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Sample records for tissue mercury levels

  1. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  2. Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Erhard, P.

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that mercury accumulates in cord blood during pregnancy. This study was carried out to determine where in cord blood the mercury accumulates, i.e., in cord erythrocytes, in cord plasma, or in both, and to determine whether the predominant form of mercury which accumulates is methyl or inorganic mercury. From our data it is clear that methyl mercury accumulates in cord erythrocytes: A total of 30% more methyl mercury was found in fetal erythrocytes than in maternal erythrocytes. Also correlation analysis of the methyl mercury levels in maternal and fetal erythrocytes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.87). In regard to inorganic mercury, the highest concentration was found in the placenta, suggesting a barrier role, but a significant correlation (r = 0.62) was also found between the maternal and fetal plasma levels of inorganic mercury. Moreover, the inorganic mercury concentration per gram of plasma was higher in fetal cord plasma than in maternal plasma. Overall, the relative levels of methyl and inorganic mercury reported here varied considerably in maternal and fetal erythrocytes, plasma, and in the placenta, but all of the levels were low (< 6 ng Hg/gm of tissue) and in agreement with total mercury levels reported by others.

  3. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  4. Brain and tissue levels of mercury after chronic methylmercury exposure in the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Estimated half-lives of mercury following methylmercury exposure in humans are 52-93 d for whole body and 49-164 d for blood. In its most recent 1980 review, the World Health Organization concluded that there was no evidence to suggest that brain half-life differed from whole-body half-life. In the present study, female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were dosed for at least 1.7 yr with 10, 25, or 50 micrograms/kg.d of mercury as methylmercuric chloride. Dosing was discontinued, and blood half-life was determined to be about 14 d. Approximately 230 d after cessation of dosing, monkeys were sacrificed and organ and regional brain total mercury levels determined. One monkey that died while still being dosed had brain mercury levels three times higher than levels in blood. Theoretical calculations were performed assuming steady-state brain:blood ratios of 3, 5, or 10. Brain mercury levels were at least three orders of magnitude higher than those predicted by assuming the half-life in brain to be the same as that in blood. Estimated half-lives in brain were between 56 (brain:blood ratio of 3) and 38 (brain:blood ratio of 10) d. In addition, there was a dose-dependent difference in half-lives for some brain regions. These data clearly indicate that brain half-life is considerably longer than blood half-life in the monkey under conditions of chronic dosing.

  5. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  6. Levels of Total Mercury in Tissues of Mallard Drakes from Industrialized Wetlands Area.

    PubMed

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Przystupińska, Anna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of total mercury in the bodies of drake mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) inhabiting an industrialized wetland area in southern Poland was studied. The median Hg concentration in tissue of various bones (0.017 µg/g w.w.) was statistically lower than the concentration found in muscle tissue (0.023 µg/g w.w.) and in internal organ tissue samples calculated across the whole range of organ types (0.036 µg/g w.w.). The median concentrations in muscle tissue and organ tissue were comparable. Significant differences within the examined bones were observed, with the beak accumulating the highest amount (0.105 µg/g w.w.). Concentrations were comparable in tissue from various muscles, whereas internal organ tissue displayed a significant variation. The highest median concentration was detected in the kidneys (0.109 µg/g w.w.). Correlations of Hg concentrations between major groups of tissue (i.e. bone, muscle and internal organs) were not statistically significant, but several significant relationships were noted between internal organs.

  7. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Michelle S M; Townsend, Kathy A; Bennett, Michael B; Richardson, Anthony J; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-05-15

    Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead.

  8. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  9. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  10. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  11. Development of a method for the determination of ultra-trace level mercury in adipose tissue by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Keith E.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Lang, M.; Essader, Amal; Handy, Robert W.; Collins, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of total mercury in rat adipose tissue by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) has been developed. Adipose samples were initially subjected to a lyophilization procedure in order to facilitate the homogenization and accurate weighing of small tissue aliquots (~50 mg). A closed vessel microwave digestion procedure using a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids was used to liberate mercury from the adipose matrix. All mercury species were quantitatively oxidized to Hg(II) by a potassium bromate/bromide oxidation, then reduced to Hg(0) vapour by stannous chloride prior to fluorescence detection. The CVAFS exhibited a linear range of 10 pg Hg/ml to 120 pg Hg/ml. The method detection limit in solution was 2 pg Hg/ml, or 1 ng Hg/g adipose tissue, based on a nominal 50 mg sample and a final volume of 25 ml. A reference material from the National Research Council of Canada (DOLT-2, trace metals in dogfish liver) was prepared in quadruplicate in order to assess the accuracy and precision of the method. Mercury in this material was recovered at 2.22 ± 0.08 μ g/g, which is 104% of the certified level (2.14 ± 0.10 μ g/g). PMID:18924864

  12. Immunoassay for mercury in seafood and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.; Holmquist, B.; Ladd, R.; Riddell, M.

    1995-12-01

    Methylmercury accumulates to high levels in the tissues of fish and other animals through biomagnification. Since methylmercury is extremely toxic, it is important to identify fish or animal tissues with mercury levels too high for human consumption. Current methods for the analysis of mercury are expensive and time- consuming, and they must be performed in a laboratory setting. In this study, a rapid and inexpensive mercury-specific immunoassay developed by BioNebraska was used to measure total mercury in tissue following acid digestion and methylmercury decomposition. A good correlation was obtained between the immunoassay and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CVAAS). Use of the mercury immunoassay will facilitate the rapid screening of large numbers of tissue samples.

  13. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Wood, J.M.; White, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    We collected 48 blood and 61 feather samples from nestling bald eagles at 42 nests and adult feather samples from 20 nests in north and central Florida during 1991-93. We obtained 32 liver, 10 feather, and 5 blood samples from 33 eagle carcasses recovered in Florida during 1987-93. For nestlings, mercury concentrations in blood (GM = 0.16 ppm wet wt) and feather (GM = 3.23 ppm) samples were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.0001). Although nestlings had lower mercury concentrations in feathers than did adults (GM = 6.03 ppm), the feather mercury levels in nestlings and adults from the same nest were correlated (r = 0.63, P < 0.02). Mercury concentrations in blood of captive adult eagles (GM = 0.23 ppm) was similar to Florida nestlings but some Florida nestlings had blood mercury concentrations up to 0.61 ppm, more than twice as high as captive adults. Feather mercury concentrations in both nestlings and adults exceeded those in captive eagles, but concentrations in all tissues were similar to, or lower than, those in bald eagles from other wild populations. Although mercury concentrations in Florida eagles are below those that cause mortality, they are in the range of concentrations that can cause behavioral changes or reduce reproduction. We recommend periodic monitoring of mercury in Florida bald eagles for early detection of mercury increases before negative effects on reproduction occur. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mercury residues in tissues of dead and surviving birds fed methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Stickel, W.H.; Christensen, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury in passerine birds fed diets containing 40 ppm methylmercury were similar in tissues of birds that died from mercury poisoning and in those that were sacrificed after half the group had died. Residues were higher in tissues of birds that died, but the differences were not statistically significant. Residue levels were highest in livers, followed by kidneys and brains. Levels of mercury were similar in breast muscle, carcass, and whole body. Mercury levels were highest in redwinged blackbirds, lowest in grackles, and intermediate in starlings and cowbirds. Mercury concentrations exceeded 20 ppm in all tissues of all species and were similar to levels reported in wild birds known to have died of mercury poisoning.

  15. Mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C; Guzmán Bernardo, F J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Patiño Ropero, M J

    2012-09-15

    No previous analytical procedures are available and validated for mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal tissues. This analysis is a difficult task both because the expected concentrations are low, since important accumulation process are not likely to occur, and also because there are not commercially available certified reference material. Thus, an analytical methodology has been developed and validated for mercury speciation for the specific case of terrestrial animal tissues. The proposed method is based on the quantitative extraction of the species by closed-vessel microwave assisted heating with an alkaline reagent, followed by ethylation. The ethylated derivatives were then submitted to head-space solid phase microextraction with a 100 μm polidimethylsiloxane-coated fiber, and desorbed onto a gas chromatograph coupled to atomic fluorescence detection via pyrolysis unit (HS-SPME-GC-pyro-AFS). Procedural detection limits were 31.8 ng g(-1) and 52.5 ng g(-1) for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively, for liver and 35.3 ng g(-1) and 58.1 ng g(-1) for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively, for kidney. These limits of detection are 5.5 and 6 times better than the obtained without solid phase microextraction for CH(3)Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively. The methodology was found linear up to 120 μg L(-1) and reproducible from one day to the following. It was validated with certified reference materials NCS ZC 71001 (beef liver) and BCR No 186 (pig kidney) for total mercury, calculated as the sum of species, and with spiked red deer liver and kidney for speciation. Finally, it was applied to the analysis of samples of red deer liver, red deer kidney and wild boar kidney coming from the Almadén's mercury mining area (Ciudad Real, Spain), the longest and largest producer of mercury in the world until its closure in 2002. PMID:22967634

  16. The mercury levels in crustaceans and cephalopods from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Mokhtar, Fazlin Anis

    2015-09-01

    This study is to determine total mercury in edible tissues of eight species of cephalopods and 12 species of crustaceans purchased from 11 identified major fish landing ports and wet markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of mercury was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) technique using the Perkin Elmer Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS-400). In general, the mercury levels were low with concentrations in cephalopods ranging from 0.099 to 2.715 mg/kg dry weight (or 0.0184-0.505 mg/kg wet weight) and in crustaceans ranging from 0.057 to 1.359 mg/kg dry weight (or 0.0111-0.265 mg/kg wet weight). The mercury levels showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between species for both cephalopods and crustaceans. There was no significant correlation between mercury concentrations and the body size of individual for both groups as well. Comparisons with mercury levels obtained found from other previous studies and/or species noted that they were of the same magnitude or relatively low compared to various locations reported worldwide. PMID:25916470

  17. The mercury levels in crustaceans and cephalopods from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Mokhtar, Fazlin Anis

    2015-09-01

    This study is to determine total mercury in edible tissues of eight species of cephalopods and 12 species of crustaceans purchased from 11 identified major fish landing ports and wet markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of mercury was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) technique using the Perkin Elmer Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS-400). In general, the mercury levels were low with concentrations in cephalopods ranging from 0.099 to 2.715 mg/kg dry weight (or 0.0184-0.505 mg/kg wet weight) and in crustaceans ranging from 0.057 to 1.359 mg/kg dry weight (or 0.0111-0.265 mg/kg wet weight). The mercury levels showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between species for both cephalopods and crustaceans. There was no significant correlation between mercury concentrations and the body size of individual for both groups as well. Comparisons with mercury levels obtained found from other previous studies and/or species noted that they were of the same magnitude or relatively low compared to various locations reported worldwide.

  18. Mercury in the muscle tissue of fish from three northern Maine lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Akielaszek, J.J.; Haines, T.A.

    1981-08-01

    We report the levels of mercury in the muscle tissue of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and lake trout (S. namaycush) from three northern Maine lakes. Mercury levels in fish from two wilderness lakes in the same drainage basin were compared with each other, and in turn with those in fish from a lake in a separate drainage basin. The fish species composition in one of the wilderness lakes, Cliff Lake, is different from that in the other two lakes, enabling us to analyze the effects of trophic structure on mercury concentration in top carnivores. It is unlikely that mercury from agricultural, geological, or local industrial sources occurs in these lakes.

  19. Temporal and spatial trends in freshwater fish tissue mercury concentrations associated with mercury emissions reductions.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Michael S; Smith, C Mark; Rose, Jane; Batdorf, Carol; Pancorbo, Oscar; West, Carol Rowan; Strube, Joseph; Francis, Corey

    2014-02-18

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were monitored from 1999 to 2011 in largemouth bass (LMB) and yellow perch (YP) in 23 lakes in Massachusetts USA during a period of significant local and regional Hg emissions reductions. Average LMB tissue Hg concentration decreases of 44% were seen in 13 of 16 lakes in a regional Hg "hotspot" area. YP in all lakes sampled in this area decreased 43% after the major emissions reductions. Comparative decreases throughout the remainder of the state were 13% and 19% for LMB and YP respectively. Annual tissue mercury concentration rate decreases were 0.029 (LMB) and 0.016 mg Hg/kg/yr (YP) in the hotspot. In lakes around the rest of the state, LMB showed no trend and YP Hg decreased 0.0068 mg Hg/kg/yr. Mercury emissions from major point sources in the hotspot area decreased 98%, and 93% in the rest of the state from the early 1990s to 2008. The significant declines in fish Hg concentrations in many lakes occurred over the second half of a two decade decrease in Hg emissions primarily from municipal solid waste combustors and, secondarily, from other combustion point sources. In addition to the substantial Hg emissions reductions achieved in Massachusetts, further regional, national and global emissions reductions are needed for fish Hg levels to decrease below fish consumption advisory levels. PMID:24494622

  20. An evaluation of mercury levels in Louisiana fish: trends and public health issues.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Sun, Mei-Hung; Suffet, Mel

    2010-11-01

    To characterize statewide fish tissue mercury levels in edible finfish the first comprehensive analysis of Louisiana's fish tissue mercury database was conducted. Analyses were based on fifteen years of fish tissue mercury data collected from 368 waterbodies between 1994 and 2008 (n=14,344). The overall objectives of this study were to establish baseline fish tissue mercury levels; and evaluate species-specific temporal and spatial trends in fish tissue mercury levels. Fish tissue mercury levels ranged from 0.001 ppm (the detection limit) to 5.904 ppm for king mackerel; with an overall geometric mean of 0.218 ppm. Ninety-five percent of samples had mercury levels below the FDA's action level of 1.0 ppm for methylmercury in commercial food. Forty-four percent of all samples had mercury levels above the U.S. EPA's methylmercury fish tissue criterion of 0.3 ppm for sportfish. Species of potential concern include cobia, king mackerel, blackfin tuna, greater amberjack, spotted bass, bowfin, largemouth bass and freshwater drum. There was a significant but small decline in statewide length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels between 1994-1999 to 2003-2008 (p<0.05). The highest fish mercury levels were observed in Pearl, Calcasieu, Mermentau, Ouachita, Pontchartrain and Sabine basins. Length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels were significantly higher in wetlands and rivers/streams vs. lakes; and in wetlands vs. estuaries (p<0.05). Data were analyzed from a public health perspective to make recommendations for optimizing monitoring and outreach. PMID:20855108

  1. Mercury and fish tissue -- Status of Oregon reservoirs and lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, D.; Stifel, B.; DiDomenico, G.; McCartney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality monitors contaminants in fish and sediment. Total mercury was analyzed in fish tissue taken from ten water bodies in 1993 and 1994. Mercury was measured in bass (Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieui), salmonids (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, O. clarki) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, I. nebulosus) in support of health department consumption advisories. Elevated mercury concentrations above the EPA screening value of 0.6 mg/kg wet were found in fish from watersheds with cinnabar geology or historical mining activity. Established bioaccumulation correlations between mercury and species, age, and length were also observed. Results from East Lake, a popular recreational fishery that had not previously been studied, were found to have fish mercury concentrations approaching 3.0 mg/kg wet. Regulatory and fish management issues will also be presented.

  2. Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

  3. Mercury and selenium in fish from the Savannah river: species, trophic level, and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Boring, C S; Stephens, W L; Snodgrass, J; Gochfeld, M

    2001-10-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: upstream, along, and downstream the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear material production facility. We test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue as a function of species, trophic level, and location along the river. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury levels, with bowfin (Amia calva) having the highest levels, followed by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pickerel (Esox niger). Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) had the lowest levels of mercury. As expected, these differences generally reflected trophic levels. There were few significant locational differences in mercury levels, and existing differences were not great, presumably reflecting local movements of fish between the sites examined. Selenium and mercury concentrations were positively correlated only for bass, perch (Perca flavescens), and red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Mercury levels were positively correlated with body mass of the fish for all species except American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus). The mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue from the Savannah River are similar to or lower than those reported in many other studies, and in most cases pose little risk to the fish themselves or to other aquatic consumers, although levels in bowfin and bass are sufficiently high to pose a potential threat to high-level consumers.

  4. Blood Mercury Levels of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications for the Evolution of Mercury Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Kenton A.; Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Swaddle, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on standardized diets ranging from 0.0–2.4 μg/g methylmercury. We applied a quantitative genetics approach to examine patterns of variation and heritability of mercury accumulation within dietary treatments using a method of mixed effects modeling known as the 'animal model'. Significant variation in blood mercury accumulation existed within each treatment for birds exposed at the same dietary level; moreover, this variation was highly repeatable for individuals. We observed substantial genetic variation in blood mercury accumulation for birds exposed at intermediate dietary concentrations. Taken together, this is evidence that genetic variation for factors affecting blood mercury accumulation could be acted on by selection. If similar heritability for mercury accumulation exists in wild populations, selection could result in genetic differentiation for populations in contaminated locations, with possible consequences for mercury biomagnification in food webs. PMID:27668745

  5. Determination of mercury by cold-vapor technique in several tissues of treated American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)

    SciTech Connect

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Diaz-Mayans, J.; Medina, J.; Torreblanca, A.

    1988-01-01

    Adult intermolt specimens of American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) collected from Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain), were exposed to mercury during 96 h. The Hg-concentrations used were 50, 100, and 250 ..mu..g Hg/l as Cl/sub 2/Hg. The content of mercury in muscle, midgut gland, antennal glands and gills was investigated. Determinations of mercury were made by cold-vapor technique and AAS. The mercury levels in all examined tissues increased significantly with increasing Hg-concentration in the water.

  6. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects. PMID:9419264

  7. Mercury exposure in French Guiana: Levels and determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Cordier, S.; Mandereau, L.; Grasmick, C.; Paquier-Passelaigue, M.; Weber, J.P.; Jouan, M.

    1998-07-01

    Mercury is used widely for gold extraction in French Guiana and throughout the entire Amazon basin. To evaluate contamination among the general population, the authors chose individuals who attended 13 health centers and maternity hospitals dispersed geographically across the territory and served Guiana`s different populations. Five hundred individuals (109 pregnant women, 255 other adults, and 136 children) who received care at one of the centers were selected randomly for this study. Each individual answered a questionnaire and provided a hair sample. The authors determined mercury in hair with atomic absorption spectrometry. The following mean levels of mercury were observed: 1.6 {micro}g/g among pregnant women; 3.4 {micro}g/g among other adults; and 2.5 {micro}g/g among children. Diet factors contributed the most to mercury levels, especially consumption of freshwater fish and livers from game. Other factors, including age, dental amalgams, use of skin-lightening cosmetics, and residence near a gold-mining community, did not contribute significantly to mercury levels. Overall, 12% of the samples contained mercury levels in excess of 10 {micro}g/g, but in some Amerindian communities up to 79% of the children had hair mercury levels that exceeded 10 {micro}g/g. The results of this study indicated that (a) diet played a predominant role in total mercury burden, and (b) in some communities, mercury contamination exceeded safe levels.

  8. Evaluation of mercury in urine as an indicator of exposure to low levels of mercury vapor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Joyce S; Williams, Pamela R D; Edwards, Melanie R; Allamneni, Krishna P; Kelsh, Michael A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a pooled analysis to investigate the relationship between exposure to elemental mercury in air and resulting urinary mercury levels, specifically at lower air levels relevant for environmental exposures and public health goals (i.e., < 50 microg/m3 down to 1.0 microg/m3). Ten studies reporting paired air and urine mercury data (149 samples total) met criteria for data quality and sufficiency. The log-transformed data set showed a strong correlation between mercury in air and in urine (r = 0.774), although the relationship was best fit by a series of parallel lines with different intercepts for each study R2 = 0.807). Predicted ratios of air to urine mercury levels at 50 microg/m3 air concentration ranged from 1:1 to 1:3, based on the regression line for the studies. Toward the lower end of the data set (i.e., 10 microg/m3), predicted urinary mercury levels encompassed two distinct ranges: values on the order of 20 microg/L and 30-60 microg/L. Extrapolation to 1 microg/m3 resulted in predicted urinary levels of 4-5 and 6-13 microg/L. Higher predicted levels were associated with use of static area air samplers by some studies rather than more accurate personal air samplers. Urinary mercury predictions based primarily on personal air samplers at 1 and 10 microg/m3 are consistent with reported mean (4 microg/L) and upper-bound (20 microg/L) background levels, respectively. Thus, although mercury levels in air and urine are correlated below 50 microg/m3, the impact of airborne mercury levels below 10 microg/m3 is likely to be indistinguishable from background urinary mercury levels. PMID:12676626

  9. Postharvest correlation between swordfish (Xiphius gladius) size and mercury concentration in edible tissues.

    PubMed

    Cladis, Dennis P; Zhang, Rongrong; Tan, Xi; Craig, Bruce; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    Total mercury was measured via thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy in the muscle tissue of 82 swordfish originating in the Pacific Ocean and was found to range from 228 to 2,090 ppb. The relationships between total mercury concentration and the size of the fish (i.e., length and weight) were analyzed. It was found that dressed weight (DW) was a better predictor of mercury concentration than cleithrum-to-caudal keel length in a single variable model, and DW was the only significant predictor of mercury concentration in a multivariable model. Based on these relationships, swordfish with a DW greater than 96.4 kg (213 lb; 95% confidence interval, 88 to 107 kg [195 to 235 lb]) will exceed 1,000 ppb of mercury-the action level in the United States, Canada, and Europe-and should not be sold in commercial markets. Additionally, a logistic regression model was created to illustrate the probability of a swordfish at any DW being unsafe to consume (i.e., containing more than 1,000 ppb of mercury). In this model, the probability of a swordfish being unsafe exceeds the probability of being safe at 94.6 kg (209 lb). Taken together, the models presented in this report give regulators valuable postharvest tools to use for rapid determination of the safety of swordfish intended for sale in commercial markets.

  10. Bioaccumulation of trace mercury in trophic levels of benthic, benthopelagic, pelagic fish species, and sea birds from Arvand River, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghob

    2013-12-01

    In this study, concentration of mercury was determined in the trophic levels of benthic, benthopelagic, pelagic fish species, and river birds from Arvand River, located in the Khuzestan province in the lowlands of southwestern Iran at the head of the Persian Gulf. The order of mercury concentrations in tissues of the fish species was as follows: liver>gill>muscle and in tissues of the kingfisher species was as follows: feather>liver>kidney>muscle. Therefore, liver in fish and feather in kingfisher exhibited higher mercury concentration than the other tissues. There was a positive correlation between mercury concentrations in fish and kingfisher species with size of its food items. We expected to see higher mercury levels in tissues of female species because they are larger and can eat larger food items. The results of this study show that the highest mean mercury level were found in the kingfisher (Anas crecca), followed by benthic (Epinephelus diacanthus), benthopelagic (Chanos chanos), and pelagic fish (Strongylura strongylura). Mean value of mercury in fish species, S. strongylura were (0.61 μg g(-1) dry weight), C. chanos (0.45 μg g(-1) dry weight), E. diacanthus (0.87 μg g(-1) dry weight), and in kingfisher species A. crecca was (2.64 μg g(-1) dry weight). Significant correlation between mercury concentration in fish and kingfisher may be related to high variability of mercury in the fish.

  11. Mercury in the nation's streams: levels, trends, and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution. Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish—the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas. In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present. Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations. This report summarizes selected stream

  12. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  13. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis subgroup was 1.155220 ± 0.9470246 ng/g (mean ± SD) and that in chronic superficial gastritis subgroup was 0.604732 ± 0.6942509 ng/g (mean ± SD); the former level was significantly higher than the latter level (p<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic superficial gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.05). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.01). Stratified analysis indicated that the hair mercury level in healthy controls with eating seafood was significantly higher than that in healthy

  14. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis subgroup was 1.155220 ± 0.9470246 ng/g (mean ± SD) and that in chronic superficial gastritis subgroup was 0.604732 ± 0.6942509 ng/g (mean ± SD); the former level was significantly higher than the latter level (p<0.01). The hair mercury level in chronic superficial gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.05). The hair mercury level in chronic atrophic gastritis cases was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.01). Stratified analysis indicated that the hair mercury level in healthy controls with eating seafood was significantly higher than that in healthy

  15. A basin-specific aquatic food web biomagnification model for estimation of mercury target levels.

    PubMed

    Hope, Bruce

    2003-10-01

    In the Willamette River Basin (WRB, Oregon, USA), health advisories currently limit consumption of fish that have accumulated methylmercury (MeHg) to levels posing a potential health risk for humans. Under the Clean Water Act, these advisories create the requirement for a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for mercury in the WRB. A TMDL is a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive and still meet water-quality standards. Because MeHg is known to biomagnify in aquatic food webs, a basin-specific biomagnification factor can be used, given a protective fish tissue criterion, to estimate total mercury concentrations in surface waters required to lower advisory mercury concentrations currently in fish in the WRB. This paper presents an aquatic food web biomagnification model that simulates inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and MeHg accumulation in fish tissue and estimates WRB-specific biomagnification factors for resident fish species of concern to stakeholders. Probabilistic (two-dimensional Monte Carlo) techniques propagate parameter variability and uncertainty throughout the model, providing decision makers with credible range information and increased flexibility in establishing a specific mercury target level. The model predicts the probability of tissue mercury concentrations in eight fish species within the range of concentrations measured in these species over 20 years of water-quality monitoring. Estimated mean biomagnification factor values range from 1.12 x 10(6) to 7.66 x 10(6) and are within the range of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national values. Several WRB-specific mercury target levels are generated, which very by their probability of affording human health protection relative to the federal MeHg tissue criterion of 0.30 mg/kg. Establishing a specific numeric target level is, however, a public policy decision, and one that will require further discussions among WRB stakeholders. PMID:14552019

  16. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

  17. Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury.

  18. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH{sub 3}HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (tests 2--3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from tests 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggestion that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  19. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH3HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (test 2-3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from test 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggesting that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  20. Mercury Exposure Levels in Children with Dental Amalgam Fillings

    PubMed Central

    Miriam Varkey, Indu; Shetty, Rajmohan; Hegde, Amitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Objectives: Mercury combined with other metals to form solid amalgams has long been used in reconstructive dentistry but its use has been controversial since at least the middle of the 19th century. The exposure and body burden of mercury reviews have consistently stated that there is a deficiency of adequate epidemiological studies addressing this issue. Fish and dental amalgam are two major sources of human exposure to organic (MeHg) and inorganic Hg respectively. Materials and methods: A total of 150 subjects aged between 9 and 14 years were divided into two groups of 75 subjects each depending on their diet, i.e. seafood or nonseafood consuming. Each category was subdivided into three groups based on number of restorations. Scalp hair and urine samples were collected at baseline and 3 months later to assess the organic and inorganic levels of mercury respectively by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results: The mean values of urinary mercury (inorganic mercury) in the group of children with restorations were 1.5915 μg/l as compared to 0.0130 μg/l in the groups with no amalgam restorations (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon sign rank test and paired t-test). The hair mercury levels (organic mercury) varied signi-ficantly between the fsh-eating group and nonfsh-eating group, the average values being 1.03 μg/l and 0.84 μg/l respectively (p < 0.001) (Mann-Whitney U-test and paired t-test). Conclusion and significance: The notion about the mercury being released from the amalgam restorations as a sole exposure source needs to be put to a rest, as environmental factors collectively overpower the exposure levels from restorations alone. How to cite this article: Varkey IM, Shetty R, Hegde A. Mercury Exposure Levels in Children with Dental Amalgam Fillings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):180-185. PMID:25709298

  1. Chronic effects of low-level mercury and cadmium to goldfish (Carassius Auratus)

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    During this five and one half year investigation, experiments were performed to determine the effects of nanogram levels of cadmium and mercury on reproductive performance, growth, and tissue residues of goldfish. In addition, embryo-larval bioassays were conducted on these metals to compare the effects of a short-term exposure to a sensitive life-cycle stage (i.e., eggs and larvae) with a sustained exposure to a relatively insensitive life-cycle period (i.e., adult). Reproduction was blocked by the long-term exposure to 0.25 ..mu..g/l mercury and 0.27 ..mu..g/l cadmium. Over the 1972 days, the control fish spawned on eleven occasions, but the experimentals failed to spawn. The metal-induced reproductive impairment continued in the experimentals even after six months in clean water. Growth of the populations exposed to mercury and cadmium was significantly less than that of the control population (P < 0.001). The mercury, cadmium and control populations grew by 229%, 232% and 353%, respectively. Mercury and cadmium continuously accumulated in fish tissues over the entire 1789 days of whole body exposure. Despite exposure to mercury as inorganic metal, organomercury also accumula

  2. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the majority of the Amazonian

  3. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (<0.2 ppm), 29% had elevated levels (0.2-0.5 ppm), 13% had chronic levels (0.51-1.0 ppm), and 3% had acute levels (>1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (P<0.016) and both elements tended to increase with age. Selenium in feathers (n=48) appeared stable across plumage classes. Although detection rates of lead in blood of eagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (P<0.023) between periods, as did proportions of eagles exhibiting above background levels (>0.2 ppm; P<0.02). PMID:23307377

  4. Assessment of Mercury in Fish Tissue from Select Lakes of Northeastern Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fish tissue study was conducted in five northeastern Oregon reservoirs to evaluate mercury concentrations in an area where elevated atmospheric mercury deposition had been predicted by a national EPA model, but where tissue data were sparse. The study targeted resident predator...

  5. A screening-level mercury deposition model for wetland ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    A highly aggregated, three-compartment, carbon cycling model was constructed for a screening-level simulation of net carbon, phosphorus, and mercury deposition in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project, a 3,742-acre constructed wetland in South Florida. The model was initialized using ENR or Everglades values for model variables. The model was calibrated to calculate biomass turnover, decomposition, and release rates that reproduced the observed apparent phosphorus settling rate constant and the observed organic and inorganic carbon and total phosphorus concentrations in surface sediments. The mercury deposition rate was calculated by partitioning water column mercuric ion onto settling organic and inorganic carbon particles using site-specific or literature values for partition coefficients. From the annual mass balance budget for total mercury calculated with site-specific or literature values, the phosphorus-calibrated model reproduced the observed total mercury concentrations in surface sediments from a typical Everglades marsh within screening-level tolerances.

  6. Determination of tissue endothelin levels.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Jeng, A Y

    1995-05-01

    A methodology for the quantitation of tissue endothelin levels has been developed. About 85% of authentic endothelin-1 added to the tissue extract was recovered. Using this protocol, the levels of endothelin in various rat tissues were determined. In Wistar-Kyoto rats, the kidney was found to have the highest level of endothelin, 1120 pg/gm wet weight, followed by the spleen and liver. The brain contained only half as much of endothelin when compared with the kidney. This method can be utilized to assess the pathological role of endothelin in cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  7. Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  8. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the lungs Medicine to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ... Baum CR. Mercury: Heavy metals and inorganic agents. In: Shannon MW, ... Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and ...

