayakawa, K; Satoh, Y; Kubota, Y; Fujishima, A

    2001-01-01

    TiO(2) photocatalysts were successfully coated on silicone catheters or medical tubes by pretreatment of the silicone surface with a sulfuric acid solution (5 M) for 3 h. The TiO(2) film adhered to the silicone substrate strongly against tensile and bending stresses. On the TiO(2)-coated silicone-catheters under UV illumination, both the bleaching of methylene blue dye and the photocatalytic bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells were confirmed. Thus, this type of catheter can be sterilized and cleaned simply by irradiation with low-intensity UV light and can, therefore, be useful in the protection from catheter-related bacterial infections.

  6. Sandwich SrTiO3/TiO2/H-Titanate nanofiber composite photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanxu; Wang, Zhonglei; Wang, Wendong; An, Xiaoqiang; Mi, Shiyang; Tang, Junwang; Huang, Weixin

    2014-10-01

    SrTiO3/TiO2/H-Titanate nanofiber composites were synthesized through facile thermal treatment of Sr(OH)2 and H-titanate nanofibers in an ethanol/water solution and their photocatalytic activities for H2 evolution from a methanol/water solution under simulated solar irradiation were evaluated. TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites were acquired without Sr(OH)2 addition. At low Sr/Ti molar ratios, SrTiO3/TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO3 nanoparticles were found to selectively grow on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles, forming a unique SrTiO3-TiO2-H-titanate sandwich heterojunction. Upon increasing the Sr/Ti molar ratio, the fraction of TiO2 in the resultant composites decreases and eventually SrTiO3/H-titanate nanofiber composites form. SrTiO3/TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites are significantly more photocatalytically active than SrTiO3/H-titanate nanofiber and TiO2/H-titanate nanofiber composites due to the mitigated charge recombination and the accumulation of photo-excited electrons on the photocatalytically active TiO2 component. These results demonstrate an effective strategy of multi-heterojunctions with both appropriately-aligned band structures and appropriately-arranged composite structures to fabricate efficient composite photocatalysts.

  7. Photocatalytic degration kinetics in Rhodamine B dye degradation with poriferous TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng-Ping; Jiao, Cai-Shan; Chen, Xing-Juan

    2006-06-01

    A type of poriferous TiO2 material was prepared using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide as a template agent and butyl tetra titanate as a precursor. Through studying the photocatalytic kinetic activity of Rhodamine B photocatalytic degradation reaction with a UV-1601PC ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, the photocatalytic degradation process of Rhodamine B was found to not correspond to the first-order kinetic process completely. According to the reaction phenomenon, the photocatalytic degradation process of Rhodamine B with poriferous TiO2 involved two irrevesible reactions. The kinetic model was tested using experimental data.

  8. Preparation and characterization of SeO2/TiO2 composite photocatalyst with excellent performance for sunset yellow azo dye degradation under natural sunlight illumination.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, D; Dhatshanamurthi, P; Shanthi, M

    2015-03-01

    To improve the solar light induced photocatalytic application performances of TiO2, in this study, the SeO2 modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts with various ratios of SeO2 to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of SeO2/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of sunset yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using solar light. The SeO2/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The degradation was strongly enhanced in the presence of electron acceptors such as oxone, KIO4 and KBrO3. The kinetics of SY photodegradation was found to follow the pseudo-first order rate law and could be described in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  9. Preparation and characterization of SeO2/TiO2 composite photocatalyst with excellent performance for sunset yellow azo dye degradation under natural sunlight illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Dhatshanamurthi, P.; Shanthi, M.

    2015-03-01

    To improve the solar light induced photocatalytic application performances of TiO2, in this study, the SeO2 modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts with various ratios of SeO2 to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of SeO2/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of sunset yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using solar light. The SeO2/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The degradation was strongly enhanced in the presence of electron acceptors such as oxone, KIO4 and KBrO3. The kinetics of SY photodegradation was found to follow the pseudo-first order rate law and could be described in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  10. Application of TiO2-organobentonite modified by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride photocatalyst and polyaluminum chloride coagulant for pretreatment of aging landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jie; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Song, Pei-Pei; Xu, Hai-Yin; Xu, Rui; Huang, Jing; Li, Juan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the treatment performance for aging leachate containing refractory organic pollutants by TiO2-organobentonite photocatalyst combined with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulant. TiO2 was immobilized on organobentonite granules as a supporter modified by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The prepared catalysts were characterized by ESEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis, which showed that TiO2-organobentonite catalyst had uniform coating of TiO2 on support. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal rates by combination of TiO2-CTAC2.0 photocatalysis and PAC coagulation were evaluated, optimized, and compared to that by either treatment alone, with respect to TiO2-CTAC2.0 dose, photocatalytic contact time, pH, and PAC dose. Furthermore, higher removal rates (COD 80 %; NH3-N 46 %) were achieved by response surface methodology (RSM) when TiO2-CTAC2.0 photocatalysis was followed by PAC coagulation at optimized conditions. The optimized experimental conditions were TiO2-CTAC2.0 dosage of 5.09 g/L, at pH 5.53, photocatalytic contact time for 180 min, and PAC dosage of 1062 mg/L. PMID:27294701

  11. Application of TiO2-organobentonite modified by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride photocatalyst and polyaluminum chloride coagulant for pretreatment of aging landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jie; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Song, Pei-Pei; Xu, Hai-Yin; Xu, Rui; Huang, Jing; Li, Juan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the treatment performance for aging leachate containing refractory organic pollutants by TiO2-organobentonite photocatalyst combined with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulant. TiO2 was immobilized on organobentonite granules as a supporter modified by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The prepared catalysts were characterized by ESEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis, which showed that TiO2-organobentonite catalyst had uniform coating of TiO2 on support. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal rates by combination of TiO2-CTAC2.0 photocatalysis and PAC coagulation were evaluated, optimized, and compared to that by either treatment alone, with respect to TiO2-CTAC2.0 dose, photocatalytic contact time, pH, and PAC dose. Furthermore, higher removal rates (COD 80 %; NH3-N 46 %) were achieved by response surface methodology (RSM) when TiO2-CTAC2.0 photocatalysis was followed by PAC coagulation at optimized conditions. The optimized experimental conditions were TiO2-CTAC2.0 dosage of 5.09 g/L, at pH 5.53, photocatalytic contact time for 180 min, and PAC dosage of 1062 mg/L.

  12. Towards efficient visible-light active photocatalysts: CdS/Au sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, VanManh; Cai, Qingyun; Grimes, Craig A

    2016-12-01

    A visible-light active photocatalyst, CdS/Au/TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) photoelectrode, was prepared by electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles onto TiO2 NTA with subsequent deposition of visible-light absorbable 2.4eV band-gap CdS quantum dots using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The Au nanoparticles here act as electron sinks facilitating charge carrier separation. Under AM1.5G illumination a photoconversion efficiency of 4.06% was achieved for the CdS/Au/TiO2 NTA photoelectrode, suggesting the promise of the material architecture for achieving high-performance cost-effective materials. PMID:27565960

  13. Study of Visible Light Reactive Photocatalyst TIO2 Prepared with Thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Endo, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Taisuke; Yamahata, Akiko; Moriga, Toshihiro

    Visible light reactive N-doped TiO2 samples were prepared with thiourea in the sol-gel method. They had the single anatase-type crystal structure. N-doped TiO2 synthesized with thiourea (T-TiO2) had a higher catalytic activity than that synthesized with urea (U-TiO2). The S2p peak observed on the surface of T-TiO2 was assigned to S6+ by XPS measurement. It was estimated that sulfuric acid species exist on the surface of T-TiO2. However, it was concluded that sulfuric acid species do not have the catalytic activity directly, but depress the crystallinity, the decrease of specific surface area and the decrease of visible light absorption.

  14. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by chemical vapor condensation method with different precursor concentration and residence time.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sungmin; Park, Eunseuk; Kim, Minsu; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jurng, Jongsoo

    2011-10-15

    Nanosized TiO(2) photocatalysts were synthesized using a chemical vapor condensation method under a range of synthesis conditions (precursor vapor concentration and residence time in a tubular electric furnace). X-ray diffraction showed that the prepared TiO(2) powders consisted mainly of anatase (>94%) with a small amount of rutile. The mean particle diameter from the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and transmission electron microscopy measurements ranged from 9.4 to 16.6 nm. The specific surface area (92.5-163.5 m(2) g(-1)) of the prepared TiO(2) powders was found to be dependent on the synthesis conditions. The content of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the prepared TiO(2) sample was higher than those on commercial TiO(2), resulting in increased photocatalytic oxidation. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO(2) samples prepared in a methylene blue solution was strongly dependent on the crystallinity and specific surface area, which were affected by the TTIP vapor concentration and residence time. PMID:21802692

  15. Environment-friendly biomimetic synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials for photocatalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Shu-Juan; Lei, Chao; Xu, Mao-Wen; Cai, Chang-Jun; Jia, Dian-Zeng

    2012-05-01

    We have demonstrated an environment-friendly biomimetic synthesis method for the preparation of TiO2 nanomaterials with different crystal phases and morphologies. This is the first time that it has been found that the crystal phase of TiO2 can be controlled just by using different biotemplates, and cannot be changed by calcination up to 750 °C. In our experiment, anatase TiO2 was obtained by using yeast and albumen templates, while rutile TiO2 was formed by using dandelion pollen as the template.

  16. Mesoporous core-shell TiO(2) walnuts for photocatalysts and photodetectors with improved performances.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Di; Cheng, Ling; Li, Tao; Li, Guangxing

    2014-05-28

    Mesoporous core-shell TiO2 walnuts (CSTWs) were successfully prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. This superior micro-nanostructure endowed the sample with hierarchical mesopores and a high surface area of 90.97 m(2) g(-1). Their particle size, diameter and morphology could be readily controlled by varying the growth parameters. The influence of the glucose amount, the urea amount and the calcination temperature on the formation of microspheres was investigated. The formation mechanism of the mesoporous CSTWs was studied. The photocatalytic activity of CSTWs had been carried out by degradation of gaseous benzene. The results indicated that, compared with commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25), CSTWs exhibited significant photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the mesoporous CSTWs were also configured as high-performance photodetectors. When illuminated by UV light with a wavelength of 365 nm, the current was found to be significantly enhanced, and an IUV/Idark of about 500, a good rise time and decay time were obtained. PMID:24695865

  17. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ming-Zheng; Cao, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Hui; Tang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Lu-Ning; Qi, Ning; Huang, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Al-Deyab, S S; Lai, Yue-Kun

    2016-03-01

    An ultrasonication-assisted in situ deposition strategy was utilised to uniformly decorate plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) to construct a Ag@TiO2 NTA composite. The Ag nanoparticles act as efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizers to drive photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. The Ag nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface and inside the highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes. The visible-light-driven hydrogen production activities of silver nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts were evaluated using methanol as a sacrificial reagent in water under a 500 W Xe lamp with a UV light cutoff filter (λ ≥ 420 nm). It was found that the hydrogen production rate of the Ag@TiO2 NTAs prepared with ultrasonication-assisted deposition for 5 min was approximately 15 times higher than that of its pristine TiO2 NTAs counterpart. The highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is attributed to the SPR effect of Ag for enhanced visible light absorption and boosting the photogenerated electron-hole separation/transfer. This strategy is promising for the design and construction of high efficiency TiO2 based photocatalysts for solar energy conversion. PMID:26878901

  18. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous La-N-co-doped TiO2 nanotubes for gaseous chlorobenzene oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuowei; Gu, Zhiqi; Chen, Jianmeng; Yu, Jianming; Zhou, Lingjun

    2016-08-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous chlorobenzene (CB) by the 365nm-induced photocatalyst La/N-TiO2, synthesized via a sol-gel and hydrothermal method, was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to model and optimize the conditions for synthesis of the photocatalyst. The optimal photocatalyst was 1.2La/0.5N-TiO2 (0.5) and the effects of La/N on crystalline structure, particle morphology, surface element content, and other structural characteristics were investigated by XRD (X-ray diffraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), UV-vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy), and BET (Brunauer Emmett Teller). Greater surface area and smaller particle size were produced with the co-doped TiO2 nanotubes than with reference TiO2. The removal of CB was effective when performed using the synthesized photocatalyst, though it was less efficient at higher initial CB concentrations. Various modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic models involving the adsorption of chlorobenzene and water on different active sites were evaluated. Fitting results suggested that competitive adsorption caused by water molecules could not be neglected, especially for environments with high relative humidity. The reaction intermediates found after GC-MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis indicated that most were soluble, low-toxicity, or both. The results demonstrated that the prepared photocatalyst had high activity for VOC (volatile organic compounds) conversion and may be used as a pretreatment prior to biopurification. PMID:27521952

  20. Carbon-deposited TiO2 3D inverse opal photocatalysts: visible-light photocatalytic activity and enhanced activity in a viscous solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunbok; Lee, Youngshin; Kim, Dong Ha; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-12-11

    We for the first time demonstrated carbon-deposited TiO2 inverse opal (C-TiO2 IO) structures as highly efficient visible photocatalysts. The carbon deposition proceeded via high-temperature pyrolysis of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde resol, which had been coated onto the TiO2 IO structures. Carbon deposition formed a carbon layer and doped the TiO2 interface, which synergistically enhanced visible-light absorption. We directly measured the visible-light photocatalytic activity by constructing solar cells comprising the C-TiO2 IO electrode. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in a solution was also evaluated. Photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light was only observed in the presence of the C-TiO2 IO sample and was increased with the content of carbon deposition. The IO structures could be readily decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the surface area and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Notably, the photocatalytic reaction was found to proceed in a viscous polymeric solution. A comparison of the mesoporous TiO2 structure and the IO TiO2 structure revealed that the latter performed better as the solution viscosity increased. This result was attributed to facile diffusion into the fully connected and low-tortuosity macropore network of the IO structure. PMID:24266769

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated.

  2. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. PMID:27107333

  3. Facile Scalable Synthesis of TiO2/Carbon Nanohybrids with Ultrasmall TiO2 Nanoparticles Homogeneously Embedded in Carbon Matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Meimei; Xiao, Ying; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yonggao; Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Bao; Liu, Zhaoping; Pan, Jing; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Cheng, Ya-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A facile scalable synthesis of TiO2/C nanohybrids inspired by polymeric dental restorative materials has been developed, which creates ultrasmall TiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously embedded in the carbon matrix. The average size of the nanoparticles is tuned between about 1 and 5 nm with the carbon content systematically increased from 0% to 65%. Imaging analysis and a scattering technique have been applied to investigate the morphology of the TiO2 nanoparticles. The composition, nature of carbon matrix, crystallinity, and tap density of the TiO2/C nanohybrids have been studied. The application of the TiO2/C nanohybrids as lithium-ion battery anode is demonstrated. Unusual discharge/charge profiles have been exhibited, where characteristic discharge/charge plateaus of crystalline TiO2 are significantly diminished. The tap density, cyclic capacities, and rate performance at high current densities (10 C, 20 C) of the TiO2/C nanohybrid anodes have been effectively improved compared to the bare carbon anode and the TiO2/C nanohybrids with larger particle size. PMID:26465800

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Ag deposited TiO2 particles by laser ablation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Hong, M. H.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, G. X.; Saw, M. M.; Hor, A. T. S.

    2007-12-01

    Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) particles were synthesized by laser ablation of silver and titanium targets in de-ionized (DI) water. Post-annealing makes the structure stable and the materials change to crystalline state. It is a new approach to form Ag/TiO2 particles with a simple system and non-toxic materials. TiO2 particles with size from 20 to 30 nm coated with silver nano-clusters were observed. The silver nano-clusters can enhance the absorption capability of TiO2 photocatalysts. UV-vis spectrum analysis shows that there is a strong absorption peak at around 400 nm. It is attributed to Ag nanoparticles surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. This effect helps to improve the spectral characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles with its absorption spectra shifted to a longer wavelength region. From the above properties, Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles would have new potential applications in photocatalyst and photo-anode.

  5. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ming-Zheng; Cao, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Hui; Tang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Lu-Ning; Qi, Ning; Huang, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Lai, Yue-Kun

    2016-02-01

    An ultrasonication-assisted in situ deposition strategy was utilised to uniformly decorate plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) to construct a Ag@TiO2 NTA composite. The Ag nanoparticles act as efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizers to drive photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. The Ag nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface and inside the highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes. The visible-light-driven hydrogen production activities of silver nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts were evaluated using methanol as a sacrificial reagent in water under a 500 W Xe lamp with a UV light cutoff filter (λ >= 420 nm). It was found that the hydrogen production rate of the Ag@TiO2 NTAs prepared with ultrasonication-assisted deposition for 5 min was approximately 15 times higher than that of its pristine TiO2 NTAs counterpart. The highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is attributed to the SPR effect of Ag for enhanced visible light absorption and boosting the photogenerated electron-hole separation/transfer. This strategy is promising for the design and construction of high efficiency TiO2 based photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.An ultrasonication-assisted in situ deposition strategy was utilised to uniformly decorate plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) to construct a Ag@TiO2 NTA composite. The Ag nanoparticles act as efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizers to drive photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. The Ag nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface and inside the highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes. The visible-light-driven hydrogen production activities of silver nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts were evaluated using methanol as a sacrificial reagent in water under a 500 W Xe lamp with a UV light cutoff filter (λ >= 420 nm

  6. Preparation and caracterization of TiO{2} powder photocatalysts. Comparative studies of photocatalytic activity in the degradation of β-naphthol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qourzal, S.; Tamimi, M.; Assabbane, A.; Nounah, A.; Maroufi, N.; Bouamrane, A.; Ichou, Y. Ait

    2005-03-01

    Titanium dioxide TiO{2} powder photocatalysts were prepared at the laboratory by two methods: hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and the precipitation of a precursor starting from titanium tetrachloride TiCl{4} in basic medium. The products obtained are calcined at temperatures around 800° C. Their characterization was carried out by both diffraction X-ray (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the elaborate solids (TiO{2}) is evaluated. It is compared with that given for commercial TiO{2} “Degussa P-25” in the degradation of β-naphthol chosen as an model molecule in aqueous suspension. These reactions are done at room temperature in a photochemical reactor.

  7. Effects of SO2 on selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over a TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Teramura, Kentaro; Hosokawa, Saburo; Tanaka, Tsunehiro

    2015-04-01

    The effect of SO2 gas was investigated on the activity of the photo-assisted selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO) with ammonia (NH3) over a TiO2 photocatalyst in the presence of excess oxygen (photo-SCR). The introduction of SO2 (300 ppm) greatly decreased the activity of the photo-SCR at 373 K. The increment of the reaction temperature enhanced the resistance to SO2 gas, and at 553 K the conversion of NO was stable for at least 300 min of the reaction. X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis and N2 adsorption measurement revealed that the ammonium sulfate species were generated after the reaction. There was a strong negative correlation between the deposition amount of the ammonium sulfate species and the specific surface area. Based on the above relationship, we concluded that the deposition of the ammonium sulfate species decreased the specific surface area by plugging the pore structure of the catalyst, and the decrease of the specific surface area resulted in the deactivation of the catalyst.

  8. One pot synthesis of nanosized anion doped TiO2: Effect of irradiation of sound waves on surface morphology and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharotri, Nidhi; Sud, Dhiraj

    2015-08-01

    Commercialization of AOP's for remediation of pollutants from environmental matrix required the process to be operated by solar light. Semiconductor TiO2 has emerged as an effective and preferred photocatalyst in the field of environmental photocatalysis due to its; (i) biological and chemical inertness (ii) resistance to chemical and photo corrosion, (iii) can absorb natural UV light due to appropriate energetic separation between its valence and conduction band. However, unfortunately the optical band gap of TiO2 (3.0-3.23 eV) with absorption cut off ˜ 380 nm, enables it to harness only a small fraction (˜ 5%) of the entire solar spectrum. One of the current areas of research is modification of TiO2 photocatalyst. In present paper one pot greener synthesis from titanium isopropoxide and hydroxylamine hydrochloride has been used as titanium and nitrogen precursor under ultrasonic waves. The as synthesized TiO2 nanomaterials were dried at 100°C and further calcinated at different temperatures. The effect of reaction parameters such as ultrasonication time on the yield, surface morphology, spectroscopic data and optical properties was also investigated. The results confirm that the anatase phase is a main phase with a crystallite size of 35-77 nm and the calculated band gap of nanomaterials varies from 2.10-3.1 eV.

  9. Fe doped TiO2-graphene nanostructures: synthesis, DFT modeling and photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhangi, Nasrin; Ayissi, Serge; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles ranging from a 0.2 to 1 weight % were grown from the surface of graphene sheet templates containing -COOH functionalities using sol-gel chemistry in a green solvent, a mixture of water/ethanol. The assemblies were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques, with the coordination mechanism examined theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed excellent decoration of the Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets >5 nm in diameter. The surface area and optical properties of the Fe-doped photocatalysts were measured by BET, UV and PL spectrometry and compared to non-graphene and pure TiO2 analogs, showing a plateau at 0.6% Fe. Interactions between graphene and Fe-doped anatase TiO2 were also studied theoretically using the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package based on DFT. Our first-principles theoretical investigations validated the experimental findings, showing the strength in the physical and chemical adsorption between the graphene and Fe-doped TiO2. The resulting assemblies were tested for photodegradation under visible light using 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model compound, with all investigated catalysts showing significant enhancements in photocatalytic activity in the degradation of E2.

  10. TiO2 Fibers Supported β-FeOOH Nanostructures as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalyst and Room Temperature Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ting; Li Ong, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Wei Ho, Ghim

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of beta-iron oxyhydroxide (β-FeOOH) nanostructures on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. This synthesis method proves to be versatile to tailoring of β-FeOOH structural design that cuts across zero-dimensional particles (TF-P), one-dimensional needles (TF-N) to two-dimensional flakes (TF-F). In addition, synthesizing such oxyhyroxide nanostructures presents the advantage of exhibiting similar functional performances to its oxides counterpart however, without the need to undergo any annealing step which leads to undesirable structural collapse or sintering. The as-prepared hierarchical heterostructures possess high surface area for dye adsorptivity, efficient charge separation and visible photocatalytic activity. Also, for the first time, hydrogen gas sensing has been demonstrated on β-FeOOH nanostructures at room temperature. The reported hierarchical heterostructures of β-FeOOH on TiO2 nanofibers afford multiple functions of photocatalysis and sensing which are highly promising for environment monitoring and clean up applications. PMID:26030002

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of anionic/nonionic surfactant-interceded iron-doped TiO2 to enhance sorbent/photo-catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the synthesis, characterization, and application of surfactant-interceded Fe nanoparticle-doped TiO2 (TiO2/Fe-S1 and TiO2/Fe-S2) that were used as adsorbents and photo-catalysts for the removal of As(V) ions from aqueous media. Two types of surfactant (anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), S1 and non-ionic (Triton X-100), S2) were used to obtain the separation and mono-dispersion of Fe(III) ions in the reaction solution. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and elemental mapping analysis before and after As(V) removal. The Langmuir capacities (qe, mg/g) of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 interceded nanocomposites (TiO2/Fe-S1 and TiO2/Fe-S2, respectively) for arsenic removal were determined to be 65.79 and 50.76 mg/g, respectively, in aqueous media with As(V) concentration ranges of 0-10 mg/L at pH 6.5.

  13. Solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and their excellent photocatalytic performance under simulated sunlight irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianjie; Liu, Kun; Li, Hongbin; Sun, Youguang; Qiu, Mo

    2013-06-01

    TiO2 nanomaterials have been extensively studied as photocatalysts, in which mesoporous TiO2 microspheres would be good candidates for abatement of organic pollutants in waste water on account of their high photocatalytic activities and easily reclaiming. Here, mesoporous TiO2 microspheres were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and characterized. The formation mechanism of the TiO2 microspheres was investigated based on series of control experiments. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared TiO2 microspheres were evaluated by photodegradations of methyl orange (MO) and phenol aqueous solutions, respectively, under simulated sunlight irradiation, and compared with those of commercial TiO2 (P25). The TiO2 microspheres exhibit excellent photodegradation activities on both MO and phenol, comparing to P25. For the two model pollutants, the photodegradation percentages by the TiO2 microspheres are both more than twice of those by P25 in the same condition. Moreover, it can quickly settle down mostly (>90%) in 20 min from the photocatalytic reaction mixture under gravity after stopping stirring and be reclaimed easily. Thus it could be a promising photocatalyst for waste water treatment.

  14. Rutile TiO2 nanowires on anatase TiO2 nanofibers: a branched heterostructured photocatalysts via interface-assisted fabrication approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Shao, Changlu; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Jikai; Sun, Panpan; Liu, Xueping; Liu, Hong; Liu, Yichun; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun

    2011-11-01

    A water-dichloromethane interface-assisted hydrothermal method was employed to grow rutile TiO(2) nanowires (NWs) on electrospun anatase TiO(2) nanofibers (NFs), using highly reactive TiCl(4) as precursor. The water-dichloromethane interface inhibited the formation of rutile NWs in water phase, but promoted the selective radial growth of densely packed rutile NWs on anatase NFs to form a branched heterojunction. The density and length of rutile NWs could be readily controlled by varying reaction parameters. A formation mechanism for the branched heterojunction was proposed which involved (1) the entrapment of rutile precursor nanoparticles at water-dichloromethane interface, (2) the growth of rutile NWs on anatase NFs via Ostwald ripening through the scavengering of interface-entrapped rutile nanoparticles. The heterojunction formed at anatase NF and rutile NW enhanced the charge separation of both under ultraviolet excitation, as evidenced by photoluminescence and surface photovoltage spectra. The branched TiO(2) heterostructures showed higher photocatalytic activity in degradation of rodamine B dye solution than anatase NFs, and the mixture of anatase NFs, and P25 powders, which was discussed in terms of the synergistic effect of enhanced charge separation by anatase-rutile heterojunction, high activity of rutile NWs, and increased specific area of branched heterostructures.

  15. Amine functionalized TiO2-carbon nanotube composite: synthesis, characterization and application to glucose biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasviri, Mahboubeh; Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2011-12-01

    The synthesis of amine functionalized TiO2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NH2-TiO2-CNTs) using sol-gel method was investigated. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized with XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, BET test and SEM imaging. The results demonstrated a unique nanostructure with no destruction of the CNTs' shape. In addition, the presence of amine groups on the composite surface was confirmed by FTIR. This nanocomposite was used for one-step immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) to sense glucose. The result of cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of GOx in the absence of glucose. Also, the result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that GOx was successfully immobilized on the surface of NH2-TiO2-CNTs. Furthermore, good amperometric response showed that immobilized GOx on the NH2-TiO2-CNTs exhibits exceptional bioelectrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation.

  16. Mussel-Directed Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Du, Xiaodong; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Menghu; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Fu, Zhengyi

    2016-02-24

    Structure-forming processes leading to biominerals are well worth learning in pursuit of new synthetic techniques. Strategies that attempt to mimic nature in vitro cannot replace an entire complex natural organism, requiring ingenuity beyond chemists' hands. A "bioprocess-inspired synthesis" is demonstrated for fabrication of N-doped TiO2 materials at ambient temperature by direct implantation of precursor into living mussels. The amorphous precursor transforms into N-doped anatase TiO2 with a hierarchical nanostructure. Synthetic TiO2 exhibits high phase stability and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity as a result of modifications to its band gap during in vivo mineralization. Intracellular proteins were found to be involved in TiO2 mineralization. Our findings may inspire material production by new synthetic techniques, especially under environmentally benign conditions.

  17. Gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles on heterostructured TiO2 nanobelts as plasmonic photocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tongtong; Jia, Chuancheng; Zhang, Lanchun; He, Shuren; Sang, Yuanhua; Li, Haidong; Li, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaohong; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly facilitates the flow of hot electrons from the metal NPs to TiO2 and promotes benzyl alcohol oxidation. This efficient electron transfer was identified by the much higher photocurrent response measured for the Au/TiO2-NB nanostructure with the TiO2(B)/anatase heterojunction than those with either of the single phases under visible light irradiation. Alloying Au with Pd in Au-Pd/TiO2-NB results in a significant improvement in the visible light-promoted activity compared to the monometallic Au/TiO2-NB sample. It is supposed that the plasmon-mediated charge distribution within the alloy NPs is mainly responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bimetallic nanostructures.Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly

  18. Synthesis of TiO2 /CNT Composites and its Photocatalytic Activity Toward Sudan (I) Degradation.

    PubMed

    Miribangul, Amat; Ma, Xiaoli; Zeng, Chen; Zou, Huan; Wu, Yahui; Fan, Tengpeng; Su, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has the potential for achieving sustainable energy generation and degrading organic contaminants. In TiO2 , the addition of carbonaceous nanomaterials has attracted extensive attention as a means to increase its photocatalytic activity. In this study, composites of TiO2 and carbon nanotubes (CNT) in various proportions were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The crystalline structures, morphologies, and light absorption properties of the TiO2 /CNT photocatalysts were characterized by PXRD, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic efficiency of the composites was evaluated by the degradation of Sudan (I) in UV-Vis light. Introducing 0.1-0.5 wt% CNT was shown to substantially improve the photoactivity of TiO2 . The composite with 0.3 wt% CNT showed the best catalytic activity, and its reaction activation energy was calculated as 39.57 kJ mol(-1) from experimental rates. The degradation products of Sudan (I) with different irradiation durations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and a degradation reaction process was proposed.

  19. Highly efficient and stable Au/CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst for nitric oxide abatement: potential application in flue gas treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Shuning; Zhang, Dieqing; Liu, Peijue; Zhou, Hongjun; Dai, Wenrui; Liu, Fanfan; Li, Hexing

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, highly efficient and stable Au/CeO2-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a microwave-assisted solution approach. The Au/CeO2-TiO2 composites with optimal molar ratio of Au/Ce/Ti of 0.004:0.1:1 delivered a remarkably high and stable NO conversion rate of 85% in a continuous flow reactor system under simulated solar light irradiation, which far exceeded the rate of 48% over pure TiO2. The tiny Au nanocrystals (∼1.1 nm) were well stabilized by CeO2 via strong metal-support bonding even it was subjected to calcinations at 550 °C for 6 h. These Au nanocrystals served as the very active sites for activating the molecule of nitric oxide and reducing the transmission time of the photogenerated electrons to accelerate O2 transforming to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the Au-Ce(3+) interface formed and served as an anchoring site of O2 molecule. Then more adsorbed oxygen could react with photogenerated electrons on TiO2 surfaces to produce more superoxide radicals for NO oxidation, resulting in the improved efficiency. Meanwhile, O2 was also captured at the Au/TiO2 perimeter site and the NO molecules on TiO2 sites were initially delivered to the active perimeter site via diffusion on the TiO2 surface, where they assisted O-O bond dissociation and reacted with oxygen at these perimeter sites. Therefore, these finite Au nanocrystals can consecutively expose active sites for oxidizing NO. These synergistic effects created an efficient and stable system for breaking down NO pollutants. Furthermore, the excellent antisintering property of the catalyst will allow them for the potential application in photocatalytic treatment of high-temperature flue gas from power plant.

  20. Synthesis and characterisation of biologically compatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheyne, Richard W.; Smith, Tim Ad; Trembleau, Laurent; McLaughlin, Abbie C.

    2011-06-01

    We describe for the first time the synthesis of biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles containing a functional NH2 group which are easily dispersible in water. The synthesis of water dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles coated with mercaptosuccinic acid is also reported. We show that it is possible to exchange the stearic acid from pre-synthesised fatty acid-coated anatase 5-nm nanoparticles with a range of organic ligands with no change in the size or morphology. With further organic functionalisation, these nanoparticles could be used for medical imaging or to carry cytotoxic radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy where ultrasmall nanoparticles will be essential for rapid renal clearance.

  1. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 Heterojunctions: Promising TiO2-based Photocatalysts under Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082 eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be injected to the conduction band of anatase TiO2 from that of silicane. Finally, the proper interface charge distribution facilitates the carrier separation in the SiH/TiO2(101) interface region. The electron injection and carrier separation can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Our calculation results suggest that such electronic structure of SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has significant advantages over these of doped TiO2 systems for visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:24787027

  2. Design of composite photocatalyst of TiO2 and Y-zeolite for degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamegawa, Takashi; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Kido, Ryota; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-10-13

    Hydrophobic Y-zeolite (SiO2/Al2O3 = 810) and TiO2 composite photocatalysts were designed by using two different types of TiO2 precursors, i.e., titanium ammonium oxalate and ammonium hexafluorotitanate. The porous structure, surface property and state of TiO2 were investigated by various characterization techniques. By using an ammonium hexafluorotitanate as a precursor, hydrophobic modification of the Y-zeolite surface and realizing visible light sensitivity was successfully achieved at the same time after calcination at 773 K in the air. The prepared sample still maintained the porous structure of Y-zeolite and a large surface area. Highly crystalline anatase TiO2 was also formed on the Y-zeolite surface by the role of fluorine in the precursor. The usages of ammonium hexafluorotitanate were effective for the improvement of the photocatalytic performance of the composite in the degradation of 2-propanol in the gas phase under UV and visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation.

  3. Controllable hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Maocui; Zhang, Miao; Lv, Jianguo; Jiang, Xishun; He, Gang; Song, XuePing; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Different surface morphologies of TiO2 thin films were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method on Ti substrates through changing reaction time. The microstructure, composition, optical properties and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. As the reaction time increases, anatase structure and brookite structure of TiO2 films respectively increases and decreases, corresponding to surface morphology changes from irregular structure to regular geometrical shape structure. These structural changes are accompanied by significant variations of optical properties and photocatalytic properties including a widening of the band gap from 2.86 to 3.19 eV, photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 92.5 to 98.1% and photocatalytic degradation rate from 0.032 to 0.048 min-1. Among all samples, TiO2-1 shows the best photocatalytic properties. Compositional analysis indicates that TiO2 surface layer contains Ti and O elements, the ratio of Ti:O is 1:2.28 which is close to the atom ratio of TiO2.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis spherical TiO2 and its photo-degradation property on salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenlu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huo, Pengwei; Gao, Xun; Wu, Di; Lu, Ziyang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-07-01

    Anatase TiO2 spheres have been prepared using hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared spheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The TiO2 consisted of well-defined spheres with size of 3-5 μm. The photocatalytic activity of spherical TiO2 was determined by degradation of salicylic acid under visible light irradiation. It was revealed that the degradation rate of the spherical TiO2 which was processed at 150 °C for 48 h could reach 81.758%. And the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation obeyed first-order kinetic, which the rate constant value was 0.01716 S-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h). The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant was 1.2695 g mg-1 of the salicylic acid onto TiO2 (temperature: 150, time: 48 h).

  5. Pulsed-laser-deposited TiO2 nanocrystalline films supporting Au nanoparticles for visible-light-operating plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Watanabe, Tei; Kikuchi, Fumito; Tabuchi, Takeru; Umezu, Ikurou; Haraguchi, Masanobu

    2016-05-01

    We have synthesized pulsed-laser-deposited (PLD) TiO2 nanocrystalline films supporting Au nanoparticles. Au films were deposited on the PLD TiO2 nanocrystalline films with the mass thickness of 4 nm. The as-deposited Au films had island structures. After furnace annealing at 300 °C for 180 min in air, the as-deposited island-structured Au films were balled with the mean diameter of 19 nm on the PLD TiO2 nanocrystalline films. We confirmed that the balled Au nanoparticles had the localized surface plasmonic resonance absorption band in the range of 510-600 nm. Photocatalytic activities of the Au-supporting TiO2 nanocrystalline films were evaluated by a methylene blue decomposition method. We clarified that the Au-supporting TiO2 nanocrystalline films demonstrated visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities, under the filtered (490-500 nm) Xe arc lamp irradiation.

  6. TiO2 doped with nitrogen: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Abazović, Nadica D; Montone, Amelia; Mirenghi, Luciana; Janković, Ivana A; Comor, Mirjana I

    2008-02-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were synthesized in two ways: by heating of titanium hydroxide with urea and by direct hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) with ammonium hydroxide. The samples were characterized by structural (XRD), analytical (XPS), optical (UV/Vis absorption/reflection and Raman spectroscopy) and morphological (SEM, TEM) techniques. The characterization suggested that the doped materials have anatase crystalline form without any detectable peaks that correspond to dopants. The absorption threshold of titanium dioxide was moved in the visible range of optical spectrum from 3.2 eV to 2.20 eV. Particle sizes of synthesized powders were obtained from XRD measurements and from TEM data ranging from 6-20 nm. XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used for detection of nitrogen in doped samples. PMID:18464379

  7. A novel route for the production of TiO2 photocatalysts with low energy gap, via Triton-X and oleic acid surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, A.; Mitsionis, A.; Vaimakis, T.; Pomonis, P.; Petrakis, D.; Loukatzikou, L.; Todorova, N.; Trapalis, C.; Ladas, S.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 photocatalysts with high specific surface area between 70 and 110 m2/g were prepared via a novel sol-gel technique using surfactants oleic acid and Triton-X in the presence or absence of diethanolamine. Titania materials showed increased photocatalytic performance in UV light. The production of active species seem to be high enough to perform the degradation of methylene blue dye solution in low catalyst concentration; and a relatively high efficiency in NO oxidation in gaseous phase. All materials prepared showed high photocatalytic activity and degradation efficiency similar or higher compared to commercial Degussa P25 material.

  8. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse.

  9. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse. PMID:26206125

  10. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics.

  11. Characterization of a Heterostructure TiO2/SnO2:F/SUBSTRATE with Two Different Geometries, Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis to BE Used as Photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez-Cruz, E. I.; Anaya-Castillejos, K. M.; Martínez-Martínez, R.; Soto-Guzmán, A. B.; Falcony, C.

    2013-07-01

    Two TiO2/SnO2:F/substrate hetero-structures (HS) with different geometry were deposited by spray pyrolysis. The thickness for the TiO2 and SnO2:F films was 3.8 μm and 2.3 μm, and the band gap energy 3.3 eV and 3.6 eV, respectively. Both films have a transmittance greater than 70% in most of the visible spectrum. The electrical resistivity of the SnO2:F film was ρ = (1.7)×10-4Ω ṡ cm. The surface morphology of the TiO2 film shows hemispheric agglomerates formed by nano-metric needle/platy shaped particles that give them a porous texture much like a "ball of wool," the length of the needles is from 100 nm and its thickness close to 20 nm. The geometry of HS has an important influence on its efficiency as photocatalyst under low-powered UV radiation. One of the geometry for this HS, in which the TiO2/SnO2:F interface is exposed, showed greater efficiency than the TiO2 and SnO2:F films separately, or than the common "sandwich" type HS geometry. Specifically, a decrease by 62% of the initial concentration of a watery solution of methylene blue (mb) of 20 ppm in approximately 5 h of UV radiation is observed for the exposed interface HS compared with less than 30% reduction observed for the common sandwich type HS.

  12. Controlled synthesis and photocatalysis of sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yilin; Tao, Chengran; Xiao, Gang; Wei, Guipeng; Li, Linghui; Liu, Changxia; Su, Haijia

    2016-02-01

    Based on the synergistic photocatalytic activities of nano-sized TiO2 and Ag, as well as the magnetic properties of Fe3O4, a sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposite (Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs) is controllably synthesized with tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layer of TiO2 nanofiber, higher structural stability and larger specific surface area. Here, Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs are obtained with Fe3O4 as the core and nanofiber TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag nanoheterojunctions as the shell; and Ag nanoparticles with diameter of approximately 4 nm are loaded both on TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2 nanocomposites uniformly. Ag nanoparticles lead to the production of more photogenerated charges in the TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag heterojunction via LSPR absorption, and enhance the band-gap absorption of TiO2, while the Fe3O4 cocatalyst provides the active sites for oxygen reduction by the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons to oxygen. So the photocatalytic performance is improved due to the synergistic effect of TiO2/Fe3O4/Ag nanoheterojunctions. As photocatalysts under UV and visible irradiation, the as-synthesized nanocomposites display enhanced photocatalytic and recycling properties for the degradation of ampicillin. Moreover, they present better broad-spectrum antibiosis under visible irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, makes this multifunctional nanostructure a promising candidate for antibiosis and remediation in aquatic environmental contamination in the future.Based on the synergistic photocatalytic activities of nano-sized TiO2 and Ag, as well as the magnetic properties of Fe3O4, a sea urchin-like Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag nanocomposite (Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs) is controllably synthesized with tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layer of TiO2 nanofiber, higher structural stability and larger specific surface area. Here, Fe3O4@TiO2@Ag NCs are obtained with Fe3O4 as the

  13. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon and photocatalytic activity on BG and MB dyes under sunlight radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragupathy, S.; Raghu, K.; Prabu, P.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon (TiO2/CNSAC) had been undertaken using sol-gel method and their application in BG and MB dyes removal under sunlight radiation has been investigated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The various experimental parameters like amount of catalyst, contact time for efficient dyes degradation of BG and MB were concerned in this study. Activity measurements performed under solar irradiation has shown good results for the photodegradation of BG and MB in aqueous solution. It was concluded that the higher photocatalytic activity in TiO2/CNSAC was due to parameters like band-gap, number of hydroxyl groups, surface area and porosity of the catalyst. The kinetic data were also described by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon and photocatalytic activity on BG and MB dyes under sunlight radiation.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, S; Raghu, K; Prabu, P

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon (TiO2/CNSAC) had been undertaken using sol-gel method and their application in BG and MB dyes removal under sunlight radiation has been investigated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The various experimental parameters like amount of catalyst, contact time for efficient dyes degradation of BG and MB were concerned in this study. Activity measurements performed under solar irradiation has shown good results for the photodegradation of BG and MB in aqueous solution. It was concluded that the higher photocatalytic activity in TiO2/CNSAC was due to parameters like band-gap, number of hydroxyl groups, surface area and porosity of the catalyst. The kinetic data were also described by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. PMID:25506648

  15. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon and photocatalytic activity on BG and MB dyes under sunlight radiation.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, S; Raghu, K; Prabu, P

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and TiO2 loaded cashew nut shell activated carbon (TiO2/CNSAC) had been undertaken using sol-gel method and their application in BG and MB dyes removal under sunlight radiation has been investigated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The various experimental parameters like amount of catalyst, contact time for efficient dyes degradation of BG and MB were concerned in this study. Activity measurements performed under solar irradiation has shown good results for the photodegradation of BG and MB in aqueous solution. It was concluded that the higher photocatalytic activity in TiO2/CNSAC was due to parameters like band-gap, number of hydroxyl groups, surface area and porosity of the catalyst. The kinetic data were also described by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

  16. Effect of the Method of Synthesis in the Photoactivity of TiO2-Co and TiO2-CoCe Materials.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Angeles; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe; Suarez, Víctor; Navarro-Cerón, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tzompantzi, Francisco; Morales-Mendoza, Getsemaní

    2015-09-01

    Cobalt modified TiO2 and cobalt-cerium modified TiO2 were synthesized by sol gel technique using two different routes. In the first case the material was prepared by adding directly the precursor of metal (Co) during the sol-gel synthesis (In situ). The second one consisted in the impregnation of the supports of TiO2 and Ce-TiO2 prepared by sol-gel with a cobalt solution (Impregnated). The materials obtained were characterized by XRD and their textural properties were determined. The effect of the technique of synthesis as well as the presence of cerium in the photocatalytic properties of the material was evaluated in the photodegradation of phenol in aqueous phase. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that both, the integration of the metals during the sol-gel synthesis and the presence of cerium significantly improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Photocatalytic TiO 2 -ZnFe 2 O 4 Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wade, Jeremy; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2006-01-01

    A new coprecipimore » tation/hydrolysis synthesis route is used to create a TiO 2 -ZnFe 2 O 4 nanocomposite that is directed towards extending the photoresponse of TiO 2 from UV to visible wavelengths ( > 400   nm ). The effect of TiO 2 's accelerated anatase-rutile phase transformation due to the presence of the coupled ZnFe 2 O 4 narrow-bandgap semiconductor is evaluated. The transformation's dependence on pH, calcinations temperature, particle size, and ZnFe 2 O 4 concentration has been analyzed using XRD, SEM, and UV-visible spectrometry. The requirements for retaining the highly photoactive anatase phase present in a ZnFe 2 O 4 nanocomposite are outlined. The visible-light-activated photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 -ZnFe 2 O 4 nanocomposites has been compared to an Aldrich TiO 2 reference catalyst, using a solar-simulated photoreactor for the degradation of phenol.« less

  18. Incorporation of N-doped TiO2 nanorods in regenerated cellulose thin films fabricated from recycled newspaper as a green portable photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Salleh, W N W; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Jamil, Siti Munira

    2015-11-20

    In this work, an environmental friendly RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film was designed as a green portable photocatalyst by utilizing recycled newspaper as sustainable cellulose resource. Investigations on the influence of N-doped TiO2 nanorods incorporation on the structural and morphological properties of RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film are presented. The resulting nanocomposite thin film was characterized by FESEM, AFM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and XPS analysis. The results suggested that there was a remarkable compatibility between cellulose and N-doped TiO2 nanorods anchored onto the surface of the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film. Under UV and visible irradiation, the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film showed remarkable photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution with degradation percentage of 96% and 78.8%, respectively. It is crucial to note that the resulting portable photocatalyst produced via an environmental and green technique in its fabrication process has good potential in the field of water and wastewater treatment application. PMID:26344299

  19. A study of parameter setting and characterization of visible-light driven nitrogen-modified commercial TiO2 photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Su, Te-Li; Kung, Fu-Chen; Wu, Tsai-Jung

    2011-06-15

    An optimal condition applied to the Taguchi method with an L(9) orthogonal array for preparing a visible-light driven nitrogen-modified TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst by a simple hydrolysis method has been examined for material characteristics and a photodecolorization test of methyl blue (MB) under various visible light source (fluorescent and blue LED lamps) irradiations. Results of the material characterization showed that the absorption of prepared N-TiO(2) powder exhibited a significant extension into visible light regimes with an optical bandgap (Eg) of around 2.96 eV, which subsequently improved the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-TiO(2) samples. The superior photocatalytic properties, the pseudo first-order reaction rate constants (k) and photodecolorization efficiency (η%) of a N-TiO(2) photocatalyst during the photodecolorization test of methyl blue (MB) under two different visible light irradiations were very evident compared to those for pure TiO(2). For photodecolorization of practical dyeing from the waste water from the dyeing and finishing industry, a higher photodecolorization efficiency of N-TiO(2) powder toward Direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye was also achieved.

