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Sample records for tooth color differences

  1. The effect of different drinks on tooth color after home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Seven, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of coffee, tea, cola, and red wine staining on the color of teeth after home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples were obtained from 45 sound maxillary central incisors. The home bleaching procedure was performed using 10% carbamide peroxide gel applied to the sample surface for a period of 6 h each day, for 14 days. After bleaching, baseline color measurements were taken, and the samples were immersed in four staining solutions (coffee, tea, cola, and red wine) or artificial saliva (n = 9). Following 15 min and 6 h of immersion on the first day and next day, respectively, the samples were washed with distilled water for 10 s. After 15 min, 6 h, 1 week, and 1 month immersions, the color values of each sample were remeasured and the color change values (∆E) were calculated. Color change analysis was performed using a spectrophotometer. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P <0.05). Results: Of all the staining solutions, the lowest ∆E values were observed with coffee staining versus artificial saliva (control group), for all time intervals evaluated after whitening. Although no statistically differences were observed between the coffee and control group at all the time points evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between the red wine, cola, and tea solutions. Conclusion: Following tooth whitening, patients should avoid drinks that cause tooth staining, particularly red wine, tea and cola. PMID:24966778

  2. [Influence of ambient light and adjacent tooth in anterior tooth color measurement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-qian; Sean, S Lee; Wu, Zhang; Li, Yiming; Ma, Jian-feng

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the influence of different intensity and directions of ambient light and adjacent tooth in anterior tooth color measurement by using colorimeter. Fiber lite MI-150 was used as ambient illuminant and it irradiated from three or twelve o'clock direction through 45 degrees angle above. The light magnitude 0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 W were applied in this experiment. The values of CIE L* a* b* were measured by Minolta Chroma meter CR-321 colorimeter on the center labial surface of ten extracted human maxillary central incisors with or without adjacent teeth, then those data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS 11.5. Neither different intensities nor different directions of ambient light could influence the results of color measurement by using Minolta Chroma meter CR-321 colorimeter, so did the adjacent teeth whether those were exist or not. There is no influence of ambient light and adjacent teeth in the color measurement of anterior teeth under this experiment condition, and Minolta Chroma meter CR-321 colorimeter can be used to measure the color directly aside the chair with light.

  3. Tooth color measurement using Chroma Meter: techniques, advantages, and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2003-01-01

    Tooth whitening has become a popular and routine dental procedure, and its efficacy and safety have been well documented. However, the measurement of tooth color, particularly in the evaluation of the efficacy of a system intended to enhance tooth whiteness, remains a challenge. One of the instruments used for assessing tooth color in clinical whitening studies is the Minolta Chroma Meter CR-321 (Minolta Corporation USA, Ramsey, NJ, USA). This article describes the instrument and discusses various measuring procedures and the Chroma Meter's advantages, limitations, and disadvantages. The available information indicates that, although Minolta Chroma Meter CR-321 provides quantitative and objective measurements of tooth color, it can be tedious to use with a custom alignment device. The Chroma Meter data are inconsistent with the commonly used visual instruments such as Vitapan Classical Shade Guide (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany), although in many cases the general trends are similar. It is also questionable whether the small area measured adequately represents the color of the whole tooth. A more critical challenge is the lack of methods for interpreting the Chroma Meter data regarding tooth color change in studies evaluating the efficacy of whitening systems. Consequently, at present the Chroma Meter data alone do not appear to be adequate for determining tooth color change in whitening research, although the quantitative measurements may be useful as supplemental or supportive data. Research is needed to develop and improve the instrument and technique for quantitative measurement of tooth color and interpretation of the data for evaluating tooth color change. This paper will help readers to understand the advantages and limitations of the Minolta Chroma Meter used for evaluating the efficacy of tooth-whitening systems so that proper judgment can be made in the interpretation of the results of clinical studies.

  4. Effect of Light-Activated Tooth Whitening on Color Change Relative to Color of Artificially Stained Teeth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to the efficacy of light activation used in tooth whitening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light activation on tooth color change relative to the artificial dye color. Extracted human third molars (160) were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 specimens each based on artificial staining and use of light activation. All groups received three 45-minute sessions of in-office whitening at 3-day intervals. Color measurements were performed with an intraoral spectrophotometer at baseline prior to staining (T0), after artificial staining (T1), 1-day--(T2), and 1-week--(T3) post-whitening. Color differences were calculated relative to after artificial staining color parameters (L*1, a*1, b*1) with the use of a software analysis program enabling synchronization of two images. Within the same staining groups, the light-activated samples exhibited a greater color change than their nonlight-activated counterparts. However, only in the case of the yellow-stained samples at 1-day post-whitening was there a significant difference between the nonlight-activated and light-activated groups (Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test for pairwise comparisons, p < 0.05). Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains. Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains.

  5. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B

    2015-08-01

    Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant's age. The participant's age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. The Group I had the highest 'L' value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value 'b' at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin 'L' value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value 'a' in comparison to younger subjects. The 'L' tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with 'b' parameter at malar region. The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation.

  6. Effect of repeated immersion solution cycles on the color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Maurício Batista; ACOSTA, Emílio José Tabaré Rodríguez; JACOBINA, Matheus; PINTO, Luciana de Rezende; PORTO, Vinícius Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chemical solutions have been widely used for disinfection of dentures, but their effect on color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins after repeated procedures is still unclear. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether repeated cycles of chemical disinfectants affected the color stability of two denture tooth acrylic resins. Material and Methods Sixty disc-shaped specimens (40 mm x 3 mm) were fabricated from two different brands (Artiplus and Trilux) of denture tooth acrylic resin. The specimens from each brand (n=30) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=5) and immersed in the following solutions: distilled water (control group) and 5 disinfecting solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, and 4% chlorhexidine gluconate). Tooth color measurements were made by spectrophotometry. Before disinfection, the initial color of each tooth was recorded. Further color measurements were determined after subjecting the specimens to 7, 21, 30, 45, 60, and 90 immersion cycles in each tested solution. Color differences (ΔE*) were determined using the CIE L*a*b* color system. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. The significance level was set at 5%. Results There were statistically significant differences in ΔE* among the 5 disinfectants and water during the 90 cycles of immersion for both denture tooth acrylic resins. Distilled water promoted the greatest color change in both denture tooth acrylic resins, nevertheless none of tested disinfectants promoted ΔE* values higher than 1.0 on these acrylic materials during the 90 cycles of disinfection. Conclusions Repeated immersion cycles in disinfecting solutions alter ∆E* values, however these values do not compromise the color of the tested denture tooth acrylic resins because they are imperceptible to the human eye. PMID:22230997

  7. Tooth shade measurements under standard and nonstandard illumination and their agreement with skin color.

    PubMed

    Al-Dwairi, Ziad; Shaweesh, Ashraf; Kamkarfar, Sohrab; Kamkarfar, Shahrzad; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lynch, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between skin color (shade) and tooth shade under standard and nonstandard illumination sources. Four hundred Jordanian participants (200 males, 200 females, 20 to 50 years of age) were studied. Skin colors were assessed and categorized using the L'Oreal and Revlon foundation shade guides (light, medium, dark). The Vita Pan Classical Shade Guide (VPCSG; Vident) and digital Vita EasyShade Intraoral Dental Spectrophotometer (VESIDS; Vident) were used to select shades in the middle thirds of maxillary central incisors; tooth shades were classified into four categories (highest, high, medium, low). Significant gender differences were observed for skin colors (P = .000) and tooth shade guide systems (P = .001 and .050 for VPCSG and VESIDS, respectively). The observed agreement was 100% and 93% for skin and tooth shade guides, respectively. The corresponding kappa statistic values were 1.00 and 0.79, respectively (substantial agreement, P < .001). The observed agreement between skin color and tooth shades (VPCSG and VESIDS) was approximately 50%. The digital tooth shade guide system can be a satisfactory substitute for classical tooth shade guides and clinical shade matching. There was only moderate agreement between skin color and tooth shade.

  8. Effect of two different bleaching regimens on the gloss of tooth colored restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2005-05-01

    Vital tooth bleaching with peroxide is one of the most common cosmetic procedures in dentistry and can be accomplished using a variety of methods or regimens. Recently, new generation of tooth color restorative materials were introduced to market. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the gloss changes of three different tooth color restorative materials: Flowable composite (Filtek Flow/3M), packable composite (Filtek P60/3M) and ormocer (Definite/DEGUSSA) after two different bleaching regimens (Vivastyle/VIVADENT) and (Crest Professional Whitestrips/PROCTER and GAMBLE). 16 specimens 30 x 30 x 2 mm size were fabricated from each restorative material. After gloss values were measured with gloss meter, at two different angles of illumination (20 and 60 degrees ), 10% carbamide peroxide (Vivastyle) was applied for 2 h per day for fourteen days to the half of the specimens while 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip bands (Crest Professional Whitestrips) were applied to the remaining eight of the specimens for 30 min twice daily for 14 days. During the test period the specimens were stored in 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. At the end of bleaching regimen the gloss measurements were repeated and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test analysis revealed that the gloss values were affected by both bleaching regimens (P=0.012). Whitestrips decreased the gloss values of Filtek P60 (at 20 and 60 degrees , P<0.001) and Filtek Flow (at 20 degrees , P=0.05 and at 60 degrees , P=0.05) significantly compared to Vivastyle, while the gloss values of Definite did not show any significant change between Vivastyle and Whitestrips application (at 20 degrees P=0.279; at 60 degrees , P=0.279, Mann-Whitney U Test). The gloss values of materials were significantly different before (at 20 degrees P<0.001; at 60 degrees , P=0.003) and after bleaching (at 20 degrees P<0.05; at 60 degrees , P<0.05) with the highest value of Filtek Flow

  9. Impact of demographic, behavioral, and dental care utilization parameters on tooth color and personal satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Odioso, L L; Gibb, R D; Gerlach, R W

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey across broad age ranges was conducted to evaluate demographic, behavioral, and treatment parameters that impact tooth color and its perception. The sample included 180 US adults and teenagers, with a comparable representation of males and females in 6 different age strata, ranging from 13 to 64 years. Tooth color (L*a*b*) was measured on the maxillary central incisors using a spectrophotometer, and first-person satisfaction with tooth color was assessed using a five-point qualitative scale. Demographic, behavioral, and oral care parameters were modeled using multiple regression analysis. After adjusting for other explanatory variables, age, gender, coffee/tea consumption, and dental care all significantly affected yellowing (b*) and brightness (L*). Dental-visit frequency was the only factor that significantly predicted self-satisfaction with tooth color, explaining just 3% of the overall variability. First-person dissatisfaction with tooth color was common and found in most demographic and behavioral cohorts. Although age contributed to objectively measured tooth discoloration, personal satisfaction with tooth color was age-independent. These results suggest that the need or demand for esthetic dentistry may be broad-based and transcend stereotypical perceptions.

  10. The relationship between past caries experience and tooth color determined by an opto-electronic method.

    PubMed

    Kerosuo, E; Kolehmainen, L

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of a tooth to dental caries has been proposed to depend on tooth color. So far there has, however, been no reliable method for tooth color determination. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability of an opto-electronic method and to examine the relationship between tooth color and past caries experience. The color of upper right central incisors of 64 school-children was determined using an opto-electronic tri-stimulus color comparator. The intra- and interexaminer reliability of the method was evaluated in vitro and in vivo being 85% and 83%, respectively. To assess the past caries experience the DMFS-index was calculated. Oral hygiene and dietary habits were also assessed. No significant difference in DMFS scores was obtained between the 'white teeth' group and the 'yellow teeth' group. The conclusion is, that the practical importance of possible colorrelated differences in caries resistance is negligible due to the multifaceted nature of dental caries.

  11. Tooth color: effects on judgments of attractiveness and age.

    PubMed

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Adkins, Sarah; Bastholm, Robert; Meyer, Leif; Krueger, Lisa; Meyer, Joshua; Torma, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Tooth whitening has become a very popular procedure. Advertisements for whitening products imply that whiter teeth are more attractive than yellower teeth. We tested this idea empirically by manipulating the tooth color of pictures of male and female targets. Participants' ratings of attractiveness were not influenced by tooth color. Exp. 2 yielded a negative correlation between attractiveness and age ratings: targets judged to be older were rated as less attractive. Unless whiter teeth help in some other way, e.g., improved self-esteem or confidence, it seems that tooth whitening procedures or products are not associated with increased attractiveness to others.

  12. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Evaluating the accuracy of tooth color measurement by combining the Munsell color system and dental colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiun-Yao; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Ta-Ko; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Fu, Po-Sung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    As we pay increasing attention to dental aesthetics, tooth color matching has become an important part of daily dental practice. This aim of this study was to develop a method to enhance the accuracy of a tooth color matching machine. The Munsell color tabs in the range of natural human teeth were measured using a tooth color measuring machine (ShadeEye NCC). The machine's accuracy was analyzed using an analysis of variance test and a Tukey post-hoc test. When matching the Munsell color tabs with the ShadeEye NCC colorimeter, settings of Chroma greater than 6 and Value less than 4 showed unacceptable clinical results. When the CIELAB mode was used, the a* value (which represents the red-green axis in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color space) made no significant difference (p=0.84), the L* value (which represents the lightness) resulted in a negative correlation, and the b* value (which represents the yellow-blue axis) resulted in a positive correlation with ΔE. When the Munsell color tabs and the Vitapan were measured in the same mode and compared, the inaccuracies showed that the Vitapan was not a proper tool for evaluating the stability and accuracy of ShadeEye NCC. By knowing the limitations of the machine, we evaluated the data using the Munsell color tabs; shade beyond the acceptable range should be reevaluated using a visual shade matching method, or if measured by another machine, this shade range should be covered to obtain more accurate results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Changes of tooth color in middle and old age: A longitudinal study over a decade.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Alexander J; Johanning, Marvin; Grill, Sabine; Schröder, Johannes; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Corcodel, Nicoleta; Klotz, Anna-Luisa; Rammelsberg, Peter; Zenthöfer, Andreas

    2017-11-12

    To evaluate changes in tooth color for 2 age cohorts (younger cohort, YC: 1950-1952; older cohort, OC: 1930-1932) over a mean observation period of 8 years. Sixty-one participants with 106 upper central incisors were subjected to baseline and follow-up examinations (YC: n = 46/OC: n = 15). International Commission on Illumination color coordinates of 1 or 2 unrestored test teeth for each participant were recorded by use of a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade 1) during both measurement times. Changes of color coordinates during the study period were evaluated by use of generalized linear mixed models with the variable "participant" as random effect. ΔE ab and E 2000 color differences were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Significant changes in color coordinates were observed, with the exception of lightness in OC. The direction of the changes depended on the cohort. A decrease of lightness (value) was observed in YC (ΔL = 4.0; P < .001) whereas in OC chroma increased (ΔC = -3.3; P < .001). For both groups, a significant shift to more reddish tooth colors was observed. In almost all cases, color differences between baseline and follow-up exceeded the 50:50 acceptability thresholds for color differences (ΔE = 2.7) in both YC (≈90%) and OC (≈80%). For both quinquagenarians and septuagenarians, clinically relevant changes in tooth color were observed after a decade; these could affect the long-term success of prosthetic restorations in terms of a satisfactory color match between natural teeth and dental prostheses. In contrast with the findings of cross-sectional studies, the changes were partially age-group-specific. Tooth color can change over a decade. When fixed dental prostheses are planned, one should consider that changes of tooth color could lead to mismatch between a restoration and adjacent teeth during the period in clinical service. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. In vivo tooth-color measurement with a new 3D intraoral scanning system in comparison to conventional digital and visual color determination methods.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Albert; Bosch, Gabriel; Fischer, Carolin; Ender, Andreas

    Three-dimensional (3D) intraoral scanning systems allow for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D information about tooth surfaces and a photorealistic view of the patient's tooth colors. The goal of this study was the in vivo comparison of a new 3D scanner with a color acquisition mode and conventional visual and digital color measurements. The colors of 40 teeth of 20 patients were evaluated in seven ways: 1) By dentists using the Vita 3D-Master; 2) By dental technicians using the Vita 3D-Master; 3) With the 3Shape Trios device; 4) With the Vita Easyshade device; 5) With the Vita Easyshade Advance device; 6) With the SpectroShade device; and 7) With the SpectroShade Micro device. Digital measurements of Groups 3 to 7 were repeated three times for each tooth. For all groups, both the CIE Lab values and the Vita 3D-Master values were recorded. The repeatability and relative accuracy of the Vita 3D-Master values were analyzed statistically using Pearson's chi-squared test (α < 0.05). ΔE values were calculated from the CIE Lab values, which served as a basis for performing multidimensional scaling (MDS) and evaluating differences between the groups using the one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tamhane's test (α < 0.05). The results of the ΔE values showed that clinically relevant differences between the evaluation by dentists, dental technicians, and the intraoral scanning device (3Shape) are negligible. The intraoral 3D scanning device (Group 3) and the digital systems (Groups 4 to 7) did not differ significantly in the repeatability of color shade management. The SpectroShade Micro (Group 7) had significantly better relative accuracy than the other devices. The results demonstrate that intraoral scanning systems can be used to measure both tooth color and tooth surface in 3D. Intraoral optical scanning devices allow for the acquisition of accurate 3D surface data. Tooth color can be evaluated simultaneously and can be used to determine the color of restorations without

  16. Relationship between tooth value and skin color in patients visiting Royal Medical Services clinics of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nsour, Hind Fahed; Al-Zoubi, Tamara Trad; Al-Rimawi, Ali Salaheddin

    2018-03-01

    Facial and dental aesthetics are becoming of great concern for patients, especially for the younger generation. Tooth color matching and selection is considered a vital element in order to create an attractive beautiful smile. The importance of tooth color matching is to adjust tooth colors to obtain a good match with adjacent teeth and the skin. This is considered a challenge especially if adjacent teeth were lost or records of patients' teeth color were not available. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between skin complexion and tooth value in a Jordanian population. A cross-sectional study of 520 individuals who were randomly selected and belonging to different age groups, ranging from 15-65 years, with equal sex distribution. These patients visited the dental clinics at different Jordanian military hospitals. The study was carried out over a period of one year from 2015 to 2016. The randomly selected sample was examined by one researcher. Shade of the middle third of the labial surface of central incisor was determined visually using VITA tooth guide, 3D-MASTER shade guide. Tooth shades were divided into two categories according to their value. The skin complexion was identified using Fitzpatrick skin type test, and was categorized into two categories (fair and dark). Data were statistically analyzed using Epi Info version 6. A statistically significant tooth shade value difference was discovered among subjects of different skin color (p<0.0001). Individuals with dark skin tend to have lighter teeth, while individuals with light skin tend to have darker teeth. Out of the 304 participants that were with dark complexion 274 (90%) have light teeth, and only 30 (10%) were with dark teeth. Out of the 216 participants with light complexion 172 (80%) have dark teeth and only 44 (20%) have light teeth. Within the limitation of this study, there was an inverse relation between skin complexion and tooth value among a Jordanian population. Thus

  17. A model for prediction of color change after tooth bleaching based on CIELAB color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Luis J.; Santana, Janiley; Yebra, Ana; Rivas, María. José; Pulgar, Rosa; Pérez, María. M.

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study aiming to develop a model based on CIELAB color space for prediction of color change after a tooth bleaching procedure is presented. Multivariate linear regression models were obtained to predict the L*, a*, b* and W* post-bleaching values using the pre-bleaching L*, a*and b*values. Moreover, univariate linear regression models were obtained to predict the variation in chroma (C*), hue angle (h°) and W*. The results demonstrated that is possible to estimate color change when using a carbamide peroxide tooth-bleaching system. The models obtained can be applied in clinic to predict the colour change after bleaching.

  18. In vivo quantitative evaluation of tooth color with hand-held colorimeter and custom template.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuki; Kakehashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2004-04-01

    This article presents a technique for quantitatively evaluating the color of teeth, as well as color change in restorations and tooth surfaces. Through use of a custom template made of a thermoplastic polymer and a dental colorimeter, tooth surface color can be recorded periodically at the same location intraorally.

  19. Assessing the influence of skin color and tooth shade value on perceived smile attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Sabherwal, Ruchika S; Gonzalez, Juan; Naini, Farhad B

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether variations in skin color would influence perceptions of smile attractiveness for a given tooth shade value. Using a photograph of a woman smiling, the authors altered skin color to consist of four tones (fair, fair/medium, medium/dark and dark) and altered tooth shade value (brightness) to range from 00 (brightest) to 05 (darkest). Two groups of judges (70 dentists, 70 laypeople) completed a questionnaire and rated the images for smile attractiveness. For most tooth shade values (00, 01, 03, 04, 05), multiple mixed linear regression showed that variation in skin color influenced respondents' perceptions of smile attractiveness (P < .001). For images corresponding to tooth shade values 01, 02, 03, 04 and 05, men provided lower ratings than did women (P < .05). Attractiveness ratings increased with the age of participants (P < .05). Dentists rated images higher than did laypeople (P < .05). Variation in skin color for most tooth shade values influenced dentists' and laypeople's perceived smile attractiveness. Dentists and laypeople did not perceive the brightest tooth shade to be the most attractive, and they did not perceive all skin colors to be equally attractive with bright white teeth. Respondents perceived dark skin with bright white teeth and fair skin with dark teeth as relatively unattractive.

  20. [Comparative analysis of some factors in tooth color matching].

    PubMed

    Török, Judit; Mauks, Levente; Márton, Sándor; Hegedűs, Csaba

    2014-09-01

    Recently (nowadays) to achieve a natural looking restoration is an ever increasing demand from the patients and also from the doctor side. To select the right color of the restoration matching the remaining natural teeth is always a challenging task. A clinical study was performed at the University of Debrecen Faculty of Dentristry with the help of dental students using two different shade guides. The study tested the influence of gender and knowledge of color science on shade matching. 78 students were asked to find the right matching color of the same upper canine to two different shade guides (Vitapan Classic and Vita 3D-Master) under standard condition. After informing the student about the basic principles of color the matching procedure was repeated. Results were analyzed statistically. In our study we found that gender does not influence the color choice. Matching accuracy is not increased by better knowledge of colors. We can conclude that significantly less students matched the proper color with Vitapan Classic shade guide after information of the property of colors without training the shade selection. Within the limitation of the study design it was concluded that not more students selected the proper color even after giving them information about colors, instructions about shade selections. For the same one canine several color were selected by the participants (6 types with Vitapan Classic and 19 types with Vita 3D-Master) which conformed that visual determination is not a reliably consistent way of the tooth shade selection. The Vita Company 1990s developed 3D-Master shade guide is not widely used, although we found the repeatability is more than 70%.

  1. Comparison of laser and power bleaching techniques in tooth color change.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Alimazandarani, Shervin; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Assadian, Hadi; Mirmohammadi, Seyed-Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Laser-assisted bleaching uses laser beam to accelerate release of free radicals within the bleaching gel to decrease time of whitening procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of power bleaching using Opalescence Xtra Boost® and laser bleaching technique using LaserSmile gel and diode laser as an activator in their tooth whitening capacity. Student t test showed that the laser bleaching group significantly outperformed the power bleaching group in changing ∆E ( p =0.977). Similarly, while comparing the groups in changing ∆L, the laser bleaching group indicated significantly superior results ( p =0.953). Statistical data from student t test while comparing the groups in changing the parameter of yellowness indicated that samples in laser bleaching group underwent a more significant reduction than power-bleached samples ( p =0.85). Correspondingly, changes in whiteness were statistically tested through student t test, showing that laser bleaching technique increased whiteness of the samples significantly more than those treated by power bleaching ( p =0.965). The digital color evaluation data was in accordance with spectrophotometry and showed that laser bleaching outperformed power bleaching technique. Both techniques were able to increase whiteness and decrease yellowness ratio of the samples. ΔE decrease for laser bleaching and power bleaching groups were 3.05 and 1.67, respectively. Tooth color change in laser bleaching group was 1.88 times more than that of power bleaching group ( p <0.001). It could be concluded that under the conditions of this study, both laser-assisted and power bleaching techniques were capable of altering tooth color change, but laser bleaching was deemed a more efficient technique in this regard. Key words: Laser, power bleaching, tooth color introduction.

  2. Effect of low-temperature degradation on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3Y-TZP ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Harada, A; Ono, M; Shibasaki, H; Kanno, T; Niwano, Y; Adolfsson, E; Milleding, P; Örtengren, U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-temperature degradation (LTD) induced by autoclaving on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP). In total, 162 disc-shaped 3Y-TZP specimens were prepared. Two-thirds of the specimens were shaded by either the infiltration or powder mixing methods while the remaining specimens were used without coloring. The specimens were autoclaved at 134 °C for 0, 10, and 100 h to induce LTD (n=18 for each group). Chemical compositions were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Biaxial flexural strength was measured using a piston-on-three-ball test. The surface fraction and penetration depth of the monoclinic phase were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP specimens contained Fe2O3 and Er2O3 (infiltration technique), and Fe2O3 (powder mixing method) at concentrations of<0.5 wt%. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP had higher strength than the non-colored material after 100 h of autoclaving. In terms of surface fraction and penetration depth, the generation of monoclinic phase was significantly lower in the tooth-colored 3Y-TZP than in the non-colored material. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP possessed equivalent biaxial flexural strength to that of the non-colored material and higher resistance to LTD regardless of the coloring technique (infiltration technique or powder mixing method) when the coloring pigments were contained at concentrations used in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer layer of the tooth. ... Infections Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the ...

  4. Tooth color change caused by photosensitizers after photodynamic therapy: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa Menezes; Matos, Felipe de Souza; Correia, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira; Carvalho, Nayane Chagas; Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to perform an in vitro evaluation of the effect of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) on tooth color change when used in combination with conventional endodontic treatment. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars were accessed and underwent root canal therapy and PDT. Photosensitizers were used in accordance with the experimental groups: MB (n=10) - PDT with Methylene Blue at 0.01%; TB (n=10) - PDT with Toluidine Blue at 0.01%; MG (n=10) - PDT with Malachite Green at 0.01%, at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL; and PC (n=10) - positive control, PDT with Endo-PTC cream stained with Methylene Blue at 25%. The samples were irradiated with 660-nm diode laser by means of a 330-μm-diameter optical fiber cable at a power density of 40mW for 120s. After light curing, the photosensitizers were removed from the specimens with 10mL sodium hypochlorite at 1%. A reflectance spectrometer was used for evaluation of color prior to and 60days after the experimental procedure based on the CIE L*a*b* system. According to ANOVA test, there were statistically significant differences between the experimental groups (p=0.003). Tukey's test showed a significant difference between PC and TB (p=0.008), as well as between MG and TB (p=0.009). However, there was no statistically significant difference between PC, MG (p=0.957) and MB (p=0.103). It was concluded that the use of PDT as an adjuvant to root canal therapy, using different photosensitizers, led to color change in tooth structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the influence of gender and skin color on the preference of tooth shade in Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Labban, Nawaf; Al-Otaibi, Hanan; Alayed, Abdulaziz; Alshankiti, Khaled; Al-Enizy, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of gender and skin color on the preference of different teeth shades in general population. Two standardized frontal smile photographs of male and female subjects were manipulated using photoshop to represent 4 skin colors [(type II, III, IV, and V) (Fitzpatrick scale)]. The teeth shades under each skin color were digitally manipulated to represent one of 6 teeth shades (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, B1 and A1). A questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics (age, nationality, gender, education level, occupation, and income) along with the satisfaction of their smiles. Male and female set of pictures with combination of skin colors and teeth shades were presented and participants were asked to select the most esthetically pleasing teeth shade with regard to gender and skin color. Cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests were used to perform the statistical analyses ( α  = 0.05). Three hundred and thirty-six (60.4% male; 39.6% female) individuals participated in the study. The difference in the preferred teeth shades was significant among the male and female photographs across all skin colors ( p  < 0.05). Lighter teeth shades were preferred among female subjects compared to male subjects with the same skin color. In addition, lighter teeth shades were preferred among subjects with a lighter skin color and vice versa ( p  < 0.05). Gender and skin color influences the perception of teeth shades among general population. Therefore, lighter tooth shades (BL1, BL2) for lighter skin color and comparatively darker tooth shades (BL4, B1, A1) for darker skin individuals should be prescribed as these are perceived as natural among Saudi population.

  6. Study of the most frequent natural tooth colors in the Spanish population using spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify the most frequent natural tooth colors using the Easyshade Compact (Vita -Zahnfabrik) spectrophotometer on a sample of the Spanish population according to the 3D Master System. MATERIALS AND METHODS The middle third of the facial surface of natural maxillary central incisors was measured with an Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer (Vita Zahnfabrik) in 1361 Caucasian Spanish participants aged between 16 and 89 years. Natural tooth color was recorded using the 3D Master System nomenclature. The program used for the present descriptive statistical analysis of the results was SAS 9.1.3. RESULTS The results show that the most frequent dental color in the total sample studied is 3M1 (7.05%), followed by the intermediate shade 1M1.5 (6.91%) and 2L1.5 (6.02%). CONCLUSION According to the research methodology used, and taking into account the limitations of this study, it can be proposed that the most frequent color among the Spanish population is 3M1; the most common lightness group is 2; the most frequent hue group according to the 3D Master System is M and the most frequent chroma group is 1.5. PMID:26816571

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of two professional tooth-whitening products.

    PubMed

    Kowitz, G M; Nathoo, S A; Wong, R

    1994-01-01

    A 2-week study was conducted to compare the tooth-whitening efficacy of two 10% carbamide peroxide products: Colgate Platinum Professional Toothwhitening System and Rembrandt Lighten Bleaching Gel. Fifty subjects were divided into two groups and assigned a product to use for 2 weeks. Change in tooth color was measured by reflectance spectroscopy at the initiation of study, at 1 week, and at 2 weeks into the study. Color change was calculated using the color-difference equation established by the Commission International de L'Eclairage. Results showed that Colgate Platinum was 62% more effective at tooth whitening after 1 week and 83% more effective after 2 weeks of treatment vs Rembrandt. At the termination of the study, the mean color difference (deltaE) for Colgate Platinum was 4.29 and 2.34 for Rembrandt. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the Colgate product is significantly superior at increasing tooth whiteness, increasing tooth lightness, reducing redness, and reducing yellowness. In this study, no adverse reactions were noted on clinical examination and none were reported by panelists with normal healthy dentition.

  8. Effect of beverages on color and translucency of new tooth-colored restoratives.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L; Yap, A U J; Ma, H N T; Chew, J; Tan, W J

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the susceptibility to staining and translucency changes of some new tooth-colored restorative materials after immersion in different beverages. The materials studied were 3M Filtek Z350XT (ZT), 3M Filtek 350XT Flowable Restorative (ZF), Shofu Beautifil Flow Plus (BF), Shofu Beautifil II (B2), 3M Ketac Nano (N100), and 3M Photac Fil (PF). Following the manufacturers' instructions, 42 samples were made from each material and placed in an incubator at 100% humidity and 37°Celsius for 24 hours. Baseline L*, a*, b* readings were taken against white and black backgrounds using a photospectrometer. The samples were then randomly assigned to be immersed in seven beverages, namely cola drink, orange juice, red wine, vodka, black coffee, green tea, and distilled water for a period of seven days. Color readings were taken again by recording the L*, a*, b* values. Data was analyzed using t-tests, one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc and Pearson's correlation (p<0.05). BF generally performed as well as the conventional composite resin materials (ZT and ZF) but N100 and B2 did not. PF had the largest staining and translucency changes. Coffee, red wine, and tea resulted in the most staining and negative translucency changes. An inverse correlation between ΔE and ΔTP was observed for all materials and beverages with the exception of orange juice.

  9. Esthetics and psyche-part 1: assessment of the influence of patients' perceptions of body image and body experience on selection of existing natural tooth color.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julia; Vasilache, Iliana; Schlegel, Andreas Karl; Wichmann, Manfred; Eitner, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that patients' attitudes toward their body affect their capacity to accurately select their existing natural tooth color. Standard validated psychologic assessments were used to determine a person's perception of body image and experience. Oral images were compared with the patients' perceptions of their natural tooth color, which were then compared with the actual tooth color judged by a dental professional. For the vital body dynamic and disliking body experience subscales, women exhibited a significantly more negative attitude toward their bodies than men (P = .000). Patients with a negative attitude toward their body tended to choose a lighter tooth color. The correlation between patients' and the testing physician's choices of color was r = 0.540 for women and r = 0.746 for men. Unhappiness with body image and experience results in poor perception of a patient's own oral image, which in turn results in a patient perceiving that his or her natural tooth color is lighter than that judged by a dental professional. This has clinical implications when trying to achieve patient satisfaction with dental prostheses.

  10. Contamination of tooth-colored mineral trioxide aggregate used as a root-end filling material: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Montellano, Angela M; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-05-01

    This experiment investigated the ability of tooth-colored mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to maintain an apical seal in the presence of bacteria when contaminated with blood, saline or saliva. Ninety extracted human teeth with single canals were randomly placed into six groups of 15. Canals were prepared to size 50. The apical 3 mm of each root was removed and 3 mm root-end preparations were made with a #329 bur. Root-end preparations in groups 1 through 3 were filled with MTA after contamination with blood, saline, or saliva, respectively. In group 4, uncontaminated root-end preparations were filled with MTA. Groups 5 and 6 served as negative and positive controls. A tube/tooth assembly was utilized to suspend each root end in Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB). The access chambers were filled with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Positive growth over thirty days was demonstrated by turbidity of the TSB. Vitek analysis was used to confirm the presence of S. epidermidis in the positive samples. Data evaluation consisted of a chi(2) analysis (p < 0.05). Although all experimental groups demonstrated leakage, tooth-colored MTA contaminated with saliva (group 3) leaked significantly more than the uncontaminated tooth-colored MTA (group 4) (p = 0.028).

  11. The phenomenon of cathodoluminescence in tooth hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Matasov, Maxim D.

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of luminescence in tooth hard tissues under the hits of electrons accelerated up to 3keV has been investigated and the nature of luminescence has been described. It has been discovered that the change in luminescence color depends on the place of the impingement of primary electrons. The latter could be explained by different chemical compositions of compounds and complexes where luminescence is observed. Based on the analysis of RGB color bar charts, the correlation between the color of luminescence and calcium-phosphorus ratio in tooth hard tissues has been investigated. Thus, cathodoluminescence can be considered as a tool for in vitro quantitative assessment of tooth hard tissues compositions.

  12. Masking ability of bi- and tri- laminate all-ceramic veneers on tooth-colored ceramic discs.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Daniel; Sukumar, Smitha; von Stein-Lausnitz, Axel; Aarabi, Ghazal; Alawneh, Ahmad; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    A predictable esthetic outcome is imperative when placing ceramic veneers. Discolored teeth pose a major challenge as sufficient material thickness is required to achieve a good esthetic result. There is limited evidence in the literature that compares the masking ability of multi-laminate veneers. The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the masking ability of bi-laminate (BL) and tri-laminate (TL) all-ceramic veneers cemented on tooth-colored ceramic discs. A total of 40 veneers (shade A1, 10-mm diameter, 0.8-mm thick) were manufactured-20 BL veneers (0.4-mm pressable ceramic coping veneered with 0.4-mm thick enamel layer) and 20 TL veneers (0.4-mm coping veneered with 0.2-mm thick opaque interlayer and 0.2-mm thick enamel layer). A bonding apparatus was utilized to adhesively cement all veneers on the ceramic discs (shade A1), simulating teeth of light and dark color. The resulting groups (N = 10 each) were the reference groups (shade A1 ceramic base) BL-1 and TL-1 veneers, and the test groups (shade A4 ceramic base) BL-4 and TL-4 veneers. The color of the cemented veneers was measured using a spectrophotometer. The data were converted to CIE L*a*b* coordinates, and ΔE* were calculated to allow for statistical analysis. The color differences between the samples with the A1 and A4 ceramic bases were significantly lower when covered with TL veneers (mean ΔE*: 3.2 units) than with BL veneers (mean ΔE*: 4.0 units: p < 0.001), indicating a better masking ability of the TL veneers. The 0.8-mm thick TL veneer was able to mask darker tooth-colored ceramic disc within clinically acceptable limits. Increased understanding of the masking ability of ceramics and of color science is necessary in these esthetically aware times. Providing tri-laminate veneers for darker colored teeth seems to result in more predictable esthetical results than when using bi-laminate veneers. Patients with discolored/darker teeth may benefit from a more predictable esthetic

  13. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  14. Experimental investigations into visual and electronic tooth color measurement.

    PubMed

    Ratzmann, Anja; Treichel, Anja; Langforth, Gabriele; Gedrange, Tomasz; Welk, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the validity of the visual color assessment and an electronic tooth color measurement system by means of Shade Inspector™ in comparison with a gold standard. Additionally, reproducibility of electronic measurements was demonstrated by means of two reference systems. Ceramic specimens of two thicknesses (h=1.6 mm, h=2.6 mm) were used. Three experienced dental technicians using the VITAPAN Classical(®) color scale carried out all visual tests. Validity of the visual assessment and the electronic measurements was confirmed separately for both thicknesses by means of lightness and hue of the VITAPAN Classical(®) color scale. Reproducibility of electronic measurements was confirmed by means of the VITAPAN Classical(®) and 3D-Master(®). The 3D-Master(®) data were calculated according to lightness, hue and chroma. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used in assessing validity/reproducibility for lightness and chroma, Kappa statistics were used for hue. A level ≥0.75 was pre-established for ICC and ≥0.60 for the Kappa index. RESULTS OF VISUAL COLOR ASSESSMENT: Validity for lightness was good for both thicknesses; agreement rates for hue were inconsistent. ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT: Validity for lightness was fair to good, hue values were below 0.60. Reproducibility of lightness was good to very good for both reference systems. Hue values (VITAPAN Classical(®)) for 1.6 mm test specimens were upside, for 2.6 mm below 0.60, Kappa values for 3D-Master(®) were ≥0.60 for all measurements, reproducibility of chroma was very good. Validity was better for visual than for electronic color assessment. Reproducibility of the electronic device by means of the Shade Inspector™ was given for the VITAPAN Classical(®) and 3D-Master(®) systems.

  15. [Chromatic study of all-ceramic crown--IPS Empress: difference of color by manufacturing technique and cements].

    PubMed

    Hata, Utako; Sadamitsu, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Fujii, Teruhisa

    2004-12-01

    In recent years,aesthetic appearance and function are called for and all-ceramic crowns are spreading. By choosing an all-ceramic crown the problem of metal ceramics is avoided. There are difficulties of color tone reproducibility of cervical margin and darkness of gingival margin. We examined IPS Empress also in various all-ceramic crowns. IPS Empress has high permeability a ceramic ingot of various color tones and excellent color tone reproducibility of natural teeth. Generally a layering technique is used for an anterior tooth and the staining technique is used for a molar. However the details are unknown We examined how differences of manufacturing method and cement affect the color tone of all ceramics clinically. Two kinds of Empress crown were fabricated for a 27 year-old woman's upper left-side central incisors:the staining technique of IPS Empress and the layering technique of IPS Empress II. Various try-in pastes(transparent opaque white white and yellow) of VariolinkII of the IPS Empress System were used for cementing. Color was measured using a spectrophotometer CMS 35FS. The L*a*b* color system was used for showing a color. The right-side central incisors on the opposite side of the same name teeth were used for comparison. We analyzed the color difference (DeltaE* ab)with a natural tooth. Consequently when it had no cement of staining technique and was tranceparent small values were obtained. It is considered that the color tone can be adjusted by color cement. It is effective to use the staining technique for an anterior tooth crown depending on the case. The crown manufactured using the layering technique is not easily influenced by cement. The crown manufactured by the staining technique tends to be influenced by cement.