  9. Size and biomagnification: How Habitat selection explains beluga mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Loseto, L L; Stern, G A; Ferguson, S H

    2008-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population increased during the 1990s; levels have since declined but remain higher than the 1980s. The diet of this beluga population is not well-known, thus it is difficult to assess dietary Hg sources. During the summer, the Beaufort Sea belugas segregate by length, sex, and reproductive status corresponding to habitat use that may result in feeding differences and ultimately Hg uptake. To test this hypothesis, we examine beluga dietary variation using fatty acid profiles and determine which biological variables best predict diet Relationships between biological variables and fatty acids were further evaluated with stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in liver and muscle. Hg concentrations in muscle were better related to liver delta15N than muscle delta15N. Stable isotopes and fatty acids are compared in their ability to describe dietary Hg processes in beluga. Fatty acids provided support for influences of whale behavior on dietary Hg uptake, whereas stable isotopes inferred tissue Hg metabolic rates. Here, we show beluga length drives diet variability leading to differences in Hg uptake and biomagnification processes dominate beluga Hg levels over Hg bioaccumulation over time.

  10. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-11-15

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  12. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  13. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  14. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish.

  15. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish. PMID:25256581

  16. The release, tissue distribution and excretion of mercury from experimental amalgam tattoos.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, S. W.; Eley, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the subcutaneous implantation of powdered dental amalgam in guinea pigs, there was an initial extrusion of material from the healing implantation wounds. Longer-term release of mercury from the lesions was demonstrated by linear regression analysis of the mercury contents of implant sites removed after time periods of up to 2 years. Raised mercury levels were detected in the blood, bile, kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs of implanted animals; by far the highest concentrations were found in the renal cortex. Mercury was excreted with the urine and, to a lesser extent, the faeces. The pattern of mercury redistribution resembled that seen following chronic exposure to mercuric compounds. PMID:3801303

  17. Total mercury in liver and muscle tissue of two coastal sharks from the northwest of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Banda, Rocío; Gomez-Alvarez, Agustín; Márquez-Farías, J Fernando; Cordoba-Figueroa, Marcial; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel

    2012-06-01

    Total mercury (THg) in liver and muscle of three costal sharks from Mexico were evaluated. The highest concentrations of THg in muscle tissue of juveniles were found in Sphyrna lewini (0.82 ± 0.33 mg kg(-1) wet basis). Rhizoprionodon longurio adults had the highest concentrations (0.92 ± 1.03 mg kg(-1)). THg concentrations in liver were low compared to those found in muscle tissue; higher levels were found in liver of juvenile S. lewini (0.250 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that 35 % of muscle tissue samples are above the precautionary limit (0.50 mg kg(-1) of THg) and a 7 % exceeded the maximum limit for human consumption (1 mg kg(-1)).

  18. Current hair mercury levels in Japanese: survey in five districts.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Matsumoto, Miyuki; Yamaguchi, Masako; Hachiya, Noriyuki

    2003-03-01

    To understand the current Japanese hair mercury levels, we planned a survey of hair mercury among the general populations of different regions in Japan. The present paper, as the first report of the survey, summarized the results obtained in five districts, Minamata, Kumamoto, Tottori, Wakayama and Chiba. Hair samples were collected at beauty salons, barbershops and primary schools in each district with questionnaires on age, sex, amount and species of fish usually consumed, hair-dyed and artificial hair waving "permanent wave." The total mercury levels of 3686 hair samples collected were analyzed by an oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation method. The geometric mean of the total mercury concentration was significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 2.55 microg/g and 1.43 microg/g, respectively. The sex difference was also observed on hair samples without artificial waving, i.e., 2.64 microg/g and 1.64 microg/g, respectively. The geometric mean in each district varied from 2.23 to 4.79 microg/g for males and from 1.23 to 2.50 microg/g for females. The average hair mercury levels were highest in Chiba among the five districts both in males and females. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of the mercury level with age, sex, amount of daily fish consumption, tuna and bonito as usually consumed fish, artificial waving and Chiba as a residential area. In the laboratory experiment, we found that the treatment of hair samples with a lotion for artificial waving caused a 30%-reduction in the mercury content. Furthermore, longitudinal hair analysis showed a marked difference in the concentration between the hair root and the tip of the hair taken from artificially waved females; higher values were observed at the hair root. These results suggested that artificial waving significantly removes hair mercury and that hair analysis at the hair root should be necessary to estimate an accurate methylmercury exposure for waved persons.

  19. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and
    compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  20. Mercury accumulation profiles and their modification by interaction with cadmium and lead in the soft tissues of the Cichlid Oreochromis aureus during chronic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.

    1994-11-01

    Mercury, cadmium and lead have no well known biological functions in the animal body and are described as ultratrace elements. Their toxicity is due in part to competition with essential metals for binding sites and interference with sulfhydryl groups, essential for the normal functioning of enzymes and structural proteins. Cadmium blocks sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and competes for sites with zinc and calcium. To a lesser extent, lead may replace calcium in structures and react with sulfhydryl groups, while mercury has a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups and is lipid soluble in its methylated form. The chloroalkali industry is a major source of mercury pollution. When fish take up mercury, whether organic or inorganic, most of it accumulates in tissues in the organic form. Minamata disease in humans was first reported in 1956. The form of mercury responsible was found to be methylmercury, which being lipid soluble is much more toxic than inorganic mercury. It is important to monitor and assess the mercury content of fish which are caught, or farmed, for human consumption. Since many commercial animal feeds contain a fishmeal component, there is a risk of contamination of farm animals intended for human consumption. Since Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) is cultured in North and Latin America, and other regions, it is a suitable model to use for studying the distribution of mercury in different tissues of food fish. Tilapias have been used effectively an constituents of pig food either directly or through fish silage or fishmeal. Laboratory studies of heavy metal pollution often overlook the effects of exposure to more than one heavy metal at the same time and often heavy metals occur in combination. In Jakarta Bay, high levels of cadmium were found together with mercury. The present study Investigates the effects of exposure to combinations of mercury with cadmium or lead on tissue accumulation of mercury. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Distribution and accumulation of mercury in tissues of captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Hines, R.K.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the distribution and accumulation of Hg in tissues of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks maintained for up to 15 weeks on either a control diet with no added methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) or one containing either 0.4 or 1.2 ??g Hg (as MeHgCl)/g wet-weight food. Total Hg and MeHg tissue concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 > 0.95) with the amount of Hg delivered to individual chicks throughout the course of the experiment. The pattern of differential Hg concentration in internal tissues was consistent within each treatment: Liver > kidney > muscle > carcass > brain. Feather Hg concentrations were consistently higher than those of internal tissues and represented an important route of Hg elimination. Feather mass accounted for 4.3% ?? 0.1% (average ?? standard error) of body mass, yet 27.3% ?? 2.6% of total Hg intake was excreted into feathers. Our calculations indicate that 26.7% ?? 4.9% of ingested Hg was not accounted for and, thus, either was never absorbed or was absorbed and subsequently eliminated in feces. With the additional excretion into feathers, 54% of ingested Hg was excreted. Demethylation was evident in the liver at all treatment levels and in the kidneys of chicks dosed at 1.2 ??g Hg/g. Mercury concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r2 ??? 0.95) among internal tissues and with blood Hg concentration. Mercury concentrations of secondary feathers were moderately correlated (r2 = 0.82-0.93) with internal tissues. We supply regression models that may be used to provide perspective and a useful means of interpreting the variety of measures of Hg exposure reported in the literature. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  2. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  3. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Total mercury, at μg kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7μg kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3μg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25064238

  4. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Total mercury, at μg kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7μg kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3μg kg(-1), respectively.

  5. Mercury and selenium content and chemical form in human and animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappon, C J; Smith, J C

    1981-01-01

    The content, chemical form, and distribution of mercury and selenium were determined for selected samples of human and animal tissue by gas chromatography. Methylmercury averaged 38.7% of the total mercury content in homogenized human brain. For human heart, spleen, liver, kidney and placenta, methylmercury comprised 40.2%, 57.0%, 39.6%, 6.0% and 57.1% respectively, of the total mercury content. Similar results were obtained for the heart and liver of a whitetail deer. Methylmercury represented 9.1%, 62.9% and 24.1% of the total mercury content in seal liver, seal meat and deer meat, respectively. For all samples, a significant portion of the total selenium content, averaging 27%, was present as selenate (Se VI). Tissue selenium content did not correlate with the corresponding mercury content. In brain, heart and placenta, and in seal liver and meat, 53% to 80% of the total mercury content was water-extractable. For human kidney, liver and spleen, and deer meat, only 15% to 45% of the total mercury was extractable. On a percentage basis, inorganic mercury was more extractable than methylmercury, except for human kidney and liver, and deer meat. For all samples, except kidney, liver and deer meat, 55% to 76% of the total selenium content was water-extractable, Se VI being more extractable on a percentage basis than selenite (Se IV) and selenide (Se-II). PMID:7242026

  6. [Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Iketsu, Ayumi; Inasaki, Mizue; Kubota, Emi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively.

  7. [Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Iketsu, Ayumi; Inasaki, Mizue; Kubota, Emi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively. PMID:21071911

  8. Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.; Leininger, R.W.; Vimy, M.J.; Lorscheider, F.L. )

    1990-11-01

    The fate of mercury (Hg) released from dental silver amalgam tooth fillings into human mouth air is uncertain. A previous report about sheep revealed uptake routes and distribution of amalgam Hg among body tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the bodily distribution of amalgam Hg in a monkey whose dentition, diet, feeding regimen, and chewing pattern closely resemble those of humans. When amalgam fillings, which normally contain 50% Hg, are made with a tracer of radioactive {sup 203}Hg and then placed into monkey teeth, the isotope appears in high concentration in various organs and tissues within 4 wk. Whole-body images of the monkey revealed that the highest levels of Hg were located in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and jaw. The dental profession's advocacy of silver amalgam as a stable tooth restorative material is not supported by these findings.

  9. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  10. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  11. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  12. TISSUE MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS AND POTENTIAL NEUROGPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN COMMON LOONS (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common loons (Gavia immer) in New England are exposed to high levels of mercury through their diet. Mercury bioaccumulates through the food chain as methylmercury, a neurotoxin which has been shown in controlled feeding studies to have detrimental effects on the health and behavi...

  13. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Levels of cadmium and mercury in the hair of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Svalbard, Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Wiig, O.; Renzoni, A.; Gjertz, I.

    1999-08-01

    Hair samples of 15 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) collected from anesthetized individuals at Svalbard, Norway, were analyzed for cadmium and total mercury. The mean level of cadmium was 0.860 {+-} 0.321 {micro}g/g dry weight and the mean level of mercury was 0.235 {+-} 0.100 {micro}g/g dry weight. Levels of cadmium and mercury in hair of walruses from other areas are not known. Both cadmium and mercury levels in hair of walruses from Svalbard are relatively low compared to the levels found in the hair of other marine mammal species. It has been documented from a number of marine species, including marine mammals such as ringed seals and polar bears, that both cadmium and mercury levels of Svalbard are lower than in other areas. It is uncertain as to what degree levels in hair reflect levels in internal organs in walruses. In rare and highly endangered species or populations tissue samples can be difficult to collect. In walruses, it is possible to collect hair from anesthetized individuals or at the haul-out sites during molt, to monitor heavy metal levels of the population.

  15. Distribution of mercury in the soft tissues of the Blue Tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) after acute exposure to mercury (II) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.

    1994-11-01

    Mercury has no known biological functions in the animal body and is described as an ultratrace element. Consequently, there is no well defined regulatory mechanism present in the animal body and it tends to accumulate readily if available in an animal's environment. Sources of mercury include the chloroalkali industry, the manufacture of electrical equipment, paint, fungicides and dentistry. The use of mercury in the gold mining industry has caused extensive pollution in the Amazon Basin. Whether fish take up organic or inorganic mercury, most of it accumulates in the tissues in the organic form. Most cases of mercury poisoning arising from fish consumption are due to methylmercury because mercury entering the aquatic system rapidly becomes methylated. Minamata disease in humans was first reported in 1956 due to consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay. Therefore it is important to monitor the mercury content of fish which are caught or farmed for human consumption. Since many commercial animal feeds contain a fish meal component, monitoring is important from the aspect of contamination of farm animals intended for human consumption. Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) is a species of tilapia often cultured in ponds and also in cages in North and Latin America. Therefore, it is a suitable model to use for studying the effects of mercury exposure on the distribution of mercury in different tissues of fish. Distribution is important, because different cultures consume different fish organs, not just the muscle portion alone. The tissues which have a high content of mercury will be most dangerous from a toxicological viewpoint. Removal of the tissues known to contain the highest concentrations of mercury would reduce the mercury content of fish meal. Since fish are often species-specific in their responses to heavy metals, it is important to study a species which is actually farmed and cultured as a food fish. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN THE TISSUES OF FIVE SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH FROM LAKE MEAD, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in seven tissues (skeletal muscle, liver,
    blood, gonad, brain, gill, and heart) of 59 striped bass and four tissues (muscle, liver, blood, and
    gonad) of 69 largemouth bass, 76 channel catfish, 12 bluegill, and 22 blue tila...

  17. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver.

  18. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver. PMID:22863865

  19. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The

  20. Selenium and mercury interactions wtih emphasis on fish tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review addresses the effects of mercury (Hg) in fish as it relates to the health of the fish themselves as well as potential risks of toxicity in wildlife and humans that consume fish. In particular, it addresses selenium (Se) as a bioindicator of susceptibility to harmful e...

  1. Evaluating the potential efficacy of mercury total maximum daily loads on aqueous methylmercury levels in four coastal watersheds.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2008-08-01

    Of the approximately 780 U.S. EPA approved mercury total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), most specify a reduction in total mercury (Hg(T)) loads to reduce methylmercury levels in fish tissue, assuming a 1:1 correspondence. However, mercury methylation is more complex, and therefore, proposed load reductions may not be adequate. Using multiple regression with microlevel and macrolevel variables, the potential efficacy of mercury TMDLs on decreasing aqueous methylmercury levels was investigated in four coastal watersheds: Mugu Lagoon (CA), San Francisco Bay Estuary, Long Island Sound, and south Florida. Hg(T) and methylmercury levels were positively correlated in all watersheds except in Long Island Sound, where spatial differences explained over 40% of the variability in methylmercury levels. A mercury TMDL would be least effective in Long Island Sound due to spatial heterogeneity but most effective in south Florida, where the ratio between aqueous Hg(T) and methylmercury levels was close to 1 and the 95% confidence interval was narrow, indicating a probable reduction in aqueous methylmercury levels if Hg(T) loads were reduced.

  2. Spatial variations in fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the St. Croix River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Wente, Stephen P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    Using the model to predict fish-tissue mercury concentrations allows site-specific fish-consumption advisories to be developed for multiple species and different lengths of fish. Potential mercury exposure to fish consumers may be reduced because an individual can choose to consume sizes and species of fish that are expected to have lower fish-tissue mercury concentrations. The National Park Service can use these results to more reliably monitor fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the St. Croix River Basin and better assess potential health effects of fish consumption to humans and wildlife.

  3. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, R.; Taberski, K.

    1995-12-31

    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  4. Mercury concentration in different tissues of Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848) (Podocnemididae: Testudines) from the lower Xingu River - Amazonian, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza-Araujo, J; Giarrizzo, T; Lima, M O

    2015-08-01

    Studies using chelonians as biosentinels of environment quality or health risks associated with turtle consumption are very rare, especially in the Amazon basin. This study aims to measure Mercury levels (Hg) in muscle, liver, fat and blood of Podocnemis unifilis from the lower Xingu River, assessing the possible difference in concentration between sexes and also evaluating the potential bioaccumulation along different body sizes. Samples were collected during the dry season (October 2012) and Mercury (Hg) concentrations were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). A total of 29 specimens of P. unifilis of different sizes showed low levels lower than 0.2 mg/Kg). Higher Hg concentrations were found in the liver, and significant correlations between Hg concentrations in the different tissues were also detected. There was no difference between males and females and a negative correlation was found between Hg concentration and body size. PMID:26691083

  5. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  6. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  7. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  8. Mobilization of mercury from lean tissues during simulated migratory fasting in a model songbird.

    PubMed

    Seewagen, Chad L; Cristol, Daniel A; Gerson, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    The pollutant methylmercury accumulates within lean tissues of birds and other animals. Migrating birds catabolize substantial amounts of lean tissue during flight which may mobilize methylmercury and increase circulating levels of this neurotoxin. As a model for a migrating songbird, we fasted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that had been dosed with 0.0, 0.1, and 0.6 parts per million (ppm) dietary methylmercury and measured changes in blood total mercury concentrations (THg) in relation to reductions in lean mass. Birds lost 6-16% of their lean mass during the fast, and THg increased an average of 12% and 11% in the 0.1 and 0.6 ppm treatments, respectively. Trace amounts of THg in the 0.0 ppm control group also increased as a result of fasting, but remained extremely low. THg increased 0.4 ppm for each gram of lean mass catabolized in the higher dose birds. Our findings indicate that methylmercury is mobilized from lean tissues during protein catabolism and results in acute increases in circulating concentrations. This is a previously undocumented potential threat to wild migratory birds, which may experience greater surges in circulating methylmercury than demonstrated here as a result of their greater reductions in lean mass. PMID:27173605

  9. Mobilization of mercury from lean tissues during simulated migratory fasting in a model songbird

    PubMed Central

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Gerson, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The pollutant methylmercury accumulates within lean tissues of birds and other animals. Migrating birds catabolize substantial amounts of lean tissue during flight which may mobilize methylmercury and increase circulating levels of this neurotoxin. As a model for a migrating songbird, we fasted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that had been dosed with 0.0, 0.1, and 0.6 parts per million (ppm) dietary methylmercury and measured changes in blood total mercury concentrations (THg) in relation to reductions in lean mass. Birds lost 6–16% of their lean mass during the fast, and THg increased an average of 12% and 11% in the 0.1 and 0.6 ppm treatments, respectively. Trace amounts of THg in the 0.0 ppm control group also increased as a result of fasting, but remained extremely low. THg increased 0.4 ppm for each gram of lean mass catabolized in the higher dose birds. Our findings indicate that methylmercury is mobilized from lean tissues during protein catabolism and results in acute increases in circulating concentrations. This is a previously undocumented potential threat to wild migratory birds, which may experience greater surges in circulating methylmercury than demonstrated here as a result of their greater reductions in lean mass. PMID:27173605

  10. Mobilization of mercury from lean tissues during simulated migratory fasting in a model songbird.

    PubMed

    Seewagen, Chad L; Cristol, Daniel A; Gerson, Alexander R

    2016-05-12

    The pollutant methylmercury accumulates within lean tissues of birds and other animals. Migrating birds catabolize substantial amounts of lean tissue during flight which may mobilize methylmercury and increase circulating levels of this neurotoxin. As a model for a migrating songbird, we fasted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that had been dosed with 0.0, 0.1, and 0.6 parts per million (ppm) dietary methylmercury and measured changes in blood total mercury concentrations (THg) in relation to reductions in lean mass. Birds lost 6-16% of their lean mass during the fast, and THg increased an average of 12% and 11% in the 0.1 and 0.6 ppm treatments, respectively. Trace amounts of THg in the 0.0 ppm control group also increased as a result of fasting, but remained extremely low. THg increased 0.4 ppm for each gram of lean mass catabolized in the higher dose birds. Our findings indicate that methylmercury is mobilized from lean tissues during protein catabolism and results in acute increases in circulating concentrations. This is a previously undocumented potential threat to wild migratory birds, which may experience greater surges in circulating methylmercury than demonstrated here as a result of their greater reductions in lean mass.

  11. Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.; MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

    1980-07-01

    It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

  12. Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  13. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  14. Effects of mercury and lead on tissue glutathione of the green mussel, Perna viridis L.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.; Teo, L.H.; Sin, Y.M.

    1997-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major non-protein thiol in animals, and involved in a number of important physiological and detoxification processes. It has been suggested that this tripeptide protects thiol groups in proteins from oxidation, functions as an intracellular redox buffer and serves as a reservoir of cysteine. Tissue GSH is also known to be involved in the metabolism and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances, including the binding of inorganic mercury ions. Therefore, a change in the amount of GSH in tissues may be considered to reflect the effects of deposited mercury on tissue function. The functions of the tripeptide have been studied less thoroughly in invertebrates than in vertebrates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in the amounts of tissue GSH in the green mussel, Perna viridis, at various time intervals after metal exposure. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption. PMID:17066506

  16. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  17. Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.

    1974-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks that were fed the diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury reproduced as well as controls, and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury grew faster in the first week of life than did controls....The greatest harm to reproduction associated with the diet containing 3 ppm mercury was an increase in duckling mortality, but reduced egg laying and increased embryonic mortality also occurred....During the peak of egg laying, eggs laid by controls tended to be heavier than eggs laid by ducks fed either level of mercury; however, there seemed to be no eggshell thinning associated with mercury treatment. Levels of mercury reached about 1 ppm in eggs from ducks fed a dietary dosage of 0.5 ppm mercury and between 6 and 9 ppm in the eggs from ducks fed 3 ppm mercury.

  18. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels in the 2010 Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeon; Seo, Joo Ee; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Jung, Ki Kyung; Yoon, Hae Jung; Park, Kyung Su

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the level of contamination of harmful heavy metals in 3820 food samples available in Korea in 2010. A total of 119 types of samples were collected, including corns, vegetables, fruits, fishes, mollusks, shellfish, crustaceans, seaweed, bean products, meats and eggs from seven major cities. These samples were analysed using ICP-MS after pre-treatment with a microwave-digestion system. Results of lead, cadmium and mercury analyses were compared with the standard specifications of Korea Food Standards Codex. As a result, high levels of Pb, Cd and Hg were detected in "cockle," "dried-squid" and "shark-meat." Acceptable intake for consumers was checked using provisional tolerable weekly intake values. Such results will be utilised as data on the exposure of human body through foods. In addition, satisfactory results were obtained through purchase and analysis of National Institute of Science and Technology-certified reference materials to obtain reliability on analysis results. PMID:24786406

  19. Trace element levels in pine snake hatchlings: tissue and temporal differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1992-02-01

    Trace element levels have seldom been examined in reptiles, although some large snakes are high on the trophic level pyramid. Lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium and manganese levels were examined in skin and whole body tissue of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens between 1985-1990. Depending on the element, variations in levels were primarily explained by year and tissue, and not by sex or location. There were significantly higher levels of lead, mercury, and chromium in the skin compared to the whole body tissue, suggesting that the frequent shedding of skin can act as a method of toxic metal excretion by snakes. Manganese and selenium levels were significantly higher in the body compared to the skin. PMID:1536601

  20. Trace element levels in pine snake hatchlings: tissue and temporal differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1992-02-01

    Trace element levels have seldom been examined in reptiles, although some large snakes are high on the trophic level pyramid. Lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium and manganese levels were examined in skin and whole body tissue of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens between 1985-1990. Depending on the element, variations in levels were primarily explained by year and tissue, and not by sex or location. There were significantly higher levels of lead, mercury, and chromium in the skin compared to the whole body tissue, suggesting that the frequent shedding of skin can act as a method of toxic metal excretion by snakes. Manganese and selenium levels were significantly higher in the body compared to the skin.

  1. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Popp, Brian N.; Kaneko, J. John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  2. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey.

    PubMed

    Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N; Kaneko, J John; Drazen, Jeffrey C

    2009-08-18

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  3. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Colombian slider turtles, Trachemys callirostris, from northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Palacio, Jaime A

    2014-05-01

    This study determined the total mercury (THg) concentrations in pectoral muscle, blood and carapace tissue in turtles collected from Magangué and Lorica, Colombia. THg concentrations in μg/g (wet weight) were 0.39 ± 0.16 in muscle, 0.15 ± 0.08 in carapace and 0.07 ± 0.03 in blood for turtles from the Magdalena River and 0.25 ± 0.18 in muscle, 0.14 ± 0.09 in carapace and 0.06 ± 0.04 in blood for turtles from the Sinú River. Twenty-nine and ten percent of turtle muscle samples from Magangué and Lorica, respectively, exceeded the consumption advisory limit of 0.5 μg Hg/g for fish. There was a significant correlation between carapace length and THg levels for this specie, depending on the sample site. In addition, a significant correlation was observed in THg concentrations in carapace and muscle. However, significant differences were observed in the THg levels between the two study locations, with turtles caught in the Magdalena River having higher levels of THg. PMID:24458244

  4. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-08-18

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.

  5. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C), and nitrogen (delta(15)N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by delta(15)N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, delta(15)N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend. PMID:19419752

  6. Species- and tissue-specific mercury bioaccumulation in five fish species from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhu; Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Dou, Shuozeng

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the tissues (muscle, stomach, liver, gills, skin, and gonads) of five fish species (mullet Liza ha em atocheil us, flathead fish Platycephalus indicus, sea bass Lateolabrax japonic u s, mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius and silver pomfret Pampus argenteus) collected from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China were investigated. The results indicate that Hg bioaccumulation in the five fish was tissue-specific, with the highest levels in the muscle and liver, followed by the stomach and gonads. The lowest levels were found in the gills and skin. Fish at higher trophic levels (flathead fish and sea bass) exhibited higher Hg concentrations than consumers at lower trophic levels. Mercury bioaccumulation tended to be positively correlated with fish length in mullet, silver pomfret, mackerel, and flathead fish, but was negatively correlated with fish length in sea bass. The Hg concentrations in the muscles of all fish species in Laizhou Bay were within the permissible limits of food safety set by national and international criteria. However, the suggesting maximum consumption of sea bass is 263 g per week for human health.

  7. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  8. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  9. Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Achilleas; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Schmieder, Klaus; Tsachalidis, Efstathios

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling sites of the River Nestos, Greece. PCBs in muscle and DDTs in the liver tissues were the predominant organochlorinated contaminants. Among the PCBs, congeners 47 (up to 9.60 ng g(-1) wet wt.), 180 (up to 1.15 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and 190 (up to 1.50 ng g(-1) wet wt.) were the most frequent and abundant. The contamination degree by the sum of PCBs on the fish tissue samples from the River Nestos is lower or similar to PCB levels found in other ecosystems. Among the organochlorine pesticides, essentially only p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were found, with the former appearing at mean levels up to 30.71 ng g(-1) wet wt. From a public health standpoint, residue organochlorine pesticide levels from our work are considerably lower than the recommended tolerance limits. Finally, mean values of Hg in chub were significant lower (up to 31.04 ng g(-1) wet wt.) compared to those detected on barbel (up to 169.27 ng g(-1) wet wt.). The concentrations of Hg in fresh water fish from the River Nestos did not exceed WHO and US EPA health guidelines, and were suitable for human consumption.

  10. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

    PubMed Central

    Green, Peter G.; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12640-009-9137-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19937285

  11. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  12. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species. PMID:23830062

  13. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species.

  14. Chapter A5. Section 6.4.B. Low-Level Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Michael Edward; Brigham, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Collecting and processing water samples for analysis of mercury at a low (subnanogram per liter) level requires use of ultratrace-level techniques for equipment cleaning, sample collection, and sample processing. Established techniques and associated quality-assurance (QA) procedures for the collection and processing of water samples for trace-element analysis at the part-per-billion level (NFM 3-5) are not adequate for low-level mercury samples. Modifications to the part-per-billion procedures are necessary to minimize contamination of samples at a typical ambient mercury concentration, which commonly is at the subnanogram-per-liter level.

  15. Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 µg g−1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

  16. Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 μg g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury.

  17. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  18. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources.

  19. Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A.; Southworth, G.; Simms, L.

    2006-07-01

    The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

  20. Investigation of increased mercury levels in the fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (Lefpc), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A.; Southworth, G.; Sims, L.

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting remediation efforts on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility and within downstream riparian zones. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of aqueous phase elemental mercury (Hg deg. A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC. Small (mg/L) quantities of un-sulphured molasses and peptone were added to some of the Hinds Creek samples to stimulate initial bacterial growth. Other Hinds Creek samples either were dosed with glutaraldehyde to preclude microbial growth, or were wrapped in aluminum foil to preclude Hg photochemical redox effects. The bench-scale testing for Phase II was completed August 2006. The final reporting and the planning for Phase III testing are in progress. (authors)

  1. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214

  2. Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

  3. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  4. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  5. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Elli, Luca; Rossi, Valentina; Conte, Dario; Ronchi, Anna; Tomba, Carolina; Passoni, Manuela; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy) and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4 ± 2.3/1.0 ± 1.4, 10.2 ± 6.7/2.2 ± 3.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7/1.3 ± 1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism. PMID:25802516

  6. Mercury correlations among six tissues for four waterbird species breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Miles, A.K.; Keister, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of research concerning mercury (Hg) in birds, no single tissue has been used consistently to assess Hg exposure, and this has hampered comparisons across studies. We evaluated the relationships of Hg concentrations among tissues in four species of waterbirds (American avocets [Recurvirostra americana], black-necked stilts [Himantopus mexicanus], Caspian terns [Hydroprogne caspia; formerly Sterna caspia], and Forster's terns [Sterna forsteri]) and across three life stages (prebreeding adults, breeding adults, and chicks) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Across species and life stages, Hg concentrations (least square mean ?? standard error) were highest in head feathers (6.45 ?? 0.31 ??g/g dry wt) and breast feathers (5.76 ?? 0.28 ??g/g dry wt), followed by kidney (4.54 ?? 0.22 ??g/g dry wt), liver (4.43 ?? 0.21 ??g/g dry wt), blood (3.10 ?? 0.15 ??g/g dry wt), and muscle (1.67 ?? 0.08 ??g/g dry wt). Relative Hg distribution among tissues, however, differed by species and life stage. Mercury concentrations were highly correlated among internal tissues (r 2 ??? 0.89). Conversely, the relationships between Hg in feathers and internal tissues were substantially weaker (r2 ??? 0.42). Regression slopes sometimes differed among species and life stages, indicating that care must be used when predicting Hg concentrations in one tissue based on those in another. However, we found good agreement between predictions made using a general tissue-prediction equation and more specific equations developed for each species and life stage. Finally, our results suggest that blood is an excellent, nonlethal predictor of Hg concentrations in internal tissues but that feathers are relatively poor indicators of Hg concentrations in internal tissues. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

  7. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  8. Elevated mercury levels in a wintering population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Meattey, Dustin E; Savoy, Lucas; Beuth, Josh; Pau, Nancy; O'Brien, Kathleen; Osenkowski, Jason; Regan, Kevin; Lasorsa, Brenda; Johnson, Ian

    2014-09-15

    In North America and Europe, sea ducks are important indicators of ecological health and inshore marine pollution. To explore spatial variation in mercury accumulation in common eiders in the northeastern United States, we compared concentrations of total mercury in common eider blood at several New England locations between 1998 and 2013. Eider food items (mollusks) were collected and analyzed to determine if mercury concentrations in eider blood were indicative of local mercury bioavailability. Eiders from Plum Island Sound, MA had a significantly higher mean blood mercury concentration (0.83 μg/g) than those in other locations. Mean mercury levels in this population were also nearly three times higher than any blood mercury concentrations reported for common eiders in published literature. We observed consistent patterns in eider blood mercury and blue mussel mercury concentrations between sites, suggesting a tentative predictive quality between the two species.