  20. Incorporation of N-doped TiO2 nanorods in regenerated cellulose thin films fabricated from recycled newspaper as a green portable photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Salleh, W N W; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Jamil, Siti Munira

    2015-11-20

    In this work, an environmental friendly RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film was designed as a green portable photocatalyst by utilizing recycled newspaper as sustainable cellulose resource. Investigations on the influence of N-doped TiO2 nanorods incorporation on the structural and morphological properties of RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film are presented. The resulting nanocomposite thin film was characterized by FESEM, AFM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and XPS analysis. The results suggested that there was a remarkable compatibility between cellulose and N-doped TiO2 nanorods anchored onto the surface of the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film. Under UV and visible irradiation, the RC/N-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film showed remarkable photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution with degradation percentage of 96% and 78.8%, respectively. It is crucial to note that the resulting portable photocatalyst produced via an environmental and green technique in its fabrication process has good potential in the field of water and wastewater treatment application.

  1. A study of parameter setting and characterization of visible-light driven nitrogen-modified commercial TiO2 photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Su, Te-Li; Kung, Fu-Chen; Wu, Tsai-Jung

    2011-06-15

    An optimal condition applied to the Taguchi method with an L(9) orthogonal array for preparing a visible-light driven nitrogen-modified TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst by a simple hydrolysis method has been examined for material characteristics and a photodecolorization test of methyl blue (MB) under various visible light source (fluorescent and blue LED lamps) irradiations. Results of the material characterization showed that the absorption of prepared N-TiO(2) powder exhibited a significant extension into visible light regimes with an optical bandgap (Eg) of around 2.96 eV, which subsequently improved the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-TiO(2) samples. The superior photocatalytic properties, the pseudo first-order reaction rate constants (k) and photodecolorization efficiency (η%) of a N-TiO(2) photocatalyst during the photodecolorization test of methyl blue (MB) under two different visible light irradiations were very evident compared to those for pure TiO(2). For photodecolorization of practical dyeing from the waste water from the dyeing and finishing industry, a higher photodecolorization efficiency of N-TiO(2) powder toward Direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye was also achieved. PMID:21555185

  2. Synthesize and characterize of Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods photocatalysts and its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xuejun; Dong, Yuying; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cui, Yubo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, in order to expand the light response range of TiO2, Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods photocatalysts were fabricated by a simple sol-gel method with microwave and hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, DRS, XPS and N2 adsorption-desorption. Meanwhile, their photocatalytic properties were investigated by the degradation of toluene under visible light irradiation. The degradation conversation of toluene had gotten to about 70% in 1% Ag3VO4/TiO2 nanorods after reaction 4 h. The predominant photocatalytic activity can be attributed to its strong absorption in visible light region and excellent charge separation characteristics. By using in situ FTIR, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde species could be observed during the reaction and the formed intermediates would be partially oxidized into CO2 and H2O. Electron spin resonance confirmed that OHrad and O2rad - were involved in the photocatalytic degradation of toluene.

  3. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics. PMID:26310518

  4. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    flow rates of carrier gas are shown in Fig. S6. XPS spectrum of O 1s is shown in Fig. S7. Photodegradation of MB in aqueous solutions using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2, pristine TiO2 and P25 as photocatalysts with irradiation of ultraviolet light is shown in Fig. S8. UV-vis spectra of MB aqueous solutions at different times by using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 as a photocatalyst under the irradiation of visible light is shown in Fig. S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00972j

  5. Degradations of acetaminophen via a K2S2O8-doped TiO2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Justin Chun-Te; de Luna, Mark Daniel G; Aranzamendez, Graziel L; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Acetaminophen (ACT) is a mild analgesic commonly used for relief of fever, headache and some minor pains. It had been detected in both fixed factory-discharged wastewaters, and diverse sources, e.g. surface waters during festival events. Degradation of such trace emergent pollutants by titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts is a common approach; however, the band gap that can be utilized in the UV range is limited. In order to extend downward the energy required to excite the photocatalytic material, doping with potassium peroxodisulfate (K2S2O8) by a sol-gel method was done in this work. The visible-light active photocatalyst was tested on the degradation of ACT under four parameters including: initial ACT concentration, catalyst dose, initial pH, and system temperature. Optimal conditions, which achieved 100% ACT degradation, were obtained by using 0.1 mM ACT initial concentration, catalyst dose of 1 g L(-1), initial pH of 9.0 and system temperature of 22 °C at the end of 9-h irradiation. Meanwhile, three types of degradation kinetic models (i.e. zero, pseudo first and second order) were tested. The feasible model followed a pseudo-first order model with the computed constant (kapp) of 7.29 × 10(-3) min(-1). The present study provides a better photocatalytic degradation route by K2S2O8-modified TiO2 in comparison with pristine TiO2, in wastewater treatment dealing with ACT and other persistent organic pollutants. PMID:27135700

  6. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron-hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of TiO2-based magnetic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Fleaca, C.-T.; Morjan, I. P.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Dutu, E.; Badoi, A.; Birjega, R.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Danciu, V.; Filoti, G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic titania nanoparticles covered/embedded in SiO2 shell/matrix were simultaneously manufactured by the single-step laser pyrolysis. The present study is a continuation of our previous investigations on the TiO2/Fe and TiO2/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) derived-systems. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis by IR (Infrared) laser pyrolysis of magnetic TiO2 based nanocomposites which implies many concurrent processes induced in the gas phase by the laser radiation. The dependence between characteristic properties and the synthesis parameters was determined by many analytical and complementary methods: XRD (X-ray diffraction) structural analysis, UV-vis (ultraviolet-visible) and EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy, TEM and HRTEM (transmission electron microscopy at low and high resolution) analysis and magnetic measurements. The results of analysis indicate the presence of disordered silica, Fe, α-Fe2O3 and mixtures of anatase and rutile phases with mean crystallite dimensions (in the 14-34 nm range) with typical character of diluted magnetic oxide systems and a lower bandgap energy (Eg = 1.85 eV) as compared with TiO2 P25 Degussa sample.

  8. Synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with beta-cyclodextrin as a supramolecular shell.

    PubMed

    Li, Landong; Sun, Xiaohong; Yang, Yali; Guan, Naijia; Zhang, Fuxiang

    2006-11-20

    We report a novel, green hydrothermal-synthesis route to well-dispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with particle sizes of 9-16 nm in the presence of beta-CD (beta-cyclodextrin). During the synthesis process, the CD-containing synthesis mixture assembled in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions. Driven by the interaction between molecules, the beta-CDs assembled in the longitudinal direction to form long-chain compounds, whereas in the latitudinal direction, they tended to form regular aggregates through coordination with the Ti species from the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate. In view of the effect of the coordination and the steric hindrance of beta-CDs as a supramolecular shell, homogeneous nuclei and slow growth of TiO2 crystals during the synthesis process was observed, which was responsible for the formation of uniform TiO2 nanoparticles. The low beta-CD dosage and the high product yield (>90%) demonstrated well the potential of this synthesis route in the large-scale industrial production of anatase nanoparticles.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Sulfur- and Carbon-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S.; Barylyak, A.; Besaha, K.; Bund, A.; Bobitski, Y.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Yaremchuk, I.; Kus-Liśkiewicz, M.

    2016-03-01

    One-step TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis based on the interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid is applied for sulfur and carbon anatase codoping. The synthesis of the doped TiO2 has been monitored by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), which allows determining the optimal thermal conditions for the process. Electron microscopy showed micrometer-sized (5-15 μm) randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 15-40-nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the doping elements are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD displays in both samples (doped and pristine) the existence of only one crystalline phase—the tetragonal modification of TiO2—anatase. Further data assessment by means of Rietveld refinement allowed detection of a slight c lattice parameter and volume increase related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS demonstrated the presence of carbon and sulfur as doping elements in the material. It was confirmed that carbon is in elemental form and also present in oxygen-containing compounds, which are adsorbed on the particle surface. The binding energy for sulfur electron core shell corresponds to the established data for sulfate compounds, where sulfur is in 6+ oxidation state. The synthesized S- and C-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photocatalytic performance during the degradation of organic dyes (rhodamine B, methylene blue), gas-phase oxidation of ethanol under visible light, and photocatalytic hydrogen generation from ethanol under ultraviolet light.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Sulfur- and Carbon-Codoped TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S; Barylyak, A; Besaha, K; Bund, A; Bobitski, Y; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R; Yaremchuk, I; Kus-Liśkiewicz, M

    2016-12-01

    One-step TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis based on the interaction between thiourea and metatitanic acid is applied for sulfur and carbon anatase codoping. The synthesis of the doped TiO2 has been monitored by means of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), which allows determining the optimal thermal conditions for the process. Electron microscopy showed micrometer-sized (5-15 μm) randomly distributed crystal aggregates, consisting of many 15-40-nm TiO2 nanoparticles. The obtained phase composition and chemical states of the doping elements are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD displays in both samples (doped and pristine) the existence of only one crystalline phase-the tetragonal modification of TiO2-anatase. Further data assessment by means of Rietveld refinement allowed detection of a slight c lattice parameter and volume increase related to incorporation of the doping elements. XPS demonstrated the presence of carbon and sulfur as doping elements in the material. It was confirmed that carbon is in elemental form and also present in oxygen-containing compounds, which are adsorbed on the particle surface. The binding energy for sulfur electron core shell corresponds to the established data for sulfate compounds, where sulfur is in 6+ oxidation state. The synthesized S- and C-codoped TiO2 showed excellent photocatalytic performance during the degradation of organic dyes (rhodamine B, methylene blue), gas-phase oxidation of ethanol under visible light, and photocatalytic hydrogen generation from ethanol under ultraviolet light.

  11. TiO2 as a photocatalyst for control of the aquatic invasive alga, Cladophora, under natural and artificial light

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peller, J.R.; Whitman, R.L.; Griffith, S.; Harris, P.; Peller, C.; Scalzitti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cladophora, a nuisance and invasive, filamentous algae (Chlorophyta), massively accumulates along the shores of the lower Great Lakes each summer causing great economic damage and compromising recreational opportunity and perhaps public health. In vitro experiments showed that Cladophora samples were physically and biologically degraded when subjected to TiO2-mediated photocatalysis. For the most successful photocatalytic process, TiO2 was immobilized on a glass surface and used in combination with either sunlight or artificial UV light. The loss of vital algal pigments was monitored using UV–vis spectrophotometry, and cell structural changes were determined by microscopic observation. Cladophora, in the presence of TiO2-covered glass beads, experienced a loss of chloroplast pigments after 2 h of UV lamp light irradiation. In a separate experiment, sunlight exposure over 4 days (∼24 h) resulted in the complete oxidative degradation of the green chloroplast pigments, verified by the UV spectra of the algal extracts. These results suggest that TiO2, mobilized on sunlit silicates may be useful in controlling growth and survival of this alga in the Great Lakes, thus mitigating many of the economic, aesthetic ecological impacts of this invasive alga.

  12. Nitrogen-doping of bulk and nanotubular TiO2 photocatalysts by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Creatore, Mariadriana; Ma, Quan-Bao; El Boukili, Aishah; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Verhoeven, M. W. G. M. (Tiny); Hensen, Emiel. J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) was adopted to deposit TiO2-xNx ultrathin layers on Si wafers, calcined Ti foils and nanotubular TiO2 arrays. A range of N content and chemical bond configurations were obtained by varying the background gas (O2 or N2) during the Ti precursor exposure, while the N2/H2-fed inductively coupled plasma exposure time was varied between 2 and 20 s. On calcined Ti foils, a positive effect from N doping on photocurrent density was observed when O2 was the background gas with a short plasma exposure time (5 and 10 s). This correlates with the presence of interstitial N states in the TiO2 with a binding energy of 400 eV (Ninterst) as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A longer plasma time or the use of N2 as background gas results in formation of N state with a binding energy of 396 eV (Nsubst) and very low photocurrents. These Nsubst are linked to the presence of Ti3+, which act as detrimental recombination center for photo-generated electron-hole pairs. On contrary, PA-ALD treated nanotubular TiO2 arrays show no variation of photocurrent density (with respect to the pristine nanotubes) upon different plasma exposure times and when the O2 recipe was adopted. This is attributed to constant N content in the PA-ALD TiO2-xNx, regardless of the adopted recipe.

  13. Batch and Flow Synthesis of Disulfides by Visible-Light-Induced TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bottecchia, Cecilia; Erdmann, Nico; Tijssen, Patricia M A; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy

    2016-07-21

    A mild and practical method for the preparation of disulfides through visible-light-induced photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of thiols has been developed. The method involves the use of TiO2 as a heterogeneous photocatalyst. The catalyst's high stability and recyclability makes this method highly practical. The reaction can be substantially accelerated in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor, which enables a safe and reliable scale-up of the reaction conditions. The batch and flow protocol described herein can be applied to a diverse set of thiol substrates for the preparation of homo- and hetero-dimerized disulfides. Furthermore, biocompatible reaction conditions (i.e., room temperature, visible light, neutral buffer solution, and no additional base) have been developed, which permits the rapid and chemoselective modification of densely functionalized peptide substrates without recourse to complex purification steps.

  14. Batch and Flow Synthesis of Disulfides by Visible-Light-Induced TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bottecchia, Cecilia; Erdmann, Nico; Tijssen, Patricia M A; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Brunsveld, Luc; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy

    2016-07-21

    A mild and practical method for the preparation of disulfides through visible-light-induced photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of thiols has been developed. The method involves the use of TiO2 as a heterogeneous photocatalyst. The catalyst's high stability and recyclability makes this method highly practical. The reaction can be substantially accelerated in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor, which enables a safe and reliable scale-up of the reaction conditions. The batch and flow protocol described herein can be applied to a diverse set of thiol substrates for the preparation of homo- and hetero-dimerized disulfides. Furthermore, biocompatible reaction conditions (i.e., room temperature, visible light, neutral buffer solution, and no additional base) have been developed, which permits the rapid and chemoselective modification of densely functionalized peptide substrates without recourse to complex purification steps. PMID:27329945

  15. Synthesis of green TiO2/ZnO/CdS hybrid nano-catalyst for efficient light harvesting using an elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquids method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Ilyas, A. M.; Fasasi, T. A.; Dastageer, M. A.; Seddigi, Z. S.; Qahtan, T. F.; Faiz, M.; Khattak, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    The main limitation on the applications of TiO2 as a photocatalyst is its large band gap (3.2 eV) which limits its absorption only to the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. To overcome this problem, a facile strategy for clean synthesis of a nanocomposite green catalyst of zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) was developed using pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) technique for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The main aim of addition of ZnO is to reduce the electron-hole recombination in the TiO2 while CdS is used to increase the light harvesting efficiency of TiO2 in the visible spectral region. The absorption spectrum of the TiO2/ZnO/CdS composite obtained from the UV-vis spectrophotometer exhibits strong absorption in the visible region as compared to the pure TiO2 whose absorption band lies around 380 nm which is in the UV-region. The morphology of the composite quantum dots was also investigated using high resolution TEM technique which shows that the synthesized composite size ranges between 10 and 40 nm. These nanocomposites have demosntarted noticible improvement in the carriers transport in the visible region which could enhance its efficiency for many applications in the visible region especially for energy harvesting using solar radiations.

  16. Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-02-21

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are

  17. Preparation of TiO 2 thin films by spray pyrolysis to be used as a photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Helal, M. O.; Seeber, W. T.

    2002-07-01

    Transparent TiO 2 thin films were successfully prepared on glass substrates by using spray pyrolysis technique. The films are amorphous at deposition temperatures up to 450 °C. Starting at about 550 °C, the films are partially crystallized (anatase phase). The prepared films have good homogeneity with some porosity, which is suitable for the photocatalytic applications. By using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, it was possible to prove the photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 thin films. The procedure uses basically the UV-catalytic transformation of methanol traces in water to methanal. Deposition parameters such as deposition temperature and spray time are varied to investigate the effect on the photocatalytic activity of the prepared films.

  18. Influence of the pH of the synthesis using sol-gel method on the structural and optical properties of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, J.; Garzón, B. A.; Tirado Mejía, L.

    2016-02-01

    The photocatalysis process using semiconductor materials, in particular TiO2, is one of the most attractive treatment for polluted waters decontamination because of its advantages over other oxidation processes [1-6]. In this study the effect on the physical properties of TiO2 due to the pH used during the manufacturing of the semiconductor is studied. Different samples were synthesized using ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and nitric acid (HNO3) as catalysts to provide basic and acid pH environments, respectively. Changes in composition, structure and morphology of the samples were studied and its dependence with the pH of the synthesis is discussed. Results indicate that the base catalysis favours the formation of anatase TiO2 crystalline phase with crystallite size ∼ 26nm obtained by Rietveld refinement; the spherical particles formed agglomerates of ∼100nm the average pore size is in the range of mesopores and the surface area increases with the amount of NH4OH added in the process. On the other hand, with acid catalysis, a mixture of two crystalline phases, anatase and rutile, was obtained with crystallite sizes around 26 and 49nm, respectively. The grain size is several orders of magnitude higher than those obtained by basic catalysis. The photocatalytic activity was measured using methylene blue solutions to determine their degradation with radiation. Greater efficiency was observed in the photocatalysts synthesized with NH4OH.

  19. Fabrication characterization and activity of a solar light driven photocatalyst: cerium doped TiO2 magnetic nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jiao-Na

    2012-03-01

    A novel magnetic separable composite photocatalytic nanofiber consisting of TiO2 as the major phase, CeO(2-y) and CoFe2O4 as the dopant phase was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of the resultant CoFe2O4-TiO2 and CeO(2-y)/CoFe2O4-TiO2 nanofibers was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution under xenon lamp (the irradiation spectrum energy distribution is similar to sunlight) irradiation in a photochemical reactor. The results showed that the dopant of Ce could affect the absorbance ability and photo-response range. The sample containing 1.0 wt% CeO(2-y) exhibited the highest degradation with 35% for MB under simulate solar light irradiation. Furthermore, the as-synthesized composite photocatalytic nanofibers could be separated easily by an external magnetic field, thus it might hold potential for application in wastewater treatment.

  20. Design of N-doped anatase TiO2 photocatalyst with visible-light-response based on Ti-O bond weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-C.; Liu, G.; Cheng, H.-M.; Advanced Carbon Division Team

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen bulk doping is an effective strategy to change the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 photocatalyst for visible light response improvement. Unfortunately, it is hard to achieve nitrogen bulk doping in practice, due to both limited thermodynamic solubility of substitutional nitrogen and N-induced recombination centers. It remains challenging yet highly desirable to develop new doping approach to increase nitrogen solubility in bulk. This challenge is originally stemmed from both strong Ti-O bond and charge difference (O2- versus N3-) between lattice oxygen and nitrogen dopant. In this work, we propose a new doping approach to promote the bulk substitution of lattice oxygen with nitrogen in bulk anatase TiO2, based on the Ti-O bond weakening by pre-implanted interstitial boron.1 By using the first-principles calculations, we study the interstitial boron induced Ti-O bonding weakening and the thermodynamics/kinetics changes for nitrogen bulk doping.2 In experiment, we realize to synthesize a bulk gradient B-N co-doping red anatase TiO2 microsphere which has an extended absorption edge up to ca. 700 nm covering the full visible light spectrum and has a bandgap varying from 1.94 eV on its surface to 3.22 eV in its core by gradually elevating VBM. This approach could be extended to modify other electronic materials that demand bulk substitutional doping. 1. G. Liu, J. Pan, L. C. Yin et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, 22, 3233. 2. G. Liu, L. C. Yin, J. Q. Wang et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 9603. Financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (no. 2009CB220001), NSFC (no. 50921004, 51002160, 21090343, 51172243, 51202255), CAS China (KJCX2-YW-H21-01).

  1. Ultrasound with low intensity assisted the synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 without calcination.

    PubMed

    Ghows, Narjes; Entezari, Mohamad H

    2010-06-01

    A novel method has been developed for the preparation of nano-sized TiO(2) with anatase phase. Nanoparticles with diameter about 6 nm were prepared at a relatively low temperature (75 degrees C) and short time. The synthesis was carried out by the hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of water, ethanol, and dispersant under ultrasonic irradiation (500 kHz) at low intensity. The results show that variables such as water/ethanol ratio, irradiation time, and temperature have a great influence on the particle size and crystalline phases of TiO(2) nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was carried out by different techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:20382553

  2. Low temperature synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures for high performance perovskite solar cells by pulsed laser deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Bin; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-06-10

    A promising way to advance perovskite solar cells is to improve the quality of the electron transport material e.g., titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a direction that increases electron transport and extraction. Although dense TiO2 films are easily grown in solution, efficient electron extraction suffers due to a lack of interfacial contact area with the perovskite. Conversely, mesoporous films do offer high surface-area-to-volume ratios, thereby promoting efficient electron extraction, but their morphology is relatively difficult to control via conventional solution synthesis methods. Here, a pulsed laser deposition method was used to assemble TiO2 nanoparticles into TiO2 hierarchical nanoarchitectures having the anatasemore » crystal structure, and prototype solar cells employing these structures yielded power conversion efficiencies of ~ 14%. Our approach demonstrates a way to grow high aspect-ratio TiO2 nanostructures for improved interfacial contact between TiO2 and perovskite materials, leading to high electron-hole pair separation and electron extraction efficiencies for superior photovoltaic performance. In addition, compared to conventional solution-processed TiO2 films that require 500 °C to obtain a good crystallinity, our relatively low temperature (300 °C) TiO2 processing method may promote reduced energy-consumption during device fabrication as well as enable compatibility with various flexible polymer substrates.« less

  3. Synthesis and Modification of Zn-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shuo; Huang, Ji-Guo; Su, Yun; Geng, Bo; Lei, Su-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Cong; Liu, Xing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by solgel method was investigated in this study, as well as its modification by H2 O2 . The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, UV-visible reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that doping Zn into TiO2 nanoparticles could inhibit the transformation from anatase phase to rutile phase. Zn existed as the second valence oxidation state in the Zn-doped TiO2 . Zn-doped TiO2 that was synthesized by 5% Zn doping at 450°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity. Then, the H2 O2 modification further enhanced the photocatalytic activity. Zn doping and H2 O2 modifying narrowed the band gap and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. The optimal degradation rate of tetracycline by Zn-doped TiO2 and H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 was 85.27% and 88.14%. Peroxide groups were detected in XPS analysis of H2 O2 modified Zn-doped TiO2 , favoring the adsorption of visible light. Furthermore, Zn-doped TiO2 modified by H2 O2 had relatively good reusability, exhibiting a potential practical application for tetracycline's photocatalytic degradation.

  4. Enhanced nitrogen selectivity for nitrate reduction on Cu-nZVI by TiO2 photocatalysts under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasae, Nalinee; Wantala, Kitirote

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this work were to study the effect of Cu-nZVI with and without TiO2 on nitrate reduction and to study the pathway of nitrate reduction utilizing to nitrogen gas. The chemical and physical properties of Cu-nZVI and Cu-nZVI/TiO2 such as specific surface area, crystalline phase, oxidation state of Cu and Fe and morphology were determined by N2 adsorption-desorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analytical technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) technique and Transmittance Electron Microscopy (TEM). The full factorial design (FFD) was used in this experiment for the effect of Cu-nZVI with and without TiO2, where the initial solution pH was varied at 4, 5.5, and 7 and initial nitrate concentration was varied at 50, 75, and 100 ppm. Finally, the pathway of nitrate reduction was examined to calculate the nitrogen gas selectivity. The specific area of Cu-nZVI and Cu-nZVI/TiO2 was found to be about 4 and 36 m2/g, respectively. The XRD pattern of Fe0 in Cu-nZVI was found at 45° (2θ), whereas Cu-nZVI/TiO2 cannot be observed. TEM images can confirm the position of the core and the shell of nZVI for Fe0 and ferric oxide. Cu-nZVI/TiO2 proved to have higher activity in nitrogen reduction performance than that without TiO2 and nitrate can be completely degraded in both of solution pH of 4 and 7 in 75 ppm of initial nitrate concentration. It can be highlighted that the nitrogen gas selectivity of Cu-nZVI/TiO2 greater than 82% was found at an initial solution pH of 4 and 7. The main effects of Cu-nZVI with and without TiO2 and the initial nitrate concentration on nitrate reduction were significant. The interaction between solution pH and initial nitrate concentration and the interaction of all effects at a reaction time of 15 min on nitrate reduction were also significant.

  5. Synthesis of Nanoscale TiO2 and Study of the Effect of Their Crystal Structure on Single Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Ismagilov, Z. R.; Shikina, N. V.; Mazurkova, N. A.; Tsikoza, L. T.; Tuzikov, F. V.; Ushakov, V. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Rudina, N. A.; Korneev, D. V.; Ryabchikova, E. I.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) on cell responses, we synthesized four modifications of the TiO2 (amorphous, anatase, brookite, and rutile) capable of keeping their physicochemical characteristics in a cell culture medium. The modifications of nanoscale TiO2 were obtained by hydrolysis of TiCl4 and Ti(i-OC3H7)4 (TIP) upon variation of the synthesis conditions; their textural, morphological, structural, and dispersion characteristics were examined by a set of physicochemical methods: XRD, BET, SAXS, DLS, AFM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The effect of synthesis conditions (nature of precursor, pH, temperature, and addition of a complexing agent) on the structural-dispersion properties of TiO2 nanoparticles was studied. The hydrolysis methods providing the preparation of amorphous, anatase, brookite, and rutile modifications of TiO2 nanoparticles 3–5 nm in size were selected. Examination of different forms of TiO2 nanoparticles interaction with MDCK cells by transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections revealed different cell responses after treatment with different crystalline modifications and amorphous form of TiO2. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that direct contact of the nanoparticles with cell plasma membrane is the primary and critical step of their interaction and defines a subsequent response of the cell. PMID:22623903

  6. Synthesis of self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays: Microstructural, stereoscopic, and topographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Dussan, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, titanium dioxide nanotubes were prepared by using titanium foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol solutions containing different amounts of water and fluoride in the ranges of 1%-3% and 0.15%-0.5%, respectively, to determine their effects on morphology, optical, and crystalline structure properties. Annealing processes were performed on all samples in the range between 273 and 723 K. Morphology and structure properties of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, through anodization method, are strongly influenced by conditions, like fluoride concentration and applied voltages. Tube lengths between 2 and 7 μm were obtained, exhibiting different diameters and wall thicknesses. When alternating voltage was applied, the outer surface of the nanotubes exhibited evenly spaced ring-shaped regions, while smooth tubes were observed when constant voltage was applied. Reflection peaks, corresponding to Brookite, Anatase, and Rutile, of TiO2 phases, were observed from the XRD pattern. These phases were corroborated via μXRD measurements, and the Ti3O5 phase was also observed in detail. Absorption coefficient (α), optical band gap (Eg), and extinction coefficient (ɛ) of TiO2 nanotubes were calculated by transmittance spectra in the UV-Vis range. Strong absorption was noted in the UV region from reflectance and absorbance measurements. A correlation between synthesis parameters and physical properties is presented.

  7. High efficiency TiO2 photocatalysts by the sol-gel process. Final report, 1 April-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Chu, C.J.

    1995-10-25

    Objective of Phase I project is to demonstrate that the dye-sensitized and doped materials by sol-gel process can be used in the photocatalytic reaction for oxidation of chemical wastes under the simulated solar irradiation, and to develop innovative technologies to improve the efficiency of photodegradation of chemical waste. In Phase I research, the authors met the following goals: (1) Development of various technologies on fabrication of TiO2 materials including powders, and porous aerogels with much higher specific surface area comparing to commercial TiO2 anatase powder-Degussa P25 powder. (2) Characterization of crystallographic phase development, morphologies and surface area of materials using XRD, SEM and BET analyser. (3) Investigation on effects of various parameters, such as tungsten doping, dye-sensitization crystallographic phase, morphologies and specific surface area, on efficiency of photodegradation of chemical waste under the simulated solar radiation. (4) Improvements of photocatalytic efficiency by developing innovative technologies, such as using aerosol and aerogel routes with doping and sensitized dye.

  8. TiO(2) doping by hydroxyurea at the nucleation stage: towards a new photocatalyst in the visible spectral range.

    PubMed

    Azouani, R; Tieng, S; Chhor, K; Bocquet, J-F; Eloy, P; Gaigneaux, E M; Klementiev, K; Kanaev, A V

    2010-10-01

    We report an original method of preparation of OCN-doped TiO(2) for photocatalysis in the visible spectral range. The preparation is achieved by a sol-gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide precursor. Special attention was paid to fluid micromixing, which enables homogeneous reaction conditions in the reactor bulk and monodispersity of the produced clusters/nanoparticles. The dopant hydroxyurea (HyU, CH(4)N(2)O(2)) is injected into the reactive fluid at the nucleation stage, which lasts tens of milliseconds. The doping results in a strong yellow coloration of the nanocolloids due to the absorption band in the spectral range 380-550 nm and accelerates the aggregation kinetics of both nuclei at the induction stage and sub-nuclei units (clusters) at the nucleation stage. FTIR, Raman and UV-visible absorption analyses show the formation of a stable HyU-TiO(2) complex. EXAFS spectra indicate no appreciable changes of the first-shell Ti atom environment. The doping agent takes available surface sites of TiO(2) clusters/nanoparticles attaining ∼10% molar loading. The reaction kinetics then accelerates due to a longer collisional lifetime between nanoparticles induced by the formation of a weak [double bond, length as m-dash]OTi bond. The OCN-group bonding to titanium atoms produces a weakening of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bond and a strengthening of the C-N and N-O bonds.

  9. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti3+ doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti3+ in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications. PMID:25716132

  10. Simultaneous amination of TiO2 nanoparticles in the gas phase synthesis for bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-No; Kim, Yangeon; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2011-10-01

    A simultaneous synthesis and surface amination method to effectively modify the surface of inorganic nanoparticles is discussed in this study. As a target material system and surface functional group, TiO2 nanoparticles and amine were selected. APTES (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane), the source of amine group, was mixed with TTIP (titanium tetraisopropoxide) and used for the synthesis of aminated TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD (X-ray diffractometry) results showed TiO2 nanoparticles of pure anatase phase, 15 nm in crystallite size, were successfully synthesized at 700°C and 50 mbar. Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurement and confocal microscopy study using fluoresceine isothiocyanate (FITC) confirmed that amine groups were successfully deposited and activated on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Design and synthesis of ternary Co3O4/carbon coated TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeongjin; Choi, Jaeho; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon

    2016-07-20

    Recently, attention has been focused on the synthesis and application of nanocomposites for supercapacitors, which can have superior electrochemical performance than single structured materials. Here, we report a carbon-coated TiO2/Co3O4 ternary hybrid nanocomposite (TiO2@C/Co) electrode for supercapacitors. A carbon layer was directly introduced onto the TiO2 surface via thermal vapor deposition. The carbon layer provides anchoring sites for the deposition of Co3O4, which was introduced onto the carbon-coated TiO2 surface by hydrazine and the thermal oxidation method. The TiO2@C/Co electrode exhibits much higher charge storage capacity relative to pristine TiO2, carbon-coated TiO2, and pristine Co3O4, showing a specific capacitance of 392.4 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with 76.2% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s(-1) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution electrolyte. This outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high conductivity and high pseudo-capacitive contributions of the nanoscale particles. To evaluate the capacitive performance of a supercapacitor device employing the TiO2@C/Co electrode, we have successfully assembled TiO2@C/Co//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized TiO2@C/Co//AC supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.5 V, and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 59.35 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with a specific capacitance loss of 15.4% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing high-capacitive energy storage devices for practical applications. PMID:27381559

  12. Recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar energy conversion--from semiconducting TiO2 to MOF/PCP photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yu; Toyao, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu

    2013-08-28

    The present perspective describes recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts intended to develop novel and efficient solar energy conversion technologies, including water splitting and photofuel cells. Water splitting is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to convert solar energy as a clean and abundant energy resource into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. In recent years, increasing concern is directed to not only the development of new photocatalytic materials but also the importance of technologies to produce hydrogen and oxygen separately. Photofuel cells can convert solar energy into electrical energy by decomposing bio-related compounds and livestock waste as fuels. The advances of photocatalysts enabling these solar energy conversion technologies have been going on since the discovery of semiconducting titanium dioxide materials and have extended to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous coordination polymers (MOF/PCP).

  13. Long term synthesis of needle crystal assembled TiO2 films in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-04-01

    Crystals of TiO2 grew on substrates in aqueous solutions at 50 degrees C for 180 day. Long term synthesis brought us nano-structured films and information of crystal growth. The films showed 101 diffraction peak of anatase phase. Morphology of the crystals well developed to needle shapes. They stood perpendicular to the substrates. The films had nano-structured surfaces. Surface nanostructures would contribute to high sensitive sensors, solar cells, photocatalysis, etc. The films had high transparency compared to bare substrates in the range 360-525 nm.

  14. Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A.; Prabhakarn, A.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Velayutham, K.; Rajakumar, G.; Padmaja, R. D.; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO2 NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO2 NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO2 NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO2 NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO2 particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ = 27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23 ± 2 nm ranges.

  15. Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract.

    PubMed

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, A; Prabhakarn, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Velayutham, K; Rajakumar, G; Padmaja, R D; Lekshmi, Mohan; Madhumitha, G

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the biosynthesis of rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) was achieved by a novel, biodegradable and convenient procedure using fruit peel Annona squamosa aqueous extract. This is the first report on the new, simple, rapid, eco-friendly and cheaper methods for the synthesis of rutile TiO(2) NPs at lower temperature using agricultural waste. Rutile TiO(2) NPs were characterized by UV, XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS studies. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer results were promising and showed a rapid production of TiO(2) NPs with a surface plasmon resonance occurring at 284 nm. The formation of the TiO(2) NPs as observed from the XRD spectrum is confirmed to be TiO(2) particles in the rutile form as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ=27.42°, 36.10°, 41.30° and 54.33° when compared with the literature. The TEM images showed polydisperse nanoparticles with spherical shapes and size 23±2 nm ranges.

  16. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-05-21

    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues. PMID:24710730

  17. Synthesis of TiO2 microspheres building on the etherification and its application for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-Dong; Ren, Ying-Ke; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Wang-Chao; Li, Zhao-Qian; Guo, Fu-Ling; Mo, Li-E.; Wu, Ji-Huai; Hu, Lin-Hua; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a facile solvothermal method to synthesize TiO2 microspheres by employing ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol as solvent. By analyzing the resulted supernatant after reaction, it was proved that the etherification reaction of glycol monomethyl ether and the ligand exchange between ethylene glycol and tetra-n-butyl titanate played a key role in synthesis of TiO2 microspheres. These as-obtained TiO2 microspheres exhibited high specific surface area up to 113.24 m2 g-1 and have a narrow pore size distribution (6.94 nm). When applied to the photoanode, the TiO2 microsphere-based dye-sensitized solar cells achieved a high power conversion efficiency up to 10.25%.

  18. Synthesis of TiO 2 nanostructured reservoir with temozolomide: Structural evolution of the occluded drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, T.; Sotelo, J.; Navarrete, J.; Ascencio, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    Sol-gel synthesized nanostructured TiO 2 matrix were produced with different channel sizes, where drug are immersed, producing a reservoir with Temozolomide (TMZ). This drug is particularly important for the treatment of cancer tumors, which are fundamentally a consequence of the uncontrolled reproduction of human cell. In this way the chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of both recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. In the handling of brain tumors TMZ has been discovered as a recent and efficient second generation drug employed in the control of advanced brain gliomas, and it is a welcome addition. Its active component binds to the cancerous DNA cells, thus preventing their disordered growth, destroying them. In this work, we report the synthesis of TiO 2 nanostructured reservoir with TMZ, focusing the effort to the understanding of structural effects on the TMZ configuration by using nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman and IR spectroscopy methods. Our results establish that TMZ molecules are quite sensible to chemical processes and it produces the activation of the molecule, which is followed and understood with help of quantum molecular simulation methods. The study of the molecules allows determining the conditions that produce the activation and chemical selectivity of the molecules, which determines the conditions of synthesis. This information gives parameters for the reservoir structural and chemical optimization.

  19. Disinfection of drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under natural sunlight and using the photocatalyst TiO2.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Hermida, Fernando; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; McGuigan, Kevin G; Boyle, Maria; Sichel, Cosima; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2007-09-25

    The results of a batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) and solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPCDIS) on drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium are reported. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst suspensions were exposed to natural sunlight in Southern Spain and the oocyst viability was evaluated using two vital dyes [4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. SODIS exposures (strong sunlight) of 8 and 12h reduced oocyst viability from 98% (+/-1.3%) to 11.7% (+/-0.9%) and 0.3% (+/-0.33%), respectively. SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder (SPCDIS) were found to be more effective than those which were not. After 8 and 16 h of overcast and cloudy solar irradiance conditions, SPCDIS reduced oocyst viability from 98.3% (+/-0.3%) to 37.7% (+/-2.6%) and 11.7% (+/-0.7%), respectively, versus to that achieved using SODIS of 81.3% (+/-1.6%) and 36.0% (+/-1.0%), respectively. These results confirm that solar disinfection of drinking water can be an effective household intervention against Cryptosporidium contamination.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 photocatalysts sensitized by metallo Co, Ni-porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jinfen; Yao, Binghua; Chen, Yuanqing; Peng, Chao; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Guanghai

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen doped anatase TiO2 powders (N-TiO2) were sensitized by four kinds of metalloporphyrins (CoTHPP, CoTPP, NiTHPP, and NiTPP). The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, DRS and N2 adsorption. The results showed that the crystal structure and morphology of N-TiO2 were not affected by the existence of porphyrin on its surface, but the surface area increased after the N-TiO2 sensitized by metalloporphyrins. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) experiments showed that the metalporphyrins sensitized N-TiO2 composite catalysts, especially the CoTHPP/N-TiO2 and CoTPP/N-TiO2, exhibited higher degradation efficiency than the unsentisized N-TiO2 powders. In addition, the photocatalytic degradations of MB using the composite catalysts were all demonstrated to follow first-order kinetic model. The composite catalysts can be recycled four times without significant loss of photocatalytic activity.

  1. Risk assessment of TiO 2 photocatalyst by individual micrometer-size particle analysis with on-site combination of SEM-EDX and SR-XANES microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Jun; Ishii, Hideshi; Matsui, Yasuto; Terada, Yasuko; Tanabe, Teruo; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2007-07-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are reported. Electron beam excited and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectra of the same yellow sand single particles are reported and compared. The Ti-K edge absorption fine structure of single microparticles of TiO 2 (rutile, anatase, and a photocatalyst aerosol) are recorded by using monochromatic synchrotron radiation of tunable energy. It is shown that the discrimination between rutile and anatase is possible. Based on the single particle speciation, the toxicity of photocatalyst aerosol powder is discussed.

  2. Directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 microspheres: catalysts and their photocatalysis for bisphenol A degradation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changsheng; Ge, Ming; Liu, Lu; Gao, Guandao; Feng, Yinchang; Wang, Yuqiu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of two different 3D mesoporous TiO2 microspheres via one-step solvothermal process without templates using different titanium sources. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. Their photodegradation of bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA] in aqueous suspension was investigated under UV irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the photocatalytic effect of the two 3D mesoporous TiO2 microspheres was superior to the commercial P25 TiO2, and as-prepared samples as catalysts demonstrated that the smaller pore size it is, the higher the effective degradation for BPA is. Particular attention was paid to the identification of intermediates and analysis of photocatalytic degradation mechanism of BPA by HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS-MS. Five main intermediates were formed during photocatalytic degradation, and their evolution was discussed. On the basis of the evidence of oxidative intermediate formation, a detailed degradation pathway of BPA degradation by two mesoporous TiO2 microspheres photocatalysts are proposed. PMID:19928897

  3. Directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 microspheres: catalysts and their photocatalysis for bisphenol A degradation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changsheng; Ge, Ming; Liu, Lu; Gao, Guandao; Feng, Yinchang; Wang, Yuqiu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of two different 3D mesoporous TiO2 microspheres via one-step solvothermal process without templates using different titanium sources. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. Their photodegradation of bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA] in aqueous suspension was investigated under UV irradiation. The experimental results revealed that the photocatalytic effect of the two 3D mesoporous TiO2 microspheres was superior to the commercial P25 TiO2, and as-prepared samples as catalysts demonstrated that the smaller pore size it is, the higher the effective degradation for BPA is. Particular attention was paid to the identification of intermediates and analysis of photocatalytic degradation mechanism of BPA by HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS-MS. Five main intermediates were formed during photocatalytic degradation, and their evolution was discussed. On the basis of the evidence of oxidative intermediate formation, a detailed degradation pathway of BPA degradation by two mesoporous TiO2 microspheres photocatalysts are proposed.

  4. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster.

  5. Synthesis of Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires through a sunlight induced reduction method and its enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yun-Chang; Dai, Xin-Rong; Hu, Xiao-Ye; Huang, Su-Zhen; Jin, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires were successfully synthesized via a facile and low-cost sunlight induced reduction method. The cooperation of sunlight irradiation and ethanol reduction results the formation and decoration of the Ag nanoparticles on the porous TiO2 nanowires. The structure of the Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements. It can be seen that the Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed within the porous TiO2 nanowires. The as-prepared Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires exhibits excellent photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic tests show that 10 ppm methylene blue can be photodegraded within 60 min. And the photodegradation ratio of the Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires much higher than that of P25 and porous TiO2 nanowires. Moreover, the Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires also reveal good photocatalytic activity towards to other organic pollutions, such as phenol and R6G. Therefore, it is believed that the Ag-decorated porous TiO2 nanowires can be used as a potential high performance photocatalyst in wastewater treatment.

  6. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced visible light catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Min; Kang, Jialing; Gao, Lin; Xiong, Lin; Mei, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Visible light-active carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures(CTS-TiO2) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal method with chitosan as carbon and nitrogen resource at 180 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites possess anatase phase of nanocrystalline structure with average particle size of about 5-7 nm. A wormhole mesostructure can be observed in the CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites due to the constituent agglomerated of nanoparticles. It has been evidenced that the nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation at λ ≥ 400 nm. The results show that CTS-TiO2 nanostructures display a higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, commercial P25 and C-coated TiO2 (C-TiO2) photocatalysts. The higher photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the band-gap narrowed by N-doping and the accelerated separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes by carbon modification.

  7. Low temperature synthesis of N-doped TiO2 with rice-like morphology through peroxo assisted hydrothermal route: Materials characterization and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Shahzad Abu; Ribeiro, Caue

    2016-07-01

    Nanorice-shaped N:TiO2 photocatalysts have been prepared by the peroxo assisted hydrothermal method using stabilized titanium complex as a precursor and urea as a N source. The N:TiO2 nanorices were characterised by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and measurements of photocatalytic degradation of organic molecules (atrazine and RhB dye) under the UV and visible-light irradiation. XRD analyses showed that pristine TiO2 crystallizes into anatase polymorph and that the N-doping process at 5% introduced a degree of disorder on the TiO2 crystalline structure. XPS study revealed the successful incorporation of the nitrogen atoms at the interstitial sites of the TiO2 crystal lattice. Microscopy studies revealed that the particle size was in the range 50-80 nm for the pristine TiO2. The photocatalysts were assembled in the form of nanorices with a high surface area (102 m2 g-1). The successful incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the TiO2 crystal lattice is expected to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of pollutants (RhB and atrazine) under UV and visible light irradiation. The rate of rad OH radicals formation under visible-light irradiation was examined and found to be correlated with the photocatalytic activity per unit surface area. The N:TiO2 particles with nanorice morphology was efficient photocatalysts for decomposition of organic dyes under UV and visible-light exposure while pristine TiO2 photocatalyst did not show any significant photocatalytic activity when stimulated by visible-light. The 3% doped N:TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all synthesized photocatalysts.

  8. Synthesis and enhanced visible-light responsive of C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxia; Fu, Degang; Hao, Lingyun; Ding, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres (labeled as C,N,S-THs) were synthesized using carbon spheres as template and C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 nanoparticles as building blocks. The structure and physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL). The results showed that the hollow spheres had average diameter of about 200 nm and the shell thickness was about 20 nm. The tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres exhibited strong absorption in the visible-light region. C,N,S-tridoped could narrow the band gap of the THs by mixing the orbit O 2p with C 2p, N 2p and S 3p orbits and shift its optical response from ultraviolet (UV) to the visible-light region. PL analysis indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate of TiO2 hollow spheres had been effectively inhibited when doped with C, N and S elements. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated for the degradation of X-3B (Reactive Brilliant Red dye, C.I. Reactive Red 2) aqueous solution under visible-light (lambda > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that the C,N,S-tridoped TiO2 hollow spheres indicated higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 and the undoped counterpart photocatalyst.

