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Sample records for titanate piezoelectric ceramics

  1. High performance Aurivillius phase sodium-potassium bismuth titanate lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with lithium and cerium modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jin-Feng

    2006-11-01

    The piezoelectric properties of the lithium and cerium modified A-site vacancies sodium-potassium bismuth titanate (NKBT) lead-free piezoceramics are investigated. The piezoelectric activity of NKBT ceramics is significantly improved by the modification of lithium and cerium. The Curie temperature TC, piezoelectric coefficient d33, and mechanical quality factor Qm for the NKBT ceramics modified with 0.10mol% (LiCe) are found to be 660°C, 25pC/N, and 3135, respectively. The Curie temperature gradually decreases from 675to650°C with the increase of (LiCe) modification. The dielectric spectroscopy shows that all the samples possess stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the (LiCe) modified NKBT-based ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

  2. Elastic constants measured from acoustic wave velocities in barium titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Toshio; Ikegaya, Taiki

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse wave velocities in barium titanate (BT) ceramics sintered at different firing temperatures were measured using an ultrasonic precision thickness gauge with high-frequency pulse generation to evaluate elastic constants, such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. With increasing firing temperature, the longitudinal and transverse wave velocities increased; as a result, Young’s modulus increased because of BT ceramics being mechanically hard. Poisson’s ratio after DC poling, however, was almost independent of the firing temperature. It was confirmed that there was an important factor for generating piezoelectricity regarding changes in Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio after DC poling compared with those before DC poling, that is, lowering Young’s modulus and increasing Poisson’s ratio. Furthermore, the modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus increased with the firing temperature because of the increase in ceramic bulk density. The modulus of rigidity decreased and the bulk modulus increased during DC poling because of domain alignment.

  3. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.E. Jr.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

  4. Effects of porosity on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, An-Kun; Wang, Chang-An; Guo, Rui; Huang, Yong

    2011-04-01

    We report porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics fabricated by tert-butyl alcohol-based gel-casting process which show a very high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient (0.77), high hydrostatic figure of merit (9594×10-15 m2/N), and low acoustic impedance (3.7 Mrayls). We show that the porosity effectively affects the performance of the samples in two ways: (1) a higher porosity simplifies the resonance behavior, leading to more efficient energy transduction; (2) its replacement of active ceramic phase leads to low relative permittivity, high hydrostatic figure of merit, and low acoustic impedance. It was confirmed the properties could be tailored by controlling the porosity.

  5. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  6. Fabrication of Microdevices Using Bulk Ceramics of Lead Zirconate Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Konishi, Takahiro; Ide, Masato; Meng, Zhicong; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2005-09-01

    Piezoelectric microdevices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) bulk ceramics are desired for use in actuators requiring a large driving force. We have designed a fabrication process for microdevices using PZT bulk ceramics together with Si single crystals. The key techniques of the process are the bonding of PZT bulk ceramics to Si single crystals, the thinning of bulk ceramics, and the micromachining of bulk ceramics. PZT ceramics were bonded to Si using a gold thin film as an intermediate layer. The tensile strength of the PZT-Si bonded wafers depended on the PZT poling process. A dicer or a KrF excimer laser was used to cut the PZT ceramics along the designed pattern. A PZT-Si diaphragm was fabricated as an example of a basic structure that can be used in a device such as a piezoelectric micropump.

  7. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  8. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  9. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  10. Electromechanical properties of A-site (LiCe)-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15) piezoelectric ceramics at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    The Aurivillius-type bismuth layer-structured (NaBi)0.46(LiCe)0.04Bi4Ti4O15 (NBT-LiCe) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized using conventional solid-state processing. Phase analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction and microstructural morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric activities were found to be significantly enhanced compared to NBT ceramics, which can be attributed to the lattice distortion and the presence of bismuth vacancies. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of NBT-LiCe ceramics at elevated temperature were investigated in detail. The excellent piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties, coupled with high Curie temperature (Tc=660 °C), demonstrated that the NBT-LiCe ceramics are the promising candidates for high temperature applications.

  11. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber. PMID:22129008

  12. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Shyam, A

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

  13. 0-3 cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongjin; Dong, Biqin

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, study on a new 0-3 type cement-based PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) composities is presented. Using a normal mixing and compacting method, up to 50vol% PZT ceramic powder could be incorporated into cement-based composites. The behaviors of the composites under different polarizing conditions are investigated. And the piezoelectric properties of cement-based PZT composites are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. Moreoever, the impedence spectrum of composites is studied to approve the electromechanical coupling behavior. It shows that cement-based PZT composities have some advantage to the polyer-based PZT composites. There is good potential for application of 0-3 type cement-based piezoelectric composites in civil engineering.

  14. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  15. A study on (K, Na) NbO3 based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics micro speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Renlong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Huan, Yu; Sun, Yiming; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-10-01

    A flat panel micro speaker was fabricated from (K, Na) NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics by a tape casting and cofiring process using Ag-Pd alloys as an inner electrode. The interface between ceramic and electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The acoustic response was characterized by a standard audio test system. We found that the micro speaker with dimensions of 23 × 27 × 0.6 mm3, using three layers of 30 μm thickness KNN-based ceramic, has a high average sound pressure level (SPL) of 87 dB, between 100 Hz-20 kHz under five voltage. This result was even better than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics under the same conditions. The experimental results show that the KNN-based multilayer ceramics could be used as lead free piezoelectric micro speakers.

  16. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of conductive polyethylene oxide-lead titanate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2015-04-01

    Polymer-ceramic composites with pyroelectric sensitivity are presented as promising candidates for sensing applications. Selection of the appropriate ceramic filler and the polymer matrix is one of the key parameters in the development of optimized materials for specific applications. In this work lead-titanate (PT) ceramic particulate is incorporated into a polymer matrix, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with a relatively high electrical conductivity to develop sensitive and at the same time flexible composites. PT particles are dispersed in PEO at varying volume fractions, and composite materials are cast in the form of films to measure their dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. From these data the piezoelectric voltage coefficients as well as pyroelctric figures of merit of the composite films have been determined. In order to determine the effect of electrical conductivity of the polymer matrix on the poling efficiency and the final properties, a poling study has been performed. Improving the electrical conductivity of the polymer phase enhances the poling process significantly. It is found that both the piezoelectric and the pyroelectric figures of merit increase with concentration of PT. PT-PEO composites show superior pyroelectric sensitivity compared to other composites with less conductive polymer matrices.

  17. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-polyethylene oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-11-01

    Polymer-ceramic composites with pyroelectric sensitivity are presented as promising candidates for infrared detection. Selection of the appropriate ceramic filler and the polymer matrix is one of the key parameters in the development of optimized materials for specific applications. In this work lead-titanate (PT) ceramic is incorporated into a flexible polymer matrix, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with relatively high electrical conductivity to develop sensitive and at the same time flexible composites. PT particles are dispersed in PEO at varying volume fractions, and composite materials cast in the form of films for the measurements. The dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties are measured. From these data the piezoelectric voltage coefficients as well as pyroelctric figures of merit of the composite films have been determined and values were compared with that of PT-epoxy composites in order to determine the effect of electrical conductivity of the polymer matrix on the poling efficiency and the final properties. It is found that, in general, both the piezoelectric and the pyroelectric figures of merit increase with concentration of PT; however, it is at the expense of mechanical flexibility of the material. Moreover PT-PEO composites show superior pyroelectric sensitivity compared to PT-Epoxy composites. Improving the electrical conductivity of the polymer phase enhances the poling process significantly.

  18. Microstructural studies of nanocrystalline barium zirconium titanate (BZT) for piezoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Nor Huwaida Janil @; Izzuddin, Izura; Zainuddin, Zalita; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji

    2015-09-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics based on barium titanate (BaTiO3) with substitution of Zr4+ were prepared using sol-gel method. The Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3, (BZT) powders with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 were pressed into pellets and sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h. Focusing on the effect of Zr4+ substitutions into BaTiO3 perovskite system, the phase transition and microstructural properties of BZT ceramics were studied using XRD, SEM and EDX spectroscopy. All X-ray diffractograms were fitted using Pawley refinement model. The XRD diffractograms revealed the progressive phase transition from tetragonal to cubic phase as Zr content increased. The crystallite exhibited decreasing trend and was supported by shrinkage in grain size. The EDX analysis confirmed the successful substitution of Ti4+ with Zr4+ in BaTiO3 crystal.

  19. Investigation of piezoelectric softening mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate using diffraction and property measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Shruti B.

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a well-known piezoelectric ceramic of commercial and scientific importance. Typically, PZT is used in its doped form as doping allows its properties to be tailored for specific applications. Donor doping turns PZT into a "soft" ferroelectric. One of the characteristics of soft ferroelectrics is an increase in their longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient. Softening is currently attributed to an increase in the concentration of lead vacancies and the associated effect on the behavior of ferroelectric domain walls. However, the exact mechanism by which donor doping enhances the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient is still not understood. In this work, the crystallographic response of donor-doped PZT is studied in situ during the application of electric fields in order to deduce the strain mechanisms which contribute to ferroelectric softening. X-ray diffraction from a synchrotron source is employed for this investigation. It was found that the use of different donor dopants results in distinctive, characteristic strain mechanisms that soften PZT. Sm and Nd aid in the softening of PZT solely by enhancing 90° domain wall mobility. However, La and Nb doping results in a material with coexisting ferroelectric phases. It was further found that Nb doping results in at least two additional strain mechanisms including interphase boundary motion and a large strain in the (200) rhombohedral lattice plane. As piezoelectrics are also used in high temperature applications, the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient in soft doped PZT was also investigated. It was found that Sm doping leads to a high temperature (≈300°C) piezoelectric coefficient that is substantially greater than that found in La and Nb-doped PZT. In some cases, the coefficient in Sm-doped PZT is greater than that of La and Nd-doped PZT by a factor of two. Conventionally, the largest piezoelectric coefficient values are obtained in soft doped PZT by using a

  20. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors. PMID:24427875

  1. Enhanced electrical properties in Rb-substituted sodium bismuth titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain Ruth, D. E.; Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.; Sundarakannan, B.

    2016-05-01

    Influence of large ionic radius cation rubidium (Rb) substitution in the A-site of sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) on remnant polarization and dielectric constant is investigated. Substitution of 0.01 mole fraction of Rb in NBT ceramics escalates remnant polarization and dielectric constant coupled with reduction in coercive field and enhanced piezoelectric constant. Spontaneous and remnant polarization of Rb-substituted NBT ceramics is 66.3 and 59.9 µC/cm2 respectively, which is greater than other isovalent substitution cations in NBT that have been reported in the literature. Room-temperature dielectric constant and piezoelectric constant are 704.68 and 88 pC/N successively. Increase in remnant polarization, dielectric constant and piezoelectric constant along with decreased coercive field is attributed to improved mobility of domain reorientation and domain wall motion due to low homogeneous strain and minimum rhombohedral lattice distortion in Rb-substituted NBT ceramics. The present work provides a reproducible preparation of Rb-substituted ceramics to enhance ferroelectric and dielectric properties for use in functional devices which require high reliability.

  2. Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in La-modified PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kour, P.; Pradhan, S. K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sinha, S. K.; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of lanthanum (La) doping on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sample has been investigated. Pb1- x La x Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ceramics with x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10 were prepared by the sol-gel technique. Raman and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy have been employed to understand the structural modification due to ionic size mismatch. Raman spectra show the existence of both rhombohedral and tetragonal crystal symmetries. It also shows the dielectric relaxation with increase in La concentration in the sample. The increase in lattice strain due to La doping increases the remnant polarization and coercive field. The linear piezoelectric coefficient increases with the increase in La concentration. It reveals that La-substituted PZT is a better candidate for piezoelectric sensor applications as compared to that of PZT.

  3. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramic Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.; Dynys, Frederick W.

    2005-01-01

    Active combustion control of spatial and temporal variations in the local fuel-to-air ratio is of considerable interest for suppressing combustion instabilities in lean gas turbine combustors and, thereby, achieving lower NOx levels. The actuator for fuel modulation in gas turbine combustors must meet several requirements: (1) bandwidth capability of 1000 Hz, (2) operating temperature compatible with the fuel temperature, which is in the vicinity of 400 F, (3) stroke of approximately 4 mils (100 m), and (4) force of 300 lb-force. Piezoelectric actuators offer the fastest response time (microsecond time constants) and can generate forces in excess of 2000 lb-force. The state-of-the-art piezoceramic material in industry today is Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, called PZT. This class of piezoelectric ceramic is currently used in diesel fuel injectors and in the development of high-response fuel modulation valves. PZT materials are generally limited to operating temperatures of 250 F, which is 150 F lower than the desired operating temperature for gas turbine combustor fuel-modulation injection valves. Thus, there is a clear need to increase the operating temperature range of piezoceramic devices for active combustion control in gas turbine engines.

  4. Microstructural studies of nanocrystalline barium zirconium titanate (BZT) for piezoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, Nor Huwaida Janil Izzuddin, Izura; Zainuddin, Zalita; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics based on barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) with substitution of Zr{sup 4+} were prepared using sol-gel method. The Ba(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3}, (BZT) powders with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 were pressed into pellets and sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h. Focusing on the effect of Zr{sup 4+} substitutions into BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite system, the phase transition and microstructural properties of BZT ceramics were studied using XRD, SEM and EDX spectroscopy. All X-ray diffractograms were fitted using Pawley refinement model. The XRD diffractograms revealed the progressive phase transition from tetragonal to cubic phase as Zr content increased. The crystallite exhibited decreasing trend and was supported by shrinkage in grain size. The EDX analysis confirmed the successful substitution of Ti{sup 4+} with Zr{sup 4+} in BaTiO3 crystal.

  5. Detection of cancer biomarkers by piezoelectric biosensor using PZT ceramic resonator as the transducer.

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Zou, Lan; Fong, Chi-Chun; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wei, Fan; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

    2013-08-15

    A novel piezoelectric biosensor using lead titanate zirconate (PZT) ceramic resonator as transducer was developed for label-free, cost-effective, and direct detection of cancer biomarkers. We designed a dual sensing scheme where two ceramic resonators were connected in parallel, in which one resonator was used as the sensing unit and the other as the control unit, in order to minimize environment influences including temperature fluctuation and to achieve the required frequency stability for biosensing applications. Detection of selected cancer biomarkers, such as prostate specific antigen (PSA) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) was carried out to evaluate the performance of the biosensor. The device showed high sensitivity (0.25 ng/ml) and fast detection (within 30 min) with small amount of sample (1 μl), which is compatible to that required by clinical measurements. The results also showed that the ceramic resonator-based piezoelectric biosensor platform could be utilized with different chemical interfaces, and the miniaturized size of the ceramic resonators makes it suitable for fabricating sensor arrays for multiplex detection.

  6. Domain evolution in lead-free thin film piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubelman, Meredith Elissa

    Due to environmental and health concerns lead-free piezoelectric systems are currently being evaluated for use as replacements for lead-based ceramics. Sodium Bismuth Titanate, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO 3 (NBT) - based materials offer possible alternatives. NBT is a perovskite-type, ABO3, compound and is ferroelectric at room temperature. It has a relatively high Curie temperature, a large remnant polarization, and a high coercive field at room temperature. NBT can be modified by additives, such as BaTiO3 (BT), to improve its properties further. NBT-xBT was originally reported to have a morphotropic phase boundary which lies at x = 0.06. The structure transforms from rhombohedral for x < 0.06 to tetragonal for x > 0.06. However, recent studies have shown that for some compositions NBT-xBT develop a relaxor phase at room temperature. NBT xBT materials in the compositional range between 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.11have been shown to contain nanodomains embedded in a non-polar cubic matrix. The fluctuations of these nanodomains give rise to the relaxor behavior which in some cases is referred to as "relaxor antiferroelectric". In contrast to ferroelectric materials, in relaxor ferroelectrics thermal fluctuations can cause the poled nanodomains to relax to an unpoled state. It is necessary to understand local structure effects on the piezoelectric response at the grain level in order to develop materials with improved performance. Using Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), this study examines the domain motion within individual grains and domain evolution over time under locally applied electric fields as well as single-point hysteresis loop measurements in thin film NBT and NBT-xBT. These experiments provide an understanding of the domain behavior that cannot be acquired through bulk, macroscopic measurements. Thin films are fabricated using hydrothermal deposition and pulsed laser deposition. The films are highly oriented and exhibit relaxor behavior at room temperature.

  7. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of 10% KF-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishige, Yukikuni; Hiraki, Yuuta; Tsukada, Shinya; Xu, Jun; Morito, Shigekazu; Ohba, Takuya; Walker, Ezekiel Lee; Neogi, Arup

    2010-08-01

    10% KF-doped barium titanate powders, Ba0.9K0.1TiO2.9F0.1, were synthesized through a sol-gel process. The powders, calcined at 650 °C, consist of cubic crystalline particles of ˜70 nm in length; the particle size increases to ˜200 nm as the firing temperature increases to ca. 800 °C, above which F2 begins to evaporate. Dense ceramics were fabricated by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method; the average grain size is ˜2 µm in lengths. The ceramics, well annealed at 1,000 °C in an O2 gas flow, have good dielectric and piezoelectric properties; the piezoelectric d33 value is 230 pC/N at room temperature. At the ferroelectric Curie temperature TC = 47 °C, the dielectric constant and loss tan δ are 10,000 and <5% at 10 kHz, respectively. The Curie-Weiss relation holds in the fully disordered cubic and ordered rhombohedral phases, showing the second order 1:2 relation. Below 10 kHz, large dielectric dispersion caused by a domain-wall motion appears at the temperature range of -50 to 107 °C. Some discussions are made for these dielectric properties of the ceramics.

  8. Experiments to demonstrate piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Jiří

    2013-07-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature change. The direct piezoelectric effect is demonstrated by the electric charge generated from the bending of the piezoelectric ceramic membrane or from the gas igniter. The converse piezoelectric effect is presented in the experiments by the deflection of the bending piezoelectric element (piezoelectric bimorph).

  9. Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties and Tunability of Lead-Free Ceramics Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, M. L. V.; Bhanuprasad, V. V.; James, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium-doped barium titanate Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 lead-free ceramics (hereinafter referred to as BZT) were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the high-energy ball milling technique. Nanosized BZT powders resulted from high-energy ball milling, which in turn enhanced the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A single-phase perovskite structure free from secondary phase peaks was observed for sintered BZT samples, and a relative density of ˜94% of the theoretical density was achieved. The electric-field-induced polarization-current data indicate the ferroelectric nature of the samples. Unipolar strain as high as 0.12% was realized for the ceramics sintered at 1350°C, indicating their potential for use in actuator applications. Very high tunability of >70% for these ceramics is also reported.

  10. Unfolding grain size effects in barium titanate ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Chunlei; Koval, Vladimir; Shi, Baogui; Ye, Haitao; McKinnon, Ruth; Viola, Giuseppe; Yan, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Grain size effects on the physical properties of polycrystalline ferroelectrics have been extensively studied for decades; however there are still major controversies regarding the dependence of the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties on the grain size. Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with different grain sizes were fabricated by either conventional sintering or spark plasma sintering using micro- and nano-sized powders. The results show that the grain size effect on the dielectric permittivity is nearly independent of the sintering method and starting powder used. A peak in the permittivity is observed in all the ceramics with a grain size near 1 μm and can be attributed to a maximum domain wall density and mobility. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 and remnant polarization Pr show diverse grain size effects depending on the particle size of the starting powder and sintering temperature. This suggests that besides domain wall density, other factors such as back fields and point defects, which influence the domain wall mobility, could be responsible for the different grain size dependence observed in the dielectric and piezoelectric/ferroelectric properties. In cases where point defects are not the dominant contributor, the piezoelectric constant d33 and the remnant polarization Pr increase with increasing grain size. PMID:25951408

  11. Unfolding grain size effects in barium titanate ferroelectric ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Chunlei; Koval, Vladimir; Shi, Baogui; Ye, Haitao; McKinnon, Ruth; Viola, Giuseppe; Yan, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Grain size effects on the physical properties of polycrystalline ferroelectrics have been extensively studied for decades; however there are still major controversies regarding the dependence of the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties on the grain size. Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with different grain sizes were fabricated by either conventional sintering or spark plasma sintering using micro- and nano-sized powders. The results show that the grain size effect on the dielectric permittivity is nearly independent of the sintering method and starting powder used. A peak in the permittivity is observed in all the ceramics with a grain size near 1 μm and can be attributed to a maximum domain wall density and mobility. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 and remnant polarization Pr show diverse grain size effects depending on the particle size of the starting powder and sintering temperature. This suggests that besides domain wall density, other factors such as back fields and point defects, which influence the domain wall mobility, could be responsible for the different grain size dependence observed in the dielectric and piezoelectric/ferroelectric properties. In cases where point defects are not the dominant contributor, the piezoelectric constant d33 and the remnant polarization Pr increase with increasing grain size. PMID:25951408

  12. Strontium doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics: study of calcination and sintering process to improve piezo effect.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Muhammad; Shoaib, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Azam

    2011-06-01

    Perovskite crystal structure is found in many ionic solids like CaTiO3, BaTiO3 and Lead Zirconate Titanates (PZT). In this structure off-center position of cations in oxygen octahedral causes polarization and produces direct and indirect piezoelectric responses in ceramic materials that are suitable for many ultrasonic applications. In the present study 9% Sr doped PZT ceramics were prepared and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties measured. X ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of calcined powders demonstrated a decrease in the PbO content during the calcination stage at 850 degrees C. This was counterbalanced by adding excess PbO at the time of preparation of mixtures. Sintering was carried out at 1200 degrees C for 2 hours in lead rich atmosphere. The properties achieved were Dielectric Constant (K) = 1440, Tangent Loss (Tan delta) = 0.0062, Charge Coefficient (d33) = 335 pC/N and density = 7.55 g/cm3. SEM analysis of sintered samples demonstrated that grain size was 2-3 microm with clean grain boundaries and no large size porosity observed. XRD analysis of sintered pellets exhibited that material prepared was free of any precipitated phase usually harmful for the piezo effect.

  13. Residual ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate tunable dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, Lauren M.

    response in these materials. Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics 30°C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient in this temperature range was shown to lead to strain gradient-induced poling, or flexoelectric poling, enhancing the flexoelectric response. Flexoelectric poling was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements upon the removal of the applied strain gradient. Additionally, an induced d33 piezoelectric response was observed in samples after the removal of the applied strain gradient, indicating that the polarization was realigned during flexoelectric measurements. Flexoelectric poling lead to the production of an internal bias of 9 kV/m. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response. In order to investigate the effects of dc electric field induced piezoelectricity, metrology was designed, developed and calibrated for the measurement of the e31,f piezoelectric coefficient as a function of applied electric field and strain. This allowed for direct measurements of the field-induced piezoelectric response for Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (70:30) and Ba 0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 composition on MgO were 83% and 70% respectively, with a dielectric loss of 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz respectively. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity with field to --3.0 C/m2 and --1.5 C/m2 at 110 kV/cm was observed in 60:40 BST on MgO and 70:30 BST on Si. Large and hysteretic piezoelectric and tuning responses were observed in the 70:30 BST thin films on MgO. This was consistent with the irreversible Rayleigh behavior, indicating a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response 40°C above the global

  14. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-08-01

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (<1 kHz) typically characteristic of ambient vibrations. In this context, we introduce vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) coefficients ηS and ηT, based on intrinsic materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in

  15. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-08-28

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (<1 kHz) typically characteristic of ambient vibrations. In this context, we introduce vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) coefficients ηS and ηT, based on intrinsic materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in

  16. KNN–NTK composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T. Kozuka, H.; Kitamura, K.; Yamada, H.; Kurahashi, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.

    2014-10-21

    A (K,Na)NbO₃-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was successfully densified. It exhibited an enhanced electromechanical coupling factor of kₚ=0.52, a piezoelectric constant d₃₃=252 pC/N, and a frequency constant Nₚ=3170 Hz m because of the incorporation of an elaborate secondary phase composed primarily of KTiNbO₅. The ceramic's nominal composition was 0.92K₀.₄₂Na₀.₄₄Ca₀.₀₄Li₀.₀₂Nb₀.₈₅O₃–0.047K₀.₈₅Ti₀.₈₅Nb₁.₁₅O₅–0.023BaZrO₃ –0.0017Co₃O₄–0.002Fe₂O₃–0.005ZnO, abbreviated herein as KNN–NTK composite. The KNN–NTK ceramic exhibited a dense microstructure with few microvoids which significantly degraded its piezoelectric properties. Elemental maps recorded using transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM–EDS) revealed regions of high concentrations of Co and Zn inside the NTK phase. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that a small portion of the NTK phase was converted into K₂(Ti,Nb,Co,Zn)₆O₁₃ or CoZnTiO₄ by a possible reaction between Co and Zn solutes and the NTK phase during a programmed sintering schedule. TEM studies also clarified a distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces. Such an NTK phase filled voids between KNN particles, resulting in an improved chemical stability of the KNN ceramic. The manufacturing process was subsequently scaled to 100 kg per batch for granulated ceramic powder using a spray-drying technique. The properties of the KNN–NTK composite ceramic produced using the scaled-up method were confirmed to be identical to those of the ceramic prepared by conventional solid-state reaction sintering. Consequently, slight changes in the NTK phase composition and the distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces affected the KNN–NTK composite ceramic's piezoelectric characteristics.

  17. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices.

  18. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices. PMID:25004511

  19. Piezoelectric properties of polymer/lead-free ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, M.; Bessaguet, C.; David, C.; Dantras, E.; Lacabanne, C.

    2016-08-01

    Thermoplastic/lead-free piezoelectric ceramic composite have been prepared. Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) has been chosen for its high Curie temperature. Moreover, it could be synthesized with two different morphologies: NaNbO3 nanowires (NN NW's) and NaNbO3 particles (NN P's). The filler has been dispersed in thermoplastic matrices with different dielectric permittivities ?: PA11 ( ? and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) (?. Due to polarization conditions, only ceramic particles are poled. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) has been measured in composites. The higher d33 is recorded in composites based on PA11 (d33 = 6.5 pC.N-1 for 30 vol. % NN NW's). The influence of the NN aspect ratio on PVDF/NN composites has been analysed: the higher d33 (d33 = 2.6 pC.N-1 for 25 vol. %) is recorded in PVDF/NN P's. The major interest of these hybrid lead-free piezoelectric composites is mild poling conditions, ductility and thermal stability of piezoelectric performances.

  20. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1−xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  1. Compact piezoelectric micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Lan, Hua; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The advance of micro/nanotechnology promotes the development of micromotors in recent years. In this article, a compact piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator is proposed. A traveling wave is generated by superposition of bending modes with 90° phase difference excited by d15 inverse piezoelectric effects. The operating principle simplifies the system structure significantly, and provides a miniaturization solution. A research prototype with the size of 0.75× 0.75×1.55 mm is developed. It can produce start-up torque of 0.27μNmand maximum speed of 2760 r/min at 14RMS.

  2. Piezoelectric ceramic assembly tubes for torsional actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulho; Glazounov, Alexandre E.; Flippen, Luther D.; Pattnaik, Amitav; Zhang, Qi Ming; Lewis, David, III

    1999-07-01

    The efforts described here are intended to provide a basis for the utilization of novel piezoelectric actuators in smart materials and structures. The actuator design developed in this study is a segmented, piezoelectric tube, with the individual segments driven in a d15 shear mode. The PZT-5A tubes were cut longitudinally in to an even number of equal slender segments. These slender segments were poled individually along their length using a continuous poling technique developed at NRL. The polarization of the poled segments alternates in direction between adjacent segments. The segments were reassembled with a conductive epoxy so that it serves as both joint and electrode. The assembled actuator tubes were evaluated by applying electric field normal to the polarization direction of the segments, demonstrating proof of concept. These solid state prototype devices were driven to precise angular displacement and torque output. Reliability test, including both fatigue and mechanical loading of the device, were conducted. In conjunction with this effort, numerical computation analyses were performed with respect to structural integrity versus segment joint thickness, and the relative effect of cylindrical versus polygonal configurations. These studies facilitated the successful production of prototypes. Projected actuator outputs based on electromechanical test results are also discussed in terms of requirements for noise and vibration control of helicopter rotor blades.

  3. Deformation in lead zirconate titanate ceramics under large signal electric field loading measured by digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Kamlah, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Digital image correlation, a noncontact and nondestructive method, was employed to monitor the deformation of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics. This method is based on imaging a speckle pattern on the specimen surface during the test and subsequently correlating each image of the deformed pattern to that in the reference state. In our work, both longitudinal and transverse strains were calculated from imaging a bulk sample under a ±2 kV/mm electric field. Compared with linear variable displacement transducer data, the results from this correlation method were validated. At the same time, based on this optical technique, different strain-electric field butterfly loops can be drawn from correspondingly selected regions of interest. Combined with contour plots of strain on the surface of the sample, the deformation of bulk ceramic sample under uniaxial electric field loading without any mechanical constraints is proven to be highly homogenous under macro-observing scale.

  4. Piezoelectric ceramic fibers for active fiber composites: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    The morphology and the free strain performances of three different piezoelectric ceramic fibers used for the manufacture of active fiber composites (AFCs) have been investigated. The morphology of the fibers has a direct influence on the manufacture of the AFCs. Fibers with non-uniform diameters are more difficult to contact with the interdigitated electrodes and can be the cause of irreparable damages in AFCs. An indirect method requiring the use of a simple analytical model is proposed to evaluate the free strain of active fiber composites. This indirect method presents a relatively good agreement with direct free strain measurements performed with strain gages glued on both sides of an AFC. The results show a systematic difference of ca. 20 % between the indirect and the direct methods. However, the indirect method did not permit to see differences of piezoelectric performance between the types of fibers.

  5. Electrical properties of lanthanum doped barium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Vijatovic Petrovic, M.M.; Bobic, J.D.; Ramoska, T.; Banys, J.; Stojanovic, B.D.

    2011-10-15

    Pure and lanthanum doped barium titanate (BT) ceramics were prepared by sintering pellets at 1300 deg. C for 8 h, obtained from nanopowders synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. XRD results showed formation of a tetragonal structure. The presence of dopants changed the tetragonal structure to pseudo-cubic. The polygonal grain size was reduced up to 300 nm with addition of lanthanum as a donor dopant. Determined dielectric properties revealed that lanthanum modified BT ceramics possessed a diffused ferroelectric character in comparison with pure BT that is a classical ferroelectric material. In doped BT phase transition temperatures were shifted to lower temperatures and dielectric constant values were much higher than in pure BT. A modified Currie Weiss law was used to explore the connection between the doping level and degree of diffuseness of phase transitions. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out at different temperatures in order to investigate electrical resistivity of materials and appearance of a PTCR effect. - Highlights: {yields} Pure and lanthanum doped BaTiO{sub 3} were prepared by polymeric precursors method. {yields} Change of structure from tetragonal to pseudo-cubic. {yields} Lanthanum as a donor dopant influenced on change of ferro-para phase transition. {yields} The diffuseness factor indicated the formation of diffuse ferroelectric material. {yields} Lanthanum affected on PTCR effect appearance in BT ceramics.

  6. Converse mode piezoelectric coefficient for lead zirconate titanate thin film with interdigitated electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, N.; Balma, D.; Nigon, R.; Mazzalai, A.; Matloub, R.; Sandu, C. S.; Muralt, P.

    2015-04-01

    The use of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) in conjunction with ferroelectric thin films shows many attractive features for piezoelectric MEMS applications. In this work, growth of {1 0 0}-textured lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films was achieved on insulating MgO buffered, oxidized silicon substrates. IDEs were fabricated by lift-off techniques and cantilevers were formed by dicing. The deflection upon application of a sweeping voltage was measured as large signal response in parallel to the ferroelectric polarization (PV loop). Likewise, the small signal piezoelectric response was measured in parallel to the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement. In this way, a complete picture of the ferroelectric-piezoelectric element was obtained. From the deflection, the in-plane piezoelectric stress in the PZT thin film was derived and, from this, the effective piezoelectric coefficients. For the latter, two types were defined: an engineering type corresponding to the average value along the IDE, which can directly be compared to coefficient of a parallel plate electrode (PPE) capacitor and a second one that approximately yields the idealized coefficient governing between the electrode fingers. The IDE structures were experimentally compared with PPE structures of identical film thickness. The resulting coefficients were of opposite sign, as expected. In spite of a much better polarization loop, the IDE device showed a lower average piezoelectric stress. The estimated peak value between the fingers was about the same as in the PPE device, corresponding to about 20 C m-2. Nevertheless, the result is very promising for cases where compressive piezoelectric stresses are required and for preventing cracking due to large piezoelectric tensile stresses in PPE systems.

  7. Measurement of Micro Vibration of Car by Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Masuyama, Kosuke; Nakamura, Testuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kajiro

    Recently, there are various accidents and crimes related to the car. In some cases, the accidents and the crimes can be prevented if it is possible to detect a human who is in the car. For example, we can prevent a baby who is left in a car under the hot weather from dehydration or death occurred by heat inside disease. In another case, it is estimated that the United States currently has as many as 12 million illegal immigrants. In order to prevent further influx of illegal immigrants, the police are physically searching incoming vehicles at national boundaries aiming at finding those who are hiding inside. However, the physical inspections require much manpower cost and time. An inspection method to see inside the vehicles through X-ray images has also been used for this end. But the cost and the installation places are the problems of the large-scale X-ray system. Proposed in this paper is a piezoelectric ceramic system to handily measure the micro vibrations of motor vehicles. And applying the algorithm of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the existence of human body inside vehicles can be detected. The experiment was carried out using four types of vehicles: a mini car; an auto mobile; a van; and a truck weighing 1.5 tons. As the results, the correct determination ratio was 91.2% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 97.0% under the rear wheels, when the vehicle used for the examination had also been used together with other three types of vehicles to obtain SVM training data. When the vehicle used for the examination had not been used together with the other three to obtain SVM training data, on the other hand, the correct determination ratio was 93.7% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 95.7% under the rear wheels.

  8. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ceramic and Nanocomposite Titanates of Transition Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, Anatoly B.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny A.; Perov, Dmitry V.; Ryabkov, Yury I.; Samoylovich, Mikhail I.; Klescheva, Svetlana M.

    2014-10-01

    Ceramic and nanocomosite samples of the titanates of transition metals have been synthesized and their microwave dielectric properties have been investigated. Frequency and magnetic field dependences of the transmission and reflection coefficients in centimeter and millimeter wavebands were measured. It is established for most of studied ceramic titanates that transmission coefficient increases and reflection coefficient decreases when frequency increases. An absorption maximum has been found for ceramic sample made of Co0.9Fe0.1TiO3. The real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric permittivity were determined from measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients. On the whole, real part of dielectric permittivity of nanocomposite titanates based on an opal matrix is less than for ceramic titanates.

  9. Aligned porous barium titanate/hydroxyapatite composites with high piezoelectric coefficients for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Liangjian; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2014-06-01

    It was proposed that the piezoelectric effect played an important physiological role in bone growth, remodelling and fracture healing. An aligned porous piezoelectric composite scaffold was fabricated by freeze casting hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (HA/BT) suspensions. The highest compressive strength and lowest porosity of 14.5MPa and 57.4% with the best parallelism of the pore channels were achieved in the HA10/BT90 composite. HA30/BT70 and HA10/BT90 composites exhibited piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 1.2 and 2.8pC/N, respectively, both of which were higher than the piezoelectric coefficient of natural bone. Increase of the solid loading of the suspension and solidification velocity led to the improvement of piezoelectric coefficient d33. Meanwhile, double-templates resulted in the coexistence of lamellar pores and aligned macro-pores, exhibiting the ability to produce an oriented long-range ordered architecture. The manipulation flexibility of this method indicated the potential for customized needs in the application of bone substitute. An MTT assay indicated that the obtained scaffolds had no cytotoxic effects on L929 cells.

  10. Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach

    SciTech Connect

    Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E.; Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; Webber, Kyle G.; Reinhard, Christina; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-03-28

    The electric-field-induced strain response mechanism in a polycrystalline ceramic/ceramic composite of relaxor and ferroelectric materials has been studied using in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction. The addition of ferroelectric phase material in the relaxor matrix has produced a system where a small volume fraction behaves independently of the bulk under an applied electric field. Inter- and intra-grain models of the strain mechanism in the composite material consistent with the diffraction data have been proposed. The results show that such ceramic/ceramic composite microstructure has the potential for tailoring properties of future piezoelectric materials over a wider range than is possible in uniform compositions.

  11. Flexoelectric piezoelectric metamaterials based on the bending of ferroelectric ceramic wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Liu, Jiliang; Chu, Mingjin; Chu, Baojin

    2016-08-01

    Conventional piezoelectric ceramics lose their piezoelectric properties near the Curie temperature (Tc), which limits their application at high temperatures. One approach to resolving this issue is to design flexoelectric piezoelectric composites or piezoelectric metamaterials by exploiting the flexoelectric effect of the ferroelectric materials. In this work, an experimental study on two designs of flexoelectric metamaterials is demonstrated. When a ferroelectric ceramic wafer is placed on a metal ring or has a domed shape, which is produced through the diffusion between two pieces of ferroelectric ceramic of different compositions at high temperatures, an apparent piezoelectric response originating from the flexoelectric effect can be measured under a stress. The apparent piezoelectric response of the materials based on the designs can be sustained well above Tc. This study provides an approach to designing materials for high-temperature electromechanical applications.

  12. Enhancing Piezoelectric Performance of CaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics Through Microstructure Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanbei; Zhai, Jiwei

    2012-08-01

    Calcium bismuth niobate (CaBi2Nb2O9, CBN) is a high-Curie-temperature ( T C) piezoelectric material with relatively poor piezoelectric performance. Attempts were made to enhance the piezoelectric and direct-current (DC) resistive properties of CBN ceramics by increasing their density and controlling their microstructural texture, which were achieved by combining the templated grain growth and hot pressing methods. The modified CBN ceramics with 97.5% relative density and 90.5% Lotgering factor had much higher piezoelectric constant ( d 33 = 20 pC/N) than those prepared by the normal sintering process ( d 33 = 6 pC/N). High-temperature alternating-current (AC) impedance spectroscopy of the CBN ceramics was measured by using an impedance/gain-phase analyzer. Their electrical resistivity was approximately 6.5 × 104 Ω cm at 600°C. Therefore, CBN ceramics can be used for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  13. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  14. Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nogami, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho; Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Okada, Nagaya

    2008-04-01

    A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

  15. Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, YongAn; Damadoran, Anoop R; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-08-05

    The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005 Pa) and fast response times (~0.1 ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

  16. Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yongan; Damadoran, Anoop R.; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005 Pa) and fast response times (~0.1 ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

  17. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  18. Structure and properties of sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksel, Elena

    Piezoelectric materials are commonly used in sensor and actuator technologies due to their unique ability to couple electrical and mechanical displacements. Applications of piezoelectric materials range from diesel engine fuel injectors, sonar, ultrasound, and nanopositioners in scanning microscopes. Changing environmental regulations and policies have led to a recent surge in the research of lead-free piezoelectric materials. One such system currently under investigation is sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi0.5 TiO3) or NBT. It has recently been investigated with the addition of chemical modifiers as well as part of various solid solutions with other compounds. However, research into the structure and properties of NBT is still in its infancy. The aim of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the crystal structure and property relationships in NBT. First, the formation of the NBT phase during solid state processing was examined using in situ X-ray diffraction. It was determined that NBT forms through a particle conversion mechanism of the Bi2O 3 particle. The average and local room temperature structure of calcined and sintered NBT were examined using both high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction techniques. It was determined that the room temperature average structure of this material is best modeled using the monoclinic Cc space group rather than the previously accepted rhombohedral R3c space group. A combined high resolution XRD and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement provided refined lattice parameters, atomic positions, and displacement parameters. The departure of the local structure of NBT from the average structure was examined through the Pair Distribution Function analysis. It was determined that Na+ and Bi3+, which share the A-site, have differing bonding environments with their surrounding O2- ions. In order to understand the origin of the piezoelectric depolarization behavior of NBT, crystal

  19. Residual stress development and effect on the piezoelectric performance of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berfield, Thomas A.

    Ferroelectric thin films have higher energy densities, larger strain capabilities and more rapid response times than their bulk counterparts. Typical applications include micro-actuators, micro-sensors and ultrasonic motors for MEMs applications, as well as, nonvolatile computer memories and switching capacitors for integrated circuitry. The electro-mechanical performance of ceramic thin films is greatly influenced by many factors, including grain size, orientation, film thickness, and residual stress level. Residual stresses which arise during the various processing phases of thin film manufacturing can be quite high due to substantial mismatches in substrate-film thermal properties, intrinsic sources (such as grain boundary interactions, etc.), and other external factors. This dissertation examines the relationship between field-induced displacement response and residual stress level for lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films. The film piezoelectric properties are characterized via interferometric measurements for two different loading cases, while the residual stress is determined experimentally from wafer curvature measurements. Additionally two patterning methods, traditional chemical wet-etching and a novel soft lithographic technique, are explored as a means to reduce residual stress within film features. For the soft lithographic technique, film features are created by selective film cracking, a result of poor substrate adhesion promoted by a mediated, self-assembled monolayer. Wafer curvature stress measurements and DIC-based strain measurements of mediated monolayer patterned features reveal that the in-plane stress/strain development is reduced compared to the blanket film case. Critical in-plane strains at crack initiation are also measured using a new digital image correlation technique, in which fluorescent nanoparticles (c.a. 140 nm) provide the speckle pattern. A corresponding increase in the field induced displacements is observed for the film

  20. Some design considerations for small piezo-electrical ceramic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnja, H. A. J.

    1989-07-01

    The design parameters and the characteristics of small omnidirectional transducers, to be applied under water as projectors in the frequency range of about 1 kHz to 100 kHz and as hydrophones from very low frequencies up to again 100kHz are described. The transducers are constructed with piezoelectrical ceramic materials in the shape of hollow spheres, end capped tubes or piston (Tonpilz) elements. The highest source levels are obtained with spherical transducers as single omnidirectional sound sources. If larger arrays of sources are applied the array should be composed of single ended Tonpilz elements. The most sensitive receivers (hydrophones) are obtained with tangentially polarized end-capped tubes.

  1. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  2. Processing of Fine-Scale Piezoelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composites for Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janas, V. F.; Safari, A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research effort at Rutgers is the development of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic/polymer composites with different designs for transducer applications including hydrophones, biomedical imaging, non-destructive testing, and air imaging. In this review, methods for processing both large area and multifunctional ceramic/polymer composites for acoustic transducers were discussed.

  3. Ion Irradiation Damage in Zirconate and Titanate Ceramics for Pu Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Martin W.; Begg, Bruce D.; Finnie, K.; Colella, Michael; Li, H.; McLeod, Terry; Smith, Katherine L.; Zhang, Zhaoming; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effect of ion irradiation on pyrochlore-rich titanate and defect-fluorite zirconate ceramics designed for plutonium immobilisation. Samples, with Ce as an analogue for Pu, were made via oxide routes and consolidated by cold-pressing and sintering. Ion irradiation damage was carried out with 2 MeV Au2+ ions to a fluence of 5 ions nm-2 in the accelerator facilities within the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron and infra-red spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Samples underwent accelerated leach testing at pH 1.75 (nitric acid) at 90°C for 28 days. The zirconate samples were more ion-irradiation damage resistant than the titanate samples, showing little change after ion-irradiation whereas the titanate samples formed an amorphous surface layer ~ 500 nm thick. While all samples had high aqueous durability, the titanate leach rate was ~ 5 times that of the zirconate. The ion-irradiation increased the leach rate of the titanate without impurities by ~ 5 times. The difference in the leach rates between irradiated and unirradiated zirconate samples is small. However, the zirconates were less able to incorporate impurities than the titanate ceramics and required higher sintering temperatures, ~ 1500°C compared to 1350°C for the titanates.