  16. Influence of the operatory field isolation technique on tooth-colored direct dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Cajazeira, Marlus Roberto Rodrigues; De Sabóia, Ticiana Medeiros; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate, through a systematic review, the influence of the operatory field isolation technique on the longevity of dental restorations performed with tooth-colored materials. An electronic search of the scientific databases (MEDLINE, SCIRUS, VHL and SIGLE) and reference lists of the selected articles was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials with a follow-up period of at least 12 months. The selected articles evaluated the effects of the operatory field isolation techniques (rubber dam or cotton rolls/saliva ejector) on the longevity of direct restorations performed with tooth-colored materials (e.g. resin composites, compomers and glass-ionomer cements) in primary or permanent posterior teeth. The selected studies were analyzed and categorized using a checklist proposed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence of the United Kingdom. 484 studies were identified on the scientific databases. After applying the exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, a total of nine studies were considered as potentially eligible. From these, five studies were included in the final analysis by two evaluators. In four studies analyzed, the use of rubber dam did not influence the longevity of restorations in comparison to cotton rolls/saliva ejector. Only two studies were considered as low risk of bias.

  17. Assessment of reliability of CAD-CAM tooth-colored implant custom abutments.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Nuno Marques; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Flinn, Brian D; Zheng, Cheng; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2016-08-01

    Information is lacking about the fatigue resistance of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) tooth-colored implant custom abutment materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the reliability of different types of CAD-CAM tooth-colored implant custom abutments. Zirconia (Lava Plus), lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD), and resin-based composite (Lava Ultimate) abutments were fabricated using CAD-CAM technology and bonded to machined titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy inserts for conical connection implants (NobelReplace Conical Connection RP 4.3×10 mm; Nobel Biocare). Three groups (n=19) were assessed: group ZR, CAD-CAM zirconia/Ti-6Al-4V bonded abutments; group RC, CAD-CAM resin-based composite/Ti-6Al-4V bonded abutments; and group LD, CAD-CAM lithium disilicate/Ti-6Al-4V bonded abutments. Fifty-seven implant abutments were secured to implants and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin according to ISO standard 14801. Static failure load (n=5) and fatigue failure load (n=14) were tested. Weibull cumulative damage analysis was used to calculate step-stress reliability at 150-N and 200-N loads with 2-sided 90% confidence limits. Representative fractured specimens were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to observe fracture patterns. Weibull plots revealed β values of 2.59 for group ZR, 0.30 for group RC, and 0.58 for group LD, indicating a wear-out or cumulative fatigue pattern for group ZR and load as the failure accelerating factor for groups RC and LD. Fractographic observation disclosed that failures initiated in the interproximal area where the lingual tensile stresses meet the compressive facial stresses for the early failure specimens. Plastic deformation of titanium inserts with fracture was observed for zirconia abutments in fatigue resistance testing. Significantly higher reliability was found in group ZR, and no significant differences in reliability were

  18. Interrater and intrarater reliability of FDI criteria applied to photographs of posterior tooth-colored restorations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyun; Ahn, So-Yeon; Kim, Junyoung; Park, Sung-Ho

    2017-07-01

    Since 2007, the FDI World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria have been used for the clinical evaluation of dental restorations. However, the reliability of the FDI criteria has not been sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the interrater and intrarater reliability of the FDI criteria by evaluating posterior tooth-colored restorations photographically. A total of 160 clinical photographs of posterior tooth-colored restorations were evaluated independently by 5 raters with 9 of the FDI criteria suitable for photographic evaluation. The raters recorded the score of each restoration by using 5 grades, and the score was dichotomized into the clinical evaluation scores. After 1 month, 2 of the raters reevaluated the same set of 160 photographs in random order. To estimate the interrater reliability among the 5 raters, the proportion of agreement was calculated, and the Fleiss multirater kappa statistic was used. For the intrarater reliability, the proportion of agreement was calculated, and the Cohen standard kappa statistic was used for each of the 2 raters. The interrater proportion of agreement was 0.41 to 0.57, and the kappa value was 0.09 to 0.39. Overall, the intrarater reliability was higher than the interrater reliability, and rater 1 demonstrated higher intrarater reliability than rater 2. The proportion of agreement and kappa values increased when the 5 scores were dichotomized. The reliability was relatively lower for the esthetic properties compared with the functional or biological properties. Within the limitations of this study, the FDI criteria presented slight to fair interrater reliability and fair to excellent intrarater reliability in the photographic evaluation of posterior tooth-colored restorations. The reliability was improved by simplifying the evaluation scores. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the color durability of acrylic resin veneer materials after immersion in common beverages at different time intervals: A spectrophotometric study.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Shivani; Bhatia, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Proper function, esthetics, and cost are the prime factors to be considered while selecting bridge veneering materials. The purpose of the study is to evaluate color durability of acrylic veneer materials after immersion in common beverages at different time intervals. Spectrophotometer was used for taking color measurements based on the transmission of light through the specimens made of the selected materials which were Tooth moulding powder (DPI) and Acrylux (Ruthinium). Thirty specimens of standardized dimensions were prepared from each material. The specimens were divided into three groups of 10 each. One group of each material was immersed in tea (TajMahal) and another group of each material in cola (Pepsi) as the staining solutions. The remaining group of 10 from each material served as control and was stored in distilled water. Color measurements were obtained pre-immersion, and after 1, 15, and 30 days of immersion. Tooth moulding powder displayed better color durability than Acrylux over the 1 month immersion period in both staining solutions. Tea resulted in more discoloration compared to cola (Pepsi). The difference in the color durability of Acrylux and Tooth moulding powder may be attributed to the differences in the composition of tested resin veneering materials, i.e. their polar properties, which contribute to the absorption of staining solution, and the different brands and the strengths of the solutions.

  20. Comparison of Tooth Color Change After Bleaching With Conventional and Different Light-Activated Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Sima; Assadian, Hadi; Mahmoudi Nahavandi, Alireza; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The demand for esthetic dental treatments is increasing in recent years mainly due to improved oral hygiene and better maintenance of oral health and teeth in older individuals. Bleaching of discolored anterior teeth is the most popular among esthetic dental treatments. Even individuals with sound teeth and adequate esthetics seek to have whiter teeth in the anterior region. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth color changes following conventional in-office bleaching techniques compared to light-activated methods using different light sources. Methods: Seventy sound anterior teeth (devoided of caries and/or fracture), extracted for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were selected and allocated to 7 groups: (A) control, (B) conventional bleaching (C) LED-activated bleaching, (D) KTP laser-activated bleaching, (E) diode laser-activated bleaching, (F) Nd:YAG laser-activated bleaching and (G) CO2 laser-activated bleaching. Colorimetric evaluation was carried out before and after treatment using a spectrophotoradiometer. Data were analyzed by one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as multiple comparison methods. Results: The results showed that all bleaching procedures were effective in reducing the yellowness index. However, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more effective than the other techniques in 95% confidence level. It was also seen that CO2 laser activated method has outperformed groups E, F and G and the conventional bleaching without light activation was not effective at all and represented similar results with the control group. Furthermore, the groups E and G had almost the same results in decreasing the yellowness index. Conclusion: The results showed that all bleaching techniques were effective however, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more efficient, closely followed by the CO2 laser-activated bleaching technique.

  1. Influence of different post core materials on the color of Empress 2 full ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Wang, Xin-zhi; Feng, Hai-lan

    2006-10-20

    For esthetic consideration, dentin color post core materials were normally used for all-ceramic crown restorations. However, in some cases, clinicians have to consider combining a full ceramic crown with a metal post core. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the esthetical possibility of applying cast metal post core in a full ceramic crown restoration. The color of full ceramic crowns on gold and Nickel-Chrome post cores was compared with the color of the same crowns on tooth colored post cores. Different try-in pastes were used to imitate the influence of a composite cementation on the color of different restorative combinations. The majority of patients could not detect any color difference less than DeltaE 1.8 between the two ceramic samples. So, DeltaE 1.8 was taken as the objective evaluative criterion for the evaluation of color matching and patients' satisfaction. When the Empress 2 crown was combined with the gold alloy post core, the color of the resulting material was similar to that of a glass fiber reinforced resin post core (DeltaE = 0.3). The gold alloy post core and the try-in paste did not show a perceptible color change in the full ceramic crowns, which indicated that the color of the crowns might not be susceptible to change between lab and clinic as well as during the process of composite cementation. Without an opaque covering the Ni-Cr post core would cause an unacceptable color effect on the crown (DeltaE = 2.0), but with opaque covering, the color effect became more clinically satisfactory (DeltaE = 1.8). It may be possible to apply a gold alloy post core in the Empress 2 full ceramic crown restoration when necessary. If a non-extractible Ni-Cr post core exists in the root canal, it might be possible to restore the tooth with an Empress 2 crown after covering the labial surface of the core with one layer of opaque resin cement.

  2. The influence of tooth color on preparation design for laminate veneers from a minimally invasive perspective: case report.

    PubMed

    Coachman, Christian; Gurel, Galip; Calamita, Marcelo; Morimoto, Susana; Paolucci, Braulio; Sesma, Newton

    2014-01-01

    Various types of dental preparations for laminate veneers have been proposed,depending on factors such as the properties of the ceramic material, remaining dental structure color, need for altering the dental contour, laboratory fabrication technique, and occlusal relationships. Clinical observations of successes and failures associated with the development of techniques and materials have allowed some safe parameters to be delineated for effectively performing dental preparations for ceramic veneers or even placing veneers without any preparation. This article describes the use of an additive diagnostic wax-up that is transferred to the mouth by means of an intraoral mock-up (aesthetic pre-evaluative temporary) with associated mathematic parameters to guide dental preparations. This technique, called Do the Math and presented here in the form of a clinical case report, aims to avoid excessive or incorrect tooth preparation by indicating the exact amount and location of the tooth reduction necessary to attain the desired color and shape.

  3. [Color selection of ultrathin veneers in clinic].

    PubMed

    Feng, Sun

    2016-12-01

    Ultrathin veneer is a new therapeutic technology developed from minimally invasive theories. Ultrathin veneer alters the unwanted shape and color of a tooth through minimal or lack of preparation. The color of tooth after restoration is mixed with the natural color of tooth, the original color of veneer, and the color of bonding material because of ultrathin (approximately 0.2 mm) veneer. Thus, the color is affected by numerous variations. Full considerations are required for creating designs. The author summarizes clinical points and provides suggestions for ultrathin veneer in color.

  4. [Comparison of the color difference between teeth underwent cold light whitening and two kinds of shade guides].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y X

    2018-06-18

    To investigate which shade guide, Vitapan Classical or Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster, is better matched with the color of teeth in judging whitening effect, by comparing the color difference between shade tabs and corresponding teeth underwent cold light tooth whitening. A total of 60 patients underwent Beyond cold light tooth whitening from May 2014 to April 2016. The patients were divided into two experimental groups according to the shade guide used. Vitapan Classical shade guide was used to judge whitening effect in one group, and Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster shade guide was used in another. Shade matching was carried out before and after whitening in both the two groups, and the results were recorded by digital photographs. Shade matching procedures were carried out by two doctors independently. If they chose the same tab, it would be seen as the shade matching result; While if they chose different tabs, another doctor would be invited to make a decision. Photographs were taken in preset conditions: intraoral photos of the full dentition in the front, and the proportion of shooting was 1:3; aperture was F22; shutter speed was 1/200; intensity of flash was M/8; ISO value was 200. The photographs were analyzed by Photoshop software. Chromatic values were measured, and color difference values were calculated. Measuring of chromatic values was carried out by three doctors independently, and all the photos were measured twice by each doctor. Six measure results of each photo were recorded, and the maximum and the minimum were excluded, then the mean was seen as the final result. The color difference values were compared by independent-sample t test. Besides, changes of shade tabs after whitening in the two groups were recorded. Color difference value was 5.06±1.71 in Vitapan Classical group, and 3.39±1.36 in Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master group. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups (t=4.68,P<0.001). Change of shade tabs was 3.63

  5. Present and future technologies of tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Viscio, D; Gaffar, A; Fakhry-Smith, S; Xu, T

    2000-01-01

    Dental stains can be broadly classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic stains are a result of defects in tooth development, fluorosis, or acquired through the use of tetracycline. Extrinsic stains are localized mainly in the pellicle and are generated by the reaction between sugars and amino acids or acquired from the retention of exogenous chromophores in the pellicle. Three clinical methods are currently used for measuring stain removal and tooth whitening in the development of new whitening technologies: Lobene Stain Index, Shade Guide Color Change, and Minolta ChromaMeter. Professional tooth whitening products rely on proven technologies--35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office power bleaching or 10% to 15% carbamide peroxide for at-home bleaching--to reduce intrinsic stain and change the inherent tooth color. Over-the-counter tooth whitening products use a combination of surfactants, abrasives, anticalculus agents, and low levels of hydrogen peroxide to reduce extrinsic stain and help maintain tooth whiteness after professional treatment. Future technologies for whitening teeth could involve the use of activating agents to enhance the performance of hydrogen peroxide and natural enzymes.

  6. Toothguide Trainer tests with color vision deficiency simulation monitor.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Judit; Varsányi, Balázs; Fejérdy, Pál; Hermann, Péter; Jakstat, Holger A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether simulated severe red and green color vision deficiency (CVD) influenced color matching results and to investigate whether training with Toothguide Trainer (TT) computer program enabled better color matching results. A total of 31 color normal dental students participated in the study. Every participant had to pass the Ishihara Test. Participants with a red/green color vision deficiency were excluded. A lecture on tooth color matching was given, and individual training with TT was performed. To measure the individual tooth color matching results in normal and color deficient display modes, the TT final exam was displayed on a calibrated monitor that served as a hardware-based method of simulating protanopy and deuteranopy. Data from the TT final exams were collected in normal and in severe red and green CVD-simulating monitor display modes. Color difference values for each participant in each display mode were computed (∑ΔE(ab)(*)), and the respective means and standard deviations were calculated. The Student's t-test was used in statistical evaluation. Participants made larger ΔE(ab)(*) errors in severe color vision deficient display modes than in the normal monitor mode. TT tests showed significant (p<0.05) difference in the tooth color matching results of severe green color vision deficiency simulation mode compared to normal vision mode. Students' shade matching results were significantly better after training (p=0.009). Computer-simulated severe color vision deficiency mode resulted in significantly worse color matching quality compared to normal color vision mode. Toothguide Trainer computer program improved color matching results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Color management of porcelain veneers: influence of dentin and resin cement colors.

    PubMed

    Dozic, Alma; Tsagkari, Maria; Khashayar, Ghazal; Aboushelib, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Porcelain veneers have become an interesting treatment option to correct the shape and color of anterior teeth. Because of their limited thickness and high translucency, achieving a good color match is influenced by several variables. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of natural dentin and resin cement colors on final color match of porcelain veneers. A preselected shade tab (A1) was chosen as the target color for a maxillary central incisor, and its color parameters (L*a*b*) were measured using a digital spectrophotometer (SpectroShade, MHT). Nine natural dentin colors (Natural Die Material, Ivoclar Vivadent) representing a wide range of tooth colors were used to prepare resin replicas of the maxillary central incisor with a standard preparation for porcelain veneers. The prepared porcelain veneers (IPS Empress Esthetic, A1, 0.6 mm thick, Ivoclar Vivadent) were cemented on the resin dies (nine groups of natural dentin colors) using seven shades of resin cement (Variolink Veneers, Ivoclar Vivadent). The L*a*b* values of the cemented veneers were measured, and DE values were calculated against the preselected target color (A1). DE greater than 3.3 was considered as a significant color mismatch detectable by the human eye. The seven shades of resin cement had no significant influence on the final color of the veneers, as the measured DE values were almost identical for every test group. On the other hand, the color of natural dentin was a significant factor that influenced final color match. None of the 63 tested combinations (nine natural dentin colors and seven resin cement colors) produced an acceptable color match. Thin porcelain veneers cannot mask underlying tooth color even when different shades of resin cement are used. Incorporation of opaque porcelain (high chroma) may improve final color match.

  8. Color-quality control using color-difference formulas: progress and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgosa, M.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; García, P. A.; Morillas, S.; Fernández-Maloigne, C.; Richard, N.; Huang, M.; Li, C.; Cui, G.

    2017-08-01

    We report on some recent advances in industrial color-difference evaluation focused in three main fields: Development of reliable experimental visual datasets; proposal of new color spaces and color-difference formulas; tools to evaluate the merits of color-difference formulas. The use of fuzzy techniques to assign consistency degrees to color pairs in combined visual datasets is described. The CIE/ISO joint proposal of the CIEDE2000 color-difference formula as a standard will facilitate the communication among companies and users. The CIE recommendation of the STRESS index to assess observers' variability and relative merits of different color-difference formulas is reported. Power functions are an efficient method to improve the performance of modern color-difference formulas. We need of advanced color-difference formulas accounting for new materials with different kind of textures and gonioapparent effects.

  9. Efficacy and persistence of tooth bleaching using a diode laser with three different treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    Al Quran, Firas A M; Mansour, Yasar; Al-Hyari, Sabaa; Al Wahadni, Ahed; Mair, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Studies have measured the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, however there are very few studies that have measured the persistence in color change after a 6-month follow-up. This study assessed the efficacy of the laser bleaching process using different regimens, and the persistence of color change over a 6-month period. Sixty patients divided into three equal groups were subjected to bleaching using a diode laser with 34% hydrogen peroxide. Group 1: patients subjected to one session of laser bleaching. Group 2: patients subjected to two sessions of laser bleaching with a 1-week interval. Group 3: the same as Group 2 but followed by home bleaching once a month for 3 months. The color was assessed four times: before bleaching, directly after bleaching, 3 months after bleaching, and 6 months after bleaching. All teeth had a significant color change at 6 months, but all teeth had regressed from the maximum value. There was significantly less regression in color for Group 3, followed by Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The combined technique of in-office laser bleaching for two sessions with a 1-week interval, followed by home bleaching once a month for 3 months gave more persistence in color change. In-office power bleaching using a laser assisted hydrogen peroxide system repeated after a week, combined with home bleaching once a month for 3 months, is an effective bleaching regimen with less color regression after 6 months compared to a regimen of in-office bleaching alone.

  10. Effects of different types of tooth movement and force magnitudes on the amount of tooth movement and root resorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takako; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Sirisoontorn, Irin; Arita, Kotaro; Kurohama, Takeshi; Darendeliler, M Ali; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2014-11-01

    To investigate differences in the amount of tooth movement and root resorption that occurred after tipping and bodily movement of the maxillary first molar in rats. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to type of tooth movement and subdivided into four subgroups according to the magnitude of applied force. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs exerting forces of 10, 25, 50, or 100 g were applied to the maxillary left first molars to induce mesial tooth movement. We designed a novel orthodontic appliance for bodily tooth movement. Tooth movement distance and root resorption were measured using microcomputed tomography and scanning electron and scanning laser microscopy. The amount of tooth movement in the bodily tooth movement group was less than half that in the tipping tooth movement group. The greatest amount of tooth movement occurred in the 10-g tipping and 50-g bodily tooth movement subgroups, and the amount of tooth movement decreased with the application of an excessive magnitude of force. Conversely, root resorption increased when the heavier orthodontic force was applied in both groups. Root resorption in the tipping tooth movement group was approximately twice that in the bodily tooth movement group. Root resorption in the tipping tooth movement group was more pronounced than that in the bodily tooth movement group. Although the amount of tooth movement decreased when extremely heavy forces were applied, root resorption increased in both the tipping and bodily tooth movement groups in rats.

  11. Effect of enamel sealants on tooth bleaching and on the color stability of the result.

    PubMed

    Corcodel, N; Hassel, A J; Sen, S; Saure, D; Rammelsberg, P; Lux, C J; Zingler, S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of enamel sealants on bleaching of natural teeth by use of 40 % hydrogen peroxide in a dental surgery. The color stability of the results from bleaching was, furthermore, determined 10 months after the bleaching procedure. In a standardized setting, four sealants (Pro Seal ® , Light Bond™ Sealant, Protecto ® , and Clinpro™ XT Varnish) were applied to and removed from human teeth in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Natural teeth served as medium; half of the teeth were sealed and the others served as controls. Hydrogen peroxide gel (40 %; Opalescence Boost; Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA) was used as bleaching agent. Color measurement was performed with a spectroradiometer (Photoresearch PR670) before the bleaching process (T1) and 24 h (T2) and 10 months (T3) after bleaching. The spectroradiometer results were expressed by use of the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color notation. The L*, a*, and b* values of the sealed and the unsealed surfaces were not significantly different at any time during the study (p > 0.05), irrespective of the sealant used. Ten months after the bleaching process, mean L*, a*, and b* values were lower than at 1-day post-bleaching; the mean value of ΔE between 1-day post-bleaching and 10 months post-bleaching was 2.46 (±3.1). The results of the study suggest that the effectiveness of professional tooth whitening is not appreciably affected by the application of the four sealants tested.

  12. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P < 0.01). The decreasing range of Deltab* was more than the increasing range of DeltaL* at the cervical site; opposite results were observed at the incisal site. A positive correlation was detected between baseline b* and DeltaE. The spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  13. Investigations of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances with different visual scales and different perceptual correlates using CRT colors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhehong; Xu, Haisong

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the performance of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances with different visual scales and different perceptual correlates, a psychophysical experiment was carried out by the method of constant stimuli using CRT colors. Five hue circles at three lightness (L*=30, 50, and 70) and chroma (C*ab=10, 20, and 30) levels were selected to ensure that the color-difference tolerances did not exceed the color gamut of the CRT display. Twelve color centers distributed evenly every 30 degrees along each hue circle were assessed by a panel of eight observers, and the corresponding color-difference tolerances were obtained. The hue circle with L*=50 and C*ab=20 was assessed with three different visual scales (DeltaV=3.06, 5.92, and 8.87 CIELAB units), which ranged from small to large visual scales, while the remaining hue circles were observed only with the small visual scale. The lightness tolerances had no significant correlation with the hue angles, while chroma and hue tolerances showed considerable hue angle dependences. The color-difference tolerances were linearly proportional to the visual scales but with different slopes. The lightness tolerances with different lightness levels but the same chroma showed the crispening effect to some extent, while the chroma and hue tolerances decreased with the increment of the lightness. For the color-difference tolerances with different chroma levels but the same lightness, there was no correlation between the lightness tolerances and the chroma levels, while the chroma and hue tolerances were nearly linearly proportional to the chroma levels.

  14. The assessment of surface roughness and microleakage of eroded tooth-colored dental restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Thulfiqar Ali; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Ghani, Zuryati Ab; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of acidic solution on surface roughness and microleakage of tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A 160 box-shaped cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 160 human molars, and assigned to four groups: Group A restored with Ketac™ Molar Easymix, Group B with Fuji II™ LC, Group C with Ketac™ N100, and Group D with Filtek™ Z250, and subdivided into study and control groups (n = 20). Study groups were immersed in lemon juice (pH = 2.79) for 24 h, whilst controlgroups in deionized distilled water. All samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye, sectioned into two equal halves for surface roughness, and microleakage tests. Data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at P < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in surface roughness of Ketac™ Molar, Fuji II™ LC, and Ketac™ N100. No significant difference was found in microleakage of Ketac™ Molar and Fuji II™ LC; however, there were significant differences in the gingival margin of Ketac™ N100, and the occlusal margin of Filtek™ Z250. Conclusions: All glass ionomer cements were eroded after exposure to the acidic drink. Filtek™ Z250 and Ketac™ Molar Easymix showed more microleakage. All materials showed more microleakage at the gingival margins. PMID:25506139

  15. Extrinsic Tooth Enamel Color Changes and Their Relationship with the Quality of Water Consumed

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Kathleen Rebelo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Gonçalves, Juliana Rocha; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived oral health. As the initial results indicated an insufficient number of observations for the application of variance analysis (one-way ANOVA), the Student t test was chosen to compare levels of iron content in the water coming from two sources. The change in tooth color had a prevalence of 5.78% (20 people). The majority of the population (n = 261, 75.43%) consumed well water. Those who presented extrinsic stains were uncomfortable with the appearance of their teeth (15.09%). We conclude that while there is excess of iron in the water in this region of Brazil, no association between extrinsic stains on the enamel and the level of iron in the water was found. There was a low prevalence of extrinsic stains in Caaparinga, being found only in children and adolescents. In the present study, an association between the presence of stains and the consumption of açai was determined, and those who presented them felt uncomfortable about their aesthetics. PMID:23202761

  16. Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

    2010-11-01

    Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

  17. A difference in perspective--the North American and European interpretations of tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D; Phillips, K; Smith, B

    1999-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the European dental research literature about the problem of tooth wear and specifically about dental erosion, but this interest does not appear to be matched in North America based on the volume of the literature there. The purpose of this article is to consider the possible explanations for this difference. This article examines the reasons for this disparity and attempts to explain the difference by reviewing the North American and European literature on the etiology, pathogenesis, and prevalence of tooth wear. It would appear from the literature that the reason for the difference in interest between the 2 continents is a reflection of how the appearance, etiology, and terminology are interpreted and used to define tooth wear, attrition, and erosion. Attrition is the wear of teeth against teeth; therefore, by definition any worn surface that does not contact the opposing tooth must have another etiology. An appropriate descriptive term is "tooth wear" when the etiology is multifactorial or cannot be determined. A search of the literature shows more studies in the European literature of the etiology and prevalence of tooth wear than in the North American literature. The thrust of the European studies supports the view that erosion is more important than attrition in the etiology of tooth wear.

  18. Use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-04-01

    The changing of tooth shade by whitening agents occurs gradually. Apart from being subjective and affected by the conditions of the surroundings, visual observation cannot detect a very slight change in tooth color. An electronic method, which can communicate the color change quantitatively, would be more reliable. Quantitative Light- induced Fluorescence (QLF) was developed to detect and assess dental caries based on the phenomenon of change of autofluorescence of a tooth by demineralization. However, stains on the tooth surface exhibit the same phenomenon, and therefore QLF can be used to measure the percentage fluorescence change of stained enamel with respect to surrounding unstained enamel. The present study described a technique of assessing the effect of a tooth-whitening agent using QLF. This was demonstrated in two experiments in which either wholly or partially stained teeth were whitened by intermittent immersion in sodium hypochlorite. Following each immersion, the integrated fluorescence change due to the stain was quantified using QLF. In either situation, the value of (Delta) Q decreased linearly as the tooth regained its natural shade. It was concluded that gradual changing of the shade of discolored teeth by a whitening agent could be quantified using QLF.

  19. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    PubMed

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  20. Clinical study of tooth shade lightening from dentist-supervised, patient-applied treatment with two 10% carbamide peroxide gels.

    PubMed

    Cibirka, R M; Myers, M; Downey, M C; Nelson, S K; Browning, W D; Hawkins, I K; Dickinson, G L

    1999-01-01

    Prescribed, patient-applied tooth lightening agents, or nightguard vital bleaching, typically utilizes a 10% carbamide peroxide agent applied during nocturnal hours. The purpose of this randomized double-blind study was to compare the amount of tooth color change in two groups of subjects using dentist-supervised, patient-applied 10% carbamide peroxide gel. One group used Opalescence (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah) and the other NiteWhite Excel (Discus Dental, Inc., Los Angeles, California). Evaluation of tooth color for the six maxillary anterior teeth was done using a Vita shade guide at baseline, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Subjects were instructed to apply the gel nocturnally using a custom-made soft tray 8 hours per day for 2 weeks. The 16 tabs of the shade guide were ranked according to value from darkest to lightest. The number (1-16) that correlated to the shade tab selected as the match for each tooth was the outcome variable. A Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance on ranks was used. The test revealed no statistically significant difference between Opalescence and NiteWhite Excel for lightening the teeth (p = .807). The color change was still significant after 2 weeks without further bleaching activity. The baseline evaluation of the maxillary incisors and canines for all subjects, regardless of group, demonstrated a significant shade difference, with the canines being darker. This difference was not seen after 2 weeks of active bleaching or at the 4-week evaluation. In this study comparing bleaching products, patients using Opalescence and NiteWhite Excel experienced a significant change in the color of their teeth relative to baseline values after 2 weeks of active treatment.

  1. Tooth shape preferences in an esthetic smile.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kurt M; Behrents, Rolf G; McKinney, Thomas; Buschang, Peter H

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of tooth shape to the esthetic smile. Restorative dentists (120), laypeople (102), and orthodontists (113) evaluated a series of color photographs of men's and women's smiles. The photographs were randomly presented to test the effects of 3 different shapes of maxillary incisors and canines on the same patient. For women, orthodontists preferred round and square-round incisors (P < .01), and restorative dentists preferred round incisors (P < or = .03). Laypeople did not discriminate between incisor shapes. For men, all 3 groups preferred square-round incisors (P < or = .042). There was also a tendency for male judges to rate female images more attractive than did female judges. Restorative dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople share similarities and display differences when considering esthetic preferences in tooth shape. Although there was no consensus in preference among the laypeople as a group, their preferences differed from those of the dental professionals.

  2. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton’s study. Materials and methods: After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton’s analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton’s means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85. PMID:25356005

  3. Color filter array pattern identification using variance of color difference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Jong Ju; Eom, Il Kyu

    2017-07-01

    A color filter array is placed on the image sensor of a digital camera to acquire color images. Each pixel uses only one color, since the image sensor can measure only one color per pixel. Therefore, empty pixels are filled using an interpolation process called demosaicing. The original and the interpolated pixels have different statistical characteristics. If the image is modified by manipulation or forgery, the color filter array pattern is altered. This pattern change can be a clue for image forgery detection. However, most forgery detection algorithms have the disadvantage of assuming the color filter array pattern. We present an identification method of the color filter array pattern. Initially, the local mean is eliminated to remove the background effect. Subsequently, the color difference block is constructed to emphasize the difference between the original pixel and the interpolated pixel. The variance measure of the color difference image is proposed as a means of estimating the color filter array configuration. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the color filter array pattern. Compared with conventional methods, our method provides superior performance.

  4. Preemptive use of etodolac on tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vaez, Savil Costa; Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Loguércio, Alessandro Dourado; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Nahsan, Flávia Pardo Salata

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of the preemptive administration of etodolac on risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and the bleaching effect caused by in-office bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide. Fifty patients were selected for this tripleblind, randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Etodolac (400 mg) or placebo was administrated in a single-dose 1 hour prior to the bleaching procedure. The whitening treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide was carried out in two sessions with a 7-day interval. Tooth sensitivity was assessed before, during, and 24 hours after the procedure using the analog visual scale and the verbal rating scale. Color alteration was assessed by a bleach guide scale, 7 days after each session. Relative risk of sensitivity was calculated and adjusted by session, while overall risk was compared by the McNemar's test. Data on the sensitivity level of both scales and color shade were subjected to Friedman, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively (α=0.05). The preemptive administration of etodolac did not affect the risk of tooth sensitivity and the level of sensitivity reported, regardless of the time of evaluation and scale used. The sequence of treatment allocation did not affect bleaching effectiveness, while the second session resulted in additional color modification. The preemptive administration of etodolac in a single dose 1 hour prior to in-office tooth bleaching did not alter tooth color, and the risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity reported by patients. A single-dose preemptive administration of 400 mg of etodolac did not affect either risk of tooth sensitivity or level of sensitivity reported by patients, during or after the in-office tooth bleaching procedure.

  5. Color masking of developmental enamel defects: a case series.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Borges, A B

    2015-01-01

    Developmental defects involving color alteration of enamel frequently compromise the esthetic appearance of the tooth. The resin infiltration technique represents an alternative treatment for color masking of these lesions and uniformization of tooth color. This technique is considered relatively simple and microinvasive, since only a minimal portion of enamel is removed. This article illustrates the color-masking effect with resin infiltration of fluorosis and traumatic hypomineralization lesions with a case series. The final esthetic outcomes demonstrated the ability of the resin infiltrant to mask the color of white developmental defect lesions, resulting in satisfactory clinical esthetic improvements. However, in more severe cases, the color-masking effect was not complete.

  6. [Chromatic study of all-ceramic restorations--influence of abutment tooth color on color tone of copings].

    PubMed

    Hata, Utako; Yamamura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Fujii, Teruhisa

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the use of all-ceramic crowns has spread widely in clinical applications to meet the demand for both functional and esthetically-pleasing restorations. In making all-ceramic crowns, it is necessary to reproduce the shape and color near to those of the natural teeth. However, the color shades of abutments might influence the color of the copings which are made of material with high transparency. This study examined the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of copings for three kinds of all-ceramic core materials: Empress, Empress 2 (IVOCLAR VIVADENT), and Procera AllCeram (Nobel Biocare). Copings with 0.5 mm in thickness were fabricated by using Empress (TC1), Empress 2 (100), and Procera AllCeram (white) core materials for an upper-right central incisor. Abutments were made by using six kinds of die materials of the Empress system (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST8, ST9), gold-silver-palladium alloy, gold alloy, and experimental black body. Copings were inserted in each abutment and the final color of the central part of the buccal surface was measured using a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* color system. Regardless of the color shades of the abutments, the chroma values of the copings rose in the order of Empress, Empress 2, and Procera, and the values of lightness rose in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. When the final color of each coping measured under the wet and dry conditions were compared, the difference in chroma was great. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of the three kinds of copings is small in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. In clinical and dental laboratory operations, it is hoped to observe and measure the color of copings and restorations under the wet condition.

  7. Preemptive use of etodolac on tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Savil Costa; Faria-e-Silva, André Luís; Loguércio, Alessandro Dourado; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Nahsan, Flávia Pardo Salata

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study determined the effectiveness of the preemptive administration of etodolac on risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and the bleaching effect caused by in-office bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide. Material and methods Fifty patients were selected for this tripleblind, randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Etodolac (400 mg) or placebo was administrated in a single-dose 1 hour prior to the bleaching procedure. The whitening treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide was carried out in two sessions with a 7-day interval. Tooth sensitivity was assessed before, during, and 24 hours after the procedure using the analog visual scale and the verbal rating scale. Color alteration was assessed by a bleach guide scale, 7 days after each session. Relative risk of sensitivity was calculated and adjusted by session, while overall risk was compared by the McNemar's test. Data on the sensitivity level of both scales and color shade were subjected to Friedman, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively (α=0.05). Results The preemptive administration of etodolac did not affect the risk of tooth sensitivity and the level of sensitivity reported, regardless of the time of evaluation and scale used. The sequence of treatment allocation did not affect bleaching effectiveness, while the second session resulted in additional color modification. The preemptive administration of etodolac in a single dose 1 hour prior to in-office tooth bleaching did not alter tooth color, and the risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity reported by patients. Conclusion A single-dose preemptive administration of 400 mg of etodolac did not affect either risk of tooth sensitivity or level of sensitivity reported by patients, during or after the in-office tooth bleaching procedure. PMID:29412363

  8. Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design.

    PubMed

    Szafir, Danielle Albers

    2018-01-01

    Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.

  9. The use of different analgesics in orthodontic tooth movements.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shaza M; El-Hawary, Yousry M; El-Hawary, Amira K

    2012-09-01

    To provide a semi-quantitative assessment of the effect of different analgesics (celecoxib, ketorolac, and paracetamol) on tooth movement and bone resorption using immunohistochemical staining of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Forty white male rats (12-weeks old; body weight: 230-250 g) were divided into four groups (10 rats each) and were given the treatment once a day for 2 consecutive months. Group A (control group) rats were given the reverse osmosis water; group B rats were given 10 mg/kg celecoxib; group C rats were given 3 mg/kg ketorolac; and group D rats were given 150 mg/kg paracetamol. A precalibrated closed Sentalloy coil spring was placed inside each rat mouth to deliver a constant force of 50 cN. The magnitude of tooth movement was measured intraorally. After 2 months, the rats were sacrificed, and the sections were mounted on L-polylysine-coated glass slides. Slides from each specimen were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and others were stained with MMP-13. Data were analyzed with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Celecoxib, ketorolac, and paracetamol groups showed tooth movement of 1.81 ± 0.43 mm, 1.13 ± 0.28 mm, and 1.08 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. The mean number of MMP-13-positive osteoclasts was highest in celecoxib-treated group followed by the control group and was decreased in the ketorolac and paracetamol groups. Comparing all groups to the control revealed significant differences (P < .05). Administration of celecoxib did not reduce bone resorption or interfere with tooth movement in rats compared to other analgesics tested (ketorolac and paracetamol).

  10. [Mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare earth oxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. Six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were made by introducing internal coloration technology. The colorants included rare earth oxide (Pr6O11, CeO2, Er2O3) and transition element oxide (MnO2). Mechanical properties (flexural strength, vickers hardness and fracture toughness) were tested. Microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM), and the fracture model was analyzed. The range of flexural strength of the six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were (792 +/- 20)-(960 +/- 17) MPa, the fracture toughness were (4.72 +/- 0.31)-(5.64 +/- 0.38) MPam(1/2), and the vickers hardness were (1332 +/- 19)-(1380 +/- 17) MPa. SEM observation on the cross section of the six kinds of sintered composites showed a relatively dense polycrystal structure, and the fracture models was mixed type. Tooth-like Y-TZP is acquired with better mechanical properties (fracture toughness and vickers hardness) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. It is available for clinical application.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a dental color analysis system: the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer®.