  9. Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization for toxicological studies: TiO2 case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valsami-Jones, E.; Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that the novel properties of nanomaterials may predispose them to a hitherto unknown potential for toxicity. A number of recent toxicological studies of nanomaterials exist, but these appear to be fragmented and often contradictory. Such discrepancies may be, at least in part, due to poor description of the nanomaterial or incomplete characterization, including failure to recognise impurities, surface modifications or other important physicochemical aspects of the nanomaterial. Here we make a case for the importance of good quality, well-characterized nanomaterials for future toxicological studies, combined with reliable synthesis protocols, and we present our efforts to generate such materials. The model system for which we present results is TiO2 nanoparticles, currently used in a variety of commercial products. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  10. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  11. Facile synthesis of TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposites: photocatalytically active material under visible light irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign and renewable precursors such as microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and TiCl4 through hydrolysis in alkaline medium without the addition of organic solvents. The as-prepared nanocompos...

  12. Synthesis of TiO2 visible light catalysts with controllable crystalline phase and morphology from Ti-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Lulu; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2016-09-01

    TiO2 visible light catalysts with different crystalline phases and morphologies were synthesized from titanium-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag (Ti-bearing EAF slag) by using a simple acidolysis process. The effects of the pH of the HCl solution, liquid to solid ratio (RL/S, HCl solution to the residue ratio, mL/g) and acidolysis time on the micro-morphology and crystalline phase of as-prepared TiO2 photocatalysts were systematically investigated. The results indicated that with decreasing pH in the HCl solution and increasing RL/S, the crystalline phase and micro-morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanostructures tended to transform from anatase type TiO2 with spherical nanoparticle structures to rutile type TiO2 with needle-like nanorod structures. The acidolysis time had little influence on the crystalline phase but great impact on the size of the obtained TiO2. The growth mechanism of TiO2 from Ti-bearing EAF slag during the acidolysis process was also discussed. In addition, the influence of RL/S on the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 was studied. The results showed that the photodegradation efficiency for Rhodamine B solution could reach 91.00% in 120min when the RL/S was controlled at 50:1.

  13. Synthesis of TiO2 visible light catalysts with controllable crystalline phase and morphology from Ti-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Lulu; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2016-09-01

    TiO2 visible light catalysts with different crystalline phases and morphologies were synthesized from titanium-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag (Ti-bearing EAF slag) by using a simple acidolysis process. The effects of the pH of the HCl solution, liquid to solid ratio (RL/S, HCl solution to the residue ratio, mL/g) and acidolysis time on the micro-morphology and crystalline phase of as-prepared TiO2 photocatalysts were systematically investigated. The results indicated that with decreasing pH in the HCl solution and increasing RL/S, the crystalline phase and micro-morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanostructures tended to transform from anatase type TiO2 with spherical nanoparticle structures to rutile type TiO2 with needle-like nanorod structures. The acidolysis time had little influence on the crystalline phase but great impact on the size of the obtained TiO2. The growth mechanism of TiO2 from Ti-bearing EAF slag during the acidolysis process was also discussed. In addition, the influence of RL/S on the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 was studied. The results showed that the photodegradation efficiency for Rhodamine B solution could reach 91.00% in 120min when the RL/S was controlled at 50:1. PMID:27593268

  14. Synthesis of polycarbonate-r-polyethylene glycol copolymer for templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jinkyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    We synthesized a novel polycarbonate Z-r-polyethylene glycol (PCZ-r-PEG) copolymer by solution polycondensation. Successful synthesis of PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was used as a structure-directing agent for fabrication of mesoporous thin film containing a titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. To control the porosity of the resultant inorganic layer, the ratio of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) to PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was varied. The structure and porosity of the resulting mesoporous films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Mesoporous TiO2 films fabricated on an F-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface were used as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs). The highest efficiency achieved was 3.3% at 100 mW/cm2 for a film thickness of 750 nm, which is high considering the thickness of TiO2 film, indicating the importance of the structure-directing agent. PMID:25971065

  15. Synthesis of polycarbonate-r-polyethylene glycol copolymer for templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jinkyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    We synthesized a novel polycarbonate Z-r-polyethylene glycol (PCZ-r-PEG) copolymer by solution polycondensation. Successful synthesis of PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was used as a structure-directing agent for fabrication of mesoporous thin film containing a titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. To control the porosity of the resultant inorganic layer, the ratio of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) to PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was varied. The structure and porosity of the resulting mesoporous films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Mesoporous TiO2 films fabricated on an F-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface were used as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs). The highest efficiency achieved was 3.3% at 100 mW/cm2 for a film thickness of 750 nm, which is high considering the thickness of TiO2 film, indicating the importance of the structure-directing agent.

  16. Green synthesis of highly crystalline and visible-light sensitive C-, N- and S- codoped with Ag TiO2 nanocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been a focus of attention as chemically stable, relatively nontoxic, inexpensive and highly efficient photocatalyst applicable for a wide array of uses. However, main disadvantage that severely limits its wider use is the large band gap, 3.0 eV and 3.2...

  17. One-step synthesis of nano-micro chestnut TiO2 with rutile nanopins on the microanatase octahedron.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Eiji; Fujihara, Shinobu; Imai, Hiroaki; Honma, Itaru; Masaki, Ichihara; Zhou, Haoshen

    2007-11-01

    The solution synthesis of large single crystals of octahedron-like anatase TiO2 is reported, although this novel result is unexpected in the light of reported theoretical calculations. Moreover, systematic control of the crystal growth of rutile nanopins on the microanatase octahedron single crystal results in a nano-micro chestnut-like TiO2 structure. The control of the formation of rutile nanopins on the large single crystals of anatase in the same solution is an interesting and useful technique, based on thermodynamics and surface chemistry.

  18. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes aggregates produced by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiufan; Sun, Xiaonan; Liu, Anping; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, detailed structural characterization of aggregated TiO2 nanotubes and the application of such aggregated TiO2 nanotubes as photoelectrodes in solar cells (dye sensitized DSCs). A maximum overall conversion efficiency of 7.9% has been achieved, which use conventional dyes without any additional chemical treatments under circumstances of an open-circuit voltage of 710 mV, a short-circuit current density of 16.8mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 66%. This impressive performance is believed to attribute to the micron-sized aggregate structure which may be favorable for light harvesting, the desired high specific surface area and pure anatase phase for dye absorption. This significant improvement in the conversion efficiency indicates that DSCs based on aggregated TiO2 nanotubes are a promising alternative to semiconductor-based solar cells.

  19. Synthesis of TiO2 Materials Using Ionic Liquids and Its Applications for Sustainable Energy and Environment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kye Sang

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has received significant attention because of the global climate change and the consumption of fossil fuel resources. Specifically, using TiO2 in photocatalytic applications, such as the removal of organic pollutants and a hydrogen production has become an important issue. Thus, many researchers have attempted to prepare highly active TiO2 materials using various synthetic approaches. Modifications of the conventional sol-gel method, such as the addition of surfactants, have been employed in synthetic procedures. Moreover, hydrothermal, solvothermal, sonochemical and microwave methods have also been used as alternative approaches. Recently, the use of ionic liquids represents a burgeoning direction in inorganic material synthesis. Ionic liquids are exceptional solvents consisting of ions possessing low vapor pressure and tunable solvent properties. This article reviews the preparation of TiO2 materials using ionic liquids with various synthetic approaches. Also, sustainable energy and environmental cleanup applications of TiO2 materials, including the treatment of hazardous organic substances and hydrogen energy derived from electrochemical methods, are discussed.

  20. Synthesis of TiO2 Materials Using Ionic Liquids and Its Applications for Sustainable Energy and Environment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kye Sang

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has received significant attention because of the global climate change and the consumption of fossil fuel resources. Specifically, using TiO2 in photocatalytic applications, such as the removal of organic pollutants and a hydrogen production has become an important issue. Thus, many researchers have attempted to prepare highly active TiO2 materials using various synthetic approaches. Modifications of the conventional sol-gel method, such as the addition of surfactants, have been employed in synthetic procedures. Moreover, hydrothermal, solvothermal, sonochemical and microwave methods have also been used as alternative approaches. Recently, the use of ionic liquids represents a burgeoning direction in inorganic material synthesis. Ionic liquids are exceptional solvents consisting of ions possessing low vapor pressure and tunable solvent properties. This article reviews the preparation of TiO2 materials using ionic liquids with various synthetic approaches. Also, sustainable energy and environmental cleanup applications of TiO2 materials, including the treatment of hazardous organic substances and hydrogen energy derived from electrochemical methods, are discussed. PMID:27483750

  1. The Effect of Synthesis Conditions on Mesoporous Structure and the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Myilsamy, M; Murugesan, V; Mahalakshmi, M

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method in different preparation conditions to investigate the effect of triblock copolymer, acetic acid and water on mesoporous structure and the photocatalytic activity. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, Nitrogen adsorption/desorption studies, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Among the various synthesized materials, mesoporous TiO2 synthesized using triblock copolymer as a structure directing template in acetic acid medium with high water ratio calcined at 400 degrees C was found to have the highest photocatalytic activity due to the enhanced band gap energy, high specific surface area and high average pore size. The large mesopores provide more pathways for the reactants to enter and products to escape and enhances the adsorption of methylene blue. The photocatalytic activity decreases with increase of solution pH. The rate of *OH formation is high at lower pH, which enhances the photocatalytic activity was revealed by photoluminescence technique. In addition, the adsorbed hydroxyl groups on the surface of mesoporous TiO2 particles can interact with photogenerated holes to produce more *OH radicals, which enhances charge transfer efficiency and enhances the rate of *OH formation.

  2. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-06-15

    The titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO(2) nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol-gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO(2) nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO(2) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO(2) nanorods and the commercial TiO(2) (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO(2) nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity. PMID:22497717

  3. Optimal levels of oxygen deficiency in the visible light photocatalyst TiO2-x and long-term stability of catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takuma; Ito, Ryosuke; Kogoshi, Sumio; Katayama, Noboru

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity of oxygen deficient TiO2 (TiO2-x) prepared by Ar/H2 plasma surface treatment on the degree of oxygen deficiency (x) was assessed to determine the deficiency region associated with highest performance. The highest activity was obtained at x=0.06 (TiO1.94). The maximum visible light activity for this material, estimated from the formaldehyde (HCHO) removal rate, was three times higher than that exhibited by nitrogen-doped TiO2 (TiO2-xNx). The catalytic ability was found to decrease over the first week after fabrication of the material, after which it became stable, and the performance of TiO2-x at this point was found to be nearly equal to that of TiO2-xNx. The results of ab initio calculations of density of states for TiO2-x suggest that new oxygen deficiency states emerge at almost the exact center between the valence and conduction bands when x>0.06, which increases the recombination rate between electrons and holes. Therefore the declining performance of TiO2-x at larger x values is attributed to the emergence of new oxygen deficient states.

  4. One-pot synthesis of peacock-shaped TiO2 light scattering layer with TiO2 nanorods film for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, Young-Jea; Lee, Wonjoo; Kang, Soon Hyung

    2013-05-01

    A titanium dioxide (TiO2) film, showing distinctive functions and morphology, was prepared using the hydrothermal method by controlling the ratio of HCl:CH3COOH in acidic medium. A one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanorod (NR) film was synthesized with a length of 2 μm using a 1:2 ratio of HCl:CH3COOH, whereas a 1-D TiO2 NR film with peacock shaped TiO2 nanobundles as a light scattering layer (LSL) was acquired by employing a 2:1 ratio of HCl:CH3COOH. This LSL exhibited remarkable dual functions with respect to high light harvesting, which was attributable to the large surface area of the micrometer-sized TiO2 nanobundles, consisting of small-sized TiO2 NRs of 30-40 nm in diameter and a light scattering effect in the long wavelength region of 550-700 nm. Accordingly, the dual functions of the LSL resulted in a sharp increase in conversion efficiency (3.93%) that was about twice that (1.49%) of TiO2 NR film synthesized using a 1:2 ratio of HCl:CH3COOH. In particular, a considerably enhanced short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) was mainly responsible for the resulting increase in overall efficiency with a moderate increase in fill factor and slightly reduced open-circuit voltage.

  5. Electrospinning Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Qiao, Hui; Du, Yuanzhi; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiaolin; Cui, Jing; Kumar, Dnt; Wei, Qufu

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers in the anatase structure were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by calcination process. The morphologies, crystal structure, surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of resulting TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that calcination temperature had greatly influenced the morphologies of TiO2 nanofibers, but no obvious effect was noticed on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers. The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanofibers were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was observed that TiO2 nanofibers obtained by calcination at 500°C for 3 hours exhibited the most excellent photocatalytic activity. We present a novel and simple method to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers with high-photocatalytic activity. PMID:22619598

  6. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via dye-sensitized solar cells, photokilling and self-cleaning effect, photo-oxidation of organic pollutant, wastewater management, and

  7. Facile electrochemical synthesis of antimicrobial TiO2 nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Xing, Qi; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; He, Kun; Long, Fei; Low, Ke-Bin; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Zhao, Feng; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Friedrich, Craig; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2014-01-01

    Infection-related complications have been a critical issue for the application of titanium orthopedic implants. The use of Ag nanoparticles offers a potential approach to incorporate antimicrobial properties into the titanium implants. In this work, a novel and simple method was developed for synthesis of Ag (II) oxide deposited TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) using electrochemical anodization followed by Ag electroplating processes in the same electrolyte. The quantities of AgO nanoparticles deposited in TiNT were controlled by selecting different electroplating times and voltages. It was shown that AgO nanoparticles were crystalline and distributed throughout the length of the nanotubes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests showed that the quantities of released Ag were less than 7 mg/L after 30 days at 37°C. Antimicrobial assay results show that the AgO-deposited TiNTs can effectively kill the Escherichia coli bacteria. Although the AgO-deposited TiNTs showed some cytotoxicity, it should be controllable by optimization of the electroplating parameters and incorporation of cell growth factor. The results of this study indicated that antimicrobial properties could be added to nanotextured medical implants through a simple and cost effective method. PMID:25429214

  8. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanostructure thin films grown by thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, Umesh; Das, Soham; Kumar, Dhruva; Swain, Bhabani S.; Swain, Bibhu P.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) deposited Titanium dioxide nanostructures (TiO2-NSs) were grown by using Ti powder and O2 precursors on Si/SiO2 (100) substrate. The microstructure and vibration properties of TiO2-NSs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), SEM, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The role of O2 flow rate on TiO2-NSs revealed decreased deposition rate, however, surface roughness has been increased resulted into formation of nanostructure thin films.

  9. Dip coated TiO2 nanostructured thin film: synthesis and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaraja, Manoj; Muthukrishnan, Karthika; Boomadevi, Shanmugam; Karn, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay; Singh, Pramod K.; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy

    2016-02-01

    TiO2 thin film was fabricated by dip coating method using titanium IV chloride as precursor and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as thickening as well as capping agent. Structural and morphological features of TiO2 thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Crystallinity of the film was confirmed with high-intensity peak at (101) plane, and its average crystallite size was found to be 28 nm. The ethanol-sensing properties of TiO2 thin film was studied by the chemiresistive method. Furthermore, various gases were tested in order to verify the selectivity of the sensor. Among the several gases, the fabricated TiO2 sensor showed very high selectivity towards ethanol at room temperature.

  10. Comparison of Au and TiO2 based catalysts for the synthesis of chalcogenide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönherr, P.; Prabhakaran, D.; Jones, W.; Dimitratos, N.; Bowker, M.; Hesjedal, T.

    2014-06-01

    We present a comparative study of TiO2-based and Au catalysts for the physical vapor deposition of (Bi1-xSbx)2Se3 topological insulator nanowires. The standard Au nanoparticle catalyst was compared to five TiO2 nanoparticle based catalysts (anatase, rutile, P-25, high surface area anatase, and TiO2 supported Au particles). The use of Au nanoparticles seriously harms the properties of nanowires, thereby limiting their application. In contrast, TiO2 based catalysts lead to the residue-free growth of nanowires with a higher degree of crystallinity. Homogeneous nanowire ensembles are achieved with the mixed phase P-25 catalyst, and a possible growth mechanism is proposed.

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ta-Chuan; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The main purposes of this study are replacing conventional hydro-thermal method by microwave heating using water as reaction medium to rapidly synthesize TiO2.Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was hydrolyzed in water. The solution is subsequently processed with microwave heating for crystal growth. The reaction time could be shortened into few minutes. Then we chose different acids as dispersion agents to prepare TiO2 paste for investigating the effects of dispersion on the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photovoltaic performance of the microwave-assisted synthesized TiO2 achieved power conversion efficiency of 6.31% under AM 1.5 G condition (100 mW/cm2). This PCE value is compatible with that of the devices made from commercial TiO2.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of TiO(2-x)N(x) nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Q; Yu, X J; Sun, D Z

    2007-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide powders were prepared by wet method, that is, the hydrolysis of acidic tetra-butyl titanate using aqueous ammonia solution, followed by calcination at temperatures about 350 degrees C. The catalysts exhibited photocatalytic activity in the visible light region owing to N-doping. The light absorption onset of TiO(2-x)N(x) was shifted to the visible region at 459 nm compared to 330 nm of pure TiO(2). An obvious decrease in the band gap was observed by the optical absorption spectroscopy, which resulted from N2p localized states above the valence band of TiO(2-x)N(x) (compared to TiO(2)). The TiO(2-x)N(x) catalyst was characterized to be anatase with oxygen-deficient stoichiometry by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The binding energy of N1s measured by XPS characterization was 396.6 eV (TiN bonds, beta-N) and 400.9 eV (NN bonds, gamma-N(2)), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of TiO(2-x)N(x) under visible light was induced by the formation of beta-N in the structure. Photocatalytic decomposition of benzoic acid solutions was carried out in the ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) light region, and the TiO(2-x)N(x) catalyst showed higher activity than pure TiO(2). PMID:17116365

  13. Green synthesis of nickel species in situ modified hollow microsphere TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Qin, Zenan; Chen, Jie; Ren, Baosheng; Chen, Qifeng; Guo, Yanchuan; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    A green template-free solvothermal approach was developed to synthesize hollow microsphere TiO2-modified in situ with nickel species (Ni2+/Ni3+). Oxalic acid played a pivotal role in the formation of hollow architecture, acting as chelating agent, structure-directing reagent, and acidity-modulation reagent, while isopropyl alcohol ensured the formation of spherical structure. The microstructure and composition of the products were characterized with various techniques, and the results showed that the products exhibited not only highly crystallized anatase phase, large specific surface areas, and the mesoporous shell and hollow architecture, but also the coexistence of Ni2+/Ni3+. The unique structure and composition of the photocatalysts resulted in improved UV and visible photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  14. Facile synthesis of porous TiO2 nanospheres and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiarui; Ren, Haibo; Liu, Xiaosi; Li, Xuexue; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Uniform and monodisperse porous TiO2 nanospheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption-desorption, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The BET surface area of the porous TiO2 nanospheres was calculated to be 26.1 cm2 g-1. In addition, the obtained porous TiO2 nanospheres were used as catalyst to photodegrade methylene blue, Rhodamine B, methyl orange, p-nitrophenol, and eosin B. Compared to commercial TiO2 powder, the as-prepared porous TiO2 nanospheres exhibited higher catalytic activities due to their large surface areas and porous nanostructures. The photocatalytic reaction rate constant of the porous TiO2 nanospheres in photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue and Rhodamine B under simulated solar light were calculated as 0.0545 min-1 and 0.0579 min-1, respectively. Moreover, the catalyst was demonstrated to have good stability and reusability.

  15. Controlled synthesis of highly dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles using SBA-15 as hard template.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yu, Jiaguo

    2006-12-01

    Highly dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a wet impregnation method using SBA-15 as hard template for confining the growth of TiO2 nanocrystals, and then calcined at 550 degrees C in muffle furnace for 2 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). It was found that SBA-15 contained abundant silanol groups after removal of triblock copolymers by ethanol extraction and could easily adsorb a great number of titanium alkoxide via chemisorption. After subsequent hydrolysis of the anchored Ti complexes and calcination of the amorphous TiO2, anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with spherical shape and uniform particle diameter of about 6 nm were formed. A blue shift was observed in UV-vis absorption spectra due to the quantum size effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. Moreover, the as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles showed a high PL intensity due to an increase in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under UV light irradiation. PMID:16989852

  16. Sonocrystallization of ZIF-8 on Electrostatic Spinning TiO2 Nanofibers Surface with Enhanced Photocatalysis Property through Synergistic Effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xue; Huang, Liuqing; Wang, Chaonan; Wang, Jianshu; Li, Jintang; Luo, Xuetao

    2016-08-10

    Semiconductor-metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid photocatalysts have attracted increasing attention because of their enhanced photocatalytic activity. However, the effect of the interface reaction between semiconductor and MOFs is rarely studied. In this work, we studied the synthesis and photocatalytic activity of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) decorated electrostatic spinning TiO2 nanofibers (TiO2 ESNFs). TiO2/ZIF-8 hybrid photocatalysts were prepared via a facile sonochemical route. It was crucial that the ZIF-8 was assembled homogeneously on the surface of TiO2 ESNFs and formed a N-Ti-O bond under sonochemical treatment, which may result in reducing recombination of the electron-hole pairs. The chemically bonded TiO2/ZIF-8 nanocomposites displayed excellent performance of thermal stability, controllable crystallinity, and great enhancement of photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B (Rh B) photodegradation. Furthermore, the UV-vis light adsorption spectra of TiO2/ZIF-8 nanocomposites showed that the ZIF-8 photosensitizer extended the spectral response of TiO2 to the visible region. The new strategy reported here can enrich the method for designing new semiconductor-MOF hybrid photocatalysts.

  17. Sonocrystallization of ZIF-8 on Electrostatic Spinning TiO2 Nanofibers Surface with Enhanced Photocatalysis Property through Synergistic Effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xue; Huang, Liuqing; Wang, Chaonan; Wang, Jianshu; Li, Jintang; Luo, Xuetao

    2016-08-10

    Semiconductor-metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid photocatalysts have attracted increasing attention because of their enhanced photocatalytic activity. However, the effect of the interface reaction between semiconductor and MOFs is rarely studied. In this work, we studied the synthesis and photocatalytic activity of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) decorated electrostatic spinning TiO2 nanofibers (TiO2 ESNFs). TiO2/ZIF-8 hybrid photocatalysts were prepared via a facile sonochemical route. It was crucial that the ZIF-8 was assembled homogeneously on the surface of TiO2 ESNFs and formed a N-Ti-O bond under sonochemical treatment, which may result in reducing recombination of the electron-hole pairs. The chemically bonded TiO2/ZIF-8 nanocomposites displayed excellent performance of thermal stability, controllable crystallinity, and great enhancement of photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B (Rh B) photodegradation. Furthermore, the UV-vis light adsorption spectra of TiO2/ZIF-8 nanocomposites showed that the ZIF-8 photosensitizer extended the spectral response of TiO2 to the visible region. The new strategy reported here can enrich the method for designing new semiconductor-MOF hybrid photocatalysts. PMID:27433886

  18. Self-induced synthesis of phase-junction TiO2 with a tailored rutile to anatase ratio below phase transition temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Kang; Chen, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Yu-Xi; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The surface phase junction of nanocrystalline TiO2 plays an essential role in governing its photocatalytic activity. Thus, facile and simple methods for preparing phase-junction TiO2 photocatalysts are highly desired. In this work, we show that phase-junction TiO2 is directly synthesized from Ti foil by using a simple calcination method with hydrothermal solution as the precursor below the phase transition temperature. Moreover, the ratio of rutile to anatase in the TiO2 samples could be readily tuned by changing the ratio of weight of Ti foil to HCl, which is used as the hydrothermal precursor, as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis. In the photocatalytic reaction by the TiO2 nanocomposite, a synergistic effect between the two phases within a certain range of the ratio is clearly observed. The results suggest that an appropriate ratio of anatase to rutile in the TiO2 nanocomposite can create more efficient solid-solid interfaces upon calcination, thereby facilitating interparticle charge transfer in the photocatalysis. PMID:26864501

  19. Facile Synthesis of Robust Free-Standing TiO2 Nanotubular Membranes for Biofiltration Applications.

    PubMed

    Schweicher, Julien; Desai, Tejal A

    2014-03-01

    Robust monodisperse nanoporous membranes have a wide range of biotechnological applications, but are often difficult or costly to fabricate. Here, a simple technique is reported to produce free-standing TiO2 nanotubular membranes with through-hole morphology. It consists in a 3-step anodization procedure carried out at room temperature on a Ti foil. The first anodization (1 h at 80 V) is used to pattern the surface of the metallic foil. Then, the second anodization (24 h at 80 V) produces the array of TiO2 nanotubes that will constitute the final membrane. A higher voltage anodization (3-5 minutes at 180 V) is finally applied to detach the TiO2 nanotubular layer from the underlying Ti foil. In order to completely remove the barrier layer that obstructs some pores of the membrane, the latter is etched 2 minutes in a buffered oxide etch solution. The overall process produces 60 μm-thick TiO2 nanotubular membranes with tube openings of 110 nm on one side and 73 nm on the other side. The through-hole morphology of these membranes has been verified by performing diffusion experiments with glucose, insulin and immunoglobulin G where in differences in diffusion rate are observed based on molecular weight. Such biocompatible TiO2 nanotubular membranes, with controlled pore size and morphology, have broad biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:24634542

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic activities of Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xijian; Sun, Yangang; Wang, Yeying; Zhang, Lijuan; Lu, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres with possessing regular micro/nanostructure were synthesized by a simple and facile method. The structure and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy. It was revealed that Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with a particle size of ˜25nm. The photocatalytic activities of all the samples were evaluated by degradation methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution as a model reaction under xenon lamp light irradiation. The results showed that the doped samples demonstrated a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2 mesoporous microspheres, and the MO of 10mg/mL almost could be completely degraded by the Nd-doped TiO2 mesoporous sample (the dosage of Nd salt to TiO2 is 6%) under xenon lamp light irradiation within 1h.

  1. Fabrication and process analysis of anatase type TiO 2 nanofluid by an arc spray nanofluid synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho; Liu, Min-Kun

    2007-06-01

    This research aims to analyze the process parameters of an innovative method for preparing TiO 2 nanofluids. In the arc spray nanofluid synthesis system (ASNSS), a titanium rod, deployed as an electrode in electrical discharge machining (EDM), is melted by the submerged arc and vaporized in deionized liquid under a controlled vacuum environment. The vaporized Ti particles are then rapidly quenched by the designed cooling system, thus forming nanocrystalline powders. The experimental results and analysis revealed that the critical electric current for preparing the nanofluid is 1.63 A. Parameters such as applied electric power (including current, voltage and pulse-duration) and temperature of deionized liquid are found to influence the characteristics of the generated nanoparticles. With a set of designed process parameters, the developed ASNSS can generate the TiO 2 nanofluid with an average particle diameter less than 20 nm and with an improved size distribution and high roundness.

  2. A novel and efficient surfactant-free synthesis of Rutile TiO2 microflowers with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Radhika V.; Jijith, M.; Gummaluri, Venkata Siva; Vijayan, C.

    2016-05-01

    Rutile TiO2 microflowers with three-dimensional spiky flower like architecture at the nanometer level are obtained by a fast single step surfactant free ethylene glycol based solvothermal scheme of synthesis. These structures are characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. These measurements confirm Rutile phase of TiO2 flowers with very high crystallinity. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B with UV exposure is investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy measurements in the presence of these samples. They are shown to have high photocatalytic activity due to the large surface area contributed by the highly dense spiky nanostructures. The plasmonic (Au) loading in these structures are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity.

  3. The effect of silver nanoparticles/graphene-coupled TiO2 beads photocatalyst on the photoconversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Ren; Guo, Jyun-Sheng; Su, Yen-Hsun; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2016-10-28

    In this work, a novel configuration of the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production device is demonstrated. It is based on TiO2 beads as the primary photoanode material with the addition of a heterostructure of silver nanoparticles/graphene. The heterostructure not only caters to a great improvement in light harvesting efficiency (LHE) but also enhances the charge collection efficiency. For LHE, the optimized cell based on TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene shows a 47% gain as compared to the cell having a photoanode of commercial P25 TiO2 powders. For the charge collection efficiency, there is a pronounced improvement of an impressive value of 856%. The reason for the improvement in light absorption is attributed to either the light scattering of TiO2 beads or the surface plasmonic resonance on the Ag nanoparticles/graphene. The photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulting cells is also presented and discussed. The PCE of the TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene cell is approximately 2.5 times than that of pure P25 cell. PMID:27658375

  4. The effect of silver nanoparticles/graphene-coupled TiO2 beads photocatalyst on the photoconversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Ren; Guo, Jyun-Sheng; Su, Yen-Hsun; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2016-10-28

    In this work, a novel configuration of the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production device is demonstrated. It is based on TiO2 beads as the primary photoanode material with the addition of a heterostructure of silver nanoparticles/graphene. The heterostructure not only caters to a great improvement in light harvesting efficiency (LHE) but also enhances the charge collection efficiency. For LHE, the optimized cell based on TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene shows a 47% gain as compared to the cell having a photoanode of commercial P25 TiO2 powders. For the charge collection efficiency, there is a pronounced improvement of an impressive value of 856%. The reason for the improvement in light absorption is attributed to either the light scattering of TiO2 beads or the surface plasmonic resonance on the Ag nanoparticles/graphene. The photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulting cells is also presented and discussed. The PCE of the TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene cell is approximately 2.5 times than that of pure P25 cell.

  5. Photo and Chemical Reduction of Copper onto Anatase-Type TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Surface Hydroxyl Groups as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic efficiency of anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the sol-gel low-temperature method, were enhanced by a combined process of copper reduction and surface hydroxyl groups enhancement. UV-light-assisted photo and NaBH4 -assisted chemical reduction methods were used for deposition of copper onto TiO2. The surface hydroxyl groups of TiO2 were enhanced with the assistance of NaOH modification. The prepared catalysts were immobilized on glass plates and used as the fixed-bed systems for the removal of phenazopyridine as a model drug contaminant under visible light irradiation. NaOH-modified Cu/TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated higher photocatalytic efficiency than that of pure TiO2 due to the extending of the charge carriers lifetime and enhancement of the adsorption capacity of TiO2 toward phenazopyridine. The relationship of structure and performance of prepared nanoparticles has been established by using various techniques, such as XRD, XPS, TEM, EDX, XRF, TGA, DRS and PL. The effects of preparation variables, including copper content, reducing agents rate (NaBH4 concentration and UV light intensity) and NaOH concentration were investigated on the photocatalytic efficiency of NaOH-modified Cu/TiO2 nanoparticles.

  6. The effect of silver nanoparticles/graphene-coupled TiO2 beads photocatalyst on the photoconversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Chun-Ren; Guo, Jyun-Sheng; Su, Yen-Hsun; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a novel configuration of the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production device is demonstrated. It is based on TiO2 beads as the primary photoanode material with the addition of a heterostructure of silver nanoparticles/graphene. The heterostructure not only caters to a great improvement in light harvesting efficiency (LHE) but also enhances the charge collection efficiency. For LHE, the optimized cell based on TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene shows a 47% gain as compared to the cell having a photoanode of commercial P25 TiO2 powders. For the charge collection efficiency, there is a pronounced improvement of an impressive value of 856%. The reason for the improvement in light absorption is attributed to either the light scattering of TiO2 beads or the surface plasmonic resonance on the Ag nanoparticles/graphene. The photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulting cells is also presented and discussed. The PCE of the TiO2 beads/Ag/graphene cell is approximately 2.5 times than that of pure P25 cell.

  7. Impact of growth kinetics on morphology and pore structure of TiO2-one-pot synthesis of macroporous TiO2 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ziyi; Chen, Fengxi; Ang, Thiam-Peng; Han, Yifan; Lim, Weiqiang; Gedanken, Aharon

    2006-06-12

    Titanium dioxide was synthesized by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of acetic acid, 2-propanol, and organic amines (octylamine, aniline, and isobutylamine). H2O was supplied by an esterification reaction between acetic acid and 2-propanol (denoted as H2Oe), and/or by intentionally adding it (denoted as H2Oa). It was found that the quantity of H2Oa plays a crucial role in the morphology and porous structure of the final TiO2 product. Without the addition of H2Oa, 1D and porous TiO2 was synthesized. With the addition of H2Oa, and when the H2Oa:TiO2 molar ratio was in the range of 1:1 to 60:1, macroporous TiO2 microspheres possessing a large surface area and high thermal stability were obtained. When the H2Oa:TiO2 molar ratio exceeded 60:1, porous TiO2 with an irregular shape was formed. The variation in the morphology and porous structure is attributed to the manipulation of the growth kinetics by the addition of water. PMID:16749824

  8. In situ synthesis of TiO2/polyethylene terephthalate hybrid nanocomposites at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinyan; Ding, Enyong; Xue, Feng

    2012-06-01

    TiO2 nanoflowers were in situ grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabric by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solution in the presence of nanocrystal cellulose grafted PET fabric (NCC-g-PET) at a low temperature of 70 °C. Nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) pre-grafted on PET fabric acted as hydrophilic substrate and morphology inducing agent to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of TiO2. Detailed information on the synthetic process was presented. The resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, EDS, ATR-IR, Raman microscopy, XRD and TG analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of orange methyl under solar light. Characteristic results indicate that rutile TiO2 nanoflowers have grown abundantly on PET non-woven fabric, and the established hydrogen bonding strengthens the interfacial interaction between the inorganic particles and the polymeric substrates. The methyl orange decoloration test under natural solar light demonstrates that this TiO2/PET hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent self-cleaning performance which is expected to have a good potential for commercialization.

  9. Glycothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of Highly Crystallized Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kil, Hyun-Sig; Jung, Yong-Jin; Moon, Jung-In; Song, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Dae-Young; Cho, Seung-Beom

    2015-08-01

    Highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized at a temperature as low as 120 °C through a glycothermal reaction using amorphous titanium hydrous gel as precursor and 1,4-butanediol and water as solvent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data support that the glycothermal processing method provides a simple low-temperature route for producing highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanoparticles without pH adjustment. It is demonstrated that the shape and dispersability of TiO2 nanoparticles can be controlled by the reaction conditions, such as the reaction temperature and variation of the volume ratio of 1,4- butanediol/water (B/W). It was observed that TiO2 samples glycothermally prepared at 220 °C and the B/W ratio of 8/0 showed excellent photocatalytic behavior. The high activity is attributed to the high crystallinity and bipyramidal shape of the particles, which have fewer defects and more active {101} surfaces. PMID:26369224

  10. The Synthesis of Ag-Doped Mesoporous TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-04-15

    Ag-doped mesoporous titanium oxide was prepared using non-ionic surfactants and easily handled titanium precursors, under mild reaction conditions. In contrast to the stabilizing effect of Cd-doping on mesoporous TiO2, Ag-doping was found to significantly destabilize the mesoporous structure.

  11. Direct synthesis of a mesoporous TiO2-RuO2 composite through evaporation-induced polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Ye, Jinhua; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-06-14

    Here we report a direct synthesis of a mesoporous TiO2-RuO2 composite. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and RuCl3 are used as inorganic precursors for TiO2 and RuO2, respectively. Evaporation-induced assembly of spherical micelles made of an asymmetric poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer enables the fabrication of a mesoporous TiO2-RuO2 composite with a uniform pore size of 30 nm. PMID:24760227

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2-pillared Romanian clay and their application for azoic dyes photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Dvininov, E; Popovici, E; Pode, R; Cocheci, L; Barvinschi, P; Nica, V

    2009-08-15

    The synthesis and properties of metal oxide pillared cationic clays (PILCs) has been subject to numerous studies in the last decades. In order to obtain TiO(2)-pillared type materials, sodium montmorillonite from Romania-areal of Valea Chioarului, having the following composition (% wt): SiO(2)-72.87; Al(2)O(3)-14.5; MgO-2.15; Fe(2)O(3)-1.13; Na(2)O-0.60; K(2)O-0.60; CaO-0.90; PC-5.70 and cation exchange capacity, determined by ammonium acetate method, of 82 meq/100g, as matrix, was used. Sodium form of the clay was modified, primarily, by intercalation of cetyl-trimethylammonium cations between negatively charged layers which will lead to the expansion of the interlayer space. For the preparation of the TiO(2)-pillared clay, the alkoxide molecules, as titania precursor, were adsorbed onto/into clay samples (1 mmol Ti/g clay), in hydrochloric acid environment, the resulted species being converted into TiO(2) pillars by calcination. The as-prepared materials have been used as catalysts for Congo Red dye photodegradation, under UV. The photocatalytic activity of the pillared clays is a function of TiO(2) pillars size, their increase leading to the enhancement of the contact areas between dye solution and photoactive species present in the interlayer space. The structural characteristics and properties of the obtained materials were investigated by X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry Analysis, UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis. PMID:19250741

  13. Low-Temperature Synthesis of a TiO2/Si Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Rupich, Sara M; Jhaveri, Janam; Berg, Alexander H; Nagamatsu, Ken A; Man, Gabriel; Chabal, Yves J; Kahn, Antoine; Wagner, Sigurd; Sturm, James C; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    The classical SiO2/Si interface, which is the basis of integrated circuit technology, is prepared by thermal oxidation followed by high temperature (>800 °C) annealing. Here we show that an interface synthesized between titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrogen-terminated silicon (H:Si) is a highly efficient solar cell heterojunction that can be prepared under typical laboratory conditions from a simple organometallic precursor. A thin film of TiO2 is grown on the surface of H:Si through a sequence of vapor deposition of titanium tetra(tert-butoxide) (1) and heating to 100 °C. The TiO2 film serves as a hole-blocking layer in a TiO2/Si heterojunction solar cell. Further heating to 250 °C and then treating with a dilute solution of 1 yields a hole surface recombination velocity of 16 cm/s, which is comparable to the best values reported for the classical SiO2/Si interface. The outstanding performance of this heterojunction is attributed to Si-O-Ti bonding at the TiO2/Si interface, which was probed by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that Si-H bonds remain even after annealing at 250 °C. The ease and scalability of the synthetic route employed and the quality of the interface it provides suggest that this surface chemistry has the potential to enable fundamentally new, efficient silicon solar cell devices.

  14. The large-scale synthesis of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructures using palladium as catalyst at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingxia; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Hongxing; Dai, Guozhang; Yu, Hongchun; Wang, Taihong; Zou, Bingsuo; Wang, Yanguo

    2009-02-01

    The synthesis of TiO(2) nanostructures including nanowires and nanobelts has been demonstrated experimentally by anodization of Ti foil in an electrolyte, and by treatment in a PdCl(2) ethanol solution together with UV light irradiation and annealing at a temperature below 800 degrees C. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays resulting from the anodization were used as source precursor and transformed into nanowires and nanobelts respectively with high efficiency during the subsequent processes. The resulting TiO(2) nanowires and nanobelts, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman and surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy, are single rutile crystals of high quality. In addition to the synthesis of the nanostructure at low temperature, this method also shows great advantages for the selectable morphology of the final TiO(2) nanostructures via adjustment of the UV light irradiation time and annealing temperature.

  15. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell for degradation of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, Nandang; Munfarriha, Ulfatien; Fuad, Abdulloh; Diantoro, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesis Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell and used it as photocatalytic for degradation of Rhodamine B. The Fe3O4 nanoparticle core was synthesized by coprecipitation method from the iron sand. The TiO2 shell synthesized using coprecipitation method to capsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticle with vary of Fe3O4 mass. The Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shells were characterized using SEM-EDX, XRD. Photocatalytic activity of Rhodamine B degradation was performed under UV irradiation with variation of time exposure. The efficiency of photodegradation is measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD result showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticle is single phase with crystal size of 15.5 nm. The existence of Fe3O4 and anatase of TiO2 phases in the XRD pattern shows that The Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shells are successfully synthesized. While, the TiO2 shell is confirmed by thermal test up to 550 OC for two hours to the samples. Based on SEM characterization, The Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shells are agglomerated with averages diameter sizes of particles between 38.5 nm to 72.8 nm. The concentration of TiO2 decrease with increasing Fe3O4 mass with atomic composition of Fe/Ti elements in Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shells are 0.083, 1.12, and 1.48. Based on photo degradation test of Rhodamine B under UV irradiation, we conclude that the degradation of Rhodamin B is caused by absorbsion and photocatalytic mechanism. For photocatalytic mechanism the efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamin B increases by increasing TiO2 concentration.

  16. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of Oleic Acid-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized from Absolute Ethanol Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihui; Liu, Bin; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-10-01

    The one-step synthesis of oleic acid-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity was reported by this manuscript, using oleic acid-ethanol as crucial starting materials. The photocatalytic degradation of nitrogen monoxide (deNOx) in the gas phase was investigated in a continuous reactor using a series of TiO2 semiconductors, prepared from oleic acid- or acetic acid-ethanol solution. The surface modification on TiO2 by organic fatty acid, oleic acid, could reinvest TiO2 photocatalyst with the excellent visible light response. The deNOx ability is almost as high as 30 % destruction in the visible light region ( λ > 510 nm) which is similar to the nitrogen-doped TiO2. Meanwhile, acetic acid, a monobasic acid, has a weaker ability on visible light modification of TiO2.

  17. Photodeposition-assisted synthesis of novel nanoparticulate In, S-codoped TiO2 powders with high visible light-driven photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadanian, M.; Reisi-Vanani, A.; Razi, P.; Hoseinifard, S.; Jabbari, V.

    2013-11-01

    In order to search for an efficient photocatalysts working under visible light illumination, we have investigated the effect of metal and nonmetal ions (In, S) codoping on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) prepared by combining of sol-gel (SG) and photodeposition (PD) methods using titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP), indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and thiourea as precursors. In this regard, at first three different percentage of S (0.05, 0.2 and 0.5) doped into the TiO2 by SG method, and then different amount of In(III) loaded on the surface of the prepared samples by PD technique. The results showed that the In, S-codoped TiO2 (In, S-TiO2) with a spheroidal shape demonstrates a smaller grain size than the pure TiO2. Meanwhile, the UV-vis DRS of In, S-TiO2 showed a considerable red shift to the visible region. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of In, S-TiO2 photocatalysts were evaluated by photooxidative degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution under UV and visible light illumination. As a result, it was found that 0.05%S-0.5%In/TiO2, 0.2%S-1.5%In/TiO2 and 0.5%S-0.5%In/TiO2 had the highest catalytic activity under visible light in each group and among these samples 0.2%S-1.5%In/TiO2 showed the best photocatalytic performance under visible light and decomposes more than 95% MO in only 90 min.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Carbon-Based (N, Fe)-Codoped TiO2 for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Tong, Yanbin; Wu, Zhilin; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2015-12-01

    A microwave-assisted sol-gel method was used to synthesize (N, Fe)-codoped activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced optical absorption in the visible light region. The prepared samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results showed no significant difference in the surface area of AC/TiO2 (approximately 500 m(2)/g) after doping. TiO2 was uniformly distributed on the surface of AC, which exhibited coexisting anatase and rutile structures with a mean crystallite diameter of approximately 20 nm. N and Fe monodoping on AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 to 2.81 and 2.79 eV, respectively, which mainly attributed to the impurity energy formed in the energy gap of TiO2. In (N, Fe)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Fe are incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrow the band gap of TiO2 to 2.58 eV, thereby causing a large redshift. Codoping of N and Fe enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH) and improved the photocatalytic activity of the resultant AC/TiO2 compared with those of undoped and N- or Fe-monodoped AC/TiO2. N-Fe-AC/TiO2 degraded 93 % of the formaldehyde under Xe-lamp irradiation. Moreover, the photocatalyst was easily recyclable. In summary, a novel and efficient method to mineralize low concentrations of HCHO in wastewater was discovered.

  19. Non-solvolytic synthesis of aqueous soluble TiO2 nanoparticles and real-time dynamic measurements of the nanoparticle formation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Highly aqueously dispersible (soluble) TiO2 nanoparticles are usually synthesized by a solution-based sol–gel (solvolysis/condensation) process, and no direct precipitation of titania has been reported. This paper proposes a new approach to synthesize stable TiO2 nanoparticles by a non-solvolytic method - direct liquid phase precipitation at room temperature. Ligand-capped TiO2 nanoparticles are more readily solubilized compared to uncapped TiO2 nanoparticles, and these capped materials show distinct optical absorbance/emission behaviors. The influence of ligands, way of reactant feeding, and post-treatment on the shape, size, crystalline structure, and surface chemistry of the TiO2 nanoparticles has been thoroughly investigated by the combined use of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). It is found that all above variables have significant effects on the size, shape, and dispersivity of the final TiO2 nanoparticles. For the first time, real-time UV–vis spectroscopy and PL are used to dynamically detect the formation and growth of TiO2 nanoparticles in solution. These real-time measurements show that the precipitation process begins to nucleate after an initial inhibition period of about 1 h, thereafter a particle growth occurs and reaches the maximum point after 2 h. The synthesis reaction is essentially completed after 4 h. PMID:22676412

  20. Synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Yong Nam; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis and visible-light-induced catalytic activity of Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and TiO2 nanowires (NWs). Through a simple wet chemical process from a mixture of peroxo titanic acid (PTA) solution, thiourea and AgAc, a composite of Ag2S NPs and TiO2 NPs with sizes of less than 7 nm was formed. When the NP composite was further treated with NaOH solution followed by annealing at ambient conditions, a new nanocomposite material comprising Ag2S NPs on TiO2 NWs was created. Due to the coupling with such a low bandgap material as Ag2S, the TiO2 nanocomposites could have a visible-light absorption capability much higher than that of pure TiO2. As a result, the synthesized Ag2S/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency for the decomposition of methyl orange than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25, Germany) under visible light.

  1. Microemulsion-based synthesis of nanoscale TiO 2 hollow spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurmühl, C.; Popescu, R.; Gerthsen, D.; Feldmann, C.