  9. Temporal characterization of mercury accumulation at different trophic levels and implications for metal biomagnification along a coastal food web.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, P G; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Azeiteiro, U M

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to assess temporal mercury variations along an estuarine food web to evaluate the mercury contamination level of the system and the risks that humans are exposed to, due to mercury biomagnification. The highest mercury concentrations in the sediments and primary producers (macrophytes) were observed during winter sampling. Instead, the highest mercury concentrations in the water, suspended particulate matter as well as in the zooplanktonic and suprabenthic communities were observed during summer sampling. Evidences of mercury biomagnification along the food web were corroborated by the positive biomagnification factors, particularly for omnivorous macrobenthic species. Comparing the mercury levels at distinct components with several environmental quality criteria it suggests that sediments, water and edible species (e.g., bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the crustacean Carcinus maenas) presented higher mercury levels than the values accepted by legislation which represent a matter of concern for the environment and human health. PMID:25172612

  10. Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 μg/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 μg/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 μg/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 μg/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels.

  11. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  12. Localizing Organomercury Uptake And Accumulation in Zebrafish Larvae at the Tissue And Cellular Level

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, M.; Blechinger, S.R.; Krone, P.H.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-20

    Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping, we have examined the uptake and localization of organic mercury in zebrafish larvae. Strikingly, the greatest accumulation of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds was highly localized in the rapidly dividing lens epithelium, with lower levels going to brain, optic nerve, and various other organs. The data suggest that the reported impairment of visual processes by mercury may arise not only from previously reported neurological effects, but also from direct effects on the ocular tissue. This novel approach is a powerful tool for directly investigating the molecular toxicology of heavy metals, and should be equally applicable to the study of a wide range of elements in developing embryos.

  13. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2013-11-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics. PMID:23929385

  14. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

  15. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2013-11-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics.

  16. Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved.

  17. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  18. Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Doris; Lauzière, Julie; Blanchet, Rosanne; Vézina, Carole; Vaissière, Emilie; Ayotte, Pierre; Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that various diet components and nutrients, including vegetables, fruit and food-derived antioxidants, could mitigate contaminant exposure and/or adverse health effects of contaminants. To examine the effect of the consumption of tomato products on blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children, 155 Inuit children (25.0±9.1months) were recruited from 2006-2008 in Nunavik childcare centers (northern Québec, Canada). Food frequency questionnaires were completed at home and at the childcare center, and total blood mercury concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after multiple imputation. The median blood concentration of mercury was 9.5nmol/L. Age, duration of breastfeeding, annual consumption frequency of seal meat, and monthly consumption frequency of tomato products were significant predictors of blood mercury levels, whereas annual consumption frequencies of beluga muktuk, walrus, Arctic char, and caribou meat were not. Each time a participant consumed tomato products during the month before the interview was associated with a 4.6% lower blood mercury level (p=0.0005). All other significant predictors in the model were positively associated with blood mercury levels. Further studies should explore interactions between consumption of healthy store-bought foods available in Arctic regions and contaminant exposure. PMID:23127601

  19. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  20. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one

  1. Measurement of methyl mercury (I) and mercury (II) in fish tissues and sediments by HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-HGAAS.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Rajani; Krikowa, Frank; Maher, William; Foster, Simon; Ellwood, Michael

    2011-07-15

    A procedure for the extraction and determination of methyl mercury and mercury (II) in fish muscle tissues and sediment samples is presented. The procedure involves extraction with 5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, separation and determination of mercury species by HPLC-ICPMS using a Perkin-Elmer 3 μm C8 (33 mm×3 mm) column and a mobile phase 3 containing 0.5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 5% (v/v) CH(3)OH (pH 5.5) at a flow rate 1.5 ml min(-1) and a temperature of 25°C. Calibration curves for methyl mercury (I) and mercury (II) standards were linear in the range of 0-100 μgl(-1) (r(2)=0.9990 and r(2)=0.9995 respectively). The lowest measurable mercury was 0.4 μgl(-1) which corresponds to 0.01 μgg(-1) in fish tissues and sediments. Methyl mercury concentrations measured in biological certified reference materials, NRCC DORM - 2 Dogfish muscle (4.4±0.8 μgg(-1)), NRCC Dolt - 3 Dogfish liver (1.55±0.09 μgg(-1)), NIST RM 50 Albacore Tuna (0.89±0.08 μgg(-1)) and IRMM IMEP-20 Tuna fish (3.6±0.6 μgg(-1)) were in agreement with the certified value (4.47±0.32μgg(-1), 1.59±0.12 μgg(-1), 0.87±0.03 μgg(-1), 4.24±0.27 μgg(-1) respectively). For the sediment reference material ERM CC 580, a methyl mercury concentration of 0.070±0.002 μgg(-1) was measured which corresponds to an extraction efficiency of 92±3% of certified values (0.076±0.04 μgg(-1)) but within the range of published values (0.040-0.084 μgg(-1); mean±s.d.: 0.073±0.05 μgg(-1), n=40) for this material. The extraction procedure for the fish tissues was also compared against an enzymatic extraction using Protease type XIV that has been previously published and similar results were obtained. The use of HPLC-HGAAS with a Phenomenox 5 μm Luna C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm) column and a mobile phase containing 0.06 moll(-1) ammonium acetate (Merck Pty Limited, Australia) in 5% (v/v) methanol and 0.1% (w/v) l-cysteine at 25°C was evaluated as a complementary alternative to HPLC-ICPMS for the measurement of

  2. Measurement of methyl mercury (I) and mercury (II) in fish tissues and sediments by HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-HGAAS.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Rajani; Krikowa, Frank; Maher, William; Foster, Simon; Ellwood, Michael

    2011-07-15

    A procedure for the extraction and determination of methyl mercury and mercury (II) in fish muscle tissues and sediment samples is presented. The procedure involves extraction with 5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, separation and determination of mercury species by HPLC-ICPMS using a Perkin-Elmer 3 μm C8 (33 mm×3 mm) column and a mobile phase 3 containing 0.5% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 5% (v/v) CH(3)OH (pH 5.5) at a flow rate 1.5 ml min(-1) and a temperature of 25°C. Calibration curves for methyl mercury (I) and mercury (II) standards were linear in the range of 0-100 μgl(-1) (r(2)=0.9990 and r(2)=0.9995 respectively). The lowest measurable mercury was 0.4 μgl(-1) which corresponds to 0.01 μgg(-1) in fish tissues and sediments. Methyl mercury concentrations measured in biological certified reference materials, NRCC DORM - 2 Dogfish muscle (4.4±0.8 μgg(-1)), NRCC Dolt - 3 Dogfish liver (1.55±0.09 μgg(-1)), NIST RM 50 Albacore Tuna (0.89±0.08 μgg(-1)) and IRMM IMEP-20 Tuna fish (3.6±0.6 μgg(-1)) were in agreement with the certified value (4.47±0.32μgg(-1), 1.59±0.12 μgg(-1), 0.87±0.03 μgg(-1), 4.24±0.27 μgg(-1) respectively). For the sediment reference material ERM CC 580, a methyl mercury concentration of 0.070±0.002 μgg(-1) was measured which corresponds to an extraction efficiency of 92±3% of certified values (0.076±0.04 μgg(-1)) but within the range of published values (0.040-0.084 μgg(-1); mean±s.d.: 0.073±0.05 μgg(-1), n=40) for this material. The extraction procedure for the fish tissues was also compared against an enzymatic extraction using Protease type XIV that has been previously published and similar results were obtained. The use of HPLC-HGAAS with a Phenomenox 5 μm Luna C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm) column and a mobile phase containing 0.06 moll(-1) ammonium acetate (Merck Pty Limited, Australia) in 5% (v/v) methanol and 0.1% (w/v) l-cysteine at 25°C was evaluated as a complementary alternative to HPLC-ICPMS for the measurement of

  3. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  4. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  5. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  6. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  7. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  8. Electronic Characterization of Defects in Narrow Gap Semiconductors-Comparison of Electronic Energy Levels and Formation Energies in Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Mercury Zinc Telluride, and Mercury Zinc Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a Green's function technique to calculate the energy levels and formation energy of deep defects in the narrow gap semiconductors mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT) and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). The formation energy is calculated from the difference between the total energy with an impurity cluster and the total energy for the perfect crystal. Substitutional (including antisite), interstitial (self and foreign), and vacancy deep defects are considered. Relaxation effects are calculated (with molecular dynamics). By use of a pseudopotential, we generalize the ideal vacancy model so as to be able to consider relaxation for vacancies. Different charge states are considered and the charged state energy shift (as computed by a modified Haldane-Anderson model) can be twice that due to relaxation. Different charged states for vacancies were not calculated to have much effect on the formation energy. For all cases we find deep defects in the energy gap only for cation site s-like orbitals or anion site p-like orbitals, and for the substitutional case only the latter are appreciably effected by relaxation. For most cases for MCT, MZT, MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range appropriate for a band gap of 0.1 eV. For defect energy levels, the absolute accuracy of our results is limited, but the precision is good, and hence chemical trends are accurately predicted. For the same reason, defect formation energies are more accurately predicted than energy level position. We attempt, in Appendix B, to calculate vacancy formation energies using relatively simple chemical bonding ideas due to Harrison. However, these results are only marginally accurate for estimating vacancy binding energies. Appendix C lists all written reports and publications produced for the grant. We include abstracts and a complete paper that summarizes our work which is not yet available.

  9. From tails to toes: developing nonlethal tissue indicators of mercury exposure in five amphibian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfleeger, Adam Z.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Kowalski, Brandon M.; Herring, Garth; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Pierce, John

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been implicated as a factor in global amphibian decline. Mercury (Hg) is a particularly widespread contaminant that biomagnifies in amphibians and can cause a suite of deleterious effects. However, monitoring contaminant exposure in amphibian tissues may conflict with conservation goals if lethal take is required. Thus, there is a need to develop non-lethal tissue sampling techniques to quantify contaminant exposure in amphibians. Some minimally invasive sampling techniques, such as toe-clipping, are common in population-genetic research, but it is unclear if these methods can adequately characterize contaminant exposure. We examined the relationships between mercury (Hg) concentrations in non-lethally sampled tissues and paired whole-bodies in five amphibian species. Specifically, we examined the utility of three different tail-clip sections from four salamander species and toe-clips from one anuran species. Both tail and toe-clips accurately predicted whole-body THg concentrations, but the relationships differed among species and the specific tail-clip section or toe that was used. Tail-clips comprised of the distal 0–2 cm segment performed the best across all salamander species, explaining between 82 and 92 % of the variation in paired whole-body THg concentrations. Toe-clips were less effective predictors of frog THg concentrations, but THg concentrations in outer rear toes accounted for up to 79 % of the variability in frog whole-body THg concentrations. These findings suggest non-lethal sampling of tails and toes has potential applications for monitoring contaminant exposure and risk in amphibians, but care must be taken to ensure consistent collection and interpretation of samples.

  10. From tails to toes: developing nonlethal tissue indicators of mercury exposure in five amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Adam Z; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Kowalski, Brandon M; Herring, Garth; Willacker, James J; Jackson, Allyson K; Pierce, John R

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been implicated as a factor in global amphibian decline. Mercury (Hg) is a particularly widespread contaminant that biomagnifies in amphibians and can cause a suite of deleterious effects. However, monitoring contaminant exposure in amphibian tissues may conflict with conservation goals if lethal take is required. Thus, there is a need to develop non-lethal tissue sampling techniques to quantify contaminant exposure in amphibians. Some minimally invasive sampling techniques, such as toe-clipping, are common in population-genetic research, but it is unclear if these methods can adequately characterize contaminant exposure. We examined the relationships between mercury (Hg) concentrations in non-lethally sampled tissues and paired whole-bodies in five amphibian species. Specifically, we examined the utility of three different tail-clip sections from four salamander species and toe-clips from one anuran species. Both tail and toe-clips accurately predicted whole-body THg concentrations, but the relationships differed among species and the specific tail-clip section or toe that was used. Tail-clips comprised of the distal 0-2 cm segment performed the best across all salamander species, explaining between 82 and 92% of the variation in paired whole-body THg concentrations. Toe-clips were less effective predictors of frog THg concentrations, but THg concentrations in outer rear toes accounted for up to 79% of the variability in frog whole-body THg concentrations. These findings suggest non-lethal sampling of tails and toes has potential applications for monitoring contaminant exposure and risk in amphibians, but care must be taken to ensure consistent collection and interpretation of samples. PMID:26826095

  11. From tails to toes: developing nonlethal tissue indicators of mercury exposure in five amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Adam Z; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Kowalski, Brandon M; Herring, Garth; Willacker, James J; Jackson, Allyson K; Pierce, John R

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been implicated as a factor in global amphibian decline. Mercury (Hg) is a particularly widespread contaminant that biomagnifies in amphibians and can cause a suite of deleterious effects. However, monitoring contaminant exposure in amphibian tissues may conflict with conservation goals if lethal take is required. Thus, there is a need to develop non-lethal tissue sampling techniques to quantify contaminant exposure in amphibians. Some minimally invasive sampling techniques, such as toe-clipping, are common in population-genetic research, but it is unclear if these methods can adequately characterize contaminant exposure. We examined the relationships between mercury (Hg) concentrations in non-lethally sampled tissues and paired whole-bodies in five amphibian species. Specifically, we examined the utility of three different tail-clip sections from four salamander species and toe-clips from one anuran species. Both tail and toe-clips accurately predicted whole-body THg concentrations, but the relationships differed among species and the specific tail-clip section or toe that was used. Tail-clips comprised of the distal 0-2 cm segment performed the best across all salamander species, explaining between 82 and 92% of the variation in paired whole-body THg concentrations. Toe-clips were less effective predictors of frog THg concentrations, but THg concentrations in outer rear toes accounted for up to 79% of the variability in frog whole-body THg concentrations. These findings suggest non-lethal sampling of tails and toes has potential applications for monitoring contaminant exposure and risk in amphibians, but care must be taken to ensure consistent collection and interpretation of samples.

  12. Mercury concentrations in different tissues of turtle and caiman species from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eggins, Sam; Schneider, Larissa; Krikowa, Frank; Vogt, Richard C; Da Silveira, Ronis; Maher, William

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations of muscle, liver, blood, and epidermal keratin were measured in typically consumed, economically and culturally important species of turtle (Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa) and caiman (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus) from the Rio Purus in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in muscle tissue, representing the first analysis of MeHg concentrations in Amazonian reptile species. In muscle tissues Hg was mostly MeHg (79-96%) for all species. No correlations existed between animal size and total Hg or MeHg concentrations for any species other than M. niger, possibly as a result of growth dilution or the evolution of efficient Hg elimination mechanisms. Significant linear correlations were found between total Hg concentrations in all pairs of nonlethally sampled tissues (keratin and blood) and internal tissues (muscle and liver) for M. niger and between keratin and internal tissues for P. expansa, indicating that nonlethally sampled tissues can be analyzed to achieve more widespread and representative monitoring of Hg bioaccumulation in Amazonian reptiles. Although mean Hg concentrations in muscle for all species were below the World Health Organization guideline for safe consumption (500 µg kg(-1)), mean concentrations in caiman liver were above the safe limit for pregnant women and children (200 µg kg(-1)). No significant differences were found between total Hg and MeHg concentrations in tissues from wild-caught and farm-raised P. expansa, suggesting that farming may not reduce Hg exposure to humans. PMID:26387493

  13. Mercury concentrations in different tissues of turtle and caiman species from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eggins, Sam; Schneider, Larissa; Krikowa, Frank; Vogt, Richard C; Da Silveira, Ronis; Maher, William

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations of muscle, liver, blood, and epidermal keratin were measured in typically consumed, economically and culturally important species of turtle (Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa) and caiman (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus) from the Rio Purus in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in muscle tissue, representing the first analysis of MeHg concentrations in Amazonian reptile species. In muscle tissues Hg was mostly MeHg (79-96%) for all species. No correlations existed between animal size and total Hg or MeHg concentrations for any species other than M. niger, possibly as a result of growth dilution or the evolution of efficient Hg elimination mechanisms. Significant linear correlations were found between total Hg concentrations in all pairs of nonlethally sampled tissues (keratin and blood) and internal tissues (muscle and liver) for M. niger and between keratin and internal tissues for P. expansa, indicating that nonlethally sampled tissues can be analyzed to achieve more widespread and representative monitoring of Hg bioaccumulation in Amazonian reptiles. Although mean Hg concentrations in muscle for all species were below the World Health Organization guideline for safe consumption (500 µg kg(-1)), mean concentrations in caiman liver were above the safe limit for pregnant women and children (200 µg kg(-1)). No significant differences were found between total Hg and MeHg concentrations in tissues from wild-caught and farm-raised P. expansa, suggesting that farming may not reduce Hg exposure to humans.

  14. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

    2003-03-20

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic

  15. Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:20126317

  16. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  17. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    PubMed

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects. PMID:27353298

  18. MEASUREMENT OF MECURY IN FISH SCALES AS AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTING MUSCLE TISSUE MERCURY CNOCENTRATIONS IN LARGEMOUTH BASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a non lethal and convenient method for predicti...

  19. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  5. High mercury levels in hair samples from residents of Taiji, a Japanese whaling town.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the mercury concentrations in red meat from pilot whales consumed by some residents of the Japanese whaling town, Taiji, and in hair samples from 50 residents for their maker of mercury burden. The methyl mercury (M-Hg) level in the red meat was 5.9 microg/wet g, markedly higher than the US FDA action level and Cordex Alimentarius guideline level for predatory fish (1.0 microg/wet g). The average level of total mercury (T-Hg) in the hair from residents who ate whale meat more than once a month was 24.6 microg/g, whereas the average from the residents who did not consume any whale meat was 4.3 microg/g. The T-Hg concentrations in the hair from three donors exceeded 50 microg/g, the level for NOAEL set by WHO. The T-Hg level found in the Taiji whale meat consumers was markedly higher than that observed in the Japanese population overall (about 2 microg/g).

  6. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, Sandra S; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Aboueissa, Abouel-Makarim; Wise, John Pierce

    2008-08-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals. PMID:18599091

  7. [Mercury thermometers, still toxic, still present].

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Gómez Gómez, L; García Mata, S

    2012-01-01

    Mercury thermometers are and have been, despite their manufacture being banned, one of the main sources of exposure at the paediatric age to elementary mercury (Hg) in our environment. The toxicity produced by elementary Hg depends on the exposure channel and its length. Exposure through the digestive tract produces hardly any toxicity, but subcutaneous or intravenous inoculation and inhalation of mercury may produce damages at a local or system level. We present the case of a child who showed inoculation of liquid mercury in subcutaneous tissue after a liquid-in-glass thermometer broke. This provoked damages at a local level with steatonecrosis of the tissue. The diagnosis was decided through a radiological test and required urgent surgery with excision of skin and subcutaneous tissue, guided by radioscopy. Any spread at a system level was discarded. The levels of mercury in the bloodstream and in the urine were regular.

  8. Long-term gain changes in mercury-level tiltmeters of the Stacey type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. S.; Jones, F. W.; Rouleau, P.

    1987-09-01

    A uniaxial mercury-level short baselength tilt transducer constructed at the University of Alberta is described. The design closely follows the differential capacitance tiltmeter of Stacey et al. (1969), but differs in that aluminum is used for the beam, and how the mercury cups are supported beneath the beam. It also allows gain verification by comparison of the direct capacitances with a known capacitance. It has been found that the gain factor for the instrument changes with time, because of the relaxation of the mercury surfaces. This has been monitored for several years for four instruments at two sites. The gains change rapidly for several months after installation, but more slowly as time progresses. The magnitudes of such changes in instruments of this type may be as large as 3 percent.

  9. Mercury in Alaskan Eskimo mothers and infants.

    PubMed

    Galster, W A

    1976-06-01

    The potential danger of natural mercury accumulation in the diet of the Eskimo is evaluated through mercury levels determined in cord blood, placenta, maternal blood, hair, and milk of 38 maternal-infant pairs from Anchorage and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Although mercury levels are not discernably dangerous, trends to larger accumulations in maternal and fetal RBC and placental tissue with proximity to the sea and consumption of seals during pregnancy provide the basis for considering possible indicators of neonatal involvement. Mercury level in RBC from cord blood appeared as the best potential indicator of this involvement, although relationships with the mother's diet and level of mercury in the placenta also appear useful. In this area, average and maximal mercury levels in cord blood are 39 and 78 ng/ml, respectively, far below the acknowledged toxic level in infants of these mothers who eat seals or fish every day during their pregnancy.

  10. A gravimetric approach to providing SI traceability for concentration measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient air levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ent, Hugo; van Andel, Inge; Heemskerk, Maurice; van Otterloo, Peter; Bavius, Wijnand; Baldan, Annarita; Horvat, Milena; Brown, Richard J. C.; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2014-11-01

    Current measurement and calibration capabilities for mercury vapor in air are maintained at levels of 0.2-40 μg Hg m-3. In this work, a mercury vapor generator has been developed to establish metrological traceability to the international system of units (SI) for mercury vapor measurement results ≤15 ng Hg m-3, i.e. closer to realistic ambient air concentrations (1-2 ng Hg m-3) [1]. Innovations developed included a modified type of diffusion cell, a new measurement method to weigh the loss in (mercury) mass of these diffusion cells during use (ca. 6-8 μg mass difference between successive weighings), and a new housing for the diffusion cells to maximize flow characteristics and to minimize temperature variations and adsorption effects. The newly developed mercury vapor generator system was tested by using diffusion cells generating 0.8 and 16 ng Hg min-1. The results also show that the filter system, to produce mercury free air, is working properly. Furthermore, and most importantly, the system is producing a flow with a stable mercury vapor content. Some additional improvements are still required to allow the developed mercury vapor generator to produce SI traceable mercury vapor concentrations, based upon gravimetry, at much lower concentration levels and reduced measurement uncertainties than have been achieved previously. The challenges to be met are especially related to developing more robust diffusion cells and better mass measurement conditions. The developed mercury vapor generator will contribute to more reliable measurement results of mercury vapor at ambient and background air levels, and also to better safety standards and cost reductions in industrial processes, such as the liquefied natural gas field, where aluminum main cryogenic heat exchangers are used which are particularly prone to corrosion caused by mercury.

  11. A statistical model and national data set for partioning fish-tissue mercury concentration variation between spatiotemporal and sample characteristic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wente, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    Many Federal, Tribal, State, and local agencies monitor mercury in fish-tissue samples to identify sites with elevated fish-tissue mercury (fish-mercury) concentrations, track changes in fish-mercury concentrations over time, and produce fish-consumption advisories. Interpretation of such monitoring data commonly is impeded by difficulties in separating the effects of sample characteristics (species, tissues sampled, and sizes of fish) from the effects of spatial and temporal trends on fish-mercury concentrations. Without such a separation, variation in fish-mercury concentrations due to differences in the characteristics of samples collected over time or across space can be misattributed to temporal or spatial trends; and/or actual trends in fish-mercury concentration can be misattributed to differences in sample characteristics. This report describes a statistical model and national data set (31,813 samples) for calibrating the aforementioned statistical model that can separate spatiotemporal and sample characteristic effects in fish-mercury concentration data. This model could be useful for evaluating spatial and temporal trends in fishmercury concentrations and developing fish-consumption advisories. The observed fish-mercury concentration data and model predictions can be accessed, displayed geospatially, and downloaded via the World Wide Web (http://emmma.usgs.gov). This report and the associated web site may assist in the interpretation of large amounts of data from widespread fishmercury monitoring efforts.

  12. Ecological characterization of streams, and fish-tissue analysis for mercury and lead at selected locations, Fort Gordon, Georgia, June 1999 to May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Stamey, Timothy C.; Wellborn, John B.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Ga., documented the ecological condition of selected water-bodies on the Fort Gordon military installation from June 1999 to May 2000. This study includes stream-habitat assessments, aquatic invertebrate and fish-community surveys in selected stream reaches, and analyses of mercury and lead concentrations in largemouth bass (Micropterous salmoides) muscle tissue from three impoundments. Assessment surveys indicate lower habitat value scores in some streams draining the more developed areas on Fort Gordon. A small tributary to Butler Creek--which drains parking lots associated with military motor pools and other impervious surfaces--is characterized by moderate levels of bank erosion and excess sediment in the stream channel compared to reference sites. Four other stream reaches are more similar to reference streams in respect to habitat conditions. Invertebrate communities in streams draining these urbanized watersheds are inhabited by 13 to 16 taxa per reach; whereas, 23 and 33 taxa were collected from the two reference stream reaches. Measures of invertebrate abundance, taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera Index are lower in streams draining urbanized watersheds. Measures of community similarity also indicate differences between streams draining urbanized areas and reference streams. Streams draining developed areas on Fort Gordon are inhabited by 3 to 10 fish species and included more species regarded as tolerant of degraded water-quality conditions; whereas, the two reference stream reaches support 4 and 10 species, respectively, including one species considered intolerant of degraded water-quality conditions. Mercury was detected in all largemouth bass collected from three impoundments on Fort Gordon. Wet-weight mercury concentrations in fish tissue analyzed from all sites range from 0

  13. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  14. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  15. Mercury vapor pressure of flue gas desulfurization scrubber suspensions: effects of pH level, gypsum, and iron.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Jan; Kunth, Daniel; Weissbach, Sven; Koeser, Heinz

    2012-03-01

    Calcium-based scrubbers designed to absorb HCl and SO(2) from flue gases can also remove oxidized mercury. Dissolved mercury halides may have an appreciable partial vapor pressure. Chemical reduction of the dissolved mercury may increase the Hg emission, thereby limiting the coremoval of mercury in the wet scrubbing process. In this paper we evaluate the effects of the pH level, different gypsum qualities, and iron in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber suspensions. The impact of these parameters on mercury vapor pressure was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in model scrubber suspensions. A major influence is exerted by pH values above 7, considerably amplifying the mercury concentration in the vapor phase above the FGD scrubber suspension. Gypsum also increases the mercury re-emission. Fe(III) decreases and Fe(II) increases the vapor pressure significantly. The consequences of the findings for a reliable coremoval of mercury in FGD scrubbers are discussed. It is shown that there is an increased risk of poor mercury capture in lime-based FGD scrubbers in comparison to limestone FGD scrubbers.

  16. Mercury and docosahexaenoic acid levels in maternal and cord blood in relation to segmental maternal hair mercury concentrations at parturition.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man; Domingo, José L; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Fish is a major source of harmful methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the developing brain. In this study, we investigated the correlations among maternal and umbilical cord (cord) MeHg and DHA levels at parturition, and mercury (Hg) concentration in 1-cm incremental segments hair samples which grew during gestation representing monthly MeHg exposure levels throughout the period. Whole blood Hg and plasma DHA levels were measured in blood sample pairs collected from 54 mothers at early gestation and parturition, and in cord blood. Maternal hair samples were collected at parturition, and Hg concentrations were measured in 1-cm incremental segments. Hg level in mothers at parturition was slightly lower than that at early gestation and the level in cord blood were approximately 1.9 times higher than that in mothers at parturition. On the other hand, DHA level in mothers at parturition was approximately 2.3 and 1.6 times higher than those in mothers at early gestation and in cord plasma, respectively. These results indicate that kinetics of these chemicals in mothers during gestation and placental transfer are completely different. However, Hg and DHA levels had significant positive correlation in fetal circulation. The cord blood Hg showed the strongest correlation with maternal hair Hg in the first 1-cm segment from the scalp at parturition (r=0.87), indicating that fetal MeHg level reflects maternal MeHg burden at late gestation. In contrast, maternal and cord plasma DHA concentrations at parturition showed the highest correlation coefficients with Hg in the fifth (r=0.43) and fourth (r=0.38) 1-cm hair segments, suggesting that maternal and fetal DHA levels reflects maternal fish intake during mid-gestation.

  17. Effects of mercury release from amalgam dental restorations during cremation on soil mercury levels of three New Zealand crematoria

    SciTech Connect

    Nieschmidt, A.K.; Kim, N.D.

    1997-05-01

    A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of mercury during cremation. Mercury is liberated during cremation both because dental amalgams are unstable at cremation temperatures (650-700{degrees}C) and because the free mercury metal is highly volatile. In New Zealand, 58% of deaths are followed by cremation and this figure is likely to rise in the future. This increasing use of cremation as the method of corpse disposal, coupled with the fact that each amalgam restoration is approximately 50% mercury, implies that a significant amount of mercury may be emitted into the environment every year. This study examines mercury released from crematoria in New Zealand. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

  19. Solid phase microextraction capillary gas chromatography combined with furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry for speciation of mercury in fish tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Campos, Reinaldo C.; Mester, Zoltan; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2003-03-01

    The use of solid phase microextraction in conjunction with tandem gas chromatography-furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry (SPME-GC-FAPES) was evaluated for the determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in fish tissue. Samples were digested with methanolic potassium hydroxide, derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted by SPME. After the SPME extraction, species were separated by GC and detected by FAPES. All experimental parameters were optimized for best separation and analytical response. A repeatability precision of typically 2% can be achieved with long-term (3 months) reproducibility precision of 4.3%. Certified Reference Materials DORM-2, DOLT-2 and TORT-2 from the National Research Council of Canada were analyzed to verify the accuracy of this technique. Detection limits of 1.5 ng g -1 for methylmercury and 0.7 ng g -1 for inorganic mercury in biological tissues were obtained.

  20. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.; Barringer, Julia; Smalling, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2 μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem.

  1. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A; Barringer, Julia L; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-06-15

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem. PMID:27158049

  2. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  3. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 μg/ml and 0.1-0.9 μg/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by

  4. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 μg/ml and 0.1-0.9 μg/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by

  5. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  6. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  7. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability.

  8. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  9. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Predicting DNA methylation level across human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshan; Wilker, Elissa H; Willis-Owen, Saffron A G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Wong, Kenny C C; Motta, Valeria; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Schwartz, Joel; Cookson, William O C M; Khabbaz, Kamal; Mittleman, Murray A; Moffatt, Miriam F; Liang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Differences in methylation across tissues are critical to cell differentiation and are key to understanding the role of epigenetics in complex diseases. In this investigation, we found that locus-specific methylation differences between tissues are highly consistent across individuals. We developed a novel statistical model to predict locus-specific methylation in target tissue based on methylation in surrogate tissue. The method was evaluated in publicly available data and in two studies using the latest IlluminaBeadChips: a childhood asthma study with methylation measured in both peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines; and a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation with methylation in PBL, atrium and artery. We found that our method can greatly improve accuracy of cross-tissue prediction at CpG sites that are variable in the target tissue [R(2) increases from 0.38 (original R(2) between tissues) to 0.89 for PBL-to-artery prediction; from 0.39 to 0.95 for PBL-to-atrium; and from 0.81 to 0.98 for lymphoblastoid cell line-to-PBL based on cross-validation, and confirmed using cross-study prediction]. An extended model with multiple CpGs further improved performance. Our results suggest that large-scale epidemiology studies using easy-to-access surrogate tissues (e.g. blood) could be recalibrated to improve understanding of epigenetics in hard-to-access tissues (e.g. atrium) and might enable non-invasive disease screening using epigenetic profiles. PMID:24445802

  11. Mercury and selenium levels in lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in relation to a harmful red tide event.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Adams, Douglas H; Reyier, Eric A; Basu, Niladri

    2011-05-01

    Tissue levels of mercury (Hg; total, organic) and selenium (Se) were assessed in juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from Florida nearshore waters collected during a harmful algal bloom (HAB, brevetoxin) event and compared with sharks not exposed to HABs. In all sharks studied, total Hg levels in the muscle were generally present in a molar excess over Se (which may protect against Hg toxicity) and mean muscle Hg levels (0.34 microg/g) exceed safe human consumption guidelines. While there was generally no difference in tissue Hg and Se levels following exposure of sharks to HABs, hepatic Hg levels were significantly lower (56% reduction) in the HAB-exposed sharks compared to controls. As Hg and HABs are globally increasing in scope and magnitude, further work is warranted to assess their interactions and biotic impacts within aquatic ecosystems, especially for a species such as the lemon shark that is classified as a near-threatened species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

  12. Mercury burden and health impairment in dental auxilaries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, I.M.; Bloch, P.; Ship, I.I.; Spitz, L.; Summer, A.