    PubMed

    Odaira, Chikayuki; Itoh, Sozo; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®), a dental color analysis system. Three color-measuring devices (Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®), CAS-ID1, MSC-2000) were tested and the differences in color measurements among them were evaluated using Scheffe's F-test. Color measurements with the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) were repeated 10 times by the same operator. The color difference (ΔE) between the first and tenth measurements was calculated. The Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) was used to measure the color of the maxillary left central incisor under two conditions (light and dark) and the effect of exterior lighting was analyzed to assess the accuracy of measurements. Furthermore, five different operators performed color measurements, and ΔE among the three devices was calculated. The ΔE between the target tooth and the crown of a single maxillary central incisor crown fabricated using data from the Crystaleye Spectrophotmeter(®) was calculated. Color differences between prebleaching and postbleaching were also analyzed with the Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) using the parameters ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*. The data from the three spectrophotometers were not significantly different. The ΔE during repeated color measurements by the same operator was 0.6. The ΔE between light and dark conditions was 0.9. The data from the five operators were not significantly different. The mean ΔE value between the target tooth and the fabricated crown was 1.2 ± 0.4, and the mean ΔE value between prebleaching and postbleaching was 3.7 ± 1.0. The Crystaleye Spectrophotometer(®) is an easy-to-use color analysis system producing accurate color measurements under clinical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association Between In-Office And At-Home Tooth Bleaching: A Single Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João Lima; Rocha, Patrícia Souza; Pardim, Silvia Letícia de Souza; Machado, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Seraidarian, Paulo Isaías

    2018-01-01

    This controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of associating at-home and in-office bleaching procedures on tooth sensitivity (TS) and bleaching effectiveness. Forty patients subjected to on session of in-office bleaching with 38% peroxide hydrogen. Subsequently, the patients were randomly allocated to receive a second session of in-office bleaching or to use a tray containing 10% carbamide peroxide delivered during 7 consecutive days. The worst TS score reported during or after each bleaching procedure was recorded using a verbal rating scale and TS risk (score different from 0) was calculated. Color changes were measured 7 days after each in-office session (for patients receiving in-office procedures only) or after the end of at-home bleaching (for the combined protocol), and 6 months after the last procedure for both bleaching protocols. Color was assessed by a spectrophotometer and by color match with the Vita Classical and Bleach guide scales. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess possible differences between the protocols regarding the outcomes and to analyze the effect of time of assessment on color changes. The bleaching protocol did not affect the risk for and the maximum level of TS reported, irrespective of the time of assessment. In the color evaluation, the bleaching protocol also did not affect the ultimate tooth color. In conclusion, after one in-office bleaching session, there was no difference in bleaching effectiveness and TS between performing a second in-office session and associating it with 1-week at-home bleaching.

  13. Influence of tooth profile on the noncircular gear tooth contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, A.; Andrei, L.; Cristescu, B.

    2017-02-01

    With noncircular gears, the continuous modification of the tooth meshing, in terms of variation of the tooth profiles and the line of action position and inclination, makes difficult the implementation of a general standard procedure for the analysis of the noncircular gears tooth contact. In this paper, the authors present a graphical approach that enables the tooth contact static pattern to be produced and evaluated in case of a noncircular gear with complex geometry of the pitch curve. The study is virtually developed, in AutoCAD environment, by animating and investigating the gear solid models in mesh. The tooth static contact analysis enables the path of contact area and distribution to be evaluated in correlation with the following variable initial data: gear pitch curve geometry, tooth profile geometry, as a consequence of different generating procedures, and the gear pressure angle. It was found out that the noncircular gear tooth contact could be improved by choosing different procedures for the tooth flank generation in concave and convex zones and by increasing the gear pressure angle.

  14. A clinical evaluation of 10 percent vs. 15 percent carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Kihn, P W; Barnes, D M; Romberg, E; Peterson, K

    2000-10-01

    Agents with carbamide peroxide, or CP, in various concentrations are widely prescribed for at-home tooth whitening. It is not clear, however, if the more concentrated gels will whitening teeth to a greater extent, as no controlled clinical trials have been reported. The authors conducted a double-blind study of human subjects to evaluate whether a 15 percent CP tooth-whitening system was more effective than a 10 percent CP system, and to determine if tooth sensitivity increased with use of the higher concentration. The authors recruited 57 subjects with maxillary anterior teeth of shade A3 or darker (as gauged against a value-oriented shade guide). The subjects were 18 to 65 years of age and in good general and dental health. After matching the subjects by sex and age, the authors randomly assigned them to either a control group, which used a 10 percent CP whitening agent, or an experimental group, which used a 15 percent CP agent. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in shade change between the groups after one week of treatment (t = 1.455, P = .05), but there was a significant difference at the end of the treatment period (t = 2.303, P < .05), as well as two weeks after treatment concluded (t = 2.248, P < .05). There was no significant difference in sensitivity (t = 1.399, P > .05). There was a significant difference in color change between the 10 percent CP and 15 percent CP groups at the end of the study period. There was no significant difference in level of tooth sensitivity between the two groups, and the incidence was equal; there was, however, a significant difference in variability of tooth sensitivity between the two groups. If performed under the careful guidance of a dentist, at-home whitening is an effective treatment, regardless of whether 10 percent CP or 15 percent CP is used. There may be added color change and varying sensitivity with the use of 15 percent CP.

  15. Shades of Decay: The Meanings of Tooth Discoloration and Deterioration to Mexican Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.; Hyde, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate parental understanding of tooth discoloration and decay and their related care seeking for young, Mexican-American children. The research design entailed semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish with a convenience sample of 37 Mexican immigrant mothers of young children in a low-income urban neighborhood. Five major color terms – white, off-white, yellow, brown, and black – were used to describe tooth discoloration, the causes of which were mainly unrecognized or attributed to poor oral hygiene and exposure to sweet substances. Mothers also described three major levels of deterioration of the structural integrity of teeth due to caries, from stains to decayed portions to entirely rotten. A trend was observed between use of darker discoloration terms and extensive carious lesions. Teeth described as both dark in color and structurally damaged resulted in seeking of professional care. The paper concludes with the finding that Spanish terms used to describe tooth discoloration and carious lesions are broad and complex. Mexican immigrant mothers’ interpretations of tooth discoloration and decay may differ from dental professionals’ and result in late care seeking. Increased understanding between dental practitioners and caregivers is needed to create educational messages about the early signs of tooth decay. PMID:26279585

  16. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  17. A novel decision-making process for tooth retention or extraction.

    PubMed

    Avila, Gustavo; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Soehren, Stephen; Misch, Carl E; Morelli, Thiago; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2009-03-01

    Implant-supported restorations have become the most popular therapeutic option for professionals and patients for the treatment of total and partial edentulism. When implants are placed in an ideal position, with adequate prosthetic loading and proper maintenance, they can have success rates >90% over 15 years of function. Implants may be considered a better therapeutic alternative than performing more extensive conservative procedures in an attempt to save or maintain a compromised tooth. Inadequate indication for tooth extraction has resulted in the sacrifice of many sound savable teeth. This article presents a chart that can assist clinicians in making the right decision when they are deciding which route to take. Articles published in peer-reviewed English journals were selected using several scientific databases and subsequently reviewed. Book sources were also searched. Individual tooth- and patient-related features were thoroughly analyzed, particularly when determining if a tooth should be indicated for extraction. A color-based decision-making chart with six different levels, including several factors, was developed based upon available scientific literature. The rationale for including these factors is provided, and its interpretation is justified with literature support. The decision-making chart provided may serve as a reference guide for dentists when making the decision to save or extract a compromised tooth.

  18. Natural Tooth Pontic: An Instant Esthetic Option for Periodontally Compromised Teeth—A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Rishi; Narayan, Ipshita; Gowda, Triveni Mavinakote; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden tooth loss in the esthetic zone of the maxillary or mandibular anterior region can be due to trauma, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure. The treatment options for replacing the missing tooth can vary between removable prosthesis, tooth-supported prosthesis, and implant-supported prosthesis. Irrespective of the final treatment, the first line of management would be to provisionally restore the patient's esthetic appearance at the earliest, while functionally stabilizing the compromised arch. Using the patient's own natural tooth as a pontic offers the benefits of being the right size, shape, and color and provides exact repositioning in its original intraoral three-dimensional position. Additionally, using the patient's platelet concentrate (platelet rich fibrin) facilitates early wound healing and preservation of alveolar ridge shape following tooth extraction. The abutment teeth can also be preserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at the chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. This helps the patient better tolerate the effect of tooth loss psychologically. The article describes a successful, immediate, and viable technique for rehabilitation of three different patients requiring replacement of a single periodontally compromised tooth in an esthetic region. PMID:27994892

  19. Effect of Bleaching Gel Viscosity on Tooth Whitening Efficacy and Pulp Chamber Penetration: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Pallavi, Fnu; Shi, Y; Oyoyo, U; Mohraz, A; Li, Y

    Whitening efficacy has been related to hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffusion into tooth structure. However, little information is available relating rheological properties to whitening efficacy. The purpose was to evaluate the whitening efficacy and HP penetration level of a 10% HP gel at three different viscosities and to compare them to a strip delivery system. Extracted molars (n=120) were randomly assigned into five groups (n=24/ group): NC_MED (negative control; median): medium viscosity gel without HP; LOW: 10% HP gel (low viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent Products Inc); MED: 10% HP gel (medium viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent); HIGH: 10% HP gel (high viscosity gel, Ultradent); and CWS: Crest 3D Whitestrips 1-Hour Express (Procter & Gamble). All teeth were subjected to five 60-minute whitening sessions. Instrumental color measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), and 1-day after each application (T 1 -T 5 ), and 1-month after whitening (T 6 ). HP penetration was estimated with leucocrystal violet and horseradish peroxidase. A Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Bonferroni test were performed to assess the difference in tooth color change and HP penetration among the groups (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide penetration levels and overall color changes at T 6 were 0.24 μg/mL / 2.80; 0.48 μg/mL / 8.48; 0.44 μg/mL / 7.72; 0.35 μg/mL / 8.49; 0.36 μg/mL / 7.30 for groups NC, LOW, MED, HIGH, and CWS, respectively. There was a significant difference for HP penetration, while there was no significant difference among the four experimental groups for tooth color change. Rheological properties should be considered when developing new whitening formulations.

  20. Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer’s protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Background Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Methods Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. Conclusions When manufacturer’s instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help asneeded. PMID:24929591

  1. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  2. Microleakage in different primary tooth restorations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wen-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Microleakage may cause tooth sensitivity, secondary caries, discoloration and even failure of the restoration. In order to overcome these potential problems, materials that are able to bind to the tooth structure have been developed, such as composite resin and glass ionomer cement. The purpose of the study was to compare microleakage arising from amalgam (Am), composite resin (CR), glass ionomer (GI), Ketac-Silver (KS), and GI filling with banding (GI+B) when these materials are used for class II restoration of a primary molar. Fifty primary molars were collected and class II cavities were prepared on each tooth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups (Am, CR, GI, KS, and GI+B), each of which received a different material as part of the restoration. The restored teeth then underwent 100 cycles of thermocycling that consisted of 55°C for 30 seconds, 19°C for 20 seconds, and 5°C for 30 seconds. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution for 24 hours. Afterwards, the teeth were embedded and sectioned mesiodistally through the center of each restoration. Dye penetration associated with the occlusal and cervical margins of each restoration was then assessed. Cervical leakage was greater than occlusal leakage in the CR, GI and KS groups (p < 0.05). When leakage on occlusal margin was examined, however, the Am group showed greater leakage than the CR, GI, and GI+B groups (p < 0.05). When leakage on the cervical margin was examined, the Am group showed greater leakage than the GI and GI+B groups, while the KS group showed greater leakage than the GI+B group (p < 0.05). Restorations using GI and GI+B indicated that these materials performed better than the other materials in this study overall. However, none of the materials were entirely devoid of leakage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. The tooth, the whole tooth and nothing but the tooth: tooth shape and ontogenetic shift dynamics in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    French, G C A; Stürup, M; Rizzuto, S; van Wyk, J H; Edwards, D; Dolan, R W; Wintner, S P; Towner, A V; Hughes, W O H

    2017-10-01

    Results from this study of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias include measurements obtained using a novel photographic method that reveal significant differences between the sexes in the relationship between tooth cuspidity and shark total length, and a novel ontogenetic change in male tooth shape. Males exhibit broader upper first teeth and increased distal inclination of upper third teeth with increasing length, while females do not present a consistent morphological change. Substantial individual variation, with implications for pace of life syndrome, was present in males and tooth polymorphism was suggested in females. Sexual differences and individual variation may play major roles in ontogenetic changes in tooth morphology in C. carcharias, with potential implications for their foraging biology. Such individual and sexual differences should be included in studies of ontogenetic shift dynamics in other species and systems. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Effect of Different Ceramic Crown Preparations on Tooth Structure Loss: An In Vitro Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, Ashkan

    Objective: To quantify and compare the amount of tooth-structure reduction following the full-coverage preparations for crown materials of porcelain-fused-to-metal, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline for three tooth morphologies. Methods: Groups of resin teeth of different morphologies were individually weighed to high precision, then prepared following the preparation guidelines. The teeth were re-weighed after preparation and the amount of structural reduction was calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to find out if there was a significant difference among the groups. Results: Amount of tooth reduction for zirconia crown preparations was the lowest and statistically different compared with the other two materials. No statistical significance was found between the amount of reduction for porcelain-fused-to-metal and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, more tooth structure can be saved when utilizing zirconia full-coverage restorations compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns in maxillary central incisors, first premolars and first molars.

  5. Clinical measurement of tooth wear: Tooth wear indices

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Francisco J.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Llamas-Carreras, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification corresponds to a different process with specific clinical features. Classifications made so far have no accurate prevalence data because the indexes do not necessarily measure a specific etiology, or because the study populations can be diverse in age and characteristics. Tooth wears (attrition, erosion and abrasion) is perceived internationally as a growing problem. However, the interpretation and comparison of clinical and epidemiological studies, it is increasingly difficult because of differences in terminology and the large number of indicators/indices that have been developed for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of the loss of dental hard tissue. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical, none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. A literature review is conducted with the aim of analyzing the evolution of the indices used today and discuss whether they meet the clinical needs and research in dentistry. Key words:Tooth wear, tooth wear indices, attrition, erosion, abrasion, abfraction. PMID:24558525

  6. Evaluation of degree of blending colored diluents using color difference signal method.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We developed a color difference signal method to evaluate the degree of blending powdered medicines in pharmacies. In the method, the degree of blending is expressed as the relative standard deviation of the color difference signal value (Cb or Cr) of the YCbCr color space after digital photos of the blended medicines are analyzed by image processing. While the method is effective to determine the degree of blending colored medicines, it remains unknown whether it can be applied to uncolored or white-colored medicines. To investigate this, we examined colored diluents to identify an indicator of the degree mixtures are blended. In this study, we applied this method to Pontal® and Prednisolone® powders, which were used as uncolored and white-colored medicines, respectively. Each of these medicines was blended with the colored lactose using a pestle and mortar, and then the uniformity of blending was evaluated. The degree of blending was well-monitored in both mixtures with various blending ratios (1 : 9-9 : 1), showing a sufficient uniformity at 60 rotations of the pestle. Moreover, the Cr values of the mixtures with various blending ratios were correlated with the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients in these medicines, which was determined using HPLC. This indicated the usefulness of the color difference signal method for the quantitative determination of medicines. Thus, we demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of this method to check dispensing powders.

  7. Influence of Color Education and Training on Shade Matching Skills.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Ivan; Stankovic, Sasa; Paravina, Rade D

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of education and training on quality of tooth color matching. Dental students (N = 174), matched the color of eight shade tabs in a viewing booth, using VITA Linearguide 3D-Master shade guide. The experimental group had color education and training between the before and after session. The control group did not have any additional information in between two sessions. Color differences between the task tabs and selected tabs were calculated using CIE formulas. The score for the best match (smallest color difference) was 10 points, the 2nd best match 9 points, down to 1 point for the 10th best match. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Differences were analyzed using the Student t-test. Shade matching scores in the experimental group were significantly better after education and training (p < 0.001), with a mean score before and after shade matching sessions of 7.06 (1.19) and 8.43 (0.92), respectively. The percentage of students in the experimental group that selected one of three best matches increased 24.3%. The control group exhibited no significant improvement in the after session. Within the limitations of the study, education and training improved students' shade matching skills. While the vast majority of dental restorations and practically all restorations in the esthetic zone are tooth colored, the profession as a whole is far from perfect when it comes to accurate shade matching. Education and training can improve shade matching ability: enhanced esthetics of dental restorations, increased patient satisfaction, and a reduced number of color corrections are some of the notable benefits and rewards. (J Esthet Restor Dent 00:000-000, 2016) J Esthet Restor Dent 28:287-294, 2016). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Difference between highlight and object colors enhances glossiness.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-06-01

    The effect of highlight and object colors on perception of glossiness was examined. Ten participants rated glossiness of object images. The color coordinates of objects and highlights were varied while luminance of each pixel was unchanged. Four colors were used for objects and highlights. Objects were perceived as glossier when the highlight color was different from the object color than when they were the same. Objects with some unnatural combinations of highlight and object colors were perceived to be as glossy as those with natural color combinations. The results suggested that differences between highlight and object colors enhance perceived glossiness and that perceived glossiness does not depend on naturalness of color combination for highlights and objects.

  9. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  10. Incorporation of metal and color alteration of enamel in the presence of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lúcio Henrique E Gurgel; Filho, Hibernon Lopes de Lima; Araújo, Marcus Vinícius Almeida; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza

    2012-09-01

    To test the null hypothesis that it is not possible to incorporate metal ions arising from orthodontic appliance corrosion into tooth enamel with resulting tooth color change. This in vitro study used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to evaluate the presence of nickel, chromium, and iron ions in tooth enamel in three groups: a group submitted to cyclic demineralization and remineralization processes with solutions in which orthodontic appliances were previously immersed and corroded, releasing metallic ions; a control group; and another group, submitted to cycling only, without the presence of orthodontic appliances. The influence of the incorporation of these metals on a possible alteration in color was measured with a portable digital spectrophotometer using the CIE LAB system. At the end of the experiment, a significantly higher concentration of chromium and nickel (P < .05) was found in the group in which corrosion was present, and in this group, there was significantly greater color alteration (P ≤ .001). There was chromium and nickel incorporation into enamel and tooth color change when corrosion of orthodontic appliances was associated with cycling process. The null hypothesis is rejected.

  11. The effect of different standard illumination conditions on color balance failure in offset printed images on glossy coated paper expressed by color difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.; Nikolov, M.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest problems in color reproduction processes is color shifts occurring when images are viewed under different illuminants. Process ink colors and their combinations that match under one light source will often appear different under another light source. This problem is referred to as color balance failure or color inconstancy. The main goals of the present study are to investigate and determine the color balance failure (color inconstancy) of offset printed images expressed by color difference and color gamut changes depending on three of the most commonly used in practice illuminants, CIE D50, CIE F2 and CIE A. The results obtained are important from a scientific and a practical point of view. For the first time, a methodology is suggested and implemented for the examination and estimation of color shifts by studying a large number of color and gamut changes in various ink combinations for different illuminants.

  12. Teaching of color in predoctoral and postdoctoral dental education in 2009.

    PubMed

    Paravina, Rade D; O'Neill, Paula N; Swift, Edward J; Nathanson, Dan; Goodacre, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the current status of the teaching of color in dental education at both the predoctoral (Pre-D) and postdoctoral (Post-D) levels. A cross-sectional web-based survey, containing 27 multiple choice, multiple best and single best answers was created. Upon receiving the administrative approval, dental faculty involved in the teaching of color to Pre-D or Post-D dental students from around the world (N=205), were administered a survey. Statistical analysis of differences between Pre-D and Post-D was performed using Chi-square test (α=0.05). A total of 130 responses were received (response rate 63.4%); there were 70 responses from North America, 40 from Europe, 10 from South America, nine from Asia and one from Africa. A course on "color" or "color in dentistry" was included in the dental curriculum of 80% of Pre-D programs and 82% of Post-D programs. The number of hours dedicated to color-related topics was 4.0±2.4 for Pre-D and 5.5±2.9 for Post-D, respectively (p<0.01). Topics associated with tooth color, shade matching method, tooth whitening, and teaching of appearance parameters other than color, were frequently taught. Significant differences were recorded between the number of hours dedicated to teaching of color at predoctoral and postdoctoral level. The same is true for the prosthodontics and restorative courses, teaching on negative after images; color rendering index, Bleachedguide 3D-Master shade guide, digital camera and lens selection, composite resins, and maxillofacial prosthetic materials. Except for the restorative courses and composite resins, significantly higher results were recorded for Post-D programs. Vitapan Classical and 3D-Master were the most frequently taught shade guides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual Determination of Industrial Color-Difference Tolerances Using Probit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    determine the median tolerance values of 45 color-difference vectors in CIELAB color space using surface mode viewing of paint samples. Nine different...8 4. Distribution Design for Color Centers in CIELAB Color Space ............................. 13 5. CIE Recommended Color Centers...compared to a near neutral anchor color- difference stimulus. The experiment concentrated on nine color centers systematically distributed in CIELAB color

  14. In vitro comparison of an Er:YAG laser-activated bleaching system with different light-activated bleaching systems for color change, surface roughness, and enamel bond strength.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Esra; Ruya Yazici, A; Kalender, Bercem; Usumez, Aslihan; Ertan, Atilla; Gorucu, Jale; Sari, Tugrul

    2018-06-02

    To compare an Er:YAG laser-activated bleaching system with different light-activated in-office bleaching systems for color change, surface roughness, and post-bleaching enamel bond strength. 51 enamel slabs were prepared from the sound buccal enamel of extracted bovine teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to different light-activated office bleaching systems (n = 17): diode laser (Epic, Biolase) (940 nm, 7 W, continuous mode), Er:YAG laser (LightWalker, Fotona) (2940 nm, 50 mJ, 10 Hz, 1000 μs), and LED (Radii Plus) (440-480 nm, 1500 mW/cm 2 ). All systems were used with their compatible bleaching agents according to manufacturers' recommendations. The tooth color and surface roughness (Ra) were assessed at baseline and after bleaching using a spectrophotometer and a surface profilometer, respectively. The color change was determined by the CIE L*a*b* system (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*). Kruskal-Wallis test was used for color change whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze the roughness data. For shear bond strength test (SBS), composite cylinders were bonded on bleached enamel samples 14 days after bleaching procedures and stored in water (37 °C). Specimens were then debonded with a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min and data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. All the tested bleaching systems were effective on color change (ΔE > 3.3) and produced similar color change (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the Ra values of the groups neither at baseline nor after bleaching (p > 0.05). However, comparing the baseline and after bleaching Ra values, a significant increase was observed for all tested groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also found among all systems for SBS (p < 0.05). The highest values were obtained in Er:YAG group, whereas the LED group revealed the lowest values (p < 0.05). All tested bleaching systems were effective on

  15. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    PubMed Central

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Materials and methods Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Results Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). Conclusions VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources. PMID:28275281

  16. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources.

  17. Color and behavior differently predict competitive outcomes for divergent stickleback color morphs

    PubMed Central

    Lehto, Whitley R; Lierheimer, V Faith

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Our knowledge of how male competition contributes to speciation is dominated by investigations of competition between within-species morphs or closely related species that differ in conspicuous traits expressed during the breeding season (e.g. color, song). In such studies, it is important to consider the manner in which putatively sexually selected traits influence the outcome of competitive interactions within and between types because these traits can communicate information about competitor quality and may not be utilized by homotypic and heterotypic receivers in the same way. We studied the roles of breeding color and aggressive behaviors in competition within and between two divergent threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus color types. Our previous work in this system showed that the switch from red to black breeding coloration is associated with changes in male competition biases. Here, we find that red and black males also use different currencies in competition. Winners of both color types performed more aggressive behaviors than losers, regardless of whether the competitor was of the same or opposite color type. But breeding color differently predicted competitive outcomes for red and black males. Males who were redder at the start of competition were more likely to win when paired with homotypic competitors and less likely to win when paired with heterotypic competitors. In contrast, black color, though expressed in the breeding season and condition dependent, was unrelated to competitive outcomes. Placing questions about the role of male competition in speciation in a sexual signal evolution framework may provide insight into the “why and how” of aggression biases and asymmetries in competitive ability between closely related morphs and species. PMID:29492044

  18. Effect of artificial toothbrushing and water storage on the surface roughness and micromechanical properties of tooth-colored CAD-CAM materials.

    PubMed

    Flury, Simon; Diebold, Elisabeth; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    Because of the different composition of resin-ceramic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials, their polishability and their micromechanical properties vary. Moreover, depending on the composition of the materials, their surface roughness and micromechanical properties are likely to change with time. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of artificial toothbrushing and water storage on the surface roughness (Ra and Rz) and the micromechanical properties, surface hardness (Vickers [VHN]) and indentation modulus (E IT ), of 5 different tooth-colored CAD-CAM materials when polished with 2 different polishing systems. Specimens (n=40 per material) were cut from a composite resin (Paradigm MZ100; 3M ESPE), a feldspathic ceramic (Vitablocs Mark II; Vita Zahnfabrik), a resin nanoceramic (Lava Ultimate; 3M ESPE), a hybrid dental ceramic (Vita Enamic; Vita Zahnfabrik), and a nanocomposite resin (Ambarino High-Class; Creamed). All specimens were roughened in a standardized manner and polished either with Sof-Lex XT discs or the Vita Polishing Set Clinical. Surface roughness, VHN, and E IT were measured after polishing and after storage for 6 months (tap water, 37°C) with periodic, artificial toothbrushing. The surface roughness, VHN, and E IT results were analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis and exact Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α=.05). Irrespective of polishing system and of artificial toothbrushing and storage, Lava Ultimate generally showed the lowest surface roughness and Vitablocs Mark II the highest. As regards micromechanical properties, the following ranking of the CAD-CAM materials was found (from highest VHN/E IT to lowest VHN/E IT ): Vitablocs Mark II > Vita Enamic > Paradigm MZ100 > Lava Ultimate > Ambarino High-Class. Irrespective of material and of artificial toothbrushing and storage, polishing with Sof-Lex XT discs resulted in lower surface roughness than the Vita Polishing

  19. Impact of background on color, transmittance, and fluorescence of leucite based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Kauling, Ana Elisa Colle; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Volpato, Claudia Angelo Mazieiro; Liebermann, Anja

    2017-07-26

    This study evaluated the impact of tooth shade on differences in color (∆E), lightness (∆L), chromaticity coordinates a*/b* (∆a and ∆b), transmittance and the degree of fluorescence of CAD/CAM leucite based ceramic (LBC). Ten disks were fabricated of LBC; Empress CAD, A2, thickness of 1.5 mm and eight disks of resin-nano-ceramic (RNC; Lava Ultimate) in different colors to simulate variations in substrate shade. The associations of LBC disks with different color substrates were analyzed with a spectrophotometer; ∆E, ∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b*, and transmittance were measured and calculated. Fluorescence was evaluated with a fluorescence system (Fluorescence System, Biopdi). All substrate shades influenced the optical properties of LBC, with regard to color, luminosity, coordinate a* and b*, transmittance, and fluorescence (p<0.001). Substrate colors with high saturation (A3.5 and C2) presented highest impact, whereas colors with lowest saturations (BL, B1) showed less impact. Substrate color influenced the optical properties of ceramic restorations.

  20. Methods of scaling threshold color difference using printed samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Liu, Haoxue; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    A series of printed samples on substrate of semi-gloss paper and with the magnitude of threshold color difference were prepared for scaling the visual color difference and to evaluate the performance of different method. The probabilities of perceptibly was used to normalized to Z-score and different color differences were scaled to the Z-score. The visual color difference was got, and checked with the STRESS factor. The results indicated that only the scales have been changed but the relative scales between pairs in the data are preserved.

  1. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.

  2. Medical color displays and their color calibration: investigations of various calibration methods, tools, and potential improvement in color difference ΔE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Hashmi, Syed F.; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Rehm, Kelly; Fan, Jiahua

    2010-08-01

    Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ΔE = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target. As an extension of this fundamental work1, we further improved our calibration method by defining concrete calibration parameters for the display, using the NEC wide gamut puck, and making sure

  3. Comparison of Parental Satisfaction with Three Tooth-Colored Full-Coronal Restorations in Primary Maxillary Incisors.

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Walia, T; Bashiri, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the parental satisfaction among resin composite strip crown, preveneered stainless steel crown (PVSSC) and the newly introduced pre-fabricated primary zirconia crown for restoring maxillary primary incisors. A prospective clinical study on 39 children with carious or traumatized primary maxillary incisors. They were randomly and equally distributed in three groups and received one of the full-coronal restorations. Children were recalled to evaluate and compare parental satisfaction about performance of crowns after one year through a questionnaire. Parents were satisfied with all three tooth colored full-coronal restoration techniques. A significant relationship was found between colour of PVSSC (p=0.003) and durability of resin strip crowns (p=0.009) with the overall parental satisfaction levels. Parents who gave poor ratings in these two variables however rated their overall acceptance levels as being satisfied. Parental overall satisfaction was highest for zirconia primary crowns followed by resin composite strip crowns and lowest satisfaction was reported for pre-veneered SSCs. Parents were least satisfied with durability of resin composite strip crowns and colour of pre-veneered stainless steel crowns. However, this did not affect their overall satisfaction with these crowns.

  4. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  5. Effects of different preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dustin; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effects of some clinically related preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding properties. Sixty-two extracted human teeth were cleaned and divided into four groups. Forty-two of the teeth were left with their natural surface intact while 20 teeth were polished to form a flat surface. Half of the tooth served as the experimental side and received one of the two whitening products: Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and Crest Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide), for 2 weeks. Post-bleaching intervals included: 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks. On these days, tooth (10 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) sections were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength tests. T-test, ANOVA test, and mixed model regression analysis were used to assess the differences. No significant difference existed between natural surface and polished surface teeth for all groups at both Day One and Week Two (P > 0.05). On Day One, both treated groups had significant lower bond strength than the control group (P = 0.002). After 2 weeks, no significant difference existed between any group (P = 0.381). SEM indicated that resin-enamel interfaces in bleached enamel exhibited more defects in granular formations when compared to the control. Raman results indicated a lower degree of polymerization (DP) of adhesive at the interface for treated teeth surfaces. In summary, pre-bleaching surface treatments such as polish or non-polish, had no effect on bond strength. Bleaching significantly decreased bond strength initially, but after 2 weeks, bleaching had no significant effect on bond strength. Storage time had significant effect on Opalescence treated enamel, but not on control and Whitestrip treated enamel. The decrease of bond strength may be related to interfacial defects and low DP due to oxygen release after bleaching.

  6. The degree of color change, rebound effect and sensitivity of bleached teeth associated with at-home and power bleaching techniques: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fatemeh Velayati; Majidinia, Sara; Chasteen, Joseph; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the color change, rebound effect and sensitivity of at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide and power bleaching using 38% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: For bleaching techniques, 20 subjects were randomized in a split mouth design (at-home and power bleaching): In maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth (n = 20). Color was recorded before bleaching, immediately after bleaching, at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 month intervals. Tooth sensitivity was recorded using the visual analog scale. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare both groups regarding bleaching effectiveness (ΔE1), rebound effect (ΔE2) and color difference between the rebounded tooth color and unbleached teeth (ΔE3) while the Wilcoxon compared ΔE within each group. Distribution of sensitivity was evaluated using the Chi-square test (α =0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between groups regarding ΔE1 and ΔE3 (P > 0.05). Even though, ΔE2 showed no significant difference between groups after bleaching as well as at 2 week, 1 month and 3 month follow-up periods (P > 0.05). Although, significant difference was found in ΔE2 (P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney) between two methods after 6 months and a high degree of rebound effect was obtained with power bleaching. Within each group, there was no significant difference between ΔE1 and ΔE3 (P < 0.05 Wilcoxon). The distribution of sensitivity was identical with both techniques (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Bleaching techniques resulted in identical tooth whitening and post-operative sensitivity using both techniques, but faster color regression was found with power bleaching even though color regression to the baseline of the teeth in both groups was the same after 6 months. PMID:24932113

  7. Associations between smoking and tooth loss according to reason for tooth loss

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Xiaodan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Chen, Chaoru; Tezal, Mine; Genco, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with tooth loss. However, smoking's relationship to the specific reason for tooth loss in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,106) who joined a Women's Health Initiative ancillary study (The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study) underwent oral examinations for assessment of the number of missing teeth, as well as the self-reported reasons for tooth loss. The authors obtained information about smoking status via a self-administered questionnaire. The authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression to assess smoking's association with overall tooth loss, as well as with tooth loss due to periodontal disease (PD) and with tooth loss due to caries. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes diagnosis, calcium supplement use and dental visit frequency, the authors found that heavy smokers (≥ 26 pack-years) were significantly more likely to report having experienced tooth loss compared with never smokers (OR = 1.82; 95 percent CI, 1.10-3.00). Smoking status, packs smoked per day, years of smoking, pack-years and years since quitting smoking were significantly associated with tooth loss due to PD. For pack-years, the association for heavy smokers compared with that for never smokers was OR = 6.83 (95 percent CI, 3.40-13.72). The study results showed no significant associations between smoking and tooth loss due to caries. Conclusions and Practical Implications Smoking may be a major factor in tooth loss due to PD. However, smoking appears to be a less important factor in tooth loss due to caries. Further study is needed to explore the etiologies by which smoking is associated with different types of tooth loss. Dentists should counsel their patients about the impact of smoking on oral health, including the risk of tooth loss due to PD. PMID:23449901

  8. Abutment Material Effect on Peri-implant Soft Tissue Color and Perceived Esthetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aram; Campbell, Stephen D; Viana, Marlos A G; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant abutment material on peri-implant soft tissue color using intraoral spectrophotometric analysis and to compare the clinical outcomes with patient and clinician perception and satisfaction. Thirty patients and four prosthodontic faculty members participated. Abutments were zirconia, gold-hued titanium, and titanium. Peri-implant mucosa color of a single anterior implant restoration was compared to the patient's control tooth. Spectrophotometric analysis using SpectroShade TM Micro data determined the color difference (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*) between the midfacial peri-implant soft tissue for each abutment material and the marginal gingiva of the control tooth. Color difference values of the abutment groups were compared using ANOVA (α = 0.05). Patient and clinician satisfaction surveys were also conducted using a color-correcting light source. The results of each patient and clinician survey question were compared using chi-square analysis (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation analyses identified the relationship between the total color difference (ΔE) and the patient/clinician perception and satisfaction, as well as between ΔE and tissue thickness. Zirconia abutments displayed significantly smaller spectrophotometric gingival color difference (ΔE) compared to titanium and gold-hued titanium abutments (respectively, 3.98 ± 0.99; 7.22 ± 3.31; 5.65 ± 2.11; p < 0.05). Among ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*, only Δa* (red-green spectrum) showed significant difference between groups. There was no significant correlation between measured soft tissue thickness and ΔE, but thick gingival phenotype, determined by a probe test, demonstrated a smaller ΔE than thin phenotype (4.82 ± 1.49; 6.41 ± 3.27; p = 0.097). There was no statistical difference in patient or clinician satisfaction among abutment materials, and no correlation between ΔE and the patient and clinician satisfaction. Patient satisfaction was

  9. Causes of Different Vivid Colors in Chalcedonies: Kutahya-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Kagan Kadıoglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Chalcedony is a silicate mineral which is a mixture of fibrous quartz (trigonal) and granular moganite (monoclinic) minerals. They are both SiO2 in composition but differs in crystal system. Chalcedony is widely used as semi-precious gemstone in many countries. It has many different kinds due to their various colors and structures. The colour changes in mineral depends on different causes. Most important causes are transition metal impurities in minerals chemical composition and charge transfer between ions. Different chalcedony types have different colors due to their elemental composition. Chalcedony can be show almost every colour strating from white, black, gray, red, blue, green to brown or a combinations of more than one color in case of agates and jasper formations. Although they have same major oxide compositions,chrysopras (green chalcedony) have Ni which gives the green color and carnelian (orange chalcedony) have Fe+3 which gives the orange color. Kutahya, Eskisehir, Ankara, Manisa, Balıkesir, Canakkale and Yozgat represent the most cities which chalcedony can be mostly observed in Turkey. In Kutahya, chalcedony occurs in cavity or vein fillings in pyroclastic rocks such as tuff and formed by precipitation of silica bearing fluids in low temperatures. They can be also formed within the hydrothermal alteration zone of ultramafic rocks. Although chalcedonies in Kutahya form under almost same condition, they have various colors within the same unit. To specify the cause of the different colors, chemical analysis and Confocal Raman studies performed on Kutahya chalcedonies. Firstly, samples are crushed to 2 mm. size. After that, different colors of chalcedonies are separated by hand picking under binocular microscope and grouped into different color sets such as white, blue, dark yellow, light orange, dark orange and claret red. Each color set is measured by PED-XRF method to obtain chemical compositions. Also Raman studies performed to identify the effect

  10. Can dead man tooth do tell tales? Tooth prints in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Vineetha; Murthy, Sarvani; Ashwinirani, S R; Prasad, Kulkarni; Girish, Suragimath; Vinit, Shashikanth Patil

    2017-01-01

    We know that teeth trouble us a lot when we are alive, but they last longer for thousands of years even after we are dead. Teeth being the strongest and resistant structure are the most significant tool in forensic investigations. Patterns of enamel rod end on the tooth surface are known as tooth prints. This study is aimed to know whether these tooth prints can become a forensic tool in personal identification such as finger prints. A study has been targeted toward the same. In the present in-vivo study, acetate peel technique has been used to obtain the replica of enamel rod end patterns. Tooth prints of upper first premolars were recorded from 80 individuals after acid etching using cellulose acetate strips. Then, digital images of the tooth prints obtained at two different intervals were subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard software development kit version 6.5 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. Similarly, each individual's finger prints were also recorded and were subjected to the same software. Further, recordings of AFIS scores obtained from images were statistically analyzed using Cronbach's test. We observed that comparing two tooth prints taken from an individual at two intervals exhibited similarity in many cases, with wavy pattern tooth print being the predominant type. However, the same prints showed dissimilarity when compared with other individuals. We also found that most of the individuals with whorl pattern finger print showed wavy pattern tooth print and few loop type fingerprints showed linear pattern of tooth prints. Further more experiments on both tooth prints and finger prints are required in establishing an individual's identity.

  11. Can dead man tooth do tell tales? Tooth prints in forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Vineetha; Murthy, Sarvani; Ashwinirani, S. R.; Prasad, Kulkarni; Girish, Suragimath; Vinit, Shashikanth Patil

    2017-01-01

    Background: We know that teeth trouble us a lot when we are alive, but they last longer for thousands of years even after we are dead. Teeth being the strongest and resistant structure are the most significant tool in forensic investigations. Patterns of enamel rod end on the tooth surface are known as tooth prints. Aim: This study is aimed to know whether these tooth prints can become a forensic tool in personal identification such as finger prints. A study has been targeted toward the same. Settings and Design: In the present in-vivo study, acetate peel technique has been used to obtain the replica of enamel rod end patterns. Materials and Methods: Tooth prints of upper first premolars were recorded from 80 individuals after acid etching using cellulose acetate strips. Then, digital images of the tooth prints obtained at two different intervals were subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard software development kit version 6.5 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. Similarly, each individual's finger prints were also recorded and were subjected to the same software. Statistical Analysis: Further, recordings of AFIS scores obtained from images were statistically analyzed using Cronbach's test. Results: We observed that comparing two tooth prints taken from an individual at two intervals exhibited similarity in many cases, with wavy pattern tooth print being the predominant type. However, the same prints showed dissimilarity when compared with other individuals. We also found that most of the individuals with whorl pattern finger print showed wavy pattern tooth print and few loop type fingerprints showed linear pattern of tooth prints. Conclusions: Further more experiments on both tooth prints and finger prints are required in establishing an individual's identity. PMID:28584483

  12. Color Analysis of Periimplant Soft Tissues Focusing on Implant System: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena M; Moltrasio, Giuseppe; Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Lodi, Giovanni; Scaringi, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    To assess the impact of implant system on color harmonization of periimplant mucosa. In this case series, color of periimplant mucosa was compared with color of natural tooth gingiva. Seventeen intercanine implants were analyzed (11 bone level [BL], 6 tissue level [TL] implants). Colorimetric data, at 2, 4, and 6 mm from gingival margin, were collected through fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy, and color differences calculated as ΔE. Dentists, dental students, and lay people, in blind, performed an additional visual color analysis on clinical images. Independently from implant system, the color of periimplant mucosa was significantly different from gingiva (ΔE = 8.2 ± 0.7), resulting darker at L* comparison (P ≤ 0.05). TL periimplant mucosa showed higher ΔE than BL (9.0 ± 1.0 vs 6.6 ± 0.8, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Observers correctly identified where the implant was placed in about half of the cases, with no significant difference between implant systems. Within the limitations of this study, the color of periimplant soft tissues appears different from gingiva, at spectroscopic analysis. Color discrepancy results higher in the presence of TL implants than in BL implants, although the difference may not be clinically significant.