  4. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Performance of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate Subjected to Electric Cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Their responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. Mechanical strain and charge density or polarization loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled to more than 10^8 cycles. Important quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, coercive field have been characterized accordingly under corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement condition also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications to the application of interest have been discussed.

  5. Effect of temperature and loading on output voltage of lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A) piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Z.; Pasha, R. A.

    2016-08-01

    Energy harvesting is the process of acquiring energy from the external sources and then further used to drive any system. Piezoelectric material was operated at various temperature but the characterization of the material mostly performed at room temperature. The depolarization in piezoelectric material occurs when the material is heated to its curie temperature and when mechanical stresses are high to disturb the properties of the material. The aim of this paper is to study the performance of lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A) piezoelectric material under various temperatures and loading conditions. The output voltage of piezoelectric material decreases with increase of temperature. It was found that output voltage from the harvester increases when loading increases while its temperature decreases.

  6. Piezoelectric nonlinearity and frequency dispersion of the direct piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojac, Tadej; Bencan, Andreja; Drazic, Goran; Kosec, Marija; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2012-09-01

    We report on the frequency and stress dependence of the direct piezoelectric d33 coefficient in BiFeO3 ceramics. The measurements reveal considerable piezoelectric nonlinearity, i.e., dependence of d33 on the amplitude of the dynamic stress. The nonlinear response suggests a large irreversible contribution of non-180° domain walls to the piezoelectric response of the ferrite, which, at present measurement conditions, reached a maximum of 38% of the total measured d33. In agreement with this interpretation, both types of non-180° domain walls, characteristic for the rhombohedral BiFeO3, i.e., 71° and 109°, were identified in the poled ceramics using transmission electron microscopy. In support to the link between nonlinearity and non-180° domain-wall contribution, we found a correlation between nonlinearity and processes leading to depinning of domain walls from defects, such as quenching from above the Curie temperature and high-temperature sintering. In addition, the nonlinear piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 showed a frequency dependence that is qualitatively different from that measured in other nonlinear ferroelectric ceramics, such as "soft" (donor-doped) Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), i.e., in the case of the BiFeO3 large nonlinearities were observed only at low field frequencies (<0.1 Hz); possible origins of this dispersion are discussed. Finally, we show that, once released from pinning centers, the domain walls can contribute extensively to the electromechanical response of BiFeO3; in fact, the extrinsic domain-wall contribution is relatively as large as in Pb-based ferroelectric ceramics with morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition, such as PZT. This finding might be important in the search of new lead-free MPB compositions based on BiFeO3 as it suggests that such compositions might also exhibit large extrinsic domain-wall contribution to the piezoelectric response.

  7. Cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites for sensor applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin

    The objectives of this thesis are to develop and apply a new smart composite for the sensing and actuation application of civil engineering. Piezoelectric ceramic powder is incorporated into cement-based composite to achieve the sensing and actuation capability. The research investigates microstructure, polarization and aging, material properties and performance of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites both theoretically and experimentally. A hydrogen bonding is found at the interface of piezoelectric ceramic powder and cement phase by IR (Infrared Ray), XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy). It largely affects the material properties of composites. A simple first order model is introduced to explain the poling mechanism of composites and the dependency of polarization is discussed using electromechanical coupling coefficient kt. The mechanisms acting on the aging effect is explored in detail. Dielectrical, piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites are studied by experiment and theoretical calculation based on modified cube model (n=1) with chemical bonding . A complex circuit model is proposed to explain the unique feature of impedance spectra and the instinct of high-loss of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite. The sensing ability of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite has been evaluated by using step wave, sine wave, and random wave. It shows that the output of the composite can reflects the nature and characteristics of mechanical input. The work in this thesis opens a new direction for the current actuation/sensing technology in civil engineering. The materials and techniques, developed in this work, have a great potential in application of health monitoring of buildings and infrastructures.

  8. Optimization of energy harvesting based on the uniform deformation of piezoelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaoze; Yang, Tongqing; Shu, Fangming

    2016-09-01

    Since the piezoelectric properties were used for energy harvesting, almost all forms of energy harvester needs to be bonded with a mass block to achieve pre-stress. In this article, disc type piezoelectric energy harvester is chosen as the research object and the relationship between mass bonding area and power output is studied. It is found that if the bonding area is changed as curved, which is usually complanate in previous studies, the deformation of the circular piezoelectric ceramic is more uniform and the power output is enhanced. In order to test the change of the deformation, we spray several homocentric annular electrodes on the surface of a piece of bare piezoelectric ceramic and the output of each electrode is tested. Through this optimization method, the power output is enhanced to more than 11mW for a matching load about 24kΩ and a tip mass of 30g at its resonant frequency of 139Hz.

  9. Simulation and calculation of the piezoelectric modulus of a lead zirconate-titanate thin film in a test microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Amelichev, V. V.; Saikin, D. A.; Roshchin, V. M.; Silibin, M. V.

    2010-12-15

    Results of simulation of stresses in the test structure of a silicon beam and analytical calculation of piezoelectric modulus d{sub 31} of a lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film arranged in the region of an elastic element are presented. The characteristics of the sensitive element of acceleration are calculated based on a PZT thin film with an inertial mass made of silicon.

  10. Nanoscale mapping of electromechanical response in ionic conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Daehee; Seo, Hosung; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-08-21

    Electromechanical (EM) response in ion conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions was spatially explored using strain-based atomic force microscopy. Since the sample is composed of two dominant phases of ionic and piezoelectric phases, it allows us to explore two different EM responses of electrically induced ionic response and piezoresponse over the same surface. Furthermore, EM response of the ionic phase, i.e., electrochemical strain, was quantitatively investigated from the comparison with that of the piezoelectric phase, i.e., piezoresponse. These results could provide additional information on the EM properties, including the electrochemical strain at nanoscale.

  11. Study of methods for automated crack inspection of electrically poled piezoelectric ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pin; Hwang, Stephen C.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Burns, George Robert

    2004-06-01

    The goal of this project was to identify a viable, non-destructive methodology for the detection of cracks in electrically poled piezoelectric ceramics used in neutron generator power supply units. The following methods were investigated: Impedance Spectroscopy, Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, Lock-in Thermography, Photo-acoustic Microscopy, and Scanned Vicinal Light. In addition to the exploration of these techniques for crack detection, special consideration was given to the feasibility of integrating these approaches to the Automatic Visual Inspection System (AVIS) that was developed for mapping defects such as chips, pits and voids in piezoelectric ceramic components. Scanned Vicinal Light was shown to be the most effective method of automatically detecting and quantifying cracks in ceramic components. This method is also very effective for crack detection in other translucent ceramics.

  12. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  13. Thickness dependence of structure and piezoelectric properties at nanoscale of polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, E. B.; Lima, E. C.; Bdikin, I. K.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    Lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 (PZT) thin films were deposited by a polymeric chemical method on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates to understand the mechanisms of phase transformations and the effect of film thickness on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties in these films. PZT films pyrolyzed at temperatures higher than 350 °C present a coexistence of pyrochlore and perovskite phases, while only perovskite phase grows in films pyrolyzed at temperatures lower than 300 °C. For pyrochlore-free PZT thin films, a small (100)-orientation tendency near the film-substrate interface was observed. Finally, we demonstrate the existence of a self-polarization effect in the studied PZT thin films. The increase of self-polarization with the film thickness increasing from 200 nm to 710 nm suggests that Schottky barriers and/or mechanical coupling near the film-substrate interface are not primarily responsible for the observed self-polarization effect in our films.

  14. Comparative face-shear piezoelectric properties of soft and hard PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hairong; Li, Faxin

    2015-12-01

    The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode may be the most practical shear mode in piezoelectrics, while theoretically this mode cannot appear in piezoelectric ceramics because of its transversally isotropic symmetry. Recently, we realized piezoelectric coefficient d 36 up to 206pC/N in soft PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering [H. C. Miao and F. X. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 122902 (2015)]. In this work, we further realized the face-shear mode in both hard and soft PZT ceramics including PZT-4 (hard), PZT-51(soft), and PZT-5H (soft) and investigated the electric properties systematically. The resonance methods are derived to measure the d 36 coefficients using both square patches and narrow bar samples, and the obtained values are consistent with that measured by a modified d 33 meter previously. For all samples, the pure d 36 mode can only appear near the resonance frequency, and the coupled d 36 - d 31 mode dominates off resonance. It is found that both the piezoelectric coefficient d 36 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 36 of soft PZT ceramics (PZT-5H and PZT-51) are considerably larger than those of the hard PZT ceramics (PZT-4). The obtained d 36 of 160-275pC/N, k 36 ˜ 0.24, and the mechanical quality factor Q 36 of 60-90 in soft PZT ceramics are comparable with the corresponding properties of the d 31 mode sample. Therefore, the d 36 mode in modified soft PZT ceramics is more promising for industrial applications such as face-shear resonators and shear horizontal wave generators.

  15. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2014-04-24

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1−x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  16. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.05Ti0.95O3 [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  17. Positively charged microporous ceramic membrane for the removal of Titan Yellow through electrostatic adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiuting; Li, Na; Zhu, Mengfu; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Yu; Deng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    To develop a depth filter based on the electrostatic adsorption principle, positively charged microporous ceramic membrane was prepared from a diatomaceous earth ceramic membrane. The internal surface of the highly porous ceramic membrane was coated with uniformly distributed electropositive nano-Y2O3 coating. The dye removal performance was evaluated through pressurized filtration tests using Titan Yellow aqueous solution. It showed that positively charged microporous ceramic membrane exhibited a flow rate of 421L/(m(2)·hr) under the trans-membrane pressure of 0.03bar. Moreover it could effectively remove Titan Yellow with feed concentration of 10mg/L between pH3 to 8. The removal rate increased with the enhancement of the surface charge properties with a maximum rejection of 99.6%. This study provides a new and feasible method of removing organic dyes in wastewater. It is convinced that there will be a broad market for the application of charged ceramic membrane in the field of dye removal or recovery from industry wastewater. PMID:27266317

  18. Optical absorption in ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, C. H.; Land, C. E.

    1984-08-01

    Optical absorption measurements have been performed on unmodified and on ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics using the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique. Bulk absorption coefficients depend on the average grain size of the material while the absorption associated with the ion-damaged layers does not. The damage-induced surface absorptance correlates well with the photosensitivity observed in implanted PLZT devices, supporting earlier models for the enhanced imaging efficiency of the materials.

  19. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    PubMed

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads.

  20. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    PubMed

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads. PMID:22711404

  1. Reliability of Nickel Inner Electrode Lead-Free Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kawada, Shinichiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Nakai, Yoshihiro; Tabata, Toyokazu; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Nada, Kazushige; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The environmental reliability of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3-based multilayer ceramics with nickel inner electrodes was studied. The multilayer specimen with good piezoelectric properties was successfully obtained by adding excess zirconium to a (K,Na)NbO3-based composition. Excess zirconium probably accelerated the solid solution of potassium into the crystal lattice and prevented potassium evaporation. The electric resistivity and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were extremely stable at a high temperature (85 °C), a low temperature (-40 °C), and a high humidity [85 °C/85% relative humidity (RH)]. Their change rates were below 10% in 500 h studies. The stability was also high in the thermal shock (from -40 to 85 °C) test. It is thus concluded that the (K,Na)NbO3-based composition containing excess zirconium is a good candidate material for nickel electrode multilayer ceramics.

  2. TECHNICAL NOTE: Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic sulphoaluminate cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin; Huang, Shifeng; Chang, Jun; Lu, Lingchao; Liu, Futian; Ye, Zengmao; Wang, Shoude

    2005-10-01

    Using cement as the matrix of piezoelectric smart composites can solve the problem of mismatch of smart composites and concrete structure in civil engineering. 0 3 cement based piezoelectric composites were fabricated by a compression technique using PMN and sulphoaluminate cement as raw materials. The influence of the PMN content on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites was investigated. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the composites was discussed in detail. The results indicate that the dielectric constants are almost constant in the temperature range from -30 to 50 °C, which shows excellent dielectric temperature stability. With increasing PMN content, the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites increase. The theoretical values of the dielectric constants show good agreement with the experimental values for the composites.

  3. Realization of face-shear piezoelectric coefficient d36 in PZT ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2015-09-01

    The piezoelectric face-shear ( d36 ) mode may be the most useful shear mode in piezoelectrics, while currently this mode can only exist in single crystals of specific point groups and cut directions. Theoretically, the d36 coefficient vanishes in piezoelectric ceramics because of its transversally isotropic symmetry. In this work, we modified the symmetry of poled PZT ceramics from transversally isotropic to orthogonal through ferroelastic domain switching by applying a high lateral stress along the "2" direction and holding the stress for several hours. After removing the compression, the piezoelectric coefficient d31 is found much larger than d32 . Then, by cutting the compressed sample along the Z x t ±45 ° direction, we realized d36 coefficients up to 206 pC/N , which is measured by using a modified d33 meter. The obtained large d36 coefficients in PZT ceramics could be very promising for face-shear mode resonators and shear horizontal wave generation in nondestructive testing.

  4. Optimizing structure and electrical properties of high-Curie temperature PMN-PHT piezoelectric ceramics via tailoring sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rongfeng; Yin, Ying; Fang, Bijun; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Shuai; Ding, Jianning; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2016-06-01

    Pseudo-ternary high-Curie temperature 0.15Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.4PbHfO3-0.45PbTiO3 (PMN-PHT) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional ceramic processing via the columbite precursor method. The influences of sintering temperature and sintering time on structure and electrical properties of the PMN-PHT ceramics were investigated in order to tailor their performance further. The sintered PMN-PHT ceramics exhibit pure perovskite structure with composition locating at the rhombohedral side around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the PMN-PHT system. The PMN-PHT ceramics sintered at 1260 °C for 2 h exhibit the best dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The high piezoelectric response of the PMN-PHT ceramics is considered as relating to the MPB effect and their dense microstructure obtained via tailoring sintering conditions. The sintered PMN-PHT ceramics exhibit good thermal stability of piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity within the common usage temperatures, indicating that such ceramics are promising candidates for piezoelectric devices at elevated temperatures.

  5. Structural and electrical characteristics of dysprosium-doped barium stannate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shijie; Tan, Tai Aik; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2010-03-15

    Effects of dysprosium (Dy) amphoteric doping on the structural, dielectric and electric properties of barium stannate titanate (BTS) ceramics have been studied. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that all Dy-doped BTS ceramics exhibit cubic perovskite structure until to 1 mol%. Dy doping at the A site shows lower solubility than that at the B site. SEM surface morphologies display that the Dy B site doping is beneficial for the compact and homogeneous grain distribution. The dielectric constant and loss tangent are reduced with increase of the doping levels. Impedance spectroscopy investigation demonstrates that all samples are insulating at room temperature. Doping alters the full resistive regions of pure BTS ceramics to Doped BTS with insulating grain boundaries and semiconducting bulk regions, but the doping contents has little effect on changing the electric structures.

  6. Piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 ceramics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojac, Tadej; Makarovic, Maja; Walker, Julian; Ursic, Hana; Damjanovic, Dragan; Kos, Tomaz

    2016-07-01

    The high Curie temperature (TC ˜ 825 °C) of BiFeO3 has made this material potentially attractive for the development of high-TC piezoelectric ceramics. Despite significant advances in the search of new BiFeO3-based compositions, the piezoelectric behavior of the parent BiFeO3 at elevated temperatures remains unexplored. We present here a systematic analysis of the converse, longitudinal piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 measured in situ as a function of temperature (25-260 °C), driving-field frequency, and amplitude. Earlier studies performed at room temperature revealed that the frequency and field dependence of the longitudinal response of BiFeO3 is dominated by linear and nonlinear piezoelectric Maxwell-Wagner mechanisms, originating from the presence of local conductive paths along domain walls and grain boundaries within the polycrystalline matrix. This study shows that the same mechanisms are responsible for the distinct temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient and phase angle and thus identifies the local electrical conductivity as the key for controlling the temperature dependent piezoelectric response of BiFeO3 and possibly other, more complex BiFeO3-based compositions.

  7. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-05-14

    Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films. PMID:23798771

  8. Considerations for BaTiO3 Ceramics with High Piezoelectric Properties Fabricated by Microwave Sintering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hirofumi; Numamoto, Yoshiki; Tani, Junji; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro

    2008-11-01

    A decrease in the domain size of barium titanate (BaTiO3) improves the piezoelectric constant (d33). Other considerations suggest the high d33 of BaTiO3 may be caused by the enhanced high dielectric constant (ɛ33T/ɛ0) at room temperature due to the size effect. However, we have clarified that even a sample with a low ɛ33T/ɛ0 shows high d33 according to the optimization of microwave sintering conditions. We have verified that the d33 of BaTiO3 ceramics fabricated by microwave sintering is as high as 370 pC/N despite the ɛ33T/ɛ0 of 2100. Mechanisms affecting d33 in microwave sintering and in conventional sintering of BaTiO3 are thought to be different. The relationship between the grain size, the mechanical quality factor Qm, and the frequency constant Np, which was obtained from microwave sintering, has assumed that a decrease in grain size causes a decrease in internal stress. We suggest that a decrease in internal stress induces continuity of strain in a grain boundary, resulting in continuity of domains across a grain boundary.

  9. Properties of PZT-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics Between -150 and 250 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of three PZT-based piezoelectric ceramics and one PLZT electrostrictive ceramic were measured as a function of temperature. In this work, the dielectric, ferroelectric polarization versus electric field, and piezoelectric properties of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, and PLZT-9/65/35 were measured over a temperature range of -150 to 250 C. In addition to these measurements, the relative thermal expansion of each composition was measured from 25 to 600 C and the modulus of rupture of each material was measured at room temperature. This report describes the experimental results and compares and contrasts the properties of these materials with respect to their applicability to intelligent aerospace systems.

  10. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  11. Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan

    2016-01-01

    PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.

  12. Optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules for vibration suppression of highly constrained structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    The vibration suppression efficiency of so-called shunted piezoelectric systems is decisively influenced by the number, shape, dimensions and position of the piezoelectric ceramic elements integrated into the structure. This paper presents a procedure based on evolutionary algorithms for optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules on highly constrained lightweight structures. The optimization loop includes the CAD software CATIA V5, the FE package ANSYS and DynOPS, a proprietary software tool able to connect the Evolving Object library with any simulation software that can be started in batch mode. A user-defined piezoelectric shell element is integrated into ANSYS 9.0. The generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient is used as the optimization objective. Position, dimensions, orientation, embedding location in the composite lay-up and wiring of customized patches are determined for optimum vibration suppression under consideration of operational and manufacturing constraints, such as added mass, maximum strain and requirements on the control circuit. A rear wing of a racing car is investigated as the test object for complex, highly constrained geometries.

  13. Titan!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.

    2010-05-01

    Cassini-Huygens achieved Saturnian orbit on July 1, 2004. The first order of business was the safe delivery of the Huygens atmospheric probe to Titan that took place on January 14, 2005. Huygens descended under parachute obtaining observations all the way down to a safe landing. It revealed Titan for the first time. Stunning are the similarities between Titan and the Earth. Viewing the lakes and seas, the fluvial terrain, the sand dunes and other features through the hazy, nitrogen atmosphere, brings to mind the geological processes that created analogous features on the Earth. On Titan frozen water plays the geological role of rock; liquid methane takes the role of terrestrial water. The atmospheres of both Earth and Titan are predominately nitrogen gas. Titan's atmosphere contains 1.5% methane and no oxygen. The surface pressure on Titan is 1.5 times the Earth's. There are aerosol layers and clouds that come and go. Now, as Saturn proceeds along its solar orbit, the seasons are changing. The effects upon the transport of methane are starting to be seen. A large lake in the South Polar Region seems to be filling more as winter onsets. Will the size and number of the lakes in the South grow during winter? Will the northern lakes and seas diminish or dry up as northern summer progresses? How will the atmospheric circulation change? Much work remains not only for Cassini but also for future missions. Titan has many different environments to explore. These require more capable instruments and in situ probes. This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 glass-ceramic on piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jiang; Xuan-Ming, Wang; Jia-Yu, Li; Yong, Zhang; Tao, Zheng; Jing-Wen, Lv

    2016-03-01

    We studied the influence of heat treatment time on the optical, thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of strontium barium niobate (Sr1-xBaxNb2O6 hereafter SBN) piezoelectric glass-ceramics with tungsten bronze-type structure, which have good piezoelectric properties and are important lead-free piezoelectric materials. We found that the best heat treatment time is 4 h. The properties of the prepared materials are better than that of SBN ceramics and the glass-ceramic growth is faster than the SBN crystal when the heat treatment time of the SBN piezoelectric glass-ceramic is controlled, reducing the preparation costs greatly.

  15. Phase transition characteristics and associated piezoelectricity of potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyu; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Hui

    2015-08-14

    To achieve high piezoelectric activity and a wide sintering temperature range, the ceramic system concerning (1 - x)(K(0.48)Na(0.52))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3)-x[Bi(0.5)(Na(0.7)Ag(0.3))(0.5)](0.90) Zn(0.10)ZrO(3) was designed, and the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can drive a high d(33). Phase transition characteristics as well as their effects on the electrical properties were investigated systematically. The R-T coexistence phase boundary (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) can be driven via modification with BNAZZ, and has been confirmed by XRD and temperature-dependent dielectric constants as well as Raman analysis, and the ceramics possess enhanced piezoelectric properties (d(33) ∼ 425 pC N(-1) and k(p) ∼ 0.43) and a high unipolar strain (∼0.3%). In addition, a wide sintering temperature range of 1050-1080 °C can warrant a large d(33) of 400-430 pC N(-1), which can benefit practical applications. As a result, the addition of BNAZZ is an effective method to improve the electrical properties (piezoelectricity and strain) and sintering behavior of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics. PMID:26150357

  16. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    PubMed Central

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

    2014-01-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer. PMID:25565725

  17. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  18. Structural contribution to the ferroelectric fatigue in lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterstein, M.; Rouquette, J.; Haines, J.; Papet, Ph.; Glaum, J.; Knapp, M.; Eckert, J.; Hoffman, M.

    2014-09-01

    Many ferroelectric devices are based on doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), at which the relevant material's properties approach their maximum. Based on a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of MPB PZT, bulk fatigue is unambiguously found to arise from a less effective field induced tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation, at which the degradation of the polarization flipping is detected by a less intense and more diffuse anomaly in the atomic displacement parameter of lead. The time dependence of the ferroelectric response on a structural level down to 250 μs confirms this interpretation in the time scale of the piezolectric strain response.

  19. Excitation of fundamental shear horizontal wave by using face-shear (d36) piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Dong, Shuxiang; Li, Faxin

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave in plate-like structures is extremely useful for non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) as it is non-dispersive. However, currently, the SH0 wave is usually excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) whose energy conversion efficiency is fairly low. The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode piezoelectrics is more promising for SH0 wave excitation, but this mode cannot appear in conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Recently, by modifying the symmetry of poled PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering, we realized the face-shear d 36 mode in both soft and hard PZT ceramics. In this work, we further improved the face-shear properties of PZT-4 and PZT-5H ceramics via lateral compression under elevated temperature. It was found that when bonded on a 1 mm-thick aluminum plate, the d 36 type PZT-4 exhibited better face-shear performance than PZT-5H. We then successfully excite SH0 wave in the aluminum plate using a face-shear PZT-4 square patch and receive the wave using a face-shear 0.72[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-0.28[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT) patch. The frequency response and directionality of the excited SH0 wave were also investigated. The SH0 wave can be dominated over the Lamb waves (S0 and A0 waves) from 160 kHz to 280 kHz. The wave amplitude reaches its maxima along the two main directions (0° and 90°). The amplitude can keep over 80% of the maxima when the deviate angle is less than 30°, while it vanishes quickly at the 45° direction. The excited SH0 wave using piezoelectric ceramics could be very promising in the fields of NDT and SHM.

  20. X-ray diffraction study of crystalline barium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zali, Nurazila Mat; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohamad, Siti Mariam; Foo, Choo Thye; Murshidi, Julie Adrianny

    2014-02-12

    In this study, BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics have been prepared via solid-state reaction method. The powders were calcined for 2 hours at different temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1200°C. Using X-ray diffraction with a Rietveld analysis, the phase formation and crystal structure of the BaTiO{sub 3} powders were studied. Change in crystallite size and tetragonality as a function of calcination temperature were also discussed. It has been found that the formation of pure perovskite phase of BaTiO{sub 3} began at calcination condition of 1000 °C for 2 hours. The crystal structure of BaTiO{sub 3} formed is in the tetragonal structure. The second phases of BaCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} existed with calcination temperature below 1000 °C. Purity, crystallite size and tetragonality of BaTiO{sub 3} powders were found to increase with increasing calcination temperature.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of electro-optical and converse-piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pingping; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Jingjing; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2012-06-18

    A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of electro-optical and converse-piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pingping; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Jingjing; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2012-06-18

    A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials. PMID:22714448

  3. Fabrication and modeling of bismuth titanate-PZT ceramic transducers for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, B.; Searfass, C.; Cyphers, R.; Sinding, K.; Pheil, C.; Tittmann, B.

    2013-01-01

    Utilization of a spray-on deposition technique of ferroelectric bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) composites has a competitive advantage to standard ultrasonic transducers. These can conform to curved surfaces, can operate at high temperature (Curie-Weiss temperature 685 °C) and are mechanically well-coupled to a substrate. However, an issue with many high temperature transducers such as bismuth titanate ceramics is that they have relatively low transduction efficiency, i.e. d33 is about 12-14 pC/F in Bi4Ti3O12 versus 650 pC/F in PZT-5H. It is a common conception that high-temperature capability comes at the cost of electro-mechanical coupling. It will be shown that the high temperature capability of bismuth-titanate-PZT composite transducers using the spray-on deposition technique previously developed, improves the electro-mechanical coupling while maintaining the high temperature performance and mechanical coupling. This material could provide advantages in harsh environments where high signal-to-noise ratios are needed.

  4. Mechanical property changes of barium titanate (ceramic) after in vivo and in vitro aging.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Kenner, G H; Brown, S D; Scott, J K

    1977-01-01

    Since barium titanate (BaTi03) can be made piezoelectric, it may be used to substitute hard tissues directly. As a first step in testing this concept, a series of in vivo and in vitro aging and biocompatibility studies were performed. The mean compressive strength of samples implanted subcutaneously in the backs of rabbits decreased to 138 MPa after 20 weeks from a control value of 281 MPa. Similar, though less drastic losses of strength were seen when specimens were aged in distilled water (182 MPa at 28 weeks) and Ringer's solution (159 MPa at 28 weeks). The most rapid decrease of strength in all cases was seen prior to 4 weeks. Thereafter, the decrease was much slower. Histological evaluation of the tissue surrounding the implant revealed a thin fibrous capsule and no evidence of tissue inflammation.

  5. Variational principles for the equations of porous piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Gülay; Dökmeci, M Cengiz

    2005-11-01

    The governing equations of a porous piezoelectric continuum are presented in variational form, though they were well established in differential form. Hamilton's principle is applied to the motions of a regular region of the continuum, and a three-field variational principle is obtained with some constraint conditions. By removing the constraint conditions that are usually undesirable in computation through an involutory transformation, a unified variational principle is presented for the region with a fixed internal surface of discontinuity. The unified principle leads, as its Euler-Lagrange equations, to all the governing equations of the region, including the jump conditions but excluding the initial conditions. Certain special cases and reciprocal variational principles are recorded, and they are shown to recover some of the earlier ones.

  6. Investigations on the defect chemistry and the sintering of barium titanate ceramics by oxygen coulometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhammer, Hans Theo; Song, Quan Ming; Felgner, Karl-Heinz; Abicht, Hans-Peter

    2002-02-01

    The application of the oxygen coulometry method on the investigation of the defect chemistry and the sintering process of donor- and acceptor-doped barium titanate ceramics is described. The measuring principle is based on two identical solid electrolyte circonia cells with two electrode pairs both for measuring of the oxygen partial pressure and for oxygen pumping. Three different oxygen exchange processes of the samples could be detected. (1) The oxygen exchange due to the change of the equilibrium temperature at a fixed oxygen partial pressure, which is caused by the change of the concentration of oxygen vacancies. (2) The oxygen exchange which is related to the valence change of Mn Ti during the change of the ambient atmosphere. The data are consistent with the assumption that manganese occurs as Mn 3+ at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.4 Pa and a temperature of about 1400 °C. (3) During the sintering of donor-doped barium titanate ceramics, oxygen expelling processes were detected which are related to the incorporation of the donor into the lattice. In the case of a doping level of 0.5 mol% La, the estimated amount of expelled oxygen is less than expected for exclusive electronic donor compensation.

  7. Titanate ceramics for immobilisation of uranium-rich radioactive wastes arising from 99Mo production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. L.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Vance, E. R.; Mitchell, D. R. G.

    2009-02-01

    Uranium-rich liquid wastes arising from UO 2 targets which have been neutron-irradiated to generate medical radioisotopes such as 99mTc require immobilisation. A pyrochlore-rich hot isostatically pressed titanate ceramic can accommodate at least 40 wt% of such waste expressed on an oxide basis. In this paper, the baseline waste form composition (containing 40 wt% UO 2) was adjusted in two ways: (a) varying the UO 2 loading with constant precursor oxide materials, (b) varying the precursor composition with constant waste loading of UO 2. This resulted in the samples having a similar phase assemblage but the amounts of each phase varied. The oxidation states of U in selected samples were determined using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Leaching studies showed that there was no significant difference in the normalised elemental release rates and the normalised release rates are comparable with those from synroc-C. This demonstrates that waste forms based on titanate ceramics are robust and flexible for the immobilisation of U-rich waste streams from radioisotope processing.

  8. Effect of Yttrium Doping in Barium Zirconium Titanate Ceramics: A Structural, Impedance, and Modulus Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badapanda, Tanmaya; Cavalcante, Laécio Santos; da Luz, Geraldo Eduardo; Batista, Nouga Cardoso; Anwar, Shahid; Longo, Elson

    2013-09-01

    In the current article, we studied the effect of yttrium [Y3+] ions' substitution on the structure and electric behavior of barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics with a general formula [Ba1- x Y2 x/3](Zr0.25Ti0.75)O3 (BYZT) with [ x = 0, 0.025, and 0.05] which were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these ceramics have a single phase with a perovskite-type cubic structure. Rietveld refinement data confirmed [BaO12], [ZrO6], [TiO6], and [YO6] clusters in the cubic lattice. The Y3+ ions' effects on the electric conductivity behavior of BZT ceramics as a function of temperature and frequency are described, which are based on impedance spectroscopy analyses. The complex impedance plots display a double semicircle which highlights the influences of grain and grain boundary on the ceramics. Impedance analyses showed that the resistance decreased with the increasing temperature and resulted in a negative temperature coefficient of the resistance property in all compositions. Modulus plots represent a non-Debye-type dielectric relaxation which is related to the grain and grain boundary as well as temperature-dependent electric relaxation phenomenon and an enhancement in the mobility barrier by Y3+ ions. Moreover, the electric conductivity increases with the replacement of Ba2+ by Y3+ ions may be due to the rise in oxygen vacancies.

  9. A circular array transducer for photoacoustic imaging by using piezoelectric single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yonggang; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon; Kang, Hyunwook; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jungsoon

    2015-07-01

    The ultrasound transducers of which center frequencies are lower than 10 MHz are commonly used in low frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging systems. However, the improvement of their sensitivity is still needed to detect weak PA signals. In this study, a circular array transducer was constructed by using 120 needle hydrophones made of piezoelectric single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate (PMN-PZT). The needle hydrophone was designed to have high sensitivity and wide bandwidth through the Krimtholz-Leedom-Matthaei (KLM) simulation of receiving impulse response. The sensitivity of the fabricated PMN-PZT hydrophone was compared with a commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) needle hydrophone. The usefulness of the circular array transducer was demonstrated by applying it to a PA system for obtaining images.

  10. Study of BNT-BKT-BT lead-free piezoelectric ceramics and their application in piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Siu Hong

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, 0.90Bi0.5Na 0.5TiO3-0.05Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.05BaTiO 3 (BNKBT-5), have been fabricated by a solid-state reaction method. The dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics have been measured and the microstructures studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM. In the ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurements, Pr ˜ 28.5 muC/cm2 and Ec ˜3.5 MV/m have been observed. The electromechanical coupling coefficients kp and kt are 0.31 and 0.46, respectively. Those properties are comparable to that of lead-based ceramics such as PZT. Three different compounds, including CeO2, Ca2Fe 2O5 and (Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3, have been used as additives/dopants to improve the properties of BNKBT-5. All the samples with different compositions have been characterized. The measured properties are compared with that of BNKBT-5. It has been found that the BNKBT-5 doped with 1.5 mol% of (Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3, namely BNKLBT-1.5, has the best performance. It can enhance kp, kt, Qm, Pr, and can reduce tandelta but do not lower the depolarization temperature. Two different types of devices have been fabricated using BNKBT-5 and BNKLBT-1.5 ceramic rings. The first device is compressive-type accelerometers. A PZT accelerometer with similar structure has also been fabricated for comparison. The accelerometers are calibrated using a back-to-back calibration method against a standard reference accelerometer. Within the +/-2.5% tolerance, the mean sensitivity of PZT, BNKBT and BNKLBT accelerometer is 4.34 pC/ms -2 (50 Hz to 8.24 kHz), 2.24 pC/ms-2 (50 Hz to 10.1 kHz) and 2.97 pC/ms-2 (50 Hz to 12.45 kHz), respectively. The BNKLBT-1.5 accelerometer has a reasonably high sensitivity and the broadest sensing frequency range which would be the most preferable choice for structural health monitoring applications. The second device is ultrasonic wirebonding transducers for microelectronic packaging. It has been found that if titanium is used as the metal parts in the

  11. Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, T.; Kondo, S.; Takei, T.; Kumada, N.; Nakashima, K.; Fujii, I.; Wada, S.; Suzuki, T. S.; Uchikoshi, T.; Sakka, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kawada, S.; Kimura, M.

    2011-10-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO3 nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO3 slurry, BaTiO3 nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO3 grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

  12. Dielectric, ferroelectric and mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered Bi based High temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angalakurthi, Rambabu; Raju, K. C. James

    2011-10-01

    The sintering of advanced ceramics requires fast heating in order to avoid both grain growth and inter diffusion. In this context, the microwave sintering is a powerful method since it enables sintering in a short time. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Strontium Bismuth Titanate (SBTi) system. The material powder was prepared by solid state route and sintering was carried out by both conventional and microwave furnaces. Morphological, dielectric, ferroelectric and mechanical properties were studied for both samples. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of the conventional and microwave sintered samples have ranged between (185-195) & (0.005-0.007) and (195-220) & (0.004-0.006) respectively when measured at 1MHz frequency. The microwave sintering of the SBTi ceramics leads to higher densification (97% of the theoretical density), fine microstructure, and good mechanical and ferroelectric properties in much shorter duration of time compared to that of the conventional sintering process.

  13. Piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulates axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons via RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 pathways.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianqiang; Liu, Meili

    2014-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is critical for axonal connection, which can stimulate axonal migration and deformation to promote axonal growth in the nervous system. Netrin-1, an axonal guidance cue, can also promote axonal guidance growth, but the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under indirect electric stimulation is still unknown. We investigated the molecular mechanism of axonal guidance growth under piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stimulation in the primary cultured cortical neurons. PZT induced marked axonal elongation. Moreover, PZT activated the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by increasing the frequency and amplitude of EPSCs of the cortical neurons in patch clamp assay. PZT downregulated the expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). Rho GTPase signaling is involved in interactions of Netrin-1 and DCC. PZT activated RhoA. Dramatic decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 was also observed after PZT treatment. RhoA inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3-Exo) prevented the PZT-induced downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC. We suggest that PZT can promote axonal guidance growth by downregulation of Netrin-1 and DCC to mediate axonal repulsive responses via the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Obviously, piezoelectric materials may provide a new approach for axonal recovery and be beneficial for clinical therapy in the future. PMID:24203571

  14. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-09-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Consequently, the bacteria are selectively killed on the cathode surface. However, the cell experiment suggested that the level of ROS is safe for normal mammalian cells. PMID:27599911

  15. Double torsion testing and finite element analysis for determining the electric fracture properties of piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Yasuhide; Narita, Fumio; Mikami, Masaru

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation in electric fracture behavior of composite [Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}] double torsion (DT) specimens. DT tests were conducted on a commercial piezoelectric ceramic bonded between two metals. Fracture loads under different electric fields were obtained from the experiment. Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis was also employed to calculate the energy release rate for DT specimens based on the exact (permeable) and approximate (impermeable) crack models. The effects of applied electric field and domain switching on the energy release rate are discussed, and the model predictions are compared with the results of the experiments.

  16. Study of Deterioration in a Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate Radiation Detector through Measurement of the Electromechanical Coupling Factor with 400 MeV/n Zenon Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Shibata, Hiromi; Okada, Nagaya; Hattori, Maki; Okudaira, Osamu; Fujii, Masayuki; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2013-12-01

    The variation of the electromechanical coupling factor (ECF) was measured by bombarding a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) element with 400 MeV/n xenon ions. The element was exposed to energies up to 104 J, during which time the ECF was observed by the resonance method. The ECF gradually decreased with the energy accumulated during irradiation, and its behavior was scaled with an empirical formula. This decrease suggests that the piezoelectric quality deteriorated; hence, the sensitivity of the PZT radiation detector was considered to be degraded as well. The variation ultimately originated in resonance-associated processes. A potential detector suitable for use in severe-radiation environments was discussed.

  17. Microstructures and Dielectric Characteristics of Ultrafine-Grained Barium Titanate-Based Ceramics for Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Tae-Ho; Li, Longtu

    2007-10-01

    Ultrafine-grained ceramics based on barium titanate for base-metal-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (BME-MLCCs) applications have been prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to identify the phase compositions of the ceramics. The microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different dopant contents on the crystal structures, grain growth, microstructures, and dielectric characteristics of the ceramics were investigated. Desired core-shell structures have been observed and the relationships of composition, crystal structure, grain growth, and microstructure have been discussed. The present ceramics show an average grain size of 180 nm and homogeneous microstructures, as well as a high dielectric constant, a low degree of dielectric loss and good X7R temperature characteristics, which would be promising candidates for next-generation BME-MLCC applications.

  18. A comparison of different powder compaction processes adopted for synthesis of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, M. L. V.; Bhanu Prasad, V. V.; James, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Barium zirconium titanate, Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 nano-crystalline powders were synthesized using high energy ball milling. The calcined powders were compacted adopting two different approaches viz. the conventional uniaxial pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) and the compacts were sintered at 1350 °C. A single phase perovskite structure was observed in both cases. BZT ceramics compacted using CIP technique exhibited enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties compared to ceramics compacted by uniaxial pressing. The polarization current peaks have been used in this paper as an experimental evidence to prove the existence of ferroelectricity in the BZT ceramics under study. The peak polarization current was found to be ~700% higher in case of cold iso-statically compacted ceramics. Similarly electric field induces strain showed a maximum strain ( S max) of 0.08% at an electric field of 28 kV/cm. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties observed are comparable to single crystals of the same material.

  19. A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting

  20. High temperature dielectric relaxation anomaly of Y3+ and Mn2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shiguang; Mao, Chaoliang; Wang, Genshui; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin

    2014-10-01

    Relaxation like dielectric anomaly is observed in Y3+ and Mn2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics when the temperature is over 450 K. Apart from the conventional dielectric relaxation analysis method with Debye or modified Debye equations, which is hard to give exact temperature dependence of the relaxation process, dielectric response in the form of complex impedance, assisted with Cole-Cole impedance model corrected equivalent circuits, is adopted to solve this problem and chase the polarization mechanism in this paper. Through this method, an excellent description to temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation anomaly and its dominated factors are achieved. Further analysis reveals that the exponential decay of the Cole distribution parameter n with temperature is confirmed to be induced by the microscopic lattice distortion due to ions doping and the interaction between the defects. At last, a clear sight to polarization mechanism containing both the intrinsic dipolar polarization and extrinsic distributed oxygen vacancies hopping response under different temperature is obtained.

  1. Magnetoelectric composite ceramics of nickel ferrite and lead zirconate titanate via in situ processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dandan; Gong, Weihua; Deng, Haijin; Li, Ming

    2007-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composite ceramics of NiFe2O4 (NFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were synthesized by a simple in situ processing based on a sol-gel method followed by a conventional sintering. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that this processing can produce two pure phases simultaneously. The in situ grown magnetic NiFe2O4 grains were well dispersed in the PZT matrix. The results demonstrated an attractive ME response of about 28.5 V cm-1 Oe-1 in the 0.35 NiFe2O4/0.65PZT at a resonance frequency of around 287 kHz.

  2. Electric field induced phase transition of antiferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.; Pan, M.; Markowski, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Cross, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    The electric field induced phase transition behavior of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate (PLZTS) ceramics was investigated. PLZTS undergoes a tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE{sub Tet}) to rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE{sub Rh}) phase transition with the application of an electric field. The volume increase associated with this antiferroelectric (AFE){endash}ferroelectric (FE) phase transition plays an important role with respect to actuator applications. This volume increase involves an increase in both transverse and longitudinal strains. The E field at which the transverse strain increases is accompanied by an abrupt jump in polarization. The longitudinal strain, however, lags behind this polarization jump exhibiting a slight decrease at the onset of phase switching. This decoupling was related to the preferentially oriented AFE domain configuration, with its tetragonal c-axis perpendicular to the applied electric field. It is suggested that phase switching involves multiple steps involving both structural transformation and domain reorientation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

    2010-06-01

    Structural phase transformations between ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE), and paraelectric (FE) phases are frequently observed in the zirconia-rich phase region on the lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) phase diagram. Since the free energy difference among these phases is small, phase transformation can be easily induced by temperature, pressure and electric field. These induced transformation characteristics have been used for many practical applications. This study focuses on a hydrostatic pressure induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation in a tin modified PZT ceramic (PSZT). The relative phase stability between FE and AFE phases is determined by the dielectric permittivity measurement as a function of temperature from -60 C to 125 C. A pressure-temperature phase diagram for the PSZT system will be presented.

  4. Electrostriction of composites of polyurethane (PU) with ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yuen-Wah; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Tai, Liang-Shiang; Shin, Franklin G.

    2001-07-01

    Electrostrictive composites of thermoplastic elastomer polyurethane (PU) and the ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) of various volume fractions have been prepared by hot-roller miller. X-ray diffraction results and SEM micrographs showed that the ceramic crystallized in the ferroelectric phase and was dispersed uniformly in the elastomer. The elastic modulus and dielectric permittivity increased with PZT volume fractions. For composites of low PZT volume fraction, negative electrostrictive strain (contraction) was observed. As the PZT volume fraction increased to more than 6%, the composites exhibited a switching characteristic when the applied electric field was increased to a critical value. The critical electric fields decreased with increasing PZT volume fractions. This effect can be explained as the resultant of the electrostriction of PU and polarization reversal of the PZT at high field. This interesting property of the PU/PZT composite will lead to some switching actuations for high electric field applications.