    2011-08-01

    Nanoscale TiO 2 hollow spheres are prepared based on gelatine-filled reversed microemulsions. The resulting nanomaterial exhibits an outer diameter of 25-35 nm, a thickness of the sphere wall of 4-6 nm and an inner cavity of 15-20 nm in diameter. The as-prepared hollow spheres are characterized based on different electron microscopic techniques, infrared spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and sorption measurements according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis are used to elucidate the thermal properties as well as the specific surface of the hollow spheres. Finally, the photocatalytic properties of as-prepared TiO 2 hollow spheres are studied.

  2. Size controlled synthesis and photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2 hollow microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Charu; Dutta, V.

    2012-10-01

    Titanium oxide hollow microspheres were synthesized from organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. Effects of precursor concentration, applied voltage and annealing have been investigated. It was observed that the annealing of the as-synthesized TiO2 hollow microspheres at 250 °C, which had an average external diameter of 200 nm, leads to an increase in the size and also more spherical shape. The precursor concentration and applied voltage were found to have a direct impact on the size of the microspheres, which is also evident in the absorption spectrum. The as-prepared TiO2 hollow microspheres exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO.

  3. TiO2 Nanotubes: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis—particularly by electrochemical anodization-, growth mechanism and chemical sensing properties of pure, doped and mixed titania tubular arrays are reviewed. The first part deals on how anodization parameters affect the size, shape and morphology of titania nanotubes. In the second part fabrication of sensing devices based on titania nanotubes is presented, together with their most notable gas sensing performances. Doping largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24184919

  4. TiO2 Hollow Spheres: One-Pot Synthesis and Enhanced Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Changchao; Cao, Yongqiang; Yang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Hollow TiO2 microspheres were successfully fabricated by metal salts with low solubility in ethanol acting as intelligent templates using a simple one-pot solvothermal method. Hollow spheres with large diameter were obtained using CuSO4ṡ5H2O as templates while small ones were obtained using Sr(NO3)2 as templates. It is found that titanium precursor plays an important role for the morphology of samples. Solid TiO2 microspheres were prepared by using titanium tetrabutoxide (TBT). In contrast, bowl-like hollow microspheres were obtained by using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). Furthermore, the amount of H2O can stimulate the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4 to form solid spheres. Compared with solid microspheres, hollow TiO2 microspheres depending on their interior cavity structure exhibited enhanced photocatalysis efficiency for the UV-light photodegradation of methyl orange. Quantificationally, the apparent photocatalytic degradation pseudo-first-rate constant of the hollow microspheres is 1.25 times of that of the solid ones.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, M.; Pana, O.; Leostean, C.; Bele, C.; Silipas, D.; Senila, M.; Gautron, E.

    2014-09-01

    Composite core-shell nanoparticles may have morpho-structural, magnetic, and optical (photoluminescence (PL)) properties different from each of the components considered separately. The properties of Fe3O4-TiO2 nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the titania amount (shell thinness). Core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by seed mediated growth of semiconductor (TiO2) through a modified sol-gel process onto preformed magnetite (Fe3O4) cores resulted from the co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution-TEM respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was correlated with ICP-AES. Magnetic measurements, optical absorption spectra, as well as PL spectroscopy indicate the presence of a charge/spin transfer from the conduction band of magnetite into the band gap of titania nanocrystals. The process modifies both Fe3O4 and TiO2 magnetic and optical properties, respectively.

  6. Synthesis of iron-doped TiO2 for degradation of reactive Orange16

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study the optimum conditions for preparing the iron-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. Samples were synthesized by sol–gel impregnation method. Three effective parameters were optimized using Taguchi method, consisted of: (i) atomic ratios of Fe to Ti; (ii) sintering temperature; (iii) sintering time. The characterization of samples was determined using X-ray diffraction, BET- specific surface area, UV- Vis reflectance spectra (DRS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD patterns of the samples indicated the existence of anatase crystal phase in structure. UV- Vis reflectance spectra showed an enhancement in light absorbance in the visible region (wavelength > 400 nm) for iron-doped samples. The photocatalytic activity of samples was investigated by the degradation of RO 16 (RO 16) dye under UV irradiation. The results illustrated that the photocatalytic activity of iron-doped TiO2 was more than pure TiO2, because of the smaller crystal size, grater BET surface area and higher light absorption ability. PMID:24405975

  7. Preparation and characterization of magnetically separable photocatalyst (TiO2/SiO2/Fe3O4): effect of carbon coating and calcination temperature.

    PubMed

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A; Fujimura, Kyoko; Kato, Shigeru; Satokawa, Shigeo; Kojima, Toshinori

    2008-06-15

    TiO2/SiO2/Fe3O4 composite was synthesized by sol-gel technique for silica and titania coatings on magnetite core to enable recovery after photocatalytic degradation. Carbon coating was also carried out by calcination of TiO2/SiO2/Fe3O4 under nitrogen atmosphere in presence of PVA as a source of carbon to enhance the adsorption of organic compounds on catalyst surface and to get better activity. All prepared samples were characterized using EDX, CN analyzer, XRD, BET and SEM. Degradation of methyl orange dye was used to assess the photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples. Calcination temperature was found to affect rate of reaction because of the formation of rutile phase at high calcination temperature. Carbon coated samples unexpectedly exhibited lower rate of reaction at almost all calcination temperatures. PMID:18082953

  8. Optimized photodegradation of Bisphenol A in water using ZnO, TiO2 and SnO2 photocatalysts under UV radiation as a decontamination procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Rudy; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Merkel, Broder J.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments on photodegradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) were carried out in water samples by means photocatalytic and photo-oxidation methods in the presence of ZnO, TiO2 and SnO2 catalysts. The objective of this study was to develop an improved technique that can be used as a remediation procedure for a BPA-contaminated surface water and groundwater based on the UV solar radiation. The photodegradation of BPA in water performed under a low-intensity UV source mimics the UVC and UVA spectrum of solar radiation between 254 and 365 nm. The archived results reveal higher degradation rates observed in the presence of ZnO than with TiO2 and SnO2 catalysts during 20 h of irradiation. The intervention of the advanced photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reduces the time of degradation to less than 1 h to reach a degradation rate of 90 % for BPA in water. The study proposes the use of ZnO as a competitor catalyst to the traditional TiO2, providing the most effective treatment of contaminated water with phenolic products.

  9. A systematic study on visible-light N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst obtained from ethylenediamine by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Hao, Yubao; Lu, Haiqiang; Liang, Liping; Wang, Yuanyang; Qiu, Jianhao; Shi, Xianchao; Wang, Ying; Yao, Jianfeng

    2015-07-01

    N-doped titania is prepared using ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source by a sol-gel method. The preparation conditions, such as the volume ratio of ethylenediamine to sol, and the heat temperature on the nitrogen doping are systematically examined. UV results indicate the N-doped TiO2 catalysts have enhanced absorption in the visible light region, and exhibit high activities on the visible light photocatalytic reactions to the hydrogen production and methyl orange degradation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR results reveal that N species have been incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at a high N-doping level. N-doped titania prepared with an ethylenediamine to sol volume ratio of 1:1 and sintering temperature of 500 °C performed the highest hydrogen production rate (2.98 mmol g-1 h-1) and best methyl orange degradation performance. A conceivable structure change of N-doped TiO2 sintered at different temperature was proposed.

  10. The Comparative Photodegradation Activities of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Using UV Alone and TiO2-Derived Photocatalysts in Methanol Soil Washing Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Tan; Lu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs. PMID:25254664

  11. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanoparticles of TiO2 doped with Pt produced via the self-combustion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopera, A. A.; Chavarriaga, E. A.; Estupiñan, H. A.; Valencia, I. C.; Paucar, C.; Garcia, C. P.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is the most important semiconductor used in photocatalysis. For that reason, most recent scientific studies have focused on improving the absorbance of this material in the visible region. In this paper, we report on the production of nanopowders of TiO2 doped with platinum via the solution combustion synthesis method, using glycine as a fuel at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% w/w of Pt with respect to TiO2 (Pt / TiO2), in order to study the influence of the dopant content on the absorbance spectrum in the visible region. The structure of the samples was characterized using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the production of a pure anatase phase. VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that in the visible region the samples doped with Pt absorb within the range of 400 nm to 800 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of 13 nm and with spherical morphology. Colorimetry (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L *, a *, b *) confirmed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B using visible light. It was concluded that the route of synthesis and the Pt content play important roles in the absorbance spectrum and the activation energy of TiO2.

  12. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Jia, Li; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Li-Qiang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-01-21

    N-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted N-TiO(2)/C) were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment in the presence of L-lysine, which acts as a ligand to control the nanocrystal growth and as a source of nitrogen and carbon. As-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation at λ≥ 400 nm. The results show that N-TiO(2)/C nanocomposites increase absorption in the visible light region and exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2), commercial P25 and previously reported N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts. We have demonstrated that the nitrogen was doped into the lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of the photocatalysts. N-doping narrows the band gap and C-modification enhances the visible light harvesting and accelerates the separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activity is significantly improved. The molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) and the pH of the hydrothermal reaction solution are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity of the N-TiO(2)/C; the optimum molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) is 8 and the optimum pH is ca. 4, at which the catalyst exhibits the highest reactivity. Our findings demonstrate that the as-obtained N-TiO(2)/C photocatalyst is a better and more promising candidate than well studied N-doped TiO(2) alternatives as visible light photocatalysts for

  13. Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3 with WO3-TiO2 Catalysts: Influence of Catalyst Synthesis Method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Yuanyuan; Ford, Michael E.; Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Qingcai; Wu, Zili; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-02-02

    A series of supported WO3/TiO2 catalysts was prepared by a new synthesis procedure involving co-precipitation of an aqueous TiO(OH)2 and (NH4)10W12O41*5H2O slurry under controlled pH conditions. The morphological properties, molecular structures, surface acidity and surface chemistry of the supported WO3/TiO2 catalysts were determined with BET, in situ Raman, in situ IR and temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) spectroscopy, respectively. Isotopic 18O-16O exchange demonstrated that tungsten oxide was exclusively present as surface WOx species on the TiO2 support with mono-oxo W=O coordination. In contrast to previous studies employing impregnation synthesis that found only surface one mono-oxo O=WO4 site on TiO2, the co-precipitationmore » procedure resulted in the formation of two distinct surface WOx species: mono-oxo O=WO4 (~1010-1017 cm-1) on low defect density patches of TiO2 and a second mono-oxo O=WO4 (~983-986 cm-1) on high defect density patches of TiO2. The concentration of the second WOx surface species increases as a function of solution pH. Both surface WOx sites, however, exhibited the same NO/NH3 SCR reactivity. The co-precipitated WO3-TiO2 catalysts synthesized in alkaline solutions exhibited enhanced performance for the NO/NH3 SCR reaction that is ascribed to the greater number of surface defects on the resulting TiO2 support. For the co-precipitated catalyst prepared at pH10, surface NH4+ species on Br nsted acid sites were found to be more reactive than surface NH3* species on Lewis acid sites for SCR of NO with NH3.« less

  14. Advances in photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria: Development of photocatalysts and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanjun; Huang, Guocheng; Yu, Jimmy C; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-08-01

    Photocatalysis has attracted worldwide attention due to its potential in solar energy conversion. As a "green" advanced oxidation technology, it has been extensively used for water disinfection and wastewater treatment. This article provides a review of the recent progress in solar energy-induced photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria, focusing on the development of highly efficient photocatalysts and their underlying mechanisms in bacterial inactivation. The photocatalysts are classified into TiO2-based and non-TiO2-based systems, as TiO2 is the most investigated photocatalyst. The synthesis methods, modification strategies, bacterial disinfection activities and mechanisms of different types of photocatalysts are reviewed in detail. Emphasis is given to the modified TiO2, including noble metal deposition, non-metal doping, dye sensitization and composite TiO2, along with typical non-TiO2-based photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, including metal oxides, sulfides, bismuth metallates, graphene-based photocatalysts, carbon nitride-based photocatalysts and natural photocatalysts. A simple and versatile methodology by using a partition system combined with scavenging study is introduced to study the photocatalytic disinfection mechanisms in different photocatalytic systems. This review summarizes the current state of the work on photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria, and is expected to offer useful insights for the future development in the field. PMID:26257366

  15. Facile synthesis of TiO2-RGO composite with enhanced performance for the photocatalytic mineralization of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nainani, Roshan K; Thakur, Pragati

    2016-01-01

    Current research reports the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-TiO2 nanocomposite by in-situ redox method and graphene oxide by modified hummers method. The ratio of RGO and TiO2 in the composite was optimized to show best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of targeted pollutants. Optimized (1:10) RGO-TiO2 nanocomposite was characterized by various techniques viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET), Raman and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) technique confirming successful formation of nanocomposite. XRD results confirm the presence of anatase phase in RGO-TiO2. Uniform dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on RGO could be seen from TEM images. The obtained results of (1:10) RGO-TiO2 showed five-fold and two-fold enhancement for the visible light and UV light, respectively, for the photocatalytic mineralization of methylene blue dye as compared to commercial Aeroxide P25 TiO2. The excellent photocatalytic mineralization activity of (1:10) RGO-TiO2 could be attributed to the enhanced surface area of composite as well as to its good electron sink capability. (1:10) RGO-TiO2 could be recycled easily and was found to be equally efficient even after the fourth cycle for the photocatalytic mineralization of methylene blue dye. The non-selectivity of synthesized composite was checked by the mineralization studies of oxalic acid. PMID:27120648

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Rutile TiO2Nanopowders Doped with Iron Ions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanopowders doped with different amounts of Fe ions were prepared by coprecipitation method. Obtained materials were characterized by structural (XRD), morphological (TEM and SEM), optical (UV/vis reflection and photoluminescence, and Raman), and analytical techniques (XPS and ICP-OES). XRD analysis revealed rutile crystalline phase for doped and undoped titanium dioxide obtained in the same manner. Diameter of the particles was 5–7 nm. The presence of iron ions was confirmed by XPS and ICP-OES. Doping process moved absorption threshold of TiO2into visible spectrum range. Photocatalytic activity was also checked. Doped nanopowders showed normal and up-converted photoluminescence. PMID:20596442

  17. Self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays: synthesis by anodization in an ionic liquid and assessment of photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Wender, Heberton; Feil, Adriano F; Diaz, Leonardo B; Ribeiro, Camila S; Machado, Guilherme J; Migowski, Pedro; Weibel, Daniel E; Dupont, Jairton; Teixeira, Sérgio R

    2011-04-01

    Self-organized TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays were produced by anodization in ethylene glycol (EG) electrolytes containing 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF(4)) ionic liquid and water. The morphology of the as-formed NTs was considerably affected by changing the anodization time, voltage, and water and ionic liquid electrolyte concentrations. In general, a nanoporous layer was formed on the top surface of the TiO(2) NTs, except for anodization at 100 V with 1 vol % of BMI.BF(4), where the NT's mouth was revealed. The length and bottom diameter of the NTs as well as the pore diameter of the top layer showed a linear relationship with increased anodization voltage. These TiO(2) NTs were tested as photocatalysts for methyl orange photodegradation and hydrogen evolution from water/methanol solutions by UV light irradiation. The results show that the TiO(2) NTs obtained by anodization in EG/H(2)O/BMI.BF(4) electrolytes are active and efficient for both applications. PMID:21443251

  18. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2.

  19. Synthesis of TiO2 Nanofluids by Wet Mechanochemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harjanto, S.; Sutanto, H.; Setiaji, R.; Yuwono, A. H.; Ferdian, D.

    2011-12-01

    Nanofluids have been developed in a search of new coolants with higher thermal conductivity compared to the conventional coolants, such as water or ethylene glycol. This research is conducted to observe the main characteristics, such as particle size, suspension stability, and thermal conductivity, of nanofluids produced from wet mechanochemical process with the addition of 0.02 vol% oleic acid. Milling process was conducted in conventional planetary ball mill for 15 hours. The results showed that nanoparticle was formed from micron size raw materials and dan dispersed simultaneously in water. Particle size distribution of particles which are less than 100 nm size were in the range of 51-100%. The ratio of thermal conductivity enhancement of the 1% vol TiO2 nanofluids compared with water without surfactant is 1.1. The ratio of thermal conductivity of TiO2 nanofluids increases in higher concentration of nanofluids. Oleic acid addition increases the particle stability of nanofluids and its ratio of thermal conductivity.

  20. Visible-light-driven g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets and its enhanced photocatalytic activities for organic pollutant degradation and Cr(VI) reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Zhang, Gaoke; Wan, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Novel g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 photocatalyst co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets of TiO2 was synthesized via a hydrothermal-sonication assisted strategy. The photocatalytic activities of the as-obtained photocatalyst were evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and the reduction of Cr(VI) under visible-light irradiation. It was found that the g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites with 6 wt% g-C3N4 exhibited the highest visible-light photocatalytic efficiency, which is also higher than the pure g-C3N4 and Ti3+-TiO2. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed on the basis of the theoretical analyses and scavenger experiments. Results show that holes (h+) and superoxide anions (rad O2-) reactive species participated in the degradation of RhB solution over the g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4/Ti3+-TiO2 composites can be attributed to the wide optical adsorption of g-C3N4 and Ti3+ as well as the effectively separation and transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes pairs, which was resulted from the surface heterojunction between the g-C3N4 and Ti3+-TiO2 nanosheets co-exposed {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets of anatase TiO2.

  1. AAO-assisted synthesis of highly ordered, large-scale TiO2 nanowire arrays via sputtering and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Kim, Nam-Young

    2015-01-01

    Highly ordered nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) thin films were fabricated in oxalic acid under a constant voltage via a two-step anodization process. To investigate the high-aspect-ratio (7.5:1) filling process, both sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) were used to form TiO2 nanowires. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicated that mushroom-like TiO2 structures were sputtered onto the AAO template surface, and the ALD-coated TiO2 exhibited fine filling results and clear crystal grain boundaries. Large-scale and free-standing TiO2 nanowire arrays were liberated by selectively removing the aluminum substrate and AAO template via a wet etching process with no collapsing or agglomeration after the drying process. ALD-deposited TiO2 nanowire arrays that were 67 nm in diameter and 400 nm high were transferred from the AAO template. The ALD process enabled the rapid, simple synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanowire arrays with desired parameters such as diameter, density, and thickness determined using diverse AAO templates.

  2. AAO-assisted synthesis of highly ordered, large-scale TiO2 nanowire arrays via sputtering and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Kim, Nam-Young

    2015-04-01

    Highly ordered nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) thin films were fabricated in oxalic acid under a constant voltage via a two-step anodization process. To investigate the high-aspect-ratio (7.5:1) filling process, both sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) were used to form TiO2 nanowires. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicated that mushroom-like TiO2 structures were sputtered onto the AAO template surface, and the ALD-coated TiO2 exhibited fine filling results and clear crystal grain boundaries. Large-scale and free-standing TiO2 nanowire arrays were liberated by selectively removing the aluminum substrate and AAO template via a wet etching process with no collapsing or agglomeration after the drying process. ALD-deposited TiO2 nanowire arrays that were 67 nm in diameter and 400 nm high were transferred from the AAO template. The ALD process enabled the rapid, simple synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanowire arrays with desired parameters such as diameter, density, and thickness determined using diverse AAO templates.

  3. Degradation of rhodamine B/phenol mixtures in water by sun-like excitation of a Bi2 WO6-TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Murcia-López, Sebastián; Hidalgo, María C; Navío, José A

    2013-01-01

    Bi2 WO6 and Bi2 WO6-TiO2 (5% molar Ti) nano-heterostructures were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized, having high photoactivity for Rhodamine B degradation under sun-like illumination, explained by a synergetic mechanism previously proposed through UV and visible induced processes, in which the photosensitization effect of Rhodamine B is considered. We now report that using Phenol, a molecule which does not lead the photosensitization process, the photoactivity decreased considerably, thus emphasizing how important is the model molecule selected as degradation substrate for evaluating the photoactivity. The photocatalytic properties of the synthesized catalysts have been evaluated by exposing a mixture of Rhodamine B and Phenol in water, to different illumination conditions. It can be confirmed that the photoinduced mechanism via the photosensitization of Rhodamine B is a key factor responsible for the increase on the photocatalytic activity showed by the Bi2 WO6-TiO2 compound and that the degradation mechanism of Rhodamine B is not changed by the simultaneous presence of other transparent substrate as Phenol.

  4. Directed synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured TiO2 catalysts and their morphology-dependent photocatalysis for phenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Liu, Huajie; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yuqiu; Duan, Yueqin; Gao, Guandao; Ge, Ming; Chen, Wei

    2008-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 with different hierarchical morphologies were synthesized via a warmly hydrothermal route. The properties of the products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, etc. Two of the products, TiO2 1D nanorods (one-dimensional rutile TiO2 nanorods) and TiO2 3D0D microspheres (three-dimensional anatase TiO2 nanoparticle-assembled microspheres) exhibited superior photocatalytic effects on phenol degradation under UV illumination, compared with TiO2 3D1D microspheres (three-dimensional rutile TiO2 nanorods-assembled microspheres). Moreover, TiO2 3D0D was superior to TiO2 1D, as indicated by a 30% higher mineralization of dissolved phenol. Dihydroxybenze, 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, benzoquinone, maleic anhydride, etc. were identified as the degradation intermediates. The excellent catalytic effect was attributed to the structural features of TiO2 1D nanorods and TiO2 3D0D microspheres, that is, a larger amount of surface active sites and a higher band gap energy resulted in more efficient decomposition of organic contaminants. PMID:18504963

  5. Directed synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured TiO2 catalysts and their morphology-dependent photocatalysis for phenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Liu, Huajie; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yuqiu; Duan, Yueqin; Gao, Guandao; Ge, Ming; Chen, Wei

    2008-04-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 with different hierarchical morphologies were synthesized via a warmly hydrothermal route. The properties of the products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, etc. Two of the products, TiO2 1D nanorods (one-dimensional rutile TiO2 nanorods) and TiO2 3D0D microspheres (three-dimensional anatase TiO2 nanoparticle-assembled microspheres) exhibited superior photocatalytic effects on phenol degradation under UV illumination, compared with TiO2 3D1D microspheres (three-dimensional rutile TiO2 nanorods-assembled microspheres). Moreover, TiO2 3D0D was superior to TiO2 1D, as indicated by a 30% higher mineralization of dissolved phenol. Dihydroxybenze, 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, benzoquinone, maleic anhydride, etc. were identified as the degradation intermediates. The excellent catalytic effect was attributed to the structural features of TiO2 1D nanorods and TiO2 3D0D microspheres, that is, a larger amount of surface active sites and a higher band gap energy resulted in more efficient decomposition of organic contaminants.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of porous TiO2 with wormhole-like framework structure

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanaswamy, A.; McBride, J.; Swafford, L.A.; Dhar, S.; Budai, John D; Feldman, Leonard C.; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    A fast and reliable synthetic route for preparing contaminant-free porous TiO2 with a wormhole-like framework and close packed macropores is demonstrated based on a sol-gel process involving acid hydrolysis of an alkoxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements have been used to characterize the porous structure and the crystallinity. The XRD patterns, TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirm that these materials have disordered wormhole-like topology with close-packed nearly hexagonal macropores. The mesopore diameters and surface area of titanium dioxide, evaluated from the N2-sorption isotherms, indicate average pore diameters of about 7 and 6 nm and surface areas of about 100 and 335 m2/g, for as-prepared and calcined samples at 400 C.

  7. Synthesis and anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires in ex vivo porcine skin model.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Namrata; Anjusree, G S; Madhavan, Asha Anish; Priyanka, P; Sankar, Deepthi; Nisha, N; Lakshmi, S V; Jayakumar, R; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Biswas, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of skin and soft tissue infections. In this study we compared the antimicrobial activity of two different TiO2 nanoformulations against Staphylococcus aureus. We synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles of approximately 80 nm diameter and TiO2 nanowires of approximately 100 nm diameter. Both nanoformulations possess anti-microbial activity; were non-hemolytic and cytocompatible. However, the anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanowires was better than the nanoparticles. In broth culture, growth of S. aureus was only partially inhibited by 2% and 4 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles and completely inhibited by TiO2 nanowires till 24 h. TiO2 nanowires treated S. aureus cells exhibits diminished membrane potential than nanoparticle treated cells. The anti-microbial properties of both TiO2 nanoformulations were validated using ex vivo porcine skin model which supplements the in vitro assays. Anti-bacterial activity of the TiO2 nanowires were also validated against multi drug resistant pathogenic strains of S. aureus, showing the clinical potency of the TiO2 nanowires compared to its nanoparticles.

  8. Sol-gel low-temperature synthesis of stable anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles under different conditions and its photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Behnajady, Mohammad A; Eskandarloo, Hamed; Modirshahla, Nasser; Shokri, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In this work, TiO(2) nanoparticles in anatase phase was prepared by sol-gel low temperature method from titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) as titanium precursor in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). The effects of synthesis parameters such as AcOH and water ratios, sol formation time, synthesis and calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) nanoparticles were evaluated. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller techniques. Photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles determined in the removal of C. I. Acid Red 27 (AR27) under UV light irradiation. Results indicate that with increasing AcOH/TTIP molar ratio from 1 to 10, sol formation time from 1 to 3 h and synthesis temperature from 0 to 25°C, increases crystallite size of synthesized nanoparticles. It was found that optimal conditions for low temperature preparation of anatase-type TiO(2) nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity were as follows: TTIP:AcOH:water molar ratio 1:1:200, sol formation time 1 h, synthesis temperature 0°C and calcination temperature 450°C. PMID:21668867

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of core-shell TiO2 to enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was designed to synthesize core-shell TiO2 with interior cavity by making sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as the surfactant and the mixture of water and ethanol as the solvent. The control experiment of solvent reveals ethanol and water are responsible for the formation of sphere and interior cavity, respectively. Besides, SDS can assist the growth of core-shell structure, and the sizes of sphere and interior cavity can be tuned by regulating the reaction time or temperature. UV-vis absorption proves core-shell structure with interior cavity can increase the absorption of incident light to enhance the optical activity of final product. The calculated bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) analyses reveal the coexistence of rutile in final product can optimize the bandgap to 3.03 eV and delay the charge recombination. As a result, an effective photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under full spectrum irradiation can be harvested by the as-synthesized core-shell spheres to reach a quantum yield, approximately 9.57% at 340 nm wavelength.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles utilizing hydrated reverse micelles in CO2.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwon Taek; Hwang, Ha Soo; Ryoo, Won; Johnston, Keith P

    2004-03-16

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were produced by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of reverse micelles formed in CO2 with the surfactants ammonium carboxylate perfluoropolyether (PFPECOO-+NH4) (Mw = 587) and poly(dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate-block-1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-b-PFOMA). Based on dynamic light scattering measurements, the amorphous TiO2 particles formed by injection of TTIP are larger than the reverse micelles, indicating surfactant reorganization. The size of the particles and the stability of dispersions in CO2 were affected by the molar ratio of water to surfactant headgroup (w(o)), precursor concentration, and injection rate. The amorphous particle size did not change upon depressurization and redispersion in CO2. PDMAEMA-b-PFOMA provided greater stability against particle aggregation at higher reactant concentration compared with PFPECOO-+NH4. The crystallite size after calcination, which was examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, increased with w(o). PMID:15835711

  11. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  12. Synthesis and photonic band calculations of NCP face-centered cubic photonic crystals of TiO2 hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-zheng; Cao, Yan-ling; Li, Zhi-hui; Ding, Juan; Liu, Jun-song; Chi, Yuan-bin

    2007-02-01

    With the help of self-assembly, thermal sintering, selective etching techniques and sol-gel process, the non-close packed (ncp) face-centered cubic (fcc) photonic crystals of titanium dioxide (TiO2) hollow spheres connected by TiO2 cylindrical tubes have been fabricated using silica template. The photonic bandgap calculations indicate that the ncp structure of TiO2 hollow spheres was easier to open the pseudogaps than close packed system at the lowest energy.

  13. Synthesis of capped TiO2 nanocrystals of controlled shape and their use with MEH-PPV conjugated polymer to develop nanocomposite films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighri, F.; Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; On, Do Trong; Ajji, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the synthesis details of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) of different shapes (nanospheres, nanorods and nanorhombics) using oleic acid (OA) and oleyl amine (OM) as capping agents. In order to develop nanocomposite thin films for photovoltaic cells, these TiO2 NPs were carefully dispersed in 2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) matrix. The properties of synthesized TiO2 NPs and MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence technique. It was found that the shape of NPs and the amount of OA and OM surfactants capped on their surface have an effect on their energy bandgap and also on the dispersion quality of MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites. Even though there was no evidence of chemical bonding between MEH-PPV matrix and TiO2 dispersed NPs, MEH-PPV/TiO2 nanocomposites showed very promising results for light absorption properties and charge transfer at the interface of the conjugated MEH-PPV matrix and TiO2 dispersed NPs, which are two main characteristics for photovoltaic materials.

  14. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min.

  15. Synthesis, features and solar-light-driven photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube arrays loaded with SnO2.

    PubMed

    Sim, Lan Ching; Ng, Kai Wern; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2014-09-01

    In the present study TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) were loaded with a post-transition metal oxide particles namely SnO2 via incipient wet impregnation method by varying its concentration (1.59 wt%, 2.25 wt% and 2.84 wt%). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalyst was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in presence of natural solar light irradiation. The morphological analyses revealed that the prepared TNTs had average inner diameter of 109 nm, wall thickness of 15 nm and tube length of 7-10 μm, respectively, while the crystalline phase and Raman spectra confirmed the 100% anatase mineral form of TiO2. Further, the presence of SnO2 in TNTs was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The visible light absorption properties of TNTs improved drastically with increasing SnO2 loadings. The coupling effect of SnO2 and TiO2 significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of MB. An 84% degradation of MB was achieved in 6 h of irradiation under clear sky condition. PMID:25924362

  16. Catalytic and photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 based nanoparticles—their use in the synthesis of a novel TICT probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Dutta, Saheb; Nandi, Nilashis; De, Swati

    2015-06-01

    Biologically inspired synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and Au/TiO2 nanocomposites (NCs) using L-tryptophan is reported. Highly crystalline composite NPs are obtained by this totally ‘clean’ synthesis. The TiO2 NPs and Au/TiO2 NCs cause efficient photocatalytic degradation of the well-known dye pollutant malachite green. The surface area, pore volume and probability of dye reduction by photogenerated electrons and holes are important considerations for the photodegradation efficiency. Contrary to popular belief, the Au/TiO2 NCs show decreased photocatalytic efficiency. The TiO2 NPs and Au/TiO2 NCs also function as very efficient catalysts in a novel multi component reaction (MCR). In contrast to photocatalysis, Au/TiO2 NCs shows better catalytic efficiency. A comparison is made of the difference in photocatalytic and catalytic behaviors of the NPs. This is the first report of the catalysis of an MCR by TiO2-based NPs. The product of the MCR is a novel fluorescent probe which shows evidence for the existence of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer state. Thus this work shows promise for the development of new catalysts for synthesis of novel fluorescent probes.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of TiO2 nanopowders as special paper coating pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherbiny, Samya; Morsy, Fatma; Samir, Marwa; Fouad, Osama A.

    2013-03-01

    TiO2 nanopigments in two pure crystallographic forms (anatase and rutile) have been synthesized successfully by two methods; hydrothermal and hydrolysis. The produced pigments from the two methods were investigated physicochemically by several analyses tools. Then they were applied in paper coating mixtures and their influence on coated paper properties was systematically investigated. XRD and FTIR investigations showed that the prepared pigments using hydrothermal method at 100 and 120 °C were a mixture of anatase and brookite and pure anatase, respectively, whereas hydrolysis method produced pure rutile phase pigment. TEM investigation showed that the crystallite size of anatase, mixture of anatase and brookite and rutile samples are 6.2, 11.7, and 9.2 nm, respectively. BET studies proved that anatase pigment has 140.74 m2/g, 0.237 cc/g and 18.33 Å, whereas rutile has 60.621 m2/g, 0.122 cc/g and 14.669 Å, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter, respectively. UV-Vis absorption and PL emission characteristics of the prepared pigments showed that the energy gaps for anatase, mixture of anatase and brookite and rutile are 3.36, 3.30 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The addition of the prepared nanopigments in conjugation with clay in coating mixture increased both brightness and opacity of the coated papers. The greatest effect was obtained upon using rutile nanopigment. Also there was a significant decrease in coated paper roughness while the air permeance started to decrease then increased at 50 % addition levels. In all coated paper, rutile pigment showed the highest enhancement effect on coated paper properties.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and application of TiO2 nanopowders as special paper coating pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherbiny, Samya; Morsy, Fatma; Samir, Marwa; Fouad, Osama A.

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanopigments in two pure crystallographic forms (anatase and rutile) have been synthesized successfully by two methods; hydrothermal and hydrolysis. The produced pigments from the two methods were investigated physicochemically by several analyses tools. Then they were applied in paper coating mixtures and their influence on coated paper properties was systematically investigated. XRD and FTIR investigations showed that the prepared pigments using hydrothermal method at 100 and 120 °C were a mixture of anatase and brookite and pure anatase, respectively, whereas hydrolysis method produced pure rutile phase pigment. TEM investigation showed that the crystallite size of anatase, mixture of anatase and brookite and rutile samples are 6.2, 11.7, and 9.2 nm, respectively. BET studies proved that anatase pigment has 140.74 m2/g, 0.237 cc/g and 18.33 Å, whereas rutile has 60.621 m2/g, 0.122 cc/g and 14.669 Å, surface area, pore volume and pore diameter, respectively. UV-Vis absorption and PL emission characteristics of the prepared pigments showed that the energy gaps for anatase, mixture of anatase and brookite and rutile are 3.36, 3.30 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The addition of the prepared nanopigments in conjugation with clay in coating mixture increased both brightness and opacity of the coated papers. The greatest effect was obtained upon using rutile nanopigment. Also there was a significant decrease in coated paper roughness while the air permeance started to decrease then increased at 50 % addition levels. In all coated paper, rutile pigment showed the highest enhancement effect on coated paper properties.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Hollow TiO2 Particles Coated with Polyimide Brushes by Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Zhao, Xiang; Xiao, Zhenggang

    2015-06-01

    In order to improve the compatibility between nanoparticles and polymer matrix, a feasible processing way for grafting polyimides (PI) on the surface of hollow TiO2 particles was developed. Hollow TiO2 spheres were prepared by using polystyrene-methyl acrylic acid latex as a template starting from tetrabutyl titanate. Surface graft of azide-decorated hollow TiO2 spheres with well-defined alkyne-terminated PI were achieved by "click" chemistry in three steps: (1) choloromethylation and azidization of hollow TiO2, (2) preparation of alkyne-terminated PI by polycondensation, (3) click coupling between the azidized hollow TiO2 and the alkyne-terminated PI under the catalysis of CuSO4/sodium ascorbate. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR) spectra were used to illustrate quantitative transformation of the PI brushes on hollow TiO2 particles into the desired functional group. The morphology of hollow TiO2-PI composite particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which showed the irregular hollow structure. The results indicate that the grafting of polymer chains with thermostability and flame retardance on the surface of hollow TiO2 sphere is successful.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and amoebicidal potential of locally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles against pathogenic Acanthamoeba trophozoites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Habib, Amir; Matin, Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen that plays a pivotal role in the ecosystem. It may cause blinding keratitis and fatal encephalitis involving the central nervous system. Here we synthesized pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles (~10-30nm) via sol-gel and sol-hydrothermal methods and demonstrated its impact on the biological characteristics of pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii. Our results revealed that pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-hydrothermal methods (ranging 5, 10, 25 and 50μg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects i.e., >60% of trophozoites executed under normal light at maximum dose (50μg/ml) within 1h incubation. In contrast pure/doped TiO2 obtained via sol gel method showed ~40% amoeba damage. Furthermore, amoebae growth assay demonstrated that Zn doped TiO2 also inhibited Acanthamoeba numbers up to 7days in dose dependent manner. It was interesting to note that all the tested TiO2 nanoparticles have shown maximum amoebicidal effects at pH7 which is quite relevant to amoebic growth favorable conditions. Our results confirmed that TiO2 has inhibitory effects on Acanthamoeba growth and viability. Overall, we reported the amoebicidal and amoebic growth inhibition potential of pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles against Acanthamoeba due to attached OH(-) groups, reduced size and decreased band gap of sol hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:27054875

  1. Synthesis of nano-sized anatase TiO2 with reactive {001} facets using lamellar protonated titanate as precursor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liuan; Wang, Jingyu; Cheng, Hao; Du, Yunchen; Han, Xijiang

    2012-07-14

    Nano-sized anatase TiO(2) with exposed {001} facets was synthesized from lamellar protonated titanate precursor. Owing to small size (ca. 11 nm) and high surface area (155 m(2) g(-1)), the crystals with 26.1% {001} facets exhibited markedly superior photoactivity to reference ca. 76 nm anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with 88.4% {001} facets.

  2. Controlled hydrolysis synthesis and luminescence properties of uniform TiO2 spheres with different titanium alkoxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuimiao; Huo, Shuying; Shen, Shigang; Jia, Guang; Sun, Jing

    2013-06-01

    A series of uniform and well-dispersed TiO2 spheres have been successfully synthesized through a controlled hydrolysis route by using different titanium alkoxides as reactants. The types of titanium alkoxides and stirring time have an effect on the uniformity and dispersion of the TiO2 spherical particles. The addition of a small amount of salt also plays a crucial role for the formation of the monodisperse TiO2 spheres. Under ultraviolet excitation, the as-obtained Eu(3+)-doped TiO2 spheres exhibit red emission corresponding to the electric-dipole allowed 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions, which is induced by the lack of inversion symmetry at the Eu3+ ions site. The Eu(3+)-doped TiO2 phosphors might find potential applications in the fields such as optical displays, photoelectric devices, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  3. Chemical synthesis of CdS onto TiO2 nanorods for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Gang, Myeng Gil; Shin, Jae Cheol; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    A quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated using hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorods and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposited CdS. Surface morphology of the TiO2 films coated with different SILAR cycles of CdS is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed aggregated CdS QDs coverage grow on increasing onto the TiO2 nanorods with respect to cycle number. Under AM 1.5G illumination, we found the TiO2/CdS QDSSC photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 1.75%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.04 mA/cm2 which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorods array.

  4. Synthesis and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity of p-n junction Co3O4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaopeng; Liu, Suqin; Liang, Ying; Luo, Tianxiong

    2013-01-01

    Co3O4/TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by depositing Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) on the tube wall of the self-organized TiO2 NTs using an impregnating-deposition-decompostion method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity is evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution. The prepared Co3O4/TiO2 NTs exhibit much higher PEC activity than TiO2 NTs due to the p-n junction formed between Co3O4 and TiO2.

  5. Water and temperature effects on photo-selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide on Pd-loaded TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Lasek, Janusz; Yu, Yi-Hui; Wu, Jeffrey C S

    2012-09-01

    Photo-selective catalytic reduction (photo-SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) was studied in the presence of water. The incipient wetness impregnation was applied to prepare 1 wt% PdO/TiO2 photocatalyst. Steady-state photoreaction was carried out in a continuous-flow photoreactor with 0.55-1.6 v% water at 30-120 degrees C under UV-light intensity of approximately 200mW/cm(2). The C3H8/NO molar ratio in the feed ranged from 0.8 - 16.8 at a volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) from 330-1090 h(-1). The result indicates that the increase of temperature has played an important role in inhibiting NO transformation to NO2 under the humid condition. Another important factor for maximizing denitrification (reduction of nitrogen oxides, DeNOx) efficiency was C3H8/NO ratio. An increase of temperature at a suitable C3H8/NO ratio can minimize NO2 formation, which can lead to high NO removal efficiency of more than 90% at a temperature of 70-100 degrees C. In addition, the mechanism of palladium transformation during photoreaction is proposed, to explain the influence of Pd on the improvement of NO removal. PMID:23240208

  6. TiO2-graphene nanocomposites for gas-phase photocatalytic degradation of volatile aromatic pollutant: is TiO2-graphene truly different from other TiO2-carbon composite materials?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhui; Tang, Zi-Rong; Fu, Xianzhi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2010-12-28

    The nanocomposites of TiO(2)-graphene (TiO(2)-GR) have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide and TiO(2) in an ethanol-water solvent. We show that such a TiO(2)-GR nanocomposite exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than bare TiO(2) toward the gas-phase degradation of benzene, a volatile aromatic pollutant in air. By investigating the effect of different addition ratios of graphene on the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2)-GR systematically, we find that the higher weight ratio in TiO(2)-GR will decrease the photocatalytic activity. Analogous phenomenon is also observed for the liquid-phase degradation of dyes over TiO(2)-GR. In addition, the key features for TiO(2)-GR including enhancement of adsorptivity of pollutants, light absorption intensity, electron-hole pairs lifetime, and extended light absorption range have also been found in the composite of TiO(2) and carbon nanotubes (TiO(2)-CNT). These strongly manifest that TiO(2)-GR is in essence the same as other TiO(2)-carbon (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and activated carbon) composite materials on enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO(2), although graphene by itself has unique structural and electronic properties. Notably, this key fundamental question remains completely unaddressed in a recent report ( ACS Nano 2010 , 4 , 380 ) regarding liquid-phase degradation of dyes over the TiO(2)-GR photocatalyst. Thus, we propose that TiO(2)-GR cannot provide truly new insights into the fabrication of TiO(2)-carbon composite as high-performance photocatalysts. It is hoped that our work could avert the misleading message to the readership, hence offering a valuable source of reference on fabricating TiO(2)-carbon composites for their application as a photocatalyst in the environment cleanup. PMID:21117654

  7. Modeling Geometric Arrangements of TiO2-Based Catalyst Substrates and Isotropic Light Sources to Enhance the Efficiency of a Photocatalystic Oxidation (PCO) Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Jeffrey T.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Husk, Geoffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    The closed confined environments of the ISS, as well as in future spacecraft for exploration beyond LEO, provide many challenges to crew health. One such challenge is the availability of a robust, energy efficient, and re-generable air revitalization system that controls trace volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to levels below a specified spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), which is capable of mineralizing VOCs at room temperature and of accommodating a high volumetric flow, is being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology. In an architecture of a combined air and water management system, placing a PCO unit before a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control will greatly reduce the organic load into the humidity condensate loop ofthe water processing assembly (WPA) thereby enhancing the life cycle economics ofthe WPA. This targeted application dictates a single pass efficiency of greater than 90% for polar VOCs. Although this target was met in laboratory bench-scaled reactors, no commercial or SBIR-developed prototype PCO units examined to date have achieved this goal. Furthermore, the formation of partial oxidation products (e.g., acetaldehyde) was not eliminated. It is known that single pass efficiency and partial oxidation are strongly dependent upon the contact time and catalyst illumination, hence the requirement for an efficient reactor design. The objective of this study is to maximize the apparent contact time and illuminated catalyst surface area at a given reactor volume and volumetric flow. In this study, a Ti02-based photocatalyst is assumed to be immobilized on porous substrate panels and illumination derived from linear isotropic light sources. Mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate the effect of: 1) the geometry and configuration of catalyst-coated substrate panels, 2) porosity of the supporting substrate, and 3

  8. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-01

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically.

  9. Effect of Nb doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flame-made TiO2 nanopowder.

    PubMed

    Michalow, Katarzyna A; Flak, Dorota; Heel, Andre; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Rekas, Mieczyslaw; Graule, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    TiO(2):Nb nanopowders within a dopant concentration in the range of 0.1-15 at.% were prepared by one-step flame spray synthesis. Effect of niobium doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanopowders was studied. Morphology and structure were investigated by means of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Diffuse reflectance and the resulting band gap energy were determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the investigated nanopowders was revised for the photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol under UVA and VIS light irradiation. Commercial TiO(2)-P25 nanopowder was used as a reference. The specific surface area of the powders was ranging from 42.9 m(2)/g for TiO(2):0.1 at.% Nb to 90.0 m(2)/g for TiO(2):15 at.% Nb. TiO(2):Nb particles were nanosized, spherically shaped and polycrystalline. Anatase was the predominant phase in all samples. The anatase-related transition was at 3.31 eV and rutile-related one at 3.14 eV. TiO(2):Nb nanopowders exhibited additional absorption in the visible range. In comparison to TiO(2)-P25, improved photocatalytic activity of TiO(2):Nb was observed for the degradation of MB and MO under both UVA and VIS irradiation, where low doping level (Nb < 1 at.%) was the most effective. Niobium doping affected structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO(2). Low dopant level enhanced photocatalytic performance under UVA and VIS irradiation. Therefore, TiO(2):Nb (Nb < 1 at.%) can be proposed as an efficient selective solar light photocatalyst. PMID:23054731

  10. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2-Bi2WO6 hollow superstructures with excellent photocatalysis and recycle properties.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Fei; Liu, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Jing-huai; Cheng, Xiao; Wang, You

    2014-01-21

    One-dimensional mesoporous TiO2-Bi2WO6 hollow superstructures are prepared using a hydrothermal method and their photocatalysis and recycle properties are investigated. Experimental results indicate that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are coupled with hierarchical Bi2WO6 hollow tubes on their surfaces. The TiO2-Bi2WO6 structure has a mesoporous wall and the pores in the wall are on average 21 nm. The hierarchical TiO2-Bi2WO6 heterostructures exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity in comparison with P25, pure Bi2WO6 hollow tube and mechanical mixture of Bi2WO6 tube and TiO2 nanoparticle in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The as-prepared TiO2-Bi2WO6 heterostructures can be easily recycled through sedimentation and they retains their high photocatalytic activity during the cycling use in the simulated sunlight-driving photodegradation process of RhB. The prepared mesoporous TiO2-Bi2WO6 with hollow superstructure is therefore a promising candidate material for water decontamination use.