  13. Quality assessment of color images based on the measure of just noticeable color difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Hsu, Yun-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment on the quality of color images is an important step to many image processing systems that convey visual information of the reproduced images. An accurate objective image quality assessment (IQA) method is expected to give the assessment result highly agreeing with the subjective assessment. To assess the quality of color images, many approaches simply apply the metric for assessing the quality of gray scale images to each of three color channels of the color image, neglecting the correlation among three color channels. In this paper, a metric for assessing color images' quality is proposed, in which the model of variable just-noticeable color difference (VJNCD) is employed to estimate the visibility thresholds of distortion inherent in each color pixel. With the estimated visibility thresholds of distortion, the proposed metric measures the average perceptible distortion in terms of the quantized distortion according to the perceptual error map similar to that defined by National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for converting the color difference enumerated by CIEDE2000 to the objective score of perceptual quality assessment. The perceptual error map in this case is designed for each pixel according to the visibility threshold estimated by the VJNCD model. The performance of the proposed metric is verified by assessing the test images in the LIVE database, and is compared with those of many well-know IQA metrics. Experimental results indicate that the proposed metric is an effective IQA method that can accurately predict the image quality of color images in terms of the correlation between objective scores and subjective evaluation.

  14. Evaluating the ability of dental technician students and graduate dentists to match tooth color.

    PubMed

    Sinmazisik, Gulden; Trakyali, Goksu; Tarcin, Bilge

    2014-12-01

    The ability of dental technician students to match tooth shade with the Vita 3D-Master shade guide and Toothguide Training Box has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shade-matching ability of dental technician students and graduate dentists using the Vita 3D-Master shade guide. Twenty-nine dental technician students (DTS group) and 30 graduate dentists (GD group) participated in this study. The Toothguide Training Box (TTB) was used to train the participants and test their shade-matching abilities. Shade-matching ability was evaluated with 3 exercises and a final test, all of which are components of the TTB. The number of mistakes for each participant for value (L), chroma (c), and hue (h) were recorded during the exercises and the final test, and the mistake ratios were calculated. Color difference (ΔE) values for each shade were calculated from the L*, a*, and b* values of the Vita 3D-Master shade guide for each participant in both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine statistically significant differences between the L, c, and h mistake ratios of the 2 groups, and the Student t test was used to determine statistically significant differences between the final test scores and the ΔE values of the groups (α=.05). The mistake ratio for L in the GD group was significantly higher than that of the DTS group (P<.05), whereas the mistake ratio for h in the DTS group was higher (P<.001). No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mistake ratios for c (P>.05). With regard to the final test scores and the ΔE values, no significant differences were found between the groups (P<.001), and the DTS group received higher scores than the GD group (912 and 851). The mean ΔE values for the DTS and GD groups were 1.72 and 2.92. DTSs made more mistakes in the h parameter than GDs, and GDs made more mistakes in the L parameter than DTSs. With regard to the final test scores and the

  15. Bioengineered Tooth Buds Exhibit Features of Natural Tooth Buds.

    PubMed

    Smith, E E; Angstadt, S; Monteiro, N; Zhang, W; Khademhosseini, A; Yelick, P C

    2018-06-01

    Tooth loss is a significant health issue currently affecting millions of people worldwide. Artificial dental implants, the current gold standard tooth replacement therapy, do not exhibit many properties of natural teeth and can be associated with complications leading to implant failure. Here we propose bioengineered tooth buds as a superior alternative tooth replacement therapy. We describe improved methods to create highly cellularized bioengineered tooth bud constructs that formed hallmark features that resemble natural tooth buds such as the dental epithelial stem cell niche, enamel knot signaling centers, transient amplifying cells, and mineralized dental tissue formation. These constructs were composed of postnatal dental cells encapsulated within a hydrogel material that were implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised rats. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of postnatal dental cells to create bioengineered tooth buds that exhibit evidence of these features of natural tooth development. We propose future bioengineered tooth buds as a promising, clinically relevant tooth replacement therapy.

  16. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The "L" vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for "L" parameter. The redness value "a" is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = -0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = -0.268). The "b" showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients.

  17. Color Differences in the Afro-American Community and the Differences They Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard; Smith, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the effect of skin color differences in African-American society and their influence on social and political attitudes. Finds color stratification persists but makes little difference in social and political attitudes, except that darker-skinned Blacks were found to be consistently less civil libertarian. (DM)

  18. Tooth loss, systemic inflammation, and prevalent stroke among participants in the reasons for geographic and racial difference in stroke (REGARDS) study.

    PubMed

    You, Zhiying; Cushman, Mary; Jenny, Nancy S; Howard, George

    2009-04-01

    Periodontal disease results in tooth loss, may contribute to systemic inflammation, and is associated with stroke. We examined cross-sectional associations between tooth loss, inflammation markers, stroke, race, and geographic region among participants in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study of whites and blacks > or =45 years. We studied 24,393 participants. Associations of tooth loss and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and albumin) were examined by linear regression, and associations of tooth loss with geographic region, race, and prevalent stroke by logistic regression. Compared to whites, blacks had an odds ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.37-1.60) of having more teeth lost. There were no geographic differences in tooth loss. Compared to no tooth loss, those with 17-32 teeth lost had 1.17mg/L higher CRP (p<0.0001) and 0.18x10(9)/L higher WBC (p=0.008), did not differ in albumin, and had an odds ratio of prevalent stroke of 1.28 (1.09-1.49). Those with 1-16 teeth lost did not differ in CRP and WBC, had 0.03g/dL higher albumin (p=0.004), and had no increased stroke prevalence. CRP or WBC did not attenuate associations between tooth loss and stroke. Tooth loss, which varied with race, but not region of residence, was associated with inflammation markers and stroke. The latter association was not confounded by inflammation markers.

  19. [Preliminary evaluation on self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system].

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Lu, C; Li, X L; Zhu, X M; Zhang, S; Tan, J G

    2016-09-01

    To apply the self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system in the fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal-crown(PFMC), and to evaluate its accuracy in color-matching. Twenty upper central incisors were recruited according to preset criteria, and three PFMC were made for each tooth using three shade-matching techniques. Group A: PFMC were made according to the result of visual color selection; Group B: an spectrophotometer-based color-matching technique was used; Group C: PFMC were fabricated with dentin porcelain powder calculated by the prediction system according to the L(*), a(*), b(*) value measured by a spectrophotometer. Color differences(ΔE) (measured by spectrophotometer) of three groups of crowns were calculated in the cervical, middle, and incisal regions. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Mean color differences in body regions were: Group A: 3.53±1.80, Group B: 2.86±1.63, Group C: 3.77±1.40(P>0.05), and those in incisal regions were: Group A: 2.70 ± 1.13, Group B: 2.80 ± 0.90, Group C: 3.04 ± 1.03(P>0.05). In cervical region, Group C had greater color difference than Group B(2.78±1.14)(P<0.05). Group A(3.80±2.02) and Group B, Group A and Group C had similar color difference(P>0.05). PFMC fabricated using self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system had similar color matching compared with conventional and instrument-based methods.

  20. Structural Color Tuning: Mixing Melanin-Like Particles with Different Diameters to Create Neutral Colors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Yoshioka, Shinya; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2017-04-18

    We present the ability to tune structural colors by mixing colloidal particles. To produce high-visibility structural colors, melanin-like core-shell particles composed of a polystyrene (PSt) core and a polydopamine (PDA) shell, were used as components. The results indicated that neutral structural colors could be successfully obtained by simply mixing two differently sized melanin-like PSt@PDA core-shell particles. In addition, the arrangements of the particles, which were important factors when forming structural colors, were investigated by mathematical processing using a 2D Fourier transform technique and Voronoi diagrams. These findings provide new insights for the development of structural color-based ink applications.

  1. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = −0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = −0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

  2. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  3. An ecological framework for temporal and individual differences in color preferences.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    There are well-known and extensive differences in color preferences between individuals, but there are also within-individual differences from one time to another. Despite the seeming independence between these individual and temporal effects, we propose that they have the same underlying cause: people's ecological experiences with color-associated objects and events. Our approach is motivated by the Ecological Valence Theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, 2010) which states that preference for a given color is determined by the combined valence (liking/disliking) of all objects and events associated with that color. We define three ecologically-based hypotheses for explaining temporal and individual differences in color preferences concerning: (1) differences in object valences, (2) differences in color-object associations, and (3) differences in object activations in the mind when preferences are measured. We review prior studies that support these hypotheses and raise open research questions about untested predictions. We also extend the computational framework of the EVT by defining a single weighted average equation that captures both individual and temporal differences in color preferences. Finally, we consider other factors that potentially contribute to color preferences, including abstract symbolic associations, color in design, and psychophysical and/or physiological factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in the intensity of light-induced fluorescence emitted by resin composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Ra; Kang, Si-Mook; Kim, Gyung-Min; Kim, Baek-Il

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the intensities of fluorescence emitted by different resin composites as detected using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology, and to compare the fluorescence intensity contrast with the color contrast between a restored composite and the adjacent region of the tooth. Six brands of light-cured resin composites (shade A2) were investigated. The composites were used to prepare composite discs, and fill holes that had been prepared in extracted human teeth. White-light and fluorescence images of all specimens were obtained using a fluorescence camera based on QLF technology (QLF-D) and converted into 8-bit grayscale images. The fluorescence intensity of the discs as well as the fluorescence intensity contrast and the color contrast between the composite restoration and adjacent tooth region were calculated as grayscale levels. The grayscale levels for the composite discs differed significantly with the brand (p<0.001): DenFil (10.84±0.35, mean±SD), Filtek Z350 (58.28±1.37), Premisa (156.94±1.58), Grandio (177.20±0.81), Charisma (207.05±0.77), and Gradia direct posterior (211.52±1.66). The difference in grayscale levels between a resin restoration and the adjacent tooth was significantly greater in fluorescence images for each brand than in white-light images, except for the Filtek Z350 (p<0.05). However, the Filtek Z350 restoration was distinguishable from the adjacent tooth in a fluorescence image. The intensities of fluorescence detected from the resin composites varied. The differences between the composite and adjacent tooth were greater for the fluorescence intensity contrast than for the colors observed in the white-light images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of color mapping algorithms in different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Timothée.-Florian; Boitard, Ronan; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    The color gamut supported by current commercial displays is only a subset of the full spectrum of colors visible by the human eye. In High-Definition (HD) television technology, the scope of the supported colors covers 35.9% of the full visible gamut. For comparison, Ultra High-Definition (UHD) television, which is currently being deployed on the market, extends this range to 75.8%. However, when reproducing content with a wider color gamut than that of a television, typically UHD content on HD television, some original color information may lie outside the reproduction capabilities of the television. Efficient gamut mapping techniques are required in order to fit the colors of any source content into the gamut of a given display. The goal of gamut mapping is to minimize the distortion, in terms of perceptual quality, when converting video from one color gamut to another. It is assumed that the efficiency of gamut mapping depends on the color space in which it is computed. In this article, we evaluate 14 gamut mapping techniques, 12 combinations of two projection methods across six color spaces as well as R'G'B' Clipping and wrong gamut interpretation. Objective results, using the CIEDE2000 metric, show that the R'G'B' Clipping is slightly outperformed by only one combination of color space and projection method. However, analysis of images shows that R'G'B' Clipping can result in loss of contrast in highly saturated images, greatly impairing the quality of the mapped image.

  6. Color Differences Between Pink Veneering Ceramics and the Human Gingiva.

    PubMed

    Valente, Nicola Alberto; Sailer, Irena; Fehmer, Vincent; Thoma, Daniel Stefan

    2018-06-12

    The aim of this study was to examine 10 different shades of pink ceramic to determine which one best matches the mean color of human gingiva. Bar-shaped zirconia samples were fabricated and veneered with 1 of 10 pink zirconia veneering ceramics. The color of the gingiva at the central maxillary incisors of 20 healthy volunteers was compared to the pink veneering ceramics using a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade, MHT). The obtained color parameters L*, a*, and b* (CIELAB) of the gingiva and the ceramics were used to calculate the color difference (ΔE). Mean ΔE values were descriptively analyzed and compared to the threshold value for visibility of color differences of gingiva (ΔE = 3.1). The lowest pink ceramic ΔE value obtained (closest to the mean ΔE of all the volunteers' gingiva) was 6.2. All the tested ceramics exhibited a color difference above the threshold value for visibility.

  7. Achieving a precise color chart with common computer software for excellence in anterior composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Salat, Anna; Devoto, Walter; Manauta, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Achieving similar features to those on natural teeth is a common problem with esthetic restorations. Color matching is a fundamental procedure required to perform a predictable composite resin restoration. It is no longer enough to measure these criteria with conventional shade guides, which provide the hue and chroma, but do not take into account other dimensions of the tooth such as value, intensives, opalescence and characterizations. The present article presents a simple and effective technique for color selection using a digital photograph of the tooth and an image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop or Picture Project. The digital editing of the photograph with two simple steps described in this paper reveals the internal structures of the tooth easily. The modified photographs highlight the opalescence, white spots, shape of the internal mammelons and other features that are not visible at first glance. This procedure provides an accurate color chart with which the clinician can begin an esthetic restoration process.

  8. Color difference threshold determination for acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiabao; Lin, Hong; Huang, Qingmei; Liang, Qifan; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r(2)=0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r(2)=0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.

  9. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  10. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  11. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  12. What's color got to do with it? The influence of color on visual attention in different categories.

    PubMed

    Frey, Hans-Peter; Honey, Christian; König, Peter

    2008-10-23

    Certain locations attract human gaze in natural visual scenes. Are there measurable features, which distinguish these locations from others? While there has been extensive research on luminance-defined features, only few studies have examined the influence of color on overt attention. In this study, we addressed this question by presenting color-calibrated stimuli and analyzing color features that are known to be relevant for the responses of LGN neurons. We recorded eye movements of 15 human subjects freely viewing colored and grayscale images of seven different categories. All images were also analyzed by the saliency map model (L. Itti, C. Koch, & E. Niebur, 1998). We find that human fixation locations differ between colored and grayscale versions of the same image much more than predicted by the saliency map. Examining the influence of various color features on overt attention, we find two extreme categories: while in rainforest images all color features are salient, none is salient in fractals. In all other categories, color features are selectively salient. This shows that the influence of color on overt attention depends on the type of image. Also, it is crucial to analyze neurophysiologically relevant color features for quantifying the influence of color on attention.

  13. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (p<0.001) and significant Pearson correlations were also found for the mean L* (r=0.987, p<0.001) and a* (r=0.856, p=0.03) values between the artificial gingiva and the ceramic crowns. The mean ΔE* values between the control group and each of the five other gingival groups were all significantly larger than the clinical perceptual threshold of ΔE* 1.6 (p<0.001). Different colors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Exploring the versatility of gingiva-colored composite

    PubMed Central

    Paryag, Amit A; Rafeek, Reisha N; Mankee, Melissa S; Lowe, Jenai

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession has a diverse etiology. The consequences may include gingivitis, periodontitis, and hypersensitivity. Whereas the management can include surgical treatment options, sometimes a more conservative, yet still esthetic approach may be required. The use of gingiva-colored composites provides one such alternative and can be applied to varying presentations of the problem. While surgical treatment can be successful in re-creating favorable esthetic anatomy as well as achieving accurate tissue contour in cases when minor amounts of tissue are reconstructed, long-term results vary because of the vascularity and complexity of the interdental space. Factors such as cost, healing time, discomfort, and variable long-term results make surgery an unpopular choice. If tooth-colored restorative materials are utilized to restore cervical tooth exposure as a result of severe recession, the disproportionate appearance of the visible crown may give a dissatisfying result. Gingiva-colored composite provides dental practitioners with a versatile material that can be used to directly restore cervical defects caused by gingival recession, thus correcting the appearance of the gingival anatomy. It offers a treatment option that may increase patient satisfaction through the provision of a cost-effective, minimally invasive solution with highly esthetic results. PMID:27186079

  15. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  16. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  17. Analysis of tooth brushing cycles.

    PubMed

    Tosaka, Yuki; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Murakami, Nozomi; Ishii, Rikako; Saitoh, Issei; Iwase, Yoko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Ohuchi, Akitsugu; Hayasaki, Haruaki

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an analysis of tooth brushing cycles using a system that measures tooth brushing motion and brushing force with an accelerometer and strain tension gage attached to a toothbrush. Mechanical plaque removal with a manual toothbrush remains the primary method of maintaining good oral hygiene for the majority of the population. Because toothbrush motion has not been fully understood, it should be clarified by analysis of tooth brushing cycles. Twenty healthy female dental hygienists participated in this study. Their tooth brushing motions were measured and analyzed using an American Dental Association-approved manual toothbrush to which a three-dimensional (3-D) accelerometer and strain tension gage were attached. 3-D motion and brushing force on the labial surface of the mandibular right central incisor and the lingual surface of the mandibular left first molar were measured, analyzed, and compared. Multilevel linear model analysis was applied to estimate variables and compare motion and forces related to the two tooth surfaces. The analysis of tooth brushing cycles was feasible, and significant differences were detected for durations and 3-D ranges of toothbrush motion as well as brushing force between the two tooth surfaces. The analysis used in this study demonstrated an ability to detect characteristics of tooth brushing motion, showing tooth brushing motion to change depending on the brushed location. These results also suggest that more detailed instructions might be required according to patient's oral condition.

  18. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  19. Development of a device to simulate tooth mobility.

    PubMed

    Erdelt, Kurt-Jürgen; Lamper, Timea

    2010-10-01

    The testing of new materials under simulation of oral conditions is essential in medicine. For simulation of fracture strength different simulation devices are used for test set-up. The results of these in vitro tests differ because there is no standardization of tooth mobility in simulation devices. The aim of this study is to develop a simulation device that depicts the tooth mobility curve as accurately as possible and creates reproducible and scalable mobility curves. With the aid of published literature and with the help of dentists, average forms of tooth classes were generated. Based on these tooth data, different abutment tooth shapes and different simulation devices were designed with a CAD system and were generated with a Rapid Prototyping system. Then, for all simulation devices the displacement curves were created with a universal testing machine and compared with the tooth mobility curve. With this new information, an improved adapted simulation device was constructed. A simulations device that is able to simulate the mobility curve of natural teeth with high accuracy and where mobility is reproducible and scalable was developed.

  20. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  1. Evolution of High Tooth Replacement Rates in Sauropod Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. Methodology/Principal Findings We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Conclusions/Significance Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently

  2. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission.

    PubMed

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue-red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the "center-of-gravity" model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions.

  3. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ 2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  4. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites.

    PubMed

    Armellin, E; Bovesecchi, G; Coppa, P; Pasquantonio, G; Cerroni, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ (2). After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure.

  5. Positioning the actual interference fringe pattern on the tooth flank in measuring gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Suping; Wang, Leijie; Liu, Shiqiao; Komori, Masaharu; Kubo, Aizoh

    2011-05-01

    In measuring form deviation of gear tooth flanks by laser interferometry, the collected interference fringe pattern (IFP) is badly distorted, in the case of shape, relative to the actual tooth flank. Meanwhile, a clear and definite mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank is indispensable for both transforming phase differences into deviation values and positioning the measurement result on the actual tooth flank. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a method using the simulation tooth image as a bridge connecting the actual tooth flank and the collected IFP. The mapping relationship between the simulation tooth image and the actual tooth flank has been obtained by ray tracing methods [Fang et al., Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6409-6415 (2010)]. This paper mainly discusses how to build the relationship between the simulation tooth image and the collected IFP by using a matching algorithm of two characteristic point sets. With the combination of the two above-mentioned assistant mapping relationships, the mapping relationship between the collected IFP and the actual tooth flank can be built; the collected IFP can be positioned on the actual tooth flank. Finally, the proposed method is employed in a measurement of the form deviation of a gear tooth flank and the result proves the feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  7. Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced tooth whitening: the next-generation technology.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, D; McCombs, G; Lemaster, M; Akman, M A; Laroussi, M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the plasma pencil (PP) device in conjunction with H2 O2 gel. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LTAPP delivered using the PP would enhance the tooth-whitening process while causing no thermal threat. The study consisted of thirty extracted human teeth that were randomized into two groups: Group I received LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel at 10, 15 and 20 min and Group II received 36% H2 O2 gel only at the same time intervals. Tooth surface temperature was measured periodically throughout the experiment using a non-contact thermometer. Digital photographs were taken pre- and post-treatment and transferred to Adobe Photoshop for comparison, using the CIELAB Color Value System. Only L* (lightness) values were evaluated in this study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and t-test at the 0.05 level. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in mean CIE L* values after exposure to LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel, compared with 36% H2 O2 only, in the 10- and 20-min groups (P = 0.0003 and 0.0103, respectively). The temperature in both treatment groups remained under 80°F throughout the study, which is below the thermal threat for vital tooth bleaching. Utilizing PP device in conjunction with 36% H2 O2 safely accelerates and enhances the tooth-whitening process. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of two color-difference formulas using the Bland-Altman approach based on gingiva color space.

    PubMed

    Gómez Polo, Cristina; Montero, Javier; Martín Casado, Ana Maria

    2018-04-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between the results provided by the classical CIELab (ΔE ab *) and the CIEDE2000 (ΔE00) formulas and the gingival color space using the Bland and Altman limits of agreement, to use this relationship to establish the equivalences between the gingival color thresholds of perceptibility of both formulas, and to evaluate whether the relationship between ΔE ab * and ΔE00 is modified depending on the axis in which the changes occur. The means of the L*, a*, and b* coordinates of the 21 gingiva porcelain samples (Heraceram, Heraeus Kulzer Mitsui Chemical Groups) were used and the differences in color were calculated in 210 pairs of samples using the CIELab (ΔE*ab) and CIEDE2000 (ΔE00) color-difference formulas. The results obtained with these formulas were compared and the limits of agreement after a logarithmic transformation of the data were obtained. The relationship between both formulas was ln ΔE 00  = - 0.22 + ln ΔE ab *. The results obtained with the CIELab formula were between 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.03) and 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.52-1.59) times higher than those obtained with the CIEDE200 formula. In the gingiva color space, the scale factor between the CIEDE2000 and CIELab values changes from 0.63 to 1.02, such that providing an accurate scale factor between both values proves difficult. The pairs with the highest ratio were those where the difference in color was mainly due to changes in lightness, whereas the pairs with the smallest ratio were those where the difference in color was mainly due to changes in the blue-yellow or green-red axes.

  9. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  10. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  11. Paleobiology: A Tooth for a Tooth.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Zerina

    2017-02-06

    Many vertebrates replace teeth through shedding of the functional tooth. New analyses of a fossil fish demonstrate that shedding involved tooth resorption, a primitive feature in bony fishes, but absent in sharks and their relatives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of zircon-based tricolor pigments on the color, microstructure, flexural strength and translucency of a novel dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Wang, Fu; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xiang; Deng, Zai-Xi; Wang, Hui; Jin, Lei; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of zircon-based tricolor pigments (praseodymium zircon yellow, ferrum zircon red, and vanadium zircon blue) on the color, thermal property, crystalline phase composition, microstructure, flexural strength, and translucency of a novel dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. The pigments were added to the glass frit, milled, pressed, and sintered. Ninety monochrome samples were prepared and the colors were analyzed. The effect of the pigments on thermal property, crystalline phase composition, and microstructure were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Addition of the pigments resulted in the acquisition of subtractive primary colors as well as tooth-like colors, and did not demonstrate significant effects on the thermal property, crystalline phase composition, microstructure, and flexural strength of the experimental glass-ceramic. Although significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed between the translucencies of the uncolored and 1.0 wt % zircon-based pigment colored ceramics, the translucencies of the latter were sufficient to fabricate dental restorations. These results indicate that the zircon-based tricolor pigments can be used with dental lithium disilicate glass-ceramic to produce abundant and predictable tooth-like colors without significant adverse effects, if mixed in the right proportions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Color stability of silorane-based composites submitted to accelerated artificial ageing--an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Roselino, Lourenço de Moraes Rego; Naves, Lucas Zago

    2011-07-01

    To assess the in situ color stability, surface and the tooth/restoration interface degradation of a silorane-based composite (P90, 3M ESPE) after accelerated artificial ageing (AAA), in comparison with other dimethacrylate monomer-based composites (Z250/Z350, 3M ESPE and Esthet-X, Dentsply). Class V cavities (25 mm(2) × 2 mm deep) were prepared in 48 bovine incisors, which were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 12 specimens each, according to the type of restorative material used. After polishing, 10 specimens were submitted to initial color readings (Easyshade, Vita) and 2 to analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Afterwards, the teeth were submitted to AAA for 384 h, which corresponds to 1 year of clinical use, after which new color readings and microscopic images were obtained. The values obtained for the color analysis were submitted to statistical analysis (1-way ANOVA, Tukey, p<0.05). With regard to color stability, it was verified that all the composites showed color alteration above the clinically acceptable levels (ΔE ≥ 3.3), and that the silorane-based composite showed higher ΔE (18.6), with a statistically significant difference in comparison with the other composites (p<0.05). The SEM images showed small alterations for the dimethacrylate-based composites after AAA and extensive degradation for the silorane-based composite with a rupture at the interface between the matrix/particle. It may be concluded that the silorane-based composite underwent greater alteration with regard to color stability and greater surface and tooth/restoration interface degradation after AAA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in color learning between pollen- and sucrose-rewarded bees

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elizabeth K; Ehrendreich, Doreen; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    What bees learn during pollen collection, and how they might discriminate between flowers on the basis of the quality of this reward, is not well understood. Recently we showed that bees learn to associate colors with differences in pollen rewards. Extending these findings, we present here additional evidence to suggest that the strength and time-course of memory formation may differ between pollen- and sucrose-rewarded bees. Color-naïve honeybees, trained with pollen or sucrose rewards to discriminate colored stimuli, were found to differ in their responses when recalling learnt information after reversal training. Such differences could affect the decision-making and foraging dynamics of individual bees when collecting different types of floral rewards. PMID:26478780

  15. Tooth polishing: The current status

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients’ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same. PMID:26392683

  16. Tooth enamel remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arends, J.; Ten Cate, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    In this paper a survey is given on tooth remineralization from remineralizing solutions and from saliva. The substrate, sound tooth enamel, is described from a chemical as well as from an ultrastructural point of view. Because saliva plays a crucial role in in vivo remineralizations, the most relevant properties of saliva, such as the thermodynamic stabilities with respect to calcium phosphates of interest, are considered. Tooth remineralization can be divided into three main types: lesion remineralization, surface softened remineralization and etched enamel remineralization. The main emphasis in this survey is given to lesion and surface softened remineralization which are the most important from a practical view point. In these two cases, the reaction order, the activation energy and the mechanism are discussed as well as the ultrastructure of remineralized material, the influence of various agents (especially F -)and differences between in vitro and in vivo data.

  17. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  18. Reproducibility of electronic tooth colour measurements.

    PubMed

    Ratzmann, Anja; Klinke, Thomas; Schwahn, Christian; Treichel, Anja; Gedrange, Tomasz

    2008-10-01

    Clinical methods of investigation, such as tooth colour determination, should be simple, quick and reproducible. The determination of tooth colours usually relies upon manual comparison of a patient's tooth colour with a colour ring. After some days, however, measurement results frequently lack unequivocal reproducibility. This study aimed to examine an electronic method for reliable colour measurement. The colours of the teeth 14 to 24 were determined by three different examiners in 10 subjects using the colour measuring device Shade Inspector. In total, 12 measurements per tooth were taken. Two measurement time points were scheduled to be taken, namely at study onset (T(1)) and after 6 months (T(2)). At either time point, two measurement series per subject were taken by the different examiners at 2-week intervals. The inter-examiner and intra-examiner agreement of the measurement results was assessed. The concordance for lightness and colour intensity (saturation) was represented by the intra-class correlation coefficient. The categorical variable colour shade (hue) was assessed using the kappa statistic. The study results show that tooth colour can be measured independently of the examiner. Good agreement was found between the examiners.

  19. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    PubMed Central

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  20. Smile restoration through use of enamel microabrasion associated with tooth bleaching.

    PubMed

    Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Rahal, Vanessa; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Sversut; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld Neto, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion can eliminate enamel irregularities and discoloration defects, improving the appearance of teeth. This article presents the latest treatment protocol of enamel microabrasion to remove stains on the enamel surface. It has been verified that teeth submitted to microabrasion acquire a yellowish color because of the thinness of the remaining enamel, revealing the color of dentinal tissue to a greater degree. In these clinical conditions, correction of the color pattern of these teeth can be obtained with a considerable margin of clinical success using products containing carbamide peroxide in custom trays. Thus, patients can benefit from combined enamel microabrasion/tooth bleaching therapy, which yields attractive cosmetic results. Esthetics plays an important role in contemporary dentistry, especially because the media emphasizes beauty and health. Currently, in many countries, a smile is considered beautiful if it imitates a natural appearance, with clear, well-aligned teeth and defined anatomical shapes. Enamel microabrasion is one technique that can be used to correct discolored enamel. This technique has been elucidated and strongly advocated by Croll and Cavanaugh since 1986, and by other investigators who suggested mechanical removal of enamel stains using acidic substances in conjunction with abrasive agents. Enamel microabrasion is indicated to remove intrinsic stains of any color and of hard texture, and is contraindicated for extrinsic stains, dentinal stains, for patients with deficient labial seals, and in cases where there is no possibility to place a rubber dam adequately during the microabrasion procedure. It should be emphasized that enamel microabrasion causes a microreduction on the enamel surface, and, in some cases, teeth submitted to microabrasion may appear a darker or yellowish color because the thin remaining enamel surface can reveal some of the dentinal tissue color. In these situations, according to Haywood and Heymann

  1. The timing of mandibular tooth formation in two African groups.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Fadil; Hector, Mark P; Liversidge, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    Ethnic differences in the timing of human tooth development are unclear. To describe similarities and differences in the timing of tooth formation in two groups of Sudanese children and young adults. The sample consisted of healthy individuals from Khartoum, Sudan, aged 2-23 years. The Northern group was of Arab origin (848 males, 802 females) and the Western group was of African origin (846 males, 402 females). Each mandibular left permanent tooth from first incisor to third molar was assessed from dental radiographs into one of 15 development stages. Mean ages at entry for 306 tooth stages were calculated using probit regression in males/females in each group and compared using a t-test. Mean ages were not significantly different in most tooth stage comparisons between ethnic groups for both males (61/75) and females (56/76), despite a tendency of earlier mean ages in the Western group. Mean ages for most tooth stage comparisons between males and females (137/155) were not significantly different within ethnic groups suggesting low sexual dimorphism. The mean ages of most mandibular tooth formation stages were generally not significantly different between ethnic groups or between males and females in this study.

  2. Hiding Information Using different lighting Color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majead, Ahlam; Awad, Rash; Salman, Salema S.

    2018-05-01

    The host medium for the secret message is one of the important principles for the designers of steganography method. In this study, the best color image was studied to carrying any secret image.The steganography approach based Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT) and Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. The proposed method offers lossless and unnoticeable changes in the contrast carrier color image and imperceptible by human visual system (HVS), especially the host images which was captured in dark lighting conditions. The aim of the study was to study the process of masking the data in colored images with different light intensities. The effect of the masking process was examined on the images that are classified by a minimum distance and the amount of noise and distortion in the image. The histogram and statistical characteristics of the cover image the results showed the efficient use of images taken with different light intensities in hiding data using the least important bit substitution method. This method succeeded in concealing textual data without distorting the original image (low light) Lire developments due to the concealment process.The digital image segmentation technique was used to distinguish small areas with masking. The result is that smooth homogeneous areas are less affected as a result of hiding comparing with high light areas. It is possible to use dark color images to send any secret message between two persons for the purpose of secret communication with good security.

  3. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force. PMID:26673152

  4. [Research on the designing method of a special shade guide for tooth whitening].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingxin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate a method of designing an accurate and scientific shade guide, especially used for judging the effect of tooth whitening, by analyzing the colorimetric values of discolored teeth statistically. One hundred thirty-six pictures of patients who had been receiving the Beyond cold light whitening treatment from February 2009 to July 2014 were analyzed, including 25 tetracycline teeth, 61 mottled-enamel teeth, and 50 yellow teeth. The colorimetric values of discolored teeth were measured. The L* values of shade tabs were calculated by hierarchical clustering of those of discolored teeth. The a* and b* values of shade tabs were the mean of those observed for discolored teeth. Accordingly, different shade guides were designed for each type of discolored teeth, and the effects were evaluated. A statistically significant difference in colorimetric values was found among the three types of discolored teeth. Compared with the Vitapan Classical shade guide, the shade guides designed through the present method were more scientific and accurate in judging the effect of tooth whitening. Moreover, the arrangement of shade tabs was more logical, and the color difference between shade tabs and discolored teeth was smaller. The proposed designing method is theoretically feasible, although its clinical effect has yet to be proven.

  5. [A preliminary study on the color effect of IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-yong; Cheng, Xiang-rong; Wang, Yi-ning

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the opaquing capacity, color compatibility and stability of IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers. A total of 86 IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers were made for 18 patients. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A was tetracycline teeth, 64 veneers for 5 patients; Group B was non-tetracycline teeth, 22 veneers for 13 patients; Group C was 22 natural vital teeth with normal color as control group. Before and after veneers were inserted, ShadeEye NCC was employed to obtain L * a * b * values of each tooth. The values of cemented veneers used as the baseline, the L * a * b * values of each veneer were measured half a year, 1 year, and 2 years after restoration respectively. All L * a * b * values at different evaluation times were analyzed by SPSS 10.0. Before and after veneers were restored, the L * a * b * values of both Group A and Group B were significantly different, the color difference being 5.01 and 4.15 respectively. The color difference between Group A and selected shade guides was 2.45. Compared with the baseline value, the L * value of Group A significantly decreased 2 years after restoration, but the DeltaE of different evaluation times was not significantly different. The color difference between Group B and Group C was 0.22 and there was no significant color difference after restoration. IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers have excellent opaquing capacity, color compatibility and stability to non-tetracycline teeth. To tetracycline teeth IPS Empress all-ceramic veneers have a certain opaquing capacity, but they cannot completely match with shade guides; the L * value is significantly different after restoration and further studies are needed to evaluate its color effect.

  6. Differences of isolated dental stem cells dependent on donor age and consequences for autologous tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Manuela; Steindorff, Marina M; Strempel, Jürgen F; Winkel, Andreas; Kühnel, Mark P; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-06-01

    Autologous therapy via stem cell-based tissue regeneration is an aim to rebuild natural teeth. One option is the use of adult stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSCs), which have been shown to differentiate into several types of tissue in vitro and in vivo, especially into tooth-like structures. DPSCs are mainly isolated from the dental pulp of third molars routinely extracted for orthodontic reasons. Due to the extraction of third molars at various phases of life, DPSCs are isolated at different developmental stages of the tooth. The present study addressed the question whether DPSCs from patients of different ages were similar in their growth characteristics with respect to the stage of tooth development. Therefore DPSCs from third molars of 12-30 year-old patients were extracted, and growth characteristics, e.g. doubling time and maximal cell division potential were analysed. In addition, pulp and hard dental material weight were recorded. Irrespective of the age of patients almost all isolated cells reached 40-60 generations with no correlation between maximal cell division potential and patient age. Cells from patients <22 years showed a significantly faster doubling time than the cells from patients ≥22 years. The age of patients at the time of stem cell isolation is not a crucial factor concerning maximal cell division potential, but does have an impact on the doubling time. However, differences in individuals regarding growth characteristics were more pronounced than age-dependent differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composite shade guides and color matching.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Gaetano; Orsini, Giovanna; Manauta, Jordi; Devoto, Walter; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable systems that can help the clinician match the color of direct composite restorations is often an issue. After reviewing several composite shade guides available on the market and outlining their main characteristics and limits (unrealistic specimen thickness, not made with the same material the clinician will use, only a few allow to overlap enamel tabs on dentin ones), the authors evaluated the reliability of a system designed to produce self-made standardized "tooth-shaped" shade guide specimens. Small changes in composite enamel thickness may determine huge differences in esthetic outcomes. In conclusion, the results showed that all the specimens demonstrated comparable enamel thickness in all the examined areas (cervical, middle, incisal).