  5. Blocking effect of crystal–glass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yong; Baturin, Ivan; Liang, Tongxiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystal–glass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. • The Z″ and M″ peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The Z″ and M″ peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • Crystallite impedance decreases while crystal–glass interface impedance increases. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z″ and M″ peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z″ and M″ peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystal–glass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface in the temperature range of 250–450 °C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystal–glass interface area.

  6. Improved ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of dense BaTiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraskar, Bharat G.; Kakade, S. G.; James, A. R.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2016-05-01

    The ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of BaTiO3 (BT) dense ceramic synthesized by solid-state reaction were investigated. X-ray diffraction study confirmed tetragonal crystal structure having c/a ~1.0144. The dense microstructure was evidenced from morphological studies with an average grain size ~7.8 µm. Temperature dependent dielectric measurement showed the maximum values of dielectric constant, ɛr = 5617 at Curie temperature, Tc = 125 °C. The saturation and remnant polarization, Psat. = 24.13 µC/cm2 and Pr =10.42 µC/cm2 achieved respectively for the first time with lower coercive field of Ec=2.047 kV/cm. The polarization current density-electric field measurement exhibits the peaking characteristics, confirms the saturation state of polarization for BT. The strain-electric field measurements revealed the "sprout" shape nature instead of typical "butterfly loop". This shows the excellent converse piezoelectric response with remnant strain ~ 0.212% and converse piezoelectric constant d*33 ~376.35 pm/V. The intrinsic electrostrictive coefficient was deduced from the variation of strain with polarization with electrostrictive coefficient Q33~ 0.03493m4/C2.

  7. An in situ diffraction study of domain wall motion contributions to the frequency dispersion of the piezoelectric coefficient in lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, Shruti B.; Prewitt, Anderson D.; Jones, Jacob L.; Studer, Andrew J.; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2013-01-28

    The contribution of non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall displacement to the frequency dependence of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient has been determined experimentally in lead zirconate titanate using time-resolved, in situ neutron diffraction. Under subcoercive electric fields of low frequencies, approximately 3% to 4% of the volume fraction of non-180 Degree-Sign domains parallel to the field experienced polarization reorientation. This subtle non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion directly contributes to 64% to 75% of the magnitude of the piezoelectric coefficient. Moreover, part of the 33 pm/V decrease in piezoelectric coefficient across 2 orders of magnitude in frequency is quantitatively attributed to non-180 Degree-Sign domain wall motion effects.

  8. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of high temperature (Bi,La)FeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics at rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linlin; Hou, Xianbo; Yu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    In this article, some high Curie temperature ferroelectric piezoceramics of perovskite-structured BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT) solid solutions were prepared using fine-ball milling and solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction measurements exhibited those BF-BZT-PT ceramics being crystallized in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase while scanning electron microscopy showed their microstructure grain size about 200 nm. It was found that the ferroelectric Curie temperature increases up to 630 °C with increasing BF content in those BF-BZT-PT ceramics and that their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were strongly dependent on compositions and sintering temperature. A good combination of ferroelectric and piezoelectric property of remanent polarization Pr = 18 µC/cm2, coercive field Ec = 64 kV/cm, piezoelectric constant d33 = 41 pC/N, dielectric constant \\varepsilon 33\\text{T}/\\varepsilon 0 = 258, loss tan δ = 0.023, and Curie temperature TC = 582 °C was obtained for 0.59BF-0.15BZT-0.26PT ceramics sintered at 780 °C for 10 h and poled under 8.4 kV/mm at 120 °C for 20 min. In comparison with tetragonal 0.50BF-0.15BZT-0.35PT ceramics reported previously by the author group, rhombohedral/tetragonal-coexistent-phased 0.59BF-0.15BZT-0.26PT ceramics exhibited a higher piezoresponse, and contemporarily, La-substitution was found playing the same role of enhancing piezoresponse and reducing Curie temperature. Of most interest, a good piezoelectric property of d33 = 24 pC/N, ɛr = 217, tan δ = 0.020, and TC = 630 °C was obtained for 0.66BF-0.15BZT-0.19PT ceramics prepared by two-step sintering with 850-750 °C for 10 h and poled under 9.0 kV/mm at 120 °C for 20 min, which is better than that of commercial K-15 bismuth titanate ceramics with d33 = 18 pC/N, \\varepsilon 33\\text{T}/\\varepsilon 0 = 140, tan δ = 0.03, and TC ˜ 620 °C. Like the case of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, BF-BZT-PT perovskites are becoming important to design high temperature

  9. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-07-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La2O3) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La2O3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La2O3 nano powder of ~80nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO3 nano powder of 100nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La2O3) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La2O3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La3+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramics.

  10. Plutonium incorporation in phosphate and titanate ceramics for minor actinide containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschanels, X.; Picot, V.; Glorieux, B.; Jorion, F.; Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Jégou, C.; Broudic, V.; Cachia, J. N.; Advocat, T.; Den Auwer, C.; Fillet, C.; Coutures, J. P.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.

    2006-06-01

    Two ceramics, zirconolite and a monazite-brabantite solid solution (MBss) were studied for the immobilization of minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) produced by reprocessing spent fuel. Monoclinic zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is a fluorite derivative structure and is the primary actinide host phase in Synroc (a titanate composite). Monazite (LnPO4, where Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Gd, etc.) is a monoclinic orthophosphate containing trivalent cations, and brabantite (Ca0.5An0.5PO4) is an isostructural monazite compound containing tetravalent cations (An = Th and U). The nominal composition of the ceramics studied in this work is (Ca0.87Pu0.13)Zr(Al0. 26Ti1.74)O7 for zirconolite and (Ca0.09Pu0.09La0.73Th0.09)PO4 for the monazite-brabantite solid solution. These formulas correspond to 10 wt% PuO2 loading in each material. XANES spectroscopy showed that the plutonium is tetravalent in zirconolite and trivalent in MBss. Thorium, another tetravalent cation, can be incorporated at 10 wt% ThO2 in MBss. Aluminum and calcium balance the excess cationic charge resulting from the incorporation of Pu(IV) in zirconolite and Th(IV) in brabantite, respectively. The relative density of the pellets exceeded 90% of theoretical density. The samples exhibited a homogeneous microstructure even if some minor phases, representing less than 2% of the surface area, were detected. The two ceramics are compared in terms of actinide loading, and preliminary results on their long-term behavior are discussed.

  11. Effect of B-site isovalent doping on electrical and ferroelectric properties of lead free bismuth titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Kumar, G. S.; Malik, M. M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, zirconium modified bismuth titanate ceramics have been studied as potential lead-free ferroelectric materials over a broad temperature range (RT - 800 °C). Polycrystalline samples of Bi4Ti3-xZrxO12 (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6) (BZrT) with high electrical resistivity were prepared using the solution combustion technique. The effect of Zr doping on the crystalline structure, ferroelectric properties and electrical conduction characteristics of BZrT ceramics were explored. Addition of zirconium to bismuth titanate enhances its dielectric constant and reduces the loss factor as it introduces orthorhombic distortion in bismuth titanate lattice which is exhibited by the growth along (00_10) lattice plane. Activation energy due to relaxation is found to be greater than that due to conduction thus confirming that electrical conduction in these ceramics is not due to relaxation of dipoles. Remanent polarization of the doped samples increases as the Zirconium content increases.

  12. Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 μm long and 850-485 μm wide constructed from 8 μm thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100μl, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

  13. Ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanqiang; Yuan, Songmei; Chu, Xiangcheng; Gao, Shuning; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhu, Cong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an oblate-type ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips was proposed and experimentally researched. The micro-motor works based on the standing-wave principle and has a higher rotary speed than the traditional standing-wave one in principle, reaching a rotary speed of 2100 r/min in this study at the voltage of 20 Vp-p. When the micro-motor rotates, single phase alternating current is required, namely, V = A sin (" separators=" ω t ) , and exchanging the signal wire and ground wire will not change the rotary direction of the motor, which reinforces the safety and the compaction of this motor. The ratio of the maximum displacement value of the speed feeding direction and the preload direction is approximately 4, showing a characteristic of high speed and low ability to load.

  14. Depolarization field effect on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of particulate ferroelectric ceramic-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fengde D.; Wang, Yu U.

    2015-03-01

    The effects of depolarization field on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric ceramic particle-filled polymer-matrix composites are investigated at the underlying domain level. Phase field modeling and simulation reveals that the macroscopic properties of the composites are dominated by depolarization field effect, which depends on the arrangement and alignment rather than the size or internal grain structure of the ferroelectric particulates. It is found that 0-3 particulate composites with random dispersion of ferroelectric particles behave essentially like linear dielectric rather than ferroelectric materials, and domain-level analysis reveals the physical mechanism for lack of domain switching or hysteresis as attributed to strong depolarization effect. Thus, without effective reduction or elimination of the depolarization field, the composites cannot benefit from the functional fillers regardless of their superior properties. In order to exhibit the desired ferroelectric behaviors, it necessitates continuous ferroelectric phase connectivity in the composites.

  15. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient measurement for bulk ceramics and thin films using pneumatic pressure rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Chu, F.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    1999-07-01

    A pneumatic pressure rig was designed to measure the effective d33 coefficient of thin film piezoelectrics by applying a known stress and monitoring the induced charge. It was found that the stress state imposed included components both perpendicular and parallel to the film plane. The later were due to friction and could largely be relieved through sliding of the O-rings to their equilibrium positions for a given pressure. The induced charge stabilized as equilibrium was reached and most of it was produced by the normal component of the stress. By minimizing the surface friction and compensating for the remnant in-plane stress, very good agreement was obtained among the d33 values measured by the Berlincourt method, double-beam interferometry and this method for a bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sample. The d33 value of PZT thin films made by sol-gel processing was also measured. The as deposited films usually showed very weak piezoelectricity with d33 values ranging from 0 to 10 pC/N, indicating little pre-existing alignment of the domains. With increasing poling field, the d33 value also increased and saturated at poling fields exceeding three times the coercive field. Typically, films with thicknesses around 1 μm had d33 values of 100 pC/N. Good agreement between double-beam interferometry and this technique was also obtained for thin films. The small difference between the two measurements is attributed to the effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the effective d33 coefficient.

  16. Effect of poling process on piezoelectric properties of BCZT - 0.08 wt.% CeO2 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrakala, E.; Praveen, J. Paul; Das, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    The properties of lead free piezoelectric materials can be tuned by suitable doping in the A and B sites of the perovskite structure. In the present study, cerium has been identified as a dopant to investigate the piezoelectric properties of lead-free BCZT system. BCZT - 0.08 wt.%CeO2 lead-free ceramics have been synthesized using sol-gel technique and the effects of CeO2 dopant on their phase structure and piezoelectric properties were investigated systematically. Poling conditions, such as temperature, electric field, and poling time have been optimized to get enhanced piezoelectric response. The optimized poling conditions (50°C, 3Ec and 30min) resulted in high piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 ~ 670pC/N, high electromechanical coupling coefficient kp ~ 60% and piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 ~ 14 mV.m/N for BCZT - 0.08wt.% CeO2 ceramics.

  17. Charge Carrier Relaxation Study in Glass-Added Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaolin; Song, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Jia; Baturin, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    The depolarization process of glass-added barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics with two different glass concentrations was investigated using a thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) technique. The TSDC spectra of the glass-added BaTiO3 ceramics show three peaks. The first sharp peak near the Curie temperature is due to pyroelectric current associated with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. The middle temperature peak at about 200°C showed no dependence on the depolarization current peak position in the polarization field, and the activation energies of this peak were between 0.43 eV and 0.55 eV, which are attributed to the behavior of defect dipoles related to oxygen vacancies within the BaTiO3 grains. Moreover, the high temperature peak at around 300°C indicated that the depolarization current peak position depends on the polarization temperature and decreases with increasing polarization field. The activation energy of this high temperature peak was between 0.78 eV and 0.98 eV, which is similar to the activation energy for the motion of oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxides. The high temperature peak could be attributed to the migration of oxygen vacancies across grain boundaries. In this work we developed a model in which oxygen vacancies that originated from the defect within grains migrated from the anode to the cathode and some were trapped at the grain boundaries. It is presented here and successfully interprets the appearance and behavior of these peaks.

  18. Miniature Cryogenic Valves for a Titan Lake Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS Ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

  19. Miniature cryogenic valves for a Titan Lake sampling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

  20. Dimensional reduction study of piezoelectric ceramics constitutive equations from 3-D to 2-D and 1-D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meiling; Leighton, Glenn

    2008-11-01

    Accurate performance evaluation is crucial to the design and development of macro/micro-sized piezoelectric devices, and key to this is the proper use of the stiffness/ compliance and piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramics involved. Although the literature points out effective piezoelectric coefficients e(31,f) and d(33,f) for thin film materials and reduced dimensionality of equations for bulk material, the elastic and piezoelectric coefficients remain unchanged from the 3-D equations in most reported 1-D and 2-D analyses of the macro/micro-sized devices involving the e form of the constitutive equations. The use of unchanged coefficients leads to variations between numerically predicted and experimental results in most devices. To understand effects of the dimensional reduction from 3-D to 2-D and 1-D on stiffness/compliance and piezoelectric coefficients, this paper derives the 2-D and 1-D constitutive equations from the 3-D equations, focusing on the discussion of often-required device configurations for sensor and actuator design and analysis. Two modified coefficients are proposed, termed reduced and enhanced, which enable better understanding of effects of the dimensional reduction and also effects on the design and analysis of sensors and actuators.

  1. Effects of compositional modification in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics on electric energy storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of compositional modifications on the antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) transition of lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate, (Pb1-3x/2Lax)(Zr1-v-zSnvTiz)O3 ceramics were used to optimize this material for energy storage. The experimental results show that an increase of Sn4+ respect to Ti4+ increases the coercive field of AFE-FE transition and keeps the hysteresis at the minimal level. This increases both the energy density of material and energy efficiency relative to a linear dielectric. Another advantage of Sn4+ addition was a polarization increase at the switching field. The substitution of Zn4+ for Sn4+ at fixed Ti4+ concentration of 0.1 was, however, undesirable for energy storage applications since this decreased the forward switching field and increased the hysteresis. This lowered both the energy density of the material and energy efficiency. Finally, addition of La3+ was performed and slim hysteresis loops were obtained resulting in energy efficiency of 80.1%. However, the slanted hysteresis behavior with La3+ results in a lower value of the maximum stored energy.

  2. Crack tip process zone domain switching in a soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J. L.; Motahari, S. M.; Varlioglu, M.; Lienert, U.; Bernier, J. V.; Hoffman, M.; Ustundag, E.; Univ. of Florida; Iowa State Univ.; The Univ. of New South Wales

    2007-09-01

    Non-180{sup o} domain switching leads to fracture toughness enhancement in ferroelastic materials. Using a high-energy synchrotron X-ray source and a two-dimensional detector in transmission geometry, non-180{sup o} domain switching and crystallographic lattice strains were measured in situ around a crack tip in a soft tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramic. At K{sub 1} = 0.71 MPa m{sup 1/2} and below the initiation toughness, the process zone size, spatial distribution of preferred domain orientations, and lattice strains near the crack tip are a strong function of direction within the plane of the compact tension specimen. Deviatoric stresses and strains calculated using a finite element model and projected to the same directions measured in diffraction correlate with the measured spatial distributions and directional dependencies. Some preferred orientations remain in the crack wake after the crack has propagated; within the crack wake, the tetragonal 0 0 1 axis has a preferred orientation both perpendicular to the crack face and toward the crack front.

  3. Crystal structure and electrical properties of bismuth sodium titanate zirconate ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free bismuth sodium titanate zirconate (Bi0.5Na0.5Ti1-xZrxO3 where x = 0.20, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.80 mole fraction) [BNTZ] ceramics were successfully prepared using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The samples were sintered for 2 h at temperatures lower than 1,000°C. The density of the BNTZ samples was at least 95% of the theoretical values. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that small grains were embedded between large grains, causing a relatively wide grain size distribution. The density and grain size increased with increasing Zr concentration. A peak shift in X-ray diffraction patterns as well as the disappearance of several hkl reflections indicated some significant crystal-structure changes in these materials. Preliminary crystal-structure analysis indicated the existence of phase transition from a rhombohedral to an orthorhombic structure. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also found to correlate well with the observed phase transition. PMID:22221595

  4. Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P.; Shin, Junsoo; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei; Juliano, Thomas F.

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  5. Detection of Indentation Induced FE-to-AFE Phase Transformation in Lead Zirconate Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V; Shin, Junsoo; Juliano, Thomas F.; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas E.; Watson, Chad S.

    2006-01-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  6. Optimization of poling parameters of mechanically processed PLZT 8/60/40 ceramics based on dielectric and piezoelectric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Bhanu Prasad, V. V.; James Raju, K. C.; James, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    Ultra high strain (Pb0.92La0.08)(Zr0.60Ti0.40)O3 (PLZT 8/60/40) piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by high energy ball milling method to study the relation between poling conditions (poling electric fields, times and temperatures) and electrical properties. The ceramics were structurally investigated and with the help of ferroelectric P- E hysteresis loop, coercive field was determined. This study deals with the identification of optimum poling conditions and their effect on the piezoelectric and dielectric properties mechanically synthesized PLZT 8/60/40 ceramics. Different combinations of poling parameters were used to measure the values of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, piezoelectric charge ( d 33) and electromechanical coupling coefficients ( k p). These values show that a ferroelectric material can be poled at ˜5 kV/cm (<0.5 E c ), contrary to common practice of poling far above the coercive field. The effect of aging on the electrical properties was also studied for ceramics poled at 0.6 E c and 3 E c . With the help of this study, poling electric field as well as another two important poling parameters, viz poling temperature and poling time, were optimized. Optimum poling temperature was found to be in the range of 75 °C to 125 °C with optimal poling time of 30 min. Additionally the effect of ceramic sample thickness on the said properties was also studied. The maximum d 33 and k p values for PLZT ceramics was found to be ˜715 pC/N and ˜77%, respectively.

  7. The Effects of Piezoelectric Ceramic Dissipation Factor on the Performance of Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeAngelis, D. A.; Schulze, G. W.

    The dissipation factor (DF) is an important material property of piezoceramics that governs the amount of self-heating under resonant conditions; it essentially quantifies a particular material type for either an actuator or resonator application: high DF materials with typically higher output (d33) are better for actuators, whereas low DF materials with typically lower d33 are better for resonators. Transducer designers must often compromise between mechanical output and DF in the selection of piezoceramics for power ultrasonic applications, and abnormally high DF is one of the main causes of production stoppages. In theory DF is simply the current/voltage phase deviation from an ideal capacitor at 90° (a.k.a. tan(δ) or dielectric loss). Abnormally high DF is typically caused by moisture absorption due to poor ceramic porosity, which causes voltage leakage effects; e.g., seen in transducer production when setting piezo stack preload. Corresponding large increases in capacitance can also be associated with poor porosity, which is counterintuitive unless there is moisture absorption or electrode wicking. This research investigates the mechanisms for abnormally high DF in peizoceramics, and its corresponding effect on transducer performance. It investigates if DF is only affected by the bulk dielectric properties of the piezoceramics (e.g. porosity), or is also influenced by non-uniform electric field effects from electrode wicking. It explores if higher DF ceramics can affect transducer displacement/current gain stability via moisture expulsion at higher drive levels. The investigation focuses solely on the common PZT8 piezoelectric material used with welding transducers for semiconductor wire bonding. Transducers are built with both normal DF peizoceramics, and those with abnormally high DF ceramics which caused production stoppages. Several metrics are investigated such as impedance, displacement gain and capacitance. The experimental and theoretical research

  8. Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Nb{sup 5+} doped BCZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Parjansri, Piewpan; Intatha, Uraiwan; Eitssayeam, Sukum

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Average grain size of BCZT ceramic decreased with the increasing Nb{sup 5+} doping. • Dielectric constant value is enhanced with Nb{sup 5+} doping. • Dielectric loss of BCZT − x Nb{sup 5+} ceramics was less than 0.03 at room temperature (1 kHz). • Piezoelectric coefficient decreased with the increasing Nb{sup 5+} doping. • The relaxation behavior is enhanced with the doping of Nb{sup 5+}. - Abstract: This work investigated the electrical properties of Nb{sup 5+} (0.0–1.0 mol%) doped with Ba{sub 0.90}Ca{sub 0.10}Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub 3} while adding 1 mol% of Ba{sub 0.90}Ca{sub 0.10}Zr{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub 3} seeds. The mixed powder was ball milled for 24 h, calcined and sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h and 1450 °C for 4 h, respectively. The XRD patterns of the ceramic samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The electrical properties of ceramics were measured and the results indicated that all samples show a pure perovskite phase with no secondary phase. Density and average grain size values were in the range of 5.60–5.71 g/cm{sup 3} and 12.62–1.86 μm, respectively. The highest dielectric constant, ϵ{sub r} at room temperature (1 kHz) was 4636 found at 1.0 mol% Nb. The dielectric loss, tan δ was less than 0.03 for all samples at room temperature (1 kHz). Other electrical properties, P{sub r}, d{sub 33} and k{sub p} values were decreased with Nb doped relates to the decreasing grain size in BCZT ceramics. Moreover, the degrees of phase transition diffuseness and relaxation behavior were observed in the higher Nb doping.

  9. Effect of Excess Lead and Bismuth Content on the Electrical Properties of High-Temperature Bismuth Scandium Lead Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Aeronautic and aerospace applications require piezoelectric materials that can operate at high temperatures. The air-breathing aeronautic engines can use piezoelectric actuators for active combustion control for fuel modulation to mitigate thermo-acoustic instabilities and/or gas flow control to improve efficiency. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is their limitation for upper use temperature and this limitation is due low Curie temperature and increasing conductivity. We investigated processing, microstructure and property relationship of (1-x)BiScO3-(x)PbTiO3 (BS-PT) composition as a promising high temperature piezoelectric. The effect of excess Pb and Bi and their partitioning in grain boundaries were studied using impedance spectroscopy, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric measurement techniques. Excess Pb addition increased the grain boundary conduction and the grain boundary area (average grain size was 24.8 m, and 1.3 m for compositions with 0at.% and 5at.% excess Pb, respectively) resulting in ceramics with higher AC conductivity (tan d= 0.9 and 1.7 for 0at.% and 5at.% excess Pb at 350 C and at 10kHz) that were not resistive enough to pole. Excess Bi addition increased the resistivity (rho= 4.1x10(exp 10) Omega cm and 19.6 x10(exp 10) Omega.cm for compositions with 0at.% and 5at.% excess Bi, respectively), improved poling, and increased the piezoelectric coefficient from 137 to 197 pC/N for 5at.% excess Bi addition. In addition, loss tangent decreased more than one order of magnitude at elevated temperatures (greater than 300 C). For all compositions the activation energy of the conducting species was similar (approximately equal to 0.35-0.40 eV) and indicated electronic conduction.

  10. Luminescence properties of barium--gadolinium-titanate ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+).

    PubMed

    Hemasundara Raju, S; Muni Sudhakar, B; Sudhakar Reddy, B; Dhoble, S J; Thyagarajan, K; Nageswara Raju, C

    2014-11-01

    Barium-gadolinium-titanate (BaGd2 Ti4 O12) powder ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the X-ray diffraction spectrum, it was observed that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics are crystallized in the form of an orthorhombic structure. Scanning electron microscopy image shows that the particles are agglomerated and the particle size is about 200 nm. Eu(3+) - and Tb(3+) -doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics were examined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Emission spectra of Eu(3+)-doped BaGd2 Ti4 O12 powder ceramics showed bright red emission at 613 nm ((5)D0 →(7)F2) with an excitation wavelength λ(exci)  = 408 nm ((7)F0 → (5)D3) and Tb(3+):BaGd2 Ti4 O12 ceramic powder has shown green emission at 534 nm ((5)D4 → (7)F5) with an excitation wavelength λ(exci)  = 331 nm (((7)F6 → (5)D1). TL spectra show that Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions affect TL sensitivity.

  11. Synthesis of lead-free piezoelectric powders by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method and properties of sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NBO3 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Gaku; Maeda, Takafumi; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2014-02-01

    (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics have attracted much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric properties. High-quality (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics can be sintered using KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders synthesized by a hydrothermal method. In this study, to enhance the quality factor of the ceramics, high-power ultrasonic irradiation was employed during the hydrothermal method, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the resultant powders. PMID:24474129

  12. Production of continuous piezoelectric ceramic fibers for smart materials and active control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Jonathan D.; Weitz, Gregory E.; Luke, John E.; Cass, Richard B.; Jadidian, Bahram; Bhargava, Parag; Safari, Ahmad

    1997-05-01

    Advanced Cerametrics Inc. has conceived of and developed the Viscous-Suspension-Spinning Process (VSSP) to produce continuous fine filaments of nearly any powdered ceramic materials. VSSP lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber tows with 100 and 790 filaments have been spun in continuous lengths exceeding 1700 meters. Sintered PZT filaments typically are 10 - 25 microns in diameter and have moderate flexibility. Prior to carrier burnout and sintering, VSSP PZT fibers can be formed into 2D and 3D shapes using conventional textile and composite forming processes. While the extension of PZT is on the order of 20 microns per linear inch, a woven, wound or braided structure can contain very long lengths of PZT fiber and generate comparatively large output strokes from relatively small volumes. These structures are intended for applications such as bipolar actuators for fiber optic assembly and repair, vibration and noise damping for aircraft, rotorcraft, automobiles and home applications, vibration generators and ultrasonic transducers for medical and industrial imaging. Fiber and component cost savings over current technologies, such as the `dice-and-fill' method for transducer production, and the range of unique structures possible with continuous VSSP PZT fiber are discussed. Recent results have yielded 1-3 type composites (25 vol% PZT) with d33 equals 340 pC/N, K equals 470, and g33 equals 80 mV/N, kt equals 0.54, kp equals 0.19, dh equals 50.1pC/N and gh equals 13 mV/N.

  13. Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ˜32 MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  14. Hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, K. J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, M. E.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ~32 MPa. We discuss results in the context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  15. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3-Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Chen, Jianguo; Wang, Chun-Ming; Yu, Yang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-07-01

    (0.95-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3-0.05Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d33 = 505pC/N, kp = 55.9%, kt = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and Pr = 39.7 μC/cm2. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature Tc was found to increase from 371 °C to 414 °C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  16. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi2Ta2O9:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chaonan; Yao, Xi; Lin, Jian; Sun, Tiantuo

    2012-05-01

    Er3+ doped CaBi2Ta2O9 (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er3+ doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er3+ concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 to 4I15/2, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  17. Zirconolite-rich titanate ceramics for immobilisation of actinides - Waste form/HIP can interactions and chemical durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Stewart, M. W. A.; Li, H.; Carter, M. L.; Vance, E. R.; Moricca, S.

    2009-12-01

    Zirconolite-based titanate ceramics containing U plus Th or Pu have been prepared. The final consolidation to produce a dense monolithic waste form was carried out using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of the calcined materials within a stainless steel can. The ceramics were characterised and tested for their overall feasibility to immobilise impure Pu or separated actinide-rich radioactive wastes. As designed, tetravalent U and Pu are mainly incorporated in a durable zirconolite phase, together with Gd or Hf added as neutron absorbers. The interaction of the waste form with the HIP can was also examined. No changes in the U valences or the U/Pu-bearing phase distributions were observed at the waste form-HIP can interface.

  18. Adaptive hybrid control for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive using diagonal recurrent CMAC network.

    PubMed

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lin, Chih-Min; Peng, Ya-Fu

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents an adaptive hybrid control system using a diagonal recurrent cerebellar-model-articulation-computer (DRCMAC) network to control a linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) driven by a two-inductance two-capacitance (LLCC) resonant inverter. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LPCM are highly nonlinear and time varying, an adaptive hybrid control system is therefore designed based on a hypothetical dynamic model to achieve high-precision position control. The architecture of DRCMAC network is a modified model of a cerebellar-model-articulation-computer (CMAC) network to attain a small number of receptive-fields. The novel idea of this study is that it employs the concept of diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) in order to capture the system dynamics and convert the static CMAC into a dynamic one. This adaptive hybrid control system is composed of two parts. One is a DRCMAC network controller that is used to mimic a conventional computed torque control law due to unknown system dynamics, and the other is a compensated controller with bound estimation algorithm that is utilized to recover the residual approximation error for guaranteeing the stable characteristic. The effectiveness of the proposed driving circuit and control system is verified with hardware experiments under the occurrence of uncertainties. In addition, the advantages of the proposed control scheme are indicated in comparison with a traditional integral-proportional (IP) position control system.

  19. Study of global and local crystallography at the domain boundaries of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M. U.; Villaurrutia, R.; MacLaren, I.; Kungl, H.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Fundenberger, J.-J.; Bouzy, E.

    2008-08-01

    Reliable automated orientation mapping of 90° domains in a tetragonal perovskite has been achieved for the first time using both EBSD and TEM-Kikuchi pattern analysis. This has been used to compare local measurements of c/a ratios in PZT with global measurements by X-ray diffraction. The local c/a rations are in broad agreement with the global measurements, but further work is needed to determine whether the small discrepancies are real local variations or are caused by experimental factors.

  20. An Experimental Investigation towards Improvement of Thermoelectric Properties of Strontium Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash

    The direct energy conversion between heat and electricity based on thermoelectric effects is a topic of long-standing interest in condensed matter materials science. Experimental and theoretical investigations in order to understand the mechanisms involved and to improve the materials properties and conversion efficiency have been ongoing for more than half a century. While significant achievements have been accomplished in improving the properties of conventional heavy element based materials (such as Bi2Te 3 and PbTe) as well as the discovery of new materials systems for the close-to-room temperature and intermediate temperatures, high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics is still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe. Recently, oxides have exhibited great potential to be investigated for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation. The objective of this dissertation is to synthesize and investigate both electronic and thermal transport in strontium titanate (SrTiO3) ceramics in order to experimentally realize its potential and to ultimately investigate the possibility of further improvement of the thermoelectric performance of this perovskite oxide for mid- to high temperature applications. Developing a synthesis strategy and tuning various synthesis parameters to benefit the thermoelectric transport form the foundation of this study. It is worth mentioning that the results of this study has been employed to prepare targets for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) to study the thermoelectric properties of corresponding thin films and superlattice structures at Dr. Husam Alshareef's group at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. Considering the broad range of functionality of SrTiO3, the findings of this work will surely benefit other fields of research and application of this functional oxide such as photoluminescence, ferroelectricity or mixed-ionic electronic conductivity. This dissertation will ultimately

  1. Deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under uniaxial compression measured by the digital image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Carter, Emma; Kamlah, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate bulk ceramic specimen under uniaxial compression was monitored by the digital image correlation method and the homogeneity of the deformation was discussed. Combined with using a Sawyer–Tower circuit, the depolarization curve was also obtained. Because of the friction at both the top and bottom surfaces of the lead zirconate titanate ceramic specimen, the distribution of deformation under large uniaxial compressive stresses usually shows a barrel shape. By focusing on correspondingly selected regions of interest and calculating the values of strain components there, the barreling behavior was proved. This barreling behavior is due to elastic strains, in the first place, while the remnant strains are less affected by this phenomenon. All these findings are the experimental justifications for the selection of an aspect ratio of 3:1 for our specimens, where only the central cubic region of a specimen represents the desired purely uniaxial stress state. Only from this region, true uniaxial stress–strain results can be obtained to develop constitutive models.

  2. Crystal chemistry of uranium (V) and plutonium (IV) in a titanate ceramic for disposition of surplus fissile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Finch, R. J.; Bakel, A. J.; Hash, M. C.; Chamberlain, D. B.

    2002-07-01

    We report X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra for the plutonium LIII and uranium LIII edges in titanate pyrochlore ceramic. The titanate ceramics studied are of the type proposed to serve as a matrix for the immobilization of surplus fissile materials. The samples studied contain approximately 10 wt% fissile plutonium and 20 wt% natural uranium, and are representative of material within the planned production envelope. Based upon natural analogue models, it had been previously assumed that both uranium and plutonium would occupy the calcium site in the pyrochlore crystal structure. While the XANES and EXAFS signals from the plutonium LIII are consistent with this substitution into the calcium site within pyrochlore, the uranium XANES is characteristic of pentavalent uranium. Furthermore, the EXAFS signal from the uranium has a distinct oxygen coordination shell at 2.07 Å and a total oxygen coordination of about 6, which is inconsistent with the calcium site. These combined EXAFS and XANES results provide the first evidence of substantial pentavalent uranium in an octahedral site in pyrochlore. This may also explain the copious nucleation of rutile (TiO 2) precipitates commonly observed in these materials as uranium displaces titanium from the octahedral sites.

  3. Deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under uniaxial compression measured by the digital image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Carter, Emma; Kamlah, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate bulk ceramic specimen under uniaxial compression was monitored by the digital image correlation method and the homogeneity of the deformation was discussed. Combined with using a Sawyer-Tower circuit, the depolarization curve was also obtained. Because of the friction at both the top and bottom surfaces of the lead zirconate titanate ceramic specimen, the distribution of deformation under large uniaxial compressive stresses usually shows a barrel shape. By focusing on correspondingly selected regions of interest and calculating the values of strain components there, the barreling behavior was proved. This barreling behavior is due to elastic strains, in the first place, while the remnant strains are less affected by this phenomenon. All these findings are the experimental justifications for the selection of an aspect ratio of 3:1 for our specimens, where only the central cubic region of a specimen represents the desired purely uniaxial stress state. Only from this region, true uniaxial stress-strain results can be obtained to develop constitutive models.

  4. Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yuriko; Maeda, Takafumi; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    We report the piezoelectric properties of CuO-doped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics that can be applied as hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. To date, we have succeeded in synthesizing high-quality KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders by the hydrothermal method, which is based on an ionic reaction at high temperature (around 210 °C) and pressure. Increasing both the piezoelectric constant d and the mechanical quality factor (Qm) is important for resonance-type piezoelectric devices, such as ultrasonic motors and transformers. CuO doping into hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics was examined to realize hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. By doping with 1.2 mol % CuO, Qm was increased and the dielectric loss (tan δ) was decreased to 0.5%. The grain size was also influenced by the amount of CuO doping, which indicates that Qm is related to the density. To achieve a higher Qm value, the grain size is required to be less than 5 µm however, excessive CuO doping leads to anomalous grain growth. Optimal piezoelectric properties were obtained for 1.2 mol % CuO-doped (K,Na)NbO3; k31 = 0.32, d31 = -44 pC/N, Qm (radial) = 959, and tan δ= 0.5%. These characteristics showed that CuO doping with hydrothermal powders is effective for obtaining hard-type ceramics, and the mechanical quality factor is more than ten times higher than that of nondoped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics. Therefore, compared with the conventional solid-state method, we could succeed in obtaining hard-type ceramics by a simple and short process.

  5. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  6. Piezoelectric Nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rar, Andrei; Pharr, George Mathews; Oliver, Warren C.; Karapetian, Edgar; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanoindentation (PNI) has been developed to quantitatively address electromechanical coupling and pressure-induced dynamic phenomena in ferroelectric materials on the nanoscale. In PNI, an oscillating voltage is applied between the back side of the sample and the indenter tip, and the first harmonic of bias-induced surface displacement at the area of indenter contact is detected. PNI is implemented using a standard nanoindentation system equipped with a continuous stiffness measurement system. The piezoresponse of polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and BaTiO{sub 3} piezoceramics was studied during a standard nanoindentation experiment. For PZT, the response was found to be load independent, in agreement with theoretical predictions. In polycrystalline barium titanate, a load dependence of the piezoresponse was observed. The potential of piezoelectric nanoindentation for studies of phase transitions and local structure-property relations in piezoelectric materials is discussed.

  7. Phase Structure, Piezoelectric and Multiferroic Properties of SmCoO3-Modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Na; Tian, Mijie; Luo, Lingling; Zheng, Qiaoji; Shi, Dongliang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin

    2016-01-01

    (0.75- x)BiFeO3-0.25BaTiO3- xSmCoO3 + 1 mol.% MnO2 lead-free multiferroic ceramics were synthesized by a conventional ceramic fabrication technique. The effects of SmCoO3 on phase structure, piezoelectricity and multiferroicity of the ceramics were studied. All the ceramics can be well sintered at a low sintering temperature of 960°C. The crystalline structure of the ceramics is transformed from rhombohedral to tetragonal symmetry with increasing the amount of SmCoO3. A morphotropic phase boundary of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases is formed at x = 0.01-0.04. A small amount of SmCoO3 is shown to improve the ferroelectric, piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties of the ceramics. For the ceramics with x = 0.01-0.03, enhanced resistivity ( R ˜ 1.2 × 109 Ω cm to 2.1 × 109 Ω cm), piezoelectricity ( d 33 ˜ 65 pC/N to 106 pC/N) and ferroelectricity ( P r ˜ 6.38 μC/cm2 to 22.89 μC/cm2) are obtained. The ferromagnetism of the materials is greatly enhanced by the doping of SmCoO3 such that a very high magnetoelectric coefficient of ˜742 mV/(cm Oe) is obtained at x = 0.01, suggesting a promising potential in multiferroic devices.

  8. Piezoelectric properties and diffusion phase transition around PPT of La-doped (Na0.52K0.44Li0.04) Nb0.8Ta0.2O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenlong; Wang, Li; Li, Haidong; Han, Junsheng; Xiu, Hanjiang; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-01

    Lead-free ceramics (Na0.52K0.44Li0.04)1-3xLaxNb0.8Ta0.2O3 (KNLNT-Lax, x=0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 mol%) as non-polluting materials were prepared by solid state reaction method. The structure, piezoelectric proprieties and temperature stability of KNLNT ceramic with different La doping concentrations were investigated. The results show a transition from orthorhombic-tetragonal mix phase to tetragonal single phase with the variation of La3+ concentrations. The SEM micrographs of surface and fractured surface show a dense microstructure with few micropores. The La-doped KNLTN ceramic will be an alternative candidate contributes to excellent piezoelectric properties, which are found in the 0.75 mol% La-doped KNLNT ceramics, with d33=215pC/N, kp=42.8%and Qm=89. It has been remarkably improved that the temperature stability of KNLTN-Lax piezoelectric properties at room temperature, and the dielectric relaxation can be observed obviously. The mechanism of La doping was analyzed in terms of valence compensation and polymorphic phase transition (PPT) diffusion. The orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition around room temperature and the relaxation transition were considered contributing to the excellent piezoelectric performance and improved temperature stability of La3+-doped KNLTN.

  9. Structure, electrical properties of Bi(Fe, Co)O3-BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with improved Curie temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yang, Huabin; Zhou, Qin; Li, Weizhou; Yuan, Changlai; Wang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    Dense (1-y)BiFe1-xCoxO3-yBaTiO3 (BFC-BTx, y=0.29, x=0-0.012) high-temperature lead-free ceramics were prepared by the conventional oxide-mixed method and the effects of BiCoO3 modification on microstructural, electrical properties and their Curie temperatures were investigated. The solid solutions show a single phase perovskite structure, and the content of BiCoO3 has a significant effect on the microstructure of ceramics. The BFC-BTx ceramics exhibit improved Curie temperature Tc, together with increased piezoelectric properties. In particular, x=0.6% BFC-BTx ceramics, with a Curie temperature, Tc, of ∼488 °C, show optimum piezoelectric properties of d33=167 pC/N, kp=0.32. The combination of good piezoelectric properties and high Tc makes these ceramics suitable for elevated temperature piezoelectric devices.

  10. Pyrochlore-structured titanate ceramics for immobilisation of actinides: Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and stainless steel/waste form interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Huijun; Moricca, Sam

    2008-07-01

    A pyrochlore-structured titanate ceramic has been studied in respect of its overall feasibility for immobilisation of impure actinide-rich radioactive wastes through the hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) technique. The resultant waste form contains mainly pyrochlore (˜70%), rutile (˜14%) as well as perovskite (˜12%), hollandite (˜2%) and brannerite (˜1%). Optical spectroscopy confirms that uranium (used to simulate Pu) exists mainly in the stable pyrochlore-structured phase as tetravalent ions as designed. The stainless steel/waste form interactions under HIPing conditions (1280 °C/100 MPa/3 h) do not seem to change the actinide-bearing phases and therefore should have no detrimental effect on the waste form.

  11. Enhanced High Temperature Piezoelectrics Based on BiScO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature piezoelectrics are a key technology for aeronautics and aerospace applications such as fuel modulation to increase the engine efficiency and decrease emissions. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is the limitation on upper use temperature which is due to low Curie-Temperature (TC) and increasing electrical conductivity. BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system is a promising candidate for improving the operating temperature for piezoelectric actuators due to its high TC (greater than 400 C). Bi2O3 was shown to be a good sintering aid for liquid phase sintering resulting in reduced grain size and increased resistivity. Zr doped and liquid phase sintered BS-PT ceramics exhibited saturated and square hysteresis loops with enhanced remenant polarization (37 microC per square centimeter) and coercive field (14 kV/cm). BS-PT doped with Mn showed enhanced field induced strain (0.27% at 50kV/cm). All the numbers indicated in parenthesis were collected at 100 C.

  12. Smart actuators with piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janocha, Hartmut; Jendritza, Daniel J.; Scheer, Peter

    1996-04-01

    Piezoelectric solid-state actuators continue to gain in technical and economic significance for a great variety of applications such as quick fine-positioning tasks, control of structural stability and active noise and vibration control due to the high driving forces, short reaction times and compact construction of these actuators. Microelectronics and signal processing must be combined intelligently to form `smart actuators' in order to do justice to the growing demand for precision, miniaturization, efficiency and cost. Energy transducers with piezoelectric PZT ceramics (PZT: lead-zirconate-titanate) simultaneously possess actuator and sensor capacities. An important requirement for the construction of smart actuators is fulfilled by separating the sensor information (charge approximately external force) from the actuator control quantities (elongation approximately electric field strength). A closed-loop control structure with digital signal processing and a voltage controlled power amplifier were developed to enable nearly load-independent linearization of the actuator's response characteristic (elongation-voltage curve) even under dynamic operating conditions by making use of the `self-sensing' effect and without using extra force or displacement sensors. The effectiveness of the developed approach for realizing smart actuators was verified and specified with the help of a computerized large-signal measurement set-up using a low-voltage piezoelectric ceramic stack as an example.

  13. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}-Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tianlong; Chen Jianguo; Dong Shuxiang; Wang Chunming; Yu Yang

    2013-07-14

    (0.95-x)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.05Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d{sub 33} = 505pC/N, k{sub p} = 55.9%, k{sub t} = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and P{sub r} = 39.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature T{sub c} was found to increase from 371 Degree-Sign C to 414 Degree-Sign C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  14. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d_{33} and the transverse strain constant d_{31} are calculated to be 520 and -200  pm/V, respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary. PMID:26824565

  15. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d_{33} and the transverse strain constant d_{31} are calculated to be 520 and -200  pm/V, respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  16. Synthesis and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-doped lead-free Li0.12Na0.88NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Supratim; Rathore, Deepshikha

    2016-05-01

    New lead-free (1-x)Li0.12Na0.88NbO3-xBaTiO3 [(1-x)LNN-xBT] (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized using conventional ceramics processing route. The phase analysis revealed that material undergoes two phase transition: orthorhombic to tetragonal around x = 0.2 and tetragonal to cubic for x ≥ 0.3. The microstructural analysis confirms a homogeneous solid solution, well developed grains and a high sintered density. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated and the material is found suitable for memory, piezoelectric vibrators and low power transducers applications.