    1988-01-01

    An effort was made to develop a safe and effective x-ray fluorescence system for monitoring mercury and other elements in human tissues in-situ, to determine mercury levels in 207 dental auxiliaries exposed to dental amalgam on the job, to evaluate mercury in matching nonexposed populations and in 298 dentists using mercury amalgam, and to evaluate deficiencies in central and peripheral nervous systems resulting from the mercury exposure. Mercury levels were below 20 micrograms/gram in 60% of the dentists and 90% of the dental auxiliaries. Dentists with the higher mercury concentrations in their heads or wrists had considerably longer median motor distal latencies and median F-wave latency. Five of them demonstrated abnormalities consistent with carpal tunnel syndrome; seven had polyneuropathies defined as reduced motor or sensory conduction velocities of response amplitudes in two or more nerves. Neuropsychological tests indicated both groups of dental workers were adversely affected by mercury exposure.

  13. Bioaccumulation of mercury in muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Rosiles-Martínez, Rene

    2011-12-01

    Tuna, like most large pelagic fish, are highly exploited by man, and it is, therefore, important to determine mercury (Hg) levels in these species in order to establish allowable limits for their consumption and/or contamination levels in the environment. In this study, we evaluated Hg accumulation in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) muscle in two different geographic sites of the eastern Pacific Ocean. There was a positive association between Hg content and tuna size in the equatorial zone (EQZ). Using adjusted sizes, the site of origin was a determinant factor in Hg accumulation. Sex, by contrast, did not affect Hg levels, suggesting that males and females have similar feeding habits. No Hg concentration was over the Hg content thresholds for large marine predators adopted by Mexican norms and by North American authorities (1 μg g(-1) w.w.). Hg input due to yellowfin tuna consumption represented from 9.84% to 35.87% in Baja California Sur and from 14.78% to 53.87% in EQZ of the provisional tolerable weekly intake adopted by the World Health Organization. The target hazard quotient for Hg was <1 in each group of the population studied, which indicates that consumption of yellowfin tuna is not a threat to human health.

  14. Bioaccumulation of mercury in muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Rosiles-Martínez, Rene

    2011-12-01

    Tuna, like most large pelagic fish, are highly exploited by man, and it is, therefore, important to determine mercury (Hg) levels in these species in order to establish allowable limits for their consumption and/or contamination levels in the environment. In this study, we evaluated Hg accumulation in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) muscle in two different geographic sites of the eastern Pacific Ocean. There was a positive association between Hg content and tuna size in the equatorial zone (EQZ). Using adjusted sizes, the site of origin was a determinant factor in Hg accumulation. Sex, by contrast, did not affect Hg levels, suggesting that males and females have similar feeding habits. No Hg concentration was over the Hg content thresholds for large marine predators adopted by Mexican norms and by North American authorities (1 μg g(-1) w.w.). Hg input due to yellowfin tuna consumption represented from 9.84% to 35.87% in Baja California Sur and from 14.78% to 53.87% in EQZ of the provisional tolerable weekly intake adopted by the World Health Organization. The target hazard quotient for Hg was <1 in each group of the population studied, which indicates that consumption of yellowfin tuna is not a threat to human health. PMID:21739161

  15. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  16. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  17. Influence of methylmercury from tributary streams on mercury levels in Savannah River Asiatic clams.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Jagoe, C H; Bennett, H; Brant, H A; Bowers, J A

    2004-06-01

    Average methylmercury levels in five Savannah River tributary streams, sampled 11 times over 2 years (0.170 ng/l), were nearly twice as high as in the Savannah River (0.085 ng/l). Total mercury levels in the tributaries (2.98 ng/l) did not differ significantly from the river (2.59 ng/l). All of the tributaries drained extensive wetlands that would be expected to support comparatively high rates of methylation. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) collected from the discharge plumes of Savannah River tributaries (average of 0.044 microg/g wet weight) were significantly (P<0.001) higher than in Asiatic clams collected from the Savannah River upstream from the tributary mouths (average of 0.017 microg/g wet weight). These results indicate that streams draining wetlands into coastal plain rivers can create localized areas of elevated methylmercury with resulting increases in the mercury levels of river biota.

  18. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-10-23

    Excessive ingestion of mercury--a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes--damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  19. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-10-23

    Excessive ingestion of mercury--a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes--damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health.

  20. Mercury levels in human hair and sex factors

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, S.; Kimura, A.; Nakagawa, H.; Takao, M.

    1980-06-01

    Evidence has been presented: (1) that the geometric mean is essential to the statistical analysis of the result of the amount of Hg in hair, and (2) that the individual Hg level in hair must be evaluated by the standard deviation of logarithmic values. The Hg level in hair obtained from 1324 inhabitants on Shikoku Island showed logarithmic-normal distribution curves, with higher values in males than in females. To verify such a sexual difference, hair samples were obtained from male and female children (N = 346), teenagers (N = 300), and adults (N = 354) living in an agricultural area of Tokushima Prefecture on the island. As the result, males were found to have more Hg than females in sexually mature teenagers and adults (P < 0.05 by F test) but not in younger children.

  1. Mercury speciation in fish tissues from a Mediterranean River basin: the Tagus River (central Spain) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Moreno, M Jiménez; Ropero, M J Patiño; Serrano, A de Marcos

    2011-11-01

    An assessment of mercury (Hg) accumulation in fish from the Tagus River aquatic system (central Spain), which has been influenced by pollution from industrial and urban development, was performed. Total Hg (THg), inorganic Hg (IHg), and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were determined in muscle and liver of different fish species, including Cyprinus carpio, Ameiurus melas, and Chondrostoma miegii, sampled from three locations. Although concentrations of THg and Hg species showed wide variability among the fish species, they were also found to be considerably dependent on location and fish tissue. Relative contents of MMHg to THg in muscle varied from 60 to 88%, whereas those found in liver ranged from 7 to 59%. Mean THg concentrations ranged from 126 to 810 ng/g (dry weight [dw]) in liver and from 159 to 1057 ng/g dw in muscle. Therefore, the mean THg concentration in all fish muscle samples was far lower than the maximum residue level recommended by the European Union for fishery products. Nevertheless, the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle reported in this study were somewhat increased compared with other areas geographically distant from most major anthropogenic Hg sources and, in some cases, even greater than those previously reported elsewhere in more polluted areas. In contrast, Hg contents in liver were lower than those found in Hg-contaminated areas, but they were within the range found in other areas exposed to diffuse sources of pollution by Hg. Thus, this article provides an overview of the concentration and distribution of Hg species in fish muscle and liver tissues samples taken from a freshwater system in the Mediterranean River basin. PMID:21472454

  2. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  3. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion.

    PubMed

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g(-1), with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g(-1)). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in hair total mercury concentrations between sampling areas (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  4. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  5. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    PubMed Central

    Janle, Elsa M.; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  6. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  7. Ultrasensitive and rapid screening of mercury(II) ions by dual labeling colorimetric method in aqueous samples and applications in mercury-poisoned animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Jian; Yan, Feng; Xia, Fan; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of trace heavy metal mercury(II) ions (Hg(2+)) are of significant importance due to the induced serious risks for environment and human health. This presented article reports the gold nanoparticle-based dual labeling colorimetric method (Dual-COLO) for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Hg(2+) using the specific thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) as recognition system and the dual labeling strategy for signal amplification. Both qualitative and quantitative detections of Hg(2+) are achieved successfully in aqueous samples. More importantly, the achieved detection limit of 0.005 ng mL(-1) (0.025 nM) without any instruments is very competitive to other rapid detection methods even ICP-MS based methods. This Dual-COLO method is also applied directly for real water sample monitoring and, more importantly, applied in analysis of mercury poisoned animal tissues and body fluidic samples, indicating a potentially powerful and promising tool for environmental monitoring and food safety control.

  8. Dental silver tooth fillings: A source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.; Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. )

    1989-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) vapor is released from dental silver tooth fillings into human mouth air after chewing, but its possible uptake routes and distribution among body tissues are unknown. This investigation demonstrates that when radioactive 203Hg is mixed with dental Hg/silver fillings (amalgam) and placed in teeth of adult sheep, the isotope will appear in various organs and tissues within 29 days. Evidence of Hg uptake, as determined by whole-body scanning and measurement of isotope in specific tissues, revealed three uptake sites: lung, gastrointestinal, and jaw tissue absorption. Once absorbed, high concentrations of dental amalgam Hg rapidly localize in kidneys and liver. Results are discussed in view of potential health consequences from long-term exposure to Hg from this dental material.

  9. Incorporating uncertainty in watershed management decision-making: A mercury TMDL case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labiosa, W.; Leckie, J.; Shachter, R.; Freyberg, D.; Rytuba, J.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Water quality impairment due to high mercury fish tissue concentrations and high mercury aqueous concentrations is a widespread problem in several sub-watersheds that are major sources of mercury to the San Francisco Bay. Several mercury Total Maximum Daily Load regulations are currently being developed to address this problem. Decisions about control strategies are being made despite very large uncertainties about current mercury loading behavior, relationships between total mercury loading and methyl mercury formation, and relationships between potential controls and mercury fish tissue levels. To deal with the issues of very large uncertainties, data limitations, knowledge gaps, and very limited State agency resources, this work proposes a decision analytical alternative for mercury TMDL decision support. The proposed probabilistic decision model is Bayesian in nature and is fully compatible with a "learning while doing" adaptive management approach. Strategy evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and information collection prioritization are examples of analyses that can be performed using this approach.

  10. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  11. Mercury tissue residue approach in Chironomus riparius: Involvement of toxicokinetics and comparison of subcellular fractionation methods.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Guédron, Stéphane; Dominik, Janusz; Ferrari, Benoit J D

    2016-02-01

    Along with the growing body of evidence that total internal concentration is not a good indicator of toxicity, the Critical Body Residue (CBR) approach recently evolved into the Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) which considers the biologically active portion of metal that is available to contribute to the toxicity at sites of toxic action. For that purpose, we examined total mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and subcellular fractionation kinetics in fourth stage larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius during a four-day laboratory exposure to Hg-spiked sediments and water. The debris (including exoskeleton, gut contents and cellular debris), granule and organelle fractions accounted only for about 10% of the Hg taken up, whereas Hg concentrations in the entire cytosolic fraction rapidly increased to approach steady-state. Within this fraction, Hg compartmentalization to metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) and heat-sensitive proteins (HSP), consisting mostly of enzymes, was assessed in a comparative manner by two methodologies based on heat-treatment and centrifugation (HT&C method) or size exclusion chromatography separation (SECS method). The low Hg recoveries obtained with the HT&C method prevented accurate analysis of the cytosolic Hg fractionation by this approach. According to the SECS methodology, the Hg-bound MTLP fraction increased linearly over the exposure duration and sequestered a third of the Hg flux entering the cytosol. In contrast, the HSP fraction progressively saturated leading to Hg excretion and physiological impairments. This work highlights several methodological and biological aspects to improve our understanding of Hg toxicological bioavailability in aquatic invertebrates. PMID:26688328

  12. Menopause and blood mercury levels: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Tai June; Lee, Myung-Hwa; Park, Won I

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between menopause and blood mercury concentrations in South Korean women. Women aged ≥20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were included in this study. Primary and secondary analyses included women aged ≥20 years (n = 1,642) and 45-55 years (i.e., perimenopausal; n = 325), respectively. For all analyses, the mercury levels were log-transformed. The linear regression model for mercury levels was adjusted for age, body mass index, household income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, smoking history, alcohol intake, physical activity, number of pregnancies, serum ferritin levels, and fish consumption. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed blood mercury levels were significantly lower in women who were menopausal [β-coefficient -0.1488; 95 % confidence interval -0.2586, -0.0389; P = 0.01) than in those who were premenopausal. A similar relationship was identified in perimenopausal women (β-coefficient -0.1753; 95 % confidence interval -0.3357, -0.015; P = 0.03). The blood mercury concentration was lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a significant positive correlation between blood mercury concentrations and both the frequency of alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels.

  13. Total mercury determination in different tissues of broiler chicken by using cloud point extraction and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shah, A Q; Kazi, T G; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Kandhro, G A; Arain, M B; Kolachi, N F; Wadhwa, S K

    2010-01-01

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method has been developed for the determination of total mercury (Hg) in different tissues of broiler chicken by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The broiler chicken tissues (leg, breast, liver and heart) were subjected to microwave assisted digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2:1 ratio), prior to preconcentration by CPE. Various parameters such as the amount of ammonium O,O-diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP), concentrations of Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, time and centrifugation have been studied in order to find the best conditions for the determination of mercury. For validation of proposed method a certified reference material, DORM-2 was used. No significant difference p>0.05 was observed between the experimental results and the certified values of CRM (paired t-test). The limit of detection and quantitation obtained under the optimal conditions were 0.117 and 0.382 microg/kg, respectively. The accumulation of Hg in different tissues were found in the order of, liver>muscles>heart. The concentration of Hg in chicken tissues were found in the range of 1.57-2.75, 1.40-2.27, 1.55-4.22, and 1.39-2.61 microg/kg in leg, breast, liver and heart, respectively.

  14. Low-level prenatal mercury exposure in north China: an exploratory study of anthropometric effects.

    PubMed

    Ou, Langbo; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Yang, Tianjun; Xie, Han; Tong, Yindong; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate anthropometric effects of mercury (Hg) exposure, we examined the status of human prenatal exposure to Hg species, including total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg), in North China, as well as their potential effects on fetal and infant growth. Hg concentrations in various bioindicators were measured from 50 Chinese women and newborns in 2011. The participants were followed for 12 months to collect anthropometric information. Linear and two-level regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between Hg levels and body growth. The geometric mean levels of THg in the placenta, cord blood, fetal hair, and maternal blood, hair, and urine were 25.88 μg/kg dry wt, 2.73 μg/L, 572.98 μg/kg, 2.29 μg/L, 576.54 μg/kg, and 0.58 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Nearly 100% of Hg presented as IHg in urine, and the percentage of IHg in other bioindicators was 14.86-48.73%. We observed significantly negative associations between Hg levels in some matrixes and anthropometry of neonates (weight and height) and infants (height) (p < 0.05). THg levels in maternal hair were also negatively associated with infant growth rate of weight during 12 months after delivery (p = 0.017). This study suggests that low-level prenatal Hg exposure could play a role in attenuating fetal and infant growth, and the effects of MeHg and IHg are different.

  15. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  16. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  17. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  18. Alterations in plasma sodium and potassium levels following chronic oral ingestion of lead, mercury and cadmium in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Chansouria, J P

    1991-08-01

    Adult male albino rats were orally administered 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride for 60, 120 and 180 days. The plasma sodium levels were decreased in rats exposed to varying doses of lead and mercury up to 180 days, while animals which consumed cadmium chloride showed an increase in sodium levels. In lead and mercury treated animals, plasma potassium levels were increased up to 180 days. The levels were decreased in cadmium exposed rats. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to these heavy metals considerably influences plasma sodium and potassium levels depending on the dose and duration of exposure.

  19. Distribution of mercury in the environment at Almaden, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.; Huckabee, J.W.; Diaz, F.S.; Janzen, S.A.; Solomon, J.A.; Kumar, K.D.

    1980-10-01

    An ecological survey of the concentration and distribution of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic systems near the mercury mine at Almaden, Spain, was initiated in 1974. Field studies were completed in 1977, and chemical analyses were completed in 1979. Sample collection at Almaden followed a trophic-level approach in which certain compartments were sampled at a given instant in time (fall 1974, fall 1975, spring 1976, fall 1976, spring 1977). Mean total mercury concentration in terrestrial plants (8 taxa combined) ranged from >100 ..mu..g/g within 0.5 km of the mine to 1 ..mu..g/g 20 km distant from the mine. Different plant species had different affinities for mercury, but moss species usually had higher total mercury concentration than vascular plants. Woody plants were lower in mercury concentration than forbs. Total mercury concentration in muscle, brain, kidney, and liver tissue from mice was highest at a station near the stream receiving liquid effluent from the mine (mean total mercury at this station ranging from 0.18 ..mu..g/g in muscle to 4.74 ..mu..g/g in kidney). Approximately 15 to 30% of total mercury in mouse tissue was in the methylated form. Total mercury concentration in muscle tissue from house sparrows varied inversely with distance from the mine, with highest concentrations exceeding 0.1 ..mu..g/g. Approximately 1 to 4% of total mercury in sparrow muscle was in the methylated form.

  20. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg-1 dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg-1 dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L-1, respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  1. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran.

    PubMed

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg(-1) dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L(-1), respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  2. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-03-15

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3-0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14-0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  3. In Brief: Mountaintop mining under scrutiny; High levels of mercury in U.S. rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Proposed new regulations call for mountaintop surface coal mining in U.S. Appalachian states to reduce ``burying'' and other adverse impacts on streams and watersheds. The draft regulations, issued on 29 May by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies, affects a 12-million-acre area encompassing parts of Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee.The mercury levels in rainfall in 12 U.S. states far exceeds safe standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency, according to a 29 May report by the National Wildlife Federation, a non-profit environmental group.

  4. Mercury levels and fish consumption practices in women of child-bearing age in the Florida Panhandle.

    PubMed

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Ranga Rao, K; Lanza, John J; Rivers, Samantha D; Wilson, Patricia A; Hodges, Denise K; Levine, Keith E; Ross, Glenn T

    2008-11-01

    The southeastern United States, and in particular the coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Coast) in Florida, experience some of the highest levels of mercury deposition in the country. Although the State of Florida's coastal border is among the longest in the United States, and the State has issued fish consumption advisories due to mercury on multiple fish species, few data have been systematically collected to assess mercury levels in the human population of the state or to assess the efficacy of the consumption advisories. Because of the generally high rate of seafood consumption among coastal populations, the human population in the Florida Panhandle, near Pensacola, FL is potentially exposed to elevated levels of mercury. In the present study, we analyzed hair mercury levels in women of child-bearing age (16-49 years) who had resided near Pensacola, FL for at least 1 year. We also surveyed the fish consumption practices of the cohort and evaluated awareness of the Florida Fish Consumption Advisory. Hair mercury levels were significantly higher in women who consumed fish within the 30 days prior to sampling (p<0.05) and in those women who were unaware of the consumption advisory (p<0.05). Only 31% of the women reported knowledge of the consumption advisory and pregnant women exhibited lower awareness of the advisory than non-pregnant women. The data suggest that public health interventions such as education and fish advisories have not reached the majority of women in the counties surrounding Pensacola who are most at risk from consumption of fish with high levels of mercury.

  5. Long-term changes in fish mercury levels in the historically impacted English-Wabigoon River system (Canada).

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B; Fletcher, Rachael; Jackson, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The English-Wabigoon River system in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, was one of the most heavily mercury-contaminated waterways in the world due to historical discharges in the 1960s from a chlor-alkali plant. This study examines long-term (1970-2010) monitoring data to assess temporal trends in mercury contamination in Walleye, Northern Pike and Lake Whitefish, three species important for sport and subsistence fishing in this region, using dynamic linear modeling and piecewise regression. For all lakes and species, there is a significant decline (36-94%) in mercury concentrations through time; however, there is evidence that this decline is either slowing down or levelling off. Concentrations in the English-Wabigoon fish are elevated, and may still present a potential health risk to humans consuming fish from this system. Various biotic and abiotic factors are examined as possible explanations to slowing rates of decline in mercury concentrations observed in the mid-1980s. PMID:22785387

  6. Mercury in seabird feathers: insight on dietary habits and evidence for exposure levels in the western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cosson, Richard P; Le Corre, Matthieu

    2007-10-01

    Breast feathers were used to estimate mercury levels in six marine birds nesting in the tropical western Indian Ocean, i.e. Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Lesser Noddy (Anous tenuirostris), Audubon Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui) and the White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus). Juveniles consistently showed lower plumage mercury than adults. The lowest mean level was noted in juvenile Sooty Terns from the Glorioso Archipelago (0.05 microg g(-1)). The highest levels were obtained for adult Barau's Petrels from Reunion Island (0.96 microg g(-1)). An inter-site analysis of Sooty Tern showed higher mercury levels in birds nesting on Juan de Nova Island. Levels were low in comparison with values reported in the plumage of seabirds worldwide. The potential impacts of the size, the type (fish/cephalopod) and the origin (epi-/meso-pelagic) of prey on mercury intake in birds are discussed. Although the diet composition of individuals within a species appeared to be quite variable, combining results on mercury levels with common knowledge of each species allowed additional information on their dietary and foraging habits to be unraveled. PMID:17659323

  7. Zinc, cadmium, mercury and selenium in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Central East Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.; Born, E.W.; Agger, C.T.; Nielsen, C.O.

    1995-02-01

    Muscle, liver, and kidney tissues from 38 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) caught in the Scoresby Sound area, Central East Greenland, were analysed for zinc, cadmium, mercury and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were low in muscle, liver and kidney tissue. This finding can be explained by low cadmium levels in the blubber of ringed seals. The concentration of mercury in muscle tissue was low, whereas concentrations in liver and kidney tissue were relatively high. Mercury and cadmium were positively correlated with age in liver and kidney. Zinc was positively correlated with in kidney, and selenium was correlated with age in liver. Contrary to other marine mammals, polar bears had higher mercury levels in the kidneys than in the liver. In all three tissues polar bears had significantly lower cadmium levels than ringed seals from the same area. Mercury levels were significantly lower in the muscle tissue of polar bears than in ringed seals, where-as levels in the liver and kidney were significantly higher. The previous geographic trend for cadmium and mercury found in Canadian polar bears could be extended to cover East Greenland as well. Hence cadmium levels were higher in Greenland than in Canada, while the opposite was the case for mercury. Greenland polar bears had higher mercury and cadmium contents in livers and kidneys than polar bears from Svalbard. The mercury levels in muscle and liver tissue from polar bears from East Greenland were twice as high as found in bears from western Alaska, but half the levels found in northern Alaska. Cadmium and zinc were partially correlated in kidney tissue, and this was found for mercury and selenium as well. Cadmium and zinc showed molar ratios close to unity with the highest concentrations occurring in kidney tissue, while the levels of zinc exceeded cadmium in muscle and liver tissue by up to several decades. Mercury and selenium showed molar ratios close to unity in liver and kidneys. 56 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Effects of In-Office and Home Bleaching Gels on the Surface Mercury Levels of Dental Amalgam

    PubMed Central

    Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Kahnamoui, Mahdi Abed; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Zadfattah, Firooz; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different in-office and home bleaching gels on the surface mercury levels of dental amalgam. Methods: Sixty disk-shaped amalgam specimens (GS-80, SDI- Australia) were prepared and randomly divided into the following treatment groups: 1. Distilled water (control); 2. 15% home-bleach carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF, Ultra dent, USA) applied for 6 h/day for 3 weeks; and 3. 35% in-office bleach carbamide peroxide (Opalescence Quick, Ultradent) applied for 30 min/week for 3 weeks. Levels of mercury were measured as weight percentages using an energy dispersive x-ray micro-analyzer detector connected to an electron microscope. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey tests (P<.05). Results: There were no significant differences between the surface mercury levels measured following treatment with the tested home-bleach and in-office bleach products (P=0.71). However, both materials yielded significantly more mercury levels than that of the control group (P<.001). Conclusions: The tested bleaching products significantly elevated the surface mercury levels of amalgam in vitro. PMID:20046476

  9. MERCURY IN FISH TISSUE ACROSS THE WESTERN UNITED STATES: IMPLICATIONS OF SELENIUM INTERACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We collected 2,707 fish from 626 stream/river sites in 12 western USA states using a probability design to assess the spatial extent of whole fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. In all large (> 120 mm) fish, total Hg concentrations (mean µg·g-1; SD; n) in both piscivores (0.26...

  10. Mercury Concentrations in Plant Tissues as Affected by FGDG Application to Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from themo-electric coal-fired power plants. The most common practice of FGDG production may trap some of the Mercury (Hg) present in the coal that normally would escape as vapor in the stack gases. Concern for t...

  11. Fish mercury distribution in Massachusetts, USA lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Hutcheson, M.S.; West, C.R.; Pancorbo, O.; Hulme, K.; Cooperman, A.; DeCesare, G.; Isaac, R.; Screpetis, A.

    1999-07-01

    The sediment, water, and three species of fish from 24 of Massachusetts' (relatively) least-impacted water bodies were sampled to determine the patterns of variation in edible tissue mercury concentrations and the relationships of these patterns to characteristics of the water, sediment, and water bodies (lake, wetland, and watershed areas). Sampling was apportioned among three different ecological subregions and among lakes of differing trophic status. The authors sought to partition the variance to discover if these broadly defined concepts are suitable predictors of mercury levels in fish. Average muscle mercury concentrations were 0.15 mg/kg wet weight in the bottom-feeding brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus); 0.31 mg/kg in the omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and 0.39 mg/kg in the predaceous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Statistically significant differences in fish mercury concentrations between ecological subregions in Massachusetts, USA, existed only in yellow perch. The productivity level of the lakes (as deduced from Carlson's Trophic Status Index) was not a strong predictor of tissue mercury concentrations in any species. pH was a highly (inversely) correlated environmental variable with yellow perch and brown bullhead tissue mercury. Largemouth bass tissue mercury concentrations were most highly correlated with the weight of the fish (+), lake size (+), and source area sizes (+). Properties of individual lakes appear more important for determining fish tissue mercury concentrations than do small-scale ecoregional differences. Species that show major mercury variation with size or trophic level may not be good choices for use in evaluating the importance of environmental variables.

  12. MERGANSER- Predicting Mercury Levels in Fish and Loons in New England Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    MERGANSER (MERcury Geo-spatial AssesmentS for the New England Region) is an empirical least squares multiple regression model using atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) and readily obtainable lake and watershed features to predict fish and common loon Hg (as methyl mercury) in ...

  13. Levels and potential health risks of mercury in prescription, non-prescription medicines and dietary supplements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Determination of mercury is important in the case of pharmaceuticals for which the European Union regulations have not defined the maximum permissible concentration of this metal. The aim of the study was to determine the levels of mercury in the following groups of drugs (n = 119): analgesics, diuretics, cardiacs, antihypertensives, anti-influenza, antibiotics, anti-allergics, tranquilizers, antibacterials and in dietary supplements (n = 33) available on the Polish market. Mercury was analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CV-AFS. Its content in the samples varied in the range of 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1). Higher mercury concentrations were reported for prescription drugs (Rx): 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1) (median: 7.4 ng g(-1)), lower--for non-prescription medicines (OTC): 1.2-45.8 ng g(-1) (median: 6.0 ng g(-1)). In the analyzed dietary supplements the concentrations were: 0.9-16.7 ng g(-1) (median: 5.9 ng g(-1)). On the basis of the information contained in the leaflet accompanying the medicine, a daily dose of mercury taken into the body with an analyzed medicament was estimated and the health risk posed by using such medicines was assessed. The study indicates that it is justified to carry out measurements of mercury in pharmaceuticals due to its high, potentially harmful.

  14. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  15. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish. PMID:19434348

  16. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g(-1), range) were: sea bass 329 (38-1367), red snapper 148 (36-431), orange roughy 543 (279-974), fresh water trout 55 (20-430), grouper 360 (8-1060), black cod 284 (71-651), Arctic char 37 (28-54), king fish 440 (42-923), tilefish 601 (79-1164) and marlin 854 (125-2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g(-1) for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g(-1) for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%). PMID:21623497

  17. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  18. Mercury accumulation by lower trophic-level organisms in lentic systems within the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Moon, Gerald E.; Husby, Peter; Lincoff, Andrew; Carter, James L.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2005-01-01

    The water columns of four reservoirs (Almaden, Calero, Guadalupe and Lexington Reservoirs) and an abandoned quarry pit filled by Alamitos Creek drainage for recreational purposes (Lake Almaden) were sampled on September 14 and 15, 2004 to provide the first measurements of mercury accumulation by phytoplankton and zooplankton in lentic systems (bodies of standing water, as in lakes and reservoirs) within the Guadalupe River watershed, California. Because of widespread interest in ecosystem effects associated with historic mercury mining within and downgradient of the Guadalupe Riverwatershed, transfer of mercury to lower trophic-level organisms was examined. The propensity of mercury to bioaccumulate, particularly in phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food web, motivated this attempt to provide information in support of developing trophic-transfer and solute-transport models for the watershed, and hence in support of subsequent evaluation of load-allocation strategies. Both total mercury and methylmercury were examined in these organisms. During a single sampling event, replicate samples from the reservoir water column were collected and processed for dissolved-total mercury, dissolved-methylmercury, phytoplankton mercury speciation, phytoplankton taxonomy and biomass, zooplankton mercury speciation, and zooplankton taxonomy and biomass. The timing of this sampling event was coordinated with sampling and analysis of fish from these five water bodies, during a period of the year when vertical stratification in the reservoirs generates a primary source of methylmercury to the watershed. Ancillary data, including dissolved organic carbon and trace-metal concentrations as well as vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and pH, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. This work, in support of the Guadalupe River Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Study, provides

  19. Locational differences in mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions. PMID:21598171

  20. LOCATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN MERCURY AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN 19 SPECIES OF SALTWATER FISH FROM NEW JERSEY

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions. PMID:21598171

  1. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Western Pilot Project - Conditions of North Dakota Perennial Streams for Water Chemistry and Mercury in Fish Tissue, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five sampling sites, selected by a statistical design to represent lengths of perennial streams in North Dakota, were chosen to be sampled for water chemistry and mercury in fish tissue to establish unbiased baseline data. From the assessment of all water chemistry constituents, the percentage of stream length considered to be in poor condition was greater in the Rangeland Plains than in the Cultivated Plains. About 30 percent of perennial stream length in North Dakota was considered to be in good condition on the basis of mercury concentrations in fish tissue.

  2. Glutathione peroxidase response in tissues of rats fed diets containing fish protein concentrate prepared from shark flesh of known mercury and selenium contents

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, S.J.; Andrewartha, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been reported using experimental animals and synthetic diets containing selenium and mercury compounds to demonstrate detoxification of mercury by selenium. The mechanism of detoxification remains obscure. Most experiments have involved the use of high levels of both elements and relied on the observation of gross symptoms. The measurement of enzyme systems may be useful in detecting effects of mercury at a lower, subclinical level and in elucidating the biochemistry of mercury/selenium interactions. The activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rats is dependent on dietary selenium and attempts have been made to use this enzyme as an indicator of mercury/selenium interactions. The research described in this paper was designed to investigate the effect of mercury, in the form and amounts which occur naturally in seafood, on the availability of selenium at levels approximating the nutritional requirement. In anticipation of mercury lowering the GSH-Px response a range of selenium concentrations was used, from nutritional deficiency to three times the nutritional requirement.