  8. Mechanical modelling of tooth wear

    PubMed Central

    Kallonen, Aki

    2016-01-01

    Different diets wear teeth in different ways and generate distinguishable wear and microwear patterns that have long been the basis of palaeodiet reconstructions. Little experimental research has been performed to study them together. Here, we show that an artificial mechanical masticator, a chewing machine, occluding real horse teeth in continuous simulated chewing (of 100 000 chewing cycles) is capable of replicating microscopic wear features and gross wear on teeth that resemble wear in specimens collected from nature. Simulating pure attrition (chewing without food) and four plant material diets of different abrasives content (at n = 5 tooth pairs per group), we detected differences in microscopic wear features by stereomicroscopy of the chewing surface in the number and quality of pits and scratches that were not always as expected. Using computed tomography scanning in one tooth per diet, absolute wear was quantified as the mean height change after the simulated chewing. Absolute wear increased with diet abrasiveness, originating from phytoliths and grit. In combination, our findings highlight that differences in actual dental tissue loss can occur at similar microwear patterns, cautioning against a direct transformation of microwear results into predictions about diet or tooth wear rate. PMID:27411727

  9. Effect of Different In Vitro Aging Methods on Color Stability of a Dental Resin-Based Composite Using CIELAB and CIEDE2000 Color-Difference Formulas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; Ayres, Ana Paula Almeida; Rocha, Mateus Garcia; Giannini, Marcelo; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria; Ferracane, Jack L; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different in vitro aging methods on color change (CC) of an experimental dental resin-based composite using CIELAB (ΔEab ) and CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) color-difference formulas. The CC was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (CM700d, Konica Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) according to the CIE chromatic space. Disk-shaped specimens (Φ = 5 × 1 mm thick) (N = 10) were submitted to different in vitro aging methods: 30 days of water aging (WA); 120 hours of ultraviolet light aging (UVA); or 300 hours of an accelerated artificial aging (AAA) method with cycles of 4 hours of UV-B light exposure and 4 hours of moisture condensation to induce CC. The temperature was standardized at 37°C for all aging methods. CC was evaluated with ΔEab and ΔE00 formulas. Differences in individual Lab coordinates were also calculated. Data for the individual color parameters were submitted to one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). All in vitro aging methods tested induced CC, in the following order: WA: ΔEab = 0.83 (0.1); ΔE00  = 1.15 (0.1) < AAA: ΔEab  = 5.64 (0.2); ΔE00  = 5.01 (0.1) < UVA: ΔEab  = 6.74 (0.2); ΔE00  = 6.03 (0.4). No changes in L* or a* coordinates were ≥1; the methods with UV aging showed a yellowing effect due a large positive change in b*. All in vitro aging methods tested induced a CC, but to different extents. Changes in color followed similar trends, but with different absolute values when calculated with the CIELAB and the CIEDE2000 formulas. Establishing the efficacy of different artificial aging methods and differences between color change using CIELAB and CIEDE2000 formulas are important to standardize color stability evaluations and facilitate the comparison of outcomes from different studies in the literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  11. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    PubMed

    Corney, David P A; Tang, H Lilian; Clark, Jonathan Y; Hu, Yin; Jin, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood). We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  12. Tooth quality in dental fluorosis genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A P G F; Hanocock, R; Eggertsson, H; Everett, E T; Grynpas, M D

    2005-01-01

    Dental fluorosis (DF) affects the appearance and structure of tooth enamel and can occur following ingestion of excess fluoride during critical periods of amelogenesis. This tooth malformation may, depending on its severity, influence enamel and dentin microhardness and dentin mineralization. Poor correlation between tooth fluoride (F) concentration and DF severity was shown in some studies, but even when a correlation was present, tooth fluoride concentration explained very little of DF severity. This fact calls into question the generally accepted hypothesis that the main factor responsible for DF severity is tooth fluoride concentration. It has been shown previously that genetic factors (susceptibility to DF) play an important role in DF severity although DF severity relates to individual susceptibility to fluoride exposure (genetics), tooth fluoride concentration relates to fluoride ingestion (environmental). The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between tooth fluoride concentration, DF severity, and tooth mechanical and materials properties. Three strains of mice (previously shown to have different susceptibility to DF) at weaning were treated with four different levels of F in their water (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) for 6 weeks. Mice teeth were tested for fluoride by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), DF severity determined by quantitative light-induced fluorescence [QLF], and tooth quality (enamel and dentin microhardness and dentin mineralization). Tooth fluoride concentration (environment factor) correlated positively with DF severity (QLF) (rs=0.608), fluoride treatment group (rs=0.952). However, tooth fluoride concentration correlated negatively with enamel microhardness (rs=-0.587), dentin microhardness (rs=-0.268) and dentin mineralization (rs=-0.245). Dental fluorosis (genetic factor) severity (QLF) correlated positively with fluoride treatment (rs=0.608) and tooth fluoride concentration (rs=0.583). DF severity

  13. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  14. Effect of varying core thicknesses and artificial aging on the color difference of different all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Dikicier, Sibel; Ayyildiz, Simel; Ozen, Julide; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians should reserve all-ceramics with high translucency for clinical applications in which high-level esthetics are required. Furthermore, it is unclear whether a correlation exists between core thickness and color change. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different core thicknesses and artificial aging on the color stability of three all-ceramic systems. Ninety disc-shaped cores with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm and 1.0 mm) were prepared from three all-ceramic systems, In-Ceram Alumina (IC), IPS e.max Press (EM) and Katana (K). The colors of the samples were measured with a spectrophotometer and the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, ΔE) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage) color system before and after aging. The effects of aging on color parameters were statistically significant (p < 0.001), regardless of core thickness. For all systems, the CIE a* values increased as the thickness of the core increased. Conversely, such increases in core porcelain thickness were correlated with decreasing CIE L* and b* values. Core thickness had a statistically significant effect on color change among the groups. Different core thicknesses (from 1.0-0.5 mm) and artificial aging affected color stability of the all-ceramic materials tested.

  15. Qualitative differences in the guidance of attention during single-color and multiple-color visual search: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2013-10-01

    To find out whether attentional target selection can be effectively guided by top-down task sets for multiple colors, we measured behavioral and ERP markers of attentional target selection in an experiment where participants had to identify color-defined target digits that were accompanied by a single gray distractor object in the opposite visual field. In the One Color task, target color was constant. In the Two Color task, targets could have one of two equally likely colors. Color-guided target selection was less efficient during multiple-color relative to single-color search, and this was reflected by slower response times and delayed N2pc components. Nontarget-color items that were presented in half of all trials captured attention and gained access to working memory when participants searched for two colors, but were excluded from attentional processing in the One Color task. Results demonstrate qualitative differences in the guidance of attentional target selection between single-color and multiple-color visual search. They suggest that top-down attentional control can be applied much more effectively when it is based on a single feature-specific attentional template. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A review of tooth colour and whiteness.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew; Hopkinson, Ian; Deng, Yan; Westland, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    To review current knowledge on the definition of tooth whiteness and its application within dentistry, together with the measured range of tooth colours. 'Medline' and 'ISI Web of Sciences' databases were searched electronically with key words tooth, teeth, colour, colour, white and whiteness. The application of colour science within dentistry has permitted the measurement of tooth colour in an objective way, with the most common colour space in current use being the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage). Indeed, many investigators from a range of different countries have reported L*, a* and b* values for teeth measured in vivo using instrumental techniques such as spectrophotometers, colorimeters and image analysis of digital images. In general, these studies show a large range in L*, a* and b* values, but consistently show that there is a significant contribution of b* value or yellowness in natural tooth colour. Further developments in colour science have lead to the description of tooth whiteness and changes in tooth whiteness based on whiteness indices, with the most relevant and applicable being the WIO whiteness index, a modified version of the CIE whiteness index.

  17. In vitro study on tooth enamel lesions related to whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; Campos, Elisângela de Jesus; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The tooth whitening substances for extrinsic use that are available in Brazil contain hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. Several studies have attributed the appearance of lesions in the enamel morphology, including hypersensitivity, to these substances. Such lesions justify fluoride therapy and application of infrared lasers, among other procedures. However, there is no consensus among researchers regarding the relevance of the severity of lesions detected on the tooth surface. The present study was carried out with an aim of evaluating in vitro the effects of the hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and sodium bicarbonate contained in dentifrice formulations, on human tooth enamel. After darkening process in laboratory, human premolars were brushed using dentifrice containing the two whitening substances (Rembrandt - carbamide peroxide and Mentadent - hydrogen peroxide) and the abrasive product (Colgate - sodium bicarbonate). The degree of specimen staining before and after this procedure was determined using spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain images, which were analyzed to show the nature of the lesions that appeared on the enamel surface. The effectiveness of the whitening caused by hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide and the abrasion caused by bicarbonate were confirmed, given that the treated test pieces returned to their original coloration. Based on SEM, evaluation of the enamel surfaces subjected to the test products showed that different types of morphologic lesions of varying severity appeared. Whitening dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide produced lesions on the enamel surface such that the greatest sequelae were associated with exposure to hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Comparative profiling of sarcoplasmic phosphoproteins in ovine muscle with different color stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Zheng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Wang, Ying; Li, Guixia; Wu, Liguo; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2018-02-01

    The phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins in postmortem muscles was investigated in relationship to color stability in the present study. Although no difference was observed in the global phosphorylation level of sarcoplasmic proteins, difference was determined in the phosphorylation levels of individual protein bands from muscles with different color stability. Correlation analysis and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification of phosphoproteins showed that most of the color stability-related proteins were glycolytic enzymes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of myoglobin was inversely related to meat color stability. As the phosphorylation of myoglobin increased, color stability based on a ∗ value decreased and metMb content increased. In summary, the study revealed that protein phosphorylation might play a role in the regulation of meat color stability probably by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin, which might be affected by the phosphorylation of myoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole tooth. This area is known as the "pulp" of the tooth. The jawbone is attached to ... JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  20. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adrian G.; Garcia, Jair E.

    2014-01-01

    Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning). Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6) were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units) did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees’ visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days. PMID:26462830

  1. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Garcia, Jair E

    2014-07-30

    Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning). Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6) were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units) did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees' visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days.

  2. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month.

    PubMed

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages.

  3. Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a gestalt formation task.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John; Pichler, Shaun

    2004-02-01

    The structure of color perception can be examined by collecting judgments about color dissimilarities. In the procedure used here, stimuli are presented three at a time on a computer monitor and the spontaneous grouping of most-similar stimuli into gestalts provides the dissimilarity comparisons. Analysis with multidimensional scaling allows such judgments to be pooled from a number of observers without obscuring the variations among them. The anomalous perceptions of color-deficient observers produce comparisons that are represented well by a geometric model of compressed individual color spaces, with different forms of deficiency distinguished by different directions of compression. The geometrical model is also capable of accommodating the normal spectrum of variation, so that there is greater variation in compression parameters between tests on normal subjects than in those between repeated tests on individual subjects. The method is sufficiently sensitive and the variations sufficiently large that they are not obscured by the use of a range of monitors, even under somewhat loosely controlled conditions.

  4. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  5. Impacted tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tooth that does not break through the gum. ... Teeth start to pass through the gums (emerge) during infancy. This happens again when permanent teeth replace the primary (baby) teeth. If a tooth does not come in, or ...

  6. Origin of the different color of ruby and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2005-09-01

    The different color exhibited by ruby and emerald is a fundamental but still unsolved question. According to recent EXAFS measurements, such a difference can hardly be explained on the basis of a different average distance between Cr3+ and the six oxygen ligands. The puzzling difference in color between the two gemstones is shown in this work to arise essentially from the distinct electrostatic potential imposed by the rest of lattice ions upon the active electrons of the CrO69- unit. Main effects are shown to come from the electric field generated in the neighborhood of the Cr3+ site in ruby which is absent in the case of emerald due to symmetry.

  7. Difference in the color stability of direct and indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Yong-Keun; YU, Bin; LIM, Ho-Nam; LIM, Jin Ik

    2011-01-01

    Indirect resin composites are generally regarded to have better color stability than direct resin composites since they possess higher conversion degree Objective The present study aimed at comparing the changes in color (∆E) and color coordinates (∆L, ∆a and ∆b) of one direct (Estelite Sigma: 16 shades) and 2 indirect resin composites (BelleGlass NG: 16 shades; Sinfony: 26 shades) after thermocycling. Material and Methods Resins were packed into a mold and light cured; post-curing was performed on indirect resins. Changes in color and color coordinates of 1-mm-thick specimens were determined after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling on a spectrophotometer. Results ∆E values were in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 units for direct resins, and 0.3 to 1.5 units for indirect resins, which were clinically acceptable (∆E<3.3). Based on t-test, ∆E values were not significantly different by the type of resins (p>0.05), while ∆L, ∆a and ∆b values were significantly different by the type of resins (p<0.05). For indirect resins, ∆E values were influenced by the brand, shade group and shade designation based on three-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Conclusion Direct and indirect resin composites showed similar color stability after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling; however, their changes in the color coordinates were different. PMID:21552717

  8. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the difficulties in studying late stages of tooth development and tooth movement and the lack of good model systems. Transgenic mice with eruption problems and short or no roots can be used as a powerful model for further deciphering of the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying root formation and tooth eruption. Better understanding of these processes can provide hints on delivering more efficient dental therapies in the future. PMID:23345536

  9. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  10. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Coronal Tooth Discoloration Induced by Various Bioceramic Cements and Other Endodontic Materials.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Meetu R; Yamaguchi, Maimi; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2015-11-01

    Coronal tooth discoloration induced by various endodontic materials was evaluated in vitro. Eighty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were accessed, instrumented, and sectioned to standardized root lengths of 10 mm below the cementoenamel junction. Pulp chambers were cleaned chemomechanically to ensure complete tissue removal. Specimens were filled with experimental materials in 8 random groups: RRM, EndoSequence RRM putty (Brasseler, Savannah, GA); RRMF, EndoSequence RRM fast set paste (Brasseler); BD, Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France); WMTA, white MTA (Dentsply, York, PA), GMTA, gray MTA (Dentsply); AH+, AH Plus sealer (Dentsply); TAP, triple antibiotic paste (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline); and NF, no filling (negative control group). After incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C, color changes were evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL) on days 0, 7, 30, 60, and 180 after material placement (T0-T180). Data were transformed into Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method were performed. Visual discoloration was observed in all specimens in the GMTA, WMTA, and TAP groups at T7, increasing with time. The ΔE value between the initial color at T0 and at T7, T30, T60, and T180 was significantly different for GMTA, WMTA, and TAP (P < .001). ΔE values for the BD, RRM, RRMF, AH+, and NF groups were not statistically significantly different between T0 and T7, T30, T60, and T180, respectively, except for 3 samples below the human perceptible threshold. Values of L* dropped significantly from T0 to T180 in the TAP, GMTA, and WMTA groups. Significant coronal tooth discoloration was caused by TAP, GMTA, and WMTA but not by BD, RRM, and RRMF. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a technique for color correction in restoring anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Gabrielle Branco; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Vieira, Luiz Clovis Cardoso; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the proposed technique in producing restorations that exhibit mimesis with tooth structure and to define a restorative clinical protocol. For this study a typodont was used. The right upper central incisor with Class IV lesion was restored with the layering technique (reference tooth, RT). For the left upper central incisor with Class IV lesion, six teeth were restored monochromatically (test teeth, TT), using DA3.5 (n = 3) and DA4 (n = 3) composite resins-resulting in six unsatisfactory color restorations. TT were divided into six groups depending on the color of unsatisfactory restoration and preparation depth. First, a preparation was realized on the labial surface with 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm or 1.0 mm of depth. A second preparation was then performed to reproduce the dentinal mamelons. Next, adhesive procedures were performed and the teeth restored. Opaque halo, opalescent halo and vestibular enamel were then reproduced by the addition of different composite resins. The RT and TT were photographed side by side in typodont to obtain six photographic prints. The photographs of the groups were subjected to visual evaluation by 120 volunteers via a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the prevalence of answers, and Chi-square test was used to investigate the association between variables at .05 significance. Furthermore, ΔE of groups was evaluated in comparison RT. The results demonstrated that the moderate intensity restorations (DA3.5) with depths of 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm had the highest prevalence of acceptance. For severe intensity restorations (DA4), the preparation depth of 1.0 mm obtained better acceptance. The technique was able to modify the final color of Class IV restorations, producing satisfactory color restorations. This technique can be used for color correction in cases of Class IV restorations, in situations where there is no time for immediate layered restoration, and as a restorative technique. © 2017

  12. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01 ). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01 ). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*,b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  13. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*, b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  14. Efficacy of whitening oral rinses and dentifrices on color stability of bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of whitening toothpastes and mouthrinses on the color stability of teeth bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) after immersion in coffee solution. Materials and methods: Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were bleached with 16% CP for 14 days. After bleaching, the specimens were stained in coffee solution for 24 h and randomly divided into eight groups according to the following products (n = 10): distilled water (control group, DW), Scope White mouthrinse (SW), Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWR), Crest 3D White toothpaste (CWT), Crest 3D White toothpaste and Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWT + CWR), Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWT), Listerine Whitening mouthrinse (LWR), and Listerine Whitening mouthrinse and Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWR + LWT). Color measurements were conducted using a spectrophotometer. The data were assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p < 0.05). Results: Immersion in coffee solution after bleaching caused perceptible staining on tooth specimens (ΔE > 3.46). The whitening effect of CWR on teeth stained after bleaching was significantly greater than that in the other groups (p < 0.001). Tooth whitening (ΔE) in each group showed no significant difference from 6 to 12 weeks (p > 0.05). The combination of mouthrinse and toothpaste did not increase the degree of tooth whitening. Conclusion: Whitening mouthrinse and toothpaste had similar effects on the control group in terms of whitening of teeth stained after bleaching. Nevertheless, Crest 3D White mouthrinse produced the greatest recovery whitening effect among all the products tested. PMID:28642898

  15. Damping ratio analysis of tooth stability under various simulated degrees of vertical alveolar bone loss and different root types.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kuo-Ning; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using damping ratio (DR) analysis combined with resonance frequency (RF) and periotest (PTV) analyses to provide additional information about natural tooth stability under various simulated degrees of alveolar vertical bone loss and various root types. Three experimental tooth models, including upper central incisor, upper first premolar, and upper first molar were fabricated using Ti6Al4V alloy. In the tooth models, the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were simulated using a soft lining material and gypsum, respectively. Various degrees of vertical bone loss were simulated by decreasing the surrounding bone level apically from the cementoenamel junction in 2-mm steps incrementally downward for 10 mm. A commercially available RF analyzer was used to measure the RF and DR of impulse-forced vibrations on the tooth models. The results showed that DRs increased as alveolar vertical bone height decreased and had high coefficients of determination in the linear regression analysis. The damping ratio of the central incisor model without a simulated periodontal ligament were 11.95 ± 1.92 and 27.50 ± 0.67% respectively when their bone levels were set at 2 and 10 mm apically from the cementoenamel junction. These values significantly changed to 28.85 ± 2.54% (p = 0.000) and 51.25 ± 4.78% (p = 0.003) when the tooth model was covered with simulated periodontal ligament. Moreover, teeth with different root types showed different DR and RF patterns. Teeth with multiple roots had lower DRs than teeth with single roots. Damping ratio analysis combined with PTV and RF analysis provides more useful information on the assessment of changes in vertical alveolar bone loss than PTV or RF analysis alone.

  16. Tooth colour change with Ozicure Oxygen Activator: a comparative in vitro tooth bleaching study.

    PubMed

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Witcomb, M J

    2012-08-01

    This in vitro study compared a new tooth bleaching product, Ozicure Oxygen Activator (O3, RSA) with Opalescence Quick (Ultradent, USA) using a randomised block design to assess tooth colour change. Colour change, stability and relapse in canine, incisor and premolar teeth was assessed following three bleach treatments and subsequent tooth colour assessment. Ninety nine teeth (canines, incisors and premolars), which were caries free, had no surface defects and were within the colour range 1M2 and 5M3 were selected. Teeth were randomly divided into the three experimental groups: Opalescence Quick, Ozicure Oxygen Activator and control. The three experimental groups received three treatments of one hour each over three consecutive days. Tooth colour was assessed using the Vitapan 3D Master Tooth Guide (VITA, Germany). A General Linear Models test for analysis of variance for a fractional design with significance set at P < 0.05 was used to test for significance. Both bleaching methods significantly lightened the teeth (P < 0.0001). Tooth colour change was mainly after the first hour of tooth bleaching. The tooth type was significant in tooth colour change (P = 0.0416). Tooth colour relapse and resistance to colour change were observed. Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleached teeth in a manner and to an extent similar to Opalescence Quick.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Discrepancy in Tooth Colored Self Cure Acrylic Provisional Restorations With and Without Reinforcement of Glass Beads: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Yasangi, Manoj Kumar; Mannem, Dhanalakshmi; Neturi, Sirisha; Ravoori, Srinivas; Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Context This invitro study was conducted to compare and evaluate marginal discrepancy in two types of tooth colored self cure provisional restorative materials {DPI&UNIFAST TRAD} before and after reinforcement of glass beads. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare marginal discrepancy in two types of provisional restorative materials (DPI and UNI FAST TRAD) before and after reinforcement with Glass beads. Materials and Methods Tooth shaped resin copings were fabricated on custom made brass metal die. A total of 60 resin copings were fabricated in which 30 samples were prepared with DPI and 30 samples with UNIFAST material. Each group of 30 samples were divided in to two sub groups in which 15 samples were prepared with glass bead reinforcement and 15 samples without reinforcement. The marginal discrepancy was evaluated with photomicroscope {Reichet Polyvar 2 met} by placing the resin copings on custom made brass resin coping holder. Results Measurements obtained were statistically analysed by unpaired t-test to know any significance between two variables. Unreinforced DPI specimens had shown lower marginal discrepancy (442.82) than reinforced specimens (585.77). Unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown high values of marginal discrepancy (592.83) than reinforced specimens (436.35). p-value between reinforced and unreinforced specimens of DPI (p=0.0013) and UNIFAST (p= 0.0038) has shown statistical significance. Conclusion This in-vitro study revealed that unreinforced DPI specimens have shown lower marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens and unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown higher values of marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens. PMID:26155574

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Discrepancy in Tooth Colored Self Cure Acrylic Provisional Restorations With and Without Reinforcement of Glass Beads: An In-Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Yasangi, Manoj Kumar; Mannem, Dhanalakshmi; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Neturi, Sirisha; Ravoori, Srinivas; Jyothi

    2015-05-01

    This invitro study was conducted to compare and evaluate marginal discrepancy in two types of tooth colored self cure provisional restorative materials {DPI&UNIFAST TRAD} before and after reinforcement of glass beads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare marginal discrepancy in two types of provisional restorative materials (DPI and UNI FAST TRAD) before and after reinforcement with Glass beads. Tooth shaped resin copings were fabricated on custom made brass metal die. A total of 60 resin copings were fabricated in which 30 samples were prepared with DPI and 30 samples with UNIFAST material. Each group of 30 samples were divided in to two sub groups in which 15 samples were prepared with glass bead reinforcement and 15 samples without reinforcement. The marginal discrepancy was evaluated with photomicroscope {Reichet Polyvar 2 met} by placing the resin copings on custom made brass resin coping holder. Measurements obtained were statistically analysed by unpaired t-test to know any significance between two variables. Unreinforced DPI specimens had shown lower marginal discrepancy (442.82) than reinforced specimens (585.77). Unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown high values of marginal discrepancy (592.83) than reinforced specimens (436.35). p-value between reinforced and unreinforced specimens of DPI (p=0.0013) and UNIFAST (p= 0.0038) has shown statistical significance. This in-vitro study revealed that unreinforced DPI specimens have shown lower marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens and unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown higher values of marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens.

  19. Color stability of different denture teeth materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Sagesen, L; Ergün, G; Ozkan, Y; Bek, B

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the color stability of commercially available porcelain, reinforced acrylic, and conventional acrylic denture teeth materials used in removable prostheses. Two brands of porcelain (Unilux-Enta Lactona-Holland and Vivoperl-Ivoclar-Liechtenstein), 2 brands of reinforced acrylic (Optodent-Bayer-Germany and Ivolek-Ivoclar-Liechtenstein), and 2 brands of conventional acrylic (Isodent-Güney Diş Deposu-Turkey and Samed-Turkey), were made, for a total of 6 different denture teeth groups. Denture teeth were subjected to 3 staining solutions (filtered coffee, tea, and cola) and distilled water. From each group of denture teeth, 4 sets of maxillary anterior denture teeth were immersed in each of the 4 solutions. The color values of denture teeth were measured colorimetrically with the Gardner XL 20 Tristimulus Colorimeter (Gardner Lab. Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, USA). Color changes were characterized in the CIEL*a*b* color space. Color change values were determined after 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. The color difference values were calculated and then evaluated by two-way ANOVA statistically. The filtered coffee solution was found to be more chromogenic than the other 2 staining solutions, while porcelain denture teeth materials were more color stable. Assuming the color change of deltaE* < 1.0 as a discernible limit and deltaE* = 3.3 as an acceptable value, the filtered coffee, tea, and cola had slight staining effects on all 6 groups of denture teeth.

  20. [Crown color match of implant-supported zirconia and porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations: a spectrophotometric comparison].

    PubMed

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the crown color match of implant-supported zirconia restorations and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations in the anterior maxillary region through spectrophotometric evaluation. Eighteen patients with 29 implant-supported single crowns in the anterior maxillary area were recruited. Eleven of the implant crowns were zirconia restorations and 18 were PFM restorations. Color matching of the implant crown with contra-lateral/ neighboring tooth at the position of body 1/3 of the crown was assessed using a spectrophotometer (SpectroShade) in CIE L* a* b* coordinates. Subjective crown color match scores were evaluated. Independent sample t test of SPSS 17.0 was used to compare the difference between zirconia restoration and PFM restoration. Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the spectrophotometric color difference and the subjective crown color match score. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the distribution of color coordinates of natural anterial teeth. The crown color of the implant-supported zirconia restorations and PFM restorations were both lighter than that of natural teeth (delta L, 4.5 +/- 3.2, 1.0 +/- 2.6). The lightness difference induced by zirconia restorations was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations (P=0.004). The spectrophotometric crown color difference (delta E) induced by zirconia restorations (7.0 +/- 2.8) was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations (4.0 +/- 1.9) (P=0.002), and both values were beyond the clinical thresholds (3.7). The spectrophotometric crown color difference induced by zirconia restorations was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations. However, they were indistinguishable in subjective evaluation.

  1. Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pedro A.; Huertas, Rafael; Melgosa, Manuel; Cui, Guihua

    2007-07-01

    Using simulated data sets, we have analyzed some mathematical properties of different statistical measurements that have been employed in previous literature to test the performance of different color-difference formulas. Specifically, the properties of the combined index PF/3 (performance factor obtained as average of three terms), widely employed in current literature, have been considered. A new index named standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS), employed in multidimensional scaling techniques, is recommended. The main difference between PF/3 and STRESS is that the latter is simpler and allows inferences on the statistical significance of two color-difference formulas with respect to a given set of visual data.

  2. Preventive Use of a Resin-based Desensitizer Containing Glutaraldehyde on Tooth Sensitivity Caused by In-office Bleaching: A Randomized, Single-blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Acs; Lima, Snl; Tavarez, RRdJ; Borges, A H; Pinto, Scs; Tonetto, M R; Loguercio, A D; Bandéca, M C

    2018-03-23

    To evaluate the risk and intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity (TS) after in-office bleaching following topical application of a resin-based glutaraldehyde desensitizer. Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (Gluma Desensitizer Liquid, Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) and placebo groups. The placebo or Gluma Desensitizer Liquid was applied for one minute prior to application of an in-office bleaching gel. Bleaching was performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel (three applications × 15 minutes each) over two sessions, one week apart. The color of the anterior teeth was evaluated before and 21 days after treatment using the VITA Classical shade guide, Bleachedguide 3D, and Easyshade spectrophotometer. TS during and after the bleaching was recorded according to the visual analog (VAS) and numerical rating (NRS) scales. All data were submitted to statistical analysis (α=0.05). There was no significant difference in absolute risk or intensity of TS between the two groups (risk and VAS, p=0.93 and 0.31, respectively; NRS, p≥0.45). At the end of the bleaching protocol, tooth whitening was observed in both groups, as evident from color change in shade guide units (ΔSGU, 4.1-7.1; both guides) and overall color change (ΔE, 7.4-9.3 units); however, there were no significant differences in whitening between the two groups ( p>0.11). Gluma Desensitizer Liquid was not able to reduce the risk or intensity of TS. Bleaching efficacy was not affected by application of the desensitizer.

  3. Ecological Effects in Cross-Cultural Differences Between U.S. and Japanese Color Preferences.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Schloss, Karen B; Asano, Michiko; Palmer, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    We investigated cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese color preferences and the ecological factors that might influence them. Japanese and U.S. color preferences have both similarities (e.g., peaks around blue, troughs around dark-yellow, and preferences for saturated colors) and differences (Japanese participants like darker colors less than U.S. participants do). Complex gender differences were also evident that did not conform to previously reported effects. Palmer and Schloss's (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure was used to test the Ecological Valence Theory's (EVT's) prediction that within-culture WAVE-preference correlations should be higher than between-culture WAVE-preference correlations. The results supported several, but not all, predictions. In the second experiment, we tested color preferences of Japanese-U.S. multicultural participants who could read and speak both Japanese and English. Multicultural color preferences were intermediate between U.S. and Japanese preferences, consistent with the hypothesis that culturally specific personal experiences during one's lifetime influence color preferences. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator.

    PubMed

    Wroe, Stephen; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip; Ridgely, Ryan; Witmer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already

  5. The Rachitic Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Nociti, Francisco H.; Somerman, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Teeth are mineralized organs composed of three unique hard tissues, enamel, dentin, and cementum, and supported by the surrounding alveolar bone. Although odontogenesis differs from osteogenesis in several respects, tooth mineralization is susceptible to similar developmental failures as bone. Here we discuss conditions fitting under the umbrella of rickets, which traditionally referred to skeletal disease associated with vitamin D deficiency but has been more recently expanded to include newly identified factors involved in endocrine regulation of vitamin D, phosphate, and calcium, including phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked, fibroblast growth factor 23, and dentin matrix protein 1. Systemic mineral metabolism intersects with local regulation of mineralization, and factors including tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase are necessary for proper mineralization, where rickets can result from loss of activity of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. Individuals suffering from rickets often bear the additional burden of a defective dentition, and transgenic mouse models have aided in understanding the nature and mechanisms involved in tooth defects, which may or may not parallel rachitic bone defects. This report reviews dental effects of the range of rachitic disorders, including discussion of etiologies of hereditary forms of rickets, a survey of resulting bone and tooth mineralization disorders, and a discussion of mechanisms, known and hypothesized, involved in the observed dental pathologies. Descriptions of human pathology are augmented by analysis of transgenic mouse models, and new interpretations are brought to bear on questions of how teeth are affected under conditions of rickets. In short, the rachitic tooth will be revealed. PMID:23939820

  6. Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (Δl), chroma (Δc), hue (Δh) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, Δl and Δh values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and Δc values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P < 0.05). At the end of the procedure both spectrophotometric and digital imaging analysis showed ZWB was the most effective product among the others while Yotuel and Happy Smile were the least (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Home-bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

  7. The prevalence, aetiology and clinical appearance of tooth wear: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Oginni, O; Olusile, A O

    2002-08-01

    To establish the prevalence and severity of tooth wear among Nigerians and to compare the pattern and aetiology with findings of earlier studies in Western populations. Clinical examinations for tooth wear using the tooth wear index (TWI). The Federal Republic of Nigeria. Patients attending the Dental Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital's Complex Ile-Ife. Attrition, abrasion and erosion. Of the 126 patients with tooth wear 81 had attrition, 20 had abrasion, 9 had erosion and 16 had attrition and abrasion combined. A total of 15,480 tooth surfaces were examined. 2,229 (14.4%) surfaces had tooth wear out of which 1,007 (6.5%) were pathologically worn down. The frequency of tooth wear increased with the age of patients. Most of the pathologically worn surfaces were just one point above maximum acceptable value. The aetiological factors associated with tooth wear are not different from those encountered in Western cultures but the pattern of wear differs. Pathological tooth wear presents as an age related phenomenon and is probably more severe in Nigerians.

  8. Influence of illuminants on the color distribution of shade guides.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2006-12-01

    Although a shade tab in a shade guide is matched to a natural tooth in the order of value, hue, and chroma, there are limited data on the color distribution of currently available shade guides sorted by these 3 parameters. Furthermore, spectrophotometric color measurements of shade tabs differ depending on the standard illuminant employed. The purpose of this study was to determine the color distributions of 2 shade guides in value (CIE L( *)), chroma (C( *)(ab)) and hue angle (h(o)) scale relative to the standard illuminants D(65), A, and F2. Color of shade tabs (n=36) from 2 shade guides (Vita Lumin and Chromascop) were measured, and the distributions for CIE L( *), C( *)(ab) and h(o) values were compared. Color differences of shade tabs depending on the illuminant were calculated. The distributions of the ratios of CIE L( *) and C( *)(ab) values of each shade tab compared with the lowest value tab or the lowest chroma tab were determined. The data for the value, chroma, and hue angle within each shade guide were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA with the factors of shade designation and type of illuminant (alpha=.05). Color difference caused by change of illuminant was analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA with the factors of shade designation and pair of illuminants compared (alpha=.05). The Scheffe multiple comparison test was performed as a post hoc test. CIE L( *), C( *)(ab) and h(o) values were influenced by shade designation and type of illuminant in both shade guides. Color difference caused by change of the illuminant was influenced by the shade designation and pair of illuminants compared. The order of mean color differences of 16 Vita Lumin shade tabs by pairs of illuminants compared was as follows: DeltaE( *)(ab) (D(65)/F2) = 1.63 color differences of 20 Chromascop shade tabs was as follows: DeltaE( *)(ab) (D(65)/F2) = 2.45

  9. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  10. A numerical algorithm of tooth profile of non-circular cylindrical gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    Non-circular cylindrical gear (NCCG) is a common form of non-circular gear. Different from the circular gear, the tooth profile equation of NCCG cannot be obtained. So it is necessary to use a numerical algorithm to calculate the tooth profile of NCCG. For this reason, this paper presents a simple and highly efficient numerical algorithm to obtain the tooth profile of NCCG. Firstly, the mathematical model of tooth profile envelope of NCCG is established based on the principle of gear shaping, and the tooth profile envelope of NCCG is obtained. Secondly, the polar radius and polar angle of shaper cutter tooth profile are chosen as the criterions, by which the points of NCCG tooth cogging can be screened out. Finally, the boundary of tooth cogging points is extracted by a distance criterion and correspondingly the tooth profile of NCCG is obtained.

  11. Preschoolers' speed of locating a target symbol under different color conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Carlin, Michael; Jagaroo, Vinoth

    2006-06-01

    A pressing decision in AAC concerns the organization of aided visual symbols. One recent proposal suggested that basic principles of visual processing may be important determinants of how easily a symbol is found in an array, and that this, in turn will influence more functional outcomes like symbol identification or use. This study examined the role of color on accuracy and speed of symbol location by 16 preschool children without disabilities. Participants searched for a target stimulus in an array of eight stimuli. In the same-color condition, the eight stimuli were all red; in the guided search condition, four of the stimuli were red and four were yellow; in the unique-color condition, all stimuli were unique colors. Accuracy was higher and reaction time was faster when stimuli were unique colors than when they were all one color. Reaction time and accuracy did not differ under the guided search and the color-unique conditions. The implications for AAC are discussed.

  12. [Analysis of different health status based on characteristics of the facial spectrum photometric color].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiatuo; Wu, Hongjin; Lu, Luming; Tu, Liping; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the difference of facial color of people with different health status by spectral photometric color measuring technique according to the theory of facial color diagnosis in Internal Classic. We gathered the facial color information about the health status of persons in healthy group (183), sub-healthy group (287) and disease group (370) respectively. The information included L, a, b, C values and reflection of different wavelengths in 400-700nm with CM-2600D spectral photometric color measuring instrument on 8 points. The results indicated that overall complexion color values of the people in the three groups were significantly different. The persons in the disease group looked deep dark in features. The people in the sub-healthy group looked pale in features. The loci L, a, b, C values were with varying degrees of significant differences (P < 0.05) at 6 points among the groups, and the central position of the face in all the groups was the position with most significant differences. Comparing the facial color information at the same point of the people in the three groups, we obtained each group's diagnostic special point. There existed diagnostic values in distinguishing disease status and various status of health in some degree by spectral photometric color measuring technique. The present method provides a prosperous quantitative basis for Chinese medical inspection of the complexion diagnosis.

  13. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Color Differences within High Contrast, Low Power Reversible Electrophoretic Displays

    DOE PAGES

    Giera, Brian; Bukosky, Scott; Lee, Elaine; ...

    2018-01-23

    Here, quantitative color analysis is performed on videos of high contrast, low power reversible electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-based displays operated under different applied voltages. This analysis is coded in an open-source software, relies on a color differentiation metric, ΔE * 00, derived from digital video, and provides an intuitive relationship between the operating conditions of the devices and their performance. Time-dependent ΔE * 00 color analysis reveals color relaxation behavior, recoverability for different voltage sequences, and operating conditions that can lead to optimal performance.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Color Differences within High Contrast, Low Power Reversible Electrophoretic Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Giera, Brian; Bukosky, Scott; Lee, Elaine

    Here, quantitative color analysis is performed on videos of high contrast, low power reversible electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-based displays operated under different applied voltages. This analysis is coded in an open-source software, relies on a color differentiation metric, ΔE * 00, derived from digital video, and provides an intuitive relationship between the operating conditions of the devices and their performance. Time-dependent ΔE * 00 color analysis reveals color relaxation behavior, recoverability for different voltage sequences, and operating conditions that can lead to optimal performance.

  16. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    PubMed

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  17. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  18. Practical whole-tooth restoration utilizing autologous bioengineered tooth germ transplantation in a postnatal canine model

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Mitsuaki; Oshima, Masamitsu; Ogawa, Miho; Sonoyama, Wataru; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Oida, Yasutaka; Shinkawa, Shigehiko; Nakajima, Ryu; Mine, Atsushi; Hayano, Satoru; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Kasugai, Shohei; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Kuboki, Takuo

    2017-01-01

    Whole-organ regeneration has great potential for the replacement of dysfunctional organs through the reconstruction of a fully functional bioengineered organ using three-dimensional cell manipulation in vitro. Recently, many basic studies of whole-tooth replacement using three-dimensional cell manipulation have been conducted in a mouse model. Further evidence of the practical application to human medicine is required to demonstrate tooth restoration by reconstructing bioengineered tooth germ using a postnatal large-animal model. Herein, we demonstrate functional tooth restoration through the autologous transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ in a postnatal canine model. The bioengineered tooth, which was reconstructed using permanent tooth germ cells, erupted into the jawbone after autologous transplantation and achieved physiological function equivalent to that of a natural tooth. This study represents a substantial advancement in whole-organ replacement therapy through the transplantation of bioengineered organ germ as a practical model for future clinical regenerative medicine. PMID:28300208

  19. Spectrophotometric analysis of the effectiveness of a novel in-office laser-assisted tooth bleaching method using Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Koumpia, Effimia; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted in-office tooth bleaching method with a conventional method by spectrophotometric analysis of the tooth color change. Furthermore, the influence of the application time of the bleaching gel on the effectiveness of the methods and the maintenance of the results 7 days and 1 month after the treatments were also evaluated. Twenty-four bovine incisors were stained and randomly distributed into four groups. Group 1 specimens received an in-office bleaching treatment with 35% H 2 O 2 for 2 × 15 min. Group 2 specimens received the same treatment but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). In Group 3, the same in-office bleaching procedure (2 × 15 min) was carried out as that in Group 1, using Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation for 2 × 15 s on each specimen to catalyze the reaction of H 2 O 2 breakdown. Group 4 specimens received the same bleaching treatment as Group 3 but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted tooth bleaching treatment is more effective than the conventional treatment regarding color change of the teeth. Application time of the bleaching agent may influence the effectiveness of the methods. The color change of the tested treatments decreases after 7 days and 1 month. The clinical relevance of this study is that this novel laser-assisted bleaching treatment may be more advantageous in color change and application time compared to the conventional bleaching treatment.