  17. Electrical Properties of Thickness-Vibration-Mode Multilayer Piezoelectric Transformer using Low-Temperature-Sintering-Modified PbTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Juhyun; Kim, Dohyung; Yoo, Kyungjin; Oh, Hyungsuk; Lee, Ilha; Lee, Sangho; Hwang, Larkhoon; Jeong, Yeongho

    2007-10-01

    In this study, a low temperature sintering thickness-vibration-mode multilayer piezoelectric transformer for a DC-DC converter was manufactured using (Pb0.76Ca0.23Sr0.01)Ti0.96(Mn1/3Sb2/3)0.04O3 ceramics. Its electrical properties were investigated according to the variations in frequency and load resistance. The voltage step-up ratio of the multilayer piezoelectric transformer showed a maximum value at a resonant frequency of 1.444 MHz and increased with an increase in load resistance. The efficiency of the multilayer piezoelectric transformer showed the highest value at a load resistance of 17 Ω. The output power increased with increasing input voltage. When the output impedance of the multilayer piezoelectric transformer coincided with the load resistance, output power showed the highest value of 18 W within a 20 °C temperature increase.

  18. Microstructure and electrical properties in W/Nb co-doped Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhihang; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • W/Nb codoped BIT ceramics were prepared by the mixed oxides route. • High nd{sup 0} electronic configuration of W/Nb reduces the lattice distortion and T{sub C}. • Oxygen vacancy is responsible for dielectric relaxation and DC conduction process. • W/Nb additives significantly enhanced the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} value. • BWNb-10 ceramics possessed large remnant polarization and a wide sintering window. - Abstract: Aurivillius-type Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3-x}W{sub x/2}Nb{sub x/2}O{sub 12} ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering method. The XRD patterns demonstrated that all compositions were a single three layered crystalline structure, involving a reduction of lattice distortion with an increase in W/Nb doping level. The electrical properties including dielectric, electrical conduction and piezoelectric properties were tailored by W/Nb additives. The Curie-temperature decreased, whereas the electrical resistivity drastically increased with introduction of W/Nb donor dopants. As a result, a high electric field can be applied during the poling process. The Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 2.9}W{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 12} ceramics exhibited optimum piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} ∼22.8 pC/N), large remnant polarization (2P{sub r} ∼26.8 μC/cm{sup 2} @ 200 °C) together with a high Curie temperature (T{sub C} ∼635 °C). Furthermore, this composition possessed a wide sintering window with outstanding piezoelectric properties. These parameters indicate that Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 2.9}W{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 12}-based ceramic is a promising candidate for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  19. The field induced e{sub 31,f} piezoelectric and Rayleigh response in barium strontium titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, L. M. Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-09-29

    The electric field induced e{sub 31,f} piezoelectric response and tunability of Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (70:30) and Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (60:40) thin films on MgO and silicon was measured. The relative dielectric tunabilities for the 70:30 and 60:40 compositions on MgO were 83% and 70%, respectively, with a dielectric loss of less than 0.011 and 0.004 at 100 kHz. A linear increase in induced piezoelectricity to −3.0 C/m{sup 2} and −1.5 C/m{sup 2} at 110 kV/cm was observed in Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} on MgO and Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} on Si. Hysteresis in the piezoelectric and dielectric response of the 70:30 composition films was consistent with the positive irreversible dielectric Rayleigh coefficient. Both indicate a ferroelectric contribution to the piezoelectric and dielectric response over 40–80 °C above the global paraelectric transition temperature.

  20. Piezoelectric Properties of Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenze; Yu, Jian

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of eutectic behavior of PbTiO3-PbZrO3-Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 ternary system, perovskite-structured Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics were able to be prepared using conventional electronic ceramic processing at low sintering temperature compatible with Ag as inner electrode materials, promising for co-firing technology to fabricate monolithic multilayer piezoelectric transducers. The dependence of its piezoelectric properties on sintering temperature and various dopants were investigated experimentally and a piezoelectric property with dielectric constant of ɛ33T/ɛ0=1190, dielectric loss of tan δ=0.6%, piezoelectric coefficient of d33=270 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient of kp=0.54, thickness coupling coefficient of kt=0.46 and Curie temperature of Tc=346 °C was obtained for the 0.5% Co-doped Pb0.98Bi0.02Zr0.51Ti0.48Zn0.01O3 ceramics sintered at 950 °C.

  1. Note: a high-sensitivity current sensor based on piezoelectric ceramic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and ferromagnetic materials.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhang, Jitao; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

    2014-02-01

    An electric current sensor using piezoelectric ceramic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) sandwiched between two high permeability cuboids and two NdFeB magnets is presented. The magnetic field originating from an electric wire is augmented by the high permeability cuboids. The PZT plate experiences an enhanced magnetic force and generates voltage output. When placed with a distance of d = 5.0 mm from the wire, the sensor shows a flat sensitivity of ∼5.7 mV/A in the frequency range of 30 Hz-80 Hz and an average sensitivity of 5.6 mV/A with highly linear behavior in the current range of 1 A-10 A at 50 Hz.

  2. Development of piezoelectric skin friction force vector transducer for a hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    A surface shear force transducer for use in impulse type hypersonic tunnels is described. Sensors are constructed of lead zirconate titanate composition piezoelectric ceramic materials. The diameter of the sensing diaphragm is 0.75 inches and overall transducer dimensions are 1.0 inch diameter and 0.625 inch height. Analysis of the tranducer is made to help design criteria and fabrication techniques. Discussions on design and fabrication techniques are presented as well as performance of transducers delivered.

  3. Fatigue properties and impedance analysis of potassium sodium niobate-strontium titanate transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Fan, Huiqing; Lei, Shenhui; Wang, Ju; Tian, Hailin

    2016-10-01

    Highly transparent ferroelectric ceramics based on 0.9K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.1SrTiO3 were prepared using a pressure-less solid-state sintering method without using hot isostatic pressing and spark plasma sintering. An independence electromechanical response of bipolar switching cycles ( S 33 only degraded 3.2 % up to 107 cycles) was presented in this transparent ceramics, which indicated an extremely stable property under electric field. From impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, it was concluded that such optical transparency and fatigue-resistant behaviors were mainly attributed to the lower density of oxygen vacancies in the ceramics.

  4. Bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric-phase lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1988-11-01

    A recently discovered photostorage effect in antiferroelectric-phase (AFE-phase) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions appears to be particularly applicable to binary optical information storage. The basis for bistable optical information storage is that exposure to near-UV or visible light shifts the electric field threshold of the phase transition between the field-induced ferroelectric (FE) phase and the stable AFE phase in the direction of the initial AFE /yields/ FE phase transition. Properties of this photoactivated shift of the FE /yields/ AFE phase transition, including preliminary photosensitivity measurements and photostorage mechanisms, are presented. Photosensitivity enhancement by ion implantation is also discussed.

  5. Polymorphic structure evolution and large piezoelectric response of lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ye; Chao, Xiaolian E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn; Wei, Lingling; Liang, Pengfei; Yang, Zupei E-mail: yangzp@snnu.edu.cn; Jin, Li

    2014-03-17

    The polymorphic structure evolution of (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics was investigated by analysis of the in situ X-ray diffraction and dielectric spectra. The results indicated that a confined orthorhombic (O) phase region induced by the approach of the rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases existed in an extremely narrow temperature range of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} composition. The electric properties near the O–T phase boundaries of (Ba{sub 0.95}Ca{sub 0.05})(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} and (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9})O{sub 3} were compared. The results suggested that the confined O phase region is an important factor that contributes to the extremely large piezoelectric response.

  6. Effects of high energy x ray and proton irradiation on lead zirconate titanate thin films' dielectric and piezoelectric response

    SciTech Connect

    Bastani, Y.; Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Wilson, A. D.; Gerardin, S.; Bagatin, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.

    2013-05-13

    The effects of irradiation by X rays and protons on the dielectric and piezoelectric response of highly (100)-textured polycrystalline Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been studied. Low-field dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric d{sub 33,f} response all degraded with exposure to radiation, for doses higher than 300 krad. At first approximation, the degradation increased at higher radiation doses, and was stronger in samples exposed to X rays, compared to the proton-irradiated ones. Nonlinear and high-field dielectric characterization suggest a radiation-induced reduction of the extrinsic contributions to the response, attributed to increased pinning of the domain walls by the radiation-induced point defects.

  7. Phase Structures and Piezoelectric Properties of (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Sb)O3-(Bi,Ag)ZrO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, ZhiPeng; Zhang, Yang; Li, LingYu; Li, JianKang; Zhai, JiWei

    2016-06-01

    Samples in the pseudoternary lead-free piezoelectric ceramic system 0.94KNN-(0.06 - x)LiSbO3- x(Bi0.5Ag0.5)ZrO3 were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique and their phase transition behavior and electrical properties studied. Results showed that BAZ diffuses into KNN-LS to form a new solid solution, and induces a phase transition from tetragonal to rhombohedral phase with increase of x. At 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.03, coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases is observed, and enhanced piezoelectric properties are achieved in this composition range due to the polymorphic phase transition near room temperature. Doping with (Bi0.5Ag0.5)ZrO3 effectively promotes densification and further enhances the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of of the ceramics. Moreover, the ceramic with x = 0.025 possesses excellent electrical properties of k p = 42.3%, {d_{33}^{*}} = 320 pm/V and d 33 = 235 pC/N, tan δ = 0.039, and T c = 326°C. This result indicates that 0.94KNN-0.035LS-0.025BAZ ceramic is a promising lead-free material for practical applications.

  8. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  9. Evaluation of polarization of embedded piezoelectrics by the thermal wave method.

    PubMed

    Suchaneck, Gunnar; Eydam, Agnes; Hu, Wenguo; Kranz, Burkhart; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Gerlach, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    This work demonstrates the benefit of the thermal wave method for the evaluation of the polarization state of embedded piezoelectrics. Two types of samples were investigated: A low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor-actuator and a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator. At modulation frequencies below 10 Hz, the pyroelectric response was governed by thermal losses to the embedding layers. Here, the sample behavior was described by a harmonically heated piezoelectric plate exhibiting heat losses to the environment characterized by a single thermal relaxation time.

  10. Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient.

  11. Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shashaank; Belianinov, Alex; Okatan, Mahmut B; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Priya, Shashaank

    2014-01-01

    (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180 and non-180 domains for textured ceramic as compared to that of the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of (001)pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of (001)pc texture is limited by the crystal structure.

  12. Combinatorial bulk ceramic magnetoelectric composite libraries of strontium hexaferrite and barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    Bulk ceramic combinatorial libraries were produced via a novel, high-throughput (HT) process, in the form of polycrystalline strips with a gradient composition along the length of the library. Step gradient ceramic composite libraries with 10 mol % steps of SrFe12O19-BaTiO3 (SrM-BT) were made and characterized using HT methods, as a proof of principle of the combinatorial bulk ceramic process, and sintered via HT thermal processing. It was found that the SrM-BT libraries sintered at 1175 °C had the optimum morphology and density. The compositional, electrical and magnetic properties of this library were analyzed, and it was found that the SrM and BT phases did not react and remained discrete. The combinatorial synthesis method produced a relatively linear variation in composition. The magnetization of the library followed the measured compositions very well, as did the low frequency permittivity values of most compositions in the library. However, with high SrM content of ≥80 mol %, the samples became increasingly conductive, and no reliable dielectric measurements could be made. Such conductivity would also greatly inhibit any ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling with these composites with high levels of the SrM hexagonal ferrite. PMID:22676556

  13. High piezoelectricity due to multiphase coexistence in low-temperature sintered (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3-CuOx ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Kun; Zhu, Li-Feng; Cheng, Li-Qian; Li, Jing-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Ultrahigh piezoelectric constant (d33 = 683 pC/N) and converse piezoelectric coefficient (dS/dE = 1257 pm/V) were observed in CuO-doped lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics at an optimal composition fabricated by a conventional sintering method at a low temperature 1250 °C. Since all samples showed a pure perovskite structure with coexisting multiphases including cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, and rhombohedral phases around two converged triple points, a good compositional stability of high piezoelectricity along with a high d33 and dS/dE over 600 pC/N and 1000 pm/V was achieved within a wide compositional region (1.0 ≤ x ≤ 3.0) regardless of the CuO content (x).

  14. Good Quality Factor in GdMnO3-Doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Raul Alin; Badea, Iuliana; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Novaconi, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    (1 - x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 - xGdMnO3 (KNN- xGM) ferroelectric ceramics (0 ≤ x ≤ 5 mol.%) were obtained through a solid state technique. For all the studied compositions, orthorhombic perovskite crystalline structures were obtained at room temperature. GdMnO3 suppresses the grain growth and gives rather homogenous microstructures as the concentration increases. The doped ceramics exhibita good dielectric response, a "hard" ferroelectric behavior and good piezoelectric properties. An improved mechanical quality factor of 1180 and a high Curie temperature T C = 400°C, coupled with k p = 0.426, makes the composition x = 1 mol.% GdMnO3 suitable for lead-free piezoelectric materials for high-power and high-temperature applications.

  15. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CeO2-added nonstoichiometric (Na0.5K0.5)0.97(Nb0.96Sb0.04)O3 ceramics for piezoelectric energy harvesting device applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngkwang; Noh, Jungrae; Yoo, Juhyun; Kang, Jinhee; Hwang, Larkhoon; Hong, Jaeil

    2011-09-01

    In this study, nonstoichiometric (Na(0.5)K(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics were fabricated and their dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated according to the CeO(2) addition. In this ceramic composition, CeO(2) addition improved sinterability, electromechanical coupling factor k(p), mechanical quality factor Q(m), piezoelectric constant d(33), and g(33). At the sintering temperature of 1100°C, for the 0.2wt% CeO(2) added specimen, the optimum values of density = 4.359 g/cm(3), k(p) = 0.443, Q(m) = 588, ε(r) = 444, d(33) = 159 pC/N, and g(33) = 35 × 10(-3) V·m/N, were obtained. A piezoelectric energy harvesting device using 0.2 wt% CeO(2)- added lead-free (K(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.97)(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3) ceramics and a rectifying circuit for energy harvesting were fabricated and their electrical characteristics were investigated. Under an external vibration acceleration of 0.7 g, when the mass, the frequency of vibration generator, and matching load resistance were 2.4 g, 70 Hz, and 721 Ω, respectively, output voltage and power of piezoelectric harvesting device indicated the optimum values of 24.6 mV(rms) and 0.839 μW, respectively-suitable for application as the electric power source of a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) sensor node. PMID:21937318

  16. Grain size effects on dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate composite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiwei; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Haijun; Yao, Xi

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The tunability (T) and quality factor (Q) were found to be strongly dependent on the grain sizes. With increasing the grain size, the tunability significantly decreased. In contrary, the quality factor (Q) at microwave frequencies increased with increasing grain size. A moderate tunability while maintaining a high Q value is still realizable for composite ceramics when grain sizes were controlled to a suitable region A (from 6.5 to 15.0 μm). Highlights: ► The tunability (T) and quality factor (Q) were found to be strongly dependent on the grain sizes. ► With increasing the grain size, the tunability significantly decreased, while the quality factor Q at microwave frequencies increased. ► A moderate tunability while maintaining a high Q value is realizable for composites with grain sizes from about 6.5 to 15.0 μm. - Abstract: Ba{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.6}TiO{sub 3}–Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} composite ceramics with different grain sizes were prepared by three sintering methods. The dielectric constant dependences of temperature and frequency showed an increased degree of diffuseness of the Curie peaks as the grain sizes decreased. The tunability (T) and quality factor (Q) were found to be strongly dependent on the grain sizes. The tunability significantly decreased with increasing the grain size. In contrary, the quality factor (Q) at microwave frequencies increased with increasing grain size. A moderate tunability while maintaining a high Q value is still realizable for composite ceramics with grain sizes from about 6.5 to 15.0 μm.

  17. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics processed under low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Doshida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (Sn-NKN) ceramics fired under various oxygen partial pressure (pO2) conditions have been investigated and discussed in terms of bulk piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction measurements and Rayleigh analysis indicate that the substitution site of the Sn cations depend on the pO2 atmosphere in the firing process. For pO2 higher than 1.0 × 10-10 atm, Sn cations mainly substitute as Sn4+ at the B-site of perovskite NKN, whereas Sn2+ A-site substitution is favored under a low-pO2 atmosphere. Low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics exhibit higher relative permittivity, Curie temperature, and piezoelectric coefficient (d33). Sn2+ at A-site acts as a donor and reduces the p-type carrier concentrations that result from an electronic compensation of metal vacancies created through the high volatility of Na and K suboxides. The higher piezoelectricity and resistivity in low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics make this material suitable for base-metal cofired devices such as Ni-inner-electrode multilayer capacitors and actuators.

  18. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Lauren M. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  19. Major contributor to the large piezoelectric response in (1 - x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 - x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics: Domain wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinghui; Hu, Xinghao; Zhang, Le; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Yu; Hao, Yanshuang; Zhong, Lisheng; Ren, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    The piezoelectric activity of lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-xBCT) ceramics has been investigated as a function of composition by using Rayleigh analysis under subswitching-electric-field in combination with large-electric-field strain measurement. The result shows that the intrinsic piezoelectric response exhibits peak values in the vicinity of composition-induced R (rhombohedral)-MPB (morphotropic phase boundary) and MPB-T (tetragonal) phase transitions, but being much less than total d33 value. On the other hand, the extrinsic piezoelectric response, especially the one associated with reversible domain wall motion, has been greatly enhanced in the phase instability regime. Our results indicate that the extrinsic piezoelectric activity is the major contributor to the high piezoelectricity in BZT-xBCT ceramics.

  20. Polarization switching of and electron emission from lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Huebner, W.; Sampayan, S.E.; Krogh, M.L.

    1999-03-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the influence of material properties on the complicated ferroelectric (FE) emission process. Three different compositions in the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) system were chosen for study, based on their widely different dielectric and ferroelectric properties: antiferroelectric (AFE) 2/95/5, normal ferroelectric 8/65/35, and nonferroelectric 15/65/35. Repeatable emission was obtained from the 2/95/5 composition, which could also be modulated at high frequency (200 kHz). The fast AFE {r_reversible} FE phase transition is responsible for the FE emission properties of this material, which is supported by the relationship between the switching current and the emission current. Comparatively, FE emission from the 8/65/35 composition degraded rapidly, which was attributed to decreases in the remanent polarization. No emission signal was detected from the 15/65/35 composition, because no switching activity occurs, which can be interpreted as additional evidence that electron emission from the previously mentioned two compositions was indeed a FE emission process.

  1. Measurements of the thermal, dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and elastic properties of porous PZT samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sidney B.; Ringgaard, Erling

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of porosity into ferroelectric ceramics has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, studies of porous lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic (PZT) have been made. In the research reported, samples of Ferroperm Pz27 with porosities of 20, 25 and 30% were studied. Very complete measurements were made of all of the physical properties relevant for ferroelectric applications including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, heat capacity, dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties. Scanning electron micrographs indicated a change from 3-0 to 3-3 connectivity with increasing porosity. Although most of the physical properties are degraded by the presence of porosity, both piezoelectric and pyroelectric figures-of-merit are improved because of the markedly reduced relative permittivity. Porous ferroelectric ceramics are very promising materials for a number of applications.

  2. Robust polarization and strain behavior of Sm-modified BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Julian; Budic, Bojan; Bryant, Peter; Kurusingal, Valsala; Sorrell, Charles C; Bencan, Andreja; Rojac, Tadej; Valanoor, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    The route to phase-pure BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics with excellent ferroelectric and electromechanical properties is severely impeded by difficulties associated with the perovskite phase stability during synthesis. This has meant that dopants and solid solutions with BFO have been investigated as a means of not only improving the functional properties, but also of improving the perovskite phase formation of BFO-based ceramics. The present work focuses on Sm-modified BFO ceramics of composition Bi0.88Sm0.12FeO3. The polarization and strain behaviors were investigated as a function of the phase composition, microstructure, and chemical composition. Addition of Sm reduces the susceptibility of the BFO perovskite to phase degradation by Si impurities. Si was observed to react into Sm-rich grains dispersed within the microstructure, with no large increases in the amount of bismuth-parasitic phases, namely Bi25FeO39 and Bi2Fe4O9. These as-prepared ceramics exhibited robust polarization behavior showing maximum remnant polarizations of ~40 to 50 μC/cm(2). The electric-fieldinduced strain showed an appreciable stability in terms of the driving field frequency with maximum peak-to-peak strains of ~0.3% and a coercive field of ~130 kV/cm.

  3. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of (0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianguo; Zhao Tianlong; Cheng Jinrong; Dong Shuxiang

    2013-04-14

    (0.98-x)Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.02Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BSI-PT-PZN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by traditional solid-state reaction method. Combining X-ray diffraction results with piezoelectric data, it was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) occurred at x = 0.575. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}, curie temperature T{sub c}, and electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics with MPB composition were 427 pC/N, 412 Degree-Sign C, and 0.51, respectively. Furthermore, the strain of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics reached up to 0.25% under the electric field of 40 kV/cm. Temperature-dependent electromechanical coupling coefficient for MPB composition was stable from room temperature up to 350 Degree-Sign C. The piezoelectric properties of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were comparable to that of 0.36BiScO{sub 3}-0.64PbTiO{sub 3} (BS-PT) ceramics, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of BIS-PT-PZN ceramics was about twice that of our previous reported 0.4Bi(Sc{sub 3/4}In{sub 1/4})O{sub 3}-0.6PbTiO{sub 3} (BSI-PT) ceramics. The reduction in the expensive Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and comparable piezoelectric properties with BS-PT ceramics indicated that BIS-PT-PZN ceramics were promising for commercial applications as high temperature actuators and sensors.

  4. Dielectric properties of barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics tailored by different donors for high voltage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian Quan; Liu, Bai Bo; Tian, Hu Yong; Zou, Han; Yue, Zhen Xing; Li, Long Tu

    2012-10-01

    The dielectric properties of BZT ceramics with different Zr contents and donor types are studied. It is shown that the large enhancement of the dielectric permittivity is achieved accompanying with the remarkable shift of Curie temperature in the samples doped with donors such as La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, and Yb, whereas the results are different in them doped with other type of donors such as Ce and Y. The shift of Curie temperature is related to the ionic radii of the doped donors. A smaller ion results in a greater shift. The dielectric properties of BZT with different doping levels of Yb are also studied and showed that there is a preferable doping content as Yb ˜0.1% to make the material with the highest permittivity, ɛ ˜25,800, withstand voltage >˜3.5 kV/mm.

  5. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  6. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.95(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics with Ag2O contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Baek, Sang-Don; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Young-Hie; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Ku-Tak

    2012-12-01

    Lead-Free ceramics 0.95(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.05CaTiO3- x mol. % Ag2O have been fabricated as a function of the amount of Ag2O content. NKN-CT ceramics showed the highest piezoelectric properties and ferroelectric properties at the 0.5 mol. %Ag2O content. The NKN-CT-Ag2O0.5 mol. % ceramics show a good performance with piezoelectric constant d 33 = 221 ρC/N, k p = 0.38%, respectively. The corresponding Curie temperature and remnant polarization reached 370°C and 22.5 µC/cm2, respectively. These results appear that NKN-CTAg2O ceramics are promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric application.

  7. Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

    2014-02-19

    Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ∼490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33∼390-490 pC/N and TC∼217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last". PMID:24499419

  8. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Dengfeng; Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi; Xu Chaonan; Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo

    2012-05-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  9. Study of piezoelectric transducers in smart structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kwok Ho

    To develop a novel smart material in civil engineering applications, cement-based 1-3 composites have been fabricated and characterized. The feasibility of the embedded 1-3 composite transducers in structural monitoring applications have been demonstrated in this project. In the present work, piezoelectric ceramic discs and fibres were fabricated and used as the active phases of the 1-3 composites. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic discs were fabricated using a conventional dry pressing method. All the parameters of PZT ceramics have been evaluated by a resonance technique. Crack-free PZT ceramic fibres were fabricated using a simple powder mixing method. The microstructural and electrical characterizations show that performance of the ceramic fibres can be comparable to that of the corresponding bulk ceramics. To study the piezoceramic/cement 1-3 composites, the properties of cement have been studied as a function of water content. The elastic properties of cement with different water/cement ratios were characterized using the ultrasonic immersion method. It was found that the cement paste with water/cement ratio of 0.5 is relatively "soft" to be used as the passive phase of a 1-3 composite. When comparing with the ceramics, the acoustic impedance of cement is much closer to that of concrete. Piezoelectric PZT/cement 1-3 composites with a wide range of the ceramic volume fraction (φ= 0.25--0.77) have been fabricated successfully using a dice-and-fill technique. Piezoelectric properties of the 1-3 composites were determined by a resonance technique. The characterization showed that the high piezoelectric characteristics of ceramics were maintained and the effective acoustic impedance of composites was reduced as expected. Even the phase matrix is the cement paste, the thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of the 1-3 composites can be enhanced effectively which approaches to the k33 coefficient of the ceramics. The 1-3 composites were found to

  10. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties in (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with two-phase co-existing state

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H. Matsuoka, T.; Kozuka, H.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.; Ida, T.

    2015-06-07

    Two phases of (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) co-exist in a KNN-based composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic 0.910(K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}){sub 0.86}Ca{sub 0.04}Li{sub 0.02}Nb{sub 0.85}O{sub 3−δ}–0.042K{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 1.15}O{sub 5} –0.036BaZrO{sub 3}–0.0016Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}– 0.0025Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.0069ZnO system, over a wide range of Na fractions, where 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. The crystal systems of the two KNN phases are identified to tetragonal and orthorhombic by analyzing the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAD). In the range 0.33 ≤ x ≤ 0.50, the main component of the composite system is found to be single-phase KNN with a tetragonal structure. Granular nanodomains of the orthorhombic phase dispersed in the tetragonal matrix have been identified by HR-TEM and SAD for 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. Only a trace amount of the orthorhombic phase has been found in the SAD patterns at the composition x = 0.56. However, the number of orthorhombic nanodomains gradually increases with increasing Na content up to x < 0.75, as observed from the HR-TEM images. An abrupt increase and agglomeration of the nanodomains are observed at x = 0.75, where weak diffraction peaks of the orthorhombic phase have also become detectable from the XRD data. The maximum value of the electromechanical coupling coefficient, k{sub p} = 0.56, has been observed at the composition x = 0.56.

  11. Comparison of the properties of tonpilz transducers fabricated with 001 fiber-textured lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate ceramic and single crystals.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Kristen H; Messing, Gary L; Markley, Douglas C; Meyer, Richard J

    2009-11-01

    Tonpilz transducers are fabricated from 001 fiber-textured 0.72Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (PMN-28PT) ceramics, obtained by the templated grain growth process, and PMN-28PT ceramic and Bridgman grown single crystals of the same composition. In-water characterization of single element transducers shows higher source levels, higher in-water coupling, and more usable bandwidth for the 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT device than for the ceramic PMN-28PT element. The 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT tonpilz element measured under large signals shows linearity in sound pressure levels up to 0.23 MV/m drive field but undergoes a phase transition due to a lowered transition temperature from the SrTiO(3) template particles. Although the textured ceramic performs well in this application, it could be further improved with compositional tailoring to raise the transition temperature and better processing to improve the texture quality. With these improvements textured piezoelectric ceramics will be viable options for medical ultrasound, actuators, and sonar applications because of their ease of processing, compositional homogeneity, and potentially lower cost than single crystal.

  12. Effect of dc bias and hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transformation in a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

    2010-06-01

    Phase transformation between the ferroelectric (FE) and the antiferroelectric (AFE) phases in tin modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) ceramics can be influenced by pressure and electric field. Increasing the pressure has the tendency to favor the AFE phase while electric field favors the FE phase. In this study, these phase transformations are studied as functions of external pressure, temperature, and dc bias. The shifting of transformation temperature and the relative phase stability between FE and AFE with respect to these external parameters will be presented. Results will be compared to a pressure-induced depoling behavior (or FE-to-AFE phase transformation) for the PSZT ceramic. Fundamental issues relates to the relative phase stability will be discussed from the perspective of lattice dynamics theory.

  13. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect.

  14. P(VDF-TrFE)/BaTiO3 Nanoparticle Composite Films Mediate Piezoelectric Stimulation and Promote Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Ceseracciu, Luca; Marino, Attilio; Labardi, Massimiliano; Marras, Sergio; Pignatelli, Francesca; Bruschini, Luca; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE)) and P(VDF-TrFE)/barium titanate nanoparticle (BTNP) films are prepared and tested as substrates for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. Films are characterized in terms of surface, mechanical, and piezoelectric features before in vitro testing on SH-SY5Y cells. In particular, BTNPs significantly improve piezoelectric properties of the films (4.5-fold increased d31 ). Both kinds of films support good SH-SY5Y viability and differentiation. Ultrasound (US) stimulation is proven to elicit Ca(2+) transients and to enhance differentiation in cells grown on the piezoelectric substrates. For the first time in the literature, this study demonstrates the suitability of polymer/ceramic composite films and US for neuronal stimulation through direct piezoelectric effect. PMID:27283784

  15. Processing Techniques Developed to Fabricate Lanthanum Titanate Piezoceramic Material for High-Temperature Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic materials are potential candidates for use as actuators and sensors in intelligent gas turbine engines. For piezoceramics to be applied in gas turbine engines, they will have to be able to function in temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2500 F. However, the maximum use temperature for state-of-the-art piezoceramic materials is on the order of 300 to 400 F. Research activities have been initiated to develop high-temperature piezoceramic materials for gas turbine engine applications. Lanthanum titanate has been shown to have high-temperature piezoelectric properties with Curie temperatures of T(sub c) = 1500 C and use temperatures greater than 1000 C. However, the fabrication of lanthanum titanate poses serious challenges because of the very high sintering temperatures required for densification. Two different techniques have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to fabricate dense lanthanum titanate piezoceramic material. In one approach, lower sintering temperatures were achieved by adding yttrium oxide to commercially available lanthanum titanate powder. Addition of only 0.1 mol% yttrium oxide lowered the sintering temperature by as much as 300 C, to just 1100 C, and dense lanthanum titanate was produced by pressure-assisted sintering. The second approach utilized the same commercially available powders but used an innovative sintering approach called differential sintering, which did not require any additive.

  16. Influence of a silver epoxy dopant on the performance of broken piezoelectric ceramic transducer based on an analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhamed Mohammed, Arshed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Zaki Nuawi, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, an unprecedented increase in the types of, the methods of using, and the demand for piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PCTs) has been observed in the market. These factors increase the probability of PCTs being subjected to breakage. Therefore, this study proposes a simple, low-cost procedure which uses available components to repair and reinstall five broken PCTs and then tests them as emitters and receivers in bulk and surface wave detection. An SM211 PCT with a 7.2 MHz frequency, a high damping and electromechanical coupling coefficient, and two silver electrodes were selected for the experiment. A Mason circuit was used for the procedure, the Laplace transform was used as a mathematical analysis method, and MATLAB was the technical computing language used to model the new transfer function for this type of PCT. This study proved that silver electrodes are a significant load on PCTs, particularly at high frequencies. Very good identity correlations between this mathematical and the experimental responses of the standard PCT were obtained. Later this mathematical model was used to prove the explanations provided by this research. The response of the standard PCT was compared with that of the samples of PCT that have been repaired (SPCTR). Through this comparison, many conclusions were obtained, and several recommendations were made, which can be taken advantage of by people who are interested in this field of research. Such recommendations include analyzing the response of SPCTR and explaining the types of ultrasonic tests in which SPCTR can be used.

  17. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  18. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziana Genchi, Giada; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these ‘smart’ nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation.

  19. Barium titanate nanoparticles: promising multitasking vectors in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giada Graziana; Marino, Attilio; Rocca, Antonella; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-06-10

    Ceramic materials based on perovskite-like oxides have traditionally been the object of intense interest for their applicability in electrical and electronic devices. Due to its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric features, barium titanate (BaTiO3) is probably one of the most studied compounds of this family. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the exploitation of barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) in the biomedical field, owing to the high biocompatibility of BTNPs and their peculiar non-linear optical properties that have encouraged their use as nanocarriers for drug delivery and as label-free imaging probes. In this review, we summarize all the recent findings about these 'smart' nanoparticles, including the latest, most promising potential as nanotransducers for cell stimulation. PMID:27145888

  20. Ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions on the base piezoelectric ceramic materials for components of micromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Zachariasz, Radosław; Niemiec, Przemysław; Ilczuk, Jan; Bartkowska, Joanna; Brzezińska, Dagmara

    2016-10-01

    In the presented work, a ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions based on PZT and ferrite powders have been obtained. The main aim of combination of ferroelectric and magnetic powders was to obtain material showing both electric and magnetic properties. Ferroelectric ceramic powder (in amount of 90%) was based on the doped PZT type solid solution while magnetic component was nickel-zinc ferrite Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (in amount of 10%). The synthesis of components of ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions was performed using the solid phase sintering. Final densification of synthesized powder has been done using free sintering. The aim of the work was to obtain and examine in the first multicomponent PZT type ceramics admixed with chromium with the following chemical composition Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3 and next ferroelectromagnetic solid solution based on a PZT type ferroelectric powder (Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3) and nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4), from the point of view of their mechanical and electric properties, such as: electric permittivity, ε; dielectric loss, tanδ; mechanical losses, Q-1; and Young modulus, E.

  1. High temperature (NaBi)0.48□0.04Bi2Nb2O9-based piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Lei; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zang, Guo-Zhong; Ming, Bao-Quan; Qi, Peng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of (LiCe) substitution for A site on the properties of (NaBi)0.48◻0.04Bi2Nb2O9 (NB◻N)-based ceramics was investigated. The coercive fields (EC) of NB◻N)-based ceramics were significantly decreased from 61.0to32.5kV/cm and the Curie temperature (TC) gradually decreases from 820to803°C with increasing the (LiCe) modification. The piezoelectric coefficient d33, planar coupling factor kp, and mechanical quality factor Q of (NaBi)0.38(LiCe)0.05◻0.14Bi2Nb2O9 ceramic were found to be 27pC/N, 11.2%, and 2600, respectively, together with the high TC (˜809°C) and stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the (LiCe) modified NB◻N-based material a promising candidate for high temperature applications.

  2. Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yun; Noren, Lasse; Studer, Andrew J.; Withers, Ray L.; Guo Yiping; Li Yongxiang; Yang Hui; Wang Jian

    2012-03-15

    We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials. - Graphical abstract: The intergrown microstructure at very fine scales within the R3c rhombohedral phase matrix of BNT, originating from octahedral tilt twinning disorder, will increase with respect to an external field. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of an intergrown microstructural 'phase' within the average structure matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This phase fraction of the intergrown microstructural regions changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another.

  3. Dielectric properties in lead-free piezoelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-S.; Tu, C. S.; Chen, P.-Y.; Ting, Y.; Chiu, S.-J.; Hung, C. M.; Lee, H.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Anthoninappen, J.; Schmidt, V. H.; Chien, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    The 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 (BNB7T) piezoelectric single crystals and ceramics have been grown respectively by using the self-flux and solid-state-reaction methods. The real (ε‧) and imaginary (ε″) parts of the dielectric permittivity of BNB7T crystals and ceramics were investigated with and without an electric (E) poling as functions of temperature and frequency. The BNB7T crystal shows a stronger dielectric maximum at Tm~240 °C than the ceramic at Tm~300 °C. The dielectric permittivity of BNB7T ceramic shows an extra peak after poling at an electric field E=40 kV/cm in the region of 80-100 °C designated as the depolarization temperature (Td). A wide-range dielectric thermal hysteresis was observed in BNB7T crystal and ceramic, suggesting a first-order-like phase transition. The dielectric permittivity ε‧ obeys the Curie-Weiss equation, ε‧=C/(T-To), above 500 °C, which is considered as the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop and attenuate dielectric responses.

  4. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 ceramics with various sintering temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Baek, Sang-don; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-04-01

    We studied sintering temperature to enhance the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 lead free piezoelectric ceramics. The synthesis and sintering method were the conventional ceramic techniques, and sintering was executed at 1080-1120°C. We found that the NKN-BZT ceramics showed the highest piezoelectric properties and ferroelectric properties at an optimal sintering temperature. The NKN-BZT ceramics sintered at 1100°C showed superior performance, with piezoelectric constant d 33= 213 ρC/N, and electromechanical coupling factor k p = 0.41%. These results reveal that NKN-BZT ceramics are promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric applications.

  5. Dual-enhancement of ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance in Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yongbin; Jia, Yanmin E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jiang; Shen, Yichao; Wu, Zheng E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Luo, Haosu

    2014-07-28

    A mutual enhancement action between the ferro-/piezoelectric polarization and the photoluminescent performance of rare earth Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (KNN) lead-free ceramics is reported. After Pr{sup 3+} doping, the KNN ceramics exhibit the maximum enhancement of ∼1.2 times in the ferroelectric remanent polarization strength and ∼1.25 times in the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33}, respectively. Furthermore, after undergoing a ferro-/piezoelectric polarization treatment, the maximum enhancement of ∼1.3 times in photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the poled 0.3% Pr{sup 3+} doped sample. After the trivalent Pr{sup 3+} unequivalently substituting the univalent (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sup +}, A-sites ionic vacancies will occur to maintain charge neutrality, which may reduce the inner stress and ease the domain wall motions, yielding to the enhancement in ferro-/piezoelectric performance. The polarization-induced enhancement in PL is attributed to the decrease of crystal symmetry abound the Pr{sup 3+} ions after polarization. The dual-enhancement of the ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance makes the Pr{sup 3+} doped KNN ceramic hopeful for piezoelectric/luminescent multifunctional devices.

  6. Enhanced active piezoelectric 0-3 nanocomposites fabricated through electrospun nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, Joel; Sodano, Henry A.

    2008-06-15

    The use of monolithic piezoceramic materials in sensing and actuation applications has become quite common over the past decade. However, these materials have several properties that limit their application in practical systems. These materials are very brittle due to the ceramic nature of the monolithic material, making them vulnerable to accidental breakage during handling and bonding procedures. In addition, they have very poor ability to conform to curved surfaces and result in large add-on mass associated with using a typically lead-based ceramic. These limitations have motivated the development of alternative methods of applying the piezoceramic material, including piezoceramic fiber composites and piezoelectric 0-3 composites (also known as piezoelectric paint). Piezoelectric paint is desirable because it can be spayed or painted on and can be used with abnormal surfaces. However, the piezoelectric paint developed in prior studies has resulted in low coupling, limiting its application. In order to increase the coupling of the piezoelectric paint, this effort has investigated the use of piezoelectric nanowires rather than spherical piezoelectric particle, which are difficult to strain when embedded in a polymer matrix. The piezoceramic wires were electrospun from a barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) sol gel to produce fibers with 500-1000 nm diameters and subsequently calcinated to acquire perovskite BaTiO{sub 3}. An active nanocomposite paint was formed using the resulting piezoelectric wires and was compared to the same paint with piezoelectric nanoparticles. The results show that the piezoceramic wires produce 0-3 nanocomposites with as high as 300% increase in electromechanical coupling.

  7. Influence of Zr{sup 4+} doping on structural and electrical properties of SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P. Panigrahi, S.; Badapanda, T.

    2015-06-24

    This article reports a systematic study of doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of layer structured strontium bismuth titanate ceramic. In this study monophasic SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 15} with x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 ceramics were synthesized from the solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Zr-modified SBT ceramics have a pure four-layer Aurivillius phase structure. Dielectric properties revealed that the diffuseness of phase transition increases where as corresponding permittivity value decrease with increasing Zr content. Piezoelectric properties of SBTZ ceramics were improved by the modification of Zirconium ion. Moreover, the reason behind for improvement of piezoelectric properties of modified SBTZ ceramics was also discussed.

  8. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  9. Dielectric, Ferroelectric, and Piezoelectric Properties of Mn-Doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Juarez, Rigoberto; Gomez-Vidales, Virginia; Cruz, M. P.; Villafuerte-Castrejon, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, study of manganese-doped potassium-sodium niobate ceramics was performed. It was found that, with increasing Mn2+ content from 1 mol.% to 1.5 mol.%, the Q m changed from 60 to near 500 with no appreciable detriment in piezoelectric properties. These properties first increased with 0.5 mol.%, and remained almost constant with 1 mol.% of manganese. Maximum values for d 33, d 31, and k p were 120 pC N-1, 33 pC N-1, and 36%, respectively. Thus, manganese-doped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics represent an option for high-power applications.

  10. Reactive sintering of (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BiFeO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, John G.; Kim, Min-Gu; Kim, Daeung; Cha, Su-Jeong; Vu, Hung Van; Nguyen, Dieu; Kim, Young-Hun; Moon, Su-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Sook; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Ceramics based on BiFeO3 are potential lead-free replacements for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 in a variety of applications such as sensors, transducers and actuators. Recently, ceramics in the (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BiFeO3 system were developed which have excellent piezoelectric properties. However, these ceramics are difficult to sinter to high density. The present work studies the use of reactive sintering to prepare 0.4(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.6BiFeO3 ceramics. Undoped and MnO-doped powders were prepared by ball milling K2CO3, (BiO)2CO3, TiO2, α-FeO(OH) and MnCO3 in ethanol with zirconia milling media. The decomposition and calcination reactions of the starting materials were studied using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red analysis. Samples were sintered in the temperature range from 1000 to 1075°C and their structures and microstructures examined using X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. MnO doping reduced the rhombohedral distortion of the unit cell. The dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of selected undoped and MnO-doped samples were measured. Both undoped and MnO-doped samples displayed relaxor-type behavior. MnO doping reduced the conductivity of the samples, which exhibit a well-defined activation energy of 1.21 eV. Undoped samples have strain vs. electric field properties comparable to those reported in the literature.

  11. Ultra-flexible Piezoelectric Devices Integrated with Heart to Harvest the Biomechanical Energy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Ying; Ou, Dapeng; Chen, Hang; Diao, Liwei; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Weiguo; Sun, Lizhong; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Power supply for medical implantable devices (i.e. pacemaker) always challenges not only the surgery but also the battery technology. Here, we report a strategy for energy harvesting from the heart motion by using ultra-flexible piezoelectric device based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics that has most excellent piezoelectricity in commercial materials, without any burden or damage to hearts. Experimental swine are selected for in vivo test with different settings, i.e. opened chest, close chest and awake from anesthesia, to simulate the scenario of application in body due to their hearts similar to human. The results show the peak-to-peak voltage can reach as high as 3 V when the ultra-flexible piezoelectric device is fixed from left ventricular apex to right ventricle. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the biomechanical energy from heart motion in human body for sustainably driving implantable devices. PMID:26538375

  12. Ultra-flexible Piezoelectric Devices Integrated with Heart to Harvest the Biomechanical Energy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Ying; Ou, Dapeng; Chen, Hang; Diao, Liwei; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Weiguo; Sun, Lizhong; Feng, Xue

    2015-11-05

    Power supply for medical implantable devices (i.e. pacemaker) always challenges not only the surgery but also the battery technology. Here, we report a strategy for energy harvesting from the heart motion by using ultra-flexible piezoelectric device based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics that has most excellent piezoelectricity in commercial materials, without any burden or damage to hearts. Experimental swine are selected for in vivo test with different settings, i.e. opened chest, close chest and awake from anesthesia, to simulate the scenario of application in body due to their hearts similar to human. The results show the peak-to-peak voltage can reach as high as 3 V when the ultra-flexible piezoelectric device is fixed from left ventricular apex to right ventricle. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the biomechanical energy from heart motion in human body for sustainably driving implantable devices.