  11. A facile in-situ hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shimeng; Wang, Zihao; Zhao, Dan

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 was successfully used as sacrificed template to synthesise SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite via an in-situ hydrothermal process. The diameter of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere was about 700 nm with the same size of the template, and all of the microspheres were in good dispersity. The optimized reaction parameters for the phase and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were investigated. The results showed the SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere can be synthesized at 170 °C when the concentration of sodium hydroxide was 0.1 M. Lower hydrothermal temperature hampered the formation of the SrTiO3/TiO2 composite, the higher alkali concentration, however, will destroy the morphology of products. The formation mechanism of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite was proposed and the photocatalytic properties of the samples were characterized using methylene blue solution as the pollutant under the UV light irradiation. The results indicated the proper OH- concentration will provide a channel for Sr2+ to react with Ti4+ located in the template and form the SrTiO3/TiO2 composite, and those with micro-scaled spherical morphology exhibited good photocatalytic activities.

  12. Quench-ring assisted flame synthesis of SiO2-TiO2 nanostructured composite.

    PubMed

    Worathanakul, Patcharin; Jiang, Jingkun; Biswas, Pratim; Kongkachuichay, Paisan

    2008-12-01

    A flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) was used to synthesize SiO2-based nanocomposite materials of SiO2-TiO2 in different precursor molar ratios and quench ring positions. Processing conditions were determined that resulted in formation of different crystal phases at different precursor concentration molar ratios. The results showed that the addition of SiO2 inhibited TiO2 phase transformation from anatase to rutile. The different morphology of SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was primarily the result of changing the quench ring position. Quenching can stop the growth kinetics, and this was obtained by locating the quench ring at different positions in the particle formation process. At a lower position, a binary mixture of SiO2-TiO2 was obtained in a core-shell structure. The difference in residence time for sintering and coalescence yielded different morphologies of SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites. The results from FTIR confirmed Si-O-Ti bonding for all samples. The samples of SiO2-TiO2 exhibited better suspension in liquid than pure TiO2 as confirmed by zeta potential measurements.

  13. Graphene oxide based Pt-TiO2 photocatalyst: ultrasound assisted synthesis, characterization and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Bruno, Andrea; Bianchi, Claudia L; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted method was used for synthesizing nanosized Pt-graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 photocatalyst. The Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 BET adsorption-desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of a commonly used anionic surfactant, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), in aqueous solution was carried out using Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles in order to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. For comparison purpose, sonolytic degradation of DBS was carried out. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst degraded DBS at a higher rate than P-25 (TiO2), prepared TiO2 or GO-TiO2 photocatalysts. The mineralization of DBS was enhanced by a factor of 3 using Pt-GO-TiO2 compared to the P-25 (TiO2). In the presence of GO, an enhanced rate of DBS oxidation was observed and, when doped with platinum, mineralization of DBS was further enhanced. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst also showed a considerable amount of degradation of DBS under visible light irradiation. The initial solution pH had an effect on the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of DBS, whereas no such effect of initial pH was observed in the sonochemical or sonophotocatalytic oxidation of DBS. The intermediate products formed during the degradation of DBS were monitored using electrospray mass spectrometry. The ability of GO to serve as a solid support to anchor platinum particles on GO-TiO2 is useful in developing new photocatalysts.

  14. Graphene oxide based Pt-TiO2 photocatalyst: ultrasound assisted synthesis, characterization and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw; Bruno, Andrea; Bianchi, Claudia L; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted method was used for synthesizing nanosized Pt-graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 photocatalyst. The Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 BET adsorption-desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of a commonly used anionic surfactant, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), in aqueous solution was carried out using Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles in order to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. For comparison purpose, sonolytic degradation of DBS was carried out. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst degraded DBS at a higher rate than P-25 (TiO2), prepared TiO2 or GO-TiO2 photocatalysts. The mineralization of DBS was enhanced by a factor of 3 using Pt-GO-TiO2 compared to the P-25 (TiO2). In the presence of GO, an enhanced rate of DBS oxidation was observed and, when doped with platinum, mineralization of DBS was further enhanced. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst also showed a considerable amount of degradation of DBS under visible light irradiation. The initial solution pH had an effect on the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of DBS, whereas no such effect of initial pH was observed in the sonochemical or sonophotocatalytic oxidation of DBS. The intermediate products formed during the degradation of DBS were monitored using electrospray mass spectrometry. The ability of GO to serve as a solid support to anchor platinum particles on GO-TiO2 is useful in developing new photocatalysts. PMID:21684791

  15. Tuning the surface structure of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres--an effective method to enhance photocatalytic activities of visible-light-driven green synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jian; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Hongwei; Yang, Dongjiang; Sarina, Sarina; Zhang, Hongjie; Waclawika, Eric R; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-04-26

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibres of anatase and TiO2(B) phases were synthesised by a reaction between titanate nanofibres of a layered structure and gaseous NH3 at 400-700 °C, following a different mechanism than that for the direct nitrogen doping from TiO2. The surface of the N-doped TiO2 nanofibres can be tuned by facial calcination in air to remove the surface-bonded N species, whereas the core remains N doped. N-Doped TiO2 nanofibres, only after calcination in air, became effective photocatalysts for the decomposition of sulforhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The surface-oxidised surface layer was proven to be very effective for organic molecule adsorption, and the activation of oxygen molecules, whereas the remaining N-doped interior of the fibres strongly absorbed visible light, resulting in the generation of electrons and holes. The N-doped nanofibres were also used as supports of gold nanoparticle (Au NP) photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydroamination of phenylacetylene with aniline. Phenylacetylene was activated on the N-doped surface of the nanofibres and aniline on the Au NPs. The Au NPs adsorbed on N-doped TiO2(B) nanofibres exhibited much better conversion (80 % of phenylacetylene) than when adsorbed on undoped fibres (46 %) at 40 °C and 95 % of the product is the desired imine. The surface N species can prevent the adsorption of O2 that is unfavourable for the hydroamination reaction, and thus, improve the photocatalytic activity. Removal of the surface N species resulted in a sharp decrease of the photocatalytic activity. These photocatalysts are feasible for practical applications, because they can be easily dispersed into solution and separated from a liquid by filtration, sedimentation or centrifugation due to their fibril morphology.

  16. Anionic ligand assisted synthesis of 3-D hollow TiO2 architecture with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Ju Seong; Hong, Kug Sun; Cho, In Sun

    2014-12-30

    Hollow structured materials have shown great advantages for use in photoelectrochemical devices. However, their poor charge transport limits overall device performance. Here, we report a unique 3-D hollow architecture of TiO2 that greatly improves charge transport properties. We found that citric acid (CA) plays crucial roles in the formation of the 3-D hollow architecture. First, CA controls the hydrolysis rate of Ti ions and facilitates surface hydrolysis on templates during hydrothermal synthesis. Second, CA suppresses the growth of the carbon template at the initial reaction stage, resulting in the formation of comparatively small hollow fibers. More importantly, a prolonged hydrothermal reaction with CA enables a hollow sphere to grow into entangled hollow fibers via biomimetic swallowing growth. To demonstrate advantages of the 3-D hollow architecture for photoelectrochemical devices, we evaluated its photoelectrochemical performance, specifically the electrolyte diffusion and electron dynamics, by employing dye-sensitized solar cells as a model device. A systemic analysis reveals that the 3-D hollow architecture greatly improves both the electrolyte diffusion and electron transport compared to those of the nanoparticle and hollow sphere due to the elongated porous hollow morphology as well as the densely interconnected nanoparticles at the wall layer.

  17. Influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N-doped TiO2 by the polymeric precursors method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Margaret; Soares, Gabriela Byzynski; Ribeiro, Caue

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N:TiO2 catalysts obtained through the polymeric precursors method was evaluated. The powders were prepared by annealing Ti4+ precursor resins at different temperature-time conditions in air, resulting in powders with different degrees of crystallinity for N doping, which was done by adding urea to the as-prepared powders and calcining in N2 atmosphere. The N doping process resulted in band gap narrowing of TiO2 and, varying annealing temperature and time, can be an alternative method for preferential formation of substitutional N or interstitial N. It was found that the percentage of interstitial N increased with an increase in annealing temperature, resulting in the complete absence of substitutional N at 400 °C. The photocatalytic performance of the powders was evaluated using Rhodamine-B and Atrazine solutions under ultraviolet and visible irradiations. The coefficients revealed that interstitial N had a positive correlation to both ultraviolet and visible photoactivity. In contrast, substitutional N showed a negative correlation. Further, the ratio of substitutional N to interstitial N indicated a strong negative correlation to ultraviolet light photoactivity and no correlation to visible light photoactivity. However, substitutional N should be controlled for better photocatalytic properties.

  18. Synthesis of {100} facet dominant anatase TiO2 nanobelts and the origin of facet-dependent photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Wu, Kai; Li, Hexing; Xu, Guoqin; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-10

    Sword-like anatase TiO2 nanobelts exposed with 78% clean {100} facets were synthesized and the facet-dependent photoreactivity of anatase TiO2 was investigated. By quantitative comparison with the reference {001} facets, the {100} facets possessed about ten-times higher active sites density than that on {001} facets, resulting in higher photoreaction efficiency. After the active sites density normalization, the {100} and {001} facets exhibited distinct wavelength-dependent photocatalytic performance, attributed to the anisotropic electronic structures in TiO2 crystals. PMID:25255881

  19. Influence of catalyst synthesis method on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3 with V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Yuanyuan; Ford, Michael E.; Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Qingcai; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-04-14

    We compared the molecular structures, surface acidity and catalytic activity for NO/NH3/O2 SCR of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts for two different synthesis methods: co-precipitation of aqueous vanadium and tungsten oxide precursors with TiO(OH)2 and by incipient wetness impregnation of the aqueous precursors on a reference crystalline TiO2 support (P25; primarily anatase phase). Bulk analysis by XRD showed that co-precipitation results in small and/or poorly ordered TiO2(anatase) particles and that VOx and WOx do not form solid solutions with the bulk titania lattice. Surface analysis of the co-precipitated catalyst by High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering (HS-LEIS) confirms that the VOx and WOx aremore » surface segregated for the co-precipitated catalysts. In situ Raman and IR spectroscopy revealed that the vanadium and tungsten oxide components are present as surface mono-oxo O = VO3 and O = WO4 sites on the TiO2 supports. Co-precipitation was shown for the first time to also form new mono-oxo surface VO4 and WO4 sites that appear to be anchored at surface defects of the TiO2 support. IR analysis of chemisorbed ammonia showed the presence of both surface NH3* on Lewis acid sites and surface NH4+* on Brønsted acid sites. TPSR spectroscopy demonstrated that the specific SCR kinetics was controlled by the redox surface VO4 species and that the surface kinetics was independent of TiO2 synthesis method or presence of surface WO5 sites. SCR reaction studies revealed that the surface WO5 sites possess minimal activity below ~325 °C and their primary function is to increase the adsorption capacity of ammonia. A relationship between the SCR activity and surface acidity was not found. The SCR reaction is controlled by the surface VO4 sites that initiate the reaction at ~200 °C. The co-precipitated catalysts were always more active than the corresponding impregnated catalysts. Finally, we ascribe the higher activity of the co-precipitated catalysts to the presence of

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanotubes Sensitized with CdS Quantum Dots Using a One-Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiahui; Zhang, Xinguo; Zhou, Chunyan; Lan, Yuwei; Pang, Qi; Zhou, Liya

    2015-01-01

    A novel one-step synthesis process was used to assemble CdS quantum dots (QDs) into TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs). The sensitization time of the TiO2 nanotubes can be adjusted by controlling the CdS QD synthesis time. The absorption band of sensitized TNTAs red-shifted and broadened to the visible spectrum. The photoelectric conversion efficiency increased to 0.83%, the open-circuit voltage to 776 mV, and the short-circuit current density ( J SC) to 2.30 mA cm-2 with increased sensitization time. The conversion efficiency with this new sensitization method was five times that of nonsensitized TNTAs, providing novel ideas for study of TNTA solar cells.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of TiO 2/Ag/polymer ternary nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Joo Hwan; Seo, Jin Ah; Cho, Yong Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2011-08-01

    We report on the novel ternary hybrid materials consisting of semiconductor (TiO 2), metal (Ag) and polymer (poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM)). First, a hydrophilic polymer, i.e. POEM, was grafted from TiO 2 nanoparticles via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. These TiO 2-POEM brush nanoparticles were used to template the formation of Ag nanoparticles by introduction of a AgCF 3SO 3 precursor and a NaBH 4 aqueous solution for reduction process. Successful grafting of polymeric chains from the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles and the in situ formation of Ag nanoparticles within the polymeric chains were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR spectroscopy also revealed the specific interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the C dbnd O groups of POEM brushes. This study presents a simple route for the in situ synthesis of both metal and polymer confined within the semiconductor, producing ternary hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials.

  2. Reverse micelles directed synthesis of TiO2-CeO2 mixed oxides and investigation of their crystal structure and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějová, Lenka; Valeš, Václav; Fajgar, Radek; Matěj, Zdeněk; Holý, Václav; Šolcová, Olga

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of TiO2-CeO2 mixed oxides based on the sol-gel process controlled within reverse micelles of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 in cyclohexane is reported. The crystallization, phase composition, trends in nanoparticles growth and porous structure properties are studied as a function of Ti:Ce molar composition and annealing temperature by in-situ X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and physisorption. The brannerite-type CeTi2O6 crystallizes as a single crystalline phase at Ti:Ce molar composition of 70:30 and in the mixture with cubic CeO2 and anatase TiO2 for composition 50:50. At Ti:Ce molar ratios 90:10 and 30:70 the mixtures of TiO2 anatase, rutile and cubic CeO2 appear. In these mixtures TiO2 rutile is formed at higher temperatures than conventionally. Additionally, the amount of a present amorphous phase in individual mixtures was estimated from diffraction data. The porous structure morphology depends both on molar composition and annealing temperature. This is correlated with the presence of carbon impurities of different character.

  3. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-21

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.

  4. In situ synthesis of TiO2(B) nanotube/nanoparticle composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Qian; Ng, Alan M. C.; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Maohai; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin; Vranješ, Mila; Nedeljković, Jovan M.; Deng, Zhaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Titania nanotubes were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. Their electrochemical performance has been examined in detail and compared to TiO2(B) nanoparticles, TiO2 anatase and P25 titania nanoparticles. The cycling and rate performance of TiO2 nanotubes is superior to both types of nanoparticles, and it can be further improved by an in situ titanium precursor treatment, which results in the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles on/between the nanotubes. The obtained specific capacity after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g-1 charge/discharge rate remained above 130 mAh g-1. The enhanced lithium storage properties of these samples can be attributed to their unique morphology and crystal structure.

  5. In situ synthesis of TiO2(B) nanotube/nanoparticle composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Qian; Ng, Alan M C; Djurišić, Aleksandra B; Xie, Maohai; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin; Vranješ, Mila; Nedeljković, Jovan M; Deng, Zhaofeng

    2015-10-23

    Titania nanotubes were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. Their electrochemical performance has been examined in detail and compared to TiO2(B) nanoparticles, TiO2 anatase and P25 titania nanoparticles. The cycling and rate performance of TiO2 nanotubes is superior to both types of nanoparticles, and it can be further improved by an in situ titanium precursor treatment, which results in the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles on/between the nanotubes. The obtained specific capacity after 200 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1) charge/discharge rate remained above 130 mAh g(-1). The enhanced lithium storage properties of these samples can be attributed to their unique morphology and crystal structure.

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 produced in a solid phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Gang; Pan, Hongfei; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Zhihua; Wen, Bin

    2013-02-01

    N-doped TiO2 was synthesized by calcining a mixture of titanic acid and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) at temperatures above 500 °C. The final samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was studied by assessing the degradation of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, under visible light and UV light irradiation. It was found that the N-doped TiO2 displayed higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, under both visible and UV light.

  7. Enhancement of spectral response of visible light absorption of TiO2 synthesis by femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Abdul Salam; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Alubaidy, M.; Tan, Bo

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we report a simple, precise, and nano-scale fabrication technique for oxide nanosphere structure rutile (TiO2) using couple hundred of femtosecond laser irradiation at MHz pulse repetition frequency in air at atmospheric pressure. Measured reflectance's through Spectroradiometer show that their couplings of incident electromagnetic irradiations are improved greatly over the broad band wavelength range. Lower reflectance intensity obtained with long dwell time is due to generate bulk quantity of TiO2 oxide nanoparticle agglomerate by fusion, and form interweaving fibrous structures that show certain degree of assembly. The X-ray diffraction test confirmed that the oxide titanium metallic nanostructure is a rutile phase (TiO2). The growth of TiO2 nanostructure is highly recommended for the applications of dye-sensitized solar cells and photovoltaic applications.

  8. Effect of synthesis temperature on the morphology, structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, J.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Kim, Heeje

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystals of TiO2 were synthesized by a single-step chemical reaction between oleic acid and titanium (IV) iso-propoxide. The morphology and structure of the crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The vibrational properties of the nanocrystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The ultraviolet photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by studying the photodegradation of aqueous solution of protocatecheuic acid (3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid).

  9. Facile and effective synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 spheres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meidan; Chen, Chang; Lv, Miaoqiang; Zheng, Dajiang; Guo, Wenxi; Lin, Changjian

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crystalline anatase TiO2 hierarchical spheres were successfully derived from Ti foils via a fast, template-free, low-temperature hydrothermal route followed by a calcination post-treatment. These dandelion-like TiO2 spheres are composed of numerous ultrathin nanoribbons, which were subsequently split into fragile nanoflakes as a result of the decomposition of Ti-complex intermediates to TiO2 and H2O at high temperature. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing such hierarchically structured TiO2 spheres as the photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 8.50%, yielding a 28% enhancement in comparison with that (6.64%) of P25-based DSSCs, which mainly benefited from the enhanced capacity of dye loading in combination with effective light scattering and trapping from hierarchical architecture.Three-dimensional (3D) crystalline anatase TiO2 hierarchical spheres were successfully derived from Ti foils via a fast, template-free, low-temperature hydrothermal route followed by a calcination post-treatment. These dandelion-like TiO2 spheres are composed of numerous ultrathin nanoribbons, which were subsequently split into fragile nanoflakes as a result of the decomposition of Ti-complex intermediates to TiO2 and H2O at high temperature. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing such hierarchically structured TiO2 spheres as the photoanodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 8.50%, yielding a 28% enhancement in comparison with that (6.64%) of P25-based DSSCs, which mainly benefited from the enhanced capacity of dye loading in combination with effective light scattering and trapping from hierarchical architecture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FESEM images of samples prepared in other control experiments and a cross-sectional view of the three films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01604h

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 nano composites for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, D.; Merline Shyla, J.; Xavier, Francis P.

    2012-12-01

    The use of titania-silica in photocatalytic process has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional TiO2 catalysts. Mesoporous materials have been of great interest as catalysts because of their unique textural and structural properties. Mesoporous TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium (IV) isopropoxide, tetra-ethylorthosilicate as starting materials. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauett-Emmett-Teller and field-dependent photoconductivity. The UV-Vis spectrum of as-synthesized samples shows similar absorption in the visible range. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples was calculated by Scherrer's formula. The BET surface area for TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite is found to be 303 m2/g and pore size distribution has average pore diameter about 10 nm. It also confirms the absence of macropores and the presence of micro and mesopores. The field-dependent photoconductivity of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite shows nearly 300 folds more than that of TiO2 nanoparticle for a field of 800 V/cm.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of N-doped TiO 2 nanorods and nanotubes with high nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; He, H. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Nano N-doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by hydrothermally treating N-doped TiO2 nanorods in a 8 M NaOH solution at 110 °C for 20 h. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by a solvothermal process with precursor solution containing titanium sulfate, urea, and dichloroethane. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The nitrogen contents of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were reached to high values of 36.9 at.% and 25.7 at.%, respectively. The nitrogen doping narrowed the band gap of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes and introduced indirect band gap to the powders, which respectively extended the absorption edge to visible light and infrared region. The nanotubes showed larger specific surface area and greater degradation efficiency to methyl orange than the nanorods.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of flowerlike nanoarchitectures assembled from anatase TiO2 nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Meng; Tian, Sha; Zhao, Hua; Jin, Rong; Chen, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Heqing

    2012-07-01

    TiO2 nanoflakes assembled flowerlike nanoarchitectures with diameters of 1.70-2.20 μm were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of butyl titanate with isopropyl alcohol, HF and H2O at 180 °C for 12 h. The constituent nanoflakes have perfect rectangular shapes with the typical widths of 0.81-0.95 μm, lengths of 1.04-1.20 μm and thicknesses of 0.10-0.12 μm. The constituent nanoflakes are formed due to the selective adsorption of isopropyl alcohol on (0 1 0) surface of anatase TiO2. These anatase TiO2 nanoflakes assemble into flowerlike structures driven by the electrostatic attraction. The as-prepared TiO2 flowerlike nanoarchitectures exhibit enhanced photocatalytic ability to degrade methyl orange dye in comparison with commercial TiO2 powders. The photodegradation of methyl orange dye catalyzed by the anatase TiO2 nanoflake assembled flowerlike nanostructures fits a pseudo first-order reaction.

  13. Cluster synthesis of monodisperse rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles and dielectric TiO2-vinylidene fluoride oligomer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, B; Kraemer, KL; Valloppilly, SR; Ducharme, S; Sellmyer, DJ

    2011-09-13

    The embedding of oxide nanoparticles in polymer matrices produces a greatly enhanced dielectric response by combining the high dielectric strength and low loss of suitable host polymers with the high electric polarizability of nanoparticles. The fabrication of oxide-polymer nanocomposites with well-controlled distributions of nanoparticles is, however, challenging due to the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers between the polymer matrix and nanoparticle fillers. In the present study, monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles having an average particle size of 14.4 nm and predominant rutile phase were produced using a cluster-deposition technique without high-temperature thermal annealing and subsequently coated with uniform vinylidene fluoride oligomer (VDFO) molecules using a thermal evaporation source, prior to deposition as TiO2-VDFO nanocomposite films on suitable substrates. The molecular coatings on TiO2 nanoparticles serve two purposes, namely to prevent the TiO2 nanoparticles from contacting each other and to couple the nanoparticle polarization to the matrix. Parallel-plate capacitors made of TiO2-VDFO nanocomposite film as the dielectric exhibit minimum dielectric dispersion and low dielectric loss. Dielectric measurements also show an enhanced effective dielectric constant in TiO2-VDFO nanocomposites as compared to that of pure VDFO. This study demonstrates for the first time a unique electroactive particle coating in the form of a ferroelectric VDFO that has high-temperature stability as compared to conventionally used polymers for fabricating dielectric oxide-polymer nanocomposites.

  14. Cluster synthesis of monodisperse rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles and dielectric TiO2-vinylidene fluoride oligomer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Kraemer, Kristin L; Valloppilly, Shah R; Ducharme, Stephen; Sellmyer, David J

    2011-10-01

    The embedding of oxide nanoparticles in polymer matrices produces a greatly enhanced dielectric response by combining the high dielectric strength and low loss of suitable host polymers with the high electric polarizability of nanoparticles. The fabrication of oxide-polymer nanocomposites with well-controlled distributions of nanoparticles is, however, challenging due to the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers between the polymer matrix and nanoparticle fillers. In the present study, monodisperse TiO(2) nanoparticles having an average particle size of 14.4 nm and predominant rutile phase were produced using a cluster-deposition technique without high-temperature thermal annealing and subsequently coated with uniform vinylidene fluoride oligomer (VDFO) molecules using a thermal evaporation source, prior to deposition as TiO(2)-VDFO nanocomposite films on suitable substrates. The molecular coatings on TiO(2) nanoparticles serve two purposes, namely to prevent the TiO(2) nanoparticles from contacting each other and to couple the nanoparticle polarization to the matrix. Parallel-plate capacitors made of TiO(2)-VDFO nanocomposite film as the dielectric exhibit minimum dielectric dispersion and low dielectric loss. Dielectric measurements also show an enhanced effective dielectric constant in TiO(2)-VDFO nanocomposites as compared to that of pure VDFO. This study demonstrates for the first time a unique electroactive particle coating in the form of a ferroelectric VDFO that has high-temperature stability as compared to conventionally used polymers for fabricating dielectric oxide-polymer nanocomposites.

  15. Self-cleaning properties of TiO2/palygorskite and TiO2/halloysite nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Kaplani, Eleni; Stathatos, Elias; Papoulis, Dimitrios

    2014-10-01

    Tubular halloysite and microfibrous palygorskite clay mineral combined with nanocrystalline TiO2 are involved in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 450°C. The synthesis employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with the acetic acid-based sol-gel route without addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films ensure elimination of organic material lead to the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the palygorskite and halloysite surfaces. Nanocomposite films without cracks of active anatase crystal phase on palygorskite and halloysite surfaces are characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties. The composite palygorskite-TiO2 and halloysite/TiO2 films with variable quantities of palygorskite and halloysite were tested as photocatalysts in the photo-oxidation of Basic Blue 41 azo dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be most promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye's decoloration in spite of small amount of palygorskite/TiO2 or halloysite/TiO2 catalyst immobilized onto glass substrates.

  16. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  18. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of aqueous propoxur solution using TiO2 and Hbeta zeolite-supported TiO2.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, M; Vishnu Priya, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Palanichamy, M; Murugesan, V

    2009-01-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and zeolites supported TiO2 were investigated using propoxur as a model pollutant. Hbeta, HY and H-ZSM-5 zeolites were examined as supports for TiO2. Hbeta was chosen as the TiO2 support based on the adsorption capacity of propoxur on these zeolites (Hbeta>HY=H-ZSM-5). TiO2/Hbeta photocatalysts with different wt.% were prepared and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and BET surface area. The progress of photocatalytic degradation of aqueous propoxur solution using TiO2 (Degussa P-25) and TiO2 supported on Hbeta zeolite was monitored using TOC analyzer, HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The degradation of propoxur was systematically studied by varying the experimental parameters in order to achieve maximum degradation efficiency. The initial rate of degradation with TiO2/Hbeta was higher than with bare TiO2. TOC results revealed that TiO2 requires 600min for complete mineralization of propoxur whereas TiO2/Hbeta requires only 480min. TiO2/Hbeta showed enhanced photodegradation due to its high adsorption capacity on which the pollutant molecules are pooled closely and hence degraded effectively.

  20. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles and their use as a platform for flavin adenine dinucleotide immobilization and efficient electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Kumar, S.; Lo, Po-Hsun; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2008-06-01

    Here, we report the electrochemical synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) using the potentiostat method. Synthesized particles have been characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the TiO2 film produced was mainly composed of rutile and that the particles are of a size in the range of 100 ± 50 nm. TiO2 NPs were used for the modification of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE). The resulting TiO2 film coated SPE was used to immobilize flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The flavin enzyme firmly attached onto the metal oxide surface and this modified electrode showed promising electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in physiological conditions. The electrochemistry of FAD confined in the oxide film was investigated. The immobilized FAD displayed a pair of redox peaks with a formal potential of -0.42 V in pH 7.0 oxygen-free phosphate buffers at a scan rate of 50 mV s-1. The FAD in the nanostructured TiO2 film retained its bioactivity and exhibited excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H2O2, based on which a mediated biosensor for H2O2 was achieved. The linear range for the determination of H2O2 was from 0.15 × 10-6 to 3.0 × 10-3 M with the detection limit of 0.1 × 10-6 M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The stability and repeatability of the biosensor is also discussed.

  1. Photodegradation of Orange II by mesoporous TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yaping; Liu, Lu

    2011-09-01

    Mesoporous TiO(2) microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction and are characterized in this paper. Decoloration and mineralization during photodegradation of Orange II by mesoporous TiO(2) at different pH values, formation of sulfate, relative luminosity to luminous bacteria and recycling experiments of the catalyst were studied. The FTIR results further suggested that the novel mesoporous TiO(2) can not only decolor and mineralize dyes completely but also can be effectively reused several times. On the basis of the research, mesoporous TiO(2) would be a promising photocatalyst for practical use. PMID:21833403

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photoactivity of bi-crystalline mesoporous TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dongthanh; Wang, Wei; Long, Haibo; Ru, Hongqiang

    2016-03-01

    Mesoporous titania (meso-TiO2) has received extensive attention owing to its versatile potential applications. This paper reports a low-temperature templating approach for the fabrication of meso-TiO2 using the peroxo titanic acid (PTA) sol as precursor and Pluronic P123 as nonionic template. The TGA, XRD, N2 sorption, FE-SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the obtained samples. The results showed that meso-TiO2 with high surface area up to 163 m2·g-1 and large pore volume of 0.65 cm3·g-1 can be obtained. The mesopore sizes can be varied between 13 and 20 nm via this synthesis approach. The amount of P123 and the calcination conditions were found to have great influence on the mesoporous and crystalline structures of meso-TiO2. The photocatalytic activity testing clearly shows that the high surface area and bi-crystallinity phases of meso-TiO2 play important roles in enhancing photocatalytic properties of meso-TiO2 in photo-decomposing Rhodamine B in water.

  3. Decorated TiO2 Nanoparticles with La and Ag Elements to Improve Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light for the Degradation of MO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghua; Gao, Xuechuan; Zhang, Renfei; Shen, Beibei; Tan, Zhibing; Li, Zhao; Yu, Shiyong

    2016-04-01

    Visible-light photocatalyst of TiO2/La/Ag nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via the conventional sol-gel method and reducing agent of Ag+. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by methyl orange (MO) degradation. They have remarkable photocatalytic activities compared to TiO2-Anatase, which is thanks to the separation of electron-hole pairs by Ag nanoparticles and lanthanum. The products were characterized by a series of techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Uv-vis. The results show that spherical nanocomposites have been prepared with the size 300 nm and Ag nanoparticles (~10 nm) are dispersed uniformly onto the surface of TiO2/La, which forms TiO2/La/Ag nanocomposites. TiO2/La/Ag nanocomposites have good absorption in the visible region (700 nm > λ > 400 nm). The reasons are as follows: (1) the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes of the photocatalysts on the surface of TiO2/La/Ag nanocomposites and (2) a wide visible-light photoabsorption range (700 nm > λ > 400 nm). Therefore, this study may provide some new idea for the rational design and the facile synthesis of composite catalysts with a green, efficient pathway. PMID:27451670

  4. Confined-space synthesis of single crystal TiO2 nanowires in atmospheric vessel at low temperature: a generalized approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop innovative synthesis strategies for nanomaterials in order to exploit the true potential of nanotechnology. However, most approaches require high temperature or high pressure to favor crystallization. Here we highlight an unconventional approach for the confined-space synthesis of the single crystal TiO2 nanowires in the atmospheric vessel at low temperature by cleverly manipulating the unique physical properties of straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Our method also applys to icosane due to its straight-chain saturated hydrocarbon structure and similar physical properties to the saturated fatty acids. Interestingly, we also found that the unsaturated fatty acids can facilitate the crystal growth, but their bent chains lead to the formation of TiO2 particle aggregates. In addition, we demonstrate the growth of TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, which are of great importance for their wider applications. We thus anticipate our presented method to be a possible starting point for non-classical crystallization strategies and be easily adapted for the fabrication of all other inorganic materials.

  5. Confined-space synthesis of single crystal TiO2 nanowires in atmospheric vessel at low temperature: a generalized approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop innovative synthesis strategies for nanomaterials in order to exploit the true potential of nanotechnology. However, most approaches require high temperature or high pressure to favor crystallization. Here we highlight an unconventional approach for the confined-space synthesis of the single crystal TiO2 nanowires in the atmospheric vessel at low temperature by cleverly manipulating the unique physical properties of straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Our method also applys to icosane due to its straight-chain saturated hydrocarbon structure and similar physical properties to the saturated fatty acids. Interestingly, we also found that the unsaturated fatty acids can facilitate the crystal growth, but their bent chains lead to the formation of TiO2 particle aggregates. In addition, we demonstrate the growth of TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, which are of great importance for their wider applications. We thus anticipate our presented method to be a possible starting point for non-classical crystallization strategies and be easily adapted for the fabrication of all other inorganic materials. PMID:25634804

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of highly stable and neutral TiO2/SiO2 hydrosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meihong; Shi, Liyi; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Fang, Jianhui

    2009-02-01

    Stable, neutral TiO(2) hydrosols were prepared using TiCl(4) as titanium source, HNO(3) as peptizing agent, and SiO(2) as stabilizer. Based on XRD, TEM, and FTIR measurements, the TiO(2) was rodlike anatase crystallite with a major axis of 15-25 nm and a minor axis of 5 nm. TiOSi bonds were formed, which suppressed the TiO(2) grain growth and stabilized the TiO(2) hydrosols. The isoelectric points (IEP) of the series hydrosols were 3.1-4.7 pH values and the absolute zeta potentials of the SiO(2)-modified TiO(2) hydrosols were much higher than 50.0 mV under neutral conditions. Methylene blue and reactive brilliant red X-3B were taken as the simulated pollutants to study the adsorption and photocatalytic properties of the obtained hydrosols. The results suggested that the prepared hydrosols had strong adsorption capacity for cationic pollutants rather than anionic ones, and high photodegradation rate of both cationic and anionic pollutants.

  7. Effect of post-synthesis acid activation of TiO2 nanofilms on the photocatalytic efficiency under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambolova, I.; Blaskov, V.; Shipochka, M.; Eliyas, A.; Vassilev, S.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosized TiO2 films were deposited by spray pyrolysis and thermally treated at 400oC. Then the films were dipped in 1M aqueous solution of HCl. The activated samples were divided into two parts - one part was dried (A) and another was annealed (AT) in air. The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black (RB5) textile dye under visible light was tested. The following instrumental methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the phase and surface characterization of obtained samples. According to Raman and XRD analyses all films are anatase. The XRD showed that activated films are better crystallized than non activated TiO2 film. The presence of chlorine at 200.3 eV was registered for acid activated samples by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The acidic activated films exhibited higher rate of dye photodegradation than that of the reference TiO2 sample. The photocatalytic efficiency decreases in the order A > AT> non activated TiO2 films. The degradation rate constant for acid activated films is two times higher than those of the reference film. The hydroxyl content in TiO2 acidic activated films is greater than that of the non- activated films, which results in significant increase in the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the presence of chlorine may also lead to enhancement in efficiency.

  8. The Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Array by Starch-Modified Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zijian; Lu, Wei; Lyu, Cong; Lyu, Chuan; Wang, Xiansheng

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization process with starch addition were investigated in detail. The results suggested that the optimum mass fraction of starch added in anodization process was 0.1%, with which TiO2 nanotube arrays owning good tubular structure were synthesized. The tube length and average inner diameter of nanotubes were approximately 4 μm and 30 nm, respectively. Through the characterization of TiO2 nanotube arrays by energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was found that the as-prepared nanotubes possessed well uniformed and higher photodegradation responsive than the pure TiO2 . Moreover, it was expected that the as-prepared nanotubes exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB under UV-light irradiation, which could be ascribed to their good morphology, enhanced UV-light absorption property and electron transmission ability during the photocatalytic reaction. In addition, the nanotubes were not significantly regenerated during the cycling runs experiment. Overall, this study could provide a principle method to synthesize TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity by anodization process with starch addition for environmental purification.

  9. Low temperature synthesis and visible light driven photocatalytic activity of highly crystalline mesoporous TiO2 particles.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Tanaji P; Anand, Chokkalingam; Shinde, Vaishali R; Ye, Jinhua; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan

    2010-12-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 powder materials with a high crystallinity have been prepared by evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) process using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and pluronic P123 surfactant (EO20PO70EO20) as titanium source and structure-directing reagent, respectively. The prepared materials were characterized by low and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical absorption, and N2 adsorption-desorption experiments. The crystallinity of the materials was controlled by varying the calcination temperature. The resulting TiO2 materials showed highly crystalline structure with uniform particle size which increases from 11.8 to 23.8 nm with increasing the calcination temperature from 400 to 600 degrees C, respectively, whereas the specific surface area decreases from 125 to 40 m2/g. TEM and XRD results revealed that the calcination temperature of 600 degrees C is the best condition to obtain highly crystalline mesoporous TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 mesoporous materials with different crystallinity and textural parameters has been studied in the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) dye molecules under visible light irradiation. Among the mesoporous TiO2 materials studied, the material with the highest crystallinity, prepared at 600 degrees C, showed the best photocatalytic performance in the decomposition of MB under visible light in a short time. PMID:21121305

  10. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Qin, Zhenping; Guo, Hongxia; Yang, Hanxiao; Zhang, Guojun; Ji, Shulan; Zeng, Tingying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) confirmed the anatase crystalline phase. The charges of the prepared TiO2, PEI-TiO2 and PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potentials. The results showed that the zeta potentials of PEI-TiO2 nanoparticles can be tuned from +39.47 mV to +95.46 mV, and that of PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles can be adjusted from −56.63 mV to −119.32 mV. In comparison with TiO2, PSS-TiO2 exhibited dramatic adsorption and degradation of dye molecules, while the PEI modified TiO2 nanoparticles showed lower photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performances of these charged nanoparticles were elucidated by the results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which indicated that the PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles showed a lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs than TiO2 and PEI-TiO2. PMID:25506839

  11. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed.

  12. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed. PMID:27427614

  13. Synthesis of tunable core-shell nanostructures based on TiO2-graphene architectures and their application in the photodegradation of rhodamine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biris, Alexandru R.; Toloman, Dana; Popa, Adriana; Lazar, Mihaela D.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Saini, Viney; Watanabe, Fumiya; Chhetri, Bijay Paudel; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the synthesis of core-shell nanostructural materials with multi-component architectures based on TiO2 and graphitic layers. The composites have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with methane as the carbon source, for 5, 10, 30 and 45 min. The final products were characterized by a combination of analytical approaches which include: electron microscopy, Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The amount of graphene shells covering the TiO2 surfaces was found to vary linearly with the reaction time. Furthermore, the compounds were shown to have excellent stability and photocatalytic activity towards the UV degradation of rhodamine (RhB) dye solution at room temperature. These composites could have major applications in the area of environmental cleaning of various pollutants, electrochemistry or nanomedicine.

  14. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2-zeolite templated carbon composites in organic contaminant degradation.

    PubMed

    Donphai, Waleeporn; Kamegawa, Takashi; Chareonpanich, Metta; Nueangnoraj, Khanin; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kyotani, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 composites with zeolite templated carbon (TiO2-ZTC) and activated carbon (TiO2-AC) were prepared and used as the photocatalysts for comparative studies with pure TiO2. TiO2-ZTC exhibited the highest rate of methylene blue degradation with a rate approximately 4 and 400 times higher than those of TiO2-AC and pure TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the highest catalytic performance of TiO2-ZTC in gas-phase degradation of acetone was approximately 1.1 and 12.9 times higher than TiO2-AC and pure TiO2, respectively. These outstanding performances could be attributed to high surface area, pore volume, and hydrophobic surface properties, leading to improvement in the adsorption properties of organic molecules.

  15. Towards the development of a novel bioinspired functional material: synthesis and characterization of hybrid TiO2/DHICA-melanin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, Alessandro; Capelli, Luigia; Costantini, Aniello; Luciani, Giuseppina; Tescione, Fabiana; Silvestri, Brigida; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Branda, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A large number of recent literature data focus on modification/modulation of surface chemistry of inorganic materials in order to improve their functional properties. Melanins, a wide class of natural pigments, are recently emerging as a powerful organic component for developing bioinspired active material for a large number of applications from organoelectronics to bioactive compounds. Here we report the use of the approach referred as "chimie douce", involving in situ formation of the hybrids through reactions of precursors under mild conditions, to prepare novel hybrid functional architectures based on eumelanin like 5,6 dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) polymer and TiO2. Two synthesis procedures were carried out to get DHICA-melanin coated TiO2 nanoparticles as well as mixed DHICA/TiO2 hybrid nanostructures. Such systems were characterized through EPR, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and TEM microscopy in order to assess the effect of synthesis path as well as of DHICA content on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 nanostructures. In particular, EPR, FT-IR spectra and TGA analysis confirmed the presence of DHICA-melanin in these samples. TEM measurements indicated the formation of the nanoparticles having relatively narrow size distribution with average particle size of about 10nm. DHICA-melanin does act as a morphological agent affecting morphology of hybrid nanostructures. XRD analysis proved that TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles kept anatase structures for DHICA-melanin contents within the range of investigated compositions, i.e. up to 50% wt/wt.

  16. Modified microwave method for the synthesis of visible light-responsive TiO2/MWCNTs nanocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently, TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid nanocatalysts have been a subject of high interest due to their excellent structures, large surface areas and peculiar optical properties, which enhance their photocatalytic performance. In this work, a modified microwave technique was used to rapidly synthesise a TiO2/MWCNT nanocatalyst with a large surface area. X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were used to characterise the structure, morphology and the surface area of the sample. The photocatalytic activity of the hybrid nanocatalysts was evaluated through a comparison of the degradation of methylene blue dye under irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. The results showed that the TiO2/MWCNT hybrid nanocatalysts degraded 34.9% of the methylene blue (MB) under irradiation with ultraviolet light, whereas 96.3% of the MB was degraded under irradiation with visible light. PMID:23919496

  17. Controlled synthesis of Ag-coated TiO2 nanofibers and their enhanced effect in photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hongyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Guo, Yihang; Shao, Changlu; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun; Louh, Rong-Fuh

    2013-09-01

    Novel nanostructured Ag/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers (NFs) have been successfully prepared via a simple electrospinning process combined with silver mirror reaction. The Ag/TiO2 NFs demonstrated a unique morphology with evenly distributed Ag nanoparticles uniformly deposited onto the surface of each individual TiO2 NFs. The loading capacity and size of Ag NPs can be easily controlled by varying the silver mirror reaction time. Compared with pristine TiO2 NFs, such heterogeneous Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited preferable photocatalytic activity during photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine-B under the simulated sunlight irradiation and this enhanced photocatalytic performance was driven by combination and interaction between TiO2 and Ag NPs.

  18. Modification of dense TiO2 particles using polyethylene glycol template: Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostanić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Radosavljević-Mihajlović, A.; Jovanović, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an effort has been made to prepare TiO2 materials by sol-gel technique using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as pore directing agent. Different PEG amounts were used during samples preparation in order to investigate the change in intrinsic material properties. The photocatalytic activity of prepared catalysts was estimated by measuring the decomposition of arylazo pyridone dye. The optimum template amount was determined, resulting in catalyst with enhanced textural properties, optimal anatase/rutile ratio and hence improved photocatalytic properties. Specific surface area and anatase/rutile ratio were found to be the main contributing factors to the catalyst activity. A synergistic effect between anatase and rutile TiO2 has been observed, since the presence of relatively inactive rutile phase enhanced the photoactivity of mixed TiO2.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectrochemical performance enhancement of TiO2/graphene composite in photo-generated cathodic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing; Zeng, Rong-Chang

    2016-09-01

    TiO2/graphene composites were synthesized through one-step hydrothermal method. The composites show an enhancement in photo-generated cathodic protection as the time-dependent profiles of photocurrent responses has confirmed. XRD data show that a bicrystalline framework of anatase and brookite formed as graphene provided donor groups in the hydrothermal process. The transfer of photoinduced electrons in the biphasic TiO2 results in effective electron-hole separation. Moreover, graphene lead to a negative shift of the Fermi level as evidenced by Mott-Schottky analysis, which decreases the Schottky barrier formed in the TiO2 and 304 stainless steel interface and results in the enhancement of photo-generated cathodic protection.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of pure anatase phase nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film by magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Nimisha; Bhargava, Ankita; Dayal, Saurabh; Kumar, C. Sasi

    2016-05-01

    In present work, our focus is to deposit anatase phase nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films. In order to prepare Titanium oxide films we first deposited Titanium thin films using DC magnetron sputtering and then the substrates were annealed in a muffle furnace at different temperatures. Further the samples were characterized for analysis of phase, morphology and optical properties using XRD, SEM, AFM and photoluminescence spectroscopy respectively. XRD shows the formation of tetragonal phase TiO2 with lattice parameters values a= 3.8 Å and c=9.6 Å. The surface roughness value of the films were found to vary from 1.6 nm to 15.9 nm. The grain size as estimated from AFM varies from 48 nm to 125 nm at different temperatures. Thus, the results revealed the formation of ultra-smooth anatase phase pure nanocrystalline TiO2 spherical particles.

  1. Influence of vanadia content onto TiO 2-SiO 2 matrix for photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Adel Ali; Matsunaga, Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Direct synthesis of vanadia onto titania-silica matrices as photocatalysts was achieved by using simple sol-gel method. This synthetic strategy revealed that the vanadia species could be loaded into TiO 2-SiO 2 matrices up to 18.5 wt%. Results from FTIR indicated that at low loading amounts of vanadia species (i.e. ⩽1), the formation of monolayer vanadia species onto the matrices was successfully fabricated; however, a polymeric vanadate could be formed with high loading of vanadia species. On such heterogeneous photocatalytic systems, the oxidation affinity of trichloroethylene was substantially affected by the loading amount and the degree of dispersion V 2O 5 particles onto the TiO 2-SiO 2 support matrices, indicating the exclusive effect of the V 2O 5 nanoparticles on this photocatalytic reaction. Clearly evident is that this polymeric vanadate was a relatively inactive photocatalysts for the oxidation of trichloroethylene.