  20. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2017-02-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  1. Diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography according to different color map opacities for breast masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hana; Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography (SWE) according to three different color map opacities for breast masses 101 patients aged 21-77 years with 113 breast masses underwent B-mode US and SWE under three different color map opacities (50%, 19% and 100%) before biopsy or surgery. Following SWE features were reviewed: visual pattern classification (pattern 1-4), color homogeneity (Ehomo) and six-point color score of maximum elasticity (Ecol). Combined with B-mode US and SWE, the likelihood of malignancy (LOM) was also scored. The area under the curve (AUC) was obtained by ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic performance under each color opacity. A visual color pattern, Ehomo, Ecol and LOM scoring were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions under all color opacities (P<0.001). For 50% opacity, AUCs of visual color pattern, Ecol, Ehomo and LOM scoring were 0.902, 0.951, 0.835 and 0.975. But, for each SWE feature, there was no significant difference in the AUC among three different color opacities. For all color opacities, visual color pattern and Ecol showed significantly higher AUC than Ehomo. In addition, a combined set of B-mode US and SWE showed significantly higher AUC than SWE alone for color patterns, Ehomo, but no significant difference was found in Ecol. Qualitative SWE was useful to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesion under all color opacities. The difference in color map opacity did not significantly influence diagnostic performance of SWE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of in-office whitening gel pH on hydrogen peroxide diffusion through enamel and color changes in bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pignoly, Christian; Camps, Lila; Susini, Guy; About, Imad; Camps, Jean

    2012-04-01

    To assess the influence of in-office whitening gel pH on whitening efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion and color changes on bovine teeth were assessed. Three gels with close hydrogen peroxide concentrations but with various pH levels were tested: Zoom 2 (Discus Dental), Opalescence Endo and Opalescence Boost (Ultradent). The pH levels were respectively: 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0. Thirty enamel slices and tooth crowns were used for both studies (n = 10 per group per study). Hydrogen peroxide diffusion through the enamel slices and the tooth crowns was spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Color changes were spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour and quantified in term of CIE-Lab. The hydrogen peroxide diffusion coefficient through enamel ranged from 5.12 +/- 0.82 x 10(-9) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3 to 5.19 +/- 0.92 x 10(-9) cm2 S(-1) for pH 7. Through tooth crowns it ranged from 4.80 +/- 1.75 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 5 to 4.85 +/- 1.82 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3. After 1 hour, the deltaE varied from 5.6 +/- 4.0 for pH 7 to 7.0 +/- 5.0 for pH 3 on enamel slices and from 3.9 +/- 2.5 for pH 5 to 4.9 +/- 3.5 for pH 7 on tooth crowns. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for both parameters.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in 3D tooth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongji; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-03-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was implemented in a three dimensional tooth model to simulate the light propagation in the tooth for antibiotic photodynamic therapy and other laser therapy. The goal of this research is to estimate the light energy deposition in the target region of tooth with given light source information, tooth optical properties and tooth structure. Two use cases were presented to demonstrate the practical application of this model. One case was comparing the isotropic point source and narrow beam dosage distribution and the other case was comparing different incident points for the same light source. This model will help the doctor for PDT design in the tooth.

  4. The prevalence of tooth discolouration and the self-satisfaction with tooth colour in a Chinese urban population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Zhou, X D; Zhu, W C; Zhang, B; Li, J Y; Xu, X

    2007-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth discolouration, self-satisfaction with tooth colour, and correlation with socio-demographic-behavioural factors in adults and teenagers in Chengdu, China. A cross-sectional survey. 405 Chinese urban adults and teenagers from a multistage random probability sample. Tooth colour was measured on the maxillary central incisors using a colorimeter. Tooth discolouration was determined according to the discolouration level figure and evaluation criteria. Self-satisfaction with tooth colour was assessed on a five-point qualitative scale. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software. The mean values for L*, a* and b* were 70.67 (s.d. 1.91), 4.29 (s.d. 2.05) and 17.51 (s.d. 4.13), respectively. Age and sex were the most important factors associated with tooth colour (P < 0.05). About half of the study population (48.9%) suffered from some tooth discolouration, and 52.6% were dissatisfied with their tooth colour. Education and smoking were significant factors affecting self-satisfaction with tooth colour (P < 0.05). Tooth discolouration is common among the Chinese, and many Chinese are dissatisfied with their tooth colour. Self-satisfaction with tooth colour decreased with increasing severity of discolouration. Further research is needed to determine types of tooth discolouration among broader regions in China.

  5. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  6. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

  7. Properties of tooth enamel in great apes.

    PubMed

    Lee, James J-W; Morris, Dylan; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Smith, Tanya M; Lawn, Brian R

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study has been made of human and great ape molar tooth enamel. Nanoindentation techniques are used to map profiles of elastic modulus and hardness across sections from the enamel-dentin junction to the outer tooth surface. The measured data profiles overlap between species, suggesting a degree of commonality in material properties. Using established deformation and fracture relations, critical loads to produce function-threatening damage in the enamel of each species are calculated for characteristic tooth sizes and enamel thicknesses. The results suggest that differences in load-bearing capacity of molar teeth in primates are less a function of underlying material properties than of morphology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Clinical Study of the 3D-Master Color System among the Spanish Population.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Gómez-Polo, Miguel; Martínez Vázquez de Parga, Juan Antonio; Celemín-Viñuela, Alicia

    2017-01-12

    To study whether the shades of the 3D-Master System were grouped and represented in the chromatic space according to the three-color coordinates of value, chroma, and hue. Maxillary central incisor color was measured on tooth surfaces through the Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer using 1361 participants aged between 16 and 89. The natural (not bleached teeth) color of the middle thirds was registered in the 3D-Master System nomenclature and in the CIELCh system. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied. 75 colors of the 3D-Master System were found. The statistical analysis revealed the existence of 5 cluster groups. The centroid, the average of the 75 samples, in relation to lightness (L*) was 74.64, 22.87 for chroma (C*), and 88.85 for hue (h*). All of the clusters, except cluster 3, showed significant statistical differences with the centroid for the three-color coordinates (p <0.001). The results of this study indicated that 75 shades in the 3D-Master System were grouped into 5 clusters following coordinates L*, C*, and h* resulting from the dental spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade compact. The shades that composed each cluster did not belong to the same lightness color dimension groups. There was no special uniform chromatic distribution among the colors of the 3D-Master System. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. 12-month color stability of enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine samples after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Drebenstedt, Steffi; Roos, Malgorzata; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Attin, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The study aimed to quantify the color regression of enamel (E), dentine (D), and combined enamel-dentine (ED) of differently bleached ED specimens over a period of 12 months in vitro. Two ED samples were obtained from the labial surfaces of bovine teeth and prepared to a standardized thickness with the enamel and dentine layer each 1 mm. The ED samples were distributed on four groups (each n = 80), in which the different bleaching products were applied on enamel (1, Whitestrips; 2, Illuminé 15%; 3, Opalescence Xtra Boost) or dentine surfaces (4, mixture of sodium perborate/distilled water). Eighty ED samples were not bleached (control). Color (L*a*b*) of ED was assessed at baseline, subsequently after bleaching and at 3, 6, and 12 months of storage after bleaching (each 20 samples/group). E and D samples were prepared by removing the dentine or enamel layer of ED samples to allow for separate color analysis. Bleaching resulted in a significant color change (Delta E) of ED specimens. Within the observation period, Delta L but not Delta b declined to baseline. L* values of E and D samples also declined and were not significantly different from control samples after 12 months, while b* values did not decrease to baseline. Generally, no differences between the bleaching agents could be observed. Color change of enamel, dentine, and combined ED of in vitro bleached tooth samples is not stable over time with regard to lightness. However, yellowness did not return to baseline within 1 year.

  10. Cracked tooth syndrome: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Sadasiva, Kadandale; Ramalingam, Sathishmuthukumar; Rajaram, Krishnaraj; Meiyappan, Alagappan

    2015-08-01

    Cracked tooth syndrome (CTS), the term was coined by Cameron in 1964, which refers to an incomplete fracture of a vital posterior tooth extending to the dentin and occasionally into the pulp. CTS has always been a nightmare to the patient because of its unpredictable symptoms and a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner due to its variable, bizarre clinical presentation. The treatment planning and management of CTS has also given problems and challenges the dentist as there is no specific treatment option. The management of CTS varies from one case to another or from one tooth to another in the same individual based on the severity of the symptoms and depth of tooth structure involved. After all, the prognosis of such tooth is still questionable and requires continuous evaluation. This article aims at presenting a series three cases of CTS with an overview on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and the different treatment options that varies from one case to another.

  11. Cracked tooth syndrome: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Sadasiva, Kadandale; Ramalingam, Sathishmuthukumar; Rajaram, Krishnaraj; Meiyappan, Alagappan

    2015-01-01

    Cracked tooth syndrome (CTS), the term was coined by Cameron in 1964, which refers to an incomplete fracture of a vital posterior tooth extending to the dentin and occasionally into the pulp. CTS has always been a nightmare to the patient because of its unpredictable symptoms and a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner due to its variable, bizarre clinical presentation. The treatment planning and management of CTS has also given problems and challenges the dentist as there is no specific treatment option. The management of CTS varies from one case to another or from one tooth to another in the same individual based on the severity of the symptoms and depth of tooth structure involved. After all, the prognosis of such tooth is still questionable and requires continuous evaluation. This article aims at presenting a series three cases of CTS with an overview on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and the different treatment options that varies from one case to another. PMID:26538947

  12. Assessment of color stability of white mineral trioxide aggregate angelus and bismuth oxide in contact with tooth structure.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Costa, Reginaldo Mendonça; Camilleri, Josette; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2014-08-01

    Dental discoloration with use of materials containing bismuth oxide has been reported. It is postulated that the discoloration is a result of chemical interaction of bismuth oxide with dentin. The aim of the study was to analyze dental color alteration and the chemical interaction of bismuth oxide with the main components present in composite (methacrylate) and in dentin (collagen). Fifty bovine teeth were prepared and filled with white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, Portland cement (PC) with 20% zirconium oxide, or PC with 20% calcium tungstate and then sealed with composite. Triple antibiotic paste and unfilled samples were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The specimens were stored in separate flasks immersed in tap water at 37°C with ambient light blocked out. The color assessment was performed with a spectrophotometer at different intervals, namely before filling and 24 hours, 15 days, and 30 days after filling. The color change and the luminosity were calculated. The statistical analysis was performed by using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P < .05). The interaction of the bismuth oxide, zirconium oxide, and calcium tungstate with collagen and methacrylate was assessed by placing the materials in contact, followed by color assessment. The analysis of color change values showed that all the materials presented color alteration after the evaluated periods. Statistically higher luminosity was verified for PC/20% zirconium oxide in comparison with white MTA Angelus (P < .05). The teeth filled with white MTA Angelus demonstrated a grayish discoloration with evident dentin staining. Bismuth oxide exhibited a color change when in contact with collagen. The color of white MTA Angelus was altered in contact with dental structures. Collagen, which is present in dentin matrix, reacted with bismuth oxide, resulting in a grayish discoloration. The use of an alternative radiopacifier to replace bismuth in white MTA is indicated

  13. Influence of coping design on the cervical color of ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Paniz, Gianluca; Kang, Ki-Ho; Kim, Yongjeong; Kumagai, Naota; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    The replication of natural teeth, especially with single-tooth restorations, represents a challenge. Similar to metal ceramic crowns, different designs of zirconia substructures have been suggested to improve the esthetic results of zirconia ceramic crowns. The purpose of the study was to analyze the color of the cervical portion of single zirconia ceramic crowns fabricated with different zirconia coping designs. The color, measured on the CIELAB color scale, of 3 different groups of restorations (n=10) fabricated with zirconia coping (Lava) and feldspathic porcelain (Noritake Super Porcelain) was analyzed with a spectrophotometer. Conventional zirconia crowns with zirconia facial margins were compared with ceramic crowns with porcelain facial margins and either a horizontal reduction of the zirconia coping (1.0 mm reduction) or an additional vertical reduction (1.0 mm additional reduction). The 3 groups, each with a different coping extension, were examined with a 1-way ANOVA and the Fisher exact test, and the differences of the groups were evaluated by applying ΔE thresholds (α=.05). The mean color difference among all the groups was not clinically significant (ΔE<3.7). Reduced color differences were present between the 2 porcelain butt margin groups of crowns (ΔE=1.06, between group H and V). Increased differences were present between the zirconia margin group and the porcelain butt margin group (ΔE=2.54 between group C and H; ΔE=2.41 between group C and V). Lab* values were examined in all the groups of crowns to determine the clinical implications. Within the limitation of the study, no significant differences were present among the tested groups of crowns. Nevertheless, although some differences were present between the zirconia margin group and the porcelain butt margin group, reduced differences were present between the 2 different cutback designs. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc

  14. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry. PMID:17426012

  15. [Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zeng, Chang-chun; Cai, Xiu-yu; Guo, Rong-ping; Nie, Guang; Jin, Ying

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the optical data of tongue color of different syndromes in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) were detected by optical spectrum colorimetry, and the chromaticity of tongue color was compared and analyzed. The tongue color characteristics of different syndromes in PHC and the relationship between different syndromes and tongue color were also investigated. Tongue color data from 133 eligible PHC patients were collected by optical spectrum colorimetry and the patients were divided into 4 syndrome groups according to their clinical features. The syndrome groups were liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD), accumulation of damp-heat (ADH), deficiency of liver and kidney yin (DLKY), and qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS). The variation characteristics of chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength, excitation purity and the distribution in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) LAB uniform color space were measured. At the same time, the differences of overall chromatism, clarity, chroma, saturation and hue were also calculated and analyzed. PHC patients in different syndrome groups exhibited differences in chromaticity coordinates. The dominant wavelength of QSBS was distinctly different from that of the other 3 syndromes. Excitation purity in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01). Different syndromes in the CIE LAB color three-dimensional space showed differences in tongue color distribution areas. The CIE hue-angle value of QSBS was negative, and different from that of the other 3 syndromes (P<0.01). CIE chroma in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01), the same as excitation purity. In the comparison of chromatism, tongue color variations in different syndromes were quantified by human observation. This study shows that tongue color diagnosis according to the syndrome classifications of traditional Chinese medicine can be quantified with optical spectrum colorimetry

  16. Tooth-meshing-harmonic static-transmission-error amplitudes of helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, William D.

    2018-01-01

    The static transmission errors of meshing gear pairs arise from deviations of loaded tooth working surfaces from equispaced perfect involute surfaces. Such deviations consist of tooth-pair elastic deformations and geometric deviations (modifications) of tooth working surfaces. To a very good approximation, the static-transmission-error tooth-meshing-harmonic amplitudes of helical gears are herein expressed by superposition of Fourier transforms of the quantities: (1) the combination of tooth-pair elastic deformations and geometric tooth-pair modifications and (2) fractional mesh-stiffness fluctuations, each quantity (1) and (2) expressed as a function of involute "roll distance." Normalization of the total roll-distance single-tooth contact span to unity allows tooth-meshing-harmonic amplitudes to be computed for different shapes of the above-described quantities (1) and (2). Tooth-meshing harmonics p = 1, 2, … are shown to occur at Fourier-transform harmonic values of Qp, p = 1, 2, …, where Q is the actual (total) contact ratio, thereby verifying its importance in minimizing transmission-error tooth-meshing-harmonic amplitudes. Two individual shapes and two series of shapes of the quantities (1) and (2) are chosen to illustrate a wide variety of shapes. In most cases representative of helical gears, tooth-meshing-harmonic values p = 1, 2, … are shown to occur in Fourier-transform harmonic regions governed by discontinuities arising from tooth-pair-contact initiation and termination, thereby showing the importance of minimizing such discontinuities. Plots and analytical expressions for all such Fourier transforms are presented, thereby illustrating the effects of various types of tooth-working-surface modifications and tooth-pair stiffnesses on transmission-error generation.

  17. Effect of acidity of in-office bleaching gels on tooth sensitivity and whitening: a two-center double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, A D; Servat, F; Stanislawczuk, R; Mena-Serrano, A; Rezende, M; Prieto, M V; Cereño, V; Rojas, M F; Ortega, K; Fernandez, E; Reis, A

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to compare the tooth sensitivity (TS) and bleaching efficacy of two hydrogen peroxide gels with different pHs (acid pH [Pola Office, SDI] and the neutral pH [Pola Office+, SDI]) used for in-office bleaching. Fifty-four patients from Brazil and Chile, with right superior incisor darker than A2, were selected for this double-blind, split-mouth randomized trial. Teeth were bleached in two sessions, with 1-week interval. Each session had three applications of 8 min each, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The color changes were evaluated by subjective (Vita Classical and Vita Bleachedguide) and objective (Easy shade spectrophotometer) methods. Participants recorded TS with 0-10 visual analog scale. Color change in shade guide units (SGU) and ΔE was analyzed by Student's t test (α = 0.05). The absolute risk and intensity of TS were evaluated by McNemar's test and Wilcoxon-paired test, respectively (α = 0.05). All groups achieved the same level of whitening after 30 days of clinical evaluation. The use of a neutral in-office bleaching gel significantly decreases the absolute risk of TS (28%, 95% CI 18-41) and intensity of TS when compared to the acid bleaching gel (absolute risk of 50%, 95% CI 37-63). The use of a neutral in-office bleaching agent gel produced the same whitening degree than an acid bleaching gel but with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity. Clinicians should opt to use in-office bleaching with a neutral gel than an acid product because the former causes a significant lower risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity.

  18. Tooth loss patterns in older adults with special needs: a Minnesota cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to detail tooth loss patterns in older adults with special needs. A total of 491 elderly subjects with special needs were retrospectively selected and followed during 10/1999-12/2006. Medical, dental, cognitive, and functional assessments were abstracted from dental records and used to predict risk of tooth loss. Tooth loss events were recorded for subjects during follow-up. Chi-squared tests were used to study the association between tooth loss and the selected risk factors. Logistic, poisson, and negative binomial regressions were developed to study tooth loss patterns. Overall, 27% of the subjects lost at least one tooth during follow-up. Fourteen subjects had tooth loss events per 100 person-years. Tooth loss pattern did not differ significantly among different special-needs subgroups (i.e. community-dwelling vs. long-term care, physically disabled vs. functionally independent). Special-needs subjects with three or more active dental conditions at arrival had more than twice the risk of losing teeth than those without any existing conditions. After adjusting other factors, the number of carious teeth or retained roots at arrival was a significant predictor of tooth loss for older adults with special needs (P=0.001). These findings indicate that appropriately managing active caries and associated conditions is important to prevent tooth loss for older adults with special needs. PMID:21449213

  19. The creation of virtual teeth with and without tooth pathology for a virtual learning environment in dental education.

    PubMed

    de Boer, I R; Wesselink, P R; Vervoorn, J M

    2013-11-01

    To describe the development and opportunities for implementation of virtual teeth with and without pathology for use in a virtual learning environment in dental education. The creation of virtual teeth begins by scanning a tooth with a cone beam CT. The resulting scan consists of multiple two-dimensional grey-scale images. The specially designed software program ColorMapEditor connects these two-dimensional images to create a three-dimensional tooth. With this software, any aspect of the tooth can be modified, including its colour, volume, shape and density, resulting in the creation of virtual teeth of any type. This article provides examples of realistic virtual teeth with and without pathology that can be used for dental education. ColorMapEditor offers infinite possibilities to adjust and add options for the optimisation of virtual teeth. Virtual teeth have unlimited availability for dental students, allowing them to practise as often as required. Virtual teeth can be made and adjusted to any shape with any type of pathology. Further developments in software and hardware technology are necessary to refine the ability to colour and shape the interior of the pulp chamber and surface of the tooth to enable not only treatment but also diagnostics and thus create a greater degree of realism. The creation and use of virtual teeth in dental education appears to be feasible but is still in development; it offers many opportunities for the creation of teeth with various pathologies, although an evaluation of its use in dental education is still required. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and their effects on human enamel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Li, Jiajia; Liao, Susan; Ai, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and the effects thereof on tooth enamel. Before and after bleaching, stained tooth specimens were subjected to visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments using Vita Shade Guide and spectrophotometric shade matching. Enamel surface alterations were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze surface morphology, surface microhardness (SMH) measurement to determine changes in mechanical properties, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize post-bleaching enamel composition. Cold light bleaching successfully improved tooth color, with optimal efficacy when bleaching time was beyond 10 min. Significant differences in surface morphology were observed among the different bleaching times, but no significant differences were observed for enamel composition and surface microhardness among the different bleaching times. Results of this study revealed an association between the bleaching time of cold light bleaching and its whitening efficacy. Together with the results on enamel surface changes, this study provided positive evidence to support cold light bleaching as an in-office bleaching treatment.

  1. The prediction in computer color matching of dentistry based on GA+BP neural network.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisheng; Lai, Long; Chen, Li; Lu, Cheng; Cai, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of computer color matching can reduce the influence of subjective factors by technicians, matching the color of a natural tooth with a ceramic restoration is still one of the most challenging topics in esthetic prosthodontics. Back propagation neural network (BPNN) has already been introduced into the computer color matching in dentistry, but it has disadvantages such as unstable and low accuracy. In our study, we adopt genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the initial weights and threshold values in BPNN for improving the matching precision. To our knowledge, we firstly combine the BPNN with GA in computer color matching in dentistry. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the precision and prediction robustness of the color matching in restorative dentistry.

  2. Age estimation using tooth cementum annulation.

    PubMed

    Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    In Forensic Anthropology age diagnosis of unidentified bodies significantly helps in the identification process. Among the set of established aging methods in anthropology tooth cementum annulation (TCA) is increasingly used due to its narrow error range which can reach 5 years of age in adult individuals at best. The rhythm of cementum appositions of seasonally different density provides a principal mechanism on which TCA is based. Using histological preparation techniques for hard tissues, transversal tooth root sections are produced which can be analyzed in transmitted light microscopy. Even though no standard TCA preparation protocol exists, several methodological validation studies recommend specific treatments depending on individual conditions of the teeth. Individual age is estimated by adding mean tooth eruption age to the number of microscopically detected dark layers which are separated by bright layers and stand for 1 year of age each. To assure a high reliability of the method, TCA age diagnosis has to be based on several teeth of one individual if possible and needs to be supported by different techniques in forensic cases.

  3. Molecular Genetics of Supernumerary Tooth Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Ping; Fan, Jiabing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite advances in the knowledge of tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, relatively little is known about the aetiology and molecular mechanisms underlying supernumerary tooth formation. A small number of supernumerary teeth may be a common developmental dental anomaly, while multiple supernumerary teeth usually have a genetic component and they are sometimes thought to represent a partial third dentition in humans. Mice, which are commonly used for studying tooth development, only exhibit one dentition, with very few mouse models exhibiting supernumerary teeth similar to those in humans. Inactivation of Apc or forced activation of Wnt/β(catenin signalling results in multiple supernumerary tooth formation in both humans and in mice, but the key genes in these pathways are not very clear. Analysis of other model systems with continuous tooth replacement or secondary tooth formation, such as fish, snake, lizard, and ferret, is providing insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying succesional tooth development, and will assist in the studies on supernumerary tooth formation in humans. This information, together with the advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering, will pave ways for the tooth regeneration and tooth bioengineering. PMID:21309064

  4. Interactive Tooth Separation from Dental Model Using Segmentation Field

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tooth segmentation on dental model is an essential step of computer-aided-design systems for orthodontic virtual treatment planning. However, fast and accurate identifying cutting boundary to separate teeth from dental model still remains a challenge, due to various geometrical shapes of teeth, complex tooth arrangements, different dental model qualities, and varying degrees of crowding problems. Most segmentation approaches presented before are not able to achieve a balance between fine segmentation results and simple operating procedures with less time consumption. In this article, we present a novel, effective and efficient framework that achieves tooth segmentation based on a segmentation field, which is solved by a linear system defined by a discrete Laplace-Beltrami operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions. A set of contour lines are sampled from the smooth scalar field, and candidate cutting boundaries can be detected from concave regions with large variations of field data. The sensitivity to concave seams of the segmentation field facilitates effective tooth partition, as well as avoids obtaining appropriate curvature threshold value, which is unreliable in some case. Our tooth segmentation algorithm is robust to dental models with low quality, as well as is effective to dental models with different levels of crowding problems. The experiments, including segmentation tests of varying dental models with different complexity, experiments on dental meshes with different modeling resolutions and surface noises and comparison between our method and the morphologic skeleton segmentation method are conducted, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of our method. PMID:27532266

  5. The age of permanent tooth emergence in children of different ethnic origin in the Auckland region: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Schluter, Philip J

    2012-06-01

    To report robust and contemporary estimates of permanent teeth emergence ages in children of Māori, Pasifika, Chinese, Indian and European ethnic origin in the Auckland region. A stratified, two-stage cross-sectional study. Strata were defined by school decile status. Schools defined the first-stage sampling unit, and students the second stage. Invitations and consent forms were distributed to eligible participants at school for completion at home. Participants were examined at school-based clinics or in a mobile clinic. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Children aged between 5 and 13 years enrolled within the Auckland Regional Dental Service. Schools were randomly selected and then all students within selected schools were invited to participate. Eligible participants completing a consent form had an additional tooth assessment that complemented their routine dental examination. A generalised gamma failure-time model was employed to estimate permanent tooth eruption ages. Visually based assessment of permanent tooth emergence. Overall, 3,466 children participated. Differences in median permanent tooth emergence ages were seen among ethnic groups and sexes (P < or = 0.01). Pasifika children had earlier median eruption time than sex-matched Māori children, who (in turn) were more advanced than sex-matched European children. Median eruption age occurred earlier in girls than boys for all permanent teeth. Despite known demographic, geographic and ethnic differences, estimates of permanent teeth emergence timing widely used in New Zealand are based on historical overseas populations. The presented estimates provide new standards and may be more appropriate for dental therapists and dentists when assessing permanent teeth emergence in New Zealand children.

  6. Bcl-2 expression is essential for development and normal physiological properties of tooth hard tissue and saliva production.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Gurel, Zafer; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-09-15

    Apoptosis plays a fundamental role in appropriate tissue development and function. Although expression of Bcl-2 has been reported during tooth and submandibular gland (SMG) development, the physiological role Bcl-2 plays during these processes has not been addressed. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of Bcl-2 expression on the formation and properties of tooth hard tissue, and saliva production. Twenty-four mice (12 males and 12 females) were divided into three groups of eight (n=8): group A (Bcl-2 +/+), group B (Bcl-2 +/-), and group C (Bcl-2 -/-) and subjected to micro-CT analyses. The mineral content of first molars was analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) color dot map. The surface microhardness was determined by Vickers test on labial surfaces of incisors. Saliva was collected from different groups of mice after subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine. Samples from Bcl-2 -/- mice showed significantly smaller micro-CT values, lower and poor crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA), and lowest surface micro hardness. SMG from Bcl-2 -/- mice showed remarkable reduction in size, consistent with reduced saliva accumulation. The absence of Bcl-2 expression in SMG did not affect the expression of other Bcl-2 family members. Thus, Bcl-2 expression influence on the formation and properties of tooth hard tissue, and saliva accumulation. Bcl-2 expression has a significant impact on the mineralogical content of enamel crystals of tooth structure. Lack of Bcl-2 expression led to impaired production of enamel ACP crystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Color naming across languages reflects color use

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2017-01-01

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness. PMID:28923921

  8. Tooth coronal index and pulp/tooth ratio in dental age estimation on digital panoramic radiographs-A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Supreet; Nagi, Ravleen; Daga, Minal; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Shukla, Aastha; Parakh, Abhinav; Laheji, Afshan; Singh, Rahul

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of an age of an individual whether living or dead through teeth is one of the most reliable and simple method to calculate age than skeletal remains especially when they are in poor conditions. The study was carried out with aim of (i) to evaluate reliability of dental age assessment through two different methods for adults i.e. tooth coronal index and pulp/tooth ratio using digital panoramic radiographs and (ii) to compare these methods for their accuracy in age determination. The digital panoramic radiographs of 180 subjects of Chhattisgarh aged 15-70 years were selected for the study. The measurements were performed on the JPEG images of selected panoramic radiographs by using Adobe Acrobat 7.0 professional software. For tooth coronal index (TCI), height of the crown i.e. coronal height (CH) and the height of the coronal pulp cavity i.e. coronal pulp cavity height (CPCH) of mandibular second premolars and first molars was measured in millimeter (mm) and then TCI was calculated for each tooth and calculated age was compared with chronological age. For pulp/tooth ratio, the measurements of pulp chamber height (PCH) and crown root trunk height (CRTH) were performed on the mandibular first and second molar teeth, the pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratios (PCTHR) of selected tooth were calculated. The acquired data were subjected to Pearson correlation test, unpaired t test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results suggested that TCI (mandibular first molar r=-0.178), second premolar (r=-0.187) and PCTHR(mandibular first molar r=-0.921, second molar r=-0.901) correlated negatively with chronological age suggesting decrease in size of pulp cavity. Mandibular first molar was found to be most reliable tooth to estimate dental age. The study showed that both PCTHR and TCI have negative association with chronological age. PCTHR showed slightly higher negative correlation and proved as a better tool for age estimation than TCI. Statistically

  9. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  10. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  11. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies.

    PubMed

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  12. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  13. Complete denture tooth arrangement technology driven by a reconfigurable rule.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Yu, Xiaoling; Fan, Qilei; Yuan, Fulai; Liu, Lele; Sun, Yuchun

    2018-01-01

    The conventional technique for the fabrication of complete dentures is complex, with a long fabrication process and difficult-to-control restoration quality. In recent years, digital complete denture design has become a research focus. Digital complete denture tooth arrangement is a challenging issue that is difficult to efficiently implement under the constraints of complex tooth arrangement rules and the patient's individualized functional aesthetics. The present study proposes a complete denture automatic tooth arrangement method driven by a reconfigurable rule; it uses four typical operators, including a position operator, a scaling operator, a posture operator, and a contact operator, to establish the constraint mapping association between the teeth and the constraint set of the individual patient. By using the process reorganization of different constraint operators, this method can flexibly implement different clinical tooth arrangement rules. When combined with a virtual occlusion algorithm based on progressive iterative Laplacian deformation, the proposed method can achieve automatic and individual tooth arrangement. Finally, the experimental results verify that the proposed method is flexible and efficient.

  14. Characterization of glycosaminoglycans during tooth development and mineralization in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, J; Völker, W; Ehmcke, J; Clemen, G

    2003-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) involved in the formation of the teeth of Ambystoma mexicanum were located and characterized with the cuprolinic blue (CB) staining method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glycosaminoglycan-cuprolinic blue precipitates (GAGCB) were found in different compartments of the mineralizing tissue. Various populations of elongated GAGCB could be discriminated both according to their size and their preferential distribution in the extracellular matrix (ECM). GAGCB populations that differ in their composition could be attributed not only to the compartments of the ECM but also to different zones and to different tooth types (early-larval and transformed). Larger precipitates were only observed within the dentine matrix of the shaft of the early-larval tooth. The composition of the populations differed significantly between the regions of the transformed tooth: pedicel, shaft and dividing zone. In later stages of tooth formation, small-sized GAGCBs were seen as intracellular deposits in the ameloblasts. It is concluded that the composition of GAGCB populations seems to play a role in the mineralization processes during tooth development in A. mexicanum and influence qualitative characteristics of the mineral in different tooth types and zones, and it is suggested that GAGs might be resorbed by the enamel epithelium during the late phase of enamel formation.

  15. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Human pulpal blood flow in different root formation stages measured with transmitted-light plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Ganbold, Khongorzul; Kakino, Satoko; Ikeda, Hideharu; Miyashin, Michiyo

    2017-11-01

    To determine the pulp vitality after traumatic injury, dentists often use pulp sensitivity tests, which can be ambiguous in young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. Transmitted-light plethysmography (TLP) is a non-invasive objective method that uses a 525-nm LED to detect blood volume change in the pulp. The present study aimed (1) to investigate pulpal blood flow with TLP and optical characteristics in healthy permanent maxillary incisors in different root formation stages, and (2) to assess the influences of body growth of the children and tooth color on the TLP amplitude. Seventy-eight fully erupted maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups, according to the root formation stages. Group 1: root with wide-open apex, Group 2: root completed in length with open apex, Group 3: root with half-closed apex, Group 4: root with complete formation. The TLP amplitude, optical density, electric pulp testing, and cervical tooth color measurements of each group were compared using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni method. The correlation between the weights/heights of children and TLP amplitudes was analyzed using Pearson coefficient. The TLP amplitude was significantly higher in Group 3 than in the other groups. The amplitude was correlated with the weights/heights of children, but not with the tooth color. Optical density and electric sensitivity increased with tooth maturation. The amplitude of TLP and optical density may be affected by growth and development in children and indicate changes in the vascular dynamics of the pulp and hard tissue maturation during root formation stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of different shades of specific luting agents and IPS empress ceramic thickness on overall color.

    PubMed

    Terzioğlu, Hakan; Yilmaz, Burak; Yurdukoru, Bengul

    2009-10-01

    The color stability of both porcelain and luting materials is very important for the esthetics of laminate veneers and all-ceramic crowns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different shades of resin-based luting cement and the thickness of IPS Empress ceramics on the final color of the restorations. Resin-based dual-polymerized composite cement in two different shades (RelyX ARC) and ceramic disks of different thicknesses were selected for the study. Forty specimens (ten each of four different thicknesses: 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) were used for the evaluation. Initial specimen color parameters were determined in a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color order system with a colorimeter. Two different shades of the cement were prepared as polymerized layers and applied to one face of the specimens in order. Color changes were calculated between baseline color measurements and measurements after cementation. Color difference data were analyzed statistically. All specimens showed a significant color shift (DE > 3.7) after cementation regardless of the cement shade. However, the differences in the cement shade did not significantly affect the final color of the ceramic specimens for any thickness, and color shifts were not perceivable between the different shades of cement. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:499-505.).

  18. Using color management in color document processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  19. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  20. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet During Tooth Bleaching Gel Treatment.

    PubMed

    Šantak, Vedran; Zaplotnik, Rok; Tarle, Zrinka; Milošević, Slobodan

    2015-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was performed during atmospheric pressure plasma needle helium jet treatment of various tooth-bleaching gels. When the gel sample was inserted under the plasma plume, the intensity of all the spectral features increased approximately two times near the plasma needle tip and up to two orders of magnitude near the sample surface. The color change of the hydroxylapatite pastille treated with bleaching gels in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was found to be in correlation with the intensity of OH emission band (309 nm). Using argon as an additive to helium flow (2 L/min), a linear increase (up to four times) of OH intensity and, consequently, whitening (up to 10%) of the pastilles was achieved. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet activates bleaching gel, accelerates OH production, and accelerates tooth bleaching (up to six times faster).

  1. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; dos Santos, Thiago Rezende; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce. This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care. The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model. An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates. In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates. PMID:26632688

  2. Calculation of color difference and measurement of the spectrum of aerosol based on human visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mengyan; Liu, Jianghai; Cui, Jianlin; Chen, Chunsheng; Jia, Peng

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem of the quantitative test of spectrum and color of aerosol, the measurement method of spectrum of aerosol based on human visual system was proposed. The spectrum characteristics and color parameters of three different aerosols were tested, and the color differences were calculated according to the CIE1976-L*a*b* color difference formula. Three tested powders (No 1# No 2# and No 3# ) were dispersed in a plexglass box and turned into aerosol. The powder sample was released by an injector with different dosages in each experiment. The spectrum and color of aerosol were measured by the PRO 6500 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The experimental results showed that the extinction performance of aerosol became stronger and stronger with the increase of concentration of aerosol. While the chromaticity value differences of aerosols in the experiment were so small, luminance was verified to be the main influence factor of human eye visual perception and contributed most in the three factors of the color difference calculation. The extinction effect of No 3# aerosol was the strongest of all and caused the biggest change of luminance and color difference which would arouse the strongest human visual perception. According to the sensation level of chromatic color by Chinese, recognition color difference would be produced when the dosage of No 1# powder was more than 0.10 gram, the dosage of No 2# powder was more than 0.15 gram, and the dosage of No 3# powder was more than 0.05 gram.

  3. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P., E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 ofmore » the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.« less

  4. Innovative Design and Performance Evaluation of Bionic Imprinting Toothed Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Tong, Jin; Stephen, Carr

    2018-01-01

    A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel. Characteristics in the dung beetle's foreleg end-tooth were extracted and studied by the edge detection technique. Then, this special outer contour curve was modeled by a nine-order polynomial function and used for the innovative design of imprinting the tooth's cutting edge. Both the conventional and bionic teeth were manufactured, and traction tests in a soil bin were conducted. Taking required draft force and volume of imprinted microbasin as the evaluating indexes, operating efficiency and quality of different toothed wheels were compared and investigated. Results indicate that compared with the conventional toothed wheel, a bionic toothed wheel possesses a better forward resistance reduction property against soil and, meanwhile, can enhance the quality of soil imprinting by increasing the volume of the created micro-basin. PMID:29515651

  5. Innovative Design and Performance Evaluation of Bionic Imprinting Toothed Wheel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Tong, Jin; Stephen, Carr

    2018-01-01

    A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel. Characteristics in the dung beetle's foreleg end-tooth were extracted and studied by the edge detection technique. Then, this special outer contour curve was modeled by a nine-order polynomial function and used for the innovative design of imprinting the tooth's cutting edge. Both the conventional and bionic teeth were manufactured, and traction tests in a soil bin were conducted. Taking required draft force and volume of imprinted microbasin as the evaluating indexes, operating efficiency and quality of different toothed wheels were compared and investigated. Results indicate that compared with the conventional toothed wheel, a bionic toothed wheel possesses a better forward resistance reduction property against soil and, meanwhile, can enhance the quality of soil imprinting by increasing the volume of the created micro-basin.

  6. [Esthetic analysis on immediate single-tooth implant restoration in anterior maxilla].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-wei; Wang, Guo-shi; Sha, Yan-zhi

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the esthetic outcomes of immediate single-tooth implant restoration in anterior maxilla with the pink esthetic score (PES). Nine patients were treated with 9 Straumann implants by immediate single-tooth implant restoration in anterior maxilla. Assessment of PES after crown placement at 1 week (baseline) and 6 months after implantation was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software package. Nine implants achieved a retention rate of 100%. PES for single-tooth implant was 10.33 ± 1.50 at 1 week and 11.44 ± 0.88 at 6 months after crown placement. The difference was significant(P=0.021). This study indicates that immediate single-tooth implant restoration in anterior maxilla is predictable. Immediate single-tooth implantation can result in good clinical esthetic results in most patients with single-tooth missing in anterior maxilla.

  7. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  8. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band.

  9. [The use of computer-aided colorimeter in porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns among patients with special colored teeth].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-fei; Weng, Wei-min

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the roll of ShadeEye-NCC, a computer-aided colorimeter, in Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal crowns among patients with special colored Teeth. The first step was to choose the proper patients. The next was to use the colorimeter to measure the base shade of tooth and fabricate the PFM crowns according to the recipe given by the colorimeter. At last, the effects of the PFM crowns were evaluated subjectively by patients and doctor. The satisfaction rates of patients and doctor were 83.7% and 81.4% respectively, there was no significant difference between the two rates. The computer-aided colorimeter can offer good base shade recipe for fabricating PFM crowns of patients with special colored teeth.