  13. Ultra-flexible Piezoelectric Devices Integrated with Heart to Harvest the Biomechanical Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Ying; Ou, Dapeng; Chen, Hang; Diao, Liwei; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Weiguo; Sun, Lizhong; Feng, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Power supply for medical implantable devices (i.e. pacemaker) always challenges not only the surgery but also the battery technology. Here, we report a strategy for energy harvesting from the heart motion by using ultra-flexible piezoelectric device based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics that has most excellent piezoelectricity in commercial materials, without any burden or damage to hearts. Experimental swine are selected for in vivo test with different settings, i.e. opened chest, close chest and awake from anesthesia, to simulate the scenario of application in body due to their hearts similar to human. The results show the peak-to-peak voltage can reach as high as 3 V when the ultra-flexible piezoelectric device is fixed from left ventricular apex to right ventricle. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the biomechanical energy from heart motion in human body for sustainably driving implantable devices.

  14. Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of grain-orientated Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing; Shen Zhijian; Yan Haixue; Reece, Michael J.; Kan Yanmei; Wang Peiling

    2007-11-15

    By dynamic forging during Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), grain-orientated ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT) ceramics were prepared. Their ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are anisotropic. The textured ceramics parallel and perpendicular to the shear flow directions have similar thermal depoling behaviors. The d{sub 33} piezoelectric coefficient of BLT ceramics gradually reduces up to 350 deg. C; it then drops rapidly. The broadness of the dielectric constant and loss peaks and the existence of d{sub 33} above the permittivity peak, T{sub m}, show that the BLT ceramic has relaxor-like behavior.

  15. Quenching effects for piezoelectric properties on lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Hiroki; Nagata, Hajime; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Lead-free ferroelectric and piezoelectric ceramics, (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT), were fabricated by a quenching procedure after sintering, and then their electrical properties were investigated with the aim to increase their depolarization temperature T d. From the measurement of the temperature dependence of dielectric properties, T d increased with increasing quench temperature. The T d of a BNT sample quenched from 1100 °C was 223 °C, which was almost 50 °C higher than that prepared by the ordinary cooling process. From the measurement of P-E hysteresis loops, both the remanent polarization P r and the coercive field E c of BNT samples prepared by ordinary firing were almost the same as those quenched from 1100 °C. Additionally, from the measurements by a resonance-antiresonance method, the electromechanical coupling factor k 33 of ordinarily fired BNT was 0.45, and that of the quenched BNT was 0.46. From these results, it is clarified that the quenching procedure is an effective way to increase the T d of BNT ceramics without deteriorating ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties.

  16. Figure of merit comparison of PP-based electret and PVDF-based piezoelectric polymer energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrlík, M.; Leadenham, S.; AlMaadeed, M. A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    The harvesting of mechanical strain and kinetic energy has received great attention over the past two decades in order to power wireless electronic components such as those used in passive and active monitoring applications. Piezoelectric ceramics, such as PZT (lead zirconate titanate), constitute the most commonly used electromechanical interface in vibration energy harvesters. However, there are applications in which piezoelectric ceramics cannot be used due to their low allowable curvature and brittle nature. Soft polymer PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) is arguably the most popular non-ceramic soft piezoelectric energy harvester material for such scenarios. Another type of polymer that has received less attention is PP (polypropylene) for electret-based energy harvesting using the thickness mode (33- mode). This work presents figure of merit comparison of PP versus PVDF for off-resonant energy harvesting in thickness mode operation, revealing substantial advantage of PP over PVDF. For thickness mode energy harvesting scenarios (e.g. dynamic compression) at reasonable ambient vibration frequencies, the figure of merit for the maximum power output is proportional to the square of the effective piezoelectric strain constant divided by the effective permittivity constant. Under optimal conditions and for the same volume, it is shown that PP can generate more than two orders of magnitude larger electrical power as compared to PVDF due to the larger effective piezoelectric strain constant and lower permittivity of the former.

  17. Enhanced piezoelectricity in (1 -x)Bi1.05Fe1-yAyO3-xBaTiO3 lead-free ceramics: site engineering and wide phase boundary region.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ting; Jiang, Zhenggen; Wu, Jiagang

    2016-07-28

    Site engineering has been employed to modulate the piezoelectric activity of high temperature (1 -x)Bi1.05Fe1-yScyO3-xBaTiO3 lead-free ceramics fabricated by a conventional solid-state method together with a quenching technique. The effects of x and y content on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties have been investigated in detail. A wide rhombohedral (R) to pseudo-cubic (C) phase boundary was formed in the ceramics with x = 0.30 and 0 ≤y≤ 0.07, thus leading to enhanced piezoelectricity (d33 = 120-180 pC N(-1)), ferroelectricity (Pr = 19-22 μC cm(-2)) and a high Curie temperature (TC = 478-520 °C). In addition, the influence of different element substitutions for Fe(3+) on phase structure and electrical behavior was also investigated. Improved piezoelectricity (d33 = 160-180 pC N(-1)) and saturated P-E loops can be simultaneously achieved in the ceramics with A = Sc, Ga, and Al due to the R-C phase boundary. As a result, site engineering may be an efficient way to modulate the piezoelectricity of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics. PMID:27357104

  18. Use of optically transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate as actuators and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Quantian; Tong, Liyong

    2009-07-01

    The photo-induced strain in transparent lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) materials is due to a process of superposition of photovoltaic and converse piezoelectric effects. The photovoltaic effect in PLZT materials is observed only in the direction of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric materials. In this paper, electrical and mechanical performance of PLZT ceramics polarized in 0-1 or 0-3 direction are investigated, and PLZT actuators and sensors with the 0-3 polarization are studied. For multilayer PLZT actuators, presented also are the formulas for the calculation of energy release rates due to debonding.

  19. Effects of sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} on piezoelectric and dielectric properties of sodium potassium niobate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Song-Ling; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: NKN ceramics with a sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CT) doping increased the mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}) and electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} was developed to dope into NKN ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dense NKN ceramics were obtained as CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find the soluble limit of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound incorporated into NKN ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum Q{sub m} and k{sub p} values were more than 1500 and 42%, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound is a better sintering aid compared with K{sub 5.3}Cu{sub 1.3}Ta{sub 10}O{sub 29}. -- Abstract: In this study, the effects of a sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CT) on (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (NKN) ceramics were investigated. The diffracted angles in XRD profiles decreased because the Nb-sites were replaced by Cu and Ta ions, causing the expansion of lattice volume. SEM images showed smaller grain sizes at a low concentration of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, and grain sizes increased as the concentration of CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} doping increased because of a liquid phase formed. When CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} dopants were doped into NKN ceramics, the T{sub O-T} and T{sub c} phase transitions decreased because the replacement of Ta{sup 5+} ions in the B-site. A high bulk density (4.595 g/cm{sup 3}) and electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}, k{sub t}) were enhanced when CT dopants were doped into NKN ceramics. Moreover, the mechanical quality factor (Q{sub m}) also increased from 67 to 1550. NKN ceramics with sintering aid CuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} doping showed excellent piezoelectric properties: k{sub p}: 42.5%; k{sub t}: 49.1%; Q{sub m}: 1550; and d{sub 33}: 96 pC/N.

  20. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of lead zirconate titanate(PZT)/polyurethane(PU) thin film composite for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboubakr, S.; Rguiti, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Eddiai, A.; Courtois, C.; d'Astorg, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lead Zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic is known by its piezoelectric feature, but also by its stiffness, the use of a composite based on a polyurethane (PU) matrix charged by a piezoelectric material, enable to generate a large deformation of the material, therefore harvesting more energy. This new material will provide a competitive alternative and low cost manufacturing technology of autonomous systems (smart clothes, car seat, boat sail, flag ...). A thin film of the PZT/PU composite was prepared using up to 80 vol. % of ceramic. Due to the dielectric nature of the PZT, inclusions of this one in a PU matrix raises the permittivity of the composite, on other hand this latter seems to decline at high frequencies.

  1. Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-07

    Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

  2. Optical amplification in disordered electrooptic Tm{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics and study of spectroscopy and communication between cations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Long; Sun, Fankui; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Xuesheng; Li, Kewen K.

    2014-02-21

    Rare earth doped electro-optic (EO) ceramics of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) are promising in building multifunctional optical devices, by taking advantage of both EO effect and optical activity. In this work, the combination of the measured spectra of absorption and photoluminescence, the fluorescent decay, the calculated Judd-Ofelt parameters, and measured single pass gain in Tm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} codoped PLZT ceramics have marked them out as promising gain media in building electrically controllable lasers/optical amplifiers and other multifunctional devices. Optical energy storage was also observed in the optical amplification dynamics.

  3. Piezoelectric micromotors for microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Anita M.; Tavrow, Lee S.; Bart, Stephen F.; Brooks, Rodney A.; Ehrlich, Daniel J.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Cross, L. E.

    1992-03-01

    The authors have begun research into piezoelectric ultrasonic motors using ferroelectric thin films. The authors have fabricated the stator components of these millimeter diameter motors on silicon wafers. Ultrasonic motors consist of two pieces: a stator and a rotor. The stator includes a piezoelectric film in which bending is induced in the form of a traveling wave. A small glass lens placed upon the stator becomes the spinning rotor. Piezoelectric micromotors overcome the problems currently associated with electrostatic micromotors such as low torque, friction, and the need for high voltage excitation. More importantly, they may offer a much simpler mechanism for coupling power out. Using thin films of lead zirconate titanate on silicon nitride membranes, various types of actuator structures can be fabricated. By combining new robot control systems with piezoelectric motors and micromechanics, the authors propose creating micromechanical systems that are small, cheap and completely autonomous.

  4. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers—a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)—were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities—walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running—were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW–74 µW using both transducers for each joint. PMID:27077867

  5. Light-intensity-induced characterization of elastic constants and d33 piezoelectric coefficient of PLZT single fiber based transducers.

    PubMed

    Kozielski, Lucjan; Erhart, Jiri; Clemens, Frank Jörg

    2013-02-12

    Enhanced functionality of electro-optic devices by implementing piezoelectric micro fibers into their construction is proposed. Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are known to exhibit high light transparency, desirable electro-optic properties and fast response. In this study PLZT fibers with a diameter of around 300 microns were produced by a thermoplastic processing method and their light-induced impedance and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated at relatively low light intensity (below 50 mW/cm2). The authors experimentally proved higher performance of light controlled microfiber transducers in comparison to their bulk form. The advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio is shown to be an excellent technique to design high quality light sensors by using fibrous materials. The UV absorption induced change in elastic constants of 3% and 4% for the piezoelectric coefficient d(33).

  6. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers-a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities-walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running-were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW-74 µW using both transducers for each joint.

  7. Measurements of Generated Energy/Electrical Quantities from Locomotion Activities Using Piezoelectric Wearable Sensors for Body Motion Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Bibbo, Daniele; Vala, David; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two different piezoelectric transducers-a ceramic piezoelectric, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and a polymeric piezoelectric, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-were compared in terms of energy that could be harvested during locomotion activities. The transducers were placed into a tight suit in proximity of the main body joints. Initial testing was performed by placing the transducers on the neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee and ankle; then, five locomotion activities-walking, walking up and down stairs, jogging and running-were chosen for the tests. The values of the power output measured during the five activities were in the range 6 µW-74 µW using both transducers for each joint. PMID:27077867

  8. Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of

  9. Linking large piezoelectric coefficients to highly flexible polarization of lead free BaTiO3-CaTiO3-BaZrO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Simon, A.; Khemakhem, H.; Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report a large d31 piezoelectric coefficient and corresponding electromechanical coupling factor, Kp, of 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCTZ50) and 0.68Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.32(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCTZ32) lead-free piezoceramics. The piezoelectric coefficient, d31, reaches a high value of 200 pC/N for BCTZ50 at room temperature which is comparable to the one of the soft PZT. This confirms the previously reported d33 for the same material. A useful way to achieve such performances at the expense of a smaller thermal budget is suggested, enabling better control of the ceramics composition and microstructure. Based on pyroelectric and ferroelectric hysteresis loops measurements, we show that such outstanding properties are likely due to the high flexibility of polarization under thermal and electric stresses.

  10. Electric field-induced giant strain and photoluminescence-enhancement effect in rare-earth modified lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qirong; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Feng; Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Tao; Tang, Yanxue; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yiqun; Sun, Dazhi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2015-03-11

    In this work, an electric field-induced giant strain response and excellent photoluminescence-enhancement effect was obtained in a rare-earth ion modified lead-free piezoelectric system. Pr(3+)-modified 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 ceramics were designed and fabricated by a conventional fabrication process. The ferroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric, and photoluminescence performances were systematically studied, and a schematic phase diagram was constructed. It was found the Pr(3+) substitution induced a transition from ferroelectric a long-range order structure to a relaxor pseudocubic phase with short-range coherence structure. Around a critical composition of 0.8 mol % Pr(3+), a giant reversible strain of ∼0.43% with a normalized strain Smax/Emax of up to 770 pm/V was obtained at ∼5 kV/mm. Furthermore, the in situ electric field enhanced the photoluminescence intensity by ∼40% in the proposed system. These findings have great potential for actuator and multifunctional device applications, which may also open up a range of new applications. PMID:25664585

  11. Effects of Zn Substitution on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (Na0.54K0.46)0.96Li0.04(Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Sunmin; Yoo, Juhyun

    2012-09-01

    In this study, in order to develop lead-free composition ceramics for piezoelectric actuator and sensor applications, (Na0.54K0.46)0.96Li0.04(Nb0.90Ta0.10)1-2x/5ZnxO3 (x = 0-1.5 mol %) composition ceramics were fabricated by a conventional sintering technique at 1110 °C for 5 h. The piezoelectric properties of resultant ceramics were studied with a special emphasis on the influence of Zn-substitution amount. The crystal structure of the specimen exhibited a pure perovskite phase with the coexistence of two phases (orthorhombic and tetragonal phases). However, the phases included tetragonal-rich phases to some extent. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that grain size increased with increasing the content of Zn substitution. High physical properties, namely, piezoelectric constant d33 = 265 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factor kp = 47.5%, dielectric constant ɛr = 1223, and measured density ρ= 4.84 g/cm3 were obtained from the composition ceramic with x = 0.5 mol %. The mechanical quality factor (Qm) was improved from 54 of pure (Na0.54K0.46)0.96Li0.04(Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3 (abbreviated as NKLNT) to 106 by 1.5 mol % Zn substitution. The results reflect that the material is a promising candidate for lead-free high-performance piezoelectric device applications, such as piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

  12. Properties of Miniature Cantilever-Type Ultrasonic Motor Using Lead-Free Array-Type Multilayer Piezoelectric Ceramics of (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 under High Input Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youich; Tamura, Hideki

    2012-07-01

    The properties of miniature cantilever-type ultrasonic motors using lead-free array-type multilayer piezoelectric ceramics of (Sr,Ca)2NaNb5O15 (SCNN) developed using the design rule were investigated under high input power by comparison with the high-power properties of SCNN ceramics. The frequency dependence of the revolution speed reflected the nonlinear behavior of SCNN ceramics with the hard-spring effect and showed a mirror-reversed image relative to that of the motor of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics. The output power increased linearly with increasing input power up to 110 mW without heat generation, and the driving properties were almost the same as the expectations under low input power. The output power density characteristics of the motors were high in comparison with those of the commercialized motors of PZT ceramics. It appeared that the motors have a high potential as an environmental friendly piezoelectric device with excellent properties, reflecting the high-power properties of SCNN ceramics.

  13. A piezoelectrically actuated ball valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, L. R.; Schwartz, H. W.; Teitelbaum, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    Bimorph strip composed of two layers of poled piezoelectric ceramic material closes and opens valve. Strip performs like capacitator, allowing initial inrush of current when valve is energized and then only small leakage current flows as valve remains energized.

  14. Dielectric, Piezoelectric Properties and Field-Induced Large Strain of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-Modified Morphotropic Phase Boundary Bi0.5(Na0.82K0.18)0.5TiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Aman; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effects of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BZT) on the structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary Bi0.5(Na0.82K0.18)0.5TiO3 (BNKT18) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. In the composition range studied, X-ray diffraction results revealed the coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases. It was found that BZT content decreased the depolarization temperature (Td) of BNKT18-BZT ceramics, and the degree of diffuseness of the phase transition became more obvious with increasing BZT content. The addition of a small amount of BZT improved the piezoelectric properties, with the maximum piezoelectric constant (d33=166 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factor (kp=31.7%) obtained at x=0.03. However, at a high concentration of BZT, the remanent polarization and piezoelectric constant d33 were drastically decreased, and a pronounced enhancement in electric field-induced strain was observed, with a peak of ˜0.27% at x=0.07, which corresponds to a normalized strain, Smax/Emax, of ˜385 pm/V.

  15. Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Revealing the Role of the Rhombohedral-Tetragonal Phase Coexistence in Enhancement of the Piezoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; López-Juárez, Rigoberto; Rojas-Hernandez, Rocio E; del Campo, Adolfo; Razo-Pérez, Neftalí; Fernandez, Jose F

    2015-10-21

    Until now, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based ceramics are the most widely used in piezoelectric devices. However, the use of lead is being avoided due to its toxicity and environmental risks. Indeed, the attention in piezoelectric devices has been moved to lead-free ceramics, especially on (K,Na)NbO3-based materials, due to growing environmental concerns. Here we report a systematic evaluation of the effects of the compositional modifications induced by replacement of the B-sites with Sb(5+) ions in 0.96[(K0.48Na0.52)0.95Li0.05Nb1-xSbxO3]-0.04[BaZrO3] lead-free piezoceramics. We show that this compositional design is the driving force for the development of the high piezoelectric properties. So, we find that this phenomenon can be explained by the stabilization of a Rhombohedral-Tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary close to room temperature, that facilities the polarization process of the system and exhibits a significantly high piezoelectric response with a d33 value as high as ∼400 pC/N, which is comparable to part soft PZTs. As a result, we believe that the general strategy and design principles described in this study open the possibility of obtaining (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics with enhanced properties, expanding their application range.

  16. Improved Piezoelectric Loudspeakers And Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall; Jalink, Antony; Hellbaum, Richard F.; Rohrbach, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Loudspeakers and related acoustic transducers of improved type feature both light weight and energy efficiency of piezoelectric transducers and mechanical coupling efficiency. Active component of transducer made from wafer of "rainbow" piezoelectric material, ceramic piezoelectric material chemically reduced on one face. Chemical treatment forms wafer into dishlike shallow section of sphere. Both faces then coated with electrically conductive surface layers serving as electrodes. Applications include high-fidelity loudspeakers, and underwater echo ranging devices.

  17. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  18. High temperature dielectric relaxation anomaly of Y³⁺ and Mn²⁺ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Shiguang; Mao, Chaoliang E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn; Wang, Genshui; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn

    2014-10-14

    Relaxation like dielectric anomaly is observed in Y³⁺ and Mn²⁺ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics when the temperature is over 450 K. Apart from the conventional dielectric relaxation analysis method with Debye or modified Debye equations, which is hard to give exact temperature dependence of the relaxation process, dielectric response in the form of complex impedance, assisted with Cole-Cole impedance model corrected equivalent circuits, is adopted to solve this problem and chase the polarization mechanism in this paper. Through this method, an excellent description to temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation anomaly and its dominated factors are achieved. Further analysis reveals that the exponential decay of the Cole distribution parameter n with temperature is confirmed to be induced by the microscopic lattice distortion due to ions doping and the interaction between the defects. At last, a clear sight to polarization mechanism containing both the intrinsic dipolar polarization and extrinsic distributed oxygen vacancies hopping response under different temperature is obtained.

  19. Influence of nanocrystalline phases on the electrical properties of lithium titanate phosphate glass ceramics mixed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kishore Reddy, Ch.; Rao Ravuri, Balaji; Koti Reddy, Ch. V.; Veerabhadra Rao, K.

    2012-03-01

    Several glass ceramic compositions dispersed with Ga2O3 nanocrystals, in the series samples (100 - x)[0.4Li2O-0.1TiO2-0.5P2O5] + xGa2O3 with x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mol% of Ga2O3 were synthesized via high-energy ball milling technique and labeled as lithium gallium titanate phosphate glass (LTPG x ) (x is the mol% of Ga2O3 nanocrystals). The compositions have been selected on the basis of thermal stability data obtained from differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction studies indicate nanocrystalline phase formation in the controlled crystallized glasses. The variation of electrical conductivity was explained in the light of growth of nanocrystalline phases. The best bulk conductivity (σ = 7.03 × 10-4 S cm-1, at 303 K) was achieved by the sample containing 8 mol% of Ga2O3 nanocrystals content, labeled as LTPG8 sample. The activation energy for conduction (Ea σ ) is obtained from the temperature dependent of conductivity data, which is fitted to Arrhenius equation. The single super curve in the scaling spectra suggested the temperature-independent relaxation phenomenon.

  20. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghaddos, Elaheh; Hejazi, Mehdi; Safari, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been vastly used in ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging. In this paper, firstly, the most promising lead-free compositions with perovskite structure for medical imaging applications have been reviewed. The electromechanical properties of various lead-free ceramics, composites, and single crystals based on barium titanate, bismuth sodium titanate, potassium sodium niobate, and lithium niobate are presented. Then, fundamental principles and design considerations of ultrasonic transducers are briefly described. Finally, recent developments in lead-free ultrasonic probes are discussed and their acoustic performance is compared to lead-based transducers. Focused transducers with different beam focusing methods such as lens focusing and mechanical shaping are explained. Additionally, acoustic characteristics of lead-free probes including the pulse-echo results as well as their imaging capabilities for various applications such as phantom imaging, in vitro intravascular ultrasound imaging of swine aorta, and in vivo or ex vivo imaging of human eyes and skin are reviewed.

  1. Effect of A-site La3+ modified on dielectric and energy storage properties in lead zironate stannate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Fangping; Li, Qiang; Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jinghan; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Chu, Xiangcheng; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-12-01

    (Pb1-1.5xLax)(Zr0.66Sn0.23Ti0.11)O3 (PLZST) ceramics with different lanthanum (La3+) content (x = 0-6%) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction process, and exhibited excellent electrical properties with high switching field from AFE to FE phase and electric breakdown strength. The maximum dielectric constant (ɛm) and its corresponding temperature (Tm) decreased with La3+ doping and a phase transition from rhombohedral ferroelectric (FE) to tetragonal antiferroelectric (AFE) state was found at 2% La3+ doping. At room temperature, a maximum energy density of 1.47 J cm-3 was obtained for x = 4%. In addition, electric-field-dependent energy storage properties of PLZST (x = 4%) ceramics have been investigated, which could be ascribed to the AFE-FE phase transition associated with the increase of strain.

  2. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9-xZr0.1CuxO3 ceramics synthesized by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunpratub, Sitchai; Phokha, Sumalin; Maensiri, Santi; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2016-04-01

    Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.9Zr0.1-xCuxO3 (BCTZC) nanopowders were synthesized using a hydrothermal method after which they were pressed into discs and sintered in air at 1300 °C for 3 h to form ceramic samples. The phase and microstructure of the powder and ceramic samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated that the ceramic samples exhibited a tetragonal structure and that CuO, BaZrO3 or CaTiO3 impurity phases, which had been present in the powder samples, were not observed. The average grain sizes in the ceramic samples were found to be 17.0, 16.1, 20.0, 18.1 and 19.6 μm for Cu mole fractions x of 0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.01, respectively. The dielectric constants, ferroelectric hysteresis loops and piezoelectric charge coefficients of the BCZTC ceramic samples were also investigated. Optimum values for the relative dielectric constant (ɛ‧), tan δ and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of the samples were 3830, 0.03 and 306 pC/N, respectively, in the Cu mole fraction samples with x = 0.002.

  3. Detection and suppression for mechanical resonance in hard disk drives with built-in piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Lou, Yaolong; Okada, Kanzo

    2002-07-01

    Many components in hard disk drives (HDDs), when in operation, are subjected to vibration due to out of balance of rotating components, inertial impacts under servo driving and dynamic interactions between components. These vibrations have been found to have significant effect upon the servo performance of drive systems. In order to improve the servo performance by reducing the effect of mechanical resonance in HDDs, this paper seeks to detect and suppress mechanical resonance of the head actuator using smart sensors and multi-sensing control techniques. In this regard, sensitive and miniature piezoelectric elements from the polymer-based piezoelectric materials PVDF (polyvinylindin fluoride) or the ceramic-based piezoelectric materials PZT 9lead zircornate titanate) are built in the head actuator for sensing the mechanical vibration. In the experiment, the multi-sensing signals by the piezoelectric sensors and the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) are transferred into a voice coil motor (VCM) through a feedback controller so as to actively suppress structural resonance. Numerical simulation and experimental results indicate that the piezoelectric sensors provide an effective way in monitoring the HDD actuator resonance, and the active vibration control strategy is capable of suppressing main mechanical resonance in the head actuator effectively.

  4. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  5. High energy storage density performance of Ba, Sr-modified lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate antiferroelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinfei Yang, Tongqing Chen, Shengchen; Li, Gang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Polarization hysteresis (P–E) loops of the (Pb{sub 0.85}Ba{sub 0.08}Sr{sub 0.03}La{sub 0.03}) (Zr{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 0.22}Ti{sub 0.04}) samples: (a) measured at different applied electric-field and (b) measured at different temperatures is shown. It is typical antiferroelectrics whose remnant polarization is zero. As the remnant polarization of AFE is small and the ceramics are accompanied by the formation of the anti-parallel domain structure, energy stored in PLZST can be effectively released. Thus we calculated the energy density from the P–E loop and obtained the power density was up to 1.2 J/cm{sup 3} at 55 °C, and at 45 °C the energy density was ∼1.24 J/cm{sup 3}. As usual, for bulk ceramics, the switching between the AFE and FE states occurs at lower field. This value is much higher than that reported previously for the PLZT bulk ceramic (0.4 J/cm{sup 3}). - Highlights: • Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} co-doping caused the T{sub c} of PLZST moved to the lower temperature (T{sub c} ≈ 40 °C). • The ΔE was so smaller, E{sub AF} ≈ 90 kV/cm and E{sub FA} ≈ 85 kV/cm. • Ba, Sr co-doped PLZST ceramic exhibited slanted P–E loops with a large breakdown field (100 kV/cm). • A high energy density was up to 1.2 J/cm{sup 3}. - Abstract: (Pb{sub 0.85}Ba{sub 0.08}Sr{sub 0.03}La{sub 0.03})(Zr{sub 0.74}Sn{sub 0.22}Ti{sub 0.04}) (Ba, Sr co-doped PLZST) co-doping antiferroelectric (AFE) ceramics with orthorhombic perovskite structure were prepared by the traditional solid state reaction process. It was observed that the doping of barium and strontium caused the Curie temperature of PLZST move to the lower temperature (T{sub c} ≈ 40 °C). Ba, Sr co-doped PLZST AFE ceramics exhibited excellent electrical properties, the AFE to ferroelectric (FE) transition occurred at field E{sub AF} ≈ 90 kV/cm, and the transition from FE to AFE occurred at E{sub FA} ≈ 85 kV/cm. The maximum relative permittivity was about 4800, occurring at a field near

  6. Ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Pinyang Xi, Zengzhe; Long, Wei; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancy was confirmed by the left figure and the role of oxygen vacancy on the piezoelectric properties was discussed. - Highlights: • The d{sub 33}, ρ and T{sub c} were found to be 22 pC/N, ρ ∼ 10{sup 6} Ω cm and 586 °C. • The electromechanical properties: k{sub p} ∼ 5.0%, k{sub t} ∼ 8.7% and Q{sub m} ∼ 651. • The oxygen vacancy is responsible for electrical properties at high temperature. - Abstract: Aurivillius-type ceramic, Sr{sub 0.6}(BiNa){sub 0.2}Bi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBNBN), was synthesized by using conventional solid-state processing. Phase structure and microstructural morphology were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the SBNBN ceramic were investigated in detail. Curie temperature (T{sub c}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}), electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p}, k{sub t} and quality factor Q{sub m} of the SBNBN ceramic were found to be 586.5 °C, 22 pC/N, 5.0%, 8.7% and 651, respectively. In addition, the reasons for varieties of the resistivity and dielectric properties at high temperature were also discussed.

  7. Phase structure and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)K0.48Na0.52Nb0.95Sb0.05O3-x(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.9(Li0.5Ce0.5)0.1ZrO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jie; Tan, Zhi; Jiang, Laiming; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiagang; Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    (1-x)K0.48Na0.52Nb0.95Sb0.05O3-x(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.9(Li0.5Ce0.5)0.1ZrO3 [(1-x)KNNS-xBNLCZ] lead-free piezoceramics were prepared by the conventional solid state sintering method. The effects of BNLCZ contents on their phase structure, microstructure, and piezoelectric properties were investigated. All the samples show a pure perovskite structure, and no secondary phases were formed in the detected range. The rhombohedral and tetragonal phases of (1-x)KNNS-xBNLCZ coexist in the composition range of 0.0325 ≤ x ≤ 0.0425 at room temperature. A remarkably strong piezoelectricity was obtained by the addition of appropriate BNLCZ contents. The excellent piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with x = 0.04 were obtained: d33 ˜ 485 pC/N, kp ˜ 48%, and TC ˜ 227 °C. All the results show that the introduction of (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.9(Li0.5Ce0.5)0.1ZrO3 is a very effective way to form the rhombohedral and tetragonal phase coexistence of potassium-sodium niobate-based ceramics, which can improve its piezoelectric properties.

  8. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  9. Performance of tonpilz transducers with segmented piezoelectric stacks using materials with high electromechanical coupling coefficient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen C; Meyer, Richard J; Markley, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    Tonpilz acoustic transducers for use underwater often include a stack of piezoelectric material pieces polarized along the length of the stack and having alternating polarity. The pieces are interspersed with electrodes, bonded together, and electrically connected in parallel. The stack is normally much shorter than a quarter wavelength at the fundamental resonance frequency so that the mechanical behavior of the transducer is not affected by the segmentation. When the transducer bandwidth is less than a half octave, as has conventionally been the case, for example, with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, stack segmentation has no significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the device in its normal operating band near the fundamental resonance. However, when a high coupling coefficient material such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is used to achieve a wider bandwidth with the tonpilz, the performance difference between a segmented stack and a similar piezoelectric section with electrodes only at the two ends can be significant. This paper investigates the effects of stack segmentation on the performance of wideband underwater tonpilz acoustic transducers. Included is a discussion of a particular tonpilz transducer design using single crystal piezoelectric material with high coupling coefficient compared with a similar design using more traditional PZT ceramics.

  10. Performance of tonpilz transducers with segmented piezoelectric stacks using materials with high electromechanical coupling coefficient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen C; Meyer, Richard J; Markley, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    Tonpilz acoustic transducers for use underwater often include a stack of piezoelectric material pieces polarized along the length of the stack and having alternating polarity. The pieces are interspersed with electrodes, bonded together, and electrically connected in parallel. The stack is normally much shorter than a quarter wavelength at the fundamental resonance frequency so that the mechanical behavior of the transducer is not affected by the segmentation. When the transducer bandwidth is less than a half octave, as has conventionally been the case, for example, with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, stack segmentation has no significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the device in its normal operating band near the fundamental resonance. However, when a high coupling coefficient material such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is used to achieve a wider bandwidth with the tonpilz, the performance difference between a segmented stack and a similar piezoelectric section with electrodes only at the two ends can be significant. This paper investigates the effects of stack segmentation on the performance of wideband underwater tonpilz acoustic transducers. Included is a discussion of a particular tonpilz transducer design using single crystal piezoelectric material with high coupling coefficient compared with a similar design using more traditional PZT ceramics. PMID:24437755

  11. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  12. Phase transition and electric field induced strain properties in Sm modified lead zirconate stannate titanate based antiferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Yang, Tongqing; Zhang, Yangyang; Yao, Xi

    2013-06-01

    The effect of Sm addition on the crystal structures and electrical properties of Pb1-3x/2Smx(Zr0.63Sn0.26Ti0.11)O3 ceramics were investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that with increasing Sm content from 0.005 to 0.03, the phase structure of the specimens underwent transition from ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) state due to the substitution of Sm3+ with smaller ion radius for Pb2+ decreasing the tolerance factor of the ceramics. In addition, it was observed that with the improvement of Sm3+ content, the strain of the specimens first increased and then decreased, and the largest value of 0.735% was obtained in the sample with x = 0.015 near AFE/FE phase boundary at the measuring frequency 1 Hz. This is because the reversal of the domains, which produces the strain, is more consummate in this composition. Further, the strain at different frequencies was nearly the same at high electric field, which was attributed to that the electric field applied to the sample was so large that the reorientation of the domains could finish in all measuring frequencies. Both a high strain level and a relatively good frequency stability in the specimen with x = 0.015 make a potential candidate for actuators applications over a wide-frequency working range.

  13. Lead-Free Metamaterials with Enormous Apparent Piezoelectric Response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wanfeng; Chen, Pan; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Xiaotong; Chu, Baojin

    2015-11-01

    Lead-free flexoelectric piezoelectric metamaterials are created by applying an asymmetric chemical reduction to Na1/2 Bi1/2 TiO3 -BaTiO3 ceramics. The reduction induces two gradient-generating mechanisms, curvature structure and chemical inhomogeneity, and enhances the flexoelectric effect. The ceramics behave like piezoelectric materials, exhibiting an enormous and high-temperature stable apparent piezoelectric response, outperforming existing lead-oxide-based piezoelectrics.

  14. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. PMID:24398819

  15. A role of BNLT compound addition on structure and properties of PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaita, P.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2010-09-01

    In this research, effects of lead-free bismuth sodium lanthanum titanate (BNLT) addition on structure and properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were investigated. PZT ceramics with addition of 0.1-3.0 wt%BNLT were fabricated by a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintering at 1050-1200 °C for 2 h to obtain dense ceramics with at least 96% of theoretical density. X-ray diffraction indicated that complete solid solution occurred for all compositions. Phase identification showed both tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite structure of PZT with no BNLT phase detected. Scanning electron micrographs of fractured PZT/BNLT ceramics showed equiaxed grain shape with both transgranular and intergranular fracture modes. Addition of BNLT was also found to reduce densification and effectively limited grain growth of PZT ceramic. Optimum Hv and KIC values were found to be 4.85 GPa and 1.56 MPa.m 1/2 for PZT/0.5 wt%BNLT sample. Among PZT/BNLT samples, room temperature dielectric constant seemed to be improved with increasing BNLT content. The maximum piezoelectric coefficient values were observed in pure PZT ceramic and were slightly decreased in BNLT-added samples. Small reduction of remanent polarization and coercive field in hysteresis loops was observed in BNLT-added samples, indicating a slightly suppressed ferroelectric interaction in this material system.

  16. Crystal Structure, Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ Co-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 High-Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Deqiong; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiagang; Bao, Shaoming; Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Bismuth-layered structured ceramics Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti4- x Nb x O15-0.01MnCO3 were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The evolution of microstructure and corresponding electrical properties were studied. All the samples presented a single bismuth layered-structural phase with m = 4, indicating that (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ adequately enter into the pseudo-perovskite structure and form solid solutions. It was found that Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti3.98Nb0.02O15-0.01MnCO3 (CBTLCM-0.02Nb) ceramics possess the optimum electrical properties. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33, dielectric constant ɛ r, loss tan δ, planar electromechanical coupling factor k p and Curie-temperature T C of CBTLCM-0.02Nb ceramics were found to be ˜19.6 pC/N, 160, 0.16%, 8.1% and 767°C, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal depoling behavior demonstrates that the d 33 value of x = 0.02 content remains at 16.8 pC/N after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that the (Li, Ce)4+-, Nb5+- and Mn2+-doped CBT-based ceramics are promising candidates for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  17. Phase evolution and electrical properties of a new system of (1-x)[BNT-BKT-KNN]-xBCTZ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics synthesized by the solid-state combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thawong, Pichittra; Kornphom, Chittakorn; Chootin, Suphornpun; Bongkarn, Theerachai

    2016-03-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ? ceramics with x content from 0 to 0.1 step 0.02 were prepared via the solid-state combustion technique. The effect of x concentration on the phase evolution, microstructure and electrical properties was methodically investigated. The XRD result of ? showed a tetragonal phase. The coexistence phase between the rhombohedral and the tetragonal structure was observed at ? The phase structure at a composition between 0.08 and 0.1 was dominated by a higher rhombohedral phase. The ceramics grain exhibited a cubic shape and the average grain size decreased from 1.15 to 0.83 µm with an increase in x content from 0 to 0.1. The temperature of ɛFA and ɛSA of the ceramics tended to decrease with increasing x concentration. The MPB composition was suggested at x around 0.06 where this ceramic exhibited its highest dielectric constant ? good ferroelectric properties ? μC/cm2 and ? kV/cm) and excellent piezoelectric constant ?

  18. High electrostrictive coefficient Q33 in lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Jin, Li; Guo, Runping

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the electrostrictive effect in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BZT-xBCT, x = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) ceramics was investigated to gain understanding of their high piezoelectric activity. The electrostrictive coefficient Q33 of the BZT-xBCT ceramics was observed to be around 0.04 m4/C2, twice that reported for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based ceramics. The Q33 was found to be quite stable with respect to temperature and composition for the BZT-xBCT ceramics. The addition of Fe3+ dopant to the ceramics greatly decreased their Curie temperature without affecting their Q33, which remained 0.04 m4/C2. Moreover, a high and hysteresis-free electric-field-induced strain was obtained for 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics at room temperature, caused by their high Q33 coefficient and lower-than-room-temperature Curie temperature. The small-signal M33 coefficient of 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics was found to be 1.5 × 10-16 m2/V2 (0.32 × 10-16 m2/V2 for undoped counterpart). These results indicate that 2 at. % Fe-doped BZT-0.5BCT ceramics have great potential as alternatives for hard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics in actuator applications, where reproducible and non-hysteretic deformation responses are required.

  19. Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-Ba(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 lead-free ceramics with CuO sintering aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D.; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2007-08-01

    Using an ordinary ceramic fabrication technique, we fabricated lead-free (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBa(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 ceramics with CuO sintering aid . Ba(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3 diffuses into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 to form a new solid solution. The ceramics with perovskite structure possess orthorhombic phase at x≤0.04 and become tetragonal phase at x≥0.06. Both the paraelectric cubic-ferroelectric tetragonal and the ferroelectric tetragonal-ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing the concentration of Ba(Ti0.95Zr0.05)O3. The doping of CuO effectively promotes the densification of the ceramics. The coexistence of the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases at 0.04ceramics significantly enhance the piezoelectric and dielectric properties at room temperature. The ceramics with x=0.04-0.06 and y=0.75-1.50 possess excellent properties: d33=119-185 pC/N, kP=37-44%, kt=35-49%, ɛ=341-1129, cosδ=0.7-4.4% and Tc=312-346 °C.

  20. Physics of failure modes in accelerometers utilizing single crystal piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodkowski, Paul Alexander

    1999-11-01

    For over forty years, the lead zirconate -- lead titanate system (PZT) has been the industrial standard of sensing materials for piezoelectric accelerometers. This ceramic has established a reliability benchmark given the uniformity of its electromechanical properties, the negligible dependence of these properties on temperature and pre-stress, and the ability to manufacture the sensing element cost-effectively into a myriad of geometries. Today, revolutionary advances in the growth of single crystal piezoelectric materials have spawned the evolution of novel sensor designs. With piezoelectric coefficients exceeding 2000 pC/N, and electromechanical coupling factors above 90%, single crystals of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 [PMNT] and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 [PZNT] have the potential of superseding PZT ceramics in certain critical applications. This dissertation reports the first results of the design, development and performance characterization for an accelerometer utilizing bulk, single crystal piezoelectric materials. Numerous prototypes, developed in the compression and flexural-mode design configurations, exhibit charge sensitivities that exceed that of their PZT-counterparts by a factor of greater than three times. The introduction of accelerometer prototypes employing single crystal piezoelectric material is an important advancement for the sensor industry. Root-cause failure processes were identified and subsequently used as a reliability enhancement tool to prevent device failures through robust design and manufacturing practices. Crystal machining techniques were analyzed in which a scanning electron microscope was used to inspect the crystal surface for defects. Inhomogeneity in the piezoelectric properties over the surface of the crystal was quantified and recognized as a major obstacle to commercialization. Measurements were made on the material's fracture toughness and electromechanical properties over a wide temperature range. Effects of aging and

  1. Effects of Copper Doping on Dielectric and A.C. Conductivity in Layered Sodium Tri-Titanate Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shripal; Dwivedi, Shailja; Singh, Rakesh; Tandon, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 molar percentage (mp) of CuO doped derivatives of layered Na2Ti3O7 ceramic have been reported. The results show that copper substitutes as Cu2+ at Ti4+ octahedral sites. From the dependence of loss tangent (tan δ) and the relative permittivity (ɛ‧) on temperature and frequency, it is concluded that all the derivatives are of polar nature. The relaxation peaks at lower temperatures have been attributed to the presence of different types of dipoles, whereas peaks in the higher temperature region indicate possible ferroelectric phase transition. The dependence of conductivity on temperature show that electron hopping (polaron) conduction exists in a wide span of temperature range. However, the associated interlayer ionic conduction exists in a small temperature range. Interlayer alkali ion hopping mechanism of conduction has been proposed toward higher temperatures. The conductivity versus frequency plots reveal that the polaron conduction plays a prominent role toward the lower temperature side that diminishes with the rise in temperature. The most probable relaxation times for 0.01 and 0.1 mp CuO doped derivatives are almost same but it records an increased value for 1.0 mp doped material. This again attributes to the possible change in the symmetry of copper environment.

  2. Electric properties and phase transition behavior in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics with low zirconate content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Lou, Qi-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Dong, Xian-Lin; Wang, Gen-Shui

    2015-11-01

    The phase transitions, dielectric properties, and polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.42Sn0.58-xTix)O3 (0.13≤ x ≤0.18) (PLZST) bulk ceramics were systematically investigated. This study exhibited a sequence of phase transitions by analyzing the change of the P-E hysteresis loops with increasing temperature. The antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary of PLZST with the Zr content of 0.42 was found to locate at the Ti content between 0.14 and 0.15. This work is aimed to improve the ternary phase diagram of lanthanum-doped PZST with the Zr content of 0.42 and will be a good reference for seeking high energy storage density in the PLZST system with low-Zr content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51202273, 11204304, and 11304334) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261000).

  3. Performance of lead-free piezoelectric materials in cantilever-based energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuruddh; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Vishal S.; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-05-01

    Energy harvesting is one of the emerging applications of piezoelectric materials. In order to replace conventional lead-based materials with lead-free materials, it is important to evaluate their performance for such applications. In the present study, finite element method-based simulation shows mean power density produced from (K0.475Na0.475Li0.05)(Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 add with 0.4 wt.% CeO2 and 0.4 wt.% MnO2 (KNLNTS) bimorph is 96.64% of lead zirconate titanate (Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3) (PZT) ceramics. Load resistance (R), length of proof mass (Lm) and thickness of host layer (th) are optimized (using genetic algorithm) for maximum power density and tuning the operating frequency range which is near to natural frequency of the structure. The lead-free piezoelectric material KNLNTS has comparable results to that of PZT for piezoelectric energy harvester in the ambient frequency range of 90 Hz to 110 Hz. Results show that KNLNTS ceramics can be potentially used in energy harvesting devices.