  3. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-03-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  4. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  5. [Distribution of Mercury in Plants at Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Li, Xian-yuan; Tang, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; WANG, Ding-yong

    2015-11-01

    The mercury (Hg) distribution and storage in plants at water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir were investigated by analyzing the total mercury(THg) and methylmercury ( MeHg) levels in different parts of plants collected from three typical sites including Shibaozhai, Zhenxi and Hanfeng Lake in WLFZ. The results indicated that THg and MeHg concentrations in plants ranged from (1.62 ± 0.57) to (49.42 ± 3.93) μg x kg(-1) and from (15.27 ± 7.09) to (1 974.67 ± 946.10) ng x kg(-1), respectively. In addition, THg levels in different plant parts followed the trend: root > leaf > stem, and similar trend for MeHg was observed with the highest level in root. An obvious spatial distribution was also found with the THg and MeHg levels in plants in Hanfeng higher than those in the same plants in the other two sampling sites (Shibaozhai and Zhenxi), and there was a difference of THg and MeHg storage in plants in various attitudes. The corresponding THg and MeHg storages were 145.3, 166.4, 124.3 and 88.2 mg x hm(-2), and 1.9, 2.7, 3.6 and 3.2 mg x hm(-2) in 145-150, 150-160, 160-170 and 170-175 m attitudes. The accumulation ability of dominant plants in WLFZ for THg (bioaccumulation factor, BAF < 1) was weaker than that for MeHg (BAF > 1).

  6. Teeth as biomonitors of soft tissue mercury concentrations in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

    SciTech Connect

    Outridge, P.M.; Wagemann, R.; McNeely, R.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports relationships between bulk Hg concentrations in the tooth cementum and soft tissues of free-living beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Total Hg levels were determined in slivers of cementum using a solid-sample Hg analyzer, a recent advance in Hg analysis that avoids acid predigestion. Tooth Hg concentrations ranged up to about 350 ng/g dry weight and were significantly correlated with Hg levels in kidneys, liver, muscle, and muktuk (skin) and with the age of the animals. The Hg/Se ratio in liver, the organ with the highest Hg concentrations, may have been an important determinant of tooth Hg. At hepatic Hg/Se molar ratios {ge}0.6, tooth Hg increased steeply, suggesting that Hg in teeth may reflect physiologically available Hg that was not bound in the liver and that was circulating in the bloodstream. This Hg/Se ratio was exceeded in most beluga aged {ge}20 years. The results indicate that teeth can be used as biomonitors to reconstruct temporal and geographic trends in the soft tissue Hg concentrations of beluga, provided that the age structures of the different populations are known.

  7. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N=132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ(13)C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters.

  8. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity. PMID:26608694

  9. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity.

  10. Mercury concentrations in water and hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops) muscle tissue samples collected from the Ohio River, USA.

    PubMed

    Emery, Erich B; Spaeth, John P

    2011-04-01

    We report on long-term aqueous mercury (Hg) measurements collected at fixed locations along the Ohio River, offer insights into patterns of water and fish tissue Hg levels, and calculate site-specific bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) along an extensive longitudinal basis. We examined the relationship between total recoverable Hg concentrations in water and fish samples collected from 12 locations on the mainstem Ohio River. Water samples were collected on a bimonthly basis from each location over a 6-year period preceding the collection of fish tissue samples. This abundance of data enabled us to calculate the long-term average aqueous Hg concentrations and approximate the lifetime aqueous Hg exposure experienced by fish, enabling the calculation of appropriate BAFs. Hybrid striped bass (HSB; Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops) were collected from the Ohio River, composited (three fish), and analyzed for Hg in muscle tissue from each location. Concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg and 41.7% of all samples collected were higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory threshold of 0.3 mg Hg/kg wet weight. Hg levels generally increased with fish weight, length, and age. However, Hg concentration in the water was the strongest predictor of tissue concentrations. We found that both water and tissue concentrations increased with drainage area, albeit at different rates. This discrepancy in spatial patterns revealed that the bioaccumulation rate of methylmercury might not be consistent throughout the Ohio River mainstem. BAFs calculated at each location supported this finding, as values decreased with increasing drainage area. Our study serves to fill critical, previously identified data gaps and provides decision-makers with the information necessary to develop more appropriate BAF development and risk-management strategies.

  11. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Knights, Brent C.; Gray, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake’s watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy–Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  12. Influences on mercury bioaccumulation factors for the Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Bowers, J A; Littrell, J W; Guanlao, A V

    2004-02-01

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118-km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species-specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat, and season-related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10(6) for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10(6) for sunfishes, and 2.5 X 10(6) for white catfish. Determination of representative BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  13. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n=178 individual fish), the mean (±standard error) for total mercury was 0.39±0.02 μg/g (=0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (=1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30±0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n=122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6±1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48±0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29±0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau=0.37; p<0.0001) and weight (0.38; p<0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r(2) (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger fish, but overall

  14. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n=178 individual fish), the mean (±standard error) for total mercury was 0.39±0.02 μg/g (=0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (=1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30±0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n=122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6±1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48±0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29±0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau=0.37; p<0.0001) and weight (0.38; p<0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r(2) (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger fish, but overall

  15. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n = 178 individual fish), the mean (± standard error) for total mercury was 0.39 ± 0.02 μg/g (= 0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (= 1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30 ± 0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n = 122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6 ± 1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48 ± 0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29 ± 0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau = 0.37; p < 0.0001) and weight (0.38; p < 0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r2 (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1 cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger

  16. Relationship of Blood Mercury Levels to Health Parameters in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Rusty D.; Segars, Al L.; Arendt, Michael D.; Lee, A. Michelle; Peden-Adams, Margie M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Mercury is a pervasive environmental pollutant whose toxic effects have not been studied in sea turtles in spite of their threatened status and evidence of immunosuppression in diseased populations. Objectives In the present study we investigate mercury toxicity in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) by examining trends between blood mercury concentrations and various health parameters. Methods Blood was collected from free-ranging turtles, and correlations between blood mercury concentrations and plasma chemistries, complete blood counts, lysozyme, and lymphocyte proliferation were examined. Lymphocytes were also harvested from free-ranging turtles and exposed in vitro to methylmercury to assess proliferative responses. Results Blood mercury concentrations were positively correlated with hematocrit and creatine phosphokinase activity, and negatively correlated with lymphocyte cell counts and aspartate amino-transferase. Ex vivo negative correlations between blood mercury concentrations and B-cell proliferation were observed in 2001 and 2003 under optimal assay conditions. In vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes to methylmercury resulted in suppression of proliferative responses for B cells (0.1 μg/g and 0.35 μg/g) and T cells (0.7 μg/g). Conclusions The positive correlation between blood mercury concentration and hematocrit reflects the higher affinity of mercury species for erythrocytes than plasma, and demonstrates the importance of measuring hematocrit when analyzing whole blood for mercury. In vitro immunosuppression occurred at methylmercury concentrations that correspond to approximately 5% of the individuals captured in the wild. This observation and the negative correlation found ex vivo between mercury and lymphocyte numbers and mercury and B-cell proliferative responses suggests that subtle negative impacts of mercury on sea turtle immune function are possible at concentrations observed in the wild. PMID:17938730

  17. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324.

  18. Mercury levels in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the Warta Mouth National Park, northwestern Poland.

    PubMed

    Lanocha, Natalia; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain of raccoon in Europe. It studied Hg concentration in 24 raccoons from the Warta Mouth National Park, northwestern Poland by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The highest total Hg concentrations in the raccoon were found in the liver (maximum, 18.45 mg/kg dry weight), while the lowest in the brain (maximum, 0.49 mg/kg dw). In adult raccoons, Hg concentrations in the liver, kidney, and brain were higher than in immature individuals (p<0.001), while similar in skeletal muscle in both age groups. Our results are consistent with studies by other authors conducted in North America in areas with similar environmental conditions.

  19. Mercury levels in coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Central America.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Hector M; García, Elia M

    2002-12-01

    Sediment and coral skeleton samples from 23 coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panama (1497 km) were evaluated for total mercury (Hg). High levels of pollution were found in the entire region with averages of 18.9 and 71.3 ppb in coral skeletons and sediments respectively. Significantly higher contamination was found in Panamanian corals (21.4 ppb) while compared to Costa Rican reef sediments (85.9 ppb). Hg from several processes and non-point sources (e.g., erosion, runoff, flooding, mining, overuse of agrochemicals, industrial waste, ports, and refineries) may have affected the entire region. The widespread observed distribution suggests that Hg is being carried along long distances within the region due to its high concentrations found in "pristine" reefs. Forest burning and colonial mining residues may be considered as possible contamination factors.

  20. Mercury monitoring in fish using a non-lethal tissue biopsy method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerson, J; Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, J, Michael; Brumbaugh, W. G.

    2010-01-01

    A non-lethal method is particularly desirable for sampling rare or endangered fish or highly valued fisheries. The Missouri Department of Conservation manages several fisheries where the public is sensitive to excessive fish removal, yet there is a desire for mercury information. One such example is the trophy smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) fishery in the Ozark’s Eleven Point River. Plug removal is not expected to affect fish survival in the shortterm. However, limited information is available on survival of fish for weeks or months after plug removal.

  1. Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-10-01

    Metal levels in fish have been extensively studied, but little data currently exists for the Middle East. We examined the levels of metals and metalloids (aluminum, arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, and mercury) in the flesh of 13 fish species collected from three fishing sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We tested the following null hypotheses: (1) there are no interspecific differences in metal levels, (2) there are no differences in metal levels in fishes between market and fishing sites, (3) there are no size-related differences in metal levels, and (4) there are no differences in selenium:mercury molar ratio among different fish species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations for all metals. There was an order of magnitude difference in the levels of aluminum, arsenic, mercury, manganese, and selenium, indicating wide variation in potential effects on the fish themselves and on their predators. Fishes from Area II, close to a large commercial port, had the highest levels of arsenic, mercury, and selenium, followed by market fishes. Mercury was positively correlated with body size in 6 of the 13 fish species examined. Mercury was correlated positively with arsenic and selenium, but negatively with aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. Selenium:mercury molar ratios varied significantly among species, with Carangoides bajad, Cephalopholis argus, Variola louti, and Ephinephelus tauvina having ratios below 10:1. These findings can be used in risk assessments, design of mercury reduction plans, development of fish advisories to protect public health, and future management decision-making.

  2. Behavior of mercury in bio-systems. II. Depuration of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in various trophic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiotracer techniques, the depuration rates for methylmercury at three trophic levels in an aquatic ecosystem are examined. Bacteria (decomposers), mosquito larvae (primary consumers), and fish (secondary consumers) were studied. Results indicated that depuration rates for mercury were temperature dependent - the rate of depuration increased with increase in temperature (up to 45/sup 0/C)

  3. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. PMID:26283618

  4. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  5. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  6. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  7. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  8. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Kurosawa, Tomoko; Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki . E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

  9. Effects of suspension on tissue levels of glucocorticoid receptors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Differential muscle responses can be simulated by hypokinetic/hypodynamic (H/H) suspension of rats with complete unloading of the hindlimb muscles. Since mechanism(s) underlying these atrophic effects were not clearly elucidated, experiments were initiated to investigate a possible role for glucocorticoids in the physiological and biochemical responses to H/H. The principal objective was to assess the potential for alterations in peripheral responsiveness to glucocorticoids in response to H/H. Studies have initially focused on the determination of tissue levels of glucocorticoid receptors as one index of hormonal sensitivity at the cellular level. Four hindlimb muscles (soleus, gastrocnemius, plantaris and EDL), previously demonstrated to exhibit differential responses to H/H, were investigated. Receptor levels in other glucocorticoid sensitive tissues (heart, liver, and kidney) were determined. Male rats (180-200g) were suspended for 7 or 14 days, sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the tissues excised.

  10. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  11. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  12. Acute effects of mercuric chloride on intracellular GSH levels and mercury distribution in the fish Oreochromic aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.; Min, S.Y.; Keong, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the effects of trace metals on intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Most of the research has been performed on rats. As GSH is ubiquitous in living organisms it is of interest to establish a relationship between mercury intoxication and intracellular GSH levels in fish; especially as fish living in rivers and coastal areas are often expose to mercury as an aquatic pollutant. The role of GSH in fish trace metal toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The distribution of total glutathione (oxidized + reduced) in selected black sea bass organs seems to follow the established pattern for mammalian organs. Thus, it would appear that teleostian and mammalian glutathione metabolism may have many similarities. There are few reports concerning the effects of mercury during the first few hours of exposure. The aim of this investigation is to establish any changes in organ GSH and mercury levels following just 2 h exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/).

  13. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND TEST APPLICATION A SCREENING-LEVEL MERCURY FATE MODEL AND TOOL FOR EVALUATING WILDLIFE EXPOSURE RISK FOR SURFACE WATERS WITH MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS (SERAFM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex chemical cycling of mercury in aquatic ecosystems means that tracing the linkage between anthropogenic and natural loadings of mercury to watersheds and water bodies and associated concentrations in the environment are difficult to establish without the assistance of nume...

  15. Mercury bioacumulation in four tissues of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Podocnemididae: Testudines) as a function of water parameters.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Belger, Lauren; Burger, Joanna; Vogt, Richard C

    2009-01-15

    A number of environmental factors influence the dynamics of Hg in aquatic ecosystems, yet few studies have examined these factors for turtles, especially from South America. Red-headed river turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala) is easy to capture in the black waters of Rio Negro, making it the turtle species that is consumed most often by people of the region. In this study, environmental factors and turtle size were investigated to determine their influence on the Hg concentration in blood, muscle, liver and carapace of the red-headed river turtle. Factors investigated included turtle length, pH, dissolved organic carbon and availability of potential methylation sites (floodplain forests and hydromorphic soils). The study was conducted in the Rio Negro basin, where we collected water and turtle blood, muscle, liver and carapace samples from 12 tributaries for chemical analysis. Through radar imagery and existing soil maps with GIS, the percentage of alluvial floodplains and hydromorphic soils (potential methylation sites) was estimated for each drainage basin at sampling points. The mean Hg concentration in blood of P. erythrocephala was 1.64 ng g(-1) (SD=1.36), muscle 33 ng g(-1) (SD=11), liver 470 ng g(-1) (SD=313) and carapace 68 ng g(-1) (SD=32). Sex or length did not influence the Hg concentration in P. erythrocephala blood, muscle and liver, but Hg increased in carapace tissue when length size increased (ANCOVA p=0.007). In the multiple regression analysis, none of the environmental factors studied had a significant relation with blood, muscle, liver and carapace. P. erythrocephala moves among habitats and in the open and interconnected aquatic systems of the Amazon basin, characterized by high levels of limnological variability, a good bioindicator of Hg concentration needs to be relatively sedentary to represent a specific habitat. However, the levels of Hg in liver were sufficient to pose a potential risk to humans that consume them, suggesting the

  16. Superpredation increases mercury levels in a generalist top predator, the eagle owl.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Rui; Tavares, Paula C; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Rabaça, João E; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Superpredation can increase the length of the food chain and potentially lead to mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in top predators. We analysed the relationship of Hg concentrations in eagle owls Bubo bubo to diet composition and the percentage of mesopredators in the diet. Hg levels were measured in the adult feathers of eagle owls from 33 owl territories in the south-western Iberian Peninsula, and in three trophic levels of their prey: primary consumers, secondary consumers and mesopredators. In addition, we studied 6,181 prey in the eagle owl diet. Hg concentrations increased along the food chain, but the concentrations in eagle owls showed considerable variation. The Hg concentration in eagle owls increased when the percentage of mesopredators in the diet increased and the percentage of primary consumers decreased. Superpredation is often related to food stress, and the associated increase in accumulation of Hg may cause additional negative effects on vertebrate top predators. Hg levels in these eagle owl populations are relatively low, but future monitoring is recommended. PMID:21298339

  17. Factors Affecting Mercury and Selenium Levels-in New Jersey Flatfish: Low Risk to Human Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Shukla, Sheila; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some fish contain high levels of mercury (Hg), which could pose a risk to fish eaters themselves or their children. In making decisions about fish consumption, people must decide whether to eat fish, how much to eat, what species to eat, and what size fish to eat, as well as suitable (or unsuitable) locations, among other factors. Yet to make sound decisions, people need to know the levels of Hg in fish as a function of species, size, and location of capture. Levels of Hg and selenium (Se) were examined in three species of flatfish (fluke or summer flounder [Paralichthys dentatus], winter flounder [Pseudopleuronectes americanus], and windowpane [Scophthalmus aquosus]) from New Jersey as a function of species, fish size, season, and location. Flatfish were postulated to have low levels of Hg because they are low on the food chain and are bottom feeders, and data were generated to provide individuals with information on a species that might be safe to eat regularly. Although there were interspecific differences in Hg levels in the 3 species, total Hg levels averaged 0.18, 0.14, and 0.06 ppm (μg/g, wet weigh) in windowpane, fluke, and winter flounder, and selenium levels averaged 0.36, 0.35, and 0.25 ppm, respectively. For windowpane, 15% had Hg levels above 0.3 ppm, but no individual fish had Hg levels over 0.5 ppm. There were no significant seasonal differences in Hg levels, although Se was significantly higher in fluke in summer compared to spring. There were few geographical differences among New Jersey locations. Correlations between Hg and Se levels were low. Data, based on 464 fish samples, indicate that Hg levels are below various advisory levels and pose little risk to typical New Jersey fish consumers. A 70-kg person eating 1 meal (8 oz or 227 g) per week would not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg body weight/d of methylmercury (MeHg). However, high-end fish eaters consuming several such meals per week may exceed

  18. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

  19. Tissue glutathione levels in mice treated with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Ahmed, K M

    1991-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is widely distributed among living cells and is involved in many biological functions. It provides the sulfhydryl groups for conjugation of toxic metabolites of several xenobiotica. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) toxicity is a classical example of this property. For this purpose, we studied the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on tissue levels of GSH in the mice. Groups of male Swiss Webster mice weighing 25 +/- 5 g were treated with 50 mg/kg, PO THC at 1300 h. Control mice were given equal volume of sesame oil (5 ml/kg, PO) which was the vehicle for THC. Ninety minutes following THC administration, mice were sacrificed, their plasma, brain, heart, liver, kidney and testis were collected. All tissues were homogenized in 5% TCA/EDTA solution and supernatant solutions of these homogenates were diluted. In these diluted samples, levels of GSH were determined by a modified spectrophotometric procedure and the GSH levels were expressed as micromoles of GSH/g tissue. In this study, THC caused no effects on GSH levels in brain, heart, testis and plasma. However, GSH levels in liver and kidney were decreased by 14% and 7% respectively. Although the decrease in kidney GSH levels were insignificant, these changes in liver and kidney could be indicative of a possible metabolic and/or dispositional interaction between THC and different commonly available drugs such as acetaminophen. PMID:1666916

  20. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  1. Differentiated availability of geochemical mercury pools controls methylmercury levels in estuarine sediment and biota.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Sofi; Skyllberg, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats B; Lundberg, Erik; Andersson, Agneta; Björn, Erik

    2014-08-20

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) accumulates in aquatic biota and remains at high levels worldwide. It is poorly understood to what extent different geochemical Hg pools contribute to these levels. Here we report quantitative data on MeHg formation and bioaccumulation, in mesocosm water-sediment model ecosystems, using five Hg(II) and MeHg isotope tracers simulating recent Hg inputs to the water phase and Hg stored in sediment as bound to natural organic matter or as metacinnabar. Calculations for an estuarine ecosystem suggest that the chemical speciation of Hg(II) solid/adsorbed phases control the sediment Hg pool's contribution to MeHg, but that input of MeHg from terrestrial and atmospheric sources bioaccumulates to a substantially greater extent than MeHg formed in situ in sediment. Our findings emphasize the importance of MeHg loadings from catchment runoff to MeHg content in estuarine biota and we suggest that this contribution has been underestimated.

  2. Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States. PMID:21647946

  3. Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States.

  4. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  5. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  6. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  7. Differential effects of cobalt and mercury on lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obesity mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige Hanao, Norihide; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Metals and metalloid species are involved in homeostasis in energy systems such as glucose metabolism. Enlarged adipocytes are one of the most important causes of obesity-associated diseases. In this study, we studied the possibility that various metals, namely, CoCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}, NaAsO{sub 2} and MnCl{sub 2} pose risk to or have beneficial effects on white adipose tissue (WAT). Exposure to the four metals resulted in decreases in WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without changes in liver weight, suggesting that the size and function of adipocytes are sensitive to metals. Repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} significantly increased serum leptin, adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and normalized glucose level and adipose cell size in mice fed HFD. In contrast, HgCl{sub 2} treatment significantly decreased serum leptin level with the down-regulation of leptin mRNA expression in WAT and a reduction in adipocyte size. Next, we tried to investigate possible factors that affect adipocyte size. Repeated exposure to HgCl{sub 2} significantly decreased the expression levels of factors upon the regulation of energy such as the PPARα and PPARγ mRNA expression levels in adipocytes, whereas CoCl{sub 2} had little effect on those genes expressions compared with that in the case of the mice fed HFD with a vehicle. In addition, repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} enhanced AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, skeletal muscle and WAT; HgCl{sub 2} treatment also enhanced AMPK activation in the liver. Thus, both Co and Hg reduced WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes, possibly mediated by AMKP activation in the mice fed HFD. However, inorganic cobalt may have a preventive role in obesity-related diseases through increased leptin, adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas inorganic mercury may accelerate the development of such diseases. These results may lead

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  9. The influence of fish length on tissue mercury dynamics: implications for natural resource management and human health risk.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Cope, W Gregory; Rice, James A; Aday, D Derek

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of fish has well-known human health benefits, though some fish may contain elevated levels of mercury (Hg) that are especially harmful to developing children. Fish length is most often the basis for establishing fishery harvest regulations that determine which fish will ultimately be consumed by humans. It is, therefore, essential to quantify the relationship between fish length and Hg accumulation in regard to harvest regulations for effective fishery and public health policy. We examined this relationship for three sportfish from six lakes across North Carolina, USA. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) had the lowest Hg levels and only the very largest fish in the most contaminated site exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Hg screening level. Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) had an intermediate level of Hg and larger individuals exceeded the USEPA screening level; however, they tended not to exceed this level before reaching the harvest length limit. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exceeded the USEPA screening level at sizes below the fishery length limit in two lakes, leaving only higher risk fish for anglers to harvest and consume. Removing the effects of fish age and trophic position, we found strong positive correlations between Hg and fish length for largemouth bass and black crappie. We suggest public health officials and wildlife managers collaborate to structure fishery regulations and length-based fish consumption advisories that protect consumers from Hg exposure and communicate the relative risk of fish consumption. PMID:23388852

  10. The Influence of Fish Length on Tissue Mercury Dynamics: Implications for Natural Resource Management and Human Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Dana K.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Aday, D. Derek

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of fish has well-known human health benefits, though some fish may contain elevated levels of mercury (Hg) that are especially harmful to developing children. Fish length is most often the basis for establishing fishery harvest regulations that determine which fish will ultimately be consumed by humans. It is, therefore, essential to quantify the relationship between fish length and Hg accumulation in regard to harvest regulations for effective fishery and public health policy. We examined this relationship for three sportfish from six lakes across North Carolina, USA. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) had the lowest Hg levels and only the very largest fish in the most contaminated site exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Hg screening level. Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) had an intermediate level of Hg and larger individuals exceeded the USEPA screening level; however, they tended not to exceed this level before reaching the harvest length limit. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exceeded the USEPA screening level at sizes below the fishery length limit in two lakes, leaving only higher risk fish for anglers to harvest and consume. Removing the effects of fish age and trophic position, we found strong positive correlations between Hg and fish length for largemouth bass and black crappie. We suggest public health officials and wildlife managers collaborate to structure fishery regulations and length-based fish consumption advisories that protect consumers from Hg exposure and communicate the relative risk of fish consumption. PMID:23388852

  11. The influence of fish length on tissue mercury dynamics: implications for natural resource management and human health risk.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Cope, W Gregory; Rice, James A; Aday, D Derek

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of fish has well-known human health benefits, though some fish may contain elevated levels of mercury (Hg) that are especially harmful to developing children. Fish length is most often the basis for establishing fishery harvest regulations that determine which fish will ultimately be consumed by humans. It is, therefore, essential to quantify the relationship between fish length and Hg accumulation in regard to harvest regulations for effective fishery and public health policy. We examined this relationship for three sportfish from six lakes across North Carolina, USA. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) had the lowest Hg levels and only the very largest fish in the most contaminated site exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Hg screening level. Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) had an intermediate level of Hg and larger individuals exceeded the USEPA screening level; however, they tended not to exceed this level before reaching the harvest length limit. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exceeded the USEPA screening level at sizes below the fishery length limit in two lakes, leaving only higher risk fish for anglers to harvest and consume. Removing the effects of fish age and trophic position, we found strong positive correlations between Hg and fish length for largemouth bass and black crappie. We suggest public health officials and wildlife managers collaborate to structure fishery regulations and length-based fish consumption advisories that protect consumers from Hg exposure and communicate the relative risk of fish consumption.

  12. Contribution of atmospheric deposition to tissue concentrations of mercury in aquatic bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Villares, Rubén; Díaz, Santiago; López, Jesús; Vázquez, Maria Dolores; Carballeira, Alejo

    2016-09-15

    In this biomonitoring study, we measured the temporal variations in concentrations of mercury in samples of aquatic bryophytes from rivers in a region that received large inputs of the metal via atmospheric deposition. In the first year of sampling, the presence of an important source of atmospheric deposition of Hg (a lignite-fired power plant) led, during the rainy season, to elevated concentrations of the metal in catchments situated downwind of the prevailing winds. High concentrations of the metal were even detected in samples from apparently clean rivers in isolated mountain sites within the downwind catchments. Substitution of the type of fuel (high quality imported carbon instead of brown coal) used in the power plant greatly reduced Hg emissions in subsequent years. Application of spatial interpolation techniques to dense monitoring networks with aquatic bryophytes, without taking into consideration the catchment borders, appears suitable for studying extensive atmospheric pollution derived from a large scale source of contamination. This study also demonstrates the importance of environmental specimen banks in retrospective studies of contamination, as they enable posterior analysis of contaminants that for various reasons cannot be analyzed at the time of sampling. PMID:27177131

  13. Contribution of atmospheric deposition to tissue concentrations of mercury in aquatic bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Villares, Rubén; Díaz, Santiago; López, Jesús; Vázquez, Maria Dolores; Carballeira, Alejo

    2016-09-15

    In this biomonitoring study, we measured the temporal variations in concentrations of mercury in samples of aquatic bryophytes from rivers in a region that received large inputs of the metal via atmospheric deposition. In the first year of sampling, the presence of an important source of atmospheric deposition of Hg (a lignite-fired power plant) led, during the rainy season, to elevated concentrations of the metal in catchments situated downwind of the prevailing winds. High concentrations of the metal were even detected in samples from apparently clean rivers in isolated mountain sites within the downwind catchments. Substitution of the type of fuel (high quality imported carbon instead of brown coal) used in the power plant greatly reduced Hg emissions in subsequent years. Application of spatial interpolation techniques to dense monitoring networks with aquatic bryophytes, without taking into consideration the catchment borders, appears suitable for studying extensive atmospheric pollution derived from a large scale source of contamination. This study also demonstrates the importance of environmental specimen banks in retrospective studies of contamination, as they enable posterior analysis of contaminants that for various reasons cannot be analyzed at the time of sampling.

  14. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    , invertebrate, and fish tissue concentrations were obtained, the fits of regression lines were markedly improved by the use of non-linear models such as the Michaelis-Menton model. It was thus possible to extrapolate more precisely from sediment to fish tissue concentrations. The application of such models to evaluating clean up levels and ecological risk of mercury exposure will allow more informed decision making as plans are developed to remediate contaminated watersheds.

  15. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult. PMID:26352664

  16. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  17. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  18. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Michael A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome. METHODS We obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case-control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se. RESULTS Patients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 ??g/g vs. 111 ??g/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 ??g/g vs. 346 ??g/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 ??g/g vs. 0.439 ??g/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 ??g/g vs. 1.58 ??g/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. Copyright ?? 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  20. Nematode and mercury content in freshwater fish belonging to different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Fish are a protein source for many people in Colombia. However, environmental pollution of some aquatic ecosystems may pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in muscle and their relationship with nematode infections in fish from Dique Channel, a freshwater ecosystem located Northern Colombia. Eight hundred ninety fish specimens belonging to 13 different species were collected. T-Hg concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, previous electrothermal atomization. Nematodes were identified as Contracaecum sp. Species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Sorubim cuspicaudus presented the highest values for Hg and parasite infection (0.09 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 μg/g; prevalence 100, 100 %, respectively), whereas the lowest were detected in Prochilodus magdalenae (0.02 ± 0.002 μg/g; 0 %). Pooled data revealed a high correlation between trophic level and parasite abundance (ρ = 0.771; P = 0.002) as well as with T-Hg (ρ = 0.786; P < 0.001). The overall correlation between parasite abundance and T-Hg was moderately to low but positive (ρ = 0.217; P < 0.001). However, when individual species were considered, pair relationships between parasite abundance, morphometric parameters, and Hg concentration, varied between positive and negative values. These data suggest the presence of nematodes is determined by the trophic level of the fish species, similarly to what occurs with Hg. Moreover, the co-occurrence of these two stressors involves different types of interactions with morphometric variables that are species-specific. These observations open new doors to the understanding of the interaction between chemical pollutants and organisms. PMID:23494159

  1. Linking Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to Human and Wildlife (Source to Receptor) by Coupling VELMA and WASP with BASS to simulate Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the majority of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million miles of rivers under advisory due to the exposure risk from ingesting Hg-contaminated fish. The processes governing Hg exposures in lotic ecosystems are not...

  2. Levels of chlordane, oxychlordane, and nonachlor in human adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Yukio; Tomokuni, Katsumaro )

    1991-08-01

    Chlordane was used as a termiticide for more than twenty years in Japan. Chlordane is stable in the environment such as sediment and its bioaccumulation in some species of bacteria, freshwater invertebrates, and marine fish is large. Many researches were done to elucidate the levels of chlordane and/or its metabolite oxychlordane in human adipose tissues. A comprehensive review concerning chlordane was recently provided by USEPA. On the other hand, Japan authorities banned the use of chlordane in September 1986. In the last paper, the authors reported that both water and sediment of the rivers around Saga city were slightly contaminated with chlordane. In the present study, they investigated the levels of chlordane, oxychlordane and nonachlor in human adipose tissues.

  3. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Peterson, Sarah H; Evers, David C; Jackson, Allyson K; Elliott, John E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Bryan, Colleen E

    2016-10-15

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  4. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 6. Characterization of human health and wildlife risks from anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, K.R.; Schoeny, R.; Rice, G.E.; Keating, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress characterizes risk for mercury emitted to the environment from anthropogenic sources. The characterization volume describes human and wildlife health effects of mercury exposure with accompanying analysis of uncertainty in quantitative risk estimates. Exposure pathways for selected human and wildlife populations to mercury are considered, again accompanied by a discussion of uncertainty. The size of the fish-eating U.S. population and quantities of mercury consumed in fish are estimated, as are the number of maternal-fetal pairs for whom maternal fish consumption is projected to exceed levels identified to be of concern. Literature reports of mercury concentrations in tissues of fish-eating wildlife species are presented. The sizes of selected wildlife populations identified as potentially exposed to quantities of methylmercury associated with adverse health effects are estimated. An overall characterization of risk of mercury to human subpopulations and selected fish-consuming wildlife species is developed.