  10. Labial soft tissue volume evaluation of different techniques for ridge preservation after tooth extraction: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Annen, Beat M; Ronay, Valerie; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Attin, Thomas; Jung, Ronald E

    2014-06-01

    To volumetrically evaluate soft tissue changes of different ridge preservation techniques compared to spontaneous healing 6 months after tooth extraction. In each of 40 patients, one single-rooted tooth was extracted and four treatment modalities were randomly assigned to the following groups (n = 10 each): A) ß-tricalcium-phosphate-particles with a polylactid coating (ß-TCP), B) demineralized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen covered with a collagen matrix (DBBM-C/CM), C) DBBM with 10% collagen covered with an autogenous soft tissue punch graft (DBBM-C/PG), D) spontaneous healing (control). Impressions were obtained before extraction and 6 months later, casts were digitized and volumetric changes at the buccal soft tissues were determined. One-way anova was performed and pair-wise Wilcoxon rank sum test with Bonferroni-Holm method was applied for comparison of differences between two groups. After 6 months, horizontal contour changes accounted for -1.7 ± 0.7 mm (A), -1.2 ± 0.5 mm (B), -1.2 ± 0.7 mm (C) and -1.8 ± 0.8 mm (D). None of the group comparisons reached statistical significance. Six months after tooth extraction all groups revealed a horizontal volume change in the buccal soft tissue contour. Application of DBBM-C/CM or DBBM-C/PG reduced the amount of volume resorption compared to ß-TCP or spontaneous healing without reaching statistically significant difference. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tooth sensitivity with a desensitizing-containing at-home bleaching gel-a randomized triple-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Maran, Bianca Medeiros; Vochikovski, Laína; de Andrade Hortkoff, Diego Rafael; Stanislawczuk, Rodrigo; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    Desensitizing agents are usually included in the composition of bleaching agents to reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity (TS). This randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluated the risk and intensity of TS and color change after at-home bleaching with a desensitizing-containing (3% potassium nitrate and 0.2% sodium fluoride) and desensitizing-free 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel (Whiteness Perfect, FGM). A triple-blind, within-person RCT was conducted on 60 caries-free adult patients. Each participant used the gel in a bleaching tray for 3 h daily for 21 days in both the upper and lower dental arches. The absolute risk and intensity of TS were assessed daily through the 0-10 VAS and NRS scale for 21 days. Color change was recorded using shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita Bleachedguide) and the Easyshade spectrophotometer at baseline, weekly and 30 days after the end of the bleaching. The risk and intensity of TS were evaluated by the McNemar and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, respectively. Color change (ΔSGU and ΔE) were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney test and a paired t-test, respectively (α = 0.05). No difference in the TS and color change was observed (p > 0.05). The incorporation of potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride in 10% carbamide peroxide at-home bleaching gel tested in this study did not reduce the TS and did not affect color change (RBR-4M6YR2). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H.; Visscher, Corine M.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. PMID:27694757

  13. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H; Visscher, Corine M; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Color in Reference Production: The Role of Color Similarity and Color Codability.

    PubMed

    Viethen, Jette; van Vessem, Thomas; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-05-01

    It has often been observed that color is a highly preferred attribute for use in distinguishing descriptions, that is, referring expressions produced with the purpose of identifying an object within a visual scene. However, most of these observations were based on visual displays containing only colors that were maximally different in hue and for which the language of experimentation possessed basic color terms. The experiments described in this paper investigate whether speakers' preference for color is reduced if the color of the target referent is similar to that of the distractors. Because colors that look similar are often also harder to distinguish linguistically, we also examine the impact of the codability of color values. As a third factor, we investigate the salience of available alternative attributes and its impact on the use of color. The results of our experiments show that, while speakers are indeed less likely to use color when the colors in a display are similar, this effect is mostly due to the difficulty in naming similar colors. Color use for color with a basic color term is affected only when the colors of target and distractors are very similar (yet still distinguishable). The salience of our alternative attribute size, manipulated by varying the difference in size between target and distractors, had no impact on the use of color. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Distinct developmental genetic mechanisms underlie convergently evolved tooth gain in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Nicholas A.; Glazer, Andrew M.; Donde, Nikunj N.; Cleves, Phillip A.; Agoglia, Rachel M.; Miller, Craig T.

    2015-01-01

    Teeth are a classic model system of organogenesis, as repeated and reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions pattern placode formation and outgrowth. Less is known about the developmental and genetic bases of tooth formation and replacement in polyphyodonts, which are vertebrates with continual tooth replacement. Here, we leverage natural variation in the threespine stickleback fish Gasterosteus aculeatus to investigate the genetic basis of tooth development and replacement. We find that two derived freshwater stickleback populations have both convergently evolved more ventral pharyngeal teeth through heritable genetic changes. In both populations, evolved tooth gain manifests late in development. Using pulse-chase vital dye labeling to mark newly forming teeth in adult fish, we find that both high-toothed freshwater populations have accelerated tooth replacement rates relative to low-toothed ancestral marine fish. Despite the similar evolved phenotype of more teeth and an accelerated adult replacement rate, the timing of tooth number divergence and the spatial patterns of newly formed adult teeth are different in the two populations, suggesting distinct developmental mechanisms. Using genome-wide linkage mapping in marine-freshwater F2 genetic crosses, we find that the genetic basis of evolved tooth gain in the two freshwater populations is largely distinct. Together, our results support a model whereby increased tooth number and an accelerated tooth replacement rate have evolved convergently in two independently derived freshwater stickleback populations using largely distinct developmental and genetic mechanisms. PMID:26062935

  16. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Avilmar Passos; Jacques, Letícia Borges; Dantas, Luciana; Mathias, Paula; Mallmann, André

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application.

  17. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  18. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  19. Associations between bacteremia from oral sources and distant-site infections: tooth brushing versus single tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Farah K Bahrani; Saunders, Sabrina E; Brennan, Michael T; Lockhart, Peter B

    2015-04-01

    To determine the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) on the incidence of bacteremia caused by oral bacterial species associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and to compare the incidence of following tooth brushing versus single tooth extraction. Bacterial species in blood following single tooth extraction, with or without AP, and tooth brushing(1) were compared with IE- and PJI-associated bacteria reported in the literature. Of the 98 bacterial species identified in blood following single tooth extraction and tooth brushing, 32(1) and 12 were species were associated with IE and PJI, respectively. AP decreased the frequency of IE- and PJI-causing oral bacterial species in blood; however, single tooth extraction versus brushing resulted in bacteremia with IE- and PJI-causing species with similar frequencies: 65% versus 56% for IE, and 31% versus 28% for PJI. Although AP significantly decreased the incidence of bacteremia, the similarity between the incidence of bacteremia following brushing and extraction undermines AP as an effective strategy for the prevention of these distant-site infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fgf signaling is required for zebrafish tooth development.

    PubMed

    Jackman, William R; Draper, Bruce W; Stock, David W

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition with the goal of uncovering novel roles for FGFs in tooth development as well as phylogenetic and topographic diversity in the tooth developmental pathway. We found that the tooth-related expression of several zebrafish genes is similar to that of their mouse orthologs, including both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression between zebrafish and mouse teeth are indicated by the apparent lack of fgf8 and pax9 expression in zebrafish tooth germs. FGF receptor inhibition with SU5402 at 32 h blocked dental epithelial morphogenesis and tooth mineralization. While the pharyngeal epithelium remained intact as judged by normal pitx2 expression, not only was the mesenchymal expression of lhx6 and lhx7 eliminated as expected from mouse studies, but the epithelial expression of dlx2a, dlx2b, fgf3, and fgf4 was as well. This latter result provides novel evidence that the dental epithelium is a target of FGF signaling. However, the failure of SU5402 to block localized expression of pitx2 suggests that the earliest steps of tooth initiation are FGF-independent. Investigations of specific FGF ligands with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides revealed only a mild tooth shape phenotype following fgf4 knockdown, while fgf8 inhibition revealed only a subtle down-regulation of dental dlx2b expression with no apparent effect on tooth morphology. Our results suggest redundant FGF signals target the dental epithelium and together are required for dental morphogenesis. Further work will be required to elucidate the nature of these signals, particularly with respect to their origins and whether they act through the mesenchyme.

  1. Desire for tooth bleaching and treatment performed in Brazilian adults: findings from a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando Barcellos da; Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Correa, Marcos Britto

    2018-03-08

    Population-based studies estimating the prevalence of tooth bleaching desire or the percentage of individuals who had performed this treatment are rare. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the desire to perform tooth bleaching and the prevalence of adult individuals who had performed the treatment and investigate the association of these outcomes. A subsample (n = 536) of the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort in southern Brazil was investigated at the ages 15, 24 and 31 by clinical examinations and interviews. The prevalence of bleaching at 31 years was 15.6% [95%CI 12.6-18.9] while 85.9% [95%CI 82.7-88.7] reported they desired the treatment. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that individuals who have visited the dentist within the last year showed a treatment prevalence ratio (PR) 2.31 times [95%CI 1.40-3.83] higher compared with those who had the last dental visit more than a year before the interview. Similarly, individuals with smoking habits presented an elevated PR of 1.60 [95%CI 1.00-2.55], and the low-income trajectory group showed the largest PR of desire for tooth bleaching (1.17 [95%CI 1.07-1.28]). Moreover, individuals from the high-risk caries trajectory group presented a higher prevalence of desire for tooth bleaching than individuals from low caries trajectory group. Individuals who have declared being "dissatisfied" with their dental color presented a prevalence of desire for tooth bleaching 16% greater than "satisfied" ones. Thus, the present findings confirm that tooth bleaching has become a frequently desired dental treatment to improve dental aesthetics in the population and a considerable rate of adults has performed the treatment.

  2. Social ranking effects on tooth-brushing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John; Paterson, Kevin; Day, Liz; Jones, Ceri; Kinnear, Hayley; Buchanan, Heather

    2016-05-01

    A tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis is tested suggesting tooth-brushing duration is influenced when individuals position their behaviour in a rank when comparing their behaviour with other individuals. Study 1 used a correlation design, Study 2 used a semi-experimental design, and Study 3 used a randomized intervention design to examine the tooth-brushing social rank hypothesis in terms of self-reported attitudes, cognitions, and behaviour towards tooth-brushing duration. Study 1 surveyed participants to examine whether the perceived health benefits of tooth-brushing duration could be predicted from the ranking of each person's tooth-brushing duration. Study 2 tested whether manipulating the rank position of the tooth-brushing duration influenced participant-perceived health benefits of tooth-brushing duration. Study 3 used a longitudinal intervention method to examine whether messages relating to the rank positions of tooth-brushing durations causally influenced the self-report tooth-brushing duration. Study 1 demonstrates that perceptions of the health benefits from tooth-brushing duration are predicted by the perceptions of how that behaviour ranks in comparison to other people's behaviour. Study 2 demonstrates that the perceptions of the health benefits of tooth-brushing duration can be manipulated experimentally by changing the ranked position of a person's tooth-brushing duration. Study 3 experimentally demonstrates the possibility of increasing the length of time for which individuals clean their teeth by focusing on how they rank among their peers in terms of tooth-brushing duration. The effectiveness of interventions using social-ranking methods relative to those that emphasize comparisons made against group averages or normative guidelines are discussed. What is already known on this subject? Individual make judgements based on social rank information. Social rank information has been shown to influence positive health behaviours such as exercise

  3. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina C; Oliveira, Maria J; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M

    2011-09-03

    Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p < 0.001). When observed by the examiner, the frequencies of dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits, indicative of reporting bias. Data

  4. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p < 0.001). When observed by the examiner, the frequencies of dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits

  5. Aggravated loss of tooth structure.

    PubMed

    Barsby, M J

    1989-09-01

    Self-inflicted tooth modification other than ritual mutilation practised in some countries is a rare occurrence. The author reports a case of aggravated loss of tooth structure where a patient has contributed to loss of tooth structure by the novel method of adjusting his natural teeth with a 'knife'. Subsequent management of the case is discussed.

  6. Microabrasion in tooth enamel discoloration defects: three cases with long-term follow-ups

    PubMed Central

    SUNDFELD, Renato Herman; SUNDFELD-NETO, Daniel; MACHADO, Lucas Silveira; FRANCO, Laura Molinar; FAGUNDES, Ticiane Cestari; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2014-01-01

    Superficial irregularities and certain intrinsic stains on the dental enamel surfaces can be resolved by enamel microabrasion, however, treatment for such defects need to be confined to the outermost regions of the enamel surface. Dental bleaching and resin-based composite repair are also often useful for certain situations for tooth color corrections. This article presented and discussed the indications and limitations of enamel microabrasion treatment. Three case reports treated by enamel microabrasion were also presented after 11, 20 and 23 years of follow-ups. PMID:25141208

  7. Pre-operative use of dexamethasone does not reduce incidence or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. A triple-blind, parallel-design, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    da Costa Poubel, Luiz Augusto; de Gouvea, Cresus Vinicius Deppes; Calazans, Fernanda Signorelli; Dip, Etyene Castro; Alves, Wesley Veltri; Marins, Stella Soares; Barcelos, Roberta; Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira

    2018-04-25

    This study evaluated the effect of the administration of pre-operative dexamethasone on tooth sensitivity stemming from in-office bleaching. A triple-blind, parallel-design, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 volunteers who received dexamethasone or placebo capsules. The drugs were administered in a protocol of three daily 8-mg doses of the drug, starting 48 h before the in-office bleaching treatment. Two bleaching sessions with 37.5% hydrogen peroxide gel were performed with a 1-week interval. Tooth sensitivity (TS) was recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) and numeric rating scales (NRS) in different periods up to 48 h after bleaching. The color evaluations were also performed. The absolute risk of TS and its intensity were evaluated by using Fisher's exact test. Comparisons of the TS intensity (NRS and VAS data) were performed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test, respectively. In both groups, a high risk of TS (Dexa 80% x Placebo 94%) was detected. No significant difference was observed in terms of TS intensity. A whitening of approximately 3 shade guide units of the VITA Classical was detected in both groups, which were statistically similar. It was concluded that the administration pre-operatively of dexamethasone, in the proposed protocol, does not reduce the incidence or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. The use of dexamethasone drug before in-office bleaching treatment does not reduce incidence or intensity of tooth sensitivity. NCT02956070.

  8. Color standardization in whole slide imaging using a color calibration slide

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Yagi, Yukako

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color consistency in histology images is still an issue in digital pathology. Different imaging systems reproduced the colors of a histological slide differently. Materials and Methods: Color correction was implemented using the color information of the nine color patches of a color calibration slide. The inherent spectral colors of these patches along with their scanned colors were used to derive a color correction matrix whose coefficients were used to convert the pixels’ colors to their target colors. Results: There was a significant reduction in the CIELAB color difference, between images of the same H & E histological slide produced by two different whole slide scanners by 3.42 units, P < 0.001 at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Color variations in histological images brought about by whole slide scanning can be effectively normalized with the use of the color calibration slide. PMID:24672739

  9. Risk Assessment for Tooth Wear.

    PubMed

    Kontaxopoulou, Isavella; Alam, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    Tooth wear has an increasing prevalence in the UK population. The aetiology is commonly multifactorial, and the aetiopathology is through a combination of erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is associated with intrinsic or extrinsic acids, and therefore subjects with reflux disease and eating disorders are at increased risk. Fruit juice, fruits and carbonated drink consumption, frequency of consumption and specific habits are also risk factors. Attrition is more prevalent in bruxists. Other habits need to be considered when defining the risk of tooth wear. Abrasion is usually associated with toothbrushing and toothpastes, especially in an already acidic environment. Patients with extensive lesions that affect dentin may be at higher risk, as well as those presenting with unstained lesions. Monitoring of the progress of tooth wear is recommended to identify those with active tooth wear. Indices for tooth wear are a helpful aid.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative three-dimensional accuracy of a single tooth captured by elastomeric impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Oliver; Schmidt, Monika; Goebel, Roland; Kuepper, Harald

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of impressions has been described in 1 or 2 dimensions, whereas it is most desirable to evaluate the accuracy of impressions spatially, in 3 dimensions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of a 3-dimensional (3-D) approach to assessing impression preciseness and to quantitatively comparing the occlusal correctness of gypsum dies made with different impression materials. By using an aluminum replica of a maxillary molar, single-step dual viscosity impressions were made with 1 polyether/vinyl polysiloxane hybrid material (Identium), 1 vinyl polysiloxane (Panasil), and 1 polyether (Impregum) (n=5). Corresponding dies were made of Type IV gypsum and were optically digitized and aligned to the virtual reference of the aluminum tooth. Accuracy was analyzed by computing mean quadratic deviations between the virtual reference and the gypsum dies, while deviations of the dies among one another determined the reproducibility of the method. The virtual reference was adapted to create 15 occlusal contact points. The percentage of contact points deviating within a ±10 µm tolerance limit (PDP(10) = Percentage of Deviating Points within ±10 µm Tolerance) was set as the index for assessing occlusal accuracy. Visual results for the difference from the reference tooth were displayed with colors, whereas mean deviation values as well as mean PDP(10) differences were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc comparisons (α=.05). Objective characterization of accuracy showed smooth axial surfaces to be undersized, whereas occlusal surfaces were accurate or enlarged when compared to the original tooth. The accuracy of the gypsum replicas ranged between 3 and 6 µm, while reproducibility results varied from 2 to 4 µm. Mean (SD) PDP(10)-values were: Panasil 91% (±11), Identium 77% (±4) and Impregum 29% (±3). One-way ANOVA detected significant differences among the subjected impression materials (P<.001). The accuracy

  11. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  12. [The effect of osteogenic inducer on healing of tooth extraction sockets].

    PubMed

    Chen, Junliang; Shan, Chuncheng; He, Yun; Xia, Delin

    2012-06-01

    To study the effect of osteogenic inducer (dexamethasone, beta-sodium glycerophosphate and Vitamin C) carried by gelatin sponge on healing and remodeling of tooth extraction sockets. Fifty rabbits were selected. After extracting the first premolars of bilateral maxillary, the right side tooth extraction sockets were filled with gelatin sponge containing osteogenic inducer as experimental side, tooth extraction sockets on left side were filled with gelatin sponge as control. Every ten rabbits were executed at the end of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after tooth extraction. Bone density was measured through digital X-ray images. The specimens were examined by histology. The absorption height of alveolar bone at 12 weeks was measured. X-ray measurement showed that the bone density of experimental side was higher than that of control side at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the difference had statistical significance (P<0.01). The histology examination showed that new bone formation in tooth extraction sockets of experimental side was earlier than that in control side. The absorptional height of alveolar bone had significant difference between experimental side and control side (P<0.01), of which experimental side was less. Filling the osteogenic inducer in tooth extraction sockets can promote the healing and new bone formation and prevent from alveolar bone absorption.

  13. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times

    PubMed Central

    GALVÃO, Avilmar Passos; JACQUES, Letícia Borges; DANTAS, Luciana; MATHIAS, Paula; MALLMANN, André

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Material and methods Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. Results The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Conclusion Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application. PMID:21308286

  14. Color polymorphic lures target different visual channels in prey.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas E; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-06-01

    Selection for signal efficacy in variable environments may favor color polymorphism, but little is known about this possibility outside of sexual systems. Here we used the color polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-banded dorsal signal attracts dipteran prey, to test the hypothesis that morphs may be tuned to optimize either chromatic or achromatic conspicuousness in their visually noisy forest environments. We used data from extensive observations of naturally existing spiders and precise assessments of visual environments to model signal conspicuousness according to dipteran vision. Modeling supported a distinct bias in the chromatic (yellow morph) or achromatic (white morph) contrast presented by spiders at the times when they caught prey, as opposed to all other times at which they may be viewed. Hence, yellow spiders were most successful when their signal produced maximum color contrast against viewing backgrounds, whereas white spiders were most successful when they presented relatively greatest luminance contrast. Further modeling across a hypothetical range of lure variation confirmed that yellow versus white signals should, respectively, enhance chromatic versus achromatic conspicuousness to flies, in G. fornicata's visual environments. These findings suggest that color polymorphism may be adaptively maintained by selection for conspicuousness within different visual channels in receivers. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Factors that determin color appearance and color classification.

    PubMed

    Janelidze, D

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to consider the objective and subjective factors involved in color perception and on their basis offer a color classification that would allow for determining which of these factors are significant for each particular class of colors. In the first part of the article it is considered that physical correlates of subjective sensation of color have mainly a dual nature and sometimes correlate with spectral-power content of light coming from a given area of visual scene to retina, and sometimes with surface reflectance of the given area. Other objective and subjective factors which participate in the formation of color appearance are also considered. According to the characteristics of the visual stimulus, viewing conditions and functional state of visual system, composition of objective and subjective factors participating in the formation of color appearance, as well as the share of each factor in this process are changeable. In the second part of the article one of the possible version of color classification according to which it is possible to distinguish nine different classes of colors is proposed. Among differences between these classes, the most noticeable is that in the case of all classes of color except constant colors, the physical parameter that determines the color category of a given area is the spectral-power distribution of the light coming from this area to the retina. However, in the case of constant colors, the physical parameter that determines the color category of a given area is its reflectance. In the case of considered different classes of colors, composition of objective and subjective factors participating in the formation of color appearance is different. The proposed classification allows determining which of these factors are significant in the case of each specific class of color.

  16. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  17. Tooth fracture risk analysis based on a new finite element dental structure models using micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Fan, W; Mishra, S; El-Atem, A; Schuetz, M A; Xiao, Y

    2012-10-01

    The finite element (FE) analysis is an effective method to study the strength and predict the fracture risk of endodontically-treated teeth. This paper presents a rapid method developed to generate a comprehensive tooth FE model using data retrieved from micro-computed tomography (μCT). With this method, the inhomogeneity of material properties of teeth was included into the model without dividing the tooth model into different regions. The material properties of the tooth were assumed to be related to the mineral density. The fracture risk at different tooth portions was assessed for root canal treatments. The micro-CT images of a tooth were processed by a Matlab software programme and the CT numbers were retrieved. The tooth contours were obtained with thresholding segmentation using Amira. The inner and outer surfaces of the tooth were imported into Solidworks and a three-dimensional (3D) tooth model was constructed. An assembly of the tooth model with the periodontal ligament (PDL) layer and surrounding bone was imported into ABAQUS. The material properties of the tooth were calculated from the retrieved CT numbers via ABAQUS user's subroutines. Three root canal geometries (original and two enlargements) were investigated. The proposed method in this study can generate detailed 3D finite element models of a tooth with different root canal enlargements and filling materials, and would be very useful for the assessment of the fracture risk at different tooth portions after root canal treatments. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Color naming: color scientists do it between Munsell sheets of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high dynamic range imaging and wide gamut color spaces, gamut mapping algorithms have to nudge image colors much more drastically to constrain them within a rendering device's gamut. Classical colorimetry is concerned with color matching and the developed color difference metrics are for small distances. For larger distances, categorization becomes a more useful concept. In the gamut mapping case, lexical distance induced by color names is a more useful metric, which translates to the condition that a nudged color may not cross a name boundary. The new problem is to find these color name boundaries. We compare the experimental procedures used for color naming by linguists, ethnologists, and color scientists and propose a methodology that leads to robust repeatable experiments.

  19. Influence of surface layer removal of shade guide tabs on the measured color by spectrophotometer and spectroradiometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Cheol; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-12-01

    To determine the changes in color parameters of Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide tabs by a spectrophotometer (SP) or a spectroradiometer (SR), and by the removal of the surface layer of the tabs that was performed to make a flat measuring surface for the SP color measurement. Color of the shade tabs was measured before and after removing the surface layer of the tabs using SP and SR. Correlations between the color parameters between the original (OR) and the surface layer removed (RM) tabs and between the SP and the SR measurements were determined (alpha=0.05). Based on SP, the lightness, chroma, CIE a* and b* values measured after the surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases. Based on SR, the chroma and CIE a* and b* values measured after surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases; however, in case of the lightness, the changes varied by the shade designation. Type of instrument influenced the changes in color parameters based on paired t-test (p<0.05). The color parameters of the OR and RM tabs showed correlations based on both SP and SR measurements (r=0.952-0.997 and p<0.01); however, color difference between the SP-RM and SR-OR tabs was in the range of 18.1-27.0 DeltaE(ab)(*) units (mean: 23.3+/-2.2). When the color of tooth-shaped objects is measured with a spectrophotometer or a spectroradiometer, measurement protocols should be specified because color difference by the surface layer removal and the instrument was high.

  20. Clarifying color category border according to color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Takumi; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2015-01-01

    We usually recognize color by two kinds of processes. In the first, the color is recognized continually and a small difference in color is recognized. In the second, the color is recognized discretely. This process recognizes a similar color of a certain range as being in the same color category. The small difference in color is ignored. Recognition by using the color category is important for communication using color. It is known that a color vision defect confuses colors on the confusion locus of color. However, the color category of a color vision defect has not been thoroughly researched. If the color category of the color vision defect is clarified, it will become an important key for color universal design. In this research, we classified color stimuli into four categories to check the shape and the border of the color categories of varied color vision. The experimental result was as follows. The border of protanopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.3068x + 0.4795, y = -0.1906x + 0.4021, y = -0.2624x + 0.3896. The border of deuteranopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.7931x + 0.7036, y = -0.718x + 0.5966, y = -0.6667x + 0.5061.

  1. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  2. Effect of Children's Drinks on Color Stability of Different Dental Composites: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ahmed Nour El-Din Ahmed; Abdelmoniem, Soad Abdelmoniem; Mahmoud, Sara Ahmed

    To assess the effect of four different children's drinks on color stability of resin dental composites. A total of one hundred and twenty specimens were prepared from Grandio SO, Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z250 XT (forty specimens each). Specimens were thermocycled, then each group was further subdivided into four subgroups (n=10) according to the immersion media which were chocolate milk, mango juice, orange fizzy drink, and water (control). The initial color parameters of each specimen were recorded before immersion (baseline) and color change values were recorded three and seven days after immersion in each solution using a digital spectrophotometer. Atomic force microscope was used to measure the surface roughness in randomly selected samples after one week immersion in children's drinks. All the children's drinks produced color changes in the examined resin dental composites, yet there was no statistical significant difference between the effects of tested drinks on the color changes (mean ΔE) of the three different dental composites (P>0.05). All tested children's drinks caused clinically unacceptable color changes of the tested resin dental composites. Immersion in chocolate milk and orange fizzy led to the highest color changes in the tested resin dental composites.

  3. Promoting positive health behaviours--'tooth worm' phenomenon and its implications.

    PubMed

    Gao, X L; Hsu, C Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B

    2012-03-01

    'Tooth worm' is a traditional belief about the pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay). Nevertheless, in our previous study, parental 'tooth worm' belief was linked to a reduced caries risk of their children. This study aimed to further characterize the impact of parental 'tooth worm' belief on their children's caries experience and its psychobehavioural mechanisms. analytic observational study. Thirteen randomly selected kindergartens in Singapore. 1,782 preschoolers aged 3-6 years. Each child received an oral examination and microbiological tests. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic background, oral health knowledge/attitude and child's oral health habits. Multivariate analysis confirmed a reduced chance of 'high caries rate' (number of affected teeth > 2) among children whose parents held the 'tooth worm' belief (Odds Ratio = 0.41; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.19-0.89). With such perception among parents, children brushed their teeth more frequently (p = 0.042). Since no difference in oral hygiene was observed, the health benefit of the "tooth worm" perception may be acquired through the delivery of fluoride (an agent with proven anti-caries effect) during frequent toothbrushing episodes. This study revealed a 'tooth worm' phenomenon, indicating that parental 'tooth worm' belief is associated with early establishment of regular toothbrushing habit and reduction of dental caries in children. This phenomenon and its psychobehavioural mechanisms, enriching our understanding of oral health behaviours, have implications for effective health education.

  4. Color Vision in Color Display Night Vision Goggles.

    PubMed

    Liggins, Eric P; Serle, William P

    2017-05-01

    Aircrew viewing eyepiece-injected symbology on color display night vision goggles (CDNVGs) are performing a visual task involving color under highly unnatural viewing conditions. Their performance in discriminating different colors and responding to color cues is unknown. Experimental laboratory measurements of 1) color discrimination and 2) visual search performance are reported under adaptation conditions representative of a CDNVG. Color discrimination was measured using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm that probes color space uniformly around a white point. Search times in the presence of different degrees of clutter (distractors in the scene) are measured for different potential symbology colors. The discrimination data support previous data suggesting that discrimination is best for colors close to the adapting point in color space (P43 phosphor in this case). There were highly significant effects of background adaptation (white or green) and test color. The search time data show that saturated colors with the greatest chromatic contrast with respect to the background lead to the shortest search times, associated with the greatest saliency. Search times for the green background were around 150 ms longer than for the white. Desaturated colors, along with those close to a typical CDNVG display phosphor in color space, should be avoided by CDNVG designers if the greatest conspicuity of symbology is desired. The results can be used by CDNVG symbology designers to optimize aircrew performance subject to wider constraints arising from the way color is used in the existing conventional cockpit instruments and displays.Liggins EP, Serle WP. Color vision in color display night vision goggles. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):448-456.

  5. Tooth movements in foxhounds after one or two alveolar corticotomies.

    PubMed

    Sanjideh, Payam A; Rossouw, P Emile; Campbell, Phillip M; Opperman, Lynne A; Buschang, Peter H

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this split-mouth experimental study was to determine (1) whether corticotomy procedures increase tooth movement and (2) the effects of a second corticotomy procedure after 4 weeks on the rate of tooth movement. The mandibular third and maxillary second premolars of five skeletally mature male foxhounds, approximately 2 years of age, were extracted. One randomly selected mandibular quadrant had buccal and lingual flaps and corticotomies performed around the second premolar; the other quadrant served as the control. Both maxillary quadrants had initial buccal flaps and corticotomies; one randomly selected quadrant had a second buccal flap surgery and corticotomy after 28 days. Coil springs (200 g force), along with a 0.045 mm diameter tube on a 0.040 mm diameter guiding wire, were used to move the mandibular second and maxillary third premolars. Records, including digital calliper measurements and radiographs, were taken on days 0, 10, 14, 28, 42, and 56. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to model longitudinal tooth movements. The radiographic measurements initially showed increasing mandibular tooth movement rates, peaking between 22 and 25 days, and then decelerating. Total mandibular tooth movements were significantly (P < 0.05) greater on the experimental (2.4 mm) than on the control (1.3 mm) side. The rates of maxillary tooth movement slowed over time, with significantly (P < 0.05) more overall tooth movement on the side that had two (2.3 mm) than one (2.0 mm) corticotomy procedure. Alveolar corticotomy significantly increases orthodontic tooth movement. Performing a second corticotomy procedure after 4 weeks maintained higher rates of tooth movement over a longer duration and produced greater overall tooth movement than performing just one initial corticotomy, but the difference was small.

  6. The effect of the buccal corridor and tooth display on smile attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Arab, Sepideh; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Imani, Mohammad Moslem

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the lay perception of the effect of the buccal corridor and amount of tooth-gingival display on the attractiveness of a smile in different facial types. Using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software, frontal facial images of two smiling Iranian female subjects (one short-faced and one long-faced) were altered to create different magnitudes of buccal corridor display (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) and tooth-gingival display (2 mm central incisor show, 6 mm central incisor show, total central incisor show, total tooth show with 2 mm gingival show and total tooth show with 4 mm gingival show). Sixty Iranians (30 males and 30 females) rated the attractiveness of the pictures on a 1-5 point scale. Narrower smiles were preferred in long-faced subjects compared with short-faced subjects. Minimal tooth show was more attractive than excessive gingival display in short-faced subjects. There were no gender specific, statistically significant differences found in the ratings given by the lay assessors. Harmonious geometry of the smile and face in both the vertical and transverse dimensions influences smile attractiveness and this should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning.

  7. New color vision tests to evaluate faulty color recognition.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kaoru; Okajima, Osamu; Nishio, Yoshiteru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    To develop and assess new color vision tests to be used in evaluating faulty color recognition. We developed new color vision tests to evaluate faulty color recognition. The two types of color vision tests, designed to assess faulty color recognition in color vision deficiencies, are based on principles that are different from those of the conventional color vision tests. In the first test plate, the subject is asked to choose either a red, green, or gray line from among 10 lines that are randomly colored red, green, gray, yellow, or blue. The score is the difference between the number of correct answers and the number of incorrect answers. In the second test plate, the subject is asked to identify a total of 10 red azalea blossoms, which are dispersed among numerous green leaves. Seventy-five persons with congenital color deficiencies and 20 subjects with normal color vision were examined using these new test plates. The scores differed significantly between dichromats and anomalous trichromats, and between anomalous trichromats and subjects with normal color vision. The new tests are easy to use, sensitive, and have good reproducibility for use in discriminating subjects with color vision anomalies. These tests reveal the faulty color recognition that occurs unconsciously in persons with color deficiencies, and are useful in judging the quantification of color vision required in their daily life and occupations.

  8. [Tooth wear, a proposal for an evaluation system].

    PubMed

    Wetselaar, P; van der Zaag, J; Lobbezoo, F

    2011-06-01

    The present-day terminology and definitions of tooth wear are not unambiguous. For diagnosing tooth wear, however, it is essential that they are unambiguous. In this article a proposal is presented for a tooth wear evaluation system with simplified definitions. This system consists ofa number of modules and can be used for various aspects of the diagnostic procedure. It can be used for the quantification of tooth wear, both for periodic screening and for the monitoring of tooth wear in individual patients. The scoring of occlusal/incisal tooth wear as well as of non-occlusal/non-incisal tooth wear is possible. The evaluative system is also suitable for determining which type of tooth wear, such as attrition, abrasion and erosion, is most likely to have caused any observed loss of hard tooth tissue.

  9. Application of passive imaging polarimetry in the discrimination and detection of different color targets of identical shapes using color-blind imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saba, A. M.; Alam, M. S.; Surpanani, A.

    2006-05-01

    Important aspects of automatic pattern recognition systems are their ability to efficiently discriminate and detect proper targets with low false alarms. In this paper we extend the applications of passive imaging polarimetry to effectively discriminate and detect different color targets of identical shapes using color-blind imaging sensor. For this case of study we demonstrate that traditional color-blind polarization-insensitive imaging sensors that rely only on the spatial distribution of targets suffer from high false detection rates, especially in scenarios where multiple identical shape targets are present. On the other hand we show that color-blind polarization-sensitive imaging sensors can successfully and efficiently discriminate and detect true targets based on their color only. We highlight the main advantages of using our proposed polarization-encoded imaging sensor.

  10. Orientation of an Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, towards objects of different shapes and colors

    Treesearch

    Baode Wang; David R. Lance; Joseph A. Francese; Zhichun Xu; Fengyong Jia; Youqing Luo; Victor C. Mastro

    2003-01-01

    Silhouettes of different colors, shapes and sizes made of bamboo frames covered with cloth, paired in different color sets, were placed equidistantly around the perimeter of a circle with a 7.5 m radius, in an open area.

  11. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Change in color and loss of marginal adaptation of tooth colored restorative materials is not acceptable. Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs) under in vivo conditions. Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bleaching on color change and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect CLVs over a period of time when exposed to the oral environment. For this purpose, a total of 14 subjects irrespective of age and sex indicated for CLV restorations on maxillary anterior teeth were selected following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For each subject, indirect CLVs were fabricated and looted in the first quadrant (Group 1) and direct CLV's (Group 2), were given in the second quadrant. Color change was assessed clinically using intra-oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal adaptation was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth-restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. After 6 months, the subjects underwent a home bleaching regimen for 14 days using 10% carbamide peroxide. The assessment of color change and marginal adaptation was done at 6 months after veneering (0-180 days), immediately after the bleaching regimen (0-194 days) and 3 months after the bleaching regimen (0-284 days). The difference in median color change (ΔE) between the groups was tested using Wilcoxon rank sum test while the median color change with time within the groups was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The difference in the rates of marginal adaptation was tested between the groups using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Bleaching led to statistically significant color change at cervical (CE), middle and incisal (IE) regions when direct and indirect composites were compared (P < 0.05). During intra-group comparison, direct CLV's showed significant color change at CE and IE regions when

  12. CYTOTOXICITY OF INTERMAXILLARY ORTHODONTIC ELASTICS OF DIFFERENT COLORS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Natural latex does not fall into the category of materials known to be entirely inoffensive. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the cytotoxicity between elastics of different colors and those from different manufacturers. Material and Methods: Different latex intraoral elastics of different colors (5/16 = 7.9 mm, mean load) were compared. The sample was divided into 7 groups of 24 elastics each: Group T (TP Orthodontics, natural latex elastics, control); Groups U1, U2, U3, U4, U5 and U6 (Uniden, natural latex elastics and colored elastics, namely, green, pink, yellow, red and purple, respectively). Cytotoxicity assays were performed by using cell culture medium containing epithelioid-type cells (Hep-2 line) derived from human laryngeal carcinoma. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using the "dye-uptake" test, which was employed at two different moments (0 and 24 h). Data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between Group T and all other groups (U1, U2, U3, U4, U5 and U6) at 0 and 24 h. No statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found between Groups U1 and U5, U1 and U6, U2 and U3, U2 and U4, U2 and U5, U2 and U6, U3 and U4, U3 and U5, U3 and U6, U4 and U5, U4 and U6, and U5 and U6 at 0 and 24 h. Conclusions: The TP Orthodontics elastics promoted less cell lysis compared to the Uniden elastics regardless of their color. PMID:19668992

  13. Study of the kinematic and load sharing properties of wormgearing with non-symmetric tooth profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometry of non-symmetric tooth profiles, i.e. tooth profiles with different pressure angles on the two sides of the tooth, is studied. A feasible non-symmetric tooth profile for application in helicopter transmissions is laid out as the best compromise among several conflicting factors. The non-symmetric tooth profile is then compared with the symmetric tooth profile studied previously. Based on the detailed comparisons it is concluded that the use of the non-symmetric tooth profile would severely limit the face width of the worm, consequently reduce the number of meshing teeth and cause much higher normal load on the individual gear teeth.