  4. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  5. Saturation of impurity-rich phases in a cerium-substituted pyrochlore-rich titanate ceramic: part 1 experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Ebbinghaus, B; Kirkorian, O; VanKonynenburg, R

    2000-05-25

    The saturation of impurity-rich accessory phases in a Ce-analog baseline ceramic formulation for the immobilization of excess plutonium has been tested by synthesizing an impurity-rich baseline compositions at 1300 C, 1350 C, and 1400 C in air. Impurity oxides are added at the 10 wt% level. The resulting phases assemblages are typically rich in pyrochlore, Hf-zirconolite (hafnolite), brannerite and rutile, but in many instances also contain an accessory mineral enriched in the impurity oxide. The concentration of that oxide in coexisting pyrochlore sets the saturation limit for solid solution of the component in question. In most cases, the accessory phase does not contain significant amounts of Ce, Gd or U. Exceptions are the stabilization of a Ca-lanthanide phosphate and a phosphate glass when P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is added to the formulation. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition is also very effective in reducing the modal amount of pyrochlore in the form relative to brannerite. Addition of the sodium-aluminosilicate, NaAlSiO{sub 4}, also results in the formation of a grain boundary melt at run conditions, but the fate of this phase on cooling is not well determined. At temperatures above 1300 C, addition of 10 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} also leads to melting. Substitution of cations of different valences can also be associated with model-dependent changes in the oxidation state of uranium via charge transfer reactions. A set of simple components is suggested for the description of pyrochlores in both impurity-free and impurity-rich formulations.

  6. High-Temperature Piezoelectrics with Large Piezoelectric Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinekumar, K.; Dutta, Soma

    2015-02-01

    High-temperature piezoelectric materials are of interest for sensors and actuators in various industrial applications in which the devices are exposed to high temperature. A lot of research has been conducted in this area to bring forth a suitable piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature for suitable usage at a high temperature with good piezoelectric properties. This report is an attempt to review the state of the art in high-temperature piezoelectric materials, covering their issues and concerns at elevated temperatures. Among the non-ferroelectric crystal classes, langasite and oxyborate crystals retain their piezoelectricity up to a very high temperature, but their piezoelectric coefficient is much smaller compared to a standard piezoelectric material such as lead zirconate titanate. A similar trend has also been observed in ferroelectric crystal class which shows poor piezoelectricity but retains it until a high temperature. Recent studies on solid solutions of bismuth-based oxides and lead titanate with the chemical formulae Bi(Me3+) O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2)O3-PbTiO3 (Me3+ represents a trivalent cation and Me1 and Me2 are cations having a combined valency of 3) show a much application potential of these materials due to improved piezoelectric property and high Curie temperature. BiScO3-PbTiO3, Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3, (Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Zn0.5T0.5)O3-PbTiO3 are some interesting high-temperature piezoelectrics from the group of Bi(Me3+)O3-PbTiO3 and Bi(Me1Me2) O3-PbTiO3 which shows superior piezoelectric properties at high temperatures. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 demands a special interest for further studies due to its plausible good piezoelectric property at elevated temperature.

  7. An Experimental Study on the Effect of Temperature on Piezoelectric Sensors for Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Fabricio G.; Budoya, Danilo E.; de Almeida, Vinicius A. D.; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C.

    2014-01-01

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is considered to be one of the most promising methods for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This technique is simple to implement and uses small and inexpensive piezoelectric sensors. However, practical problems have hindered its application to real-world structures, and temperature effects have been cited in the literature as critical problems. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the effect of temperature on the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensors used in the EMI technique. We used 5H PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic sensors, which are commonly used in the EMI technique. The experimental results showed that the temperature effects were strongly frequency-dependent, which may motivate future research in the SHM field. PMID:24434878

  8. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2 Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with glass additive.

    PubMed

    Im, In-Ho; Chung, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive as a function of sintering temperatures. With adding BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive, diffusivity of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics was increased. The dispersion constant γ of BZT-BCT ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass was changed from 1.9683 to 1.7673 by decreasing sintering temperature ranging from 1450 degrees C to 1350 degrees C, while 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics at sintered 1450 degrees C showed γ = 1.5055. The piezoelectric properties such as electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)) and piezoelectric constant (d33) of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive sintered at 1400 degrees C showed similar values compared with 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics without BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive sintered at 1450 degrees C. The addition of BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive can be of help to decrease sintering temperature of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics.

  9. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2 Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with glass additive.

    PubMed

    Im, In-Ho; Chung, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive as a function of sintering temperatures. With adding BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive, diffusivity of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics was increased. The dispersion constant γ of BZT-BCT ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass was changed from 1.9683 to 1.7673 by decreasing sintering temperature ranging from 1450 degrees C to 1350 degrees C, while 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics at sintered 1450 degrees C showed γ = 1.5055. The piezoelectric properties such as electromechanical coupling factor (k(p)) and piezoelectric constant (d33) of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics with BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive sintered at 1400 degrees C showed similar values compared with 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics without BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive sintered at 1450 degrees C. The addition of BaO-CaO-SiO2 glass additive can be of help to decrease sintering temperature of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramics. PMID:25970982

  10. Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Maurya, Deepam; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei V; Khachaturyan, Armen; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than 5 increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d g coefficient with value of 59 000 10 15 m2 N 1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

  11. Giant energy density in [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Maurya, Deepam; Kumar, Amit; Kalinin, Sergei; Khachaturyan, Armen; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) based compositions have been challenging to texture or grow in a single crystal form due to the incongruent melting point of ZrO2. Here we demonstrate the method for achieving 90% textured PZT-based ceramics and further show that it can provide highest known energy density in piezoelectric materials through enhancement of piezoelectric charge and voltage coefficients (d and g). Our method provides more than ˜5× increase in the ratio d(textured)/d(random). A giant magnitude of d.g coefficient with value of 59 000 × 10-15 m2 N-1 (comparable to that of the single crystal counterpart and 359% higher than that of the best commercial compositions) was obtained.

  12. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  13. Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas R; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather E; Stevenson, Tim J; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew J; Comyn, T P

    2015-01-01

    1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical

  14. Magnetoelectric Coupling in Cobalt Zinc Ferrite - Lead Zirconate Titanate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Hayes, R.; Mantese, J. V.

    2003-03-01

    This report is on the observation of zinc-assisted enhancement in magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in cobalt zinc ferrite, Co(1-x)ZnxFe2O4(x=0-0.5) (CZFO)-lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composites. In such ferromagnetic-piezoelectric composites, an applied ac magnetic field produces dynamic deformation in ferrites due to magnetostriction and results in an induced electric field due to piezoelectric effect in PZT [1]. Important findings are as follows. (i) Bulk samples of pure CFO and PZT prepared either by traditional ceramic processing or by microwave sintering show very weak ME coupling. (iii) Enhancement in ME coupling, by a factor of five, is observed in a layered structure of thick films of CFO and PZT. (iv) Substitution of Zn in CFO is observed to strengthen magneto-mechanical and ME couplings in multilayers. (v) The interface coupling parameter, obtained from our theoretical model [2], shows an increase with x and a peak value for x=0.4. --- Research supported by a grant from the NSF (DMR-0072144) 1. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, J. Gallegos, R. Srinivasan, Yu. I. Bokhan, and V. M. Laletin, Phys. Rev. B 64, 214408 (2001). 2. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan, in press, J. Appl. Phys. (Jan. 2003)

  15. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  16. Electric field induced lattice strain in pseudocubic Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-modified BaTiO3-BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ichiro; Iizuka, Ryo; Nakahira, Yuki; Sunada, Yuya; Ueno, Shintaro; Nakashima, Kouichi; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Contributions to the piezoelectric response in pseudocubic 0.3BaTiO3-0.1Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-0.6BiFeO3 ceramics were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction under electric fields. All of the lattice strain determined from the 110, 111, and 200 pseudocubic diffraction peaks showed similar lattice strain hysteresis that was comparable to the bulk butterfly-like strain curve. It was suggested that the hysteresis of the lattice strain and the lack of anisotropy were related to the complex domain structure and the phase boundary composition.

  17. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  18. Investigation of a new lead-free Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 piezoelectric ceramic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric compositions of the (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.40K0.10)TiO3-x(Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 system (when x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) were fabricated using a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintered between 1,050°C and 1,175°C for 2 h. The effect of (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 [BST] content on phase, microstructure, and electrical properties was investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was 1,125°C at which all compositions had densities of at least 98% of their theoretical values. X-ray diffraction patterns that showed tetragonality were increased with the increasing BST. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BST was added. The addition of BST was also found to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT ceramic. A large room-temperature dielectric constant, εr (1,609), and piezoelectric coefficient, d33 (214 pC/N), were obtained at an optimal composition of x = 0.10. PMID:22221833

  19. Microstructure and piezoelectric properties of 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hwi-Yeol; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Heun; Nahm, Sahn; Uchino, Kenji; Lee, Hyeung-Gyu; Lee, Hwack-Joo

    2006-08-07

    For 0.95(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3} (0.95NKN-0.05BT) ceramics sintered at 1040-1075 deg. C, abnormal grain growth occurred but the grain size decreased when the sintering temperature exceeded 1075 deg. C. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}), electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}), and piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) were considerably increased with increasing relative density and grain size. Evaporation of Na{sub 2}O deteriorated the piezoelectric properties by decreasing the resistivity. To minimize Na{sub 2}O evaporation, specimens were muffled with 0.95NKN-0.05BT powders during the sintering. Improved piezoelectric properties of d{sub 33}=225 pC/N, k{sub p}=36%, and {epsilon}{sub 3}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 3}=1058 were obtained for specimen sintered at 1060 deg. C for 2 h with muffling.

  20. High Temperature Piezoelectric Ceramics Based on xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (Me = Zn, Mg) Ternary Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansell, Troy Y.; Nikkel, Jason; Cann, David P.; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2012-10-01

    Polycrystalline xPbTiO3-(1-x)Bi(Sc1/2Me1/4Ti1/4)O3 (PT-BS-BMeT) ceramics, where Me = Mg (M) or Zn (Z), were studied for development of high temperature piezoelectrics. Ceramics were processed using standard mixed oxide procedure at various temperatures. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that the tetragonality of PT-BS-BZT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.90 to 0.60 and tetragonality of PT-BS-BMT decreased as PbTiO3 content decreased from x = 0.60 to 0.40. A transition was observed in PT-BS-BMT within compositions x = 0.42-0.50. Dielectric properties revealed permittivites up to ɛr≈20000 and transition temperatures up to 540 °C. Hysteresis measurements showed full saturation below 50 mol % PbTiO3 content with remanent polarization of Pr = 32.8 µC/cm2 and coercive field of 23.0 kV/cm. Converse piezoelectric coefficients (d33*) calculated from unipolar strain measurements revealed values between 240 and 313 pm/V. Depolarization temperatures were measured between 320 and 390 °C.

  1. Resonant packaged piezoelectric power harvester for machinery health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Andries J.; Huigsloot, Marcel J.; Discenzo, Fred D.

    2005-05-01

    Packaged piezoelectric bi-morph actuators offer an alternative power source for health monitoring using localized vibrational power harvesting. Packaging piezoelectric wafers simplify the integration of piezoelectric ceramic wafers into products and improve the durability of the brittle piezoelectric ceramic material. This paper describes a model for predicting the power harvested from a resonant cantilevered beam piezoelectric power harvester across a resistive load. The model results are correlated with experimental power harvesting measurements made using a commercially available piezoelectric bi-morph actuator. Additionally, experimental power harvesting levels were determined under high root strain conditions and varying command frequencies. Finally, the power production capability of the packaged piezoelectric bi-morph generator was evaluated over millions of cycles at very high root strains levels, representative of the loads expected in an industrial application. Results from the testing indicate that packaged piezoelectric wafer products used in power harvesting devices are very reliable and well suited for harsh industrial application environments.

  2. Piezoelectric Properties of Fine-Grained Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 Quaternary Solid Solution Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ruifang; Hou, Xianbo; He, Wenze; Yu, Jian

    2013-06-01

    On the basis of solid state reaction eutectic behavior between Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZT) and metastable perovskite-type Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BZT), perovskite-structured PMN-PZT-BZT quaternary solid solution piezoceramics with various compositions were experimentally demonstrated with an intrinsic low sintering temperature in the windows of 950-1050 °C. These fine-grained densified PMN-PZT-BZT ceramics were able to be poled sufficiently at room temperature through polarization-electric field hysteresis loop measurement, different from normal poling treatment with DC bias field at high temperature, which will simplify future device processing of monolithic multilayer piezoceramic transducers. A typical piezoelectric property of dielectric constant ɛ33T/ɛ0 = 3471, piezoelectric constant d33 = 480 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient kp = 0.41, thickness coupling coefficient kt = 0.50, mechanical quality factor Qm = 68 and relaxor ferroelectric phase transition temperature Tm = 167 °C at 1 MHz was obtained for the fine-grained densified Pb0.96Sr0.04(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.37Zr0.24Ti0.39O3+3%Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3+2%NiO ceramics sintered at 1020 °C, which is much promising to manufacture monolithic multilayer piezoelectric transducers with Ag95/Pd5 as inner electrode material.

  3. Piezoelectric Properties of Li-Doped (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Ceramics Synthesized Using Hydrothermally-Derived KNbO3 and NaNbO3 Fine Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takafumi; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    [Lix(Na0.52K0.48)1-x]NbO3 (0 ≤x ≤0.091) ceramics were synthesized using hydrothermal powders and the lithium doping content was controlled to optimize their piezoelectric properties. The raw KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were obtained separately by a hydrothermal method and LiNbO3 powders were prepared by milling a commercial LiNbO3 single crystal. These powders were mixed with ethanol at a molar ratio LiNbO3: (Na0.52K0.48)NbO3= x : 1-x. The synthesized powders were sintered at 1060-1120 °C for 2 h. We succeeded in obtaining highly dense [Lix(Na0.52K0.48)1-x]NbO3 ceramics using hydrothermal powder. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal phase changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal at around x = 0.06. At this morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the c/a ratio changed from 1.016 to 1.024 and the highest piezoelectric constant was obtained with the chemical component of [Li0.065(K0.48Na0.52)0.935]NbO3. The obtained piezoelectric properties were as follows: k33 = 0.51, ɛ33T/ɛ0 = 836, c33E = 46 GPa, d33 = 203 pC/N, and Tc = 482 °C.

  4. Piezoelectric valve

    DOEpatents

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  5. F-centers mechanism of long-term relaxation in lead zirconate-titanate based piezoelectric ceramics. 2. After-field relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Kuzenko, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents results of experimental study of the dielectric constant relaxation during aging process in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 based solid solutions (PZT) after action of external DC electric field. The said process is a long-term one and is described by the logarithmic function of time. Reversible and nonreversible relaxation process takes place depending on the field intensity. The relaxation rate depends on the field strength also, and the said dependence has nonlinear and nonmonotonic form, if external field leads to domain disordering. The oxygen vacancies-based model for description of the long-term relaxation processes is suggested. The model takes into account the oxygen vacancies on the sample's surface ends, their conversion into F+- and F0-centers under external effects and subsequent relaxation of these centers into the simple oxygen vacancies after the action termination. F-centers formation leads to the violation of the original sample's electroneutrality, and generate intrinsic DC electric field into the sample. Relaxation of F-centers is accompanied by the reduction of the electric field, induced by them, and relaxation of the dielectric constant, as consequent effect.

  6. Improved Piezoelectricity in (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04) (Nb0.91Ta0.05Sb0.04)O3-xBi0.25Na0.25NbO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Xu, Zhijun; Li, Huaiyong; Hao, Jigong; Du, Juan; Chu, Ruiqing; Wei, Dongdong; Li, Guorong

    2016-08-01

    (1 - x)[(K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.91Ta0.05Sb0.04)O3]-xBi0.25Na0.25NbO3 (KNLNTS-xBNN) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction method and the effects of BNN on their phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties systematically studied. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that BNN substitution into KNLNTS induced coexistence of orthorhombic-tetragonal mixed phase and thus improved the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The surface morphologies indicated that different amounts of BNN had two different effects on grain growth. Good electrical properties (d 33 = 256 pC N-1, T c = 354.27°C, k p = 43.43%, P r = 26.85 μC cm-2, E c = 24.47 kV cm-1) were simultaneously obtained at x = 0.0025, suggesting that our research could benefit development of (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics and widen their application range.

  7. Bright reddish-orange emission and good piezoelectric properties of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun Chu, Ruiqing; Li, Wei; Du, Juan

    2015-05-21

    Reddish orange-emitting 0.948(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3}-0.052LiSbO{sub 3}-xmol%Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (KNN-5.2LS-xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with good piezoelectric properties were fabricated in this study, and the photoluminescence and electrical properties of the ceramics were systematically studied. Results showed that Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} substitution into KNN-5.2LS induces a phase transition from the coexistence of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases to a pseudocubic phase and shifts the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) to below room temperature. The temperature stability and fatigue resistance of the modified ceramics were significantly improved by Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} substitution. The KNN-5.2LS ceramic with 0.4 mol. % Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited temperature-independent properties (25–150 °C), fatigue-free behavior (up to 10{sup 6} cycles), and good piezoelectric properties (d{sub 33}{sup * }= 230 pm/V, d{sub 33} = 176 pC/N, k{sub p} = 35%). Studies on the photoluminescence properties of the samples showed strong reddish-orange emission upon blue light excitation; these emission intensities were strongly dependent on the doping concentration and sintering temperature. The 0.4 mol. % Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified sample exhibited temperature responses over a wide temperature range of 10–443 K. The maximum sensing sensitivity of the sample was 7.5 × 10{sup −4} K at 293 K, at which point PPT occurred. A relatively long decay lifetime τ of 1.27–1.40 ms and a large quantum yield η of 0.17–0.19 were obtained from the Sm-modified samples. These results suggest that the KNN-5.2LS-xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3} system presents multifunctional properties and significant technological potential in novel multifunctional devices.

  8. Residual tensile stresses and piezoelectric properties in BiFeO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-PbTiO3 ternary solid solution perovskite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Yu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    For low dielectric loss perovskite-structured (1-x-y)BiFeO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-yPbTiO3 (BF-BZT-PT) (x = 0.04-0.15 and y = 0.15-0.26) ceramics in rhombohedral/tetragonal coexistent phase, structural phase transitions were studied using differential thermal analyzer combined with temperature-dependent dielectric measurement. Two lattice structural phase transitions are disclosed in various BF-BZT-PT perovskites, which is different from its membership of BiFeO3 exhibiting just one lattice structural phase transition at Curie temperature TC= 830oC. Consequently, residual internal tensile stresses were revealed experimentally through XRD measurements on ceramic pellets and counterpart powders, which are reasonably attributed to special structural phase transition sequence of BF-BZT-PT solid solution perovskites. Low piezoresponse was observed and argued extrinsically resulting from residual tensile stresses pinning ferroelectric polarization switching. Post-annealing and subsequent quenching was found effective for eliminating residual internal stresses in those BZT-less ceramics, and good piezoelectric property of d33 ≥ 28 pC/N obtained for 0.70BF-0.08BZT-0.22PT and 0.05 wt% MnO2-doped 0.70BF-0.04BZT-0.26PT ceramics with TC ≥ 640oC, while it seemed no effective for those BZT-rich BF-BZT-PT ceramics with x = 0.14 and 0.15 studied here.

  9. Enhanced high-temperature piezoelectric properties of traditional Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics by a small amount substitution of KNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Rong, Yangchun; Zheng, Shaoying; Liu, Laijun; Fang, Liang; Xing, Xianran

    2014-12-01

    Crystal structure, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated on the (1-x)Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3-xKNbO3 system. The piezoelectric properties have been significantly improved by substituting a small amount of KNbO3. In the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.015), the compound not only shows enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 450 pC/N, which is two times larger than that of unmodified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (d33 = 223 pC/N), but also the Curie temperature (TC = ˜380 °C) is still well maintained at a high level. This phenomenon challenges our general knowledge that in piezoelectric materials the Curie temperature and piezoelectric properties are mutually contradictory. It should be noted that a giant total strain as high as 0.73% is also observed. The high thermal depoling temperature more than 300 °C combined with the excellent piezoelectric properties suggest it as a potential candidate for high temperature actuators and sensors applications.

  10. Numerical and Analytical Design of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents analytical and finite element methods to model broadband transducers with a graded piezoelectric parameter. The application of FGM (Functionally Graded Materials) concept to piezoelectric transducer design allows the design of composite transducers without interface between materials (e.g. piezoelectric ceramic and backing material), due to the continuous change of property values. Thus, large improvements can be achieved in their performance characteristics, mainly generating short-time waveform ultrasonic pulses. Nevertheless, recent research on functionally graded piezoelectric transducers shows lack of studies that compare numerical and analytical approaches used in their design. In this work analytical and numerical models of FGM piezoelectric transducers are developed to analyze the effects of piezoelectric material gradation, specifically, in ultrasonic applications. In addition, results using FGM piezoelectric transducers are compared with non-FGM piezoelectric transducers. We concluded that the developed modeling techniques are accurate, providing a useful tool for designing FGM piezoelectric transducers.

  11. Centrosymmetric tetragonal tellurium doped calcium copper titanate and its dielectric tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Nabadyuti; Tripathi, Shalini; Ravishankar, N.; Varma, K. B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Calcium copper titanate on doping Te4+ at Ti4+ sites transformed structurally to centrosymmetric tetragonal double perovskite. Indeed selected area electron diffraction studies carried out on Te doped ceramics corroborate the refined X-ray diffraction data. The dielectric tunability obtained as a function of applied DC field in Te doped calcium copper titanate ceramics was superior to that of undoped samples.

  12. Perovskite ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for augmenting bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Amrit; Meka, Sai Rama Krishna; Rao, Badari Narayana; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticles as fillers in polymer matrices to develop biomaterials which mimic the mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of bone tissue for orthopaedic applications. The objective of this study was to prepare poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites incorporating three different perovskite ceramic nanoparticles, namely, calcium titanate (CT), strontium titanate (ST) and barium titanate (BT). The tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased with the addition of nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that dispersion of the nanoparticles scaled with the density of the ceramics, which in turn played an important role in determining the enhancement in mechanical properties of the composite. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed improved permittivity and reduced losses in the composites when compared to neat PCL. Nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. Induction coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy indicated the release of small quantities of Ca(+2), Sr(+2), Ba(+2) ions from the scaffolds. Piezo-force microscopy revealed that BT nanoparticles imparted piezoelectric properties to the scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that all composites support osteoblast proliferation. Expression of osteogenic genes was enhanced on the nanocomposites in the following order: PCL/CT > PCL/ST > PCL/BT > PCL. This study demonstrates that the use of perovskite nanoparticles could be a promising technique to engineer better polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25379989

  13. Numerical simulation of piezoelectric effect under ultrasound irradiation with consideration of conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Using a piezoelectric finite-difference time-domain (PE-FDTD) method, numerical simulation of the piezoelectric effect under ultrasound irradiation was performed considering conductivity. From the simulated results, it was shown that the ultrasound amplitude in piezoelectric ceramics decreased owing to piezoelectricity with the increase in conductivity. The simulated ultrasound waveform at a low conductivity agreed with the experimental waveform. The electric field induced in the ceramics decreased with conductivity, and the electric field at a high conductivity decreased with time, which represented piezoelectric relaxation. Moreover, the effect of conductivity on piezoelectricity in human cortical bone was investigated.

  14. Structure and ferroelectric studies of (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata Ramana, E.; Mahajan, A.; Graça, M.P.F.; Mendiratta, S.K.; Monteiro, J.M.; Valente, M.A.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • (Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15})(Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1})O{sub 3} (BCTZO) ceramic was synthesized by the ceramic method. • In situ XRD and Raman spectra showed the phase transition of BCTZO around 360 K. • The ceramics showed a tunability of 82% at 40 kV cm{sup −1} electric field. • BCTZO exhibited good quality factor of 111 at microwave frequencies. • Piezoforce microscopy studies indicated the switchability of ferroelectric domains. - Abstract: We have synthesized and studied the structural and ferroelectric properties of lead-free 0.5(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3}–0.5Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} ceramics in the temperature region of its ferroelectric transition. The synthesized material showed high dielectric constant, low loss and good pyroelectric figure of merit. From the temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements, we determined the tricritical point to be in the temperature range of 303–400 K. The dielectric measurements indicate a diffuse ferroelectric phase transition (DPT) around 360 K in agreement with the X-ray measurements. We studied the evolution of Raman spectra with temperature to understand the nature of phase transition in BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and the BCTZO. The results indicates that the transition of ferroelectric–paraelectric state is not sharp as in the case of BTO and the polar state persists through the paraelectric state. In general, our study indicates that there are ferroelectric domains of nanometer size beyond the commonly defined transition temperature. The observation of local piezoelectric hysteresis loop indicated the existence of intrinsic ferroelectric property of the ceramic at the nanoscale. The ceramics exhibited electric field tunable dielectric properties with a tunability of 82% at an applied DC field of 40 kV cm{sup −1}, low dielectric loss of 0.001 and room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 6 × 10{sup −8} C cm{sup −2} K{sup −1} and the

  15. Numerical simulation of piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation was numerically simulated using an elastic finite-difference time-domain method with piezoelectric constitutive equations (PE-FDTD method). First, to demonstrate the validity of the PE-FDTD method, the ultrasound propagation in piezoelectric ceramics was simulated and then compared with the experimental results. The simulated and experimental waveforms propagating through the ceramics were in good agreement. Next, the piezoelectric effect of human cortical bone on the ultrasound propagation was investigated by PE-FDTD simulation. The simulated result showed that the difference between the waveforms propagating through the bone without and with piezoelectricity was negligible. Finally, the spatial distributions of the electric fields in a human femur induced by ultrasound irradiation were simulated. The electric fields were changed by a bone fracture, which depended on piezoelectric anisotropy. In conclusion, the PE-FDTD method is considered to be useful for investigating the piezoelectric effect of bone.

  16. Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity. PMID:23258941

  17. Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-11-01

    Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity.

  18. Shear piezoelectric coefficients of PZT, LiNbO3 and PMN-PT at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, Syed; Islam, Md; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John

    2014-12-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are used to detect stress and to generate nanometer scale displacements but their piezoelectric coefficients decrease with temperature, limiting their performance in cryogenic applications. We have developed a capacitive technique and directly measured the temperature dependence of the shear coefficient d15 for ceramic lead zirconium titanate (PZT), 41° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and single crystal lead magnesium niobium-lead titanate (PMN-PT). In PZT, d15 decreases nearly linearly with temperature, dropping by factor of about 4 by 1.3 K. LiNbO3 has the smallest room temperature d15, but its value decreased by only 6% at the lowest temperatures. PMN-PT had the largest value of d15 at room temperature (2.9 × 10-9 m/V, about 45 times larger than for LiNbO3) but it decreased rapidly below 75 K; at 1.3 K, d15 was only about 8% of its room temperature value.

  19. Power harvesting using PZT ceramics embedded in orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Ming; Jia, Chen; Wang, Zihua

    2009-09-01

    Battery lifetime has been the stumbling block for many power-critical or maintenance-free real-time embedded applications, such as wireless sensors and orthopedic implants. Thus a piezoelectric material that could convert human motion into electrical energy provides a very attractive solution for clinical implants. In this work, we analyze the power generation characteristics of stiff lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and the equivalent circuit through extensive experiments. Our experimental framework allows us to explore many important design considerations of such a PZT-based power generator. Overall we can achieve a PZT element volume of 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.8 cm, which is considerably smaller than the results reported so far. Finally, we outline the application of our PZT elements in a total knee replacement (TKR) implant. PMID:19812004

  20. Effect of composition on electrical properties of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jaita, Pharatree; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-14

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the composition of (1-x)Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} or (1-x) BNKT-xBNdT (with x = 0-0.20 mol fraction) have been synthesized by a conventional mixed-oxide method. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics were systemically studied. The optimum sintering temperature of all BNKT-BNdT ceramics was found to be 1125 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that BNdT effectively diffused into BNKT lattice during sintering to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BNdT was added. It was found that BNKT-0.10BNdT ceramic exhibited optimum electrical properties ({epsilon}{sub r} = 1716, tan{delta} = 0.0701, T{sub c} = 327 Degree-Sign C, and d{sub 33} = 211 pC/N), suggesting that this composition has a potential to be one of a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.

  1. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators.

  2. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from raised crosswalk devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticali, Dario; Denaro, Mario; Barracco, Alessandro; Guerrieri, Marco

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of an experimental energy harvesting device that can be used to recover energy from the vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The use of a piezoelectric bender devices leads to a innovative approach to Henergy Harvesting. The study focuses on the definition and specification of a mechanical configuration able to transfer the vibration from the main box to the piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric devices tested is the commonly used monolithic piezoceramic material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). The experimental results estimate the efficiency of this device tested and identify the feasibility of their use in real world applications. The results presented in this paper show the potential of piezoelectric materials for use in power harvesting applications.

  3. Piezoelectric properties of 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3) - 0.5[Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3] ferroelectric lead-free laser deposited thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorra, A.; Petraru, A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Wuttig, M.; Quandt, E.

    2011-05-01

    Ferroelectric lead-free thin films of 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3) - 0.5[Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3] (BCZT) were successfully deposited by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a ceramic BCZT target prepared by conventional solid state reaction. The in (111) direction orientated 600 nm thick films shows a clamped piezoelectric response of approximately d33,f = 80 pm/V and a dielectric coefficient of about ɛr = 1010; these are close to values obtained for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films.

  4. Study of BNKLBT-1.5 lead-free ceramic/epoxy 1-3 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, S. H.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. K.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2007-12-01

    Bismuth sodium titanate based lead-free ceramic fiber with the chemical formula of 0.885(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.05(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.015(Bi{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.5}= )TiO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3}, BNKLBT-1.5, has been fabricated by a powder-based extrusion method. The ceramic fibers with 400 {mu}m diameter were well crystallized after being calcined at 800 deg. C and sintered at 1170 deg. C. The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the single fiber were found to be 155 pC/N and {approx}34.5 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which is comparable with that in bulk sample. 1-3 ceramic/polymer composites were fabricated by two routes, including dice and filled method and fiber pick-and-place method. Theoretical models were used to calculate the piezoelectric properties of the composites and compared with experimental results.

  5. Dielectric, piezoelectric and damping properties of novel 2-2 piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Lei, Wang; Shifeng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Here, a strip-shaped 2-2 cement/polymer-based piezoelectric composite was designed and fabricated. The dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling properties of the composite were investigated as well as the coupling effects between the thickness and lateral modes of the piezoelectric composites. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites can be greatly influenced by variations of the piezoelectric ceramic volume fraction and the structural dimensions of the composites. Excellent properties have been achieved for ultrasonic transducer applications in civil engineering monitoring fields, such as large piezoelectric voltage constants, high thickness electromechanical coupling coefficients and low acoustic impedance. The damping property of the composites was especially studied. The maximum damping loss factor of the composites is between 0.28-0.32, and the glass transition temperature is between 55°-66 °C.

  6. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  7. Piezoelectric bimorph-based scanner in the tip-scan mode for high speed atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianyong; Gong, Weitao; Cai, Wei; Shang, Guangyi

    2013-08-01

    A piezoelectric bimorph-based scanner operating in tip-scan mode for high speed atomic force microscope (AFM) is first presented. The free end of the bimorph is used for fixing an AFM cantilever probe and the other one is mounted on the AFM head. The sample is placed on the top of a piezoelectric tube scanner. High speed scan is performed with the bimorph that vibrates at the resonant frequency, while slow scanning is carried out by the tube scanner. The design and performance of the scanner is discussed and given in detailed. Combined with a commercially available data acquisition system, a high speed AFM has been built successfully. By real-time observing the deformation of the pores on the surface of a commercial piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5) ceramics under electric field, the dynamic imaging capability of the AFM is demonstrated. The results show that the notable advantage of the AFM is that dynamic process of the sample with large dimensions can be easily investigated. In addition, this design could provide a way to study a sample in real time under the given experimental condition, such as under an external electric field, on a heating stage, or in a liquid cell.

  8. Large piezoelectricity in Pb-free 0.96(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.93}Sb{sub 0.07}O{sub 3}−0.04BaZrO{sub 3} ceramic: A perspective from microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jinghui Li, Huiying; Zhong, Lisheng; Li, Shengtao; Hao, Yanshuang; Ren, Shuai Fang, Minxia; Ren, Xiaobing; Kimoto, Takayoshi; Wang, Yu

    2015-02-28

    We employ transmission electron microscopy to explore the reason for large piezoelectricity (d{sub 33}≈400pC/N) in a Pb-free 0.96(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.93}Sb{sub 0.07}O{sub 3} −0.04BaZrO{sub 3} ceramic from microstructure. The result shows that the high piezoelectricity corresponds to a miniaturized nanodomain configuration in a domain hierarchy. The nanodomains disappear on heating accompanied by a reduction in d{sub 33} value. Further convergent beam electron diffraction study reveals a coexistence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phase, which indicates that large piezoelectricity of KNLNS{sub 0.07}-BZ may stem from easy polarization rotation due to low polarization anisotropy on the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase boundary.

  9. FABRICATION AND TESTING OF MICROWAVE SINTERED SOL-GEL SPRAY-ON BISMUTH TITANATE-LITHIUM NIOBATE BASED PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITE FOR USE AS A HIGH TEMPERATURE (>500 deg. C) ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER

    SciTech Connect

    Searfass, C. T.; Baba, A.; Tittmann, B. R.; Agrawal, D. K.

    2010-02-22

    Bismuth titanate-lithium niobate based ultrasonic transducers have been fabricated using a sol-gel spray-on deposition technique. These transducers were then tested to determine their potential as high temperature ultrasonic transducers. Fabricated transducers were capable of operating to 1000 deg. C in pulse-echo mode; however, the exposure to such extreme temperatures appears to be destructive to the transducers.

  10. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  11. Characterization of Piezoelectric PDMS-Nanoparticle Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, C. J.; Mionic Ebersold, M.; Bowen, P.; Farine, P.-A.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the novel fabrication and characterization of elastomeric piezoelectric nanocomposites are explored. Fabrication methods explored herein utilize ball milled barium titanate powder dispersions, along with double walled carbon nanotubes which are dispersed in toluene though the use of an ultrasonic probe. Test devices are then constructed with electrodes made from evaporated gold on polyimide foils and protective dielectrics of pristine PDMS. Two different device construction methods are explored utilizing both direct contact bonding and plasma bonding of the active composite layers to the dielectric/electrode. Test samples are evaluated through the use of a dedicated Berlincourt type piezoelectric d33 meter.

  12. Nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guang; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Through three-dimensional finite element modeling, it is demonstrated that the nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands is strongly dependent on the shape of the nano-island and the depth of indentation. For indentations that are relatively deep (i.e., greater than 5% of the height of the islands), the substrate's elastic and plastic properties have a strong influence on the indentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands with substrate plasticity resulting in a significant reduction in the mechanical and electrical indentation stiffness. The predictions of the finite element models compare well with experiments on nano-islands of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate.

  13. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-02

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

  14. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  15. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  16. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  17. Synthesis and In vitro Evaluation of Electrodeposited Barium Titanate Coating on Ti6Al4V

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Shahram; Basiriani, Mohammad Basir; Rafienia, Mohammad; Yaghini, Jaber; Raeisi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegration has been the concern of implantology for many years. Researchers have used various ceramic coatings for this purpose; however, piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., barium titanate [BTO]) are a novel field of interest. In this regard, BTO (BaTiO3) coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti6Al4V medical alloy, using sol-gel-synthesized nanometer BTO powder. Structure and morphologies were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Bioactivity response of coated samples was evaluated by SEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell compatibility was also studied via MTT assay and SEM imaging. Results showed homogenous coating with cubic structure and crystallite size of about 41 nm. SEM images indicated apatite formation on the coating after 7 days of SBF immersion, and ICP analysis approved ions concentration decrement in SBF. Cells showed flattened morphology in intimate contact with coating after 7 days of culture. Altogether, coated samples demonstrated appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility. PMID:27186538

  18. Synthesis and In vitro Evaluation of Electrodeposited Barium Titanate Coating on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Shahram; Basiriani, Mohammad Basir; Rafienia, Mohammad; Yaghini, Jaber; Raeisi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegration has been the concern of implantology for many years. Researchers have used various ceramic coatings for this purpose; however, piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., barium titanate [BTO]) are a novel field of interest. In this regard, BTO (BaTiO3) coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti6Al4V medical alloy, using sol-gel-synthesized nanometer BTO powder. Structure and morphologies were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Bioactivity response of coated samples was evaluated by SEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell compatibility was also studied via MTT assay and SEM imaging. Results showed homogenous coating with cubic structure and crystallite size of about 41 nm. SEM images indicated apatite formation on the coating after 7 days of SBF immersion, and ICP analysis approved ions concentration decrement in SBF. Cells showed flattened morphology in intimate contact with coating after 7 days of culture. Altogether, coated samples demonstrated appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility. PMID:27186538

  19. Local piezoelectric behavior in PZT-based thin films for ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggio, Flavio

    Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are currently used in inkjet printers and precision resonators; numerous additional applications are being investigated for sensors, low-voltage actuators, and transducers. This work was aimed at improving piezoelectric MEMS by taking two approaches: 1) identifying factors affecting the piezoelectric response of ferroelectric thin films and 2) demonstrating integration of these films into a high frequency array transducer. It was found that there are several key factors influencing the piezoelectric response of thin films for a given material composition. First, large grain size improves the piezoelectric response. This was demonstrated using chemical solution deposited lead nickel niobate -- lead zirconate titanate (0.3)Pb(Ni 0.33Nb0.67)O3 - (0.7)Pb(Zr0.45Ti 0.55O3), (PNN-PZT) ferroelectric thin films. It was shown that this composition allows greater microstructural control than does PZT. Dielectric permittivities ranging from 1350 to 1520 and a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f as high as -- 9.7 C/m 2 were observed for films of about 0.25 mum in thickness. The permittivity and piezoelectric response as well as extrinsic contributions to the dielectric constant increased by 14 and 12 % respectively for samples with grain sizes ranging from 110 to 270 nm. A second factor influencing the piezoelectric response is film composition with respect to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The composition dependence of the dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities was characterized in epitaxially grown (0.3)Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-(0.7)Pb(Zr xTi1-xO3) thin films deposited on SrTiO 3 to minimize the influence of large-angle grain boundaries. Tetragonal, MPB and rhombohedral films were prepared by changing the Zr/Ti ratio. The largest dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities were observed for the rhombohedral sample; this resulted from a higher domain wall mobility due to a smaller ferroelectric distortion and

  20. Structural and electromechanical properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramics produced by different synthesis routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A.; Maqbool, A.; Malik, R. A.; Kim, M. H.; Song, T. K.; Kim, W. J.

    2016-08-01

    Sodium bismuth titanate, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) ceramics were produced by three different methods; conventional mixed-oxide (CMO) route, molten salt synthesis (MSS) and topochemical microcrystal conversion (TMC) and then sintered at 1150 oC for 2 h in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric and field-induced strain properties were investigated for all samples. All samples showed a single phase perovskite structure without any evidences of unwanted secondary phases. The NBT ceramics synthesized by the TMC method show slightly better dielectric, ferroelectric and field induced strain response as compared with CMO and MSS synthesized ceramics. The room temperature dielectric constant measured at 1 kHz increased from 218 for NBT ceramics synthesized by MSS method to 271 and 330 for CMO and TMC synthesized ceramics, respectively. Similarly, the dynamic piezoelectric coefficient (d 33*) enhanced from 91 pm/V for CMO synthesized to 97 pm/V and 107 pm/V for MSS and TMC synthesized ceramics, respectively.

  1. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  2. Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

    1966-01-01

    Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

  3. Cryogenic Actuators and Motors Using Single Crystal Piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2006-04-01

    Novel piezoelectric actuators (stack actuator and flextensional actuator) and ultrasonic motors are presented for cryogenic actuations utilizing the excellent cryogenic properties of recently invented single crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PZN-PT crystals). Single crystal piezoelectrics exhibit large increases in strain over conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Furthermore, the crystals have been found to retain appreciable piezoactivity down to temperatures as low as 20K. These cryogenic actuators are very promising for shape control, precision positioning and force control in various NASA, military and civilian applications such as cryogenic adaptive optics for space telescopes, interferometers in terrestrial planet finder missions, interferometers and spectrometers for remote sensing applications.

  4. Effects of doping, cation stoichiometry, and the processing conditions on the dielectric properties of high-K calcium copper titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Seunghwa

    Since its discovery, the anomalous dielectric behavior of CaCu3 Ti4O12 (CCTO) has drawn a great deal of attention for many possible applications in electronic devices. The origin of the giant dielectric constant in CCTO was explained via an internal barrier layer capacitor model, and it has been reported that the dielectric properties of CCTO are sensitive to its microstructure which depends upon the processing conditions. To further explore its unusual dielectric phenomena, the current study focuses on the process-property-structure relationship of the high-K CCTO via doping, cation non-stoichiometry, and sintering conditions. A variety of CCTO pellets were obtained by utilizing the different processing parameters via conventional solid-state synthesis methods. For the doping study, three types of dopants were selected with the variation of doping concentration. The study of undoped CCTO ceramics was carried out by the modification of the CuO and TiO2 content in CCTO to create the stoichiometric formula CaCu3+xTi4+yO12 (x = -0.06, 0, -0.06; y = 0.08, 0, -0.08). Different processing factors including heating and cooling rates, sintering temperature, and sintering time were applied for the study of stoichiometric CCTO. X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, impedance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and electron microprobe analysis were used to determine the existence of CuO and Cu2O secondary phases, dielectric constant and loss tangent, electrical resistivity of grains and boundaries, decomposition reactions, and the microstructural changes of CCTO ceramics. It was revealed that the doping method improved the dielectric constant and loss tangent. The similar improvement in dielectric properties was also found in the Cu-deficient and Ti-deficient CCTO. The measurement and characterization results of stoichiometric CCTO clearly indicated that the dielectric properties, evolution of secondary phases, and microstructures were strongly dependent upon the processing

  5. Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a

  6. High photovoltages in ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, P. S.

    1976-01-01

    The short-circuit currents and photo-emfs were measured for various ceramics including barium titanate, lead metaniobate, and lead titanate. It is suggested that the emfs and currents arise from the presence of photoconductor-insulator sandwiches in the presence of space-charge-produced internal fields. Results are in agreement with the proposed theory and indicate that the ferroelectric ceramics are not only producers of high-voltage photoelectricity but a photo-battery, the polarity and magnitude of which can be switched by application of an electrical signal.

  7. Dielectric properties of doped titanates of transition metals in the millimeter-wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Perov, D. V.; Kuznetsov, E. A.; Pakhomov, Ya. A.; Ryabkov, Yu. I.

    2016-06-01

    Dielectric properties of ceramic titanates of nickel, cobalt, and manganese and their isomorphically substituted solid solutions are studied. Iron and magnesium are used as dopants. Original methods for solid-state synthesis of titanates allow variations in the dispersity of products. The structure and phase composition of products are analyzed. Microwave measurements of permittivity are performed in a frequency interval of 12-38 GHz. Real and imaginary parts of the permittivities of titanates are determined.