  5. Relationship between mercury accumulation in young-of-the-year yellow perch and water-level fluctuations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, J.A.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Sydor, M.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year (2001 -2003) monitoring effort of 14 northeastern Minnesota lakes was conducted to document relationships between water-level fluctuations and mercury bioaccumulation in young-of-the-year (YOY) yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in the fall of each year at fixed locations. Six of those lakes are located within or adjacent to Voyageurs National Park and are influenced by dams on the outlets of Rainy and Namakan lakes. One site on Sand Point Lake coincides with a location that has nine years of previous monitoring suitable for addressing the same issue over a longer time frame. Mean mercury concentrations in YOY yellow perch at each sampling location varied significantly from year to year. For the 12-year monitoring site on Sand Point Lake, values ranged from 38 ng gww-1 in 1998 to 200 ng gww -1 in 2001. For the 14-lake study, annual mean concentrations ranged by nearly a factor of 2, on average, for each lake over the three years of record. One likely factor responsible for these wide variations is that annual water-level fluctuations are strongly correlated with mercury levels in YOY perch for both data sets. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  6. Seasonal fluctuations of tissue mercury contents in the European shore crab Carcinus maenas from low and high contamination areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Pereira, E; Abreu, S N; Coelho, J P; Lopes, C B; Pardal, M A; Vale, C; Duarte, A C

    2006-11-01

    The main objective was to study the seasonal variation of mercury concentrations in different tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas and gills) of Carcinus maenas from low and high Hg contaminated areas, a valuable resource in temperate estuaries and a possible pathway for human uptake. Individuals of two size classes (around 35 and 55 mm cephalothorax wide) were captured monthly between March 1999 and May 2000 in two areas of Ria de Aveiro: in the main navigation channel that connects the lagoon to the sea, and in the inner lagoon area heavily contaminated by mercury (maximum Hg in sediments of 5.4 microg g(-1)). Pronounced decreases in salinity and temperature and reduced food availability in winter seemed to be the responsible for the decline of the crab condition index (0.75-0.45) in larger individuals. Muscle and hepatopancreas exhibited higher mercury concentrations than gills, with concentrations in the contaminated site ranging from 0.03 to 0.63 microg g(-1) and 0.02 to 0.34 microg g(-1), respectively. Linear regressions between muscle and hepatopancreas (r=0.94, p<0.001) and muscle and gills (r=0.97, p<0.001) suggested a rapid redistribution of mercury inside the organism. During winter, a rapid elimination of mercury was found in the three analysed tissues followed by uptake. Larger crabs presented elimination rates from 18 to 34 ng g(-1) per week, while the smaller crabs showed lower elimination rates (10-24 ng g(-1) per week). The uptake was similar in both size classes (11-15 ng g(-1) and 8.1-15 ng g(-1) per week, respectively for large and small crabs). Our results suggest that C. maenas harvested in the contaminated areas must be considered with caution, since Hg concentrations were found to exceed the threshold concentration allowed for human consumption (0.5 microg g(-1)). PMID:16824552

  7. Regional differences in mercury levels in aquatic ecosystems: A discussion of possible causal factors with implications for the Tennessee river system and the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslin, J. Devereux

    1994-07-01

    Concern about mercury pollution from atmospheric deposition has risen markedly in the last decade because of high levels of mercury in freshwater fish from relatively pristine waters. Whereas high concentrations have been found principally in Canada, the northern United States, and Scandinavia, they have also recently been observed throughout much of Florida. Recent surveys of the Tennessee River system, however, have found no locations where fish levels exceed EPA guidelines for fish consumption. This paper evaluates a number of factors that may cause certain regions in the northern hemisphere to experience unacceptable fish mercury levels while other regions do not. Relevant regional differences include: (1) Waters of the Tennessee River system are generally nonacidic (pH>6) and well buffered, whereas 16%, 22%, and 40% of the lakes in upper Midwest, Northeast, and Florida, respectively, have acid-neutralizing capacities below 50 µeq/liter. Acidity correlates highly with fish mercury levels in a number of lake surveys, and experimental manipulations of acidity have significantly raised fish mercury levels. (2) The ratio of land area to water surface area in the Tennessee Valley averages about 30, whereas it is 15 in the upper Midwest and 6 in Florida. Low ratios allow mercury in precipitation to be directly deposited to aquatic bodies, without an opportunity for the mercury to be sequestered by terrestrial ecosystems. (3) Stream organic matter concentrations in Florida, the upper Midwest, and Sweden are 2 10 times those in the Tennessee Valley. Mercury binds strongly to organic matter, and organic matter transport in runoff is a major pathway by which mercury enters aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Effects of reservoir drawdown and refill on mercury levels in fish and other biota

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoe, C.H.; Salice, C.; Yabnochko, G.; Grasman, B.T.; Youngblood, T.

    1995-12-31

    Mercury bioavailability from contaminated sediments is controlled by methylation, related to bacterial activity and degradable organic material. These variables may be affected by large changes in water level and chemistry in a reservoir. At Par Pond, a 1,200 ha impoundment on the USDOE Savannah River Site, South Carolina, potential failure of an earthen dam prompted lowering the reservoir by 3 meters over a two month period in 1991, decreasing water volume about 70%. The reservoir was refilled over a two month period in 1995. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were sampled at quarterly intervals before, during and after the drawdown. Length and weight were determined, and liver and muscle analyzed for total Hg. Hg was also measured in top level predators (alligators), forage fish, macrophytes and invertebrates. From Fall 1991 Winter 1994--5, Hg ranged from 0.05 to 2.0 ug/g wet mass in bass muscle, and was strongly related to fish size, based on about 400 fish. Condition factor rose soon after drawdown, then declined as forage populations collapsed. Using fish size as covariate, bass muscle Hg was greater in spring 1992 than all other sampling dates. However, after 3 years of drawdown, there was no overall trend in bass Hg. Forage species differed in Hg, with highest concentrations in brook silversides (0.13 {micro}g Hg/g wet mass in 2 g fish). Alligators contained up to 20 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass in liver. Refill caused inundation of terrestrial plants on exposed sediments, and microbial action associated with the decay of these may enhance Hg methylation. Experiments with caged fish are underway to measure uptake rates.

  9. Establishment of a primary hepatocyte culture from the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) and distribution of mercury in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Horai, Sawako; Yanagi, Kumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Watanabe, Izumi; Ogura, Go; Abe, Shintaro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The present study established a primary hepatocyte culture for the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). To determine the suitable medium for growing the primary hepatic cells of this species, we compared the condition of cells cultured in three media that are frequently used for mammalian cell culture: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, RPMI-1640, and William's E. Of these, William's E medium was best suited for culturing the hepatic cells of this species. Using periodic acid-Schiff staining and ultrastructural observations, we demonstrated the cells collected from mongoose livers were hepatocytes. To evaluate the distribution of mercury (Hg) in the liver tissue, we carried out autometallography staining. Most of the Hg compounds were found in the central region of hepatic lobules. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which plays a role inxenobiotic metabolism, lipid/cholesterol metabolism, and the digestion and detoxification of lipophilic substances is grown in this area. This suggested that Hg colocalized with smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The results of the present study could be useful to identify the detoxification systems of wildlife with high Hg content in the body, and to evaluate the susceptibility of wildlife to Hg toxicity. PMID:25142347

  10. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  11. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area. PMID:27418073

  12. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  13. The presence of mercury selenide in various tissues of the striped dolphin: evidence from μ-XRF-XRD and XAFS analyses.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi

    2011-07-01

    Marine mammals accumulate mercury in their tissues at high concentration and detoxify by forming mercury selenide (HgSe, tiemannite) mainly in the liver. We investigated the possibility of formation of HgSe in various tissues (liver, kidney, lung, spleen, pancreas, muscle and brain) other than the liver of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). We applied a combination method of micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) using a synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam to analyze the tissue samples directly with minimal sample preparation. By this method, many accumulation points for Hg and Se on a micron scale were found in thin sections of the spleen and liver tissue and consequently, the XRF spectra and the XRD pattern of the hot spots confirmed the presence of tiemannite, HgSe. On the other hand, the insoluble fractions after enzyme digestion of the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions of all tissues were subjected to X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. XAFS analysis confirmed the presence of HgSe in all the tissues examined (liver, kidney, lung, spleen, pancreas, muscle and brain) of the striped dolphin. The presence of HgSe in all the tissues examined suggests that Se would be involved in the detoxification process of Hg in various tissues other than the liver. This contribution seems to be large especially in the liver and spleen but relatively small in the kidney, pancreas and brain, because the proportion of insoluble fraction containing HgSe was lower in these tissues (25 to 46%). This is the first report on the presence of tiemannite HgSe in various tissues of marine mammals. PMID:21468440

  14. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended.

  15. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  16. Correlates between Feeding Ecology and Mercury Levels in Historical and Modern Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype (‘coastal’ or ‘inland’) for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet. PMID:23671561

  17. Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, D.

    1994-12-31

    Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

  18. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for

  19. [Mercury levels in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza indigenous community, Munduruku Reservation, Jacareacanga County, State of Pará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brabo, E D; Santos, E D; Jesus, I M; Mascarenhas, A F; Faial, K F

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated fish consumption and mercury levels in fish consumed by an indigenous community in the State of Pará. Eighty fish samples were collected (barbado, surubim, traíra, tucunaré, piranha, aruanã, caratinga, aracu, mandiá, jandiá, and pacu). Mercury analysis was performed using a Mercury Analyzer HG-3500. Average mercury concentration in carnivorous species was 0.293 (g/g (SD=0.104), while in non-carnivorous species it was 0.112 (g/g (SD=0. 036). Brazilian legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit of 0.5 (g/g for fish consumption. No significant correlation was found between fish length or weight and mercury concentration. Types of fish most frequently consumed by the community were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. Carnivorous species, especially tucunaré and traíra, amongst the most frequently eaten, had higher mercury levels than non-carnivorous species. Frequency of consumption is crucial to assess the risk of mercury contamination in communities who lack alternative food sources. PMID:10409785

  20. A dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary mercury levels: a further assessment of the Casa Pia Children's Dental Amalgam Trial.

    PubMed

    Geier, D A; Carmody, T; Kern, J K; King, P G; Geier, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Dental amalgams are a commonly used dental restorative material, and amalgams are about 50% mercury (Hg). In our study, urinary Hg levels was examined in children of age 8-18 years, with and without dental amalgam fillings, from a completed clinical trial (parent study) that was designed to evaluate the potential health consequences of prolonged exposure to Hg from dental amalgam fillings. Our study was designed to determine whether there was a significant dose-dependent correlation between increasing Hg exposure from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels. Hg exposure depends on the size and number of teeth with dental amalgams. Overall, consistent with the results observed in the parent study, there was a statistically significant dose-dependent correlation between cumulative exposure to Hg from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels, after covariate adjustment. Further, it was observed that urinary Hg levels increased by 18% to 52% among 8 to 18 year old individuals, respectively, with an average exposure to amalgams, in comparison to study subjects with no exposure to amalgams. The results of our study suggest that dental amalgams contribute to ongoing Hg exposure in a dose-dependent fashion.

  1. Differential effects of cobalt and mercury on lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takashige; Hanao, Norihide; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Metals and metalloid species are involved in homeostasis in energy systems such as glucose metabolism. Enlarged adipocytes are one of the most important causes of obesity-associated diseases. In this study, we studied the possibility that various metals, namely, CoCl(2), HgCl(2), NaAsO(2) and MnCl(2) pose risk to or have beneficial effects on white adipose tissue (WAT). Exposure to the four metals resulted in decreases in WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without changes in liver weight, suggesting that the size and function of adipocytes are sensitive to metals. Repeated administration of CoCl(2) significantly increased serum leptin, adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and normalized glucose level and adipose cell size in mice fed HFD. In contrast, HgCl(2) treatment significantly decreased serum leptin level with the down-regulation of leptin mRNA expression in WAT and a reduction in adipocyte size. Next, we tried to investigate possible factors that affect adipocyte size. Repeated exposure to HgCl(2) significantly decreased the expression levels of factors upon the regulation of energy such as the PPARα and PPARγ mRNA expression levels in adipocytes, whereas CoCl(2) had little effect on those genes expressions compared with that in the case of the mice fed HFD with a vehicle. In addition, repeated administration of CoCl(2) enhanced AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, skeletal muscle and WAT; HgCl(2) treatment also enhanced AMPK activation in the liver. Thus, both Co and Hg reduced WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes, possibly mediated by AMKP activation in the mice fed HFD. However, inorganic cobalt may have a preventive role in obesity-related diseases through increased leptin, adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas inorganic mercury may accelerate the development of such diseases. These results may lead to the development of new approaches to

  2. Ecological and physiological parameters of mercury and cesium-137 accumulation in the raccoon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Raccoons from 4 regions in the southeastern Coastal Plain were evaluated for mercury content. Mercury content of hair when used as an indicator of total body mercury content was significantly different among 3 of the 4 areas: Okefenokee Swamp, Eglin Air Force Base, and Sapelo Island on the Georgia Coast. Raccoons from Echols County Georgia were not significantly different from those of the Okefenokee. Mercury in the liver and kidney was significantly different between Okefenokee and Sapelo. There was a strong correlation between the age of the raccoon and the mercury in hair, with older animals having higher concentrations. This relationship was also valid for most other tissues. There was evidence that mercury content in some tissues was correlated with the season and the body condition of the raccoon. Mercury was not transferred through the placenta to the fetal raccoons. There was a strong relationship of mercury content to raccoon behavioral characteristics. Raccoon body weight was slightly different between the areas studied. Cesium-137 values in raccoons were significantly different between the Okefenokee and Sapelo Island. Cesium-137 content was correlated with raccoon age, body weight, and mercury content. Generally non-detectable levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCB were found in Okefenokee raccoons. Mercury concentrations in crayfish were generally low but probably of importance in the raccoon food chain. The biological half life of mercury in brain, gonad, pancreas, spleen, heart, and lung was approximately 52 days. The half-life of mercury in muscle was 35 days. Mercury content of hair, liver, and kidney decreased at very slow rates, with biological half lives of 229, 108, and 138 days. This was probably due to the role of these tissues in clearance of mercury from the body, and to the molting pattern of raccoon hair.

  3. Effects of coadministered sodium selenite on short-term distribution on methyl mercury in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.J.; Smith, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received iv injections of 1 ..mu..mole of methyl mercury/kg alone or coadministered with 5 ..mu..mole of sodium selenite/kg. Tissue concentrations of methyl mercury were determined at 5, 20, and 60 min after treatment. Selenite treatment produced a significant increase in cerebral methyl mercury concentrations and a significant decrease in kidney methyl mercury concentrations at all time points. The concentration of methyl mercury in liver was significantly increased by selenite coadministration at 5 and 20 min but at 60 min after injection the concentration was not significantly different from that found in rats receiving methyl mercury alone. Selenite treatment also significantly lowered blood methyl mercury concentrations at all time points. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of methyl mercury in erythrocytes at 5, 20, and 60 min. Plasma methyl mercury levels at 5 min postinjection were slightly higher in selenite-treated rats but were significantly lower in treated animals at 20 and 60 min. Treatment of rats with selenite did not specifically alter the extent of methyl mercury binding to glutathione in the 108,000 g supernatant of cerebrum of in erythrocyte hemolysates. In rats receiving either methyl mercury alone or with selenite, low-molecular-weight methyl mercury complexes could not be detected in plasma 5 min after iv injection.

  4. DIETARY METHYL MERCURY EXPOSURE IN AMERICAN KESTRELS; PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic mercury emissions have increased atmospheric mercury levels about threefold since the advent of industrial activity. Atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury in the environment hence mercury contamination has increased in similar fashion. Methyl mercu...

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury levels in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in British Columbia, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.; Langelier, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Liver samples from 70 bald eagles found dead or dying in British Columbia between 1988 and 1993 were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury levels. A subset of 11 eagles found around the Strait of Georgia, an area of known pulp mill pollution, in summer (and therefore presumably resident birds) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Levels of DDE and PCBs ranged from less than 1 mg/kg to 190 and 65 mg/kg respectively. Levels of other organochlorines were generally less than 1 mg/kg, with the exception of some chlordane-related compounds which were occasionally over 2 mg/kg. All birds analyzed for PCDDs/PCDFs contained detectable levels of the major 2,378-substituted isomers. Some birds had extremely high levels, one eagle collected near a kraft pulp mill site contained: 400 ng/kg 2378-TCDD, 1400 ng/kg 12378-PnCDD and 4400 ng/kg 123678-HxCDD. All but two eagles had > 1 mg/kg dry wt. of mercury in liver; most contained less than 1 0 mg/kg d.w. but one bird had 130 mg/kg, a level of toxicological concern. All carcasses were autopsied and cause of death determined wherever possible. The relationship between cause of death and sublethal exposure to OCs and Hg is analyzed and discussed.

  6. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    PubMed

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  7. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    PubMed

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  8. MERCURY DEPOSITION AND LAKE QUALITY TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed factors influence the differing trends in mercury residue levels. Fish mercury concentrations show positive correlations with water color, methylmercury concentrations, and plankton mercury, and negative correlations with pH and alkalinity.

  9. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Nyland, Jennifer F.; Silva, Ines A.; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of autoantibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (anti-nuclear autoantibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (anti-nucleolar autoantibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well-controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socioeconomic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold-miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  10. Multiscale Model Predicts Tissue-Level Failure From Collagen Fiber-Level Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Mohammad F.; Sander, Edward A.; Barocas, Victor H.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive tissue-level forces communicated to the microstructure and extracellular matrix of soft tissues can lead to damage and failure through poorly understood physical processes that are multiscale in nature. In this work, we propose a multiscale mechanical model for the failure of collagenous soft tissues that incorporates spatial heterogeneity in the microstructure and links the failure of discrete collagen fibers to the material response of the tissue. The model, which is based on experimental failure data derived from different collagen gel geometries, was able to predict the mechanical response and failure of type I collagen gels, and it demonstrated that a fiber-based rule (at the micrometer scale) for discrete failure can strongly shape the macroscale failure response of the gel (at the millimeter scale). The model may be a useful tool in predicting the macroscale failure conditions for soft tissues and engineered tissue analogs. In addition, the multiscale model provides a framework for the study of failure in complex fiber-based mechanical systems in general. PMID:22938372

  11. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  12. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  13. Mercury in various tissues of three mustelid species and other trace metals in liver of European otter from Eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lodenius, M; Skarén, U; Hellstedt, P; Tulisalo, E

    2014-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were monitored in European otter (Lutra lutra), European polecat (Mustela putorius) and European pine marten (Martes martes) collected in Eastern Finland during the period 1972-2008. Otters mainly eat fish, which is an important reason to monitor the bioaccumulation of mercury in this predator. In this species, the highest concentrations were found in fur followed by liver and kidney, and the mercury concentrations increased with increasing age and body weight. Males showed in general higher concentrations than females of otters. The food of European polecat consists of small mammals, frogs, birds and insects from both aquatic and terrestrial food chains. The mercury concentrations were lower than in otters without significant differences related to body weight or sex. In European pine martens, the concentrations were rather evenly distributed except for two specimens with high concentrations. Also, concentrations of some other metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analysed from liver samples of otter. Possible adverse effects of mercury on the Finnish populations of these mustelids are discussed.

  14. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels. PMID:15757692

  15. High levels of maternally transferred mercury do not affect reproductive output or embryonic survival of northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon).

    PubMed

    Chin, Stephanie Y; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Drewett, David V V; Hopkins, William A

    2013-03-01

    Maternal transfer is an important exposure pathway for contaminants because it can directly influence offspring development. Few studies have examined maternal transfer of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), in snakes, despite their abundance and high trophic position in many ecosystems where Hg is prevalent. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Hg is maternally transferred in northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and to evaluate the effects of maternal Hg on reproduction. The authors captured gravid female watersnakes (n = 31) along the South River in Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, where an extensive Hg-contamination gradient exists. The authors measured maternal tissue and litter Hg concentrations and, following birth, assessed (1) reproductive parameters (i.e., litter size and mass, neonate mass); (2) rates of infertility, death during development, stillbirths, malformations, and runts; and (3) the overall viability of offspring. Mercury concentrations in females were strongly and positively correlated with concentrations in litters, suggesting that N. sipedon maternally transfer Hg in proportion to their tissue residues. Maternal transfer resulted in high concentrations (up to 10.10 mg/kg dry wt total Hg) of Hg in offspring. The authors found little evidence of adverse effects of Hg on these measures of reproductive output and embryonic survival, suggesting that N. sipedon may be more tolerant of Hg than other vertebrate species. Given that this is the first study to examine the effects of maternally transferred contaminants in snakes and that the authors did not measure all reproductive endpoints, further research is needed to better understand factors that influence maternal transfer and associated sublethal effects on offspring.

  16. Mercury Content in Organs and Tissues of Indigenous (Vulpes vulpes L.) and Invasive (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray.) Species of Canids from Areas Near Cherepovets (North-Western Industrial Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Gremyachikh, V A; Poddubnaya, N Y

    2016-10-01

    Trophic and spatial components of ecological niches of two canids native Vulpes vulpes and introduced Nyctereutes procyonoides are overlapping partially in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of mercury in predatory mammals of Canidae family from surroundings of Cherepovets have been determined in liver and kidneys (over 0.50 mg/kg wet weight), with minimal concentrations in brain (<0.2 mg/kg wet weight). The amount of mercury in the same organs of the red fox and raccoon dog is not significantly different. These levels of mercury content are noticeably higher than those in the predators of Canidae family that inhabit territories of Europe lacking the local sources of mercury. At the same time, absolute values of metal quantity are commensurable with the levels registered in predators from the mercury polluted regions of Spain and Poland. PMID:27437948

  17. Studies on activity recovery in some mercury-exposed freshwater fish by using selected weeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastave, S.; Rao, K.S. )

    1989-06-01

    In spite of worldwide concern about mercury contamination in aquatic environment, relatively little effort has been expended on determining the mechanisms involved in bioaccumulation. It has been found that several species of aquatic plants grow in flowing water of polluted rivers and contain higher mercury levels than the associated water phase. The aquatic weed plants absorb and incorporate the dissolved materials (both inorganic and organic compound) into their own body tissues to rapidly and effectively that they are now considered for use in sewage treatment. The present study evaluated the relative efficiencies of five selected weeds, in mercury toxicity removal suggesting possible methods of mercury removal from contaminated aquatic environments.

  18. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-07-01

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 μg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology.

  19. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 µg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology. PMID:24769258

  20. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  1. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    1999-06-01

    transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

  2. Mercury exposure and children's health.

    PubMed

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate

    2010-09-01

    Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic. The development of the child in utero and early in life is at particular risk. Mercury is ubiquitous and persistent. Mercury is a global pollutant, bio-accumulating, mainly through the aquatic food chain, resulting in a serious health hazard for children. This article provides an extensive review of mercury exposure and children's health.

  3. Mecury in Fin Clips and Scales as Assessment Methods for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Red Drum and Snook

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-lethal techniques for assessing total mercury concentrations in fish are desired because they minimize impacts on fish populations and allow trends in Hg accumulation to be assessed through repeated sampling of individual fish. This study developed relationships of Hg concent...

  4. Historical contamination of mercury in the Florida panther (Felix concolor cori) and its prey

    SciTech Connect

    Zillioux, E.J.; Newman, J.R.; Rich, E.R.; Robertson, W.B. Jr.; Atkeson, T.D.; Whitten, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in the Florida panther, a top carnivore of the Everglades. Similarly high levels have been found in other mammals, birds and fish from the Everglades and other parts of south Florida. The principal route of mercury contamination in the panther is through the aquatic food web. The time period and the source or sources of this contamination are not known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the historical contamination of mercury in the Florida panther and other wildlife species by (1) determining whether mercury contamination has changed over the past century and (2), if change has occurred, to investigate possible correlations between this historical record (i.e., mercury content in hair and feathers) and anthropogenic activities involving mercury in Florida. In addition to the Florida panther, twenty bioindicator species have been identified for tissue sampling and analysis from both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Specimens from the 1900s to the present day have been collected and analyzed and reflect periods of generally different anthropogenic activities potentially contributing to mercury contamination in south Florida. The mercury content in some museum samples (e.g., late 1940s) is similar to present day high values. The implications of this historical contamination is discussed in light of man`s activities over the past 100 years and current spacial patterns of mercury concentrations in fish tissue.

  5. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  6. Assessing the Influences of Mercury Bioaccumulation and Bioavailability in Everglades Food Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Bemis, B. E.

    2005-05-01

    Eastern mosquitofish are an important sentinel species used to monitor mercury contamination of the aquatic ecosystem in the Everglades. Like other freshwater fish, the primary route of mercury uptake into mosquitofish tissues is through diet as bioavailable methylmercury. Yet, it is unclear whether variations in mosquitofish mercury observed across the Everglades are due primarily to differences in bioaccumulation (i.e., increase of mercury at higher trophic levels) or abundance of methylmercury available to the food web base. We use isotopic methods to investigate the importance of these two controls on mosquitofish mercury at the landscape scale. As part of the USEPA REMAP project, mosquitofish, periphyton, and sediments were collected during September 1996 from over one hundred sites throughout the Everglades and analyzed for mercury concentration and many other parameters. The USGS analyzed splits of the samples for d15N, d13C, and d34S. Mosquitofish were analyzed as composites of 5-10 fish and periphyton and 0-5 cm sediment samples were analyzed in bulk. Tissue d15N is widely used to estimate the relative trophic positions of organisms in a food web, and should correlate positively with tissue mercury if bioaccumulation is an important control on mosquitofish mercury concentration. Tissue d34S values potentially indicate the extent of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sediments, a process used by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) during conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to bioavailable methylmercury. Because this process increases the d34S value of remaining sulfate (assimilated by the food web base), mosquitofish d34S should show positive correlations with SRB activity, methylmercury production, and mosquitofish mercury concentrations. Mosquitofish and periphyton isotopes are significantly correlated (d15N-Mosq vs. d15N-Peri, d34S-Mosq vs. d34S-Peri), indicating that a component of the bulk periphyton analyzed in this study is part of the mosquitofish food web

  7. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  8. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  9. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  10. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. PMID:25829055

  11. Monitoring plan for mercury in fish tissue and water from the Boise River, Snake River, and Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2013-01-01

    The methylmercury criterion adopted as a water-quality standard in the State of Idaho is a concentration in fish tissue rather than a concentration in water. A plan for monitoring mercury in fish tissue and water was developed to evaluate whether fish in the Boise River, Idaho, upstream and downstream of wastewater-treatment plant discharges, meet the methylmercury water-quality criterion. Monitoring also will be conducted at sites on the Snake River, upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Boise River, and in Brownlee Reservoir, which lies along the border between Idaho and Oregon. Descriptions of standard procedures for collecting and processing samples and quality assurance steps are included. This monitoring plan is intended to provide a framework for cooperative methylmercury sampling in the lower Boise River basin.

  12. Multiple spiking species-specific isotope dilution analysis by molecular mass spectrometry: simultaneous determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Angel; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Centineo, Giuseppe; Roig-Navarro, Antoni Francesc; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2010-04-01

    analysis methodologies using widespread GC(EI)MS instrumentation are proposed here for the routine analysis of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in fish samples. The estimated method detection limits were below 10 ng g(-1) for both mercury species. Precision was evaluated for the concentrations present in the certified reference materials (CRMs) which vary from 0.1 to 5 microg g(-1), achieving values of coefficients of variation ranging from 7% to 2%. The concentrations obtained in both CRMs analyzed were in excellent agreement with the certified values, demonstrating the accuracy of the method at these concentration levels.

  13. Multiple spiking species-specific isotope dilution analysis by molecular mass spectrometry: simultaneous determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Angel; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; Centineo, Giuseppe; Roig-Navarro, Antoni Francesc; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2010-04-01

    analysis methodologies using widespread GC(EI)MS instrumentation are proposed here for the routine analysis of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in fish samples. The estimated method detection limits were below 10 ng g(-1) for both mercury species. Precision was evaluated for the concentrations present in the certified reference materials (CRMs) which vary from 0.1 to 5 microg g(-1), achieving values of coefficients of variation ranging from 7% to 2%. The concentrations obtained in both CRMs analyzed were in excellent agreement with the certified values, demonstrating the accuracy of the method at these concentration levels. PMID:20192179

  14. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.

  15. Mercury poisoning in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Fairbrother, Anne; Locke, Louis N.; Hoff, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is an intriguing contaminant because it has complex chemical properties, a wide range of harmful effects, and an infinite persistence in the environment. Die-offs of wildlife due to mercury have occurred in many countries, especially before mercury seed dressings were banned. Today, most mercury problems are associated with aquatic environments. Methylmercury, the most toxic chemical form, attacks many organ systems, but damage to the central nervous system is most severe. Harmful wet-weight concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, in the tissues of adult birds and mammals range from about 8-30 ppm in the brain, 20-60 ppm in liver, 20-60 ppm in kidney, and 15-30 ppm in muscle. Young animals may be more sensitive.

  16. Levels and temporal trends (1983-2003) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury (Hg) in seabird eggs from Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Helgason, Lisa B; Barrett, Rob; Lie, Elisabeth; Polder, Anuschka; Skaare, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2008-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate possible temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), common guillemots (Uria aalge) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) in Northern Norway. Eggs were collected in 1983, 1993 and 2003. Egg concentrations of POPs (PCB congeners IUPAC numbers: CB-28, 74, 66, 101, 99, 110, 149, 118, 153, 105, 141, 138, 187, 128, 156, 157, 180, 170, 194, 206, HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, oxychlordane, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT) and mercury were quantified. Generally, POP levels decreased between 1983 and 2003 in all species. No significant temporal trend in mercury levels was found between 1983 and 2003. PMID:18262696

  17. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Information about total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in water samples and mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples was summarized for 26 watersheds in Indiana that drain most of the land area of the State. Mercury levels were interpreted with information on streamflow, atmospheric mercury deposition, mercury emissions to the atmosphere, mercury in wastewater, and landscape characteristics. Unfiltered total mercury concentrations in 411 water samples from streams in the 26 watersheds had a median of 2.32 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and a maximum of 28.2 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 5.4 percent exceeded the 12-ng/L chronic-aquatic criterion, 59 percent exceeded the 1.8-ng/L Great Lakes human-health criterion, and 72.5 percent exceeded the 1.3-ng/L Great Lakes wildlife criterion. Mercury concentrations in water were related to streamflow, and the highest mercury concentrations were associated with the highest streamflows. On average, 67 percent of total mercury in streams was in a particulate form, and particulate mercury concentrations were significantly lower downstream from dams than at monitoring stations not affected by dams. Methylmercury is the organic fraction of total mercury and is the form of mercury that accumulates and magnifies in food chains. It is made from inorganic mercury by natural processes under specific conditions. Unfiltered methylmercury concentrations in 411 water samples had a median of 0.10 ng/L and a maximum of 0.66 ng/L. Methylmercury was a median 3.7 percent and maximum 64.8 percent of the total mercury in 252 samples for which methylmercury was reported. The percentages of methylmercury in water samples were significantly higher downstream from dams than at other monitoring stations. Nearly all of the total mercury detected in fish tissue was assumed to be methylmercury. Fish-tissue samples from the 26 watersheds had wet-weight mercury concentrations that

  18. Effects of numerical tolerance levels on an atmospheric chemistry model for mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.C.; Burns, D.S.; Shuford, J.