  2. Synthesis and visible light photocatalytic properties of polyoxometalate-thionine composite films immobilized on porous TiO2 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Gao, Shuiying; Li, Hongfang; Cao, Rong

    2012-06-01

    Multilayer films (PW(12)-TH)(n) (PW(12)=PW(12)O(40)(3-), TH=thionine) were immobilized on porous anatase TiO(2) microspheres by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The porous structure of TiO(2) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that TiO(2) template particles had a round shape with an average diameter of 250 nm. The composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XRD spectroscopy. The results confirmed the successful immobilization of (PW(12)-TH)(n) composite films onto TiO(2) microspheres, and the growth of PW(12)-TH layer pair was uniform. SEM and TEM were also used to characterize the morphology. When PW(12)-TH composite films were assembled on the template, the surface became rougher with the increasing number of layer pair. The lattice fringe of TiO(2) became weaker when immobilized (PW(12)-TH)(n). The photocatalytic properties of the microspheres toward a rhodamine B (RhB) solution were investigated under visible light irradiation. The combination of TiO(2) and PW(12) showed an excellent photocatalytic performance. Both TH sensitization and PW(12) adsorption played important roles during the process of photocatalysis. Moreover, the catalytic property and reusability of as-prepared catalyst were relevant to the number of PW(12)-TH bilayer. The kinetics of the photodecomposition to rhodamine B followed the first-order reaction. PMID:22425252

  3. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoscale rods with MHz femtosecond laser irradiation of single crystal surface and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, M.; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2011-06-01

    Growth of nanoscale rods on single crystal rutile TiO2 surface irradiated by MHz pulse repetition rate femtosecond laser in nitrogen environment without a catalyst or template is reported. The rods are of 100 nm in width to 1 micron length. Microraman analysis of the laser irradiated surface shows only a decrease in the intensity of active modes as compared to untreated surface. The growth of TiO2 nanorods can be explained by a method combining nanoparticles formation due to expulsion of molten material from laser irradiated spot and their subsequent growth by vapor-liquid-solid process.

  4. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h-1 g-1 has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature.We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and

  5. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Partha; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Bhuyan, Heman

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), ion density (ni), degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  6. Synthesis of transparent vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on a few-layer graphene (FLG) film.

    PubMed

    Cottineau, Thomas; Albrecht, Arnaud; Janowska, Izabela; Macher, Nicolas; Bégin, Dominique; Ledoux, Marc Jacques; Pronkin, Sergey; Savinova, Elena; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2012-01-30

    Novel transparent 1D-TiO(2)/few-layer graphene electrodes are realised by the anodic growth of vertically aligned TiO(2) nano-tubes on a few-layer graphene film coated on a glass substrate. PMID:22057023

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over nitrogen-fluorine codoped TiO2 nanobelts prepared by solvothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Chen, Jing; Yin, Xingtian; He, Yucheng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2012-12-01

    Anatase type nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) codoped TiO(2) nanobelts were prepared by a solvothermal method in which amorphous titania microspheres were used as the precursors. The as-prepared TiO(2) nanobelts are composed of thin narrow nanobelts and it is noted that there are large amount of wormhole-like mesopores on these narrow nanobelts. Photocatalytic activity of the N-F codoped TiO(2) nanobelts was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of the N-F codoped TiO(2) nanobelts is higher than that of P25, which is mainly ascribed to wormhole-like mesopores like prison, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of light due to N-F codoping. Interestingly, it is also found that the photocatalytic activity can be further enhanced when tested in a new testing method because more photons can be captured by the nanobelts to stimulate the formation of the hole-electron pair.

  8. Synthesis of SUB-10 NM TiO2 Nanowires for the Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Kangbao; Wei, Aixiang

    2013-04-01

    Highly oriented single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanowires on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The small lattice mismatch between FTO substrate and rutile TiO2 promote the epitaxial nucleation and growth of rutile TiO2 nanowires on FTO, with the diameter of 4-6 nm. Due to Van der waals force, the ultrafine nanowires tend to gather together, forming nanowire bundles. Using the ultrafine nanowire bundle array as the photoanode and ruthenium complex (N719) as the sensitizer, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled. The effect of the TiO2 nanowire gathering on the power conversion of the DSSCs has been investigated. Experimental result shows that the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency is increased by reducing the gathering of the nanowires through introducing toluene into reactant precursors. The DSSCs based on the bundles with smallest average width (i.e., least nanowire gathering) show the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.70%. The relatively high energy conversion efficiency is contributed to the large surface area, which enhances the adsorption of dye molecules.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of undoped and cobalt-doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundan, S.; Rajamannan, B.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different concentrations of cobalt (4, 8, 12 and 16 %) were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In general, TiO2 can exist in anatase, rutile, and brookite phases. In this present study, we used titanium tetra iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting materials and the obtained products were calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C to get anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The crystalline sizes of the doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were observed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), the band gap energy and excitation wavelength of doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were identified. The defect oriented emissions were seen from photoluminescence (PL) study. The spherical uniform size distribution of particles and elements present in the samples was determined using two different techniques viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was also found and the obtained result was compared with potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  10. Novel Fe doped mesoporous TiO 2 microspheres: Ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibin; Liu, Guocong; Chen, Shuguang; Liu, Qicheng

    2010-04-01

    Novel Fe doped mesoporous TiO 2 microspheres were fabricated by an ultrasonic-hydrothermal method when tetrabutyl titanate was used as a precursor and octadecylamine was used as a structure-directing agent. The mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements, XPS, FL, and UV-vis. The results suggest that both ultrasonic treatment and hydrothermal procedure are critical for the fabrication of Fe doped mesoporous TiO 2 microspheres with a combination of regular morphology, large specific surface area, high crystallinity, and high thermal stability. Low-angle XRD and TEM images indicate that the disordered wormhole-like mesostructure of Fe doped TiO 2 microspheres with diameters of about 300-400 nm is actually formed by the agglomerization of nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped mesoporous TiO 2 microspheres was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. A small amount of Fe 3+ can obviously enhance their photocatalytic activity. The optimal atomic ratio of Fe to Ti for photocatalytic activity is about 0.5 at%.

  11. Controllable synthesis and luminescence properties of TiO2:Eu3+ nanorods, nanoparticles and submicrospheres by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaofei; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhao, Huan; Shi, Zhan; Zou, Haifeng

    2014-12-01

    Eu3+-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with three kinds of morphologies (nanorods, nanoparticles, and submicrospheres) have been successfully fabricated in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water/cyclohexane/n-pentanol reverse micelle by hydrothermal method for the first time and their photoluminescence (PL) properties have also been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FT-IR, and PL spectra were used to characterize the samples. The acidic and alkaline conditions of the microemulsion play an important role in determining the geometric morphologies of the final products. TiO2:Eu3+ with three different morphologies all exist only in anatase phase and show high luminescence intensity without further calcinations, which show its advantages of energy saving. The shape of emission spectra was independent of the morphologies of the products but the luminescence intensity of the TiO2:Eu3+ materials is strongly dependent on their morphology. The results show that TiO2:Eu3+ nanorods possess the strongest luminescence intensity among the three nanostructured samples.

  12. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  13. Synthesis of Au/TiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles from Titanium Isopropoxide and Thermal Resistance Effect of TiO2 Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Young-Min; Tripathy, Suraj Kumar; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Lee, Min-Sang; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2007-04-01

    On the synthesis of Au/TiO2 core-shell structure nanoparticles, the effect of the concentration of Ti4+ on the morphology and optical property of Au/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles was examined. A gold colloid was prepared by mixing HAuCl4\\cdot4H2O and C6H5Na3\\cdot2H2O. Titanium stock solution was prepared by mixing solutions of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) and triethanolamine (TEOA). The concentration of the Ti4+ stock solution was adjusted to 0.01-0.3 mM, and then the gold colloid was added to the Ti4+ stock solution. Au/TiO2 core-shell structure nanoparticles could be prepared by the hydrolysis of the Ti4+ stock solution at 80 °C. The size of the as-prepared Au nanoparticles was 15 nm. The thickness of the TiO2 shell on the surface of gold particles was about 10 nm. The absorption peak of the Au/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles shifted towards the red end of the spectrum by about 3 nm because of the formation of the TiO2 shell on the surface of the gold particles. The crystal structure of the TiO2 shell showed an anatase phase. The increase in the Au crystallite size of the Au/TiO2 nanoparticles with increasing heat treatment temperature is smaller than that in the pure Au nanoparticles. This may be due to the encapsulation of Au particles with the TiO2 shell that prevents the growth of the nanoparticle nucleation.

  14. Biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition assisted synthesis of Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Chen, Ge

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheet with increased visible light photocatalytic activity was successfully synthesized using a biomimetic layer-by-layer deposition process. The polymer, branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) was used as an induction agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) as well as for a nitrogen resource, and the graphene oxide (GO) was used as a two-dimensional nano-template. The positively charged b-PEI will bind to the negatively charged GO and titania. In a typical layer-by-layer deposition process, GO nanosheets are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous b-PEI, CuCl2 and Ti-BALDH solutions, thus, making the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal b-PEI/Cu-Ti-O coating on the GO. Subsequent b-PEI and GO pyrolysis at 550 °C under air yielded Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets. The materials obtained were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance. The Cu, N co-doped TiO2 nanosheets showed obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity which was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. This research might provide some new insights for the "green synthesis" of the simultaneous doping of two kinds of foreign atoms into TiO2 with controlled morphology and photocatalytic properties.

  15. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry. PMID:24971593

  16. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a stable, label-free optical biosensor from TiO2-coated porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianlin; Sailor, Michael J

    2014-05-15

    A nanoscale layer of TiO2 is coated on the inner pore walls of a porous silicon (PSi) film by room-temperature infiltration of a TiO2 sol-gel precursor and firing at 500 °C. The PSi:TiO2 composite films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). The analysis indicates that TiO2 conformally coats the inner pore surfaces of the PSi film. The film displays greater aqueous stability in the pH range 2-12 relative to a PSi:SiO2 surface. A label-free optical interference immunosensor based on the TiO2-coated PSi film is demonstrated by real-time monitoring of the physical adsorption of protein A, followed by the specific binding of rabbit anti-sheep immunoglobulin (IgG) and then specific capture of sheep IgG. The time to achieve equilibrium for the physical adsorption of protein A on the surface of TiO2-coated PSi film is significantly greater than that of PSi film. The specificity of the protein A and rabbit anti-sheep IgG construct on the sensor is confirmed by tests with non-binding chicken IgG. The sensitivity of the immunosensor is shown to be 8210 ± 170 nm/refractive index unit (RIU).

  18. The Synthesis and Photocatalytic Performance of Peapod-Like One Dimensional Nanocomposites Composed of Au Nanoparticles and TiO2 Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taiji; Chen, Fenghua; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-06-01

    Recently, material scientists have paid a lot of attention on the synthesis of one dimensional peapod-like nanostructures composed of metal nanoparticles and inorganic nanofibers due to their superior properties. In this work, we realized the synthesis of Au-TiO2 nanopeapods by using Au-bacteria cellulose nanofibers as templates in aqueous solution through a simple sol-gel method. Reaction conditions such as the Au contents in the gold-bacteria cellulose nanofibers, the reaction times and the calcination temperatures were investigated in detail for the synthesis of nanopeapods of Au-TiO2. The photocatalytic degradation tests show that the presence of a small amount of Au nanoparticles can improve the photocatalytic performance of Au-TiO2 nanocomposites compared with pure TiO2 nanofibers. The strategy to synthesize peapodlike Au-TiO2 nanocomposites by using biotemplates may shed light for the synthesis of other peapod-like nanostructures. PMID:27427642

  19. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  20. Preparation of micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres by controlling pollen as hard template and soft template.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xuehong; Song, Xiuqin; Chen, Rufen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, micro/nanostructure TiO2 spheres were synthesized by a sunflower pollen induced and self-assembly mineralization process, in which a titania precursor and pollen reacted in one-pot at normal pressure. In this paper, the bio-template advantage, as hard and soft template is fully demonstrated. The superiority of our synthesis is that we not only can control pollen as hard template, but also can control it as soft template only by changing reactions temperature. Under 80 degrees C of water bath, TiO2 microspheres which replicated the morphology of pollen were prepared by controlling pollen as hard template. Under 100 degrees C, hierarchical TiO2 spheres with complicated morphology, different from pollen template, were synthesized by using pollen as soft template. At the same time, judicious choice of the amount of pollen affords the synthesis of hierarchical structures spheres with adjustable morphology and crystal structure. The morphology can be tuned from microspheres constructed from TiO2 nanorods to nanospheres constructed from TiO2 nanoparticles, and the crystal structure can be tuned from rutile to anatase. More over this anatase phase can be keep better even at high temperature of 1000 degrees C. The as-prepared micro/nano structure photocatalysts not only have high photocatalytic activities, but also have good separability and reuse performance.

  1. Nanostructured nitrogen and carbon codoped TiO2 thin films: Synthesis, structural characterization and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzybayev, Inci

    TiO2 is widely used in applications like photocatalysis, sensors, solar cells, and memory devices because it is inexpensive, abundant, nontoxic and stable in aqueous solution. Another exciting application where TiO 2 has the potential to be a very useful catalyst is the clean hydrogen generation using solar radiation. Energy consumption is increasing every year and, as a result, renewable and sustainable alternative energy sources are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, clean hydrogen generation research is becoming more and more important. This study aims at the preparation and characterization of nitrogen and carbon (N-C) codoped TiO2 photoanode material that could potentially be used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen generation. The solar spectrum peaks around 500 nm (2.48 eV) which is in the visible part of the spectrum. The photoanode material to be used for solar hydrogen generation should absorb visible light photons to yield high efficiency. The challenge with TiO2 is that the wide band gap (3.00--3.20 eV) absorbs only ultra-violet (UV) photons and only a small percentage of the solar spectrum is in the UV range. There are various ways to overcome the challenge of sensitizing the material to visible light absorption and this study focuses on one of the most promising ways: band modification of TiO2 by N-C codoping. The role of pure oxygen pressure on pulsed laser deposited N-C codoped TiO2 films were investigated. At low pressures rutile phase of TiO2 was dominant and a microstructure with densely packed grains was obtained. However, at high pressures anatase phase became dominant and columnar structure was favored. Therefore, the anatase-rutile phase ratio as well as the microstructure of the films can be controlled by adjusting oxygen pressure and introducing N and C into the TiO2 matrix. Optimized oxygen pressure and higher doping concentrations yielded films with more effective absorption in the visible region. The preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited N-C codoped TiO2 thin films were investigated for dopant incorporation using N2 and CH4 gases. Polycrystalline anatase structured films were obtained. A 2 theta shift of the anatase (101) X-ray diffraction main peak towards lower values indicated carbon incorporation into the lattice. N incorporation was confirmed with observed Ti-N bonds using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optical data showed significant reduction, approximately 1.00 eV, of the band gap. The reduction of the band gap allowed the photons in the visible part of the solar spectrum to be absorbed. Through a collaborative work with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Yonsei University, precise modeling of the electronic structure of N-C codoped TiO2 films were carried out to reveal the underlying physics of band gap reduction. Experimental results were compared with first-principle density functional theory calculations. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that O, N and C 2p states overlapped effectively and shifts in the valence band maximum towards the Fermi level were observed. Optical band gap results showed that N-C codoping is an effective route for band gap reduction in TiO2. Comparison of the measured valence band structure with theoretical photoemission density of states further revealed C substitution on the Ti site and N substitution on the O site. Finally, films grown using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering were compared with the pulsed laser deposited films. Sputtered N-C codoped TiO2 films showed phase transformation from anatase to rutile at constant argon pressure with increasing doping concentration. Moreover, with slow-rate N-C codoping of TiO2, a texturing effect was observed in X-ray diffraction scans such that anatase (004) Bragg reflection plane became more favored over anatase (101). Optical band gap was reduced but the reduction was not as significant as in the films prepared with the pulsed laser deposition method. Electrochemical methods were applied in the photoelectrochemical cell and the sample prep

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 by one-pot two-phase separated hydrolysis-solvothermal processes and its high activity for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingzheng; Jing, Liqiang; Zhou, Jia; Lin, Jingsheng; Fu, Honggang

    2010-04-15

    Si-doped and un-doped nanocrystalline TiO(2) samples have been synthesized by simple one-pot water-organic two-phase separated hydrolysis-solvothermal (HST) processes, and characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, FT-IR, DRS and surface photovoltage techniques. The effects of the solvothermal temperature and Si doping on the anatase thermal stability, and on the photocatalytic activity for degrading rhodamine B were investigated in detail. The results show that, as the solvothermal temperature rises, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the resulting nano-sized anatase TiO(2) gradually increase. Noticeably, the as-prepared TiO(2) obtained at appropriate solvothermal temperature (160 degrees C) exhibits high photocatalytic activity. Moreover, although Si doping does not improve the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared anatase TiO(2), it greatly enhances the anatase thermal stability and inhibits crystallite growth during the process of post-thermal treatment. Interestingly, the Si-doped TiO(2) post-treated at high temperature displays much higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 TiO(2). It is clearly demonstrated that the joint effects of high anatase crystallinity and large surface area lead to high photocatalytic activity. This work provides a simple and effective strategy for the synthesis of high-performance TiO(2)-based functional nanomaterials.

  3. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Szabla, Rafał; Szyja, Bartłomiej M.; Smykowski, Daniel; Ivanek, Ondřej; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Šponer, Jiří; Ferus, Martin; Šponer, Judit E.

    2016-03-01

    Recent synthetic efforts aimed at reconstructing the beginning of life on our planet point at the plausibility of scenarios fueled by extraterrestrial energy sources. In the current work we show that beyond nucleobases the sugar components of the first informational polymers can be synthesized in this way. We demonstrate that a laser-induced high-energy chemistry combined with TiO2 catalysis readily produces a mixture of pentoses, among them ribose, arabinose and xylose. This chemistry might be highly relevant to the Late Heavy Bombardment period of Earth’s history about 4–3.85 billion years ago. In addition, we present an in-depth theoretical analysis of the most challenging step of the reaction pathway, i.e., the TiO2-catalyzed dimerization of formaldehyde leading to glycolaldehyde.

  4. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Szabla, Rafał; Szyja, Bartłomiej M; Smykowski, Daniel; Ivanek, Ondřej; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Šponer, Jiří; Ferus, Martin; Šponer, Judit E

    2016-03-16

    Recent synthetic efforts aimed at reconstructing the beginning of life on our planet point at the plausibility of scenarios fueled by extraterrestrial energy sources. In the current work we show that beyond nucleobases the sugar components of the first informational polymers can be synthesized in this way. We demonstrate that a laser-induced high-energy chemistry combined with TiO2 catalysis readily produces a mixture of pentoses, among them ribose, arabinose and xylose. This chemistry might be highly relevant to the Late Heavy Bombardment period of Earth's history about 4-3.85 billion years ago. In addition, we present an in-depth theoretical analysis of the most challenging step of the reaction pathway, i.e., the TiO2-catalyzed dimerization of formaldehyde leading to glycolaldehyde.

  5. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Szabla, Rafał; Szyja, Bartłomiej M.; Smykowski, Daniel; Ivanek, Ondřej; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Šponer, Jiří; Ferus, Martin; Šponer, Judit E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent synthetic efforts aimed at reconstructing the beginning of life on our planet point at the plausibility of scenarios fueled by extraterrestrial energy sources. In the current work we show that beyond nucleobases the sugar components of the first informational polymers can be synthesized in this way. We demonstrate that a laser-induced high-energy chemistry combined with TiO2 catalysis readily produces a mixture of pentoses, among them ribose, arabinose and xylose. This chemistry might be highly relevant to the Late Heavy Bombardment period of Earth’s history about 4–3.85 billion years ago. In addition, we present an in-depth theoretical analysis of the most challenging step of the reaction pathway, i.e., the TiO2-catalyzed dimerization of formaldehyde leading to glycolaldehyde. PMID:26979666

  6. Large-Scale Synthesis of Transition-Metal-Doped TiO2 Nanowires with Controllable Overpotential

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Chong; Andrews, Sean; Han, Chris; Yang, Peidong

    2013-03-13

    Practical implementation of one-dimensional semiconductors into devices capable of exploiting their novel properties is often hindered by low product yields, poor material quality, high production cost, or overall lack of synthetic control. Here, we show that a molten-salt flux scheme can be used to synthesize large quantities of high-quality, single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires with controllable dimensions. Furthermore, in situ dopant incorporation of various transition metals allows for the tuning of optical, electrical, and catalytic properties. With this combination of control, robustness, and scalability, the molten-salt flux scheme can provide high-quality TiO2 nanowires to satisfy a broad range of application needs from photovoltaics to photocatalysis.

  7. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Szabla, Rafał; Szyja, Bartłomiej M; Smykowski, Daniel; Ivanek, Ondřej; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Šponer, Jiří; Ferus, Martin; Šponer, Judit E

    2016-01-01

    Recent synthetic efforts aimed at reconstructing the beginning of life on our planet point at the plausibility of scenarios fueled by extraterrestrial energy sources. In the current work we show that beyond nucleobases the sugar components of the first informational polymers can be synthesized in this way. We demonstrate that a laser-induced high-energy chemistry combined with TiO2 catalysis readily produces a mixture of pentoses, among them ribose, arabinose and xylose. This chemistry might be highly relevant to the Late Heavy Bombardment period of Earth's history about 4-3.85 billion years ago. In addition, we present an in-depth theoretical analysis of the most challenging step of the reaction pathway, i.e., the TiO2-catalyzed dimerization of formaldehyde leading to glycolaldehyde. PMID:26979666

  8. Low-frequency ultrasound induces oxygen vacancies formation and visible light absorption in TiO2 P-25 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Vargas, Paula A; Pulgarin, Cesar; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Pizzio, Luis R; Blanco, Mirta N; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Pétrier, Christian; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián A

    2012-05-01

    Low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) irradiation induces morphological, optical and surface changes in the commercial nano-TiO(2)-based photocatalyst, Evonik-Degussa P-25. Low-temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements performed on this material provided the first experimental evidence for the formation of oxygen vacancies (V(o)), which were also found responsible for the visible-light absorption. The V(o) surface defects might result from high-speed inter-particle collisions and shock waves generated by LFUS sonication impacting the TiO(2) particles. This is in contrast to a number of well-established technologies, where the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO(2) surface often requires harsh technological conditions and complicated procedures, such as annealing at high temperatures, radio-frequency-induced plasma or ion sputtering. Thus, this study reports for the first time the preparation of visible-light responsive TiO(2)-based photocatalysts by using a simple LFUS-based approach to induce oxygen vacancies at the nano-TiO(2) surface. These findings might open new avenues for synthesis of novel nano-TiO(2)-based photocatalysts capable of destroying water or airborne pollutants and microorganisms under visible light illumination. PMID:22192787

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of Zn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aware, Dinkar V.; Jadhav, Shridhar S.

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous, nanocrystalline, Zinc-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and UV-VIS spectrometer techniques were used to characterize the synthesized products. XRD results confirm the formation of the anatase phase for the TiO2 nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes in the range of 12.6-18.1 nm. The small crystallite size and doping with Zinc ion inhibit phase transformation and promote the growth of the TiO2 anatase phase. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the spherical-like morphology with average diameter of about 12-18 nm which is in agreement with XRD results. The optical study shows that doping ions lead to an increase in the absorption edge wavelength and a decrease in the band gap energy of titania. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanomaterials was successfully tested for photodegradation of methyl red as model pollutant under UV light. The photocatalytic activity results confirm that the doped nanoparticles show higher activity than undoped titania. The small grain size, high crystallinity, high specific surface area and decrease in the band gap energy of doped titania may be responsible for the high photocatalytic activity.

  10. A simple, template-free route for the synthesis of bicrystalline mesoporous TiO2 materials.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhili; Yang, Chun

    2009-11-01

    A simple, low-temperature and green template-free synthetic route has been used to prepare mesoporous TiO2 with anatase and brookite bicrystalline framework. This route combines a quick hydrolysis at ambient temperature and sequent hydrothermal treatment at 80-180 egrees C without further calcination. The resultant materials were characterized by XRD, TEM and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the wormhole-like mesostructure and the bicrystalline framework could be formed in the hydrothermal treatment, and high surface areas of 160-250 m2 x g(-1) could be obtained due to the avoidance of calcination at high temperature. The effect of hydrothermal temperature on mesoporosity and crystallinity was also investigated and discussed. The as-prepared TiO2 samples exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than pure anatase TiO2 and corresponding calcined samples in the degradation of methyl orange, which can be attributed to the combined effect of composite crystalline phase and high surface area.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorinated anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lijun; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Ali; Wang, Min; Liu, Yongjun; Bian, Longchun; Jiang, Fengzhi; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    The surface fluorinated TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (denoted as F-TiO2-RGO) were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 particles were anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. And the HF added during the preparation process can not only prevent phase transformation from anatase to rutile, but also the F- ion adsorbed on the surface of TiO2-RGO surface can enhance photocatalytic activity of F-TiO2-RGO. The photocatalytic activities of F-TiO2-RGO nanocomposites were evaluated by decomposing bisphenol A under UV light illumination. Under optimal degradation condition, the degradation rate constant of BPA over F-TiO2-10RGO (0.01501 min-1) was 3.41 times than that over P25 (0.00440 min-1). The result indicated that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of F-TiO2-10RGO was ascribed to the adsorbed F ion and RGO in F-TiO2-RGO composite, which can reduce the recombination rate of the photo-generated electrons and holes synergistically.

  12. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-μm thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm−2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule. PMID:23181940

  13. OH radical generation in a photocatalytic reactor using TiO2 nanotube plates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangpyung; Ku, Haemin; Pak, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    In order to use TiO2 nanotubes grown on a Ti plate as a photocatalyst, self-organized oxide nanotube layers were grown by anodization in a glycerol based electrolyte. The ultimate conditions for the synthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array on the Ti plate were investigated by comparing the morphology, length, and inner diameter of the nanotubes. They were significantly affected by the applied anodic voltage, anodization time, and composition of the electrolyte such as the water and fluoride ion concentration. The crystallographic structures of TiO2 nanotubes before and after annealing were compared. The photocatalytic reactor used in this study consisted of two parallel and closely spaced TiO2 nanotube plates. The plates were squares while a UV lamp was inserted perpendicularly to them. OH radical generation in the photocatalytic reactor was monitored by using a probe compound, parachlorobenzoate (pCBA). The steady state OH radical concentration was compared depending on the length of nanotubes and crystallographic structure. The longer the nanotubes, the higher the steady state OH radical concentration.

  14. OH radical generation in a photocatalytic reactor using TiO2 nanotube plates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangpyung; Ku, Haemin; Pak, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    In order to use TiO2 nanotubes grown on a Ti plate as a photocatalyst, self-organized oxide nanotube layers were grown by anodization in a glycerol based electrolyte. The ultimate conditions for the synthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array on the Ti plate were investigated by comparing the morphology, length, and inner diameter of the nanotubes. They were significantly affected by the applied anodic voltage, anodization time, and composition of the electrolyte such as the water and fluoride ion concentration. The crystallographic structures of TiO2 nanotubes before and after annealing were compared. The photocatalytic reactor used in this study consisted of two parallel and closely spaced TiO2 nanotube plates. The plates were squares while a UV lamp was inserted perpendicularly to them. OH radical generation in the photocatalytic reactor was monitored by using a probe compound, parachlorobenzoate (pCBA). The steady state OH radical concentration was compared depending on the length of nanotubes and crystallographic structure. The longer the nanotubes, the higher the steady state OH radical concentration. PMID:26855214

  15. Palladium nanoparticles anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Kah Hon; Chu, Hong Ye; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Summary Freely assembled palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on titania (TiO2) nano photocatalysts were successfully synthesized through a photodeposition method using natural sunlight. This synthesized heterogeneous photocatalyst (Pd/TiO2) was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), Raman and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The simple and smart synthesis anchored well the deposition with controlled Pd NPs size ranging between 17 and 29 nm onto the surface of TiO2. Thus, it gives the characteristic for Pd NPs to absorb light in the visible region obtained through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPRs). Apparently, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by degrading the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) amoxicillin (AMX) excited under an artificial visible light source. In the preliminary run, almost complete degradation (97.5%) was achieved in 5 h with 0.5 wt % Pd loading and the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability trend proved the photostability of the prepared photocatalysts. Hence, the study provides a new insight about the modification of TiO2 with noble metals in order to enhance the absorption in the visible-light region for superior photocatalytic performance. PMID:25821683

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic evaluation of visible light activated C-doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanglong; Han, Changseok; Pelaez, Miguel; Zhu, Duanwei; Liao, Shuijiao; Likodimos, Vlassis; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Kontos, Athanassios G; Falaras, Polycarpos; Dunlop, Patrick S M; Byrne, J Anthony; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2012-07-27

    We have demonstrated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by visible light activated carbon doped TiO(2) (C-TiO(2)) nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting oleic acid as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The C-TiO(2) nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase despite the low calcination temperature of 350 °C and exhibit a highly porous structure that can be optimized by tuning the concentration of the oleic acid surfactant. The carbon modified nanomaterials exhibited enhanced absorption in the broad visible light region together with an apparent red shift in the optical absorption edge by 0.5 eV (2.69 eV), compared to the 3.18 eV of reference anatase TiO(2). Carbon species were identified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through the formation of both Ti-C and C-O bonds, indicative of substitution of carbon for oxygen atoms and the formation of carbonates, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two carbon related paramagnetic centers in C-TiO(2), whose intensity was markedly enhanced under visible light illumination, pointing to the formation of localized states within the anatase band gap, following carbon doping. The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO(2) nanomaterials was evaluated for the degradation of MC-LR at pH 3.0 under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The doped materials showed a higher MC-LR degradation rate than reference TiO(2), behavior that is attributed to the incorporation of carbon into the titania lattice.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic evaluation of visible light activated C-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanglong; Han, Changseok; Pelaez, Miguel; Zhu, Duanwei; Liao, Shuijiao; Likodimos, Vlassis; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Falaras, Polycarpos; Dunlop, Patrick S. M.; Byrne, J. Anthony; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2012-07-01

    We have demonstrated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by visible light activated carbon doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting oleic acid as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The C-TiO2 nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase despite the low calcination temperature of 350 °C and exhibit a highly porous structure that can be optimized by tuning the concentration of the oleic acid surfactant. The carbon modified nanomaterials exhibited enhanced absorption in the broad visible light region together with an apparent red shift in the optical absorption edge by 0.5 eV (2.69 eV), compared to the 3.18 eV of reference anatase TiO2. Carbon species were identified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through the formation of both Ti-C and C-O bonds, indicative of substitution of carbon for oxygen atoms and the formation of carbonates, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two carbon related paramagnetic centers in C-TiO2, whose intensity was markedly enhanced under visible light illumination, pointing to the formation of localized states within the anatase band gap, following carbon doping. The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO2 nanomaterials was evaluated for the degradation of MC-LR at pH 3.0 under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The doped materials showed a higher MC-LR degradation rate than reference TiO2, behavior that is attributed to the incorporation of carbon into the titania lattice.

  18. Y(IO₃)₃ as a novel photocatalyst: synthesis, characterization, and highly efficient photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwei; He, Ying; He, Ran; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Yihe; Wang, Shichao

    2014-08-01

    Nonbonding layer-structured Y(IO3)3 was successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal route and investigated as a novel photocatalyst for the first time. Its crystal structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The optical absorption edge and band gap of Y(IO3)3 have been determined by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of Y(IO3)3 confirmed its direct optical transition property near the absorption edge region, and the orbital components of the conduction band and valence band (VB) were also analyzed. The photocatalytic performance of Y(IO3)3 was evaluated by photooxidative decomposition of rhodamine B under ultraviolet light irradiation. It demonstrated that Y(IO3)3 exhibits highly efficient photocatalytic activity, which is much better than those of commercial TiO2 (P25) and important UV photocatalysts BiOCl and BiIO4. The origin of the excellent photocatalytic performance of Y(IO3)3 was investigated by electron spin resonance and terephthalic acid photoluminescence techniques. The results revealed that the highly strong photooxidation ability that resulted from its very positive VB position should be responsible for the excellent photocatalytic performance.

  19. Low-temperature synthesis of soluble and processable organic-capped anatase TiO2 nanorods.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, P Davide; Kornowski, Andreas; Weller, Horst

    2003-11-26

    We demonstrate the controlled growth of high aspect ratio anatase TiO2 nanorods by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in oleic acid (OLEA) as surfactant at a temperature as low as 80 degrees C. Chemical modification of TTIP by OLEA is proven to be a rational strategy to tune the reactivity of the precursor toward water. The most influential factors in shape control of the nanoparticles are investigated by simply manipulating their growth kinetics. The presence of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium hydroxides as catalysts is essential to promote fast crystallization under mild conditions. The novelty of the present approach relies on the large-scale production of organic-capped TiO2 nanocrystals to which standard processing of colloidal nanocrystals, such as surface ligand exchange, can be applied for the first time. Concentrated colloidal titania dispersions can be prepared for a number of fundamental studies in homogeneous solutions and represent a new source of easily processable oxide material for many technological applications. PMID:14624603

  20. One-pot synthesis of Cd1- x In x Te semiconductor as a sensitizer on TiO2 mesoporous for potential solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singsa-ngah, Mutika; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of a new ternary semiconductor nanoparticle Cd1- x In x Te, as a sensitizer for solar cell devices via a one-pot mixed precursor solution. The Cd1- x In x Te nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the chemical bath deposition process and coated onto a TiO2 photoelectrode. A tetragonal structure of Cd1- x In x Te NPs was constituted on the TiO2 photoelectrode with a diameter range ˜25-30 nm, and the atomic percentages of the chemical elements showed that the structure could be Cd0.1In0.9Te incorporated with the CdIn2Te4 structure. When the dipping cycle increased, the energy gaps became narrower from 1.2 to 0.6 eV due to the increasing amount and the larger size of nanoparticles. The photovoltaic properties of various cycles were investigated, and the best power conversion efficiency ( η) of 0.49 % under full 1 sun illumination (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5G) was obtained for the seven-cycle-Cd1- x In x Te NPs with a current density ( J sc) of 2.64 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage ( V oc) of 638 mV, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.29. The efficiency of this material can be further improved for higher potential solar cell devices.

  1. Characterization and mechanistic analysis of the visible light response of cerium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst synthesized using a one-step technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Tan, Xin; Zhao, Lin

    2010-04-15

    Cerium and nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles were synthesized using a one-step technique via a modified sol-gel process and characterized by XRD, BET, DRS, Raman and XPS. The photocatalytic mechanism of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation was studied. Co-doping cerium and nitrogen in the crystal lattice of TiO(2) narrowed the band gap from 2.40 eV (Ce-doped TiO(2)) to 2.21 eV (Ce/N co-doped TiO(2)). Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) pairs, oxynitride species and Ti-O-N and Ti-O-Ce bonds were determined by XPS. The recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs was inhibited due to the synergistic effect of doping with Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) ions and N atoms. The optimal doping ratio was 0.70% Ce and 0.70% N using MB photocatalytic degradation under fluorescent light and visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm). The enhanced photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation was attributed to the increasing number of photogenerated OH radicals. The recombination of photogenerated e(-)-h(+) was attributed to be the key factor for the decrease in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB.

  2. Hyperbranched anatase TiO2 nanocrystals: nonaqueous synthesis, growth mechanism, and exploitation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Carlino, Elvio; Giannini, Cinzia; Altamura, Davide; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Gigli, Giuseppe; Cozzoli, P Davide

    2011-11-30

    A colloidal crystal-splitting growth regime has been accessed, in which TiO(2) nanocrystals, selectively trapped in the metastable anatase phase, can evolve to anisotropic shapes with tunable hyperbranched topologies over a broad size interval. The synthetic strategy relies on a nonaqueous sol-gel route involving programmed activation of aminolysis and pyrolysis of titanium carboxylate complexes in hot surfactant media via a simple multi-injection reactant delivery technique. Detailed investigations indicate that the branched objects initially formed upon the aminolysis reaction possess a strained monocrystalline skeleton, while their corresponding larger derivatives grown in the subsequent pyrolysis stage accommodate additional arms crystallographically decoupled from the lattice underneath. The complex evolution of the nanoarchitectures is rationalized within the frame of complementary mechanistic arguments. Thermodynamic pathways, determined by the shape-directing effect of the anatase structure and free-energy changes accompanying branching and anisotropic development, are considered to interplay with kinetic processes, related to diffusion-limited, spatially inhomogeneous monomer fluxes, lattice symmetry breaking at transient Ti(5)O(5) domains, and surfactant-induced stabilization. Finally, as a proof of functionality, the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells based on thin-film photoelectrodes that incorporate networked branched nanocrystals with intact crystal structure and geometric features is demonstrated. An energy conversion efficiency of 6.2% has been achieved with standard device configuration, which significantly overcomes the best performance ever approached with previously documented prototypes of split TiO(2) nanostructures. Analysis of the relevant photovoltaic parameters reveals that the utilized branched building blocks indeed offer light-harvesting and charge-collecting properties that can overwhelm detrimental electron losses due to recombination and trapping events.

  3. Fundamental study of Ti feedstock evaporation and the precursor formation process in inductively coupled thermal plasmas during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoto; Tanaka, Yasunori; Kita, K.; Ishisaka, Y.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.; Sueyasu, S.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were conducted for an inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP) torch during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis. The feedstock was injected intermittently into the ICTP torch to investigate the Ti feedstock evaporation process clearly and to elucidate the formation process of precursor species. Spatiotemporal distributions of Ti atomic lines and TiO spectra were observed simultaneously inside the plasma torch with the observation system developed. The observation results showed that the injected Ti feedstock was evaporated to form high-density Ti atomic vapour in the torch, and that the generated Ti atomic vapour is transported and diffused by gas flow and the density gradient. In addition, TiO molecular vapour was generated almost simultaneously around the on-axis region in the torch.

  4. Different methods in TiO2 photodegradation mechanism studies: gaseous and TiO2-adsorbed phases.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Pierre-Alexandre; Arsac, Fabrice; Thivel, Pierre-Xavier; Ferronato, Corinne; Delpech, Françoise; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Kaluzny, Pascal; Monnet, Christine

    2007-06-18

    The development of photocatalysis processes offers a significant number of perspectives especially in gaseous phase depollution. It is proved that the photo-oxidizing properties of photocatalyst (TiO(2)) activated by UV plays an important role in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Heterogeneous photocatalysis is based on the absorption of UV radiations by TiO(2). This phenomenon leads to the degradation and the oxidation of the compounds, according to a mechanism that associates the pollutant's adsorption on the photocatalyst and radical degradation reactions. The main objective of the study is the understanding of the TiO(2)-photocatalysis phenomenon including gaseous and adsorbed phase mechanisms. Results obtained with three different apparatus are compared; gaseous phases are analysed and mechanisms at the gaseous phase/photocatalyst interface are identified. This study leads to improve understanding of various mechanisms during pollutant photodegradation: adsorption of pollutants on TiO(2) first takes place, then desorption and/or photodegradation, and finally, desorption of degradation products on TiO(2). The association of analytical methods and different processes makes the determination of all parameters that affect the photocatalytic process possible. Mastering these parameters is fundamental for the design and construction of industrial size reactors that aim to purify the atmosphere.

  5. Synthesis and characterisation of new titanium amino-alkoxides: precursors for the formation of TiO2 materials.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Nathan; Kanna, Miki; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Molloy, Kieran C; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2008-02-01

    Reaction of the amino-alkoxides HOCH(CH(2)NMe(2))(2) (Hbdmap) and HOC(CH(2)NMe(2))(3) (Htdmap) with [Ti(OR)(4)] yields a series of heteroleptic titanium alkoxides [Ti(OR)(4-n)(L)(n)] (L = bdmap, tdmap). Substitution of the monodentate alkoxide with the chelating alkoxides becomes progressively more difficult, with homogeneous products being obtained only for n = 1, 2. The structure of [Ti(OEt)(3)(bdmap)](2), a mu-OEt bridged dimer, has been determined. Hydrolysis of [Ti(OR)(2)(L)(2)], by adventitious moisture affords the dimeric oxo-alkoxides [Ti(O)(L)(2)](2), both of which have been characterised crystallographically. These two compounds have also been prepared by reaction of [Ti(NMe(2))(2)(L)(2)] with the hydrated metal salts [Zn(acac)(2).2H(2)O] and [Zn(OAc)(2).2H(2)O] using the intrinsic water molecules in these salts to react with the labile amido groups, though the former also produces Me(Me(2)N)C=C(H)C(O)Me from reaction of liberated HNMe(2) with the coordinated acac ligand, while the latter also affords the ligand exchange product [Zn(OAc)(bdmap)]. In neither case does the free dimethylamino group of [Ti(O)(L)(2)](2) coordinate a second metal. The dimeric structure of [Zn(OAc)(bdmap)](2) has been established, and the structure of the tetrameric oxo-alkoxide [Ti(O)(OPr(i))(OCH(2)CH(2)NMe(2))](4) is reported for comparison with others in this study. [Ti(OEt)(3)(bdmap)](2) has been used as a precursor in AACVD (Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition) to generate amorphous TiO(2) films on glass at 440 degrees C, and TiO(2)@C nanoparticles of approximate diameter 350 nm with a carbon coating of width ca. 75 nm on heating in a sealed container at 700 degrees C. PMID:18217119

  6. Autogenic reaction synthesis of photocatalysts for solar fuel generation

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Brian J.; Pol, Vilas G.; Cronauer, Donald C.; Ramanathan, Muruganathan

    2016-04-19

    In one preferred embodiment, a photocatalyst for conversion of carbon dioxide and water to a hydrocarbon and oxygen comprises at least one nanoparticulate metal or metal oxide material that is substantially free of a carbon coating, prepared by heating a metal-containing precursor compound in a sealed reactor under a pressure autogenically generated by dissociation of the precursor material in the sealed reactor at a temperature of at least about 600.degree. C. to form a nanoparticulate carbon-coated metal or metal oxide material, and subsequently substantially removing the carbon coating. The precursor material comprises a solid, solvent-free salt comprising a metal ion and at least one thermally decomposable carbon- and oxygen-containing counter-ion, and the metal of the salt is selected from the group consisting of Mn, Ti, Sn, V, Fe, Zn, Zr, Mo, Nb, W, Eu, La, Ce, In, and Si.

  7. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-12-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  8. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-06-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  9. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2-x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-10-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2-x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2-x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2-x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2-x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano TiO2-SiO2: PVA composite - a novel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venckatesh, Rajendran; Balachandaran, Kartha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari

    2012-07-01

    A novel, simple, less time consuming and cost-effective sol-gel method has been developed to synthesize nano titania-silica with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite relatively at low temperature in acidic pH. Titania sol is prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride and was mixed with silicic acid and tetrahydrofuran mixture. The reaction was carried out under vigorous stirring for 6 h and dried at room temperature with the addition of PVA solution. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy and thermal techniques. The grain size of the particles was calculated by X-ray diffraction; surface morphology and chemical composition were determined from scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy; metal oxide stretching was confirmed from FT-IR spectroscopy; bandgap was calculated using UV-visible spectroscopy, and thermal stability of the prepared composite was determined by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. Since TiO2 got agglomerated on the surface of SiO2, effective absorptive sites increase which in turn increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the resulting composite.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Pt-MoO x -TiO2 electrodes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Chang; Cao, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Yuan-Sheng; Zhu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To enhance the CO-tolerance performance of anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells, carbon nanotubes were modified by titanium dioxide (donated as CNTs@TiO2) and subsequently served as the support for the preparation of Pt/CNTs@TiO2 and Pt-Mo/CNTs@TiO2 electrocatalysts via a UV-photoreduction method. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalysts were carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed probe ammonia molecules. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts for methanol oxidation were investigated by the cyclic voltammetry technique. The results show that Pt-Mo/CNTs@TiO2 electrode exhibits the highest performance in all the electrodes. It is explained that, the structure, the oxidation states, and the acid-base properties of the catalysts are influenced due to the strong interaction between Ti and Mo species by adding TiO2 and MoO x to the Pt-based catalysts.

  12. High-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of crystalline mesoporous TiO2 with superior photo catalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fujian; Liu, Chun-Lin; Hu, Baowei; Kong, Wei-Ping; Qi, Chen-Ze

    2012-07-01

    Mesoporous titanium dioxide with crystalline mesopore walls (M-TiO2-ns) have been successfully synthesized through the self-assembly of poly 4-Vinylpyridine template and tetrabutyl titanate precursor based on their complex bond interaction under high temperature (180 °C) hydrothermal conditions. X-ray diffraction shows that M-TiO2-ns have highly crystalline mesopore walls with anatase phase characters; N2 sorption-desorption isotherms, SEM and TEM images show that M-TiO2-ns have high BET surface areas (85 and 120 m2/g, respectively), large pore volumes (0.32 and 0.34 cm3/g, respectively) and crystalline mesopore walls, which exhibit monolithic morphology with crystal sizes around 3-5 μm. Interestingly, M-TiO2-ns exhibit much higher catalytic activities and good recyclability in both induced reduction of decabromodiphenyl and oxidation of Rhodamine B under UV light than those of nonporous crystalline TiO2 and M-TiO2 templated by hydrocarbon surfactant of F127, which is even comparable with that of commercial P25. Combination of the unique characters such as crystallinity, stable mesostructure, large BET surface areas and superior photo catalytic activities make M-TiO2-ns a kind of potentially important material for removing of organic pollutions in environment through green photo irradiation processes.