  8. Simulation of electromechanical responses of ferroelectric ceramics driven by alternating compressive stress and static electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Simon Ching-kin; Lo Vengcheong

    2008-11-15

    The effect of static electric field on mechanical and dielectric properties of a lead zirconate titanate (PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3}) piezoceramic sample driven by an alternating compressive stress has been experimentally investigated by Zhou et al.[J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 867 (2005)]. Numerical simulation for this experimental result using two-dimensional four-state Potts model is presented in this article. Upon polarization switching, the dipole in the perovskite cell undergoes 90 deg. rotation, which is in turn associated with the switching of ferroelastic strain state. Consequently, the stress-strain relation and hence the mechanical stiffness are strongly influenced by the magnitude of the dc bias. Optimal mechanical and piezoelectric responses can be obtained by the suitable selection of biasing field.

  9. Nanoscale electrical probing of heterogeneous ceramics: the case of giant permittivity calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12).

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Raineri, Vito; Ferrarelli, Matthew C; Sinclair, Derek C; Lo Nigro, Raffaella

    2011-03-01

    Scanning Probe Microscopy with conductive tips has been used to image and study the dielectric properties of giant permittivity CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics at the nanoscale. Since measurements are generally carried out on sections of a sample, particular attention has been devoted to possible artefacts due to surface imperfections, such as substantial surface roughness and/or contamination that can result in controversial interpretation, particularly at nanometric spatial dimensions. A reliable surface investigation has been carried out after the definition of both the physical and geometrical unbiased criteria to avoid any artefacts due to surface roughness and/or anomalous tip-sample contact variations. The presence of insulating grain boundaries and the measurement of a depletion layer at the grain-grain boundary interfaces unambiguously demonstrate the relevance of the Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor effect, among all the proposed physical mechanisms, to explain the giant dielectric behaviour. Such imaging provided a clear correlation between the macroscopic dielectric properties and the nanometric structure at the interfaces. Moreover, the "general criteria" for reliable nanoelectrical characterization as well as the related measurement resolution have been defined. PMID:21240417

  10. Nanoscale electrical probing of heterogeneous ceramics: the case of giant permittivity calcium copper titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Raineri, Vito; Ferrarelli, Matthew C.; Sinclair, Derek C.; Lo Nigro, Raffaella

    2011-03-01

    Scanning Probe Microscopy with conductive tips has been used to image and study the dielectric properties of giant permittivity CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics at the nanoscale. Since measurements are generally carried out on sections of a sample, particular attention has been devoted to possible artefacts due to surface imperfections, such as substantial surface roughness and/or contamination that can result in controversial interpretation, particularly at nanometric spatial dimensions. A reliable surface investigation has been carried out after the definition of both the physical and geometrical unbiased criteria to avoid any artefacts due to surface roughness and/or anomalous tip-sample contact variations. The presence of insulating grain boundaries and the measurement of a depletion layer at the grain-grain boundary interfaces unambiguously demonstrate the relevance of the Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor effect, among all the proposed physical mechanisms, to explain the giant dielectric behaviour. Such imaging provided a clear correlation between the macroscopic dielectric properties and the nanometric structure at the interfaces. Moreover, the ``general criteria'' for reliable nanoelectrical characterization as well as the related measurement resolution have been defined.

  11. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  12. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  13. Enhancing the operational range of piezoelectric actuators by uniaxial compressive preloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koruza, Jurij; Franzbach, Daniel J.; Schader, Florian; Rojas, Virginia; Webber, Kyle G.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of the uniaxial preload on the off-resonance actuation performance of piezoelectric ceramics was investigated for compressive preload values up to  -80 MPa. The study was performed on soft-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT), being the most widely used piezoelectric material. The samples were analysed using the proportional loading method, which enables the simultaneous application of electrical and mechanical loads, thereby mimicking the real operation conditions over the full stress-strain range. An increase of the blocking stress and the longitudinal piezoelectric stress coefficient was observed for all the applied preload values. The optimum properties, a blocking stress of  -56 MPa and a free strain of 0.23%, were obtained at a preload value of  -40 MPa and electric field of 2 kV mm  -  1. This represents an increase of 16% and 20%, respectively, as compared to the values obtained at the smallest preload. In addition, the maximum work output was increased by about 28%. Finally, the results obtained at the lowest preload of  -4 MPa using the proportional loading method were compared to the operational ranges determined by other methods. The comparison revealed large discrepancies between the methods, originating from the different order of the application of electrical and mechanical fields and the inherent nonlinearity of ferroelectric materials. This discrepancy results in decreased actuator performance due to impedance mismatching, demonstrating the need for accurate determination of the actuator’s operational range.

  14. The effect of CuO and NiO doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakroo, Sunanda; Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Vijay; Singh, Pramod K.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -xCuO-yNiO (for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) have been prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. An investigation of CuO and NiO doping in bismuth sodium titanate (BNT) and a study of the structure, morphology, and dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the NBT-CuNi system have been conducted. Phase and microstructural analysis of the (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) based ceramics has been carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that inhibition of grain growth takes place with increasing Cu and Ni concentration. The results indicate that the co-doping of NiO and CuO is effective in improving the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of NBT ceramics. Temperature-dependent dielectric studies have also been carried out at room temperature to 400 °C at different frequencies. The NBT ceramics co-doped with x = 0.06 and y = 0.06 exhibited an excellent dielectric constant ɛr = 1514. The study suggests that there is enormous scope of application of such materials in the future for actuators, ultrasonic transducers and high-frequency piezoelectric devices.

  15. Titan Haze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie M.; West, Robert; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2011-01-01

    The Titan haze exerts a dominating influence on surface visibility and atmospheric radiative heating at optical and near-infrared wavelengths and our desire to understand surface composition and atmospheric dynamics provides a strong motivation to study the properties of the haze. Prior to the Cassini/Huygens missions the haze was known to be global in extent, with a hemispheric contrast asymmetry, with a complicated structure in the polar vortex region poleward of about 55 deg latitude, and with a distinct layer near 370 km altitude outside of the polar vortex at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby. The haze particles measured by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft were both highly polarizing and strongly forward scattering, a combination that seems to require an aggregation of small (several tens of nm radius) primary particles. These same properties were seen in the Cassini orbiter and Huygens Probe data. The most extensive set of optical measurements were made inside the atmosphere by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens Probe. At the probe location as determined by the DISR measurements the average haze particle contained about 3000 primary particles whose radius is about 40 nm. Three distinct vertical regions were seen in the DISR data with differing particle properties. Refractive indices of the particles in the main haze layer resemble those reported by Khare et al. between O.3S and about 0.7 micron but are more absorbing than the Khare et al. results between 0.7 micron and the long-wavelength limit of the DISR spectra at 1.6 micron. These and other results are described by Tomasko et al., and a broader summary of results was given by Tomasko and West,. New data continue to stream in from the Cassini spacecraft. New data analyses and new laboratory and model results continue to move the field forward. Titan's 'detached' haze layer suffered a dramatic drop in altitude near equinox in 2009 with implications for the circulation

  16. The Climate of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Lora, Juan M.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has revolutionized our understanding of Titan and its climate. Veiled in a thick organic haze, Titan's visible appearance belies an active, seasonal weather cycle operating in the lower atmosphere. Here we review the climate of Titan, as gleaned from observations and models. Titan's cold surface temperatures (˜90 K) allow methane to form clouds and precipitation analogously to Earth's hydrologic cycle. Because of Titan's slow rotation and small size, its atmospheric circulation falls into a regime resembling Earth's tropics, with weak horizontal temperature gradients. A general overview of how Titan's atmosphere responds to seasonal forcing is provided by estimating a number of climate-related timescales. Titan lacks a global ocean, but methane is cold-trapped at the poles in large seas, and models indicate that weak baroclinic storms form at the boundary of Titan's wet and dry regions. Titan's saturated troposphere is a substantial reservoir of methane, supplied by deep convection from the summer poles. A significant seasonal cycle, first revealed by observations of clouds, causes Titan's convergence zone to migrate deep into the summer hemispheres, but its connection to polar convection remains undetermined. Models suggest that downwelling of air at the winter pole communicates upper-level radiative cooling, reducing the stability of the middle troposphere and priming the atmosphere for spring and summer storms when sunlight returns to Titan's lakes. Despite great gains in our understanding of Titan, many challenges remain. The greatest mystery is how Titan is able to retain an abundance of atmospheric methane with only limited surface liquids, while methane is being irreversibly destroyed by photochemistry. A related mystery is how Titan is able to hide all the ethane that is produced in this process. Future studies will need to consider the interactions between Titan's atmosphere, surface

  17. Does Titan have oceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1994-04-01

    Titan is one of the few worlds in the solar system whose essential nature remains hidden. Satellite data from Voyager are examined. Remote sensing investigations from Earth are explored. Possible models of Titan's surface are reviewed. A closer look at Titan would provide useful information. The data to be gathered by the planetary mission Cassini is discussed.

  18. Process for Making a Ceramic Composition for Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Curtis, Paul G.; Hobson, Beverly F.; Farmer, Joseph; Herman, Connie Cicero; Herman, David Thomas

    1999-06-22

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  19. Process for making a ceramic composition for immobilization of actinides

    DOEpatents

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Herman, Connie Cicero; Hobson, Beverly F.; Herman, David Thomas; Curtis, Paul G.; Farmer, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  20. Electrical properties of lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 piezoelectric ceramics by optimizing sintering temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [0.98NKN-0.02BZT] ceramics were fabricated by the conventional mixed oxide method with sintering temperature at 1,080°C to 1,120°C. The results indicate that the sintering temperature obviously influences the structural and electrical properties of the sample. For the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,080°C to 1,120°C, the bulk density increased with increasing sintering temperature and showed a maximum value at a sintering temperature of 1,090°C. The dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant [ d 33], electromechanical coupling coefficient [ k p], and remnant polarization [ P r] increased with increasing sintering temperature, which might be related to the increase in the relative density. However, the samples would be deteriorated when they are sintered above the optimum temperature. High piezoelectric properties of d 33 = 217 pC/N, k p = 41%, dielectric constant = 1,951, and ferroelectric properties of P r = 10.3 μC/cm2 were obtained for the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,090°C for 4 h.

  1. Electrical properties of lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 piezoelectric ceramics by optimizing sintering temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free 0.98(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.02Ba(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [0.98NKN-0.02BZT] ceramics were fabricated by the conventional mixed oxide method with sintering temperature at 1,080°C to 1,120°C. The results indicate that the sintering temperature obviously influences the structural and electrical properties of the sample. For the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,080°C to 1,120°C, the bulk density increased with increasing sintering temperature and showed a maximum value at a sintering temperature of 1,090°C. The dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant [d33], electromechanical coupling coefficient [kp], and remnant polarization [Pr] increased with increasing sintering temperature, which might be related to the increase in the relative density. However, the samples would be deteriorated when they are sintered above the optimum temperature. High piezoelectric properties of d33 = 217 pC/N, kp = 41%, dielectric constant = 1,951, and ferroelectric properties of Pr = 10.3 μC/cm2 were obtained for the 0.98NKN-0.02BZT ceramics sintered at 1,090°C for 4 h. PMID:22221445

  2. Enhanced Magnetoelectric Coupling in Layered Structure of Piezoelectric Bimorph and Metallic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Bichurin, M. I.; Lavrentyeva, K. V.; Leontiev, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in a layered structure of piezoelectric bimorph and magnetostrictive metallic alloy. The observed ME coefficient in the piezoelectric bimorph-based structure was found to be two times higher than in the traditional piezoelectric/magnetostrictive bilayer. The observed enhancement in ME coupling strength is related to equal signs of induced voltage in both lead zirconate titanate layers with opposite poling directions due to the flexural deformations. The piezoelectric bimorph-based structure has promising potential for sensor and technological applications.

  3. Development of Bismuth-based Lead-free Piezoelectric Materials: Thin Film Piezoelectric Materials via PVD and CSD Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yu Hong

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in electromechanical actuators, sensors, and ultrasonic transducers. Among these materials, lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) has been primarily investigated due to its excellent piezoelectric properties. However, environmental concerns due to the toxicity of PbO have led to investigations into alternative materials systems. Bismuth-based perovskite piezoelectric materials such as (Bi0.5,Na0.5)TiO3 - (Bi0.5K 0.5)TiO3 (BNT - BKT), (Bi0.5,Na0.5 )TiO3 - (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 - BaTiO3(BNT - BKT - BT), (Bi0.5K 0.5)TiO3 - Bi(Zn0.5,Ti0.5)O 3 (BKT - BZT), and (Bi0.5,Na0.5)TiO 3 - (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 - Bi(Mg 0.5,Ti0.5)O3 (BNT - BKT - BMgT) have been explored as potential alternatives to PZT. These materials systems have been extensively studied in bulk ceramic form, however many of the ultimate applications will be in thin film embodiments (i.e., microelectromechanical systems). For this reason, in this thesis these lead-free piezoelectrics are synthesized in thin film form to understand the structure-property-processing relationships and their impact on the ultimate device response. Fabrication of high quality of 0.95BKT - 0.05BZT thin films on platinized silicon substrates was attempted by pulsed laser deposition. Due to cation volatility, deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, deposition pressure, and target-substrate distance, as well as target overdoping were explored to achieve phase pure materials. This route led to high dielectric loss, indicative of poor ferroelectric behavior. This was likely a result of the poor thin film morphology observed in films deposited via this method. Subsequently, 0.8BNT - 0.2BKT, 85BNT - 10BKT - 5BT, and 72.5BNT - 22.5BKT - 5BMgT (near morphotropic phase boundary composition) were synthesized via chemical solution deposition. To compensate the loss of A-site cations, overdoped precursor solutions were prepared. Crystallization after each spin cast layer were required to

  4. Diffuse phase transition in Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Supratim; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Prakash, Om

    2013-02-05

    The morphotropic phase boundary composition viz. lithium sodium niobate, Li{sub 0.12}Na{sub 0.88}NbO{sub 3}, (LNN-12) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and sintering route. The temperature dependent permittivity response near transition temperature showed a diffused phase transition (DPT). The degree of diffuseness, {gamma}, using the modified Curie-Weiss law, was found to be 1.92, indicative of almost-complete diffuse phase transition. The planar coupling constant k{sub p}, and mechanical quality factor Q{sub m}, measured by resonance-antiresonance method, were 0.17 and 413 respectively. These parameter values make LNN-12 ceramic an attractive candidate for transducers applications.

  5. Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.

  6. Intensive Titan exploration begins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Orbiter spacecraft first skimmed through the tenuous upper atmosphere of Titan on 26 October 2004. This moon of Saturn is unique in our solar system, with a dense nitrogen atmosphere that is cold enough in places to rain methane, the feedstock for the atmospheric chemistry that produces hydrocarbons, nitrile compounds, and Titan's orange haze. The data returned from this flyby supply new information on the magnetic field and plasma environment around Titan, expose new facets of the dynamics and chemistry of Titan's atmosphere, and provide the first glimpses of what appears to be a complex, fluid-processed, geologically young Titan surface.

  7. Intensive Titan exploration begins.

    PubMed

    Mahaffy, Paul R

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Orbiter spacecraft first skimmed through the tenuous upper atmosphere of Titan on 26 October 2004. This moon of Saturn is unique in our solar system, with a dense nitrogen atmosphere that is cold enough in places to rain methane, the feedstock for the atmospheric chemistry that produces hydrocarbons, nitrile compounds, and Titan's orange haze. The data returned from this flyby supply new information on the magnetic field and plasma environment around Titan, expose new facets of the dynamics and chemistry of Titan's atmosphere, and provide the first glimpses of what appears to be a complex, fluid-processed, geologically young Titan surface.

  8. Development of lead-free piezoelectric thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazari Torghabeh, Maryam

    As a high performance piezoelectric material widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics have been the center of attention for many years. However, the toxicity of these materials and their exposure to the environment during processing steps, such as calcination, sintering, machining as well as problems in recycling and disposal have been major concerns regarding their usage all around the globe for the past couple of decades. Consequently, utilizing lead-based materials for many commercial applications have been recently restricted in Europe and Asia and measures are being taken in United States as well. Therefore, there is an urgent need for lead-free piezoelectrics whose properties are comparable to those of well-known PZT materials. Recently, the discovery of ultra-high piezoelectric activity in the ternary lead-free KNaNbO3-LiTaO 3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LT-LS) and (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO 3-BaTiO3 (BNT-BKT-BT) systems have given hope for alternatives to PZT. Furthermore, the demand for new generation of environment-friendly functional devices, utilizing piezoelectric materials, inspired a new surge in lead-free piezoelectric thin film research. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore the development of lead-free piezoelectric thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on SrTiO 3 substrate. While the growth and development process of KNN-LT-LS thin films was the primary goal of this thesis, a preliminary effort was also made to fabricate and characterize BNT-BKT-BT thin films. In a comprehensive and systematic process optimization study in conjunction with X-ray diffractometry, the phase evolution, stoichiometry, and growth orientation of the films are monitored as a function of deposition conditions including temperature and ambient oxygen partial pressure. Processing parameters such as substrate temperature and pressure are shown to be highly dominant in determining the phase and composition of the

  9. Plasma-sprayed lead zirconate titanate-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrit, S.; Savin, C.R.; Wiederick, H.D.; Mukherjee, B.K. . Dept. of Physics); Prasad, S.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A plasma-spray process was used to produce piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-glass composite thick films. The films were found to have the same crystal structure as the PZT (Navy-type V) and lead-based glass starting powder mixture. The films showed good adhesion to stainless steel and silver-coated glass slides and poor adhesion to aluminum substrates. The dielectric constant of the films varied between 58 and 20 with dissipations between 0.019 and 0.032. The films were poled, and their piezoelectric charge coefficient, d[sub 33], was 1.1 pC/N.

  10. The effect of inter-granular constraints on the response of polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics at the surface and in the bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Wang, Zhiyang; Khansur, Neamul H.; Kimpton, Justin A.; Oddershede, Jette; Daniels, John E.

    2016-08-01

    The electro-mechanical coupling mechanisms in polycrystalline ferroelectric materials, including a soft PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and lead-free 0.9375(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.0625BaTiO3 (BNT-6.25BT), have been studied using a surface sensitive low-energy (12.4 keV) and bulk sensitive high-energy (73 keV) synchrotron X-ray diffraction with in situ electric fields. The results show that for tetragonal PZT at a maximum electric field of 2.8 kV/mm, the electric-field-induced lattice strain (ɛ111) is 20% higher at the surface than in the bulk, and non-180° ferroelectric domain texture (as indicated by the intensity ratio I002/I200) is 16% higher at the surface. In the case of BNT-6.25BT, which is pseudo-cubic up to fields of 2 kV/mm, lattice strains, ɛ111 and ɛ200, are 15% and 20% higher at the surface, while in the mixed tetragonal and rhombohedral phases at 5 kV/mm, the domain texture indicated by the intensity ratio, I 111 / I 11 1 ¯ and I002/I200, are 12% and 10% higher at the surface than in the bulk, respectively. The observed difference in the strain contributions between the surface and bulk is suggested to result from the fact that surface grains are not constrained in three dimensions, and consequently, domain reorientation and lattice expansion in surface grains are promoted. It is suggested that the magnitude of property difference between the surface and bulk is higher for the PZT than for BNT-6.25BT due to the level of anisotropy in the strain mechanism. The comparison of the results from different methods demonstrates that the intergranular constraints have a significant influence on the electric-field-induced electro-mechanical responses in polycrystalline ferroelectrics. These results have implications for the design of higher performance polycrystalline piezoelectrics.

  11. Piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Barsch, G. R.; Biggers, J. V.

    1984-05-01

    A wide range of materials and devices were covered, including composite materials for transducer applications, electrostriction, and conventional piezoelectrics. In piezoelectric composites, progress was made in 3:1 and 3:2 perforated PZT polymer composites, and in transverse reinforced composites. Finite element calculations of stress distributions in 1:3 PZT polymer composites were carried out. Fresnoite glass ceramics have exhibited extreme stability to hydrostatic pressure, and high sensitivity. A new water quenching technique was used to develop PbTiO3, and a detailed analysis of resonant modes of 1:3 PZT epoxy composites was carried out.

  12. Hydrogen species motion in piezoelectrics: A quasi-elastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvine, K. J.; Tyagi, M.; Brown, C. M.; Udovic, T. J.; Jenkins, T.; Pitman, S. G.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen is known to damage or degrade piezoelectric materials, at low pressure for ferroelectric random access memory applications, and at high pressure for hydrogen-powered vehicle applications. The piezoelectric degradation is in part governed by the motion of hydrogen species within the piezoelectric materials. We present here quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements of the local hydrogen species motion within lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen (≈17 MPa). Neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) studies of the hydrogen-enhanced vibrational modes are presented as well. Results are discussed in the context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and compared to comparable bulk diffusion studies of hydrogen diffusion in lead zirconate titanate.

  13. Large and broadband piezoelectricity in smart polymer-foam space-charge electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugschwandtner, G. S.; Schwödiauer, R.; Vieytes, M.; Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Bauer, S.; Hillenbrand, J.; Kressmann, R.; Sessler, G. M.; Paajanen, M.; Lekkala, J.

    2000-12-01

    Charged closed-cell microporous polypropylene foams are shown to exhibit piezoelectric resonance modes in the dielectric function, coupled with a large anisotropy in the electromechanical and elastic material properties. Strong direct and converse dynamic piezoelectricity with a piezoelectric d33 coefficient of 140 pC/N at 600 kHz is identified. The piezoelectric d33 coefficient exceeds that of the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride by a factor of 5 and compares favorably with ferroelectric ceramics. Applications of similar concepts should provide a broad class of easily fabricated "soft" piezoelectric materials.

  14. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Serra

    This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of

  15. Strong ultrasonic microwaves in ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Arlt, G

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that ferroelectric materials have piezoelectric properties which allow the transformation of electrical signals into mechanical signals and vice versa. The transducer action normally is restricted to frequencies up to the mechanical resonance frequency of the sample. There are, however, two mechanisms which allow transducer action in ferroelectric ceramics at much higher frequencies: one is the normal piezoelectric effect in a ferroelectric ceramic in which the crystallites have periodic domain structures, the other is a domain wall effect in which ferroelastic domain walls in a periodic domain structure are powerful shear wave emitters. Both mechanisms give rise to extensive dielectric losses in ceramics at microwave frequencies. PMID:18244152

  16. Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Withers, P. J.; Koruza, J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.

    2015-05-07

    The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb{sub 0.98}Ba{sub 0.01}(Zr{sub 0.51}Ti{sub 0.49}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

  17. Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Koruza, J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-05-01

    The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr0.51Ti0.49)0.98Nb0.02O3). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

  18. First principles investigations of structural, elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of { Ba,Sr,Pb } TiO3, { Ba,Sr,Pb } ZrO3 and { Ba,Sr,Pb } { Zr,Ti } O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgenc, Berna; Tasseven, Cetin; Cagin, Tahir

    2015-03-01

    We use first-principle density-functional study of structural, anisotropic mechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of {Ba,Sr,Pb}TiO3, {Ba,Sr,Pb}ZrO3 and {Ba,Sr,Pb}{Zr,Ti}O3 alloys in cubic perovskite structures at zero temperature. Because there is significant interest in finding new piezoelectrics that do not contain toxic elements such as lead. In this study, we compare piezoelectric response of those alloys to synthesize outstanding piezoelectric materials. In perovskite structures, the spontaneous polarization is due to enormous values of Born effective charges computed by linear response within density functional perturbation theory, which are much larger than predicted nominal charge. We deeply investigated the effects of composition, order and site defects structure on piezoelectric constants.

  19. Screening for high-performance piezoelectrics using high-throughput density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armiento, Rickard; Kozinsky, Boris; Fornari, Marco; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2011-07-01

    We present a large-scale density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the ABO3 chemical space in the perovskite crystal structure, with the aim of identifying those that are relevant for forming piezoelectric materials. Screening criteria on the DFT results are used to select 49 compositions, which can be seen as the fundamental building blocks from which to create alloys with potentially good piezoelectric performance. This screening finds all the alloy end points used in three well-known high-performance piezoelectrics. The energy differences between different structural distortions, deformation, coupling between the displacement of the A and B sites, spontaneous polarization, Born effective charges, and stability is analyzed in each composition. We discuss the features that cause the high piezoelectric performance of the well-known piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and investigate to what extent these features occur in other compositions. We demonstrate how our results can be useful in the design of isovalent alloys with high piezoelectric performance.

  20. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  1. ULTRASENSITIVE HIGH-TEMPERATURE SELECTIVE GAS DETECTION USING PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Y. Shih; Tejas Patil; Qiang Zhao; Yi-Shi Chiu; Wei-Heng Shih

    2004-03-05

    We have obtained very promising results in the Phase I study. Specifically, for temperature effects, we have established that piezoelectric cantilever sensors could retain their resonance peak strength at high temperatures, i.e., the Q values of the resonance peaks remained above 10 even when the temperature was very close to the Curie temperature. This confirms that a piezoelectric cantilever sensor can be used as a sensor up to its Curie temperature. Furthermore, we have shown that the mass detection sensitivity remained unchanged at different temperatures. For selective gas detection, we have demonstrated selective NH{sub 3} detection using piezoelectric cantilever sensors coated with mesoporous SiO{sub 2}. For high-temperature sensor materials development, we have achieved highly oriented Sr-doped lead titanate thin films that possessed superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Such highly oriented films can be microfabricated into high-performance piezoelectric microcantilever sensors that can be used up to 490 C. We have accomplished the goal of Phase I study in exploring the various aspects of a high-temperature gas sensor. We propose to continue the study in Phase II to develop a sensor that is suitable for high-temperature applications using piezoelectrics with a high Curie temperature and by controlling the effects of temperature. The lead titanate based thin film developed in Phase I is good for applications up to 490 C. In phase II, we will develop lithium niobate thin film based cantilevers for applications up to 1000 C.

  2. Effects of Electric Field and Biaxial Flexure on the Failure of Poled Lead Zirconate Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    Reliable design of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezo stack actuators demands that a number of issues, including electromechanical coupling and ceramic strength-size scaling, be scrutinized. This study addresses those through the use of ball-on-ring (BoR) biaxial flexure strength tests of a PZT piezoelectric material that is concurrently subjected to an electric field. The Weibull strength distributions and fracture surfaces were examined. The mechanical failures were further analyzed in terms of internal stress, energy release rate, and domain-switching toughening. Both the sign and the magnitude of an electric field had a significant effect on the strength of poled PZT within the tested range. A surface flaw type with a depth of ~18 m was identified to be the strength limiter and responsible for the failure of the tested PZT under both mechanical and electromechanical loadings. With ~0.74 in the absence of electric field, the fracture toughness of the poled PZT was affected by an applied electric field just as the strength was affected. These results and observations have the potential to serve probabilistic reliability analysis and design optimization of multilayer PZT piezo actuators.

  3. [Study on the performance of piezoelectric micro pump for insulin injection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijing; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    In terms of performance of piezoelectric micro pump, this paper explores the piezoelectric ceramic plate in different wave driven micro pump flow rate. The conclusion is that the square wave voltage gets the biggest micro pump velocity. The velocity and pressure of the micro pump is almost linear relationship, and having nothing to do with the different inner diameter pipes. The piezoelectric micro pump's stability is not good and exists attenuation.

  4. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  5. Challenges and New Trends for Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2008-01-01

    BiScO3-PbTiO3 ceramics with TC greater than 400 C has been successfully processed. Despite the increase in TC, excess Pb addition increases both the bulk conductivity and the grain boundary contribution to conductivity at elevated temperatures. Conductivity at elevated temperatures, that limits the operating temperature for actuators, has been greatly reduced by excess Bi additions. Excess Bi doping improves poling conditions resulting in enhanced piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub 33) = 408 pC/N).

  6. Radiation damage effects in candidate titanates for Pu disposition: Pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.; Buck, E. C.; Icenhower, J. P.; Kozelisky, A. E.; Sell, R. L.; Elovich, R. J.; Buchmiller, W. C.

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory experiments on titanate ceramics were performed to verify whether certain assumptions are valid regarding the swelling, chemical durability, and microcracking that might occur as 239Pu decays. Titanate ceramics are the material of choice for the immobilization of surplus weapons-grade Pu. The short-lived isotope 238Pu, was incorporated into the ceramic formulation to accelerate the effects of radiation-induced damage. We report on the effects of this damage on the density (volumetric swelling <6%), crystal structure of pyrochlore-bearing specimens (amorphous after about 2 × 1018 α/g), and dissolution (no change from the fully crystalline specimen). Even though the specimens became amorphous during the tests, there was no evidence for microcracking in the photomicrographs from the scanning electron microscope. Thus, although pyrochlore is susceptible to radiation-induced damage, the material remains chemically and physically viable as a material for immobilizing surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  7. Aluminum titanate - methods of production, microstructure and properties (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasovskii, V.P.; Lukin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The development of science and technology in certain cases requires the use of materials with low coefficients of thermal linear expansion. At present, fused quartz, spodumene, and cordierite are used for these purposes. In contrast to cordierite and other silicates, aluminum titanate Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/ has a comparatively high melting point 1860 degrees C. This means it can be considered that the compound may be used to obtain ceramics having low alpha values and at the same time quite high service temperatures. The results obtained for specimens prepared by hot pressing confirm the hypothesis about the possibility in principle of creating ceramics from aluminum titanate with higher strength values than are known at the present time. The main approach to solving this problem is to investigate the influence of alloying additives on the microstructure of ceramics made of Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/.

  8. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate microwires using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Miller, Alexander T.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) microwires with applications in sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters are produced using hydrothermal synthesis. The synthesized microwires are relatively large with an average length of about 450 microns and an average width of 4 microns. Each of these individual PZT microwires can be integrated in smart systems as an active phase or be used as an independent smart material. In this paper, the synthesis procedure and characterization of these large microwires is demonstrated. The converse piezoelectric properties of the microwires are measured using digital image correlation after clamping and adding electrodes at each end of the microwire. It has been shown in the literature that digital image correlation can be used as a precise tool for rapid characterization of piezoelectric materials. Here, it is demonstrated that this technique can be applied to characterize the actual response of piezoelectric materials at the micron scale.

  9. Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-10-06

    A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

  10. Titan's Exotic Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.

    2006-09-01

    Images of Titan, taken during the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini-Huygens mission, invoke a feeling of familiarity: washes wind downhill to damp lakebeds; massive cumuli form and quickly dissipate, suggestive of rain; and dark oval regions resemble lakes. These features arise from Titan's unique similarity with Earth: both cycle liquid between their surfaces and atmospheres, but in Titan's cool atmosphere it is methane that exists as a gas, liquid, and ice. While Titan enticingly resembles Earth, its atmosphere is 10 times thicker, so that its radiative time constant near the surface exceeds a Titan year, and prohibits large thermal gradients and seasonal surface temperature variations exceeding 3K. Titan also lacks oceans - central to Earth's climate - and instead stores much of its condensible in its atmosphere. As a result, Titan's weather differs remarkably from Earth's. Evidence for this difference appears in the location of Titan's large clouds, which frequent a narrow band at 40S latitude and a region within 30 latitude of the S. Pole. Ground-based and Cassini observations, combined with thermodynamic considerations, indicate that we are seeing large convective cloud systems. Detailed cloud models and general circulation models further suggest that these are severe rain storms, which will migrate with the change in season. Outside these migrating "gypsy" cloud bands, the atmosphere appears to be calm, humid and thus frequented by thin stratiform clouds. An intriguingly alien environment is predicted. Yet, the combined effects of Titan's patchy wet surface, atmospheric tides, possible ice volcanoes, and detailed seasonal variations remain unclear as we have witnessed only one season so far. This talk will review observations of Titan's lower atmosphere and modeling efforts to explain the observations, and explore the questions that still elude us.

  11. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  12. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  13. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Design and implementation of a versatile and variable-frequency piezoelectric coefficient measurement system.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Huang, Y K; Wu, F L; Lin, D Y

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple but versatile piezoelectric coefficient measurement system, which can measure the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients in the pressing and bending modes, respectively, at different applied forces and a wide range of frequencies. The functionality of this measurement system has been demonstrated on three samples, including a PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic bulk, a ZnO thin film, and a laminated piezoelectric film sensor. The static longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT bulk and the ZnO film are estimated to be around 210 and 8.1 pC/N, respectively. The static transverse piezoelectric coefficients of the ZnO film and the piezoelectric film sensor are determined to be, respectively, -0.284 and -0.031 C/m(2).

  15. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-07-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods.

  16. Processing science of barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat

    barium titanate phase formation. The exhaust gases emitted during the firing of barium titanate films were monitored using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) to investigate the effects of ramp rate and oxygen partial pressure. The dielectric properties including capacitor yield were correlated to the RGA data and microstructure. This information was used to tailor a thermal profile to obtain the optimum dielectric response. A ramp rate of 20°C/min and a pO2 of 10-13 atm resulted in a permittivity of 1500, a loss tangent of 0.035 and a 90% capacitor yield in 0.5 mm dot capacitors. Yield values above 90% represent a significant advantage over preexisting reports and can be attributed to an improved ability to control final porosity. Finally, the dramatic enhancement in film density was demonstrated by understanding the processing science relationships between organic removal, crystallization, and densification in chemical solution deposition. The in situ gas analysis was used to develop an each-layer-fired approach that provides for effective organic removal, thus pore elimination, larger grain sizes, and superior densification. The combination of large grain size and high density enabled reproducing bulk-like dielectric properties in a thin film. A room temperature permittivity of 3000, a 5 muF/cm2 capacitance density, and a dielectric tunability of 15:1 were achieved. By combining the data sets generated in this thesis with those of comparable literature reports, we were able to broadly rationalize scaling effects in polycrystalline thin films. We show that the same models successfully applied to bulk ceramic systems are appropriate for thin films, and that models involving parasitic interfacial layers are not needed. Developing better models for scaling effects were made possible solely by advancing our ability to synthesize materials thus eliminating artifacts and extrinsic effects.

  17. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi4+δTi4O15 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi4+δTi4O15 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (Tm) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (Pr ~ 12.5 µC/cm2), low coercive fields (Ec ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  18. The evolution of the Titan rocket - Titan I to Titan II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Laurence J.

    1990-10-01

    The Titan I and Titan II rockets are described. The designs of the stages, test stands, and basing systems are considered, and the developmental history of each rocket is briefly recapitulated. The ways in which Titan II represents an evolution from Titan I are pointed out.

  19. Exploring the piezoelectric performance of PZT particulate-epoxy composites loaded in shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loock, F.; Deutz, D. B.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The active and passive piezoelectric response of lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy particulate composites loaded in shear is studied using analytical models, a finite element model and by experiments. The response is compared to that of the same composites when loaded in simple tension. Analogously to bulk PZT, particulate PZT-polymer composites loaded in shear show higher piezoelectric charge coefficient (d 15) and energy density figure of merit (FOM15) values compared to simple tension (d 33) and (FOM33). This outcome demonstrates the as-yet barely explored potential of piezoelectric particulate composites for optimal strain energy harvesting when activated in shear.

  20. Titan's organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  1. Piezoelectric thin films: an integrated review of transducers and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin films offer a number of advantages in various applications, such as high energy density harvesters, a wide dynamic range, and high sensitivity sensors, as well as large displacement and low power consumption actuators. This review covers the available material forms and applications of piezoelectric thin films: lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thin films, lead-free piezoelectric thin films, piezopolymer films, cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap), and many other thin films used for electromechanical transduction. The electromechanical properties and performances of piezoelectric films are compared and their suitability for particular applications are reported. The key ideas of piezoelectric thin films are reviewed and discussed for sensory and actuation systems, energy harvesting, and medical and acoustic transducers. In the last section, an insight into the future outlook and possibilities for thin film-based devices and their integration into real-world applications is presented.

  2. Consideration of impedance matching techniques for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank; Stephanou, Harry; Uchino, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 x 10(-3) V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit approximately 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation.

  3. Consideration of impedance matching techniques for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank; Stephanou, Harry; Uchino, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 x 10(-3) V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit approximately 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation. PMID:17941391

  4. Raising the Titanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  5. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  6. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  7. Titan - Some new results

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.; Gautier, D.

    1989-01-01

    New analyses of Voyager spectra of Titan have led to improvements in the determination of abundances of minor constituents as a function of latitude and altitude. Ground-based microwave observations have extended the Voyager results for HCN, and have demonstrated that CO is mysteriously deficient in the stratosphere. The origin of the CH4, CO, and N2 in Titan's atmosphere is still unresolved. Both primordial and evolutionary sources are compatible with the available evidence. 21 refs.

  8. Clash of the Titans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  9. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  10. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Enhanced airglow at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie; Esposito, Larry; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2016-06-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument made thousand of observations of Titan since its arrival in the Saturnian system in 2004, but only few of them have been analyzed yet. Using the imaging capability of UVIS combined to a big data analytics approach, we have been able to uncover an unexpected pattern in this observations: on several occasions the Titan airglow exhibits an enhanced brightness by approximately a factor of 2, generally combined with a lower altitude of the airglow emission peak. These events typically last from 10 to 30 minutes and are followed and preceded by an airglow of regular and expected level of brightness and altitude. Observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument onboard Cassini allowed us to correlate the enhanced airglow observed on T-32 with an electron burst. The timing of the burst and the level of energetic electrons (1 keV) observed by CAPS correspond to a brighter and lower than typical airglow displayed on the UVIS data. Furthermore, during T-32 Titan was inside the Saturn's magnetosheath and thus more subject to bombardment by energetic particles. However, our analysis demonstrates that the presence of Titan inside the magnetosheath is not a necessary condition for the production of an enhanced airglow, as we detected other similar events while Titan was within Saturn's magnetosphere. The study presented here aims to a better understanding of the interactions of Titan's upper atmosphere with its direct environment.

  12. Titan's surface and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2016-05-01

    Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With atmospheric pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated atmosphere and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of atmospheric/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor physical models.

  13. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.

  14. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, S. P.; Topare, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  15. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2014-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm the continuous high aspect ratio structure of barium titanate nanofibers after heat treatment. It is demonstrated that the CJS technique offers a highly efficient method for large-scale fabrication of ceramic nanofibers at production rates of up to 0.3 gram/minute. PMID:24563566

  16. High thermal stability of piezoelectric properties in (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}){sub x}-(BaTiO{sub 3}){sub y}-(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x-y} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-07

    We report the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}){sub x}-(BaTiO{sub 3}){sub y}-(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x-y} ceramics for Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} rich end of composition (x, y {<=} 0.04 mol. %). These compositions were found to exhibit significantly improved thermal stability of piezoresponse. Variation of dielectric constant as a function of temperature revealed that orthorhombic-tetragonal (T{sub o-t}) and tetragonal-cubic (T{sub c}) transition temperatures for these compositions were in the vicinity of 0 Degree-Sign C and 330 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Dynamic scaling and temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response explaining the temperature dependent behavior.

  17. Witnessing Springtime on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Have you ever wondered what springtime is like on Saturns largest moon, Titan? A team of researchers has analyzed a decade of data from the Cassini spacecraft to determine how Titans gradual progression through seasons has affected its temperatures.Observing the Saturn SystemThough Titan orbits Saturn once every ~16 days, it is Saturns ~30-year march around the Sun that sets Titans seasons: each traditional season on Titan spans roughly 7.5 years. Thus, when the Cassini spacecraft first arrived at Saturn in 2004 to study the giant planet and its ring system and moons, Titans northern hemisphere was in early winter. A decade later, the season in the northern hemisphere had advanced to late spring.A team scientists led by Donald Jennings (Goddard Space Flight Center) has now used data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on board Cassini to analyze the evolution of Titans surface temperature between 2004 and 2014.Changing of SeasonsSurface brightness temperatures (with errors) on Titan are shown in blue for five time periods between 2004 and 2014. The location of maximum temperature migrates from 19S to 16N over the decade. Two climate models are also shown in green (high thermal inertia) and red (low thermal inertia). [Jennings et al. 2016]CIRS uses the decreased opacity of Titans atmosphere at 19 m to detect infrared emission from Titans surface at this wavelength. From this data, Jennings and collaborators determine Titans surface temperature for five time intervals between 2004 and 2014. They bin the data into 10 latitude bins that span from the south pole (90S) to the north pole (90N).The authors find that the maximum temperature on the moon stays stable over the ten-year period at 94 K, or a chilly -240F). But as time passes, the latitude with the warmest temperature shifts from 19S to 16N, marking the transition from early winter to late spring. Over the decade of monitoring, the surface temperature near the south pole decreased by ~2 K, and that

  18. Design considerations for piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Brown, L F

    2000-01-01

    Much work has been published on the design of ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramics, but a great deal of this work does not apply when using the piezoelectric polymers because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and present new insight into seven important considerations for the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers: piezoelectric polymer materials selection, transducer construction and packaging requirements, materials characterization and modeling, film thickness and active area design, electroding selection, backing material design, and front protection/matching layer design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also presents new insight into the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic transducers. The design and fabrication of an immersible ultrasonic transducer, which has no adhesive layer between the active element and backing layer, is included. The transducer features direct deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer onto an insulated aluminum backing substrate. Pulse-echo tests indicated a minimum insertion loss of 37 dB and -6 dB bandwidth of 9.8 to 22 MHz (71%). The use of polymer wear-protection/quarter-wave matching layers is also discussed. Test results on a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer showed that a Mylar/sup TM/ front layer provided a slight increase in pulse-echo amplitude of 15% (or 1.2 dB) and an increase in -6 dB pulse-echo fractional bandwidth from 86 to 95%. Theoretical derivations are reported for optimizing the active area of the piezoelectric polymer element for maximum power transfer at resonance. These derivations are extended to the special case for a low profile (i.e., thin) shielded transducer. A method for modeling the non-linear loading effects of a commercial pulser-receiver is also included.

  19. Piezoelectric Wheel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Puu-An

    2007-10-01

    A piezoelectric wheel system is proposed for used as a microstepping displacement device including a carrier and two displacement members, which are separately pivoted on the carrier. Each displacement member includes two wheels, and which can not rotate. In addition, each wheel includes a wheel sheet and a piezoelectric element embedded on its surface. When the piezoelectricity element generates and transmits power to the wheel sheet, the wheel induces vibration and deformation. Therefore, owing to the wheel sheets and the touched ground involving their relative motion, the displacement device can be moved or can be oriented its motion direction. The wheel system involves direct movement, and has no rotor requirement. In this research, a three-dimensional (3D) mechanical element with an extra electrical degree of freedom is employed to simulate the dynamic vibration modes of the linear piezoelectric, mechanical, and piezoelectric-mechanical behaviours of the piezoelectric wheel.

  20. Rotational piezoelectric wind energy harvesting using impact-induced resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Shen, Qinlong; Jin, Jiamei; Wang, Yiping; Qian, Wangjie; Yuan, Dewang

    2014-08-01

    To improve the output power of a rotational piezoelectric wind energy harvester, impact-induced resonance is proposed to enable effective excitation of the piezoelectric cantilevers' vibration modes and obtain optimum deformation, which enhances the mechanical/electrical energy transformation. The impact force is introduced by forming a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever polygon that is fixed at the circumference of the rotating fan's internal surface. Elastic balls are placed inside the polygon. When wind rotates the device, the balls strike the piezoelectric cantilevers, and thus electricity is generated by the piezoelectric effect. The impact point is carefully chosen to use the first bending mode as much as possible, and thus maximize the harvesting efficiency. The design enables each bimorph to be struck in a similar area and every bimorph is struck in that area at different moments. As a result, a relatively stable output frequency can be obtained. The output frequency can also be changed by choosing different bimorph dimensions, which will also make the device simpler and the costs lower. A prototype piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of twelve piezoelectric cantilevers was constructed. The piezoelectric cantilevers were made from phosphor bronze, the lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-based bimorph cantilever had dimensions of 47 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm, and the elastic balls were made from steel with a diameter of 10 mm. The optimal DC output power was 613 μW across the 20 kΩ resistor at a rotation speed of 200 r/min with an inscribed circle diameter of 31 mm.