    1996-12-31

    A Box Model was developed to investigate the atmospheric oxidation processes of mercury in the environment. Previous results indicated the most important influences on the atmospheric concentration of HgO(g) are (i) the flux of HgO(g) volatilization, which is related to the surface medium, extent of contamination, and temperature, and (ii) the presence of Cl{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The numerical solver which has been incorporated into the ORganic CHemistry Integrated Dispersion (ORCHID) model uses the Livermore Solver of Ordinary Differential Equations (LSODE). In the solution of the ODE`s, LSODE uses numerical tolerances. The tolerances effect computer run time, the relative accuracy of ODE calculated species concentrations and whether or not LSODE converges to a solution using this system of equations. The effects of varying these tolerances on the solution of the box model and the ORCHID model will be discussed.

  19. Lifespan mercury accumulation pattern in Liza aurata : Evidence from two southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, S.; Oliveira, H.; Coelho, J. P.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Mercury accumulation throughout the lifespan of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) was analysed in four tissues (muscle, gills, liver and brain) in two southern European coastal ecosystems with distinct mercury contamination. Specimens from four to five age classes were captured in two sampling sites in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay and Mira), a system historically contaminated by industrial mercury, and in one site in the Mondego estuary, assumed as a mercury-free ecosystem. Mercury concentration in all tissues was found to be significantly higher in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay) compared to the Mondego, in accordance with the environmental contamination (water, sediments and suspended particulate matter). Significant differences inside the Ria de Aveiro (between the Mira and Laranjo bay) were only detected in the liver. This tissue registered the highest levels of mercury (ranging from 0.11 to 4.2 μg g -1 ) in all sampling sites, followed by muscle, brain, and gills. In all sampling sites and tissues was denoted a mercury dilution pattern along the lifecycle (except in liver at the Mondego, the reference area where the concentrations are always very low). An exponential trend was found in the metal age variation patterns in Laranjo (the most contaminated area) and a linear trend in the Mira and the Mondego (the least contaminated areas). Organic mercury concentration in muscle generally accounted for over 95% of total mercury concentration, and followed the same accumulation pattern of total mercury. This fish species is of lesser importance in mercury transfer to adjacent coastal areas and although the consumption of fish from Laranjo may present some risk for the humans, this risk decreases with fish age/size.

  20. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with

  1. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  2. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current state of our scientific understanding the mercury cycle tells us that most of the mercury getting into fish comes from atmospheric deposition, but methylation of that mercury in aquatic systems is required for the concentrations in fish to reach harmful levels. We st...

  3. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir.

  4. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir. PMID:27337887

  5. IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T; David Koopman, D

    2009-03-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) consists of two process tanks, the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as a melter feed tank. During SRAT processing, nitric and formic acids are added to the sludge to lower pH, destroy nitrite and carbonate ions, and reduce mercury and manganese. During the SME cycle, glass formers are added, and the batch is concentrated to the final solids target prior to vitrification. During these processes, hydrogen can be produced by catalytic decomposition of excess formic acid. The waste contains silver, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury, but silver and palladium have been shown to be insignificant factors in catalytic hydrogen generation during the DWPF process. A full factorial experimental design was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%, as shown in Table 1. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), three duplicate midpoint runs, and one additional replicate run to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing was used to identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge

  6. Levels of mercury and organohalogen compounds in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) cultured in different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    Contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg), p,p'-DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in akami (leaner meat) and toro (fatty meat) samples from Pacific bluefin tuna cultured in the southern (four locations) and central (three locations) regions of Japan were analyzed. The contamination level of T-Hg in the akami and toro samples from the southern region tended to decrease with an increase in latitude, whereas those of p,p'-DDE and PCBs tended to increase. These spatial trends in contaminants were similar to those reported previously in wild tuna caught off the coast of Japan (Hisamichi et al., in Environ Sci Technol 44:5971-5978, 2010). However, the contamination level of T-Hg in akami and toro samples from one location in the central region was the highest among all seven locations, whereas the contamination level of p,p'-DDE was lower than that from any location studied in the southern region. Thus, contamination levels of T-Hg, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs in the cultured tuna may reflect contamination levels not only in the marine environment but also in prey fish used as bait. PMID:21766244

  7. LONG-TERM CHANGES IN MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH FROM THE MIDDLE SAVANNAH RIVER

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M; Bill Littrell, B

    2007-01-02

    Total mercury levels were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), ''sunfishes'' (Lepomis spp)., and ''catfish'' (primarily Ameiurus spp.) from 1971 to 2004 in the middle reaches of the Savannah River, which drains the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S. Mercury levels were highest in 1971 but declined over the next ten years due to the mitigation of point sources of industrial pollution. Mercury levels began to increase in the 1980s as a possible consequence of mercury inputs from tributaries and associated wetlands where mercury concentrations were significantly elevated in water and fish. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish decreased sharply in 2001-2003 coincident with a severe drought in the Savannah River basin, but returned to previous levels in 2004 with the resumption of normal precipitation. Regression models showed that mercury levels in Savannah River fish changed significantly over time and were affected by river discharge. Despite temporal changes, there was little overall difference in Savannah River fish tissue mercury levels between 1971 and 2004.

  8. Laboratory Protocol for Measuring the Bioaccumulation of Mercury by Earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffy, D.; Nichols, A.; McLaughlin, A.

    2007-12-01

    Protocol was developed for a series of laboratory tests to determine if Canadian earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris) can hyperaccumulate mercury from the soil in which they live. Two batches of 300 hundred worms each were measured for mercury uptake by establishing 3 populations (one control and two of known contamination). Populations were sampled every two weeks. Worm lengths were measured as an indicator of worm age and health. Worm tissue was processed by a modified EPA Method 7470 consisting of freeze drying, vacuum extraction, oxidation and acid extraction of the mercury. Each sample needed 2.000 g dry weight of worm tissue required 5 to 6 worms to be homogenized. Mercury concentration in the extraction fluid was measured by a CETAC M-6100 cold vapor mercury analyzer with an ASX-400 Autosampler having a method detection limit of 0.05 ppb. QA/QC activities such as calibration of instrumentation, spike samples, blank samples, reagent control samples, triplicate samples, and standard samples ensure acurate and precise measurements of mercury levels in tissue samples.

  9. [Effects of Citric Acid on Activation and Methylation of Mercury in the Soils of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges.Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Qin, Cai-qing; Liang, Li; You, Rui; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-citric acid on activation and methylation of mercury in the soil of water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted by extracting and cultivating soil with different concentrations of citric acid. The results showed that after adding citric acid, the total mercury content in leaching solution before reaching peak were higher than that of the control, and increased with the increase of citric acid concentrations. The maximum amount of mercury complexes increased initially and then reached plateaus with the percentage against the total mercury in soil of 1.03%, 1.67%, 1.99%, 2.47%, 2.68%, 2.73% and 2.73% for different citric acid concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mmol · L⁻¹). In addition, concentrations of methylmercury ( MeHg) in soil remained stable in the first 3 hours, and then increased accompanying with the increasing rate rising with the concentration of citric acid ( besides the control group) . This result indicated that citric acid probably could promote the transformation process from inorganic mercury to MeHg in soil. which increased with the concentration of citric acid.

  10. [Effects of Citric Acid on Activation and Methylation of Mercury in the Soils of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges.Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Qin, Cai-qing; Liang, Li; You, Rui; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-citric acid on activation and methylation of mercury in the soil of water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted by extracting and cultivating soil with different concentrations of citric acid. The results showed that after adding citric acid, the total mercury content in leaching solution before reaching peak were higher than that of the control, and increased with the increase of citric acid concentrations. The maximum amount of mercury complexes increased initially and then reached plateaus with the percentage against the total mercury in soil of 1.03%, 1.67%, 1.99%, 2.47%, 2.68%, 2.73% and 2.73% for different citric acid concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mmol · L⁻¹). In addition, concentrations of methylmercury ( MeHg) in soil remained stable in the first 3 hours, and then increased accompanying with the increasing rate rising with the concentration of citric acid ( besides the control group) . This result indicated that citric acid probably could promote the transformation process from inorganic mercury to MeHg in soil. which increased with the concentration of citric acid. PMID:27011985

  11. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Udai; Chu, Ih; Ryan, John J; Feeley, Mark

    2004-01-01

    with behavioral alterations in neonatal mice. When considering the outlier value for PBDE-99 at 229 ng/g, this would result in an estimated PBDE-99 body burden of 46 microg/kg, or a MOS of only 9. However, no toxicokinetics data are available for humans, and the actual margin of safety may be much smaller if based on levels in critical target organs or tissues. PMID:15369322

  13. Have high selenium concentrations in wading birds their origin in mercury?

    PubMed

    Goede, A A; Wolterbeek, H T

    1994-04-29

    The relationship between selenium and mercury in marine waders from the Wadden Sea (known to have high tissue selenium concentrations), was investigated in the framework of the possibility that high mercury concentrations may have induced parallel selenium accumulation to detoxify the mercury. The selenium and mercury concentrations are shown to be negatively correlated in both the liver and kidneys of these birds. In the tissues and red blood cells of oystercatchers, positive correlations between the two elements are found. The atom increment Se/Hg ratio in the pooled oystercatcher tissue and red cell data is 32:1. This ratio greatly exceeds the 1:1 ratio found when selenium is accumulated to detoxify mercury. Furthermore, breeding females are able to excrete mercury independently of selenium from the red blood cells, probably into the eggs; the whole egg mercury concentrations of the local breeding populations are low. From these results it is concluded that the high selenium concentrations in waders do not have their origin in elevated levels of mercury. PMID:8209231

  14. Multiscale mechanobiology: mechanics at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chin-Lin; Harris, Nolan C; Wijeratne, Sithara S; Frey, Eric W; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2013-06-03

    Mechanical force is present in all aspects of living systems. It affects the conformation of molecules, the shape of cells, and the morphology of tissues. All of these are crucial in architecture-dependent biological functions. Nanoscience of advanced materials has provided knowledge and techniques that can be used to understand how mechanical force is involved in biological systems, as well as to open new avenues to tailor-made bio-mimetic materials with desirable properties.In this article, we describe models and show examples of how force is involved in molecular functioning, cell shape patterning, and tissue morphology.

  15. Uptake of mercury by the hair of methylmercury-treated newborn mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chenyang; Lane, A.T.; Clarkson, T.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Human hair has unique advantages in monitoring environmental exposures to methyl-mercury. Using newborn Balb/c mice as a model system, the incorporation of methylmercury into the hair was studied and compared with methylmercury distributions in other tissues. Newborn mice were given intraperitoneal injections of {sup 203}Hg-labeled methylmercury at designated times according to hair growth stages of the mouse. Animals were sacrificed 2 days after dosing. Distribution of mercury in pelt and other tissues was measured. The level of mercury in pelt was found to correlate with hair growth. The amount of mercury in pelt peaked when hair growth was most rapid and the total amount of mercury in pelt was significantly higher than that in other tissues, constituting 40% of the whole body burden. However, when the hair ceased growing, the amount of mercury in pelt dramatically dropped to 4% of whole body burden and mercury concentrations in other tissues except brain were elevated. Autoradiographic studies with tritium-labeled methylmercury demonstrated that methylmercury concentrated in hair follicles in the skin. Within hair follicles and hairs, methylmercury accumulated in regions that are rich in high-sulfur proteins. The uptake of inorganic mercury (administered as HgCl{sub 2}) by pelt was also compared with that of methylmercury. The amount of inorganic mercury found in pelt was less than one-half that of methylmercury in animals with growing hair. Cessation of hair growth did not decrease the inorganic mercury level in pelt to the same extent as in the case of methylmercury.

  16. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish.

  17. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish. PMID:25087497

  18. Phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soils by Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Díez, Sergi

    2015-05-01

    Jatropha curcas plants species were tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity in soils contaminated by different levels of mercury. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels of mercury concentrations in the soil - T0, T1, T5, and T10 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μg Hg per g soil, respectively). The total mercury content absorbed by the different plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) was determined during four months of exposure. The growth behavior, mercury accumulation, translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors were determined. The different tissues in J. curcas can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation Hg as follows: roots>leaves>stems. The highest cumulative absorption of the metal occurred between the second and third month of exposure. Maximum TF was detected during the second month and ranged from 0.79 to 1.04 for the different mercury concentrations. Values of BCF ranged from 0.21 to 1.43. Soils with T1 showed significantly higher BCF (1.43) followed by T10 (1.32) and T5 (0.91), all of them at the fourth month. On the other hand TFs were low (range 0.10-0.26) at the en of the experiment. The maximum reduction of biomass (16.3%) occurred for T10 (10 μg Hg g(-1)). In sum, J. curcas species showed high BCFs and low TFs, and their use could be a promising approach to remediating mercury-contaminated soils.

  19. Phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soils by Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Díez, Sergi

    2015-05-01

    Jatropha curcas plants species were tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity in soils contaminated by different levels of mercury. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels of mercury concentrations in the soil - T0, T1, T5, and T10 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μg Hg per g soil, respectively). The total mercury content absorbed by the different plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) was determined during four months of exposure. The growth behavior, mercury accumulation, translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors were determined. The different tissues in J. curcas can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation Hg as follows: roots>leaves>stems. The highest cumulative absorption of the metal occurred between the second and third month of exposure. Maximum TF was detected during the second month and ranged from 0.79 to 1.04 for the different mercury concentrations. Values of BCF ranged from 0.21 to 1.43. Soils with T1 showed significantly higher BCF (1.43) followed by T10 (1.32) and T5 (0.91), all of them at the fourth month. On the other hand TFs were low (range 0.10-0.26) at the en of the experiment. The maximum reduction of biomass (16.3%) occurred for T10 (10 μg Hg g(-1)). In sum, J. curcas species showed high BCFs and low TFs, and their use could be a promising approach to remediating mercury-contaminated soils. PMID:25655698

  20. INFLUENCE OF A CHLOR-ALKALI SUPERFUND SITE ON MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN PERIPHYTON AND LOW-TROPHIC LEVEL FAUNA

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, NH, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US EPA Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. A study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40x increase, mean±sd: 20.1±24.8 ng g−1 DW) and total mercury (THg, 10–30x increase, mean±sd: 2045±2669 ng g−1 DW) compared to all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7x on average) relative to the reference (THg mean±sd: 33.5±9.33 ng g−1 DW; MeHg mean±sd: 0.52±0.21 ng g−1 DW). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L−1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L−1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2–5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential (MPP) of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g−1 d−1 DW) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g−1 d−1 DW). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration. PMID:25732794

  1. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment Methylmercury Concentrations Downstream of the Historical Black Butte Mercury Mine, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have e...

  2. Levels of mercury and organochlorine compounds and stable isotope ratios in three tuna species taken from different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2010-08-01

    Levels of mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs), such as PCBs and p,p'-DDE, as well as the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) were compared in Pacific bluefin, yellowfin, and albacore tuna taken from the southern, central, and northern regions of Japan according to tuna species and the region of origin. Levels of Hg and OCs as well as the delta 15N value were the highest in the bluefin tuna, reflecting their higher trophic position and longer life span. The average Hg concentrations tended to be higher in specimens taken in the southern region than in the central and northern regions for bluefin tuna and in the southern region than in the central region for yellowfin and albacore tuna, while the levels of OCs tended to be lower in the southern region except for yellowfin tuna. The spatial differences in Hg and OCs levels found in the three species may reflect geographical differences in the contamination of marine environment around Japan. Negative correlations between delta 13C and delta 15N were found in the yellowfin and albacore tuna, probably reflecting the latitudinal effect, whereas a positive correlation was found in the bluefin tuna, probably reflecting a diet shift during wide-range migration.

  3. Low-Level Mercury in Children: Associations with Sleep Duration and Cytokines TNF-α and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; Gabrikova, Elena; Bendinskas, Kestutis; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; MacKenzie, James A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a sizeable literature suggesting that mercury (Hg) exposure affects cytokine levels in humans. In addition to their signaling role in the immune system, some cytokines are also integrally associated with sleep behavior. In this cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured total blood Hg in whole blood, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and objectively measured sleep and activity using actigraphy. Increasing blood Hg was associated with significantly shorter sleep duration and lower levels of TNF-α. IL-6 was not associated with sleep or blood Hg. This study is the first to document an association between total blood Hg and sleep (albeit a small effect), and the first to consider the associations of total blood Hg with cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a pediatric sample. Further research using alternative designs (e.g., time-series) is necessary to determine if there is a causal pathway linking low-level Hg exposure to sleep restriction and reduced cytokines. PMID:25173056

  4. Levels of mercury and organochlorine compounds and stable isotope ratios in three tuna species taken from different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2010-08-01

    Levels of mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs), such as PCBs and p,p'-DDE, as well as the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) were compared in Pacific bluefin, yellowfin, and albacore tuna taken from the southern, central, and northern regions of Japan according to tuna species and the region of origin. Levels of Hg and OCs as well as the delta 15N value were the highest in the bluefin tuna, reflecting their higher trophic position and longer life span. The average Hg concentrations tended to be higher in specimens taken in the southern region than in the central and northern regions for bluefin tuna and in the southern region than in the central region for yellowfin and albacore tuna, while the levels of OCs tended to be lower in the southern region except for yellowfin tuna. The spatial differences in Hg and OCs levels found in the three species may reflect geographical differences in the contamination of marine environment around Japan. Negative correlations between delta 13C and delta 15N were found in the yellowfin and albacore tuna, probably reflecting the latitudinal effect, whereas a positive correlation was found in the bluefin tuna, probably reflecting a diet shift during wide-range migration. PMID:20604561

  5. How do tissues respond to damage at the cellular level? The role of cytokines in irradiated tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The capacity of ionizing radiation to affect tissue function, control tumor growth and elicit pathological sequelae has been attributed in great part to its effects on cellular DNA, which, as the transmitter of genetic information, can both register damage and perpetuate it. Nonetheless, multicellular organisms function as the result of the cooperation of many cell types. What then occurs when individual cells are damaged by ionizing radiation? Is tissue response a sum of cellular effects such as cell death and DNA damage? Or does the tissue respond as a coherent unit to the damage of its parts? In this paper, data in support of the latter model that indicate a role for cytokines, in particular transforming growth factor beta1, as critical components of extracellular signaling pathways that mediate tissue response to radiation will be reviewed. The key to manipulating the consequences of radiation exposure lies in understanding the complex interplay of events initiated at the cellular level, but acting on the tissue.

  6. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to women of childbearing age (WCHA) (16-49 years old, n = 29) and the rest of the population (RP) (n = 23), which were not significantly different. The highest T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue were recorded in the carnivorous fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to non-carnivorous fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to WCHA (2.02-23.54 μg/kg/week) and RP (1.09-24.71 μg/kg/week), which were not significantly different. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between weekly fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). This association was also observed with the number of days per week with fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  7. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; and others

    2014-10-15

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg{sup 2+} than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic mercury.

  8. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bio-indicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans. PMID:19953418

  9. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  10. Assessment of mercury toxicity by the changes in oxygen consumption and ion levels in the freshwater snail, Pila globosa, and the mussel, Lamellidens marginalis

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishna, B.; Radhakrishnaiah, K.; Suresh, A. )

    1991-06-01

    There are many studies on mercury toxicity in freshwater fishes but very few on freshwater molluscs (Wright 1978) though they serve as bio-indicators of metal pollution. A few reports on marine gastropods and bivalves indicated the importance of these animals in metal toxicity studies. Hence, in the present study, the level of tolerance of the freshwater gastropod Pila globosa and of a freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis mercury at lethal and sublethal levels was determined and compared with the rate of whole animal oxygen consumption and the level of sodium, potassium and calcium ions in the hepatopancreas and the foot of these animals. As the period of exposure is one of the important factors in toxicity studies, the level of tolerance was determined at 120 hours of exposure and the other parameters were analyzed at 1, 3 and 5 days in lethal and at 1, 7 and 15 days in sublethal concentrations.

  11. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  12. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  13. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. PMID:26580741

  14. Retrospective study on bone-level and soft-tissue-level cylindrical implants.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Confalone, L; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival rate (SVR - i.e. fixtures still in place at the end of the observation period) and success rate (SCR - i.e. bone resorption around implant neck) of two cylindrical implant systems. Both systems were equipped with a tapered connection, one requiring a bone-level (BL) placement, while the other a soft-tissue-level (STL) placement. In the period between January 1996 and October 2011, a total of 150 implants (76 in females and 74 in males, mean age 60±11 years) were inserted. The mean post-surgical follow-up was 84±47 months. Several parameters were evaluated as potential outcome conditioners: age, gender, diabetes, smoking, periodontitis, type of edentulism, replaced tooth, jaw location (i.e. maxilla or mandible), bone graft, immediate loading, post-extractive, type of prosthesis, implant diameter and length. An SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Only two fixtures were lost, therefore SVR was 98.7%. SCR, expressed through the mean marginal bone loss, was 92%. The mean peri-implant bone loss was 0.121.47 mm for BL implants and 0.041.3 mm for STL implants. None of the studied variables had a statistical significant impact on SVR or SCR. Cylindrical implants are reliable for oral rehabilitation. PMID:27469547

  15. Mercury contamination in bank swallows and double-crested cormorants from the Carson River, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.; Brewer, R.; Peterson, S.C.; Mach, C.

    1995-12-31

    An ecological risk assessment was performed in conjunction with a remedial investigation at the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) in northwestern Nevada. Large quantities of mercury used in the processing of gold and silver during mining operations in the mid to late 1800s are distributed throughout the Carson River ecosystem. Previous investigations indicated elevated levels of mercury in soil, sediment, water, and the aquatic food chain. Bird exposure to mercury was determined by measuring total mercury and monomethyl mercury in blood and feather samples from 15 unfledged double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and in blood, feather, and liver samples from 18 juvenile bank swallows (Riparia riparia) at both the CRMS and uncontaminated background locations. Monomethyl mercury accounted for 90 to 98% of the total mercury in the samples. Total mercury concentrations in bird tissues collected at the CRMS were significantly higher than at background locations. Average total mercury concentrations (wet weight) for the swallow blood, liver, and feather samples collected at the CRMS were 2.63, 3.96, and 2.01 mg/kg, respectively; compared with 0.74, 1,03, and 1.84 mg/kg, respectively at the background area. Average total mercury concentrations for cormorant samples collected at the CRMS were 17.07 mg/kg for blood, and 105.1 1 mg/kg for feathers. Cormorant samples collected at the background location had average total mercury concentrations of 0.49 mg/kg for blood and 8.99 mg/kg for feathers. Results are compared with published residue-effects levels to evaluate avian risks.

  16. Clean conditions for the determination of ultra-low levels of mercury in ice and snow samples.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C P; Moreau, A L; Boutron, C F

    2000-03-01

    Laboratory facilities and methods are presented for the determination of ultra-low levels of mercury (Hg) in ice and snow samples originating from polar ice caps or temperate regions. Special emphasis will be given to the presentation of the clean laboratory and the cleaning procedures. The laboratory is pressurized with air filtered through high efficiency particle filters. This first filtration is not enough to get rid of contamination by Hg in air. Experiments are conducted in a clean bench, especially built for Hg analysis, equipped with both particle filter and activated charcoal filter. It allows to obtain very low levels of atmospheric Hg contamination. Ultrapure water is produced for cleaning all the plastic containers that will be used for ice and snow samples and also for the dilution of the standards. Hg content in laboratory water is about 0.08+/-0.02 pg/g. A Teflon system has been developed for the determination of Hg in ice and snow samples based on Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0) with a SnCl2/HNO3 solution followed by the measurement of gaseous Hg(0) with a Hg analyzer GARDIS 1A+ based on the Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. Blank determination is discussed.

  17. Sensitivity of the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis to mercury exposure--linking endpoints from different biological organization levels.

    PubMed

    Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Novais, Sara C; Santos, Sílvia C; Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Pestana, João L T; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Lemos, Marco F L

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination is a common phenomenon in the marine environment and for this reason it is important to develop cost-effective and relevant tools to assess its toxic effects on a number of different species. To evaluate the possible effects of Hg in the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis, animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of the contaminant in the ionic form for 96 h. After this exposure period, mortality, feeding and flipping behavior, the activity of the biomarkers glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase, the levels of lipid peroxidation and cellular energy allocation were measured. After 96 h of exposure to the highest Hg concentration (≈LC20), there was a significant inhibition of the cholinesterase activity as well as impairment in the flipping behavior and post-exposure feeding of the snails. Cholinesterase inhibition was correlated with the impairment of behavioral responses also caused by exposure to Hg. These endpoints, including the novel flipping test, revealed sensitivity to Hg and might be used as relevant early warning indicators of prospective effects at higher biological organization levels, making these parameters potential tools for environmental risk assessment. The proposed test species showed sensitivity to Hg and proved to be a suitable and resourceful species to be used in ecotoxicological testing to assess effects of other contaminants in marine ecosystems.

  18. Temporal trends (1989–2011) in levels of mercury and other heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egrets nesting in Barnegat Bay, NJ

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-04-15

    There is an abundance of data for levels of metals from a range of species, but relatively few long-term time series from the same location. In this paper I examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from fledgling great egrets (Ardea alba) collected at nesting colonies in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey from 1989 to 2011. The primary objectives were to test the null hypotheses that (1) There were no temporal differences in metal levels in feathers of fledgling great egrets, and (2) Great egrets nesting in different areas of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey) did not differ in metal levels. There were significant yearly variations in levels of all heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egret, but levels decreased significantly from 1989 to 2011 only for lead (1470 ppb to 54.3 ppb), cadmium (277 ppb to 30.5 ppb), and manganese (only since 1996; 2669 ppb to 329 ppb)). Although mercury levels decreased from 2003–2008 (6430 ppb to 1042 ppb), there was no pattern before 2003, and levels increased after 2008 to 2610 ppb in 2011. Lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese and mercury were higher in feathers from great egrets nesting in the northern part of the bay, and selenium was highest in feathers from mid-bay. The lack of a temporal decline in mercury levels in feathers of great egrets is cause for concern, since the high levels in feathers from some years (means as high as 6430 ppb) are in the range associated with adverse effects (5000 ppb for feathers). -- Highlights: ► Metals were monitored in feathers of great egrets from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. ► Levels of cadmium and lead decreased significantly from 1989–2011. ► Mercury levels in feathers from great egrets did not decline from 1989–2011. ► Metal levels were generally higher in great egrets and black-crowned night heron feathers than in snowy egrets.

  19. [Serum lactate level as a indicator of tissue hypoxia in severely ill patients].

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; Schieveld, S J; Brinkert, W

    2000-04-15

    Adequate oxygen supply to the tissues is of vital importance to survive critical illness and trauma. Shock can be defined as an imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen supply. Clinical features of shock, like hypotension, tachycardia, cold clammy skin et cetera, are poorly correlated with presence of tissue hypoxia. A high lactate level is an early sign of tissue hypoxia. In severely ill patients tissue hypoxia is the most important cause of increased lactate levels. Increased blood lactate levels are related to increased mortality. Optimizing oxygen supply by fluid resuscitation is the intervention of first choice. PMID:10812440

  20. Total and organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle of waterbirds from wetlands of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aazami, J; Esmaili-Saria, A; Bahramifar, N; Savabieasfahani, M

    2012-07-01

    We measured and compared total and organic mercury in liver, kidney, and muscle of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and coot (Fulica atra) from the Caspian Sea wetlands in Iran. For the Great Cormorant organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle comprised 82 %, 79 % and 58 % of total mercury. In the mallard same values were 46 %, 54 %, and 64 %. For coot total mercury was: 0.1 ± 0.0, 0.1 ± 0.01, 0.03 ± 0.01 in liver kidney and muscle respectively. We detected no organic mercury. In general older birds that feed on higher trophic levels can accumulate more mercury in their tissues. PMID:22527004

  1. Auto-aggressive metallic mercury injection around the knee joint: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause destructive early and late reactions. Case Presentation Herein we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who developed an obsessive-compulsive disorder causing auto-aggressive behaviour with injection of elemental mercury and several other foreign bodies into the soft tissues around the left knee about 15 years before initial presentation. For clinical examination X-rays and a CT-scan of the affected area were performed. Furthermore, blood was taken to determine the mercury concentration in the blood, which showed a concentration 17-fold higher than recommended. As a consequence, the mercury depots and several foreign bodies were resected marginally. Conclusion Blood levels of mercury will decrease rapidly following surgery, especially in combination with chelating therapy. In case of subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of metallic mercury we recommend marginal or wide excision of all contaminated tissue to prevent migration of mercury and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, prolonged clinical and biochemical monitoring should be performed for several years to screen for chronic intoxication. PMID:22093686

  2. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  3. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    PubMed

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  4. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    PubMed

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials. PMID:18044248

  5. The Empire Knight: Patterns of mercury contamination in sediment and biota at a marine site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.Z.

    1995-12-31

    The Empire Knight, a merchant ship carrying approximately 7.3 metric tons of elemental mercury in its cargo, sank in a storm off the Maine coast in 1 944. Unique attributes of the site include the deep water marine conditions (80 m) and mercury originally in elemental form. Recent evaluations of the site were undertaken to determine environmental risk of the remaining mercury and possible remedial actions. Data collected in 1993 for this risk evaluation included sediment core samples, and a variety of biota samples. Biota were analyzed for total and methylmercury, and the following patterns examined: percent methylmercury, variability between species groups, and spatial patterns related to sediment contamination. Sediment contamination was largely confined to the immediate area near the wreck, with levels decreasing to background within 60 m. Invertebrates within this area had elevated levels of mercury in tissue. Most contamination was in an inorganic form, with percentages of methyl to total mercury below 20%, except for crab and lobster. Most of the residual mercury appears to be largely unavailable to biota, with local invertebrates comprising the main biological receptors. Evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury in higher trophic level organisms was not found, thus mercury did not appear to be a source of contamination beyond the immediate area the wreck.

  6. Methods for the determination of plasma or tissue glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

    2012-01-01

    We present two different methods for determining levels of glutathione in complex biological samples and plasma. The DTNB/GR enzyme recycling method is sensitive and requires no specialized equipment. The HPLC method is particularly useful for situations in which sample amounts are limited. Detailed instructions for performing each method as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed in this chapter.

  7. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40× increase, mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.1 ± 24.8 ng g–1 dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10–30× increase, mean ± SD: 2045 ± 2669 ng g–1 dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 9.33 ng g–1 dry wt; MeHg mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.21 ng g–1 dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L–1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L–1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration.