  13. Rational design and synthesis of freestanding photoelectric nanodevices as highly efficient photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Yue; Lin, Yung-Chen; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-05-12

    Photocatalysts are of significant interest in solar energy harvesting and conversion into chemical energy. However, the photocatalysts available to date are limited by either poor efficiency in the visible light range or insufficient photoelectrochemical stability. Here we report the rational design of a new generation of freestanding photoelectric nanodevices as highly efficient and stable photocatalysts by integrating a nanoscale photodiode with two redox catalysts in a single nanowire heterostructure. We show that a platinum-silicon-silver nanowire heterostructure can be synthesized to integrate a nanoscale metal-semiconductor Schottky diode encased in a protective insulating shell with two exposed metal catalysts. We further demonstrated that the Schottky diodes exhibited a pronounced photovoltaic effect with nearly unity internal quantum efficiency and that the integrated nanowire heterostructures could be used as highly efficient photocatalysts for a wide range of thermodynamically downhill and uphill reactions including the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and the reduction of metal ions and carbon dioxide using visible light. Our studies for the first time demonstrated the integration of multiple distinct functional components into a single nanostructure to form a standalone active nanosystem and for the first time successfully realized a photoelectric nanodevice that is both highly efficient and highly stable throughout the entire solar spectrum. It thus opens a rational avenue to the design and synthesis of a new generation of photoelectric nanosystems with unprecedented efficiency and stability and will have a broad impact in areas including environmental remediation, artificial photosynthesis and solar fuel production.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The TiO2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag3PO4 particles onto the surface of TiO2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO2 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers. Compared with TiO2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO2, Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the •OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers system.

  15. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  16. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yu, Xinluan; Lu, Dandan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H

    2015-01-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested. Graphical abstractWO3-surface modified TiO2 film showing better photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity. PMID:25852351

  18. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (η = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (η). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 ( Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  19. Facile in situ synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles-decorated g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction nanofibers and comparison study of their photosynergistic effects for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xinbo; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Zhenyi; Liu, Yichun

    2016-05-01

    Ternary heterostructured nanofibers (NFs) consisting of plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, or Pt NPs), graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4 NSs), and TiO2 NPs were synthesized in situ via a facile electrospinning technique combined with a subsequent thermal oxidation/reduction process. The thermal-reduced plasmonic NPs with sizes from 5 to 10 nm are dispersed uniformly into the heterojunctions of the NFs that are formed by thermal oxidation etching of exfoliated g-C3N4 NSs in the electrospun TiO2 nanofibrous matrix, as evidenced by microscopic and electronic structure analyses. In comparison to single-component photocatalysts, such as g-C3N4 NSs or TiO2 NFs, these ternary heterostructures exhibit significantly high photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photoactivities are attributed to the strong photosynergistic effect between the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the heterojunction interface sensitization, which results in the improvement of charge-carrier generation and separation in the ternary heterostructured NFs. Further investigations indicate that coupling heterojunction sensitization on the g-C3N4/TiO2 interface with Ag SPR effects by plasmonic resonant energy transfer is the optimal strategy for synergistically improving the charge-carrier kinetics to achieve highly efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution. It is believed that our present study offers a promising method for the rational integration of multi-component photocatalytic systems that can realize high photocatalytic performances for use in solar-to-fuel conversion.

  20. Plasma-electrolysis synthesis of TiO2 nano/microspheres with optical absorption extended into the infra-red region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Kun; Bai, Mei-Lin; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Hou, Shi-Min; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2011-08-01

    A novel plasma-electrolysis method is introduced to synthesize high-quality TiO(2) nano/microspheres that exhibited excellent optical absorption covering the range from ultraviolet to infra-red. Both experimental and theoretical results show that the oxygen vacancies in the TiO(2) spheres are primarily responsible for this wide absorption. PMID:21709878

  1. Synthesis of Metal Ion-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Two-Phase Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy-Trinh; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, TiO2 and metal ion-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal reaction of titanium butoxide precursor in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine and vapor water and they were characterized by XRD, Raman, TEM and DRS. We also investigated the photocatalytic activity of these oxides for the decomposition of Rhodamine B. From XRD and Raman results, doping of the metal ion in the crystal lattice did not change the high crystallinity of the TiO2 structure, and all the metal ions were incorporated into the structures of titania as well as replaced titanium ion or located at interstitial site. The absorption band shifted to a higher wavelength on the metal ion-doped TiO2 samples compared to the pure TiO2 sample. The Ce ion- doped TiO2 catalysts showed the higher photocatalytic activity compared to the pure TiO2 and a commercial P-25 catalysts and 1% Ce-doped TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity.

  2. Synthesis of Metal Ion-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Two-Phase Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy-Trinh; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, TiO2 and metal ion-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal reaction of titanium butoxide precursor in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine and vapor water and they were characterized by XRD, Raman, TEM and DRS. We also investigated the photocatalytic activity of these oxides for the decomposition of Rhodamine B. From XRD and Raman results, doping of the metal ion in the crystal lattice did not change the high crystallinity of the TiO2 structure, and all the metal ions were incorporated into the structures of titania as well as replaced titanium ion or located at interstitial site. The absorption band shifted to a higher wavelength on the metal ion-doped TiO2 samples compared to the pure TiO2 sample. The Ce ion- doped TiO2 catalysts showed the higher photocatalytic activity compared to the pure TiO2 and a commercial P-25 catalysts and 1% Ce-doped TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. PMID:27433699

  3. Hierarchically branched Fe2O3@TiO2 nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting: facile synthesis and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuangang; Wei, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hua; Tang, Yuxin; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Highly photoactive and durable photoanode materials are the key to photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this paper, hierarchically branched Fe2O3@TiO2 nanorod arrays (denoted as Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs) composed of a long Fe2O3 trunk and numerous short TiO2 nanorod branches were fabricated and used as photoanodes for water splitting. Significant improvement of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance was observed based on Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs. The photocurrent density of Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs reaches up to 1.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus RHE, which is 10 times higher than that of pristine Fe2O3 nanorod arrays under the same conditions. Furthermore, an obvious cathodic shift in the onset potential of photocurrent was observed in the Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs. More significantly, the Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs are quite stable even after 3600 s continuous illumination, and the photocurrent density shows almost no decay. Finally, a tentative mechanism was proposed to explain the superior performance of Fe2O3@TiO2 BNRs for PEC water splitting and discussed in detail on the basis of our experimental results.

  4. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of zinc-molybdenum oxide photocatalysts using an electrochemical-thermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goveas, J. J.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Rao, P.; Pinto, R.

    2016-05-01

    Dyes act as major pollutants in water and can be degraded by photocatalysis. This paper establishes the role of electrochemically generated nanostructures of Zinc-Molybdenum oxides (ZMO) as photocatalysts by degrading EBT (Eriochrome Black- T) taken as a model pollutant under UV light. A facile, rapid and low cost process to synthesize these nanostructures (ZMO) is presented. Various factors that affect the synthesis and photocatalytic activity of these nanostructures are discussed. The role of calcination temperature and pulverization on the photocatalytic action has also been established. Particles have been synthesized in pure form as well as using surfactants such as cetrimide (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) to enhance their photocatalytic action. This paper also discusses the characterization of these nanoparticles by powder XRD, SEM, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Decolourisation was achieved to completion under optimum experimental conditions at room temperature ascertaining the application of these nanostructures as effective photocatalysts.

  6. Low-temperature synthesis of high-ordered anatase TiO2 nanotube array films coated with exposed {001} nanofacets

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhu, Jihao; Kou, Shengzhong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Yang, Hangsheng

    2015-01-01

    High-ordered anatase TiO2 nanotube array films coated with exposed high-reactive {001} nanofacets were fabricated by a modified hydrothermal method using amorphous anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays (ATONAs) as starting materials. It was found that the reaction between gas phase HF and solid ATONAs played a key role in the transformation process from amorphous to anatase TiO2, and the TiO2 tubular structure kept unchanged during the surface modification with an exposed {001} facets up to 76.5%, which could be attributed to the low reaction temperature of 130 °C. Our study provided a novel route for the facile preparation of {001} facets exposed anatase TiO2. PMID:26634815

  7. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  8. One-pot synthesis of N-F-Cr-doped anatase TiO2 microspheres with nearly all-(001) surface for enhanced solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-Ming; Tang, Mei-Lan

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis and clarifications in structure-property relationship for anatase TiO2 crystals exposing (001) facets have attracted much attention. In this paper, a novel titania microsphere with nearly all-(001) surface was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of a thermal sprayed TiN/Ti coating with HF aqueous solution containing chromium powders. Unlike the conventional (001)-facet exposed anatase crystals, which are highly truncated bipyramids, the crystal achieved in the current investigation is drum-like with a round cross section. The formation of the drum-like crystals was contributed to a balance between the erosion and precipitation of anatase single crystallites. The Cr-doping in anatase was believed to increase the surface deficiency which enhanced the erosion procedure, leading to the drum-like crystals. The XPS analysis confirmed the incorporations of N, F and Cr in the microsized anatase crystals through the one-pot reaction, which led to a significantly enhanced solar absorption. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance revealed a band-to-band red-shift of the band gap of the anatase crystals to 1.60 eV, which is contributed mainly to the homogeneous Cr-doping.The synthesis and clarifications in structure-property relationship for anatase TiO2 crystals exposing (001) facets have attracted much attention. In this paper, a novel titania microsphere with nearly all-(001) surface was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of a thermal sprayed TiN/Ti coating with HF aqueous solution containing chromium powders. Unlike the conventional (001)-facet exposed anatase crystals, which are highly truncated bipyramids, the crystal achieved in the current investigation is drum-like with a round cross section. The formation of the drum-like crystals was contributed to a balance between the erosion and precipitation of anatase single crystallites. The Cr-doping in anatase was believed to increase the surface deficiency which enhanced the erosion procedure, leading to the drum

  9. Acid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 from titanate nanotubes: influence of acids on the photodegradation of gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunyang; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    In order to efficiently remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor air, one-dimensional titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) were hydrothermally treated to prepare TiO2 nanocrystals with different crystalline phases, shapes and sizes. The influences of various acids such as CH3COOH, HNO3, HCl, HF and H2SO4 used in the treatment were separately compared to optimize the performance of the TiO2 nanocrystals. Compared with the strong and corrosive inorganic acids, CH3COOH was not only safer and more environmentally friendly, but also more efficient in promoting the photocatalytic activity of the obtained TiO2. It was observed that the anatase TiO2 synthesized in 15 mol/L CH3COOH solution exhibited the highest photodegradation rate of gaseous toluene (94%), exceeding that of P25 (44%) by a factor of more than two. The improved photocatalytic activity was attributed to the small crystallite size and surface modification by CH3COOH. The influence of relative humidity (20%-80%) on the performance of TiO2 nanocrystals was also studied. The anatase TiO2 synthesized in 15 mol/L CH3COOH solution was more tolerant to moisture than the other TiO2 nanocrystals and P25.

  10. Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous TiO2 Nanospheres from a Simple Double-Surfactant Assembly-Directed Method for Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongwei; Shang, Yesheng; Jing, Yunke; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yupu; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-09-28

    Exploring facile and reproducible methods to prepare mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres is crucial for improving the performance of TiO2 materials for energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report a simple and reproducible double-surfactant assembly-directed method to prepare monodisperse mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres. A double-surfactant system of n-dodecylamine (DDA) and Pluronic F127 was adopted to control the hydrolysis and condensation rates of tetrabutyl titanate in a mixture of water and alcohol at room temperature. In this process, the diameter size of mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres can be simply tuned from ∼50 to 250 nm by varying the concentration of H2O and surfactants. The double-surfactant system of DDA and F127 plays an effective role in determining the size, morphology, and monodispersity of mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres to reduce agglomeration during the sol-gel process. The resultant mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanospheres after solvothermal treatment at 160 °C are built of interpenetrating nanocrystals with a size of ∼10 nm, which are arranged to obtain a large number of connecting mesopores. Mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres with a small diameter size of around 50 nm possess a high surface area (∼160 m(2)/g) and mesopores with sizes of 4-30 nm. The small diameter size, high crystallinity, and mesoporous structure of TiO2 nanospheres lead to excellent performance in cycling stability and rate capability for lithium-ion batteries. After 500 cycles, the monodisperse mesoporous TiO2 nanospheres exhibit a charge capacity as high as 156 mAhg(-1) without obvious fade, and the Coulombic efficiency can reach up to 100%.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of TiO2/WOx nanotubes for photocatalytic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/WOx nanotubes have unique photo-energy retention properties that have gathered scientific interest. Herein, we report the synthesis, morphological characterization, and the electrochemical characterization of TiO2/WOx nanotubes compared with pure TiO2 nanotubes, prepared by anodization technique. Significant structural differences were not observed in TiO2/WOx nanotubes as observed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The charge transfer resistance of TiO2/WOx before and after photo irradiation determined by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy proves the inherent energy retention property which was not observed in pure TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:25346647

  12. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Characteristic of Electric Reduced Black TiO2 Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jong-Won; Ryu, Ki Yeon; Kim, Sunho; Jang, Se-Jung; Kim, Yong Soo

    In various reduction methods of TiO2, the electric reduction could apply to anodized TiO2 nanotube. However, it is not suitable to reduce TiO2 nanorods(NRs) grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using hydrothermal method, because those are easily peeled off due to lattice mismatching between FTO and TiO2 NRs. In this talk, we will demonstrate electric reduced-black TiO2 NRs with strong adhesion on FTO substrate for an effective visible photocatalyst. To fabricate the reduced-black TiO2 NRs, we firstly deposited TiO2 seed layer on FTO glass using RF-sputtering for mitigating the exfoliation, then grow TiO2 NRs with hydrothermal method. Finally, TiO2 NRs were reduced with electric bias. The final reduced-black TiO2 NRs exhibit a higher photocurrent density, 0.9 mA/cm2 in comparison with pure-TiO2 NRs. This result indicates that our reduced-black TiO2 NRs has lower bandgap with modified valance band position and enhance the surface reactivity with oxygen defect generation. This research was supported by Priority Research Centers Program (2009-0093818), the Basic Science Research Program (2015-019609) and Basic Research Lab Program (2014-071686) through National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government.

  13. Ultrathin TiO2 layer coated-CdS spheres core-shell nanocomposite with enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-12-26

    Development of various strategies for controllable fabrication of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) with highly active photocatalytic performance has been attracting ever-increasing research attention. In particular, control of the ultrathin layer TiO2 shell in constructing CSNs in an aqueous phase is a significant but technologically challenging issue. Here, this paper demonstrates the interface assembly synthesis of CdS nanospheres@TiO2 core-shell photocatalyst via the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged water-stable titania precursor with positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs), followed by the formation of the ultrathin-layer TiO2 shell through a facile refluxing process in aqueous phase. The as-formed CdS NSPs@TiO2 core-shell nanohybrid exhibits a high visible-light-driven photoactivity for selective transformation and reduction of heavy metal ions. The ultrathin TiO2 layer coated on CdS NSPs results in excellent light transmission property, enhanced adsorption capacity, and improved transfer of charge carriers and lifespan of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which would prominently contribute to the significant photoactivity enhancement. It is anticipated that this facile aqueous-phase synthesis strategy could be extended to design a variety of more efficient CSN photocatalysts with controllable morphology toward target applications in diverse photoredox processes.

  14. Ultrathin TiO2 layer coated-CdS spheres core-shell nanocomposite with enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-12-26

    Development of various strategies for controllable fabrication of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) with highly active photocatalytic performance has been attracting ever-increasing research attention. In particular, control of the ultrathin layer TiO2 shell in constructing CSNs in an aqueous phase is a significant but technologically challenging issue. Here, this paper demonstrates the interface assembly synthesis of CdS nanospheres@TiO2 core-shell photocatalyst via the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged water-stable titania precursor with positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs), followed by the formation of the ultrathin-layer TiO2 shell through a facile refluxing process in aqueous phase. The as-formed CdS NSPs@TiO2 core-shell nanohybrid exhibits a high visible-light-driven photoactivity for selective transformation and reduction of heavy metal ions. The ultrathin TiO2 layer coated on CdS NSPs results in excellent light transmission property, enhanced adsorption capacity, and improved transfer of charge carriers and lifespan of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which would prominently contribute to the significant photoactivity enhancement. It is anticipated that this facile aqueous-phase synthesis strategy could be extended to design a variety of more efficient CSN photocatalysts with controllable morphology toward target applications in diverse photoredox processes. PMID:24245797

  15. In-situ synthesis of highly efficient visible light driven stannic oxide/graphitic carbon nitride heterostructured photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Binglin; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-10-15

    Novel and efficient visible-light-driven stannic oxide/graphitic carbon nitride heterostructured photocatalysts are prepared via a simple in-situ solvothermal method. Characterization results demonstrate that there exist strong interactions between SnO2 nanoparticles and g-C3N4 matrix, which indicates the formation of SnO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction. The as-synthesized SnO2/g-C3N4 composite exhibits improved efficiency for photodegradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solutions, with an apparent rate constant 6.5 times higher than that of commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to synergistic effect between SnO2 and g-C3N4, resulting in effective interfacial charge transfer and prolonged charge-hole separation time. Moreover, SnO2/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts possess excellent durability and stability after 6 recycling runs, and a possible photocatalytic mechanism is also proposed. This research highlights the promising applications of two dimensional g-C3N4 based composite photocatalysts in the field of waste water disposal and environmental remediation. PMID:27421114

  16. Self-assembly and photocatalytic activity of branched silicatein/silintaphin filaments decorated with silicatein-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Link, Thorben; Markl, Julia S; Müller, Werner E G; Renkel, Jochen; Korzhev, Michael; Wiens, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental mechanisms of biomineralization and their translation into innovative synthetic approaches have yielded promising perspectives for the fabrication of biomimetic and bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. In siliceous sponges, the enzyme silicatein catalyzes the polycondensation of molecular precursors to nano-structured SiO2 that is deposited on self-assembled filaments consisting of the two silicatein isoforms (silicatein-α and -β) and the scaffold protein silintaphin-1. Due to its broad substrate specificity silicatein is also able to convert in vitro various other precursors to non-biogenic materials (e.g., hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide [TiBALDH] and subsequent polycondensation to titania [TiO2]). In the present approach, silicatein was bioengineered to carry a protein tag (Arg-tag) that confers binding affinity to TiO2. Then, by combining Arg-tagged silicatein-α with silicatein-β and silintaphin-1, self-assembled branched hybrid protein microfilaments were fabricated. Upon subsequent incubation with TiBALDH the filaments were decorated with TiO2 and assayed for photocatalytic activity through photodegradation of the dye methylene blue. This is the first approach that considers concomitant application of two silicatein isoforms for the synthesis of bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. It is also the first time that the biocatalytic activity of the enzymes has been combined with both the structure-providing properties of silintaphin-1 and a TiO2 affinity protein tag to fabricate self-assembled branched protein filaments as template for a silicatein-synthesized TiO2 photocatalyst. The TiO2-decorated filaments might be explored as a practical alternative to approaches where biotemplates have to be laboriously isolated from their original biological source prior to TiO2 immobilization. PMID:27151092

  17. Self-assembly and photocatalytic activity of branched silicatein/silintaphin filaments decorated with silicatein-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Link, Thorben; Markl, Julia S; Müller, Werner E G; Renkel, Jochen; Korzhev, Michael; Wiens, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental mechanisms of biomineralization and their translation into innovative synthetic approaches have yielded promising perspectives for the fabrication of biomimetic and bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. In siliceous sponges, the enzyme silicatein catalyzes the polycondensation of molecular precursors to nano-structured SiO2 that is deposited on self-assembled filaments consisting of the two silicatein isoforms (silicatein-α and -β) and the scaffold protein silintaphin-1. Due to its broad substrate specificity silicatein is also able to convert in vitro various other precursors to non-biogenic materials (e.g., hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide [TiBALDH] and subsequent polycondensation to titania [TiO2]). In the present approach, silicatein was bioengineered to carry a protein tag (Arg-tag) that confers binding affinity to TiO2. Then, by combining Arg-tagged silicatein-α with silicatein-β and silintaphin-1, self-assembled branched hybrid protein microfilaments were fabricated. Upon subsequent incubation with TiBALDH the filaments were decorated with TiO2 and assayed for photocatalytic activity through photodegradation of the dye methylene blue. This is the first approach that considers concomitant application of two silicatein isoforms for the synthesis of bioinspired organic-inorganic hybrid materials. It is also the first time that the biocatalytic activity of the enzymes has been combined with both the structure-providing properties of silintaphin-1 and a TiO2 affinity protein tag to fabricate self-assembled branched protein filaments as template for a silicatein-synthesized TiO2 photocatalyst. The TiO2-decorated filaments might be explored as a practical alternative to approaches where biotemplates have to be laboriously isolated from their original biological source prior to TiO2 immobilization.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of UV-treated Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate-doped TiO2 layers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2016-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been extensively studied because they constitute promising low-cost alternatives to their conventional semiconductor-based counterparts. However, much of the effort aimed at achieving high conversion efficiencies has focused on dye and liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs fabricated by mixing TiO2 with Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (Fe-BLT). These nanosized Fe-BLT powders were prepared by using a high-energy ball-milling process. In addition, we used a UV radiation-ozone (UV-O3) treatment to change the surface wettability of TiO2 from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and thereby prevented the easy separation of the Fe-BLT-mixed TiO2 from the fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) coating glass.

  19. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-02-18

    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In

  20. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-02-18

    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In

  1. Synthesis of few-layer MoS2 nanosheet-coated TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures for enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijia; Yin, Zongyou; Du, Yaping; Huang, Xiao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Fan, Zhanxi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-14

    MoS(2) nanosheet-coated TiO(2) nanobelt heterostructures--referred to as TiO(2)@MoS(2)--with a 3D hierarchical configuration are prepared via a hydrothermal reaction. The TiO(2) nanobelts used as a synthetic template inhibit the growth of MoS(2) crystals along the c-axis, resulting in a few-layer MoS(2) nanosheet coating on the TiO(2) nanobelts. The as-prepared TiO(2)@MoS(2) heterostructure shows a high photocatalytic hydrogen production even without the Pt co-catalyst. Importantly, the TiO(2)@MoS(2) heterostructure with 50 wt% of MoS(2) exhibits the highest hydrogen production rate of 1.6 mmol h(-1) g(-1). Moreover, such a heterostructure possesses a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes and shows high performance in photocatalytic degradation of the dye molecules.

  2. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe3O4/TiO2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min-1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h-1.

  3. WO3/CeO2/TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO(x) by NH3: Effect of the Synthesis Method.

    PubMed

    Michalow-Mauke, Katarzyna A; Lu, Ye; Ferri, Davide; Graule, Thomas; Kowalski, Kazimierz; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    WO3/CeO2/TiO2, CeO2/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation. CeO2/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 showed activity towards the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) by NH3, which was significantly improved by subsequent impregnation of CeO/TiO2 with WO3. Catalytic performance, NH3 oxidation and NH3 temperature programmed desorption of wet-impregnated WO3/CeO2/TiO2 were compared to those of a flame-made counterpart. The flame-made catalyst exhibits a peculiar arrangement of W-Ce-Ti-oxides that makes it very active for NH3-SCR. Catalysts prepared by wet impregnation with the aim to mimic the structure of the flame-made catalyst were not able to fully reproduce its activity. The differences in the catalytic performance between the investigated catalysts were related to their structural properties and the different interaction of the catalyst components.

  4. Nanocrystalline TiO2 films containing sulfur and gold: Synthesis, characterization and application to immobilize and direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali; Hamadanian, Masood; Koushali, Samaneh Katebi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, nanoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) film was used for cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilization as an electrode substrate for electrochemical redox activity of the adsorbed cyt c. The result of cyclic voltammetry exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of cyt c (formal potential [E0‧ = (Epa + Epc)/2] of 53 mV versus Ag/AgCl). In addition the effect of metal and nonmetal ions (Au, S) co-doping on the efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticles (prepared by combining sol-gel and photo-deposition methods) on the cyt c immobilization process was investigated. The results exhibited that the Au, S-co-doped TiO2 (Au/S-TiO2) with a spheroidal shape demonstrates a smaller grain size than the pure TiO2. Meanwhile, the UV-vis DRS of Au/S-TiO2 showed a considerable red shift to the visible region. As a result, it was found that 4% Au/0.1% S-TiO2 had the highest efficiency for cytochrome c immobilization. The results showed that the peak currents were higher after the annealing of the TiO2 film. This observation suggests that the use of TiO2 films may be advantageous for the development of nanoporous biosensors employing reductive electrochemistry.

  5. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe3O4/TiO2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min(-1) and turnover frequency is 5457 h(-1). PMID:25665732

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic oxidation of different organic dyes by using Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 solid solution and visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Pramanik, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2009-08-01

    Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 solid solution was prepared from two different oxides, manganese oxide (from KMnO 4 and ethanol) and TiO 2, these samples were characterized by BET, XRD, EDAX, SEM, FT-IR, ESR, XPS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 powder was investigated by photooxidation of different dyes like Rhodamine B, thymol blue, methyl orange and Bromocresol green under visible light (300-W Xe lamp; λ > 420 nm). The results show that the alloy of TiO 2 with 1 mol% of Mn 2O 3 (MNT1) exhibit photocatalytic activity 3-5 times higher than that of P25 TiO 2 for oxidation of various dyes (RB, TB, MO and BG). The average particle size and crystallite size of MNT1 were found to be 100 nm and 12 nm measured from SEM and XRD, respectively. The EPR spectra of the Mn 2O 3/TiO 2 samples is a sharp five-line Mn(III) component centered on geff = 1 .99.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of multilayered photoanodes by introducing mesoporous carbon and TiO2 for humic acid adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Soraya; Jahangirian, Hossein; Webster, Thomas J; Soltani, Salman Masoudi; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured photoanodes were prepared via a novel combination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and mesoporous carbon (C). Four different photoanodes were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating onto a glassy substrate of fluorine-doped tin oxide. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, TiO2/C/TiO2, TiO2/C/C/TiO2, and TiO2/C/TiO2/C/TiO2 photoanodes were evaluated by exposing the synthesized photoanodes to UV-visible light. The photocurrent density observed in these photoanodes confirmed that an additional layer of mesoporous carbon could successfully increase the photocurrent density. The highest photocurrent density of ~1.022 mA cm(-2) at 1 V/saturated calomel electrode was achieved with TiO2/C/C/TiO2 under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2) from a solar simulator. The highest value of surface roughness was measured for a TiO2/C/C/TiO2 combination owing to the presence of two continuous layers of mesoporous carbon. The resulting films had a thickness ranging from 1.605 µm to 5.165 µm after the calcination process. The presence of double-layer mesoporous carbon resulted in a 20% increase in the photocurrent density compared with the TiO2/C/TiO2 combination when only a single mesoporous carbon layer was employed. The improved performance of these photoanodes can be attributed to the enhanced porosity and increased void space due to the presence of mesoporous carbon. For the first time, it has been demonstrated here that the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 can be improved by integrating several layers of mesoporous carbon. Comparison of the rate of removal of humic acid by the prepared photoanodes showed that the highest performance from TiO2/C/C/TiO2 was due to the highest photocurrent density generated. Therefore, this study showed that optimizing the sequence of mesoporous carbon layers can be a viable and inexpensive method for enhanced humic acid removal. PMID:27574426

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of multilayered photoanodes by introducing mesoporous carbon and TiO2 for humic acid adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Soraya; Jahangirian, Hossein; Webster, Thomas J; Soltani, Salman Masoudi; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured photoanodes were prepared via a novel combination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and mesoporous carbon (C). Four different photoanodes were synthesized by sol–gel spin coating onto a glassy substrate of fluorine-doped tin oxide. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, TiO2/C/TiO2, TiO2/C/C/TiO2, and TiO2/C/TiO2/C/TiO2 photoanodes were evaluated by exposing the synthesized photoanodes to UV–visible light. The photocurrent density observed in these photoanodes confirmed that an additional layer of mesoporous carbon could successfully increase the photocurrent density. The highest photocurrent density of ~1.022 mA cm−2 at 1 V/saturated calomel electrode was achieved with TiO2/C/C/TiO2 under an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm−2 from a solar simulator. The highest value of surface roughness was measured for a TiO2/C/C/TiO2 combination owing to the presence of two continuous layers of mesoporous carbon. The resulting films had a thickness ranging from 1.605 µm to 5.165 µm after the calcination process. The presence of double-layer mesoporous carbon resulted in a 20% increase in the photocurrent density compared with the TiO2/C/TiO2 combination when only a single mesoporous carbon layer was employed. The improved performance of these photoanodes can be attributed to the enhanced porosity and increased void space due to the presence of mesoporous carbon. For the first time, it has been demonstrated here that the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 can be improved by integrating several layers of mesoporous carbon. Comparison of the rate of removal of humic acid by the prepared photoanodes showed that the highest performance from TiO2/C/C/TiO2 was due to the highest photocurrent density generated. Therefore, this study showed that optimizing the sequence of mesoporous carbon layers can be a viable and inexpensive method for enhanced humic acid removal. PMID:27574426

  9. Rapid flame synthesis of internal Mo6+ doped TiO2 nanocrystals in situ decorated with highly dispersed MoO3 clusters for lithium ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Hu, Yanjie; Shen, Jianhua; Jiang, Haibo; Min, Guoquan; Qiu, Shengjie; Song, Zhitang; Sun, Zhuo; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-11-01

    The rational design of nanoheterostructured materials has attracted much attention because of its importance for developing highly efficient LIBs. Herein, we have demonstrated that internal Mo6+ doped TiO2 nanocrystals in situ decorated with highly dispersed MoO3 clusters have been realized by a facile and rapid flame spray pyrolysis route for electrochemical energy storage. In such intriguing nanostructures, internal Mo6+ doping can improve the conductivity of electrode materials and facilitate rapid Li+ intercalation and ion transport and the heteroassembly of highly dispersed ultrafine MoO3 clusters with excellent electrochemical activity endows the TiO2 with extra Li+ ion storage ability as well as incorporates Mo6+. Thus, the as-prepared nanohybrid electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity and superior rate capability due to the maximum synergetic effect of TiO2, Mo6+ and ultrafine MoO3 clusters. Moreover, the aerosol flame process with a unique temperature gradient opens a new strategy to design novel hybrid materials by the simultaneous doping and heteroassembly engineering for next-generation LIBs.The rational design of nanoheterostructured materials has attracted much attention because of its importance for developing highly efficient LIBs. Herein, we have demonstrated that internal Mo6+ doped TiO2 nanocrystals in situ decorated with highly dispersed MoO3 clusters have been realized by a facile and rapid flame spray pyrolysis route for electrochemical energy storage. In such intriguing nanostructures, internal Mo6+ doping can improve the conductivity of electrode materials and facilitate rapid Li+ intercalation and ion transport and the heteroassembly of highly dispersed ultrafine MoO3 clusters with excellent electrochemical activity endows the TiO2 with extra Li+ ion storage ability as well as incorporates Mo6+. Thus, the as-prepared nanohybrid electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity and superior rate capability due to the maximum synergetic effect of TiO2, Mo6+ and ultrafine MoO3 clusters. Moreover, the aerosol flame process with a unique temperature gradient opens a new strategy to design novel hybrid materials by the simultaneous doping and heteroassembly engineering for next-generation LIBs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM, TEM images, XRD patterns, EDX and the discharge-charge capacity of Mo6+-TiO2/MoO3 NHs, TiO2, and Mo6+-TiO2/MoO3 NHs after sulfuration, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms of Mo6+-TiO2/MoO3 NHs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05586e

  10. Graphene oxide nanosheets as an effective template for the synthesis of porous TiO2 film in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; He, Fenglong; Wang, Jin; Yu, Huogen; Zhao, Li

    2015-12-01

    Template method by using various organic components as the pore-forming agent is an effective strategy for the preparation of various porous inorganic materials. After high-temperature calcination in air, the organic components can be in situ decomposed into the gaseous CO2, resulting in the formation of porous structures in inorganic materials. In addition to the well-known organic components, it is highly required to develop new and simple carbon-containing template to prepare porous inorganic nanostructures. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used as a new template for the preparation of porous TiO2 film photoelectrode, which can be applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The porous TiO2 film was fabricated via a three-step method, including the initially homogeneous grafting of GO nanosheets on the TiO2 surface (TiO2-GO), the preparation of TiO2-GO film using blade method and final formation of porous structure after the in situ removal of GO by high-temperature calcination. The effect of GO content on photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs was investigated. It was found that the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on porous TiO2-GO (0.75%) film reached up to a maximum value (4.65%), which was much higher than that of DSSC based on nonporous TiO2 film (4.01%). The enhanced conversion efficiency can be attributed to the formation of more porous structures caused by the GO nanosheets after high-temperature calcination. This work may provide a new insight for preparing other porous structured materials.

  11. TiO2 nanoparticles induce DNA double strand breaks and cell cycle arrest in human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Krupa; Patel, Pal; Shah, Darshini; Shukla, Ritesh K; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the second highest global annual production (∼3000 tons) among the metal-containing NPs. These NPs are used as photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, and in various other consumer products including sunscreen, food packaging, therapeutics, biosensors, surface cleaning agents, and others. Humans are exposed to these NPs during synthesis (laboratory), manufacture (industry), and use (consumer products, devices, medicines, etc.), as well as through environmental exposures (disposal). Hence, there is great concern regarding the health effects caused by exposure to NPs and, in particular, to TiO2 NPs. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs in A549 cells was examined, focusing on their potential to induce ROS, different types of DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest. We show that TiO2 NPs can induce DNA damage and a corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency, as evident from the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. We demonstrate that DNA damage may be attributed to increased oxidative stress and ROS generation. Furthermore, genomic and proteomic analyses showed increased expression of ATM, P53, and CdC-2 and decreased expression of ATR, H2AX, and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells, suggesting induction of DNA double strand breaks. The occurrence of double strand breaks was correlated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, the results indicate the potential for genotoxicity following exposure to these TiO2 NPs, suggesting that use should be carefully monitored.

  12. Synthesis of Hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 Nanosheets Microspheres toward Efficient Photocatalystic Reduction of CO2 into CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huohai; Bai, Yang; Chen, Ting; Shi, Xian; Zhu, Yu-chuan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 nanosheets microspheres were synthesized with dry ice as carbon source, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic results showed that (BiO)2CO3 display much higher photocatalytic activity than BiOCl and TiO2 for photocatalystic reduction of CO2 under UV-visible light. The photocatalytic mechanism study revealled that (BiO)2CO3 display better separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers due to the large interlayer spacing (1.3675 nm).

  13. TiO2@C core-shell nanoparticles formed by polymeric nano-encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Vasei, Mitra; Das, Paramita; Cherfouth, Hayet; Marsan, Benoît; Claverie, Jerome P.

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e., the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolysis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent. PMID:25072054

  14. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasei, Mitra; Das, Paramita; Cherfouh, Hayet; Marsan, Benoit; Claverie, Jerome

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  15. TiO2@C core-shell nanoparticles formed by polymeric nano-encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Vasei, Mitra; Das, Paramita; Cherfouth, Hayet; Marsan, Benoît; Claverie, Jerome P

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e., the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolysis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent. PMID:25072054

  16. Synthesis and photoinduced charge-transfer properties of a ZnFe2O4-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyong; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Qidong; Chen, Guohua

    2011-03-15

    TiO2 nanotube arrays sensitized with ZnFe2O4 nano-crystals were successfully fabricated by a two-step process of anodization and a vacuum-assistant impregnation method followed by annealing. The sample was studied by an environmental scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction to characterize its morphology and chemical composition. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and a photoelectrochemical measurement approved that the ZnFe2O4 sensitization enhanced the probability of photoinduced charge separation and extended the range of the photoresponse of TiO2 nanotube arrays from the UV to visible region. In addition, the behaviors of photoinduced charge transfer in a TiO2 nanotube array electrode before and after sensitization by ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals were comparatively studied. The photoluminescence of the TiO2 nanotube array electrode became suppressed, and the surface photovoltage responses on the spectrum were significantly enhanced after the introduction of ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals. The transfer dynamics of the photoinduced charges were observed directly by a transient photovoltage measurement, which revealed a fast charge separation at the interface between ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals and TiO2 nanotubes upon light excitation.

  17. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kiran; Singh, R P; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7%) was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping) concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only.

  18. Wet chemical synthesis and self-assembly of SnS2 nanoparticles on TiO2 for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukigase, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sagawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2011-04-01

    SnS2 nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple wet chemical process at room temperature. The SnS2 nanoparticles were approximately spherical in shape and had diameter about 3-4 nm. SnS2-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were fabricated by the immersion of chemically modified TiO2 to well-dispersed SnS2 solution for 72 h (i.e., self-assembly method.) SnS2-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were applied in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Under AM1.5 irradiation with 100 mW/cm2 light intensity (at 1 sun), the short-circuit current density (J(sc)), the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), the fill factor (FF), and the energy conversion efficiency (eta) were 0.47 mA/cm2, 0.29 V, 0.58 and 0.081%, respectively.

  19. Room-temperature synthesis of single-phase anatase TiO2 by aging and its self-cleaning properties.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kaihong; Xin, John H

    2010-12-01

    A facile process to synthesize single-phase anatase titanium dioxide nanocrystallites at room temperature was presented. The process included a sol-gel reaction in an aqueous media followed by aging at room temperature. The anatase TiO2 was characterized using XRD, TEM and SEM. The cotton fabrics-coated by the anatase nanocrystallites possessed significant photocatalytic self-cleaning properties as demonstrated by their ability to decompose a colorant and degrade red wine and coffee stains, which was equivalent to that of prepared by heating or hydrothermal methods described previously. The anatase TiO2-coated cotton substrate also showed a high UPF rating of 50+, which means excellent UV protection to human wearers. The study of the adhesion between the anatase TiO2 and the cotton substrate showed that even after 20 times of repeated launderings, the-coated substrate was still capable of decomposing stains, which indicated its photocatalytic power, though this was reduced compared to that before laundering. The tensile strength results of the anatase TiO2-coated cotton fabrics indicate that the anatase TiO2 will not damage the cotton substrate even after 20 h of continuous UV irradiation. The method of preparing single-phase anatase TiO2 revealed in this study not only eliminates the need for high temperature processing, which means energy saving, but also broadens its applications to poor acid-resistant and low thermal stability materials such as many of the biomaterials and cellulosic materials.

  20. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  1. Remarkable Charge Separation and Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancement through Interconnection of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yusuke; Inami, Nozomu; Hattori, Hideya; Saito, Kanji; Sohmiya, Minoru; Tsunoji, Nao; Komaguchi, Kenji; Sano, Tsuneji; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Although tremendous effort has been directed to synthesizing advanced TiO2 , it remains difficult to obtain TiO2 exhibiting a photocatalytic efficiency higher than that of P25, a benchmark photocatalyst. P25 is composed of anatase, rutile, and amorphous TiO2 particles, and photoexcited electron transfer and subsequent charge separation at the anatase-rutile particle interfaces explain its high photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report on a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2 , which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation. This process produces a new TiO2 exhibiting a considerably enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. This method of synthesizing this TiO2 , inspired by a recently burgeoning zeolite design, promises to make TiO2 applications more feasible and effective.

  2. A new preparation of doped photocatalytic TiO2 anatase nanoparticles: a preliminary study for the removal of pollutants in confined museum areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Cirino, Antonio M. E.; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    The use of nanotechnology in conservation is a relatively new concept. Usually, classical cleanup methods take into account the use of other chemicals: On the one hand they help the environment destroying pollutants, but on the other hand they often become new pollutants. Among the new oxidation methods called advanced oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis has appeared an emerging technology with several economic and environmental advantages. A new sol-gel method of synthesis of TiO2 anatase is reported in this work using lithium and cobalt (II) salts. The activation energy of the doped photocatalyst was analyzed by solid-state UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The mobility of Li ions on TiO2 NPs surface was studied by 7Li MAS NMR spectroscopy. Use of doped nanotitania is suggested from authors for the removal of pollutants in confined areas containing goods that must be preserved from decomposition and aging phenomena.

  3. Modelling materials for solar fuel synthesis by artificial photosynthesis; predicting the optical, electronic and redox properties of photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiglion, Pierre; Berardo, Enrico; Butchosa, Cristina; Wobbe, Milena C. C.; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2016-02-01

    In this mini-review, we discuss what insight computational modelling can provide into the working of photocatalysts for solar fuel synthesis and how calculations can be used to screen for new promising materials for photocatalytic water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. We will extensively discuss the different relevant (material) properties and the computational approaches (DFT, TD-DFT, GW/BSE) available to model them. We illustrate this with examples from the literature, focussing on polymeric and nanoparticle photocatalysts. We finish with a perspective on the outstanding conceptual and computational challenges.

  4. UV-vis light activated Ag decorated monodisperse TiO2 for treatment of pharmaceuticals in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, many researchers have made a lot of effort to utilize the visible light portion of the solar spectrum to activate TiO2 photocatalyst for environmental applications, such as water, air, and soil remediation. The deposition of noble metals on photocatalysts is of great in...

  5. Synthesis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) triggered Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst for degradation of endocrine disturbing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Gan, Bee Ling; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2014-11-01

    Surface deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) onto the 100% anatase titania (Ag/TiO2) for evolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was achieved sustainably with the assistance of solar energy. The preparation resulted in Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst with varied Ag depositions (0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt%, 3.0 wt% and 5.0 wt%). All obtained photocatalysts were characterized for the evolution of SPR via crystalline phase analysis, morphology, lattice fringes, surface area and pore size characteristics, chemical composition with chemical and electronic state, Raman scattering, optical and photoluminescence properties. The deposition of synthesized Ag NPs exhibited high uniformity and homogeneity and laid pathway for effective utilization of the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum through SPR. The depositions also lead for suppressing recombination rates of electron-hole. The photocatalytic evaluation was carried out by adopting two different class of endocrine disturbing compound (EDC) i.e., amoxicillin (pharmaceutical) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (pesticide) excited with artificial visible light source. Ag/TiO2 with Ag > 0.5 wt% exhibited significant degradation efficiency for both amoxicillin and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Thus synthesized Ag/TiO2 revealed the implication of plasmonics on TiO2 for the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

  6. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g(-1)·h(-1) and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts. PMID:26470013

  7. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g−1·h−1 and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts. PMID:26470013

  8. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-10-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g-1·h-1 and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts.

  9. Visible Light-activated TiO2 photocatalytic Films; Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Application for the Destruction of Microcystin-LR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis has become one of the most effective advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for the treatment of persistent organic contaminants. To generate hydroxyl radicals, a non-selective, reactive oxidizing species and responsible for the oxidation of...

  10. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanowires in the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid: A comparative study with a commercial catalyst.

    PubMed

    Soto-Vázquez, Loraine; Cotto, María; Ducongé, José; Morant, Carmen; Márquez, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was studied using TiO2 nanowires as the catalyst synthesized through a hydrothermal procedure. The as-synthesized TiO2 nanowires were fully characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman with a very high surface area of 512 m(2) g(-1). The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out under 180 min of constant radiation and the results were compared with P25 as commercial catalyst. Optimal experimental conditions were determined for TiO2 nanowires with a catalyst dosage of 1.0 g L(-1) under acidic conditions with a 20 μM p-aminobenzoic acid solution obtaining 95% of degradation. Under similar experimental conditions comparative studies were performed obtaining 98% of degradation when P25 is employed. In both systems, a pseudo first order reaction was found to provide the best correlations, with constant rates of 2.0 × 10(-2) min(-1) and 2.4 × 10(-2) min(-1) for TiO2 nanowires and P25, respectively.

  11. Laser synthesis of hierarchically organized nanostructured TiO2 films on microfibrous carbon paper substrate: Characterization and electrocatalyst supporting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youling; Tabet-Aoul, Amel; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide is cheap, non-toxic, exhibits a high mechanical resistance, very stable in acidic and oxidative environments is being studied as alternative to carbon as catalyst support in low-temperature fuel cells. Herein, via pulsed laser deposition, various morphologies of TiO2 thin films are synthesized at room temperature onto conductive microfibrous carbon paper substrate, which is the type of substrate, employed in energy storage and conversion devices. TiO2 films deposited under vacuum and in the presence of mild pressure of oxygen are very smooth and dense. Instead, TiO2 films deposited in the presence of helium atmosphere are of porous structures and vertically aligned. An increase in the helium pressure leads to the formation of forest-like vertically aligned nanostructures. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the films are amorphous and of rutile phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that Ti is in fully oxidized state of Ti4+. The electrocatalytic supporting properties to Pt are investigated in H2SO4 and O2-saturated H2SO4 solution. It is found that regardless of the film morphology, all the synthesized TiO2 films dramatically increase the electroactive surface area of Pt and enhance its electroactivity towards oxygen reduction reaction as compared with bare Pt electrode.

  12. Facile synthesis of hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 nanofiber heterostructures with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinlei; Yang, Yefeng; He, Haiping; Cheng, Ding; Mao, Minmin; Jiang, Qinxu; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Heterostructured semiconductor nanostructures have provoked great interest in the areas of energy, environment and catalysis. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure consisting of nearly spherical Ag3PO4 particles firmly coupled on the surface of TiO2 nanofibers (NFs). The construction of Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure with tailored morphologies, compositions and optical properties was simply achieved via a facile and green synthetic strategy involving the electrospinning and solution-based processes. Owing to the synergetic effects of the components, the resulting hybrid heterostructures exhibited much improved visible light photocatalytic performance, which could degrade the RhB dye completely in 7.5 min. In addition, the coupling of Ag3PO4 particles with UV-light-sensitive TiO2 NFs enabled full utilization of solar energy and less consumption of noble metals, significantly appealing for their practical use in new energy sources and environmental issues. The developed synthetic strategy was considered to be applicable for the rational design and construction of other heterostructured catalysts.