  1. Studies on Structural and Dielectric Properties of ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, T. Gopal; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2010-12-01

    Bismuth Titanate based electroceramics of layered perovskite structures are technologically important materials for high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications, due to their high Curie temperature (675° C), Stable piezoelectric response and excellent dielectric properties. The compounds ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) belongs to Aurivillius family (n = 4) in which BaBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in tetragonal I4/mmm space group, Sr Bi4Ti4O15 and PbBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group A21am. In the present work ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) ceramic samples are prepared through the solid state reaction by conventional mixed oxides by calcination at high temperature. Dielectric constant (ɛ'r) and Dielectric Loss (D) for all the compositions as a function of temperature measured from frequencies 100 Hz to 100 KHz using a HIOKI 3532-50 LCR meter. The dielectric constant increases gradually with an increase in temperature up to transition temperature (Tc, K) and then decreases.

  2. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  3. The environment of Titan, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the physical characteristics of Titan and atmospheric models necessary to support design and mission planning of spacecraft that are to orbit Titan, enter its atmosphere or land on its surface is given.

  4. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the <011> Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived

  5. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  6. Methane drizzle on Titan.

    PubMed

    Tokano, Tetsuya; McKay, Christopher P; Neubauer, Fritz M; Atreya, Sushil K; Ferri, Francesca; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Niemann, Hasso B

    2006-07-27

    Saturn's moon Titan shows landscapes with fluvial features suggestive of hydrology based on liquid methane. Recent efforts in understanding Titan's methane hydrological cycle have focused on occasional cloud outbursts near the south pole or cloud streaks at southern mid-latitudes and the mechanisms of their formation. It is not known, however, if the clouds produce rain or if there are also non-convective clouds, as predicted by several models. Here we show that the in situ data on the methane concentration and temperature profile in Titan's troposphere point to the presence of layered optically thin stratiform clouds. The data indicate an upper methane ice cloud and a lower, barely visible, liquid methane-nitrogen cloud, with a gap in between. The lower, liquid, cloud produces drizzle that reaches the surface. These non-convective methane clouds are quasi-permanent features supported by the global atmospheric circulation, indicating that methane precipitation occurs wherever there is slow upward motion. This drizzle is a persistent component of Titan's methane hydrological cycle and, by wetting the surface on a global scale, plays an active role in the surface geology of Titan.

  7. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Methane ocean on Titan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There was an impressive list of names on a recent scientific communication that argues for the existence on Titan of an ocean of liquid methane (CH4) perhaps several hundred meters deep. C. Sagan and S. Dermott with helpful comments by S. Oter, S. Ostro, S. Peale, C. Yoder, W. Thompson, S. Squyres, G. Pettengill, P. Gierasch, and B. Khare speculate that such a methanic ocean, with its Saturnian tides and its tholinian floor, should exist all over Titan's surface; it should unless, they conclude, there is the ‘distracting coincidence [that] … the position of the surface of Titan [is] … near the liquidus in the CH4phase diagram [and, consequently, there is] …almost no methane ocean at all’ (Nature, 300, 731, 1982).We know very little about Titan and its surface; the way of checking into Sagan and Dermott's ideas appears to rest on the interpretation of radar reflectivity data. Preliminary attempts to obtain radar data were made in 1979 with the 305-m Arecibo telescope, but only broad limits resulted. The next opportunity for a measurement at Arecibo comes in the 1990's. Of course, the ideal circumstance would be to send spacecraft equipped with a radar reflectometer for a Titan flyby.

  9. Hypsometry of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Stiles, Bryan; Le Gall, Alice; Hayes, Alexander; Aharonson, Oded; Wood, Charles A.; Stofan, Ellen; Kirk, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR topography data are used to evaluate Titan's hypsometric profile, and to make comparisons with other planetary bodies. Titan's hypsogram is unimodal and strikingly narrow compared with the terrestrial planets. To investigate topographic extremes, a novel variant on the classic hypsogram is introduced, with a logarithmic abscissa to highlight mountainous terrain. In such a plot, the top of the terrestrial hypsogram is quite distinct from those of Mars and Venus due to the 'glacial buzz-saw' that clips terrestrial topography above the snowline. In contrast to the positive skew seen in other hypsograms, with a long tail of positive relief due to mountains, there is an indication (weak, given the limited data for Titan so far) that the Titan hypsogram appears slightly negatively skewed, suggesting a significant population of unfilled depressions. Limited data permit only a simplistic comparison of Titan topography with other icy satellites but we find that the standard deviation of terrain height (albeit at different scales) is similar to those of Ganymede and Europa.

  10. Optimizing Voided Piezoelectric Polymers For Acoustic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelo, Juan I.

    2009-07-01

    Polymer piezoelectric materials offer lower density and more flexibility than piezoelectric ceramics for applications where rugged and lightweight acoustic sensors are required. This paper discusses constraints imposed by material stiffness and dielectric constants and aims to derive a generalized closed-form solution for optimizing charged foamed polymers. Optimized solutions are reached in the limits of very large and small void fraction and permittivity ratio. The permittivity ratio is the ratio of the dielectric constants of the polymer and the material that fills the voids. Demonstrations indicate that, in the oblique asymptote, the optimized void fraction becomes equivalent to the permittivity ratio. This effort was conducted under the auspices of the Undersea Warfare Business Area (UWBA) Independent Research & Development (IRAD) Board of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL).

  11. Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting in MEMS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yingqi; Qiu, Chengjun; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Xiaojie; Qu, Wei; Dou, Yanwei

    2011-11-01

    Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting made by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources. The developed cantilevers energy harvesting are featured with resonate frequency and power output in microwatt level, which is sufficient to the self-supportive sensors for in-service integrity monitoring of large social and environmental infrastructures at remote locations. In this paper, piezoelectric energy harvesting based on thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers is investigated to resonate at specific frequencies of an external vibration energy source, which creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. Our cantilever device has a multiple structure with a proof mass added to the end. The thick film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) coated on the top of Au/Cr/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel-spin method. The thickness of the PZT membrane was up to 2μm and the cantilevers substrates thickness 50μm, wideness 1.5mm, length 4mm. The Au/Ti top electrode is patterned on top of the sol-gel-spin coated PZT thick film in order to employ the d31 mode. The prototype energy generator has a measured performance of 0.74μW effective electrical power, and 4.93 DC output voltages to resistance load. The effect of proof mass, beam shape and damping on the power generating performance are modeled to provide a design guideline for maximum power harvesting from environmentally available low frequency vibrations. A multiple structure cantilever is designed to achieve compactness, low resonant frequency and minimum damping coefficient, simultaneously. This device is promising to support networks of ultra-low-power sensor.

  12. Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting in MEMS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yingqi; Qiu, Chengjun; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Xiaojie; Qu, Wei; Dou, Yanwei

    2012-04-01

    Piezoelectric cantilevers energy harvesting made by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources. The developed cantilevers energy harvesting are featured with resonate frequency and power output in microwatt level, which is sufficient to the self-supportive sensors for in-service integrity monitoring of large social and environmental infrastructures at remote locations. In this paper, piezoelectric energy harvesting based on thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers is investigated to resonate at specific frequencies of an external vibration energy source, which creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. Our cantilever device has a multiple structure with a proof mass added to the end. The thick film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) coated on the top of Au/Cr/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel-spin method. The thickness of the PZT membrane was up to 2μm and the cantilevers substrates thickness 50μm, wideness 1.5mm, length 4mm. The Au/Ti top electrode is patterned on top of the sol-gel-spin coated PZT thick film in order to employ the d31 mode. The prototype energy generator has a measured performance of 0.74μW effective electrical power, and 4.93 DC output voltages to resistance load. The effect of proof mass, beam shape and damping on the power generating performance are modeled to provide a design guideline for maximum power harvesting from environmentally available low frequency vibrations. A multiple structure cantilever is designed to achieve compactness, low resonant frequency and minimum damping coefficient, simultaneously. This device is promising to support networks of ultra-low-power sensor.

  13. Radiation damage and nanocrystal formation in uranium-niobium titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.

    2001-07-01

    Two uranium-niobium titanates, U 2.25Nb 1.90Ti 0.32O 9.8 and Nb 2.75U 1.20Ti 0.36O 10, formed during the synthesis of brannnerite (UTi 2O 6), a minor phase in titanate-based ceramics investigated for plutonium immobilization. These uranium titanates were subjected to 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation from 30 to 973 K. The critical amorphization dose of the U-rich and Nb-rich titanates at room temperature were 4.72×10 17 and 5×10 17 ions/ m2, respectively. At elevated temperature, the critical amorphization dose increases due to dynamic thermal annealing. The critical amorphization temperature for both Nb-rich and U-rich titanates is ˜933 K under a 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation. Above the critical amorphization temperature, nanocrystals with an average size of ˜15 nm were observed. The formation of nanocrystals is due to epitaxial recrystallization. At higher temperatures, an ion irradiation-induced nucleation-growth mechanism also contributes to the formation of nanocrystals.

  14. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  15. The properties of bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers and as receptors of microwave radiation. I. Bird feathers as converse piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Bigu-del-Blanco, J; Romero-Sierra, C

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the properties of bird feathers as piezoelectric transducers in the audiofrequency range and as dielectric receptors of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave region. In the first case, cartridges of the ceramic and magnetic type and an electromagnetic transducer probe were used as detecting devices. Results show piezoelectric resonances in the 1 to 20-kHz region for the calami of feathers. PMID:1235241

  16. Cryovolcanic Features on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Mitchell, K. L.; LeGall, A.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A.; Kargel, J.; Radebaugh, J.; Janssen, M. A.; Neish, C. D.; Wood, C.; Wall, S. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Malaska, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    We present evidence to support the cryovolcanic origin of some features, which includes the deepest pit known on Titan (Sotra Patera) and some of the highest mountains (Doom and Erebor Montes). We interpret this region to be a cryovolcanic complex of multiple cones, craters, and flows. Elsewhere, a circular feature, approximately 100 km across, is morphologically similar to a laccolith, showing a cross pattern interpreted to be extensional fractures. However, we find that some other previously supposed cryovolcanic features were likely formed by other processes. We discuss implications for eruption style and composition of cryovolcanism on Titan. Our analysis shows the great value of combining data sets when interpreting Titan's geology and in particular stresses the value of topographic data.

  17. The tides of Titan.

    PubMed

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  18. The meteorology of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1992-01-01

    Current knowledge of Titan's meteorology is reviewed, including diagnostic inferences of the large scale wind field and prognostic studies of thermal and momentum balances. Titan's winds were largely inferred from temperature maps whose spatial coverage is incomplete. The inferred winds are cyclostrophic, approximately 75 m/s in the upper stratosphere. The direction of the winds is ambiguous from the temperature data, but arguments based on the spin up of a planetary atmosphere from an initial state of rest strongly suggest that Titan's winds blow predominantly in the direction of the planetary rotation. Stratospheric temperatures exhibit a north-south asymmetry, suggesting that seasonal variations are controlled by a dynamical inertia associated with the need to transport angular momentum as well as heat. A consideration of the global angular momentum balance indicates that the zonally averaged winds near the surface are approximately 0.3 m/s.

  19. Models of Titan's Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, I. P.; Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H.; Wahlund, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Coates, A.; Magee, B.; Gell, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    During the TA and T18 encounters with Titan, in situ measurements were made of Titan's atmosphere and ionosphere by several instruments on board the Cassini Orbiter, including the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS), the Langmuir probe on the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (RPWS), and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Subsystem (CAPS). Both of these encounters were on the day as well as the night side of Titan. The model uses neutral densities measured by the INMS instrument and the electron temperature was measured by the RPWS instrument. The model also includes energetic electron fluxes measured by the CAPS instrument, which act as an important source of ionization on the night side. The modeled ion densities are compared with densities measured by INMS in its Open Source mode.

  20. The tides of Titan.

    PubMed

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth. PMID:22745254

  1. Uniaxial Compression Experiments on Lead Zirconate Titanate 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the Ferroelectric - Antiferroelectric Polymorphic Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeuch, D.H.; Montgomery, S.T.; Holcomb, D.J.

    1999-07-26

    Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic transformation of unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb (PNZT) ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydro-static pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. Recently we showed that this simple criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PNZT's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. It has long been known that this transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression. Our modified hypothesis makes two predictions for transformation of unpoled polycrystals under uniaxial stress: (i) the transformation should begin when the maximum compressive stress, {sigma}{sub 1}, equals the hydrostatic pressure for transformation, and (ii) a steadily increasing axial stress should be required to drive the transformation.

  2. Titanic Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New Detailed VLT Images of Saturn's Largest Moon Optimizing space missions Titan, the largest moon of Saturn was discovered by Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens in 1655 and certainly deserves its name. With a diameter of no less than 5,150 km, it is larger than Mercury and twice as large as Pluto. It is unique in having a hazy atmosphere of nitrogen, methane and oily hydrocarbons. Although it was explored in some detail by the NASA Voyager missions, many aspects of the atmosphere and surface still remain unknown. Thus, the existence of seasonal or diurnal phenomena, the presence of clouds, the surface composition and topography are still under debate. There have even been speculations that some kind of primitive life (now possibly extinct) may be found on Titan. Titan is the main target of the NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission, launched in 1997 and scheduled to arrive at Saturn on July 1, 2004. The ESA Huygens probe is designed to enter the atmosphere of Titan, and to descend by parachute to the surface. Ground-based observations are essential to optimize the return of this space mission, because they will complement the information gained from space and add confidence to the interpretation of the data. Hence, the advent of the adaptive optics system NAOS-CONICA (NACO) [1] in combination with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile now offers a unique opportunity to study the resolved disc of Titan with high sensitivity and increased spatial resolution. Adaptive Optics (AO) systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a special camera at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second (see e.g. ESO Press Release 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 21a-c/02, ESO Press Release 17/02, and ESO Press Release 26/03 for earlier NACO

  3. Diurnal variations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  4. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.A.; Lorenz, R.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Mitchell, Ken; Stofan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; ,

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  6. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not

  7. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  8. Physical states and properties of barium titanate films in a plane electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, V. B.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Shakhovoi, R. A.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of a plane electric field on the phase states of barium titanate thin films under the conditions of forced deformation has been studied. The field dependence of a complete set of material constants has been taken in the region of the c-phase, where polarization losses are absent. The material constants are calculated using equations of the piezoelectric effect derived by linearizing the nonlinear equations of state from the phenomenological; theory for barium titanate. It has been shown that there is a critical value of the field at which the electromechanical coupling coefficient reaches a maximum.

  9. Performance evaluation of pyrochlore ceramic waste forms by single pass flow through testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Bourcier, W. L.; Esser, B. K.; Shaw, H. F.

    2000-07-01

    Titanate-based ceramic waste forms for the disposal of nuclear wastes have been the subjects of numerous studies over the past decades. In order to assess the performance of this ceramic in a potential Yucca Mountain high-level waste (HLW) repository, it is necessary to understand the kinetics and mechanisms of corrosion of the ceramic under repository conditions. To this end, we are conducting single pass flow-through (SPFT) dissolution tests on ceramics relevant to Pu disposition.

  10. Development of environmentally friendly piezoelectric polymer film actuator having multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2016-04-01

    We designed a new soft piezoelectric polymer actuator with a multilayer structure using the environmentally friendly polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA is a chiral polymer having two isomers. One is poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and the other is poly(d-lactide) (PDLA). PLLA and PDLA exhibit piezoelectric constants with opposite signs owing to their chirality. On the basis of their piezoelectric characteristics, we were able to realize a PDLA and PLLA multilayer film (PDLA/PLLA multilayer) with a simple structure. The PDLA/PLLA multilayer film of centimeter-order size exhibited a large piezoelectric resonance and its piezoelectric performance was equivalent to that of a practical piezoelectric ceramic. In this paper, as a first step toward realizing a new film actuator using the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film, we introduce the piezoelectric characteristics of a PLLA film and the concept of an actuation system using a PLLA film. Next, the fabrication process of the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film and its piezoelectric characteristics are summarized. Finally, typical examples of developed piezoelectric polymer actuation systems using a PDLA/PLLA multilayer film are described to demonstrate the potential application of piezoelectric polymer actuation systems.

  11. Titan's "Hot Cross Bun": A Titan Laccolith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lunine, J. I.; Turtle, E. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Malaska, M.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s RADAR instrument acquired Synthetic Aperture Radar data during the T83 flyby on May 22, 2012. The data showed a feature centered at 38.5N, 203W that resembles a “hot cross bun”. This type of feature has not been seen on Titan before, even though 52% of Titan’s surface has been imaged using SAR. The feature, approximately 100 km across, is mostly radar bright but the cross pattern, interpreted to be extensional fractures, located roughly at the center of the brighter area, appears darker at radar wavelengths (2.3 cm). Radar illumination of the image indicates that the fractures are lower in elevation than the surrounding bright region. The morphology of the region is markedly similar to that of a 30-km dome-shaped feature on Venus that lies at the summit of the Kunapipi volcano. The Venus feature is interpreted to be the result of intrusion of magma at the summit of the volcano [1]. A similar feature, interpreted as a laccolith, is seen on the Moon near the crater Ramsden [2]. The lunar feature, imaged by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the cross-shaped depression over a 300 m high rise. No topographic data for the feature on Titan are available at this time, but the morphology seen by the SAR data suggests that the feature may have been formed by material pushing up from below. Laccoliths form when an igneous intrusion splits apart two strata, resulting in a domeline structure. This previously unknown type of structure on Titan may be yet another indication of cryovolcanism. [1] Stofan, E.R., et al, Icarus, 152, 75-95, 2001. [2] Wichman, R.W. and Schultz, P. H. (1996). Icarus, 122, Issue 1, July 1996, pages 193-199. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0118

  12. Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d(36) type piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-03-01

    A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring.

  13. Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d(36) type piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-03-01

    A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring. PMID:25465107

  14. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  15. Evaluation of piezoelectric material properties for a higher power output from energy harvesters with insight into material selection using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit-finite element method.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alice; Zhu, Meiling; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric material properties have substantial influence on electrical power output from piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs). Understanding their influences is the first step in designing effective PEHs to generate higher power outputs. This paper uses a coupled piezoelectric-circuit-finite element method to study the power outputs of different types of piezoelectric materials, including single crystal, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and soft and hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials. The purpose of this study is to try to gain an understanding of which piezoelectric material property--the elastic compliance s11, the piezoelectric strain constant d31, the piezoelectric stress constant g31, and the relative dielectric constant ϵ(T)r33, and the associated material properties of the d31 × g31, called the figure of merit (FOM), and the coupling coefficient k31--dominates the power output. A rectangular piezoelectric plate under a low-frequency excitation is used to evaluate piezoelectric material properties for a higher power output. It was found that 1) d31 is a more dominant material property over other material properties for higher power output; 2) FOM was more linearly related to the power output than either the k31 or the d31; and 3) ϵ(T)r33 had some role; when the materials have an identical d31; a lower ϵ(T)r33 was preferred. Because of unexplained outliers, no single material parameter was able to be recommended as selection criteria, but combined FOM with d31 parameters is recommended for selection of piezoelectric material for a higher power output from PEHs.

  16. Dielectric measurements of selected ceramics at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahiya, J. N.; Templeton, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric measurements of strontium titanate and lead titanate zirconate ceramics are conducted at microwave frequencies using a cylindrical resonant cavity in the TE(sub 011) mode. The perturbations of the electric field are recorded in terms of the frequency shift and Q-changes of the cavity signal. Slater's perturbation equations are used to calculate e' and e" of the dielectric constant as a function of temperature and frequency.

  17. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Sinking with the Titanic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2015-03-01

    In the Titanic movie, when the rear part of the ship is about to sink, Jack Dawson (Leonardo DiCaprio) says to Rose DeWitt Bukater (Kate Winslet) to get ready to swim, because the sinking body will suck them into the abysses. Is this sucking phenomenon really happening? And, if so, why?

  19. Radar reflectivity of titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Grossman, A W; Butler, B J; Slade, M A

    1990-05-25

    The present understanding of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, including the stability of methane, and an application of thermodynamics leads to a strong prediction of liquid hydrocarbons in an ethane-methane mixture on the surface. Such a surface would have nearly unique microwave reflection properties due to the low dielectric constant. Attempts were made to obtain reflections at a wavelength of 3.5 centimeters by means of a 70-meter antenna in California as the transmitter and the Very Large Array in New Mexico as the receiving instrument. Statistically significant echoes were obtained that show Titan is not covered with a deep, global ocean of ethane, as previously thought. The experiment yielded radar cross sections normalized by the Titan disk of 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.78 +/- 0.15, and 0.25 +/- 0.15 on three consecutive nights during which the sub-Earth longitude on Titan moved 50 degrees. The result for the combined data for the entire experiment is 0.35 +/- 0.08. The cross sections are very high, most consistent with those of the Galilean satellites; no evidence of the putative liquid ethane was seen in the reflection data. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 meters would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the detection limit of the experiment. The measured emissivity at similar wavelengths of about 0.9 is somewhat inconsistent with the high reflectivity.

  20. Effect of carbon nanotubes on properties of cement-sand-based piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunjung; Zhao, Ping; Enemuoh, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) were dispersed in a cement-sand-based piezoelectric smart composite as conductive fillers to improve its poling efficiency, leading to a desirable piezoelectric effect. By introducing a small amount of CNTs, continuous electric networks between Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) particles were created, thus making the composite poling easier. Specimens were prepared by mixing PZT powders, Portland cement and sand with CNTs, followed by pressing it with a load frame system. The effect of quantity of CNTs ranging from 0 to 1.0 volume percent on properties of the composite, including its piezoelectric coefficient, dielectric constant and loss, and sensing effects, were characterized. It was found that the addition of CNTs facilitated effective poling at room temperature and improved the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composite. The composite modified by CNTs achieved optimal properties when the CNTs content was 0.7 vol.%.

  1. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  2. Piezoelectric polymer multilayer on flexible substrate for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Wong, Ting Chong; Tan, Chin Yaw; Yao, Kui

    2013-09-01

    A piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure formed on a flexible substrate is investigated for mechanical energy harvesting under bending mode. Analytical and numerical models are developed to clarify the effect of material parameters critical to the energy harvesting performance of the bending multilayer structure. It is shown that the maximum power is proportional to the square of the piezoelectric stress coefficient and the inverse of dielectric permittivity of the piezoelectric polymer. It is further found that a piezoelectric multilayer with thinner electrodes can generate more electric energy in bending mode. The effect of improved impedance matching in the multilayer polymer on energy output is remarkable. Comparisons between piezoelectric ceramic multilayers and polymer multilayers on flexible substrate are discussed. The fabrication of a P(VDF-TrFE) multilayer structure with a thin Al electrode layer is experimentally demonstrated by a scalable dip-coating process on a flexible aluminum substrate. The results indicate that it is feasible to produce a piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure on flexible substrate for harvesting mechanical energy applicable for many low-power electronics.

  3. Piezoelectric polymer multilayer on flexible substrate for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Wong, Ting Chong; Tan, Chin Yaw; Yao, Kui

    2013-09-01

    A piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure formed on a flexible substrate is investigated for mechanical energy harvesting under bending mode. Analytical and numerical models are developed to clarify the effect of material parameters critical to the energy harvesting performance of the bending multilayer structure. It is shown that the maximum power is proportional to the square of the piezoelectric stress coefficient and the inverse of dielectric permittivity of the piezoelectric polymer. It is further found that a piezoelectric multilayer with thinner electrodes can generate more electric energy in bending mode. The effect of improved impedance matching in the multilayer polymer on energy output is remarkable. Comparisons between piezoelectric ceramic multilayers and polymer multilayers on flexible substrate are discussed. The fabrication of a P(VDF-TrFE) multilayer structure with a thin Al electrode layer is experimentally demonstrated by a scalable dip-coating process on a flexible aluminum substrate. The results indicate that it is feasible to produce a piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure on flexible substrate for harvesting mechanical energy applicable for many low-power electronics. PMID:24658732

  4. Piezoelectric composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A laminated structural devices has the ability to change shape, position and resonant frequency without using discrete motive components. The laminate may be a combination of layers of a piezoelectrically active, nonconductive matrix material. A power source selectively places various levels of charge in electrically conductive filaments imbedded in the respective layers to produce various configurations in a predetermined manner. The layers may be electrically conductive having imbedded piezoelectrically active filaments. A combination of layers of electrically conductive material may be laminated to layers of piezoelectrically active material.

  5. Effect of Pb(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} modification on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Nengneng; Li, Qiang; Xia, Zhiguo

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} 10 mol% PFN modified PMN-PZT relaxor ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state mixed-oxide technique, and their structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were studied. {yields} At the frequency of 1 kHz, the maximum dielectric constant at room temperature ({epsilon}{sub r}) was 3519 and maximum dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub m}) was 20,475, corresponding to the (0.9 - x)PMN-0.1PFN-xPZT ceramic composition of x = 0.8. While the sample with composition of x = 0.3 possessed the maximum dielectric relaxor factor of {gamma} = 1.94. The Curie temperature T{sub c} could be higher than 300 {sup o}C around morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) area which is much higher than some other system. {yields} The largest d{sub 33} could be as high as 318 pC/N when x = 0.9. And the maximum remnant polarization P{sub r} was 28.3 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} at x = 0.4. -- Abstract: 10 mol% Pb(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} (PFN) modified Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PMN-PZT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics with compositions of (0.9 - x)PMN-0.1PFN-xPZT (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9) were prepared. X-ray diffraction investigations indicated that as-prepared ceramics were of pure perovskite phase and the sample with composition of x = 0.8 was close to morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal phase. Dielectric properties of the as-prepared ceramics were measured, and the Curie temperature (T{sub c}) increased sharply with increasing PZT content and could be higher than 300 {sup o}C around morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) area. At 1 kHz, the sample with composition of x = 0.1 had the largest room temperature dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub r} = 3519 and maximum dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub m} = 20,475 at T{sub m}, while the sample with composition of x = 0.3 possessed the maximum dielectric relaxor factor of {gamma} = 1.94. The largest d{sub 33

  6. Titanates and Titanate-Metal Compounds in Biological Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Drury, Jeanie L.; Chung, Whasun Oh; Hobbs, David T.; Wataha, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Metal ions are notorious environmental contaminants, some causing toxicity at exquisitely low (ppm-level) concentrations. Yet, the redox properties of metal ions make them attractive candidates for bio-therapeutics. Titanates are insoluble particulate compounds of titanium and oxygen with crystalline surfaces that bind metal ions; these compounds offer a means to scavenge metal ions in environmental contexts or deliver them in therapeutic contexts while limiting systemic exposure and toxicity. In either application, the toxicological properties of titanates are crucial. To date, the accurate measurement of the in vitro toxicity of titanates has been complicated by their particulate nature, which interferes with many assays that are optical density (OD)-dependent, and at present, little to no in vivo titanate toxicity data exist. Compatibility data garnered thus far for native titanates in vitro are inconsistent and lacking in mechanistic understanding. These data suggest that native titanates have little toxicity toward several oral and skin bacteria species, but do suppress mammalian cell metabolism in a cells-pecific manner. Titanate compounds bind several types of metal ions, including some common environmental toxins, and enhance delivery to bacteria or cells. Substantial work remains to address the practical applicability of titanates. Nevertheless, titanates have promise to serve as novel vehicles for metal-based therapeutics or as a new class of metal scavengers for environmental applications. PMID:26430701

  7. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  8. Titan's global geologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  9. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies

  10. Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced

  11. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  12. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  13. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    SciTech Connect

    Priya, Shashank; Viehland, Dwight

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  14. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  15. Exploratory Study of the Acoustic Performance of Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SantaMaria, O. S.; Thurlow, E. M.; Jones, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed ducted fan engine has prompted the need for increasingly lightweight and efficient noise control devices. Exploratory tests at the NASA Langley Research Center were conducted to evaluate three piezoelectric specimens as possible control transducers: a Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) piezofilm sample and two composite samples of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) rods embedded in fiberglass. The tests measured the acoustic output efficiency and evaluated the noise control characteristics when interacting with a primary sound source. The results showed that a PZT sample could diminish the reflected acoustic waves. However, the PZT acoustic output must increase by several orders of magnitude to qualify as a control transducer for the ducted fan engine.

  16. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μm of static displacement, with 80–90 μm displacements being typical, using four 920 μm long by 70 μm legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy. PMID:25506130

  17. Piezoelectric ribbons printed onto rubber for flexible energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi; Jafferis, Noah T; Lyons, Kenneth; Lee, Christine M; Ahmad, Habib; McAlpine, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto stretchable, biocompatible rubbers could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Being electromechanically coupled, piezoelectric crystals represent a particularly interesting subset of smart materials that function as sensors/actuators, bioMEMS devices, and energy converters. Yet, the crystallization of these materials generally requires high temperatures for maximally efficient performance, rendering them incompatible with temperature-sensitive plastics and rubbers. Here, we overcome these limitations by presenting a scalable and parallel process for transferring crystalline piezoelectric nanothick ribbons of lead zirconate titanate from host substrates onto flexible rubbers over macroscopic areas. Fundamental characterization of the ribbons by piezo-force microscopy indicates that their electromechanical energy conversion metrics are among the highest reported on a flexible medium. The excellent performance of the piezo-ribbon assemblies coupled with stretchable, biocompatible rubber may enable a host of exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications.

  18. Electromechanical nonlinearities and losses in piezoelectric sonar transducer materials.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Nevin P; Meyer, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Next-generation sonar projectors rely on piezoelectric single crystals such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate to induce mechanical strain and generate ever greater acoustic output, but the performance of these materials under high-power operation is not well understood. As the electrical driving force increases, the linear piezoelectric relationships give way to nonlinear, amplitude-dependent properties. Such behavior is impossible to predict solely from small signal, linear measurements. This work has characterized the behavior of single crystals by examining the dynamic relaxation from initial strain levels of 0.1 to 0.2%. Strain-dependent values of the mechanical quality factor and resonance frequency are reported for single crystals, and these properties are compared with conventional high-power piezoceramics.

  19. Model based analysis of piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Hemsel, T; Priya, S

    2006-12-22

    Piezoelectric transformers are increasingly getting popular in the electrical devices owing to several advantages such as small size, high efficiency, no electromagnetic noise and non-flammable. In addition to the conventional applications such as ballast for back light inverter in notebook computers, camera flash, and fuel ignition several new applications have emerged such as AC/DC converter, battery charger and automobile lighting. These new applications demand high power density and wide range of voltage gain. Currently, the transformer power density is limited to 40 W/cm(3) obtained at low voltage gain. The purpose of this study was to investigate a transformer design that has the potential of providing higher power density and wider range of voltage gain. The new transformer design utilizes radial mode both at the input and output port and has the unidirectional polarization in the ceramics. This design was found to provide 30 W power with an efficiency of 98% and 30 degrees C temperature rise from the room temperature. An electro-mechanical equivalent circuit model was developed to describe the characteristics of the piezoelectric transformer. The model was found to successfully predict the characteristics of the transformer. Excellent matching was found between the computed and experimental results. The results of this study will allow to deterministically design unipoled piezoelectric transformers with specified performance. It is expected that in near future the unipoled transformer will gain significant importance in various electrical components. PMID:16808951

  20. Two-Photon Lithography of 3D Nanocomposite Piezoelectric Scaffolds for Cell Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marino, Attilio; Barsotti, Jonathan; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Labardi, Massimiliano; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-11-25

    In this letter, we report on the fabrication, the characterization, and the in vitro testing of structures suitable for cell culturing, prepared through two-photon polymerization of a nanocomposite resist. More in details, commercially available Ormocomp has been doped with piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles, and bioinspired 3D structures resembling trabeculae of sponge bone have been fabricated. After an extensive characterization, preliminary in vitro testing demonstrated that both the topographical and the piezoelectric cues of these scaffolds are able to enhance the differentiation process of human SaOS-2 cells. PMID:26548588

  1. Two-Photon Lithography of 3D Nanocomposite Piezoelectric Scaffolds for Cell Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marino, Attilio; Barsotti, Jonathan; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Labardi, Massimiliano; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-11-25

    In this letter, we report on the fabrication, the characterization, and the in vitro testing of structures suitable for cell culturing, prepared through two-photon polymerization of a nanocomposite resist. More in details, commercially available Ormocomp has been doped with piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles, and bioinspired 3D structures resembling trabeculae of sponge bone have been fabricated. After an extensive characterization, preliminary in vitro testing demonstrated that both the topographical and the piezoelectric cues of these scaffolds are able to enhance the differentiation process of human SaOS-2 cells.

  2. Model of piezoelectric self powered supply for wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddad, M.; Eddiai, A.; Chérif, A.; Hajjaji, A.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2014-07-01

    With the development in a few latter years, of micros electromechanical technology (MEMS), the demand in wearable electronics and in cordless detectors is more and more important. These wearable devices have needed more of autonomy and independence in energy. Materials piezoelectric (often called intelligent materials) can be employed like mechanisms to convert the mechanical energy, due to vibration usually ambient, in energy electric. This one can be stored and used in place of conventional battery which presents certain disadvantages such as lasted limited life as well as congestion. In this article, one presents a power analytical model generated by a smart structure of type PZT that can be used as supply energy for electronic device. This model allows the determination of suitable sizes and vibration levels of piezoelectric material for to generate an optimal energy supply for a mobile phone. Two types of vibration mode have been compared as a function of characteristics and piezoelectric ceramic sizes.

  3. JOINT RIGIDITY ASSESSMENT WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFERS AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Angela C.; Maji, Arup K.

    2010-02-22

    There has been an interest in the development of rapid deployment satellites. In a modular satellite design, different panels of specific functions can be pre-manufactured. The satellite can then be assembled and tested just prior to deployment. Traditional vibration testing is time-consuming and expensive. An alternative test method to evaluate the connection between two plates will be proposed. The method investigated and described employs piezoelectric wafers to induce and sense lamb waves in two aluminum plates, which were joined by steel brackets to form an 'L-Style' joint. Lamb wave behavior and piezoelectric material properties will be discussed; the experimental setup and results will be presented. A set of 4 piezoelectric ceramic wafers were used alternately as source and sensor. The energy transmitted was shown to correlate with a mechanical assessment of the joint, demonstrating that this method of testing is a feasible and reliable way to inspect the rigidity of joints.

  4. Electrical Properties and Power Considerations of a Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T.; Ounaies, Z.; Tripp, J.; Tcheng, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric wafers for use in aeronautical applications such as active noise control in aircraft. Determination of capacitive behavior and power consumption is necessary to optimize the system configuration and to design efficient driving electronics. Empirical relations are developed from experimental data to predict the capacitance and loss tangent of a PZT5A ceramic as nonlinear functions of both applied peak voltage and driving frequency. Power consumed by the PZT is the rate of energy required to excite the piezoelectric system along with power dissipated due to dielectric loss and mechanical and structural damping. Overall power consumption is thus quantified as a function of peak applied voltage and driving frequency. It was demonstrated that by incorporating the variation of capacitance and power loss with voltage and frequency, satisfactory estimates of power requirements can be obtained. These relations allow general guidelines in selection and application of piezoelectric actuators and driving electronics for active control applications.

  5. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  6. Titanic exploration with GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  7. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  8. The Tides of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A.; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Armstrong, John W.; Asmar, Sami W.; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J.; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k2 = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k2 = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan’s interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  9. Enhancing the piezoelectric performance of PVDF-TrFE thin films using zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, John S.; Meyers, Frederick N.; Loh, Kenneth J.

    2012-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial for detecting sudden and progressive damage and for preventing catastrophic structural failure. Piezoelectric materials have been widely adopted for their use as sensors and as actuators. Piezoceramics (such as lead zirconate titanate) offer high piezoelectricity but are mechanically brittle. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezopolymers are conformable to complex structural surfaces but exhibit lower piezoelectricity. So as to achieve a combination of these desirable properties, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials are proposed for embedment in flexible polymer matrices during fabrication to yield high-performance piezoelectric nanocomposites. The main objective of this research is to characterize the piezoelectricity of nanocomposites formed by embedding ZnO nanoparticles in a PVDF-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) matrix. Film fabrication is performed by dispersing ZnO into a PVDFTrFE solution and then by spin coating the solution onto a rigid substrate. A high electric field is applied to each of the films for poling, and the films' remnant polarization is quantified by measuring their ferroelectric response using a Sawyer-Tower circuit. Graphs of electric field compared to electric displacement can be obtained for determining the films' piezoelectricity. Finally, validation of their sensing performance is achieved by hammer impact testing.

  10. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Wen, Yu-Mei; Li, Ping

    2006-06-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established. In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  11. Optimum shape control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the static deformation and shape of flexible beams is examined. An optimum design procedure is presented to enable the selection of the optimal location, thickness and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the deflection of the beam to which these actuators are bonded. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed optimization procedure in minimizing structural deformation of beams using ceramic and polymeric piezoelectric actuators bonded to the beams with a typical bonding agent. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised rational produce in designing beam-actuator systems with minimal elastic distortions.

  12. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  13. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  14. Changes on Titan's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Coustenis, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Sotin, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Drossart, P.; Lawrence, K. J.; Matsoukas, C. K.; Hirtzig, M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Jaumann, R.; Brown, R. H.; Bratsolis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and the Titan Radar Mapper have investigated Titan's surface since 2004, unveiling a complex, dynamic and Earth-like surface. Understanding the distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important for constraining models of its interior, surface-atmospheric interactions, and climate evolution. We focus on understanding the origin of the major geomorphological units identified by Lopes et al. (2010, 2015) [1,2], Malaska et al. (2015) [3] and regions we studied in Solomonidou et al. (2014; 2015) [4,5]. Here, we investigate the nature of: Undifferentiated Plains, Hummocky/Mountainous terrains, candidate cryovolcanic sites, Labyrinth, and Dunes in terms of surface albedo behavior and spectral evolution with time to identify possible changes. Using a radiative transfer code, we find that temporal variations of surface albedo occur for some areas. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera, both candidate cryovolcanic regions, change with time, becoming darker and brighter respectively in surface albedo. In contrast, we find that the Undifferentiated Plains and the suggested evaporitic areas [6] in the equatorial regions do not present any significant changes. We are able to report the differences and similarities among the various regions and provide constraints on their chemical composition and specific processes of origin. Our results support the hypothesis that both endogenic and exogenic processes have played important roles in shaping Titan's geologic evolution. Such a variety of geologic processes and their relationship to the methane cycle make Titan important for astrobiology and habitability studies and particularly significant in solar system studies. [1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: Icarus, 205, 540-588, 2010; [2] Lopes, R.M.C., et al.: JGR, 118, 416-435, 2013; [3] Malaska, M., et al : Icarus, submitted, 2015;[4] Solomonidou et al.: JGR, 119, 1729-1747, 2014; [5] Solomonidou, A., et al.: In press, 2015; [6] Barnes

  15. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of nonequilibrium phenomena on the Saturn satellite Titan indicate the occurrence of organic chemical evolution. Greenhouse and thermal inversion models of Titan's atmosphere provide environmental constraints within which various pathways for organic chemical synthesis are assessed. Experimental results and theoretical modeling studies suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite may be dominated by two atmospheric processes: energetic-particle bombardment and photochemistry. Reactions initiated in various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic ray, Saturn wind, and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4 - N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the C2-hydrocarbons, the UV-visible-absorbing stratospheric haze, and the reddish color of the satellite. Photochemical reactions of CH4 can also account for the presence of C2-hydrocarbons. In the lower Titan atmosphere, photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. Hot H-atom reactions initiated by photo-dissociation of NH3 can couple the chemical reactions of NH3 and CH4 and produce organic matter.

  16. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  17. Development of MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Hyun

    The research of powering devices in a microwatt range has been activated and developed by the emergence of low-power Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology in the past few years. The powering devices require a size that is compatible with the application, sufficient power, and extended lifetime using permanent and ubiquitous energy sources. The piezoelectric energy harvester using vibration sources is attractive due to its high conversion efficiency, simple design for miniaturizing, and lack of external voltage source. While bulk piezoelectric energy harvesters produce enough power for a few tens of mW, the insufficient power is still a major issue during miniaturizing into micro size. The piezoelectric energy harvester was fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and developed to enhance its output power. It was designed to be resonated at the frequency range of ambient vibration source (50˜300 Hz) and convert the mechanical stress to electricity by piezoelectric thin film. The cantilever structure was chosen in this study due to its large strain, and a big proof mass at the end of tip was integrated for the same reason. This study focuses on three specific issues related to the robust fabrication process, including the integration of piezoelectric thin film, structure design for high power density, and the reliability of device. The Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared by a sol-gel process and were used to fabricate energy harvesters by an optimized MEMS process. The properties of PZT thin film were studied considering the substrate effect, heat treatment, and thickness effects. The fabricated energy harvester produced 769 mVpk-pk, and 6.72 muW with the optimal resistive load of 11 kO at 127 Hz of resonant frequency. The device had dimensions of about 4 mm(L) x 2 mm(w) x 0.021 mm(H), and the Si proof mass had dimensions of 3 mm(L) x 2 mm(W) x 0.5 mm(H). Beyond this result, the technical platform for the robust fabrication

  18. Piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Tian-Lu; Yao, Fang-Zhou; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-07-01

    (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based lead-free piezoceramics have been the spotlight in search for practically viable candidates to replace the hazardous but dominating lead-containing counterparts. In this work, BaTiO3 (BT) modified KNN ceramics were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the influence of BT content as well as sintering temperature on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties were investigated. It was found that the 0.96(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.04BaTiO3 (BT4) ceramics sintered at 1000∘C have the optimal performance. Additionally, in-depth analysis of the electrical hysteresis revealed that the internal bias field originating from accumulation of space charges at grain boundaries is responsible for the asymmetry in the hysteresis loops.

  19. An investigation of aluminum titanate-spinel composites behavior in radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cevikbas, G.; Tugrul, A. B.; Boyraz, T.; Buyuk, B.; Onen, U.

    2015-03-30

    In the present work, the radiation attenuation properties of Aluminum titanate (Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5})-Spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics composites were investigated. Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics composites which have different Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} percentages (0%, 5% and 10%) were produced and performed against gamma sources. Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as gamma radiation sources. Transmission technique was used in the experiments. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were carried out for gamma radiation sources. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical mass attenuation coefficients which were calculated by using XCOM computer code. Increasing Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} percentage in the Aluminum titanate/ Spinel ceramics composites causes the higher linear and mass attenuation coefficients of the composites against Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma radioisotopes. Therefore Also theoretical mass attenuation coefficients are compatible with the experimental results. In conclusion, increasing the Aluminum titanate ratio in the Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics composites increases the gamma shielding property of the Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics for nuclear shielding applications.

  20. Ring-type electric current sensor based on ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite and Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Zhang, Shengyao; Ho, S. L.

    2010-05-15

    A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 1.92} (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings. The electric current sensitivity of the sensor was evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. The sensor showed a high nonresonance sensitivity of {approx}12.6 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 1 Hz-30 kHz and a large resonance sensitivity of 92.2 mV/A at the fundamental shape resonance of 67 kHz, besides an excellent linear relationship between the input electric current and the output magnetoelectrically induced voltage. The power-free, bias-free, high-sensitive, and wide-bandwidth natures of the sensor make it great potential for real-time condition monitoring of engineering systems having electric current-carrying cables or conductors.