  8. Predicting mercury in mallard ducklings from mercury in chorioallantoic membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury has been suspected as a cause of impaired reproduction in wild birds, but the confounding effects of other environmental stressors has made it difficult to determine how much mercury in the eggs of these wild species is harmful. Even when a sample egg can be collected from the nest of a wild bird and the mercury concentration in that egg compared to the laboratory-derived thresholds for reproductive impairment, additional information on the mercury levels in other eggs from that nest would be helpful in determining whether harmful levels of mercury were present in the clutch. The measurement of mercury levels in chorioallantoic membranes offers a possible way to estimate how much mercury was in a chick that hatched from an egg, and also in the whole fresh egg itself. While an embryo is developing, wastes are collected in a sac called the chorioallantoic membranes, which often remain inside the eggshell and can be collected for contaminant analysis. We fed methylmercury to captive mallards to generate a broad range of mercury levels in eggs, allowed the eggs to hatch normally, and then compared mercury concentrations in the hatchling versus the chorioallantoic membranes left behind in the eggshell. When the data from eggs laid by mercury- treated females were expressed as common logarithms, a linear equation was created by which the concentration of mercury in a duckling could be predicted from the concentration of mercury in the chorioallantoic membranes from the same egg. Therefore, if it were not possible to collect a sample egg from a clutch of wild bird eggs, the collection of the chorioallantoic membranes could be substituted, and the mercury predicted to be in the chick or whole egg could be compared to the thresholds of mercury that have been shown to cause harm in controlled feeding studies with pheasants, chickens, and mallards.

  9. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B.

  10. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B. PMID:25981407

  11. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Rudnick, D.; Williams, E.

    2005-01-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. Hepatopancreas concentrations of mercury decline with crab size, which may have important consequences for bio-magnification in food webs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), stature (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), and age (R = 0.073, P = 0.007). However, T-Hg concentrations did not vary according to fish consumption frequency. Subjective health survey showed no Hg-related signs or symptoms within studied sample. However, studies are necessary to detect neurological damage linked to the metal. Changing technologies to Hg-free mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers. PMID:21476008

  13. Mercury speciation in piscivorous fish from mining-impacted reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Arai, Y.; Topping, B.R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    Guadalupe Reservoir (GUA), California, and Lahontan Reservoir (LAH), Nevada, U.S. are both affected either directly or indirectly by the legacy of gold and silver mining in the Sierra Nevada during the nineteenth century. Analysis of total mercury in fish from these lentic systems consistently indicate elevated concentrations (>1 ??g??g-1 wet weight; hereinafter, all concentrations are reported as wet weight unless indicated otherwise) well above the U.S. Environmenal Protection Agency's human consumption advisory level for fish (<0.3 ??g??g-1). Replicate X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses on largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass from GUA and LAH were performed to determine predominant chemical species of mercury accumulated by these high-trophic-level piscivores that are exposed to elevated mercury through trophic transfer in mining-impacted lentic systems. Despite distinct differences in mercury source, the proximity of the source, and concentrations of complexing ligands, results of XANES analysis clearly indicated that mercury accumulated in these individual fish from the two reservoirs were dominated by methylmercury cysteine complexes. These findings are consistent with results from commercial fish species inhabiting marine environments which are presumed to include differing mercury sources (e.g., atmospheric, hydrothermal, or benthic). The dominance of methylmercury cysteine complexes in muscle tissues of fish obtained from such contrasting environments and exposure conditions suggests that a generic toxicological model for the consumption of fish could be applicable over a wide range of ecologic settings. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  14. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  15. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katrina L; Guentzel, Jane L

    2010-09-01

    The consumption of fish and shrimp containing omega-3 fatty acids can result in protective health effects including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes. These protective effects may be decreased by the presence of mercury in the muscle tissue of fish and shellfish. Mercury can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems and impede neurological development. The objective of this project was to determine appropriate consumption amounts of selected fish species and shrimp based on mercury levels and recommended intake levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Species that are high in omega-3s and low in mercury include salmon, trout, and shrimp. Species with both high levels of mercury and omega-3 fatty acids include tuna, shark, and halibut, swordfish, and sea bass. PMID:20633905

  16. Levels of prenatal mercury exposure and their relationships to neonatal anthropometry in Wujiang City, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bao-Qiang; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Guo, Jun-Liang; Xu, Jian; Wu, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xin; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yan, Chong-Huai; Lü, Hong-Dao

    2013-11-01

    We determined the levels of prenatal Hg exposure in Wujiang City, located in the southeast of Taihu Lake in China's Jiangsu Province, and analyze the relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg and neonatal anthropometry, including birth weight, body length, and head circumference. From June 2009 to July 2010, a total of 213 mother-infant pairs were enrolled. The geometric means of Hg levels in maternal hair, fetal hair, placentas, and cord blood were 496.76 μg/kg, 233.94 μg/kg, 3.58 μg/kg, and 1.54 μg/L, respectively. The Hg levels detected in our study were significantly lower than those reported by previous studies. In addition, no significant correlations were found between Hg levels in maternal hair, fetal hair, placenta, or cord blood and neonatal anthropometrics. Together, our findings may be important for understanding the effects of prenatal exposure to Hg on newborns' development and have implications concerning the recommended dose for Hg.

  17. Seasonal mercury levels in phytoplankton and their relationship with algal biomass in two dystrophic shield lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, A.E.; Chow-Fraser, P.; Mierle, G.

    1999-03-01

    This study focused on the seasonal dynamics of total Hg in the phytoplankton (living and dead) of two dystrophic shield lakes (Mouse and Ranger). Phytoplankton samples were taken from metalimnetic and hypolimnetic depths in the euphotic zone and were collected and analyzed using ultraclean techniques. In both lakes, phytoplankton Hg (PHYTO-Hg) levels (pg/L) in the metalimnion did not significantly change among dates over the season, although Ranger Lake exhibited significant differences between Hg values measured at the beginning and end of the season. In contrast, PHYTO-Hg significantly increased in the hypolimnia of both lakes by the end of the season. Combined influences of external Hg inputs, remineralization, phytoplankton sedimentation, and increased methylmercury production in the hypolimnia over the season may have contributed to these trends. A highly significant positive relationship existed between PHYTO-Hg levels and whole-water Hg levels, and the mean bioconcentration factor for Hg between the water column and phytoplankton was significantly higher in the hypolimnion compared to the metalimnion for both lakes. In most cases, parameters associated with algal biomass had significant positive correlations with PHYTO-Hg levels. Weight-specific PHYTO-Hg (pg/mg dry weight) varied significantly over the season, and there were interlake differences with respect to season trends. On the basis of these results, the authors recommend that the future sampling regimes include collection of phytoplankton at different limnetic depths through the season to account for spatial and temporal variations. Weight specific Hg levels in phytoplankton could not be explained well by the parameters tested, and the only significant regressions were with parameters reflecting algal biomass. This study provides in situ evidence of Hg accumulation in lake phytoplankton as a function of algal biomass on a seasonal basis and stresses the need to confirm these trends in other lake

  18. Tissue levels of (3(-14)C) coumarin in the rat: distribution and excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Piller, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    The benzo-pyrones (including coumarin) are a very effective therapy for mild thermal oedema and cases of acute and chronic lymphoedema. In this preliminary report the distribution of a single injected dose of coumarin was followed in normal tissues of rats for 100 hours. Comparisons are to be made later with drug levels in thermally injured and lymphoedematous tissues. The resluts show 7-4% of the injected dose to remain in the tissues after 100 h. During this time 30-9% was excreted in the faeces and approximately 47% excreted in the urine. At any given time most of the dose was present in the gut, muscular tissues, skin and liver. For the gut tissues this was 33%, for the muscular tissues 28%, for the skin 18% and for the liver 16%. The highest concentrations per gram of tissue were however in the kidney and liver, representing the two organs of metabolism and excretion of the coumarin. PMID:836764

  19. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  20. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems.

  1. [Hair mercury levels in different occupational groups in a gold mining zone in the north of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Olivero, J; Mendonza, C; Mestre, J

    1995-10-01

    Hair mercury analysis was carried out on a sample of 219 people living in the main gold mining zone of Colombia, 27 inhabitante of Cartagena City being taken as control sample. For data analysis the sample was divided by occupation and the corresponding the hair mercury concentrations (mean +/- SD) were found to be 5.23 +/- 5.78, 2.83 +/- 3.27, 2.4 +/- 2.02 and 1.33 +/- 0.74 micrograms/g for fishermen, miners, people of various other activities and the control sample, respectively. According to variance analysis and the Newman Keuls test, there were significant differences (p < 0.01) between the mercury concentrations for fishermen and those for the other groups. No significant differences were found for hair mercury and sex, non was any correlation with age detected; however, a low positive correlation (R = 0.15, p < 0.01) with the frequency of the consumption of fish was noted. The main symptoms of mercury poinsoning observed in the persons exposed were headache, oral lesions, metalic taste, loss of memory, and irritability. PMID:8731277

  2. Levels of mercury in scalp hair of fishermen and their families from Camara de Lobos-Madeira (Portugal): A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggi, C.; Zino, F.; Duccini, M.; Renzoni, A.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is probably one of the most investigated natural and anthropogenic contaminants, especially in aquatic environments. Among the inorganic forms, elemental mercury (HgO) presents a marked tendency to reach the air as vapor, and in terrestrial systems to bioaccumulate in plant biomass, whereas other inorganic compounds (e.g., mercury sulphide) are characterized by low mobility and bioavailability. These last compounds once in water (and especially at the water-sediment interface) can undergo a process of methylation. Methylmercury (MeHg) is readily bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and leads to a phenomenon of enrichment from lower to higher trophic level. The extensive literature on MeHg and human health shows that the consumption of fish and/or shellfish is the main source of exposure, the contribution from air and water being negligible and mainly related to inorganic forms. A human population consuming large amounts of seafood with high MeHg levels can be considered at risk when consumption exceeds a certain amount. This level has been set by the WHO and other agencies, at 300 {mu}g/week of total mercury (totHg) of which there should be no more than 200 {mu}g as MeHg. The nervous system is the principal target of the effects of MeHg in humans. The most common functions affected are the sensory, visual and auditory functions, together with those of the cerebellum, which is concerned with coordination. As far as prenatal exposure is concerned, the developing central nervous system of humans and animals has been found to be more sensitive to damage from MeHg than the adult nervous system. This preliminary study obtains and examines information about eating habits and general health of a group of fisherman and their families living in a fishing village, at high risk because of the high frequency of seafood in their normal diet. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Mercury and Selenium in a Mining-Affected Watershed of the Rocky Mountain Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, H.

    2011-12-01

    The moderating effect of selenium on mercury toxicity is well established, although mechanisms and environmental implications of this interaction are still a field of intensive research. The Upper Clark Fork River Basin in northwestern Montana offers a suitable field site to test some of the emerging models, as a history of intensive metals mining created sub-watersheds with variable combinations of mercury and selenium sources. To address various levels of the food web, we analyzed a preliminary set of sediments, fish tissues and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) blood samples from various locations throughout the watershed. Sediment mercury concentrations vary between 0.02 and over 10 mg/kg, and selenium in sediments ranges from undetectable to 5 mg/kg in the most contaminated reaches. Mercury levels in fish range from 0.03 to 1.5 mg/kg (wet wt) and are highly dependent on the geographic location, in addition to fish species and size. Mercury concentrations in blood of nestling osprey chicks vary between 97 and 730 μg/L, with the majority of the variability explained by geographic location. Total mercury concentration in sediment can explain some of the variability in fish and ospreys; however, mercury accumulation in these organisms is also affected by factors such as the environmental methylation potential and possibly the sequestration of mercury in selenium compounds that are not prone to biomagnification in the food web. This hypothesis is supported by the geographic distribution of selenium and mercury levels in osprey blood: Relatively high selenium concentrations (~2000 μg/L) are associated with the lowest blood mercury levels, despite relatively high mercury levels in the local sediments (~1 mg/kg). In reaches with the lowest selenium concentrations in osprey blood (430 μg/L), the blood mercury levels are relatively high, despite very low sediment mercury levels. Analysis of this data points toward the role of bioavailable selenium in modifying the fate of

  4. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  5. The potential effectiveness of mercury minerals in decreasing the level of iodine-129 in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Oscarson, D.W.; Miller, H.G.; Watson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury forms sparingly soluble phases with I under certain conditions. Therefore, Hg minerals have been suggested as potential additives to a clay-based buffer material in nuclear fuel waste disposal vault for the selective removal of /sup 129/I from solution. In oxidizing systems containing HgS, clay (bentonite or kaolinite), and either a synthetic groundwater solution (SGW) or deionized, distilled water, it was found that Hg lowers the concentration of I/sup -/ in solution to approx. =10/sup -6/ mol/L. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that Hg/sub 2/I/sub 2/(s) is formed in these systems and is the phase controlling the level of I/sup -/ in solution. At levels below approx. = 10/sup -6/ mol/L, all the I/sup -/ is consumed in the formation of HgI/sup 0//sub 2/(aq) and no solid Hg-I phase can form. Bentonite has only a minor effect on the Hg/I system, and kaolinite has little or no effect. Theoretical calculations of the Hg system indicate that, under oxidizing conditions and when the levels of C1/sup -/ or Br/sup -/ are approx. =1 and 0.01 mol/L, respectively (values typical for deep groundwaters in the Canadian Shield), Hg/sub 2/I/sub 2/(s) is not able to decrease the I/sup -/ activity below approx. = 10/sup -5/ mol/L, because of the greater stability of Hg/sub 2/Cl/sup 2/(s) and Hg/sub 2/Br/sub 2/(s) phases (in the experimental study, Hg/sub 2/I/sub 2/(s) is able to lower the level of I/sup -/ below 10/sup -5/ mol/L because the Cl/sup -/ concentration in the SGW was lower (0.18 mol/L) and there was no Br/sup -/ in the system). Further, Hg-I minerals are not stable under reducing to mildly oxidizing conditions. The maximum level of /sup 129/I in disposal vault in Canada is likely to be much less than 10/sup -3.5/ mol/L. Therefore, Hg can in solution. The results of this study indicate the Hg minerals would not be effective additives to a buffer material in a disposal vault in the Canadian shield for the removal of /sup 129/I from solution.

  6. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    . Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study

  7. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  8. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  9. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  10. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities.

  11. Mercury Exposure and Children’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic. The development of the child in utero and early in life is at particular risk. Mercury is ubiquitous and persistent. Mercury is a global pollutant, bio-accumulating, mainly through the aquatic food chain, resulting in a serious health hazard for children. This article provides an extensive review of mercury exposure and children’s health. PMID:20816346

  12. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.C.; Dimmick, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  13. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R C; Dimmick, R W

    1983-04-01

    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  14. Copper, zinc, and magnesium tissue and serum levels in patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Altintas, A; Vardar, M A; Gönlüsen, F; Atay, Y; Evrüke, C; Arpaci, A; Aridogan, N

    1995-01-01

    Serum and cervical tissue copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 65 women with cervical carcinoma and compared with levels in 30 healthy women. The patients mean serum Cu level (184.8 +/- 12.3 mugr/dl) was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). However, in relation to the control group, the differences in Mg, Zn and Cu levels in cancerous tissues of patients with cervical carcinoma were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between FIGO Stage I and IIA patients according to their serum and tissue concentrations of these trace elements. We concluded that serum and tissue copper, zinc and magnesium determinations have no use in cervical carcinoma management.

  15. Diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria in shrimp ponds with varying mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Mukkata, Kanokwan; Kantachote, Duangporn; Wittayaweerasak, Banjong; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-07-01

    This research aimed to study the diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) and to investigate the effect of Hg concentrations in shrimp ponds on PNSB diversity. Amplification of the pufM gene was detected in 13 and 10 samples of water and sediment collected from 16 shrimp ponds in Southern Thailand. In addition to PNSB, other anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) were also observed; purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) although most of them could not be identified. Among identified groups; AAPB, PSB and PNSB in the samples of water and sediment were 25.71, 11.43 and 8.57%; and 27.78, 11.11 and 22.22%, respectively. In both sample types, Roseobacter denitrificans (AAPB) was the most dominant species followed by Halorhodospira halophila (PSB). In addition two genera, observed most frequently in the sediment samples were a group of PNSB (Rhodovulum kholense, Rhodospirillum centenum and Rhodobium marinum). The UPGMA dendrograms showed 7 and 6 clustered groups in the water and sediment samples, respectively. There was no relationship between the clustered groups and the total Hg (HgT) concentrations in the water and sediment samples used (<0.002-0.03 μg/L and 35.40-391.60 μg/kg dry weight) for studying the biodiversity. It can be concluded that there was no effect of the various Hg levels on the diversity of detected APB species; particularly the PNSB in the shrimp ponds.

  16. Biomagnifications of mercury and methylmercury in tuna and mackerel.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S; Ahmad, I

    2010-12-01

    Seawater may be contaminated by harmful substances, including toxic elements released by human activities. The present study evaluates the total mercury and methylmercury concentrations and their correlations to fish body size in longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel from Chendring, Kuantan, at east coast and Kuala Perlis at west costs of Peninsular Malaysia during May to November 2007. Total mercury and methylmercury in muscle tissue of 69 samples of longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel, ranged from 0.180 to 1.460 μg/g and 0.0.169-0.973 μg/g and 0.251-1.470 μg/g and 0.202-1.352, whereas the methylmercury to total mercury ratio ranged from 70% to 83%, respectively. Samples of both species from the east coast showed higher levels of mercury compared to those from west coast. In all of the locations, significant positive correlations were found between fish body weight and mercury content (R(2) > 0.470). The estimated weekly intake of total mercury and methylmercury from the consumption 66.33 g/week of short-bodied mackerel and 18.34 g/week of longtail tuna (based on local dietry survey) was found to be lower than the maximum limit of 5 and 1.5 μg/kg bodyweight established by FAO/WHO and codex, respectively. PMID:20041345

  17. Mercury accumulation in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a Florida lake.

    PubMed

    Lange, T R; Royals, H E; Connor, L L

    1994-11-01

    Rates of mercury accumulation were examined in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida, to establish methods for fish consumption advisories for the protection of human health. In addition, concentrations were determined in five lower trophic level fish species. Total mercury concentrations in adult largemouth bass muscle tissue ranged from 0.16 to 1.10 micrograms/g (fresh weight) and increased as fish increased in size and age. Whole-body mercury concentrations of 1990 year-class largemouth bass increased from 0.05 microgram/g at 20 mm and to 0.32 microgram/g at 320 mm (age 2). Significant differences were found in the rates of accumulation between sexes for length and weight, but not for age. Therefore, standardized mercury concentrations were determined using bass age to make comparisons among sampling dates. Although there were significant differences in adjusted mean mercury concentrations among two sampling dates, mercury content of standard-age bass remained relatively constant over time. Largemouth bass exceed the Florida Health Advisory level for limited consumption of fish (0.50 microgram Hg/g) based on a mean concentration of 0.59 microgram/g for 64 bass. Advisories based on fish morphological characteristics (i.e., length, weight) or age are not possible for Lake Tohopekaliga due to differences in mercury accumulation in male and female bass. Lower trophic level species of sport fish did not exceed the limited consumption level.

  18. Tissue-Level Mechanical Properties of Bone Contributing to Fracture Risk.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Granke, Mathilde; Singleton, Robert C; Pharr, George M

    2016-08-01

    Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.

  19. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H.

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  20. Got Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, Torin J.; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2010-09-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed by the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may vaporize completely when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. We estimated mercury vapor releases from stowed lamps during missions lasting ≤ 30 days, whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from stowed lamps during missions lasting > 30 days and from operating lamps regardless of mission duration. The toxicity of mercury and its lack of removal have led Johnson Space Center’s Toxicology Group to recommend stringent safety controls and verifications for hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations > 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting ≤ 30 days, or concentrations > 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting > 30 days.

  1. THERMODYNAMIC REACTION CONSTANTS FOR MODELING AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unacceptably high fish tissue mercury residues are responsible for the majority of fish consumption advisories issued in 48 states of the United States of America. Mercury also has emerged as a transboundary contaminant of global concern. Although monomethylmercury is generally...

  2. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in farmed bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and the suitability of using the caudal peduncle muscle tissue as a monitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Marinone, S G; Valdez-Márquez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three regions (cephalic, central, and caudal) of the dorsal and ventral muscle tissue (R1 through R6) and the caudal peduncle muscle tissue (CPMT) of 20 farmed bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were analyzed for mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Region 1 (cephalic-ventral) had significantly lower concentrations of Hg but significantly higher concentrations of Cd than did the other regions. However, average metal concentrations of all regions (R1 through R6) were only 6% lower for Hg and were not significantly different for Cd from those in the CPMT. Therefore, the CPMT was used to monitor the concentrations of these two metals in more than 100 farmed tuna collected from July 2004 to January 2009 under the assumption that the Cd concentrations in the CPMT would be representative of the Cd concentration in the whole body and that the Hg concentrations would be, in the worst case, overestimated by approximately 6%. The Hg and Cd concentrations in these tuna were inversely related to the condition index, i.e., the tuna in better condition had the lowest concentrations of these metals. The mean concentrations in the CPMT of all fish analyzed were 0.31 ± 0.17 μg/g wet weight for Hg and 0.007 ± 0.006 μg/g wet weight for Cd. These concentrations were below the limits established by Mexican regulations for seafood (1.0 and 0.5 μg/g for Hg and Cd, respectively) and Japan (0.4 μg/g for Hg). PMID:22488061

  3. Mercury and Chlorinated Pesticides on the Highest Level of the Food Web as Exemplified by Herring from the Southern Baltic and African Penguins from the Zoo.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Szumiło, Emilia; Kwaśniak, Justyna; Staniszewska, Marta; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Anita; Krause, Izabela

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic birds are often used as a health indicator of the marine ecosystem. African penguins living in the zoo make good research material as they form a link between the marine and the terrestrial ecosystem in terms of xenobiotic circulation. Tests were performed on whole herring-the food of the penguins-as well as on bird muscle, liver, brain, eggs, feathers and guano in order to determine total mercury, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan isomers, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites. In herring and penguin, the tests did not show the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, aldrin and isodrin. It was shown that penguins absorb about 36.8 μg of organochlorine pesticides and 4.6 μg of mercury with their food on a daily basis. Xenobiotics accumulate mostly in the liver, from where they are transported to the muscles and the brain, where the highest bioaccumulation factor is reached by endrin and pp'-DDT. Conceivably, the older the penguin, the higher is the concentration level of pesticides in its liver and brain. Molting was found to be the most effective way of eliminating mercury, dieldrin and methoxychlor from the system. Insecticides, such as DDT and its metabolites, were removed most effectively by females through laying of eggs. The standard four eggs laid within a year may have contained up to 20 % of the total amount of pesticides which had been absorbed with food, but no more than 5 % of mercury. PMID:23687395

  4. Mercury and Chlorinated Pesticides on the Highest Level of the Food Web as Exemplified by Herring from the Southern Baltic and African Penguins from the Zoo.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Szumiło, Emilia; Kwaśniak, Justyna; Staniszewska, Marta; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Anita; Krause, Izabela

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic birds are often used as a health indicator of the marine ecosystem. African penguins living in the zoo make good research material as they form a link between the marine and the terrestrial ecosystem in terms of xenobiotic circulation. Tests were performed on whole herring-the food of the penguins-as well as on bird muscle, liver, brain, eggs, feathers and guano in order to determine total mercury, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan isomers, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites. In herring and penguin, the tests did not show the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, aldrin and isodrin. It was shown that penguins absorb about 36.8 μg of organochlorine pesticides and 4.6 μg of mercury with their food on a daily basis. Xenobiotics accumulate mostly in the liver, from where they are transported to the muscles and the brain, where the highest bioaccumulation factor is reached by endrin and pp'-DDT. Conceivably, the older the penguin, the higher is the concentration level of pesticides in its liver and brain. Molting was found to be the most effective way of eliminating mercury, dieldrin and methoxychlor from the system. Insecticides, such as DDT and its metabolites, were removed most effectively by females through laying of eggs. The standard four eggs laid within a year may have contained up to 20 % of the total amount of pesticides which had been absorbed with food, but no more than 5 % of mercury.

  5. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  6. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  7. Historical and other patterns of monomethyl and inorganic mercury in the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Zillioux, E; Rich, E; Liang, L; Newman, C

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, elevated levels of mercury have been reported in the tissues of the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) from the Florida Everglades. The extent, degree, and length of time of mercury contamination in the Florida panther are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the historical and other patterns of monomethyl and inorganic mercury in the Florida panther by analysis of mercury in panther hair from museum collections. In addition, this study evaluated the effects of preservation of skins on mercury concentrations in hair and the representativeness of museum collections for evaluating historical trends of contamination in the Florida panther. Hair from 42 Florida panther specimens collected from 1896 to 1995 was analyzed for both monomethyl and inorganic mercury. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg) were found in all specimens. Monomethyl mercury in hair from untanned skins was significantly higher than MMHg in hair from tanned skins. For untanned specimens, the mean MMHg concentration in hair was 1.62 +/- 1.87 mug/g (range 0.11 to 6.68 mug/g, n = 16). Monomethyl mercury accounted for 88% of the total mercury in untanned Florida panther hair. No sexual or geographical differences were found. Although MMHg is generally stable in hair, the tanning process appears to reduce the amount of MMHg in hair. In addition, exogenous IHg contamination of the panther hair was found in museum specimens, especially in older specimens. The implication of these and other factors in interpreting results of museum studies is discussed. The presence of MMHg in panther hair since the 1890s indicates long-term and widespread exposure of the Florida panther to mercury. Levels of MMHg are significantly greater in the 1990s than the 1890s. When combined with field studies of mercury in the Florida panther, considerable individual variability is observed, reflecting short-term changes in exposure of individual panthers to mercury. Although

  8. [Effect of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on the Chemical Speciation and Activity of Mercury in the Soils of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    You, Rui; Liang, Li; Qin, Cai-qing; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the effect of low molecular weight organic acids ( LMWOA) on the ability of migration and the species of mercury in the soil of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, citric acid, tartaric acid and oxalic acid were dded into the soil to conduct simulation experiments. The results showed that the percentage of exchangeable mercury increased with the increase of the concentration of citric acid, but the value declined slightly as the concentration of tartaric acid and oxalic acid increased. While all three acids elevated the bioavailability of mercury, which increased with the increase of the concentration of acids. Vhen the concentration of citric acid reached 15 mmol x L(-1), the activation effect was the best. But for oxalic acid and citric acid, 10 mmol x L(-1) was the optimal concentration. In general, the effect of three organic acids on the activation of mercury in the soil followed the trend of citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid. In the soil supplemented with 15 mmol x L(-1) citric acid, the change of mercury pecies was more and more striking with the prolonged incubation, and the conversion did not stop until 14 d, at that time the stomach cid dissolved mercury increased obviously, which was mainly converted from elemental mercury.

  9. [Effect of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on the Chemical Speciation and Activity of Mercury in the Soils of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    You, Rui; Liang, Li; Qin, Cai-qing; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the effect of low molecular weight organic acids ( LMWOA) on the ability of migration and the species of mercury in the soil of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, citric acid, tartaric acid and oxalic acid were dded into the soil to conduct simulation experiments. The results showed that the percentage of exchangeable mercury increased with the increase of the concentration of citric acid, but the value declined slightly as the concentration of tartaric acid and oxalic acid increased. While all three acids elevated the bioavailability of mercury, which increased with the increase of the concentration of acids. Vhen the concentration of citric acid reached 15 mmol x L(-1), the activation effect was the best. But for oxalic acid and citric acid, 10 mmol x L(-1) was the optimal concentration. In general, the effect of three organic acids on the activation of mercury in the soil followed the trend of citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid. In the soil supplemented with 15 mmol x L(-1) citric acid, the change of mercury pecies was more and more striking with the prolonged incubation, and the conversion did not stop until 14 d, at that time the stomach cid dissolved mercury increased obviously, which was mainly converted from elemental mercury. PMID:27078955

  10. Hair as an indicator of endogenous tissue levels of brominated flame retardants in mammals.

    PubMed

    D'Havé, Helga; Covaci, Adrian; Scheirs, Jan; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2005-08-15

    Few data are available on brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial mammalian wildlife. Moreover, the use of hair in nondestructive monitoring of BFRs in mammals or humans has not been investigated. In the present study, concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated biphenyl 153 (BB 153) were analyzed in tissues of the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to investigate relationships between concentrations of BFRs in hair and internal tissues, BFR tissue distribution (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue), and PBDE congener tissue pattern dissimilarities. Liver concentrations of PBDEs and BB 153 were in the ranges 1-1178 and 0-2.5 ng/g of liver wet weight, respectively. PBDEs were predominant in adipose tissue and liver, while accumulation of BB 153 was tissue independent. The less persistent compound BDE 99 was more dominant in hair than in internal tissues. We observed positive relationships between BFR levels in hair and internal tissues for sum PBDEs and BDE 47 (0.37 < r < 0.78). The present study demonstrated that hair is a suitable indicator of PBDE exposure in terrestrial mammals which can be used in nondestructive monitoring schemes.

  11. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) and fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Libya.

    PubMed

    Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety. Hg, Pb and Cd contaminants were monitored in a total of 60 specimens of fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) and popular brands of skipjack and yellowfin (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) canned tuna commercially available in Tripoli, Libya. Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was implemented for determination of total Hg level and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was employed for determination of Cd and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that Hg had the highest concentration level and Cd had the lowest concentration level either in tested canned tuna or fresh little tunny samples. The average concentration of Hg in fresh little tunny samples was 1.185 ± 0.968 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and often exceeded the standard permissible limit. In addition, canned yellowfin tuna had the lowest levels of Cd (0.027 ± 0.026 mg kg(-1) ww), Pb (0.075 ± 0.071) and Hg (0.163 ± 0.122 mg kg(-1) ww). Results of the current surveillance indicated that canned skipjack and yellowfin tuna sold in Tripoli markets show contaminant levels well under the European thresholds adopted for Cd, Pb and Hg. However, consumption of large quantities of Mediterranean little tunny products significantly increases human exposure to the risk of Hg toxicity. PMID:26623379

  12. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) and fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety. Hg, Pb and Cd contaminants were monitored in a total of 60 specimens of fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) and popular brands of skipjack and yellowfin (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) canned tuna commercially available in Tripoli, Libya. Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was implemented for determination of total Hg level and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was employed for determination of Cd and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that Hg had the highest concentration level and Cd had the lowest concentration level either in tested canned tuna or fresh little tunny samples. The average concentration of Hg in fresh little tunny samples was 1.185 ± 0.968 mg kg-1 wet weight (ww) and often exceeded the standard permissible limit. In addition, canned yellowfin tuna had the lowest levels of Cd (0.027 ± 0.026 mg kg-1 ww), Pb (0.075 ± 0.071) and Hg (0.163 ± 0.122 mg kg-1 ww). Results of the current surveillance indicated that canned skipjack and yellowfin tuna sold in Tripoli markets show contaminant levels well under the European thresholds adopted for Cd, Pb and Hg. However, consumption of large quantities of Mediterranean little tunny products significantly increases human exposure to the risk of Hg toxicity. PMID:26623379

  13. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST tracea