  13. Robotic Deposition of TiO2 Films on Flexible Substrates from Hybrid Inks: Investigation of Synthesis-Processing-Microstructure-Photocatalytic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Torres Arango, Maria A; Valença de Andrade, Alana S; Cipollone, Domenic T; Grant, Lynnora O; Korakakis, Dimitris; Sierros, Konstantinos A

    2016-09-21

    TiO2 is an important material widely used in optoelectronic devices due to its semiconducting and photocatalytic properties, nontoxicity, and chemically inert nature. Some indicative applications include water purification systems and energy harvesting. The use of solution, water-based inks for the direct writing of TiO2 on flexible substrates is of paramount importance since it enables low-cost and low-energy intensive large-area manufacturing, compatible with roll-to-roll processing. In this work we study the effect of crystalline TiO2 and polymer addition on the rheological and direct writing properties of Ti-organic/TiO2 inks. We also report on the bridging crystallite formation from the Ti-organic precursor into the TiO2 crystalline phase, under ultraviolet (UV) exposure or mild heat treatments up to 150 °C. Such crystallite formation is found to be enhanced by polymers with strong polarity and pKα such as polyacrylic acid (PAA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Raman and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy are used to investigate the crystalline-phase transformation dependence based on the initial TiO2 crystalline-phase concentration and polymer addition. Transmission electron microscopy imaging and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirm the crystalline nature of such bridging printed structures. The obtained inks are patterned on flexible substrates using nozzle-based robotic deposition, a lithography-free, additive manufacturing technique that allows the direct writing of material in specific, digitally predefined, substrate locations. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solutions highlights the potential of the studied films for chemical degradation applications, from low-cost environmentally friendly materials systems.

  14. Synthesis of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles by combining laser decomposition of titanium isopropoxide and ablation of Ag for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kamal, Ahmed Kamal

    Nanostructured powders of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 are synthesized by a novel pulsed-laser process that combines laser ablation of a silver (Ag) disc with laser decomposition of a titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) solution. Nanoparticles are formed by rapid condensation of vaporized species in the plasma plume generated by the high power laser, resulting in the formation of rapidly quenched Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles that have far-from-equilibrium or metastable structures. The uniqueness of the new ablation process is that it is a one-step process, in contrast to the two-step process developed by previous researchers in the field. Moreover, its ability to synthesize an extended-solid solution phase of Ag in TiO 2 may also be unique. The present work implies that other oxide phases, such as Al2O3, MgO and MgAl2O4, can be doped with normally insoluble metals, such as Pt and Ir, thus opening new opportunities for catalytic applications. Again, there is the prospect of being able to synthesize nanopowders of diamond, c-BN, and mixtures thereof, which are of interest for applications in machine tools, rock-drill bits, and lightweight armor. A wet-chemistry method is also investigated, which has much in common with that adopted by previous workers in the field. However, photo-voltaic properties do not measure up to expectations based on published data. A possible explanation is that the selected Ag concentrations are too high, so that recombination of holes and electrons occurs via a quantum-tunneling mechanism reduces photo-activity. Future work, therefore, will investigate lower concentrations of Ag dopant in TiO2, while also examining the effects of metastable states, including extended solid solution, amorphous, and semi-crystalline structures.

  15. Robotic Deposition of TiO2 Films on Flexible Substrates from Hybrid Inks: Investigation of Synthesis-Processing-Microstructure-Photocatalytic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Torres Arango, Maria A; Valença de Andrade, Alana S; Cipollone, Domenic T; Grant, Lynnora O; Korakakis, Dimitris; Sierros, Konstantinos A

    2016-09-21

    TiO2 is an important material widely used in optoelectronic devices due to its semiconducting and photocatalytic properties, nontoxicity, and chemically inert nature. Some indicative applications include water purification systems and energy harvesting. The use of solution, water-based inks for the direct writing of TiO2 on flexible substrates is of paramount importance since it enables low-cost and low-energy intensive large-area manufacturing, compatible with roll-to-roll processing. In this work we study the effect of crystalline TiO2 and polymer addition on the rheological and direct writing properties of Ti-organic/TiO2 inks. We also report on the bridging crystallite formation from the Ti-organic precursor into the TiO2 crystalline phase, under ultraviolet (UV) exposure or mild heat treatments up to 150 °C. Such crystallite formation is found to be enhanced by polymers with strong polarity and pKα such as polyacrylic acid (PAA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Raman and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy are used to investigate the crystalline-phase transformation dependence based on the initial TiO2 crystalline-phase concentration and polymer addition. Transmission electron microscopy imaging and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirm the crystalline nature of such bridging printed structures. The obtained inks are patterned on flexible substrates using nozzle-based robotic deposition, a lithography-free, additive manufacturing technique that allows the direct writing of material in specific, digitally predefined, substrate locations. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solutions highlights the potential of the studied films for chemical degradation applications, from low-cost environmentally friendly materials systems. PMID:27568659

  16. Synthesis of hierarchically porous structured CaCO3 and TiO2 replicas by sol-gel method using lotus root as template.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Yi; Yang, Ching-Yu; Chen, Po-Yu

    2016-10-01

    Intensive attention has been put in mimicking the morphologies in nature owing to their uniqueness, complexity, and diversity. One of the effective approaches to mimic bio-morphologies is through biotemplating - the technique of using biological structures as template to reproduce intricate structure in other forms of materials. This work presents a facile sol-gel technique that can be widely used to convert various carbon-rich bio-structures into different materials. Lotus root, a biomorphic template with high porosity at varying length scales, was selected as the example to demonstrate this approach. The experiment was conducted by infiltrating precursors - titanium (IV) n-butoxide (TnBT) and acetic acid calcium solution - into the lotus root template under vacuum system, followed by calcination. After the treatment, the replicas were calcite CaCO3 and anatase TiO2. In both CaCO3 and TiO2 replicas, the intact structure of the template was preserved. In spite of the overall similarity of the CaCO3 and TiO2 lotus root replicas, some respective differences were found. TiO2 replica was covered with nanowire bundles of 100-200nm in diameter, formed by preferable crystallization of particles, while CaCO3 replica presented the gradient-distributed pores of 10-100μm, which greatly resembled the microstructure of lotus root template. In the BET result, TiO2 replica was mesoporous structure with pores centralizing in 3-4nm. On the other hand, CaCO3 replica had pores in a wider distribution ranging from micro to macro scale. In addition, the surface area was greatly enhanced in both cases. The synthesized materials with hierarchical biomorphic structures may have great potential for purification applications due to their large specific surface area, photocatalytic property, and high adsorption rate.

  17. Solar-driven photocatalytic treatment of diclofenac using immobilized TiO2-based zeolite composites.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Marin; Salaeh, Subhan; Kusic, Hrvoje; Suligoj, Andraz; Kete, Marko; Fanetti, Mattia; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2016-09-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating the potential of immobilized TiO2-based zeolite composite for solar-driven photocatalytic water treatment. In that purpose, TiO2-iron-exchanged zeolite (FeZ) composite was prepared using commercial Aeroxide TiO2 P25 and iron-exchanged zeolite of ZSM5 type, FeZ. The activity of TiO2-FeZ, immobilized on glass support, was evaluated under solar irradiation for removal of diclofenac (DCF) in water. TiO2-FeZ immobilized in a form of thin film was characterized for its morphology, structure, and composition using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine potential changes in band gaps of prepared TiO2-FeZ in comparison to pure TiO2. The influence of pH, concentration of hydrogen peroxide, FeZ wt% within the composite, and photocatalyst dosage on DCF removal and conversion efficiency by solar/TiO2-FeZ/H2O2 process was investigated. TiO2-FeZ demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 under solar irradiation in acidic conditions and presence of H2O2.

  18. Solar-driven photocatalytic treatment of diclofenac using immobilized TiO2-based zeolite composites.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Marin; Salaeh, Subhan; Kusic, Hrvoje; Suligoj, Andraz; Kete, Marko; Fanetti, Mattia; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2016-09-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating the potential of immobilized TiO2-based zeolite composite for solar-driven photocatalytic water treatment. In that purpose, TiO2-iron-exchanged zeolite (FeZ) composite was prepared using commercial Aeroxide TiO2 P25 and iron-exchanged zeolite of ZSM5 type, FeZ. The activity of TiO2-FeZ, immobilized on glass support, was evaluated under solar irradiation for removal of diclofenac (DCF) in water. TiO2-FeZ immobilized in a form of thin film was characterized for its morphology, structure, and composition using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine potential changes in band gaps of prepared TiO2-FeZ in comparison to pure TiO2. The influence of pH, concentration of hydrogen peroxide, FeZ wt% within the composite, and photocatalyst dosage on DCF removal and conversion efficiency by solar/TiO2-FeZ/H2O2 process was investigated. TiO2-FeZ demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 under solar irradiation in acidic conditions and presence of H2O2. PMID:27255319

  19. First-principles study of Cu-doping and oxygen vacancy effects on TiO2 for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huamin; Yu, Xiaohui; McLeod, John A.; Sun, Xuhui

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of Cu-doped TiO2-x using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that Cu doping creates an empty impurity band lying above the valence band of TiO2, which bridges most of the gap between the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum in undoped TiO2. The results also show that oxygen vacancies produce a similar effect and that Cu-doping can increase the stability of oxygen vacancies. We propose that Cu-doped TiO2-x improves light harvesting and could be a promising visible-light photocatalyst.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of supported TiO2 by selective surface modification of zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesh, Kiros; Márquez-Álvarez, Carlos; Chebude, Yonas; Díaz, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Zeolite Y was treated using ammonium acetate and ammonium fluoride sequentially. As a consequence the aluminum from the surface was selectively removed. Then, loading with TiO2 (20 wt%) led to a final photocatalyst. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis (ICP-OES), N2 adsorption, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that 50% of the Al atoms were removed from the surface of the zeolite without affecting the framework structure. The TiO2/treated zeolite sample yielded 92% photocatalytic degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO), a model pollutant, while the TiO2/parent zeolite converted only 7.6%. The mass normalized turnover rate (TORm) of the treated zeolite loaded with TiO2 was about 12 times higher than that of the parent zeolite loaded with the same amount of TiO2 precursor. This higher photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 supported on treated zeolite can be attributed to a more efficient interaction of the TiO2 with the zeolite leading to higher adsorption capacity. Reusability of the photocatalysts was assessed by performing three consecutive reaction cycles that showed no significant loss of photocatalytic activity.

  1. Effects of the large distribution of CdS quantum dot sizes on the charge transfer interactions into TiO2 nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    González-Moya, Johan R; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; Rocco, Maria Luiza M; Pereira, Marcelo B; Princival, Jefferson L; Almeida, Luciano C; Araújo, Carlos M; David, Denis G F; da Silva, Antonio Ferreira; Machado, Giovanna

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen fuels generated by water splitting using a photocatalyst and solar irradiation are currently gaining the strength to diversify the world energy matrix in a green way. CdS quantum dots have revealed a hydrogen generation improvement when added to TiO2 materials under visible-light irradiation. In the present paper, we investigated the performance of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with CdS quantum dots, by a molecular bifunctional linker, on photocatalytic hydrogen generation. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodization of Ti foil, followed by annealing to crystallize the nanotubes into the anatase phase. Afterwards, the samples were sensitized with CdS quantum dots via an in situ hydrothermal route using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the capping agent. This sensitization technique permits high loading and uniform distribution of CdS quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotubes. The XPS depth profile showed that CdS concentration remains almost unchanged (homogeneous), while the concentration relative to the sulfate anion decreases by more than 80% with respect to the initial value after ∼100 nm in depth. The presence of sulfate anions is due to the oxidation of sulfide and occurs in greater proportion in the material surface. This protection for air oxidation inside the nanotubular matrix seemingly protected the CdS for photocorrosion in sacrificial solution leading to good stability properties proved by long duration, stable photocurrent measurements. The effect of the size and the distribution of sizes of CdS quantum dots attached to TiO2 nanotubes on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation were investigated. The experimental results showed three different behaviors when the reaction time of CdS synthesis was increased in the sensitized samples, i.e. similar, deactivation and activation effects on the hydrogen production with regard to TiO2 nanotubes. The deactivation effect was related to two populations of sizes of CdS, where the population with a shorter band gap acts as a

  2. Effects of the large distribution of CdS quantum dot sizes on the charge transfer interactions into TiO2 nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Moya, Johan R.; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Princival, Jefferson L.; Almeida, Luciano C.; Araújo, Carlos M.; David, Denis G. F.; Ferreira da Silva, Antonio; Machado, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen fuels generated by water splitting using a photocatalyst and solar irradiation are currently gaining the strength to diversify the world energy matrix in a green way. CdS quantum dots have revealed a hydrogen generation improvement when added to TiO2 materials under visible-light irradiation. In the present paper, we investigated the performance of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with CdS quantum dots, by a molecular bifunctional linker, on photocatalytic hydrogen generation. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodization of Ti foil, followed by annealing to crystallize the nanotubes into the anatase phase. Afterwards, the samples were sensitized with CdS quantum dots via an in situ hydrothermal route using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the capping agent. This sensitization technique permits high loading and uniform distribution of CdS quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotubes. The XPS depth profile showed that CdS concentration remains almost unchanged (homogeneous), while the concentration relative to the sulfate anion decreases by more than 80% with respect to the initial value after ˜100 nm in depth. The presence of sulfate anions is due to the oxidation of sulfide and occurs in greater proportion in the material surface. This protection for air oxidation inside the nanotubular matrix seemingly protected the CdS for photocorrosion in sacrificial solution leading to good stability properties proved by long duration, stable photocurrent measurements. The effect of the size and the distribution of sizes of CdS quantum dots attached to TiO2 nanotubes on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation were investigated. The experimental results showed three different behaviors when the reaction time of CdS synthesis was increased in the sensitized samples, i.e. similar, deactivation and activation effects on the hydrogen production with regard to TiO2 nanotubes. The deactivation effect was related to two populations of sizes of CdS, where the population with a shorter band gap acts as a

  3. Effects of the large distribution of CdS quantum dot sizes on the charge transfer interactions into TiO2 nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    González-Moya, Johan R; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; Rocco, Maria Luiza M; Pereira, Marcelo B; Princival, Jefferson L; Almeida, Luciano C; Araújo, Carlos M; David, Denis G F; da Silva, Antonio Ferreira; Machado, Giovanna

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen fuels generated by water splitting using a photocatalyst and solar irradiation are currently gaining the strength to diversify the world energy matrix in a green way. CdS quantum dots have revealed a hydrogen generation improvement when added to TiO2 materials under visible-light irradiation. In the present paper, we investigated the performance of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with CdS quantum dots, by a molecular bifunctional linker, on photocatalytic hydrogen generation. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodization of Ti foil, followed by annealing to crystallize the nanotubes into the anatase phase. Afterwards, the samples were sensitized with CdS quantum dots via an in situ hydrothermal route using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the capping agent. This sensitization technique permits high loading and uniform distribution of CdS quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotubes. The XPS depth profile showed that CdS concentration remains almost unchanged (homogeneous), while the concentration relative to the sulfate anion decreases by more than 80% with respect to the initial value after ∼100 nm in depth. The presence of sulfate anions is due to the oxidation of sulfide and occurs in greater proportion in the material surface. This protection for air oxidation inside the nanotubular matrix seemingly protected the CdS for photocorrosion in sacrificial solution leading to good stability properties proved by long duration, stable photocurrent measurements. The effect of the size and the distribution of sizes of CdS quantum dots attached to TiO2 nanotubes on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation were investigated. The experimental results showed three different behaviors when the reaction time of CdS synthesis was increased in the sensitized samples, i.e. similar, deactivation and activation effects on the hydrogen production with regard to TiO2 nanotubes. The deactivation effect was related to two populations of sizes of CdS, where the population with a shorter band gap acts as a

  4. Effects of the large distribution of CdS quantum dot sizes on the charge transfer interactions into TiO2 nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Moya, Johan R.; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Princival, Jefferson L.; Almeida, Luciano C.; Araújo, Carlos M.; David, Denis G. F.; Ferreira da Silva, Antonio; Machado, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen fuels generated by water splitting using a photocatalyst and solar irradiation are currently gaining the strength to diversify the world energy matrix in a green way. CdS quantum dots have revealed a hydrogen generation improvement when added to TiO2 materials under visible-light irradiation. In the present paper, we investigated the performance of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with CdS quantum dots, by a molecular bifunctional linker, on photocatalytic hydrogen generation. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodization of Ti foil, followed by annealing to crystallize the nanotubes into the anatase phase. Afterwards, the samples were sensitized with CdS quantum dots via an in situ hydrothermal route using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the capping agent. This sensitization technique permits high loading and uniform distribution of CdS quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotubes. The XPS depth profile showed that CdS concentration remains almost unchanged (homogeneous), while the concentration relative to the sulfate anion decreases by more than 80% with respect to the initial value after ∼100 nm in depth. The presence of sulfate anions is due to the oxidation of sulfide and occurs in greater proportion in the material surface. This protection for air oxidation inside the nanotubular matrix seemingly protected the CdS for photocorrosion in sacrificial solution leading to good stability properties proved by long duration, stable photocurrent measurements. The effect of the size and the distribution of sizes of CdS quantum dots attached to TiO2 nanotubes on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation were investigated. The experimental results showed three different behaviors when the reaction time of CdS synthesis was increased in the sensitized samples, i.e. similar, deactivation and activation effects on the hydrogen production with regard to TiO2 nanotubes. The deactivation effect was related to two populations of sizes of CdS, where the population with a shorter band gap acts as a

  5. Fabrication of mixed phase TiO2 heterojunction nanorods and their enhanced photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amritanjali; Mondal, Indranil; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chattopadhyay, Nitin; Pal, Ujjwal

    2016-06-01

    Substantial efforts have been made in recent times in solving the major limiting factors affecting the efficiency of a photocatalyst. The fabrication of efficient junction architectures is one of the viable approaches to resolve this setback. We have developed a facile and systematic approach for the synthesis of anatase TiO2 () nanoparticles and 1-D anatase and rutile TiO2 () heterojunction nanorods to enhance the interfacial contact area by adjusting the titanium(iv) butoxide (TBOT) to titanium chloride (TiCl4) volume ratio. Their narrower band gap, increasing surface area and anatase phase composition engineered by adjusting the relative concentrations of titanium butoxide (TBOT) and titanium chloride (TiCl4) (TBOT/TiCl4, 1 : 0, 1 : 0.25, 1 : 1 and 1 : 4 v/v for , , and respectively) are also addressed. The materials showed impressive photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution from water/methanol and the photodegradation of organic pollutants like rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes. showed superior activity (16.4 mmol g(-1) h(-1)) with an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 7.7% together with its long-term stability. This is attributed to the synergistic effect observed in the mixed phase nanorod heterojunction photocatalyst. Methyl viologen (MV(2+)) has been used as a probe to elucidate the photocatalytic activities and highlight the heterojunction driven separation of photo-excited charge carriers for enhanced hydrogen production. PMID:27212470

  6. Visible-Light-Driven Oxidation of Primary C–H Bonds over CdS with Dual Co-catalysts Graphene and TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Quan; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Selective activation of primary C–H bonds for fine chemicals synthesis is of crucial importance for the sustainable exploitation of available feedstocks. Here, we report a viable strategy to synthesize ternary GR-CdS-TiO2 composites with an intimate spatial integration and sheet-like structure, which is afforded by assembling two co-catalysts, graphene and TiO2, into the semiconductor CdS matrix with specific morphology as a visible light harvester. The GR-CdS-TiO2 composites are able to serve as a highly selective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for oxidation of saturated primary C–H bonds using benign oxygen as oxidant under ambient conditions. This work demonstrates a wide, promising scope of adopting co-catalyst strategy to design more efficient semiconductor-based photocatalyst toward selective activation of C–H bonds using solar light and molecular oxygen. PMID:24264835

  7. Synthesis of dandelion-like TiO2 microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with enhanced rate capacity and cyclic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Yan-lin; Wang, Yuan; Li, Xiao-ping; Hu, She-jun; Li, Wei-shan

    2012-11-01

    Dandelion-like TiO2 microspheres consisting of numerous rutile single-crystalline nanorods were synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests. The results show that the synthesized TiO2 microspheres exhibit good rate and cycle performances as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. It can be found that the dandelion-like structure provides a larger specific surface area and the single-crystalline nanorod provides a stable structure and fast pathways for electron and lithium ion transport, which contribute to the rate and cycle performances of the battery.

  8. Few-layered MoS2 nanosheets wrapped ultrafine TiO2 nanobelts with enhanced photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haidong; Wang, Yana; Chen, Guohui; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; He, Jiating; Li, Xu; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalytic materials comprised of semiconductor nanostructures have attracted tremendous scientific and technological interest over the last 30 years. This is due to the fact that these photocatalytic materials have unique properties that allow for an effective direct energy transfer from light to highly reactive chemical species which are applicable in the remediation of environmental pollutants and photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Heterostructured photocatalysts are a promising type of photocatalyst which can combine the properties of different components to generate a synergic effect, resulting in a high photocatalytic activity. In this work, a heterostructured photocatalyst comprised of few-layered MoS2 nanosheets coated on a TiO2 nanobelts surface was synthesized through a simple hydrothermal treatment. The hybrid heterostructures with enhanced broad spectrum photocatalytic properties can harness UV and visible light energy to decompose organic contaminants in aqueous solutions as well as split water to hydrogen and oxygen. The mechanism of the enhancement is that the MoS2/TiO2 nanobelts heterostructure can enhance the separation of the photo-induced carriers, which results in a higher photocurrent due to the special electronic characteristics of the graphene-like layered MoS2 nanosheets. This methodology is potentially applicable to the synthesis of a range of hybrid nanostructures with promising applications in photocatalysis and other relevant areas.Photocatalytic materials comprised of semiconductor nanostructures have attracted tremendous scientific and technological interest over the last 30 years. This is due to the fact that these photocatalytic materials have unique properties that allow for an effective direct energy transfer from light to highly reactive chemical species which are applicable in the remediation of environmental pollutants and photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Heterostructured photocatalysts are a promising type of

  9. Rapid flame synthesis of internal Mo(6+) doped TiO2 nanocrystals in situ decorated with highly dispersed MoO3 clusters for lithium ion storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Hu, Yanjie; Shen, Jianhua; Jiang, Haibo; Min, Guoquan; Qiu, Shengjie; Song, Zhitang; Sun, Zhuo; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-11-28

    The rational design of nanoheterostructured materials has attracted much attention because of its importance for developing highly efficient LIBs. Herein, we have demonstrated that internal Mo(6+) doped TiO2 nanocrystals in situ decorated with highly dispersed MoO3 clusters have been realized by a facile and rapid flame spray pyrolysis route for electrochemical energy storage. In such intriguing nanostructures, internal Mo(6+) doping can improve the conductivity of electrode materials and facilitate rapid Li(+) intercalation and ion transport and the heteroassembly of highly dispersed ultrafine MoO3 clusters with excellent electrochemical activity endows the TiO2 with extra Li(+) ion storage ability as well as incorporates Mo(6+). Thus, the as-prepared nanohybrid electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity and superior rate capability due to the maximum synergetic effect of TiO2, Mo(6+) and ultrafine MoO3 clusters. Moreover, the aerosol flame process with a unique temperature gradient opens a new strategy to design novel hybrid materials by the simultaneous doping and heteroassembly engineering for next-generation LIBs. PMID:26490363

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of TiO2 Porous Hollow Nanospheres for Coating on the Photoelectrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu Mohan, Varishetty; Murakami, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    Various sizes of TiO2 hollow nanosphers were synthesized by a hydrolysis followed by the hydrothermal treatment using different water content and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) while the remaining components such as methylamine, ethanol and acetonitrile were kept as a constant. We synthesized the various sizes of spheres, 150, 250, 400, 450, and 600 nm in diameter; those are represented as SP150, SP250, SP400, SP450, and SP600. The prepared spheres diameters were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These spheres were coated by using a simple spray technique with the TiO2 colloidal solution as a scattering layer for the TiO2 photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Optical absorption measurements did not find a difference in the dye adsorption amount with and without the scattering layer. The scattering effect was observed by incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements especially in the wavelength region of 550-700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements show that the scattering layer with 450 nm spheres coated on the photoelectrode gave the improved photovoltaic performances compared to other diameters of the spheres. In the present study, the best energy conversion efficiency of 9.56% was obtained for the photoelectrode with the scattering layer, while the pure photoelectrode without the layer gave 8.4%.

  11. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2 microspheres for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides for phosphoproteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Wang, Mengyi; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2013-02-15

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Due to the dynamic nature and low stoichiometry of the protein phosphorylation, enrichment of phosphopeptides from proteolytic mixtures is necessary prior to their characterization by mass spectrometry. In this work, we synthesized Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2 magnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and large surface area for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. To demonstrate its ability for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides, we applied Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2 magnetic microspheres to isolation and enrichment of the phosphopeptides from tryptic digestion of standard proteins and real samples, and then the enriched peptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) or liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Due to that the as-made Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2 microspheres have large surface area, good dispersivity and biocompatibility, they have been demonstrated as a powerful tool for phosphoproteomics research. PMID:23597982

  12. A maskless synthesis of TiO2-nanofiber-based hierarchical structures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with improved performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with secondary growth have been successfully synthesized on electrospun nanofibers via surfactant-free hydrothermal route. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on the secondary nanostructures has been studied. The synthesized nanostructures comprise electrospun nanofibers which are polycrystalline with anatase phase and have single crystalline, rutile TiO2 nanorod-like structures growing on them. These secondary nanostructures have a preferential growth direction [110]. UV–vis spectroscopy measurements point to better dye loading capability and incident photon to current conversion efficiency spectra show enhanced light harvesting of the synthesized hierarchical structures. Concomitantly, the dye molecules act as spacers between the conduction band electrons of TiO2 and holes in the hole transporting medium, i.e., spiro-OMeTAD and thus enhance open circuit voltage. The charge transport and recombination effects are characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. As a result of improved light harvesting, dye loading, and reduced recombination losses, the hierarchical nanofibers yield 2.14% electrochemical conversion efficiency which is 50% higher than the efficiency obtained by plain nanofibers. PMID:24410851

  13. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xun; Shi, Tiejun; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Haiou

    2013-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by Csbnd Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO2 powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  14. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen in modified TiO2 under visible irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Amer, Kristine Marfe S; Su, Chia-Chi; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) in synthetic titanium dioxide (TiO2) solution under a visible light (λ >440 nm). The TiO2 photocatalyst used in this study was synthesized via sol-gel method and doped with potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2) and sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). The influence of some parameters on the degradation of acetaminophen was examined, such as initial pH, photocatalyst dosage, and initial ACT concentration. The optimal operational conditions were also determined. Results showed that synthetic TiO2 catalysts presented mainly as anatase phase and no rutile phase was observed. The results of photocatalytic degradation showed that LED alone degraded negligible amount of ACT but with the presence of TiO2/KAl(SO4)2, 95% removal of 0.10-mM acetaminophen in 540-min irradiation time was achieved. The synthetic TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 presented better photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen than commercially available Degussa P-25. The weak crystallinity of synthesized TiO2/NaAlO2 photocatalyst showed low photocatalytic degradation than TiO2/KAl(SO4)2. The optimal operational conditions were obtained in pH 6.9 with a dose of 1.0 g/L TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 at 30 °C. Kinetic study illustrated that photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen fits well in the pseudo-first order model. Competitive reactions from intermediates affected the degradation rate of ACT, and were more obvious as the initial ACT concentration increased.

  16. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting surfaces significantly from wear and tear.

  18. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Production in Core-Shell Engineered Rutile TiO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Liu, Gang; Irvine, John T S; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2016-07-01

    A rationally designed crystalline Ti(3+) core/amorphous Ti(4+) shell configuration can reverse the population disparity between holes and electrons reaching the surface of microsized rutile TiO2 photocatalyst, thus significantly enhancing its photocatalytic activity by two orders of magnitude in terms of the hydrogen production rate under the irradiation of UV-vis light. PMID:27159036

  20. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  1. Facile synthesis of carbon doped TiO2 nanowires without an external carbon source and their opto-electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    The present study demonstrates a simple protocol for the preparation of one dimensional (1D) oxidized titanium carbide nanowires and their opto-electronic properties. The oxidized titanium carbide nanowires (Ox-TiC-NW) are prepared from TiC nanowires (TiC-NW) that are in turn synthesized from micron sized TiC particles using the solvothermal technique. The Ox-TiC-NW is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal oxidation of TiC-NW yields carbon doped TiO2-NW (C-TiO2-NW), a simple methodology to obtain 1D C-TiO2-NW. Temperature dependent Raman spectra reveal characteristic bands for TiO2-NW. Electrical characterization of individual C-TiO2-NW is performed by fabricating a device structure using the focused ion beam deposition technique. The opto-electronic properties of individual C-TiO2-NW demonstrate visible light activity and the parameters obtained from photoconductivity measurements reveal very good sensitivity. This methodology opens up the possibility of using C-TiO2-NW in electronic and opto-electronic device applications.The present study demonstrates a simple protocol for the preparation of one dimensional (1D) oxidized titanium carbide nanowires and their opto-electronic properties. The oxidized titanium carbide nanowires (Ox-TiC-NW) are prepared from TiC nanowires (TiC-NW) that are in turn synthesized from micron sized TiC particles using the solvothermal technique. The Ox-TiC-NW is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal oxidation of TiC-NW yields carbon doped TiO2-NW (C-TiO2-NW), a simple methodology to obtain 1D C-TiO2-NW. Temperature dependent Raman spectra reveal characteristic bands for TiO2-NW. Electrical characterization of individual C-TiO2-NW is performed by fabricating a device structure using the focused ion beam deposition technique. The opto-electronic properties of individual C-TiO2-NW demonstrate visible light activity and the parameters obtained from photoconductivity measurements reveal very good sensitivity. This methodology opens up the possibility of using C-TiO2-NW in electronic and opto-electronic device applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM image of a hydrothermally treated TiC sample (S1), spectral output of a commercial halogen lamp (S2), preparation and characterization of C-TiO2-NW (prepared at 800 °C) and pristine TiO2-NW, comparison of the optical response between various TiO2-NWs (S3-S6), procedure for measuring Potical, photocurrent growth and decay transients (S7). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03309k

  2. Synthesis of Cu-Doped Mixed-Phase TiO2 with the Assistance of Ionic Liquid by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhibin; Di, Lanbo; Zhang, Xiuling; Li, Yanchun

    2016-05-01

    An atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gas-liquid cold plasma was employed to synthesize Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with the assistance of [C2MIM]BF4 ionic liquid (IL) and using air as the working gas. The influences of the discharge voltage, IL and the amount of copper nitrite were investigated. X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy were adopted to characterize the samples. The results showed that the specific surface area of TiO2 was promoted with Cu-doping (from 57.6 m2·g‑1 to 106.2 m2·g‑1 with 3% Cu-doping), and the content of anatase was increased. Besides, the band gap energy of TiO2 with Cu-doping decreased according to the UV-Vis spectroscopy test. The 3%Cu-IL-TiO2 samples showed the highest efficiency in degrading methylene blue (MB) dye solutions under simulated sunlight with an apparent rate constant of 0.0223 min‑1, which was 1.2 times higher than that of non-doped samples. According to the characterization results, the reasons for the high photocatalytic activity were discussed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21173028, 11505019), the Science and Technology Research Project of Liaoning Provincial Education Department (No. L2013464), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Doctor of Liaoning Province (No. 20131004), the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (No. LR2012042), and Dalian Jinzhou New District Science and Technology Plan Project (No. KJCX-ZTPY-2014-0001)

  3. Synthesis of Cu-Doped Mixed-Phase TiO2 with the Assistance of Ionic Liquid by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhibin; Di, Lanbo; Zhang, Xiuling; Li, Yanchun

    2016-05-01

    An atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gas-liquid cold plasma was employed to synthesize Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with the assistance of [C2MIM]BF4 ionic liquid (IL) and using air as the working gas. The influences of the discharge voltage, IL and the amount of copper nitrite were investigated. X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy were adopted to characterize the samples. The results showed that the specific surface area of TiO2 was promoted with Cu-doping (from 57.6 m2·g-1 to 106.2 m2·g-1 with 3% Cu-doping), and the content of anatase was increased. Besides, the band gap energy of TiO2 with Cu-doping decreased according to the UV-Vis spectroscopy test. The 3%Cu-IL-TiO2 samples showed the highest efficiency in degrading methylene blue (MB) dye solutions under simulated sunlight with an apparent rate constant of 0.0223 min-1, which was 1.2 times higher than that of non-doped samples. According to the characterization results, the reasons for the high photocatalytic activity were discussed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21173028, 11505019), the Science and Technology Research Project of Liaoning Provincial Education Department (No. L2013464), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Doctor of Liaoning Province (No. 20131004), the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (No. LR2012042), and Dalian Jinzhou New District Science and Technology Plan Project (No. KJCX-ZTPY-2014-0001)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Sivasamy, Arumugam; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2012-06-01

    Maleimide-functionalized polystyrene (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel reaction starting from tratraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide in the solution of polystyrene maleimide in 1,4-dioxane. The hybrid films were obtained by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of TEOS and titanium isopropoxide in maleimide-functionalized polystyrene solution followed by the Michael addition reaction. The transparency of polymer (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid was prepared from polystyrene titanium isopropoxide using the γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane as crosslinking agent by in situ sol-gel process via covalent bonding between the organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts reaction from N-choloromethyl maleimide. The FTIR spectroscopy data conformed the occurrence of Michael addition reaction between the pendant maleimide moieties of the styrene and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical structure and morphology of PSMA-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 C NMR, SEM, XRD, and TEM analyses. The results also indicate that the inorganic particles are much smaller in the ternary systems than in the binary systems; the shape of the inorganic particles and compatibility for maleimide-functionalized polystrene and inorganic moieties are varied with the ratio of the inorganic moieties in the hybrids. Furthermore, TGA and DSC results indicate that the thermal stability of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was enhanced through the incorporation of the inorganic moieties in the hybrid materials.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Sivasamy, Arumugam; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Maleimide-functionalized polystyrene (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel reaction starting from tratraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide in the solution of polystyrene maleimide in 1,4-dioxane. The hybrid films were obtained by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of TEOS and titanium isopropoxide in maleimide-functionalized polystyrene solution followed by the Michael addition reaction. The transparency of polymer (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid was prepared from polystyrene titanium isopropoxide using the γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane as crosslinking agent by in situ sol-gel process via covalent bonding between the organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts reaction from N-choloromethyl maleimide. The FTIR spectroscopy data conformed the occurrence of Michael addition reaction between the pendant maleimide moieties of the styrene and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical structure and morphology of PSMA-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 C NMR, SEM, XRD, and TEM analyses. The results also indicate that the inorganic particles are much smaller in the ternary systems than in the binary systems; the shape of the inorganic particles and compatibility for maleimide-functionalized polystrene and inorganic moieties are varied with the ratio of the inorganic moieties in the hybrids. Furthermore, TGA and DSC results indicate that the thermal stability of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was enhanced through the incorporation of the inorganic moieties in the hybrid materials. PMID:22738226

  6. Synthesis and characterization of C-doped TiO2 thin films for visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Cong, Longchao; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-03-01

    C-TiO2 thin films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel route based on the self-assembly technique exploiting Tween80 (T80) as a pore directing agent and carbon source. The effect of calcination time on the photocatalytic activity of C-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The XRD results showed that C-TiO2 sample calcined at 400 °C for various times exhibited anatase phase and no other crystal phase was identified. C-TiO2 exhibited a shift in an absorption edge of samples in the visible region than that of conventional or reference TiO2. The XPS results showed an existence of C in the TiO2 catalysts and C might be existed as COTi group. Moreover, the C-TiO2 thin film calcined at 400 °C for 30 min showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under UV light irradiation. Also the photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalyst was evaluated by decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the optimum preparations of C-TiO2 thin films were found to be under calcination temperature of 400, calcination time of 30 min, and with preparation 9 layers film.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites by sol–gel process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Maleimide-functionalized polystyrene (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by sol–gel reaction starting from tratraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide in the solution of polystyrene maleimide in 1,4-dioxane. The hybrid films were obtained by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of TEOS and titanium isopropoxide in maleimide-functionalized polystyrene solution followed by the Michael addition reaction. The transparency of polymer (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid was prepared from polystyrene titanium isopropoxide using the γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane as crosslinking agent by in situ sol–gel process via covalent bonding between the organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts reaction from N-choloromethyl maleimide. The FTIR spectroscopy data conformed the occurrence of Michael addition reaction between the pendant maleimide moieties of the styrene and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical structure and morphology of PSMA-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 C NMR, SEM, XRD, and TEM analyses. The results also indicate that the inorganic particles are much smaller in the ternary systems than in the binary systems; the shape of the inorganic particles and compatibility for maleimide-functionalized polystrene and inorganic moieties are varied with the ratio of the inorganic moieties in the hybrids. Furthermore, TGA and DSC results indicate that the thermal stability of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was enhanced through the incorporation of the inorganic moieties in the hybrid materials. PMID:22738226

  8. Hydrothermal Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 /BiVO4 Composite Catalyst and its Photolysis of Water to Produce Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zicong; Huang, Shaobin; Cao, Yaya; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, bismuth vanadate composited photocatalysts were synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffractometry and Raman results showed that the particles were well crystallized, and formed by the complex of monoclinic BiVO4 and TiO2 . On electron microscopy, the photocatalyst exhibited high crystallization, agglutination and irregular shape, and was surrounded by numerous TiO2 particles. The study of surface areas showed that the specific surface area of 30-BiVO4 /TiO2 composited was 112 m(2) ·g(-1) , which was nearly 10 times that of pure BiVO4 . The ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra indicated the composited photocatalyst were activated in visible light. The activity of photocatalytic water splitting was studied. The results showed that monomer BiVO4 photocatalyst was not able to produce hydrogen under any light source. BiVO4 /TiO2 composited photocatalysts, however, were capable of generating hydrogen. Under UV light irradiation for 120 min, 1 g catalyst dispersed in 50 mL deionized water produced almost 1 mL hydrogen, such that the productivity of hydrogen was higher than that of P25-TiO2 . Photocatalytic decomposition of water under visible light also confirmed that the BiVO4 /TiO2 composited photocatalyst had the ability of water splitting. PMID:26849995

  9. Investigation on evaporation of Ti feedstock and formation of precursor TiO molecules during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis in induction thermal plasma with time-controlled feedstock injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoto; Kita, Kentaro; Ishisaka, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Sueyasu, Shiori; Nakamura, Keitaro; Kanazawa University Team; Nisshin Seifun Group Inc. Team

    2015-09-01

    The method using inductively coupled thermal plasma(ICTP) is very effective for nanopowder(NPs) synthesis. However, NPs formation process in the ICTP torch has not been clarified. In this study, the two-dimensional spectroscopic observation was carried out for ICTP torch during TiO2 NPs synthesis process with time-controlled feedstock injection. In order to investigate evaporation process of feedstock and formation process of precursor molecules, Ti feedstock was intermittently injected into the ICTP. Ti I(453.32 nm) and TiO(621 nm) were observed by using an imaging spectroscopic system. Observation results show that injected Ti feedstock was evaporated in the ICTP. Then, generated Ti atoms were transported to downstream of the torch by gas flow and were diffused to the radial direction by density gradient. High concentration of TiO molecular gas was formed only around central axis region in the torch.

  10. In Situ Synthesis of TiC-Fe Composite Overlays from Low Cost TiO2 Precursors Using Plasma Transferred Arc Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corujeira Gallo, Santiago; Alam, Nazmul; O'Donnell, Robert

    2014-02-01

    A direct conversion of TiO2 into TiC during plasma transferred arc deposition is a cheap and novel approach to produce wear resistant coatings. The present study explored the use of a low cost titanium ore as precursor for titanium carbide in metal matrix composite overlays. The deposited layers were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microhardness testing. A carbothermic reduction of the titanium oxides took place during the deposition of the coating by plasma transferred arc. The overlays produced in this way consisted of fine titanium carbides evenly dispersed in an iron matrix. The opportunities and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ytterbium-doped titania/diatomite composite photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenjian; Qiu, Kehui; Zhang, Peicong; Yuan, Xiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Ytterbium-doped titanium dioxide (Yb-TiO2)/diatomite composite materials with different Yb concentrations were prepared by sol-gel method. The phase structure, morphology, and chemical composition of the as-prepared composites were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TiO2 existed in the form of pure anatase in the composites. The SEM images exhibited the well deposition and dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles with little agglomeration on the surfaces of diatoms. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra showed that the band gap of TiO2 could be narrowed by the introduction of Yb species, which was further affected by doping concentration of Yb. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized samples was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Compared to TiO2 and TiO2/diatomite, the Yb-TiO2/diatomite composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MB using UV light irradiation.

  12. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1⩽x⩽2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts.

  13. The interactions between TiO2 and graphene with surface inhomogeneity determined using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Brandon; Deskins, N Aaron

    2015-11-28

    TiO2/graphene composites have shown promise as photocatalysts, leading to improved electronic properties. We have modeled using density functional theory TiO2/graphene interfaces formed between graphene with various defects/functional groups (C vacancy, epoxide, and hydroxyl) and TiO2 clusters of various sizes. We considered clusters from 3 to 45 atoms, the latter a nanoparticle of ∼1 nm in size. Our results show that binding to pristine graphene is dominated by van der Waals forces, and that C vacancies or epoxide groups lead to much stronger binding between the graphene and TiO2. Such sites may serve to anchor TiO2 to graphene. Graphene surfaces with hydroxyls however lead to OH transfer to TiO2 and weak interactions between the graphene and the hydroxylated TiO2 cluster. Charge transfer may occur between TiO2 and graphene in various directions (graphene to TiO2 or TiO2 to graphene), depending on the state of the graphene surface, based on overlap of the density of states. Our work indicates that graphene surface defects or functional groups may have a significant effect on the stability, structure, and photoactivity of these materials.

  14. Floating photocatalyst of B–N–TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol–gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-01-01

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol–gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m2 g−1) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti–O–B–N and O–Ti–B–N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B–N–TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B–N–TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification. PMID:27432460

  15. Floating photocatalyst of B–N–TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol–gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-07-01

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol–gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m2 g‑1) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti–O–B–N and O–Ti–B–N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B–N–TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B–N–TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification.

  16. Floating photocatalyst of B-N-TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol-gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-01-01

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol-gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m(2) g(-1)) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti-O-B-N and O-Ti-B-N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B-N-TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B-N-TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification. PMID:27432460

  17. Floating photocatalyst of B-N-TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol-gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-07-19

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol-gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m(2) g(-1)) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti-O-B-N and O-Ti-B-N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B-N-TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B-N-TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification.

  18. Synthesis and properties of cellulose functionalized -4, 4'-(propane-2, 2'-diyl) diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites materials for high performance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Heung-Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2013-04-01

    The general class of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites materials is a fast growing area of research. The significant effort is focused on the ability to control the nanoscale structures via organic functional synthetic approaches with inorganic metal oxides. The properties of nanocomposites material depends on the properties of their individual components but also their morphological and interfacial characteristics. This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials with novel properties. Mainly, cellulose is considered as the richest renewable materials are presently among the most promising candidates for use in photonics due to their versatility, flexibility, light weight, low cost and ease of modification. Cellulose-metal oxide nanomaterials were developed the technologies to manipulate selfassembly and multifunctionallity, of new technologies to the point where industry can produce advanced and costcompetitive cellulose metal oxide hybrid materials. Therefore, the present study is focused on cellulose-functionalized - 4, 4'-(propane-2, 2'-diyl) diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nano-composites materials by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical and morphological properties of cellulose-functionalized SiO2/TiO2 materials via covalent crosslinking hybrids were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, TEM and optical properties.

  19. A simple low pressure method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes and nanofibers and their application in DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimipour, Masoud; Mashhoun, Sara; Mollaei, Mohsen; Molaei, Mehdi; Taghavinia, Nima

    2015-07-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized using a modified autoclave-free thermal method from as-prepared initial powders. The size of initial powders (IP) was found to be critical in determining the morphology and crystal structure of the final product. Oleylamine (OA) was used as the polymer agent in the preparation of initial powders with different mol ratios of OA/Ti: 1, 5, and 10. X-ray diffraction analysis depicted that the increase of mole ratio up to 10 resulted in smaller nanoparticles with the sizes of about 8 nm. It was also deliberated that low temperature thermally treated IP showed the characteristic diffraction pattern of titanate phase of nanotubes. Scanning electron microscope images showed nanorods, short nanotubes, and single-phase long and uniform nanofibers produced from initial powders. SEM cross-section of the anode cell of TiO2 nanofibers demonstrated the presence of uniformly closed net long fibers in the cell. Open circuit voltage measurements of the nanofiber cell demonstrated a several hundreds of seconds in the electron transport decay, which was significantly higher than that of the nanoparticles. IMPS/IMVS measurements of the nanofibers and nanotube solar cells showed electron transport enhancement and long life time compared to their nanoparticle counterparts. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Investigation of photocatalytic degradation of phenol by Fe(III)-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study Fe (III)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel method at two atomic ratio of Fe/Ti, 0.006 and 0.034 percent. Then the photoactivity of them was investigated on degradation of phenol under UV (<380 nm) irradiation and visible light (>380 nm). Results showed that at appropriate atomic ratio of Fe to Ti (% 0.034) photoactivity of Fe(III)–doped TiO2 nanoparticles increased. In addition, the effects of various operational parameters on photocatalytic degradation, such as pH, initial concentration of phenol and amount of photocatalyst were examined and optimized. At all different initial concentration, highest degradation efficiency occurred at pH = 3 and 0.5 g/L Fe(III)–doped TiO2 dosage. With increase in initial concentration of phenol, photocatalytic degradation efficiency decreased. Photoactivity of Fe (III)-doped TiO2 under UV irradiation and visible light at optimal condition (pH = 3 and catalyst dosage = and 0.5 g/L) was compared with P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Results showed that photoactivity of Fe(III)-doped TiO2 under visible light was more than P25 TiO2 photoactivity, but it was less than P25 TiO2 photoactivity under UV irradiation. Also efficiency of UV irradiation alone and amount of phenol adsorption on Fe(III)-doped TiO2 at dark condition was investigated. PMID:25105016