  14. Color categories affect pre-attentive color perception.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Alexandra; Holmes, Amanda; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Categorical perception (CP) of color is the faster and/or more accurate discrimination of colors from different categories than equivalently spaced colors from the same category. Here, we investigate whether color CP at early stages of chromatic processing is independent of top-down modulation from attention. A visual oddball task was employed where frequent and infrequent colored stimuli were either same- or different-category, with chromatic differences equated across conditions. Stimuli were presented peripheral to a central distractor task to elicit an event-related potential (ERP) known as the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). The vMMN is an index of automatic and pre-attentive visual change detection arising from generating loci in visual cortices. The results revealed a greater vMMN for different-category than same-category change detection when stimuli appeared in the lower visual field, and an absence of attention-related ERP components. The findings provide the first clear evidence for an automatic and pre-attentive categorical code for color. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of light irradiation on tooth whitening: enamel microhardness and color change.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Francci, Carlos; Medeiros, Igor Studart; De Godoy Froes Salgado, Nívea Regina; Riehl, Heraldo; Marasca, José Milton; Muench, Antônio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) (15% hydrogen peroxide + plasm arc; 4 x 20 minutes), Britesmile + No Light (BN) (BL, no light), Pola office + Light (PL) (35% hydrogen peroxide + LED; 4 x 8 minutes), and Pola office + No light (PN) (PL, no light). Color changes (DeltaE) and the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage, L* a* b* color system) parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were assessed with a spectrophotometer before (B), immediately (A), 1 day and 7 days after bleaching. The microhardness was measured before (B) and after (A), the obtained data were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance, and DeltaE were submitted to t-test for each period. Only Pola Office, in which the peroxide is associated with the light, improved DeltaE when evaluated immediately after bleaching (p < 0.001). Light exposure did not influence DeltaE after 1 day or 7 days for either bleaching system. The enamel microhardness was not altered after bleaching for BriteSmile. However, enamel microhardness was reduced after bleaching for Pola Office, 283 MPa (+/-21) and 265 MPa (+/-27), respectively. It was concluded that these two bleaching systems were efficient regardless of the light systems used. However, the 35% hydrogen peroxide altered the enamel microhardness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Enamel microhardness was affected by a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching therapy. Moreover, the in-office bleaching outcome was not improved by using the light associated with systems tested in this study. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:387-396, 2009).

  16. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  17. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  18. [Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism].

    PubMed

    Vujasković, Mirjana; Karadzić, Branislav; Miletić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  19. Cultural Differences in Color/Form Preference and in Classificatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W. H. O.; Nzimande, A.

    1970-01-01

    Cross-cultural data was collected on color/form preference and the ability to classify among Zulu children and adults. Significant differences were found attributable to factors of Western-type schooling, literacy, and urban or rural life. (NH)

  20. New Perspectives on Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Peter W.; Omar, Ridwaan

    2012-01-01

    Some of the efforts that have been made to document tooth wear are reviewed here with an emphasis on nonhuman mammals, literature with which dentists may not be very familiar. We project a change in research strategy from the description of wear at various scales of measurement towards investigation of the mechanical mechanisms that actually create the texture of a worn surface. These studies should reveal exactly how tooth tissue is lost and what aspects of the structure of dental tissues affect this. The most important aspects of the interaction between the tooth surface and wear particles would appear to be particle size, particle shape, their mechanical properties with respect to those of tooth tissues, and the influence of saliva. PMID:22536239

  1. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF.

  2. Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Xu, Z; Wu, C-T; Janes, M; Prinyawiwatkul, W; No, H K

    2007-03-01

    Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated. The total phenolics content of green, yellow, orange, and red peppers determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method were 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, and 4.2 micromol catechin equivalent/g fresh weight, respectively. The red pepper had significantly higher total phenolics content than the green pepper. Among the 4 different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene (5.4 microg/g), capsanthin (8.0 microg/g), quercetin (34.0 microg/g), and luteolin (11.0 microg/g). The yellow pepper had the lowest beta-carotene content (0.2 microg/g), while the green one had undetectable capsanthin and the lowest content of luteolin (2.0 microg/g). The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers determined by the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were lowest for the green pepper (2.1 micromol Trolox equivalent/g) but not significantly different from the other 3 peppers. All 4 colored peppers exhibited significant abilities in preventing the oxidation of cholesterol or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) during heating. However, these 4 peppers did not show significant differences in their abilities in preventing cholesterol oxidation. The green pepper showed slightly higher capability in preventing the oxidation of DHA compared to the other 3 peppers.

  3. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  4. Endodontic Treatment of an Anomalous Anterior Tooth with the Aid of a 3-dimensional Printed Physical Tooth Model.

    PubMed

    Byun, Chanhee; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Gyutae; Kim, Sahng G; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-06-01

    Endodontic treatment of tooth formation anomalies is a challenge to clinicians and as such requires a complete understanding of the aberrant root canal anatomy followed by careful root canal disinfection and obturation. Here, we report the use of a 3-dimensional (3D) printed physical tooth model including internal root canal structures for the endodontic treatment of a challenging tooth anomaly. A 12-year-old boy was referred for endodontic treatment of tooth #8. The tooth showed class II mobility with swelling and a sinus tract in the buccal mucosa and periapical radiolucency. The tooth presented a very narrow structure between the crown and root by distal concavity and a severely dilacerated root. Moreover, a perforation site with bleeding and another ditching site were identified around the cervical area in the access cavity. A translucent physical tooth model carrying the information on internal root canal structures was built through a 3-step process: data acquisition by cone-beam computed tomographic scanning, virtual modeling by image processing, and manufacturing by 3D printing. A custom-made guide jig was then fabricated to achieve a safe and precise working path to the root canal. Endodontic procedures including access cavity preparation were performed using the physical tooth model and the guide jig. At the 7-month follow-up, the endodontically treated tooth showed complete periapical healing with no clinical signs and symptoms. This case report describes a novel method of endodontic treatment of an anomalous maxillary central incisor with the aid of a physical tooth model and a custom-made guide jig via 3D printing technique. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in lightness, chroma, and hue in the anterior teeth of quinquagenarians and septuagenarians.

    PubMed

    Eiffler, Constantin; Cevirgen, Engin; Helling, Stephan; Zornek, Juanita; Pritsch, Maria; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, for both genders and two elderly age groups, differences in lightness, chroma, and hue of pairs of natural anterior teeth, so that more accurate information on color would be available for the production of dentures with a natural appearance. The subjects in the younger group (YG) were 54 to 56 years of age, those in the older group 73 to 75 (N = 195, 48% women). Tooth color was measured using a spectrophotometer. Mixed models were calculated for each pair of teeth, with gender as a fixed factor. Gender did not have a significant effect in either age group. In both groups, differences in chroma between upper canines and lateral incisors and in lightness and hue between upper and lower canines were observed. In the YG, additional differences were found, with the only exception of the comparison between upper central and lateral incisors. The nongender-specific color differences observed should be considered when producing denture teeth for these groups of patients, in order to come as close as possible to the natural color ideal.

  6. Effect of denture cleansers on color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of different denture base resins

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Anand; Khandelwal, Meenakshi; Punia, Vikas; Sharma, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different denture cleansers on the color stability, surface hardness, and roughness of different denture base resins. Materials and Methods: Three denture base resin materials (conventional heat cure resin, high impact resin, and polyamide denture base resin) were immersed for 180 days in commercially available two denture cleansers (sodium perborate and sodium hypochlorite). Color, surface roughness, and hardness were measured for each sample before and after immersion procedure. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference test were used to evaluate color, surface roughness, and hardness data before and after immersion in denture cleanser (α =0.05). Results: All denture base resins tested exhibited a change in color, surface roughness, and hardness to some degree in both denture cleansers. Polyamides resin immersed in sodium perborate showed a maximum change in color after immersion for 180 days. Conventional heat cure resin immersed in sodium hypochlorite showed a maximum change in surface roughness and conventional heat cure immersed in sodium perborate showed a maximum change in hardness. Conclusion: Color changes of all denture base resins were within the clinically accepted range for color difference. Surface roughness change of conventional heat cure resin was not within the clinically accepted range of surface roughness. The choice of denture cleanser for different denture base resins should be based on the chemistry of resin and cleanser, denture cleanser concentration, and duration of immersion. PMID:28216847

  7. Measurement of total occlusal convergence of 3 different tooth preparations in 4 different planes by dental students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Stephan S; Cheong, Chan; Preisser, John; Jun, Sangho; Chang, Brian M; Wright, Robert F

    2014-08-01

    Total occlusal convergence of crown preparation is an important didactic and clinical concept in dental education. The purpose of this study was to compare the discrepancy between the total occlusal convergence of dental students' typodont crown preparations and the ideal range (4 to 10 degrees) in 3 different regions of the mouth and in 4 different planes of the teeth. The dental students of the Class of 2012 at Harvard School of Dental Medicine were asked to prepare typodont teeth for crowns on 3 different teeth, the maxillary left central incisor (ceramic), mandibular left first molar (complete metal), and mandibular left first premolar (metal ceramic), during their third year preclinical summative examination and the Comprehensive Clinical Examination in their fourth year. Eighteen students prepared 3 teeth in their third and fourth years, whereas 19 students participated only in their fourth year, for a total of 55 sets of 3 teeth. By using custom fit die bases to reproduce the position, a novel procedure of measuring each tooth was accomplished in 4 different planes: the faciolingual, mesiodistal, mesiofacial-distolingual, and mesiolingual-distofacial. The total occlusal convergence of each image was measured with a computer screen protractor. The gingival 2 mm of the axial wall was used to determine the taper of each wall. Linear mixed model analysis was used to estimate and compare the total occlusal convergences of different teeth and planes (α=.05). Bonferroni corrections were used to adjust for post hoc multiple comparisons. The mean total occlusal convergence varied by tooth and plane (2-way interaction; P<.001). For the first molar, dental students excessively tapered in all 4 planes; the model-predicted 99% CIs for the total occlusal convergence were as follows: faciolingual (12.7, 19.4), mesiodistal (14.0, 19.3), mesiofacial-distolingual (13,4, 19.4), and mesiolingual-distofacial (13.7, 19.1). For the central incisor, 99% CIs for the total occlusal

  8. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, G.E.; King, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments. PMID:18434571

  9. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls. Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field. We tended to overestimate age by 1-2 years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within ?? 1 year of actual age, but under estimated ages of wolves ???9 years old by 1-3 years. No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves. Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth.

  10. Functional Tooth Regeneration Using a Bioengineered Tooth Unit as a Mature Organ Replacement Regenerative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Aya; Ogawa, Miho; Yasukawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Morita, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Etsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kasugai, Shohei; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy. PMID:21765896

  11. Application of tooth brushing behavior to active rest.

    PubMed

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Tonomura, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro; Simoyama, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste as active rest using the flicker value as a physiological parameter and a subjective questionnaire as a psychological parameter. Seventeen healthy, right-handed subjects (12 males and 5 females) aged 22.5 +/- 1.5 yr (mean +/- standard deviation) were randomly divided into tooth brushing with toothpaste (N=9) and non-tooth brushing groups (N=8). The subjects performed a serial calculation task for 20 min using personal computers. Subsequently, the tooth brushing group brushed their teeth, and the flicker value and mood were compared before and after the tooth brushing. The flicker value significantly increased in the tooth brushing group compared with the non-tooth brushing group (p<0.05). Concerning the mood, in the tooth brushing group, the incidence of a "feeling of being refreshed" significantly increased (p<0.05), that of "concentration power" or a "feeling of clear-headedness" tended to increase (p<0.1), and that of "lassitude" or "sleepiness" significantly decreased (p<0.01). Somatosensory stimulation and intraoral tactile stimulation during tooth brushing activated cerebral activity, producing refreshing effects. These results suggest the applicability of tooth brushing to active rest.

  12. Influence of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Armağanci, Arzu; Ceylan, Gözlem; Celik, Ersan; Cankaya, Soner; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-11-01

    Ceramics are widely used for anterior restorations; however, clinical color reproduction still constitutes a challenge particularly when the ceramic crowns are used on titanium implant abutments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic material systems. Forty disks (11×1.5 mm, shade A2) were fabricated from medium-opacity (mo) and high-translucency (ht) lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) blocks, an aluminous ceramic (VITA In-Ceram Alumina), and a zirconia (Zirkonzahn) ceramic system. Disks were fabricated to represent 3 different implant abutments (zirconia, gold-palladium, and titanium) and dentin (composite resin, A2 shade) as background (11×2 mm). Disk-shaped composite resin specimens in A2 shade were fabricated to represent the cement layer. The color measurements of ceramic specimens were made on composite resin abutment materials using a spectrophotometer. CIELab color coordinates were recorded, and the color coordinates measured on composite resin background served as the control group. Color differences (ΔE 00 ) between the control and test groups were calculated. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The ceramics system, abutment material, and their interaction were significant for ΔE 00 values (P<.001). Clinically unacceptable results (ΔE 00 >2.25) were observed for lithium disilicate ceramics on titanium abutments (2.46-2.50). The ΔE 00 values of lithium disilicate ceramics for gold-palladium and titanium abutments were significantly higher than for other groups (P<.05). The color results (ΔE 00 >2.25) of an implant-supported lithium disilicate ceramic restoration may be clinically unacceptable if it is fabricated over a titanium abutment. Zirconia may be a more suitable abutment material for implant-supported ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  13. Tooth Avulsion in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    Tooth avulsions occur when a tooth is displaced from its socket. Tooth avulsions are common dental injuries that may occur before, during, or after school. Therefore, it is essential that school nurses be well prepared to intervene when such a dental emergency arises. It is also imperative that school nurses and school personnel are fully equipped…

  14. Osmoregulatory traits of broad-toothed field mouse (Apodemus mystacinus) populations from different habitats.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Michael; Shanas, Uri; Or-Chen, Keren; Haim, Abraham

    2009-12-01

    One mechanism for physiological adjustment of small mammals to different habitats and different seasons is by seasonal acclimatization of their osmoregulatory system. We examined the abilities of broad-toothed field mice (Apodemus mystacinus) from different ecosystems ('sub-alpine' and 'Mediterranean') to cope with salinity stress under short day (SD) and long day (LD) photoperiod regimes. We compared urine volume, osmolarity, urea and electrolyte (sodium, potassium and chloride) concentrations. Significant differences were noted in the abilities of mice from the two ecosystems to deal with salinity load; in particular sub-alpine mice produced less concentrated urine than Mediterranean mice with SD- sub-alpine mice seeming to produce particularly dilute urine. Urea concentration generally decreased with increasing salinity, whereas sodium and potassium levels increased, however SD- sub-alpine mice behaved differently and appeared not to be able to excrete electrolytes as effectively as the other groups of mice. Differences observed provide an insight into the kinds of variability that are present within populations inhabiting different ecosystems, thus how populations may be able to respond to potential changes in their environment. Physiological data pertaining to adaptation to increased xeric conditions, as modelled by A. mystacinus, provides valuable information as to how other species may cope with potential climatic challenges.

  15. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    PubMed

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  16. Effect of fluoxetine on induced tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Franzon Frigotto, Giovana Carla; Miranda de Araujo, Cristiano; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Batista Rodrigues Johann, Aline Cristina; Camargoa, Elisa Souza

    2015-09-01

    Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant. Its various effects on bone mineral density are well described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoxetine on induced tooth movement. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: M (n = 24; 0.9% saline solution and induced tooth movement), FM (n = 24; fluoxetine, 10 mg/kg, and induced tooth movement), and F (n = 24; fluoxetine, 10 mg/kg only). After 30 days of daily saline solution or fluoxetine administration, an orthodontic appliance (30 cN) was used to displace the first molar mesially in groups M and FM. The animals were killed 3, 7, and 14 days after placement of the orthodontic appliances. The animals in group F did not receive induced tooth movement but were killed at the same times. We evaluated tooth movement rates, collagen neoformation rates by polarization microscopy, numbers of osteoclast by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and trabecular bone modeling by microcomputed tomography of the femur. The tooth movement rates were similar in groups M and FM at all studied time points (P >0.05). The rate of newly formed collagen had a reverse pattern in groups M and FM, but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05). There were significantly more osteoclasts in group FM than in group F on day 3 (P <0.01). The trabecular spacing was significantly larger in group F compared with group M on day 14 (P <0.05). Fluoxetine did not interfere with induced tooth movement or trabecular bone in rats. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  18. Correlation between three-dimentional surface topography and color stability of different nanofilled composites.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Güder, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional (3D) surface topography and color stability of four different resin composites after immersion in different soft-beverages. One hundred sixty disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 10 mm, and thickness: 2 mm) were made from four different resin composites (i.e., Filtek Z550, Tetric N-Ceram, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Cavex Quadrant Universal LC). Each specimen was cured under mylar strips for 20 sec for both top and bottom surfaces. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Surface measurements were carried out using a noncontact 3D-optical-profilometer in terms of surface topography (Ra values). Color measurements of each specimen were performed with Vita Easy Shade system. All the measurements were performed at baseline and after 30 days of immersion in the selected soft-beverages (Redbull, Coca-Cola and Dimes-Lemonade). Control groups were stored in distilled water during the study. Ra values and color changes (ΔE values) of the groups were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using a one way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The tested soft-beverages in the present study caused color changes at a 30-day evaluation period for the tested resin composites (p < 0.05). However, 3D surface topography of resin composites was not influenced by the tested soft-beverages (p > 0.05). There was no significant interaction between the composite and beverage type on the Ra values of the resin composites (p > 0.05). No correlation was found between color stability and 3D surface topography of the resin composites. Color stability of resin composites may be affected by soft beverages. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Color characteristics of low-chroma and high-translucence dental resin composites by different measuring modes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Lim, B S; Kim, C W; Powers, J M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the described research was the evaluation of the effects of the differences in the color-measuring geometry (SCE, SCI) and the standard illuminant on the color and color change after polymerization and thermocycling of resin composites. White, translucent, and conventional shades of two brands of resin composites were measured before and after polymerization and after thermocycling according to the CIE L*a*b* color scale on a reflection spectrophotometer with SCE and SCI geometry under the standard illuminants A, D65, and C. Under both SCE and SCI modes, the color differences (DeltaE*) of specimens between the values measured under illuminants A and D65 or A and C were larger than those between D65 and C in unpolymerized, polymerized, and thermocycled conditions. With SCE geometry, DeltaE* after polymerization of the white shade group was 8.7-9.8 under D65, and was higher than the conventional shade group (p < 0.05) in both materials. With SCE geometry, DeltaE* between polymerized and thermocycled white, translucent shade was 4.4-7.1 under D65. With SCI geometry, the results were in general agreement with those of SCE mode. After polymerization, DeltaE* measured under illuminant A was generally higher than that under D65 or C (p < 0.01). After thermocycling, the color change was different depending on the color-measuring geometry and standard illuminant. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Three-dimensional validation of the impact of the quantity of teeth or tooth parts on the morphological difference between twin dentitions.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Willems, G; Couto Souza, P H; Coucke, W; Thevissen, P

    2016-07-01

    The number of teeth involved in cases of bite-mark analysis is generally fewer in comparison to the number of teeth available for cases of dental identification. This decreases the amount of information available and can hamper the distinction between bite suspects. The opposite is true in cases of dental identification and the assumption is that more teeth contribute to a higher degree of specificity and the possibility of identification in these cases. Despite being broadly accepted in forensic dentistry, this hypothesis has never been scientifically tested. The present study aims to assess the impact of the quantity of teeth or tooth parts on morphological differences in twin dentitions. A sample of 344 dental casts collected from 86 pairs of twins was used. The dental casts were digitized using an automated motion device (XCAD 3D® (XCADCAM Technology®, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) and were imported as three-dimensional dental model images (3D-DMI) in Geomagic Studio® (3D Systems®, Rock Hill, SC, USA) software package. Sub samples were established based on the quantity of teeth and tooth parts studied. Pair wise morphological comparisons between the corresponding twin siblings were established and quantified. Increasing the quantity of teeth and tooth parts resulted in an increase of morphological difference between twin dentitions. More evident differences were observed comparing anterior vs. entire dentitions (p < 0.05) and complete vs. partial anterior dentitions (p < 0.05). Dental identifications and bite-mark analysis must include all the possibly related dental information to reach optimal comparison outcomes.

  1. Psychosocial factors and tooth wear with a significant component of attrition.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A M; Oakley, D A; Hemmings, K W; Newman, H N; Watkins, S

    1997-06-01

    Pathological tooth wear is often associated with bruxism, which appears in turn to be influenced by psychosocial factors. This study investigated putative relationships between psychosocial factors (total and average perceived stress, state and trait anxiety) and tooth wear, comparing 45 patients exhibiting tooth wear with a significant component of attrition to 45 controls. Groups were matched for gender and age. Subjects completed the Modified and Perceived Stress Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A between-groups multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the two groups did not differ significantly on the combined psychosocial factors, F(4,85) = 1.16, P > 0.05. However, a univariate F-test showed that tooth-wear patients presented significantly more trait anxiety than controls, F(1,88) = 4.15, P < 0.05. Further research is indicated to clarify the importance of trait anxiety and other psychosocial factors in the progression of tooth wear with a significant component of attrition.

  2. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  3. Effect of four different opalescence tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Majeed, A; Grobler, S R; Moola, M H; Rossouw, R J; van Kotze, T J W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of various Opalescence tooth-whitening products on enamel. Enamel blocks were exposed to Opalescence PF 10% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10), Opalescence PF 20% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10), Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme 10% Hydrogen Peroxide (n = 10) and Opalescence Quick PF 45% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The control group was enamel blocks (n = 10) kept in artificial saliva. The values were obtained before exposure and after the 14-days treatment period. Enamel blocks were kept in saliva between treatments. Indent marks on enamel blocks were examined using the scanning electron microscope for treatment effects. All four different Opalescence products damaged enamel. The most damage was done when treated for a long period (112 hours). SEM images also showed damage to enamel by all 4 products. Opalescence with 10% and with 20% Carbamide Peroxide showed the highest damage, which also differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the saliva control group (p < 0.05; Tukey-Kramer Multiple comparison test). All 4 Opalescence products damaged enamel. Higher damage was done by the 10% carbamide peroxide and 20% carbamide peroxide products because of the much longer exposure period (112 hours in comparison to 7 hours).

  4. Erosive tooth wear: prevalence and severity in Swedish winetasters.

    PubMed

    Wiktorsson, A M; Zimmerman, M; Angmar-Månsson, B

    1997-12-01

    Full-time Swedish winetasters test on average 20-50 different wines, nearly 5 days a week. As the pH of wines ranges from 3.0 to 3.6, there is a potential risk for tooth erosion. The aims of this study were to document the prevalence and severity of tooth erosion in qualified winetasters in relation to number of years of winetasting, salivary flow rate, and buffer capacity. The subjects comprised all 19 qualified winetasters (7 women and 12 men, aged 29-64 years employed in Stockholm by Vin & Sprit AB, the state-owned company marketing wines and spirits. At intraoral examination, tooth surface loss was registered and documented by photography. Salivary flow rate and buffer capacity of unstimulated and stimulated saliva were measured. Data on occupational background and dental and medical histories were collected. Fourteen subjects had tooth erosion, the severity varying from mild to extreme, mainly on the labio-cervical surfaces of maxillary incisors and canines. The severity of the erosion tended to increase with years of occupational exposure. Caries activity in all subjects was low. 14 subjects had low unstimulated salivary flow rates. It was concluded that full-time winetasting is an occupation associated with increased risk for tooth erosion.

  5. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Faramawy, N A; El-Somany, I; Mansour, A; Maghraby, A M; Eissa, H; Wieser, A

    2018-03-01

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH pp ) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry.

  6. Mechanical behavior of CAD/CAM occlusal ceramic reconstruction assessed by digital color holography.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Picart, P; Montresor, S; Guo, R; Li, J C; Yusuf Solieman, O; Durand, J-C; Fages, M

    2018-05-21

    CAD/CAM ceramic occlusal veneers are increasingly used as therapeutic options. However, little is known about their mechanical behavior under stress, as the response of the prepared tooth that supports it. The aim of this article is to use for the first time 3D color holography to evaluate the behavior of a molar occlusal veneer under stress and the response of the prepared tooth. The occlusal surface of a lower molar is prepared to receive a specific monolithic ceramic reconstruction manufactured with a chairside CAD/CAM system. Longitudinally cut samples are used to get a planar object observation and to "look inside" the tooth. A digital holographic set-up permits to obtain the contact-less and one-shot measurement of the three-dimensional displacement field at the surface of the tooth sample; stain fields are evaluated with low noise-sensitive computation. Figures show the strain fields with micro-strain units and highlight the behavior of the ROI (region of interest) in the three directions of space. The ROI are: the ceramic, the glue junction, the dentin enamel junction, dentin and enamel. The results show an excellent behavior of the restored tooth without areas of excessive stress concentrations, but also a significant involvement of the dentin enamel junction. The ceramic occlusal veneer seems to behave in accordance with the biomechanical concepts ensuring the longevity of the reconstituted tooth. 3D holography is a highly recommended method for studying dental biomechanics. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of do-it-yourself whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Meharry, M; Oyoyo, U; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

  8. A windowing and mapping strategy for gear tooth fault detection of a planetary gearbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Liu, Libin

    2016-12-01

    When there is a single cracked tooth in a planet gear, the cracked tooth is enmeshed for very short time duration in comparison to the total time of a full revolution of the planet gear. The fault symptom generated by the single cracked tooth may be very weak. This study aims to develop a windowing and mapping strategy to interpret the vibration signal of a planetary gear at the tooth level. The fault symptoms generated by a single cracked tooth of the planet gear of interest can be extracted. The health condition of the planet gear can be assessed by comparing the differences among the signals of all teeth of the planet gear. The proposed windowing and mapping strategy is tested with both simulated vibration signals and experimental vibration signals. The tooth signals can be successfully decomposed and a single tooth fault on a planet gear can be effectively detected.

  9. Detecting gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarized the results of a study in which three different vibration diagnostic methods were used to detect gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh. The NASA spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig was used to produce unseeded fault, natural failures of four face gear specimens. During the fatigue tests, which were run to determine load capacity and primary failure mechanisms for face gears, vibration signals were monitored and recorded for gear diagnostic purposes. Gear tooth bending fatigue and surface pitting were the primary failure modes found in the tests. The damage ranged from partial tooth fracture on a single tooth in one test to heavy wear, severe pitting, and complete tooth fracture of several teeth on another test. Three gear fault detection techniques, FM4, NA4*, and NB4, were applied to the experimental data. These methods use the signal average in both the time and frequency domain. Method NA4* was able to conclusively detect the gear tooth fractures in three out of the four fatigue tests, along with gear tooth surface pitting and heavy wear. For multiple tooth fractures, all of the methods gave a clear indication of the damage. It was also found that due to the high contact ratio of the face gear mesh, single tooth fractures did not significantly affect the vibration signal, making this type of failure difficult to detect.

  10. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  11. Effect of Different Esthetic Post-Core Materials on Color of Direct-Composite Restorations: A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Ayna, Buket; Yılmaz, Berivan D; Izol, Bozan S; Ayna, Emrah; Tacir, İbrahim Halil

    2018-06-15

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of 2 different esthetic post materials on the final color of direct-composite restorations by using a digital technique under in vivo conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 22 pulpless incisor teeth treated with conventionally cemented zirconia (n=11) and polyethylene fiber (n=11) posts in the study. Teeth were restored with a hybrid resin. The color of direct-composite restorations and contralateral control teeth was measured using a digital technique. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage, or CIE, L*a*b* and RGB color systems were investigated. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed for the CIE L*a*b* values. Color differences (ΔE) for the average L*, a*, and b* color parameters between every pair of groups were calculated (P>.05). RESULTS Significant differences were not found in the color difference luminosity (lum), R, G, B, and L* a* b* values between the zircon-rich glass fiber post (Z) and contralateral control teeth (Cz) (P>.05) and between the polyethylene fiber post (P) and contralateral control teeth (Cp) (P>.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference between the color a* values of the polyethylene fiber post (P) and contralateral control teeth (Cp) (p<0.05). Color differences (ΔE) between the zircon-rich glass fiber post (Z) and contralateral control teeth, and the polyethylene fiber post (P) and contralateral teeth were not statistically significant (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS Definitive restorations were equally affected by the 2 materials. Both materials can be used reliably in clinical practice. However, further research that focuses on the effect of intraoral conditions is needed.

  12. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  13. Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing ‘fangs’. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation. PMID:28241059

  14. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Preeti; Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-06-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it's necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth.

  15. Digital image color analysis compared to direct dental CIE colorimeter assessment under different ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Knösel, Michael; Attin, Rengin; Jung, Klaus; Brunner, Edgar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Attin, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the concordance and repeatability of two in vivo methods for dental color assessment and to clarify the influence of different ambient light conditions and subject's head position on the assessed color variables. Color assessments were performed by two examiners on 16 arbitrarily selected subjects under two different, standardized conditions of illumination and at two different standardized head angulations. CIE (L*a*b*) data for upper and lower central incisors were recorded in two different ways: (1) by an intra-oral contact dental colorimeter and (2) by processing digital images for performing color calculation using Adobe Photoshop software. The influence of the different ambient conditions on both methods, as well as the concordance of measurements was analyzed statistically using several mixed linear models. Ambient light as a single factor had no significant influence on maxillary L*, a* and b* values, but it did have an effect on mandible assessments. Head angulation variation resulted in significant L* value differences using the photo method. The operator had a significant influence on values a* and b* for the photo method and on a* values for the colorimeter method. In fully lit ambient condition, the operator had a significant influence on the segregated L*, a*, and b* values. With dimmed lights, head angulation became significant, but not the operator. Evaluation of segregated L* values was error prone in both methods. Comparing both methods, deltaE values did not exceed 2.85 units, indicating that color differences between methods and recorded under varying ambient conditions were well below the sensitivity of the naked eye.

  16. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  17. Deciduous tooth size standards for American blacks.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M D; Harris, E F

    1992-10-01

    Normative standards for tooth sizes are valuable for assessing a given patient's status, both clinically and for evaluating intrinsic (e.g., genetic, chromosomal aberrations) and acquired conditions. There are, however, very few published standards for American Blacks and none for the deciduous teeth. Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters are reported here for a series of 100 Black children. As with the permanent dentition, the primary teeth of Blacks are appreciably larger than Whites, though the amount differs by tooth type. In general, while all teeth are larger than norms for Whites, the posterior teeth (m1, m2) are preferentially larger. Applications of these standards are discussed.

  18. Diversity in tooth eruption and life history in humans: illustration from a Pygmy population

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Life history variables (LHV) in primates are closely correlated with the ages of tooth eruption, which are a useful proxy to predict growth and development in extant and extinct species. However, it is not known how tooth eruption ages interact with LHV in polymorphic species such as modern humans. African pygmies are at the one extreme in the range of human size variation. LHV in the Baka pygmies are similar to those in standard populations. We would therefore expect tooth eruption ages to be similar also. This mixed (longitudinal and cross-sectional) study of tooth eruption in Baka individuals of known age reveals that eruption in all tooth classes occurs earlier than in any other human population. Earlier tooth eruption can be related to the particular somatic growth in the Baka but cannot be correlated with LHV. The link between LHV and tooth eruption seems disrupted in H. sapiens, allowing adaptive variations in tooth eruption in response to different environmental constraints while maintaining the unique human life cycle. PMID:27305976

  19. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  20. Odor-color associations differ with verbal descriptors for odors: A comparison of three linguistically diverse groups.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Josje M; Wnuk, Ewelina; Huisman, John L A; Majid, Asifa

    2017-08-01

    People appear to have systematic associations between odors and colors. Previous research has emphasized the perceptual nature of these associations, but little attention has been paid to what role language might play. It is possible odor-color associations arise through a process of labeling; that is, participants select a descriptor for an odor and then choose a color accordingly (e.g., banana odor → "banana" label → yellow). If correct, this would predict odor-color associations would differ as odor descriptions differ. We compared speakers of Dutch (who overwhelmingly describe odors by referring to the source; e.g., smells like banana) with speakers of Maniq and Thai (who also describe odors with dedicated, abstract smell vocabulary; e.g., musty), and tested whether the type of descriptor mattered for odor-color associations. Participants were asked to select a color that they associated with an odor on two separate occasions (to test for consistency), and finally to label the odors. We found the hunter-gatherer Maniq showed few, if any, consistent or accurate odor-color associations. More importantly, we found the types of descriptors used to name the smells were related to the odor-color associations. When people used abstract smell terms to describe odors, they were less likely to choose a color match, but when they described an odor with a source-based term, their color choices more accurately reflected the odor source, particularly when the odor source was named correctly (e.g., banana odor → yellow). This suggests language is an important factor in odor-color cross-modal associations.

  1. Effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration on orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Gupta, Himank; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on the rate of tooth movement, bone volume fraction, tissue density, and the integrity of the periodontal ligament. Our null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in the amount of tooth movement between different values of LFMV. Sixty-four male CD1 mice, 12 weeks old, were used for orthodontic tooth movement. The mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control groups (baseline; no spring + 5 Hz; no spring + 10 Hz; and no spring + 20 Hz) and experimental groups (spring + no vibration; spring + 5 Hz; spring + 10 Hz; and spring + 20 Hz). In the experimental groups, the first molars were moved mesially for 2 weeks using nickel-titanium coil springs delivering 10 g of force. In the control and experimental groups, LFMV was applied at 5, 10, or 20 Hz. Microfocus x-ray computed tomography analysis was used for tooth movement measurements, bone volume fraction, and tissue density. Additionally, immunostaining for sclerostin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and picrosirius red staining were used on the histologic sections. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the outcomes across treatment groups. LFMV did not increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Microfocus x-ray computed tomography analysis showed increases in bone volume fractions and tissue densities with applications of LFMV. Sclerostin expression was decreased with 10 and 20 Hz vibrations in both the control and experimental groups. Additionally, the picrosirius staining showed that LFMV helped in maintaining the thickness and integrity of collagen fibers in the periodontal ligament. There was no significant increase in tooth movement by applying LFMV when compared with the control groups (spring + no vibration). Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complex patterns of tooth replacement revealed in the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Popa, Elena M; Anthwal, Neal; Tucker, Abigail S

    2016-12-01

    How teeth are replaced during normal growth and development has long been an important question for comparative and developmental anatomy. Non-standard model animals have become increasingly popular in this field due to the fact that the canonical model laboratory mammal, the mouse, develops only one generation of teeth (monophyodonty), whereas the majority of mammals possess two generations of teeth (diphyodonty). Here we used the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), an Old World megabat, which has two generations of teeth, in order to observe the development and replacement of tooth germs from initiation up to mineralization stages. Our morphological study uses 3D reconstruction of histological sections to uncover differing arrangements of the first and second-generation tooth germs during the process of tooth replacement. We show that both tooth germ generations develop as part of the dental lamina, with the first generation detaching from the lamina, leaving the free edge to give rise to a second generation. This separation was particularly marked at the third premolar locus, where the primary and replacement teeth become positioned side by side, unconnected by a lamina. The position of the replacement tooth, with respect to the primary tooth, varied within the mouth, with replacements forming posterior to or directly lingual to the primary tooth. Development of replacement teeth was arrested at some tooth positions and this appeared to be linked to the timing of tooth initiation and the subsequent rate of development. This study adds an additional species to the growing body of non-model species used in the study of tooth replacement, and offers a new insight into the development of the diphyodont condition. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  3. Reliability of visual and instrumental color matching.

    PubMed

    Igiel, Christopher; Lehmann, Karl Martin; Ghinea, Razvan; Weyhrauch, Michael; Hangx, Ysbrand; Scheller, Herbert; Paravina, Rade D

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of visual and instrumental shade matching. Forty individuals with normal color perception participated in this study. The right maxillary central incisor of a teaching model was prepared and restored with 10 feldspathic all-ceramic crowns of different shades. A shade matching session consisted of the observer (rater) visually selecting the best match by using VITA classical A1-D4 (VC) and VITA Toothguide 3D Master (3D) shade guides and the VITA Easyshade Advance intraoral spectrophotometer (ES) to obtain both VC and 3D matches. Three shade matching sessions were held with 4 to 6 weeks between sessions. Intra-rater reliability was assessed based on the percentage of agreement for the three sessions for the same observer, whereas the inter-rater reliability was calculated as mean percentage of agreement between different observers. The Fleiss' Kappa statistical analysis was used to evaluate visual inter-rater reliability. The mean intra-rater reliability for the visual shade selection was 64(11) for VC and 48(10) for 3D. The corresponding ES values were 96(4) for both VC and 3D. The percentages of observers who matched the same shade with VC and 3D were 55(10) and 43(12), respectively, while corresponding ES values were 88(8) for VC and 92(4) for 3D. The results for visual shade matching exhibited a high to moderate level of inconsistency for both intra-rater and inter-rater comparisons. The VITA Easyshade Advance intraoral spectrophotometer exhibited significantly better reliability compared with visual shade selection. This study evaluates the ability of observers to consistently match the same shade visually and with a dental spectrophotometer in different sessions. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability (agreement of repeated shade matching) of visual and instrumental tooth color matching strongly suggest the use of color matching instruments as a supplementary tool in

  4. Visual reaction time for chromaticity changes at constant luminance in different color representation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenezdel Barco, L.; Jimenez, J. R.; Rubino, M.; Diaz, J. A.

    1996-09-01

    The results obtained by different authors show that when a color stimulus changes in both luminance and chromaticity, the visual reaction time (VRT) of an observer in detecting this chromatic change depends on nothing more than the luminance change and is regulated by Pieron's law. In the present work, we evaluate the VRT needed by an observer to detect the chromaticity difference between an adapting and variable stimulus. For this, we have used the experimental method of hue substitution, which allows us to maintain the luminance channel constant and thereby study the temporal response to changes only in chromaticity. The experiments were carried out with a CRT color monitor and the experimental results are expressed in different color-representation systems. The systems UCS-CIE 1964 (U*, V*, W*) and CIELUV show good correlations between the VRT and the chromaticity difference expressed in these systems, adjusting the VRT to an expression following Pieron's law: VRT-VRTon=k( Delta E)- beta .

  5. [A study on the color difference between Au-Pt alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Hong

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the color difference between Au-Pt alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain. 30 metal-ceramic specimens with different dentin porcelain thickness were fabricated with two types of metal-ceramic alloy, each type of alloy had 15 specimens. L*, a*, b* were measured after opaque porcelain was applied, and dentin porcelain was fired 1, 3, 5, 7 times by MINOLTA CR-100. Then delta E was calculated which reflected the color difference between high-gold alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain. Comparing with Ni-Cr alloy porcelain, the color of Au-Pt alloy porcelain was reddish, yellowish and less bright. The delta E between high-gold alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain in shade A2 was largest when opaque porcelain was applied. It decreased when dentin porcelain was applied. It became smallest when fired 3 times, and increased along with the increase of fire times. It was larger than 1.5 except firing 3 times. When dentin porcelain was applied, delta E which was larger than 1.5 among different dentin porcelain thickness decreased along with the increase of dentin porcelain thickness. The color difference between the two types of metal-ceramic alloy should be carefully taken into account in order to improve the quality of color matching.

  6. Effect of different high-palladium metal-ceramic alloys on the color of opaque and dentin porcelain.

    PubMed

    Stavridakis, Minos M; Papazoglou, Efstratios; Seghi, Robert R; Johnston, William M; Brantley, William A

    2004-08-01

    The color of dental porcelain depends on the type of metal substrate. Little research has been done to document the effects of different types of high-palladium alloys on the color of dental porcelain. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different high-palladium alloys on the resulting color of dentin porcelain, as well as on that of opaque porcelain after simulated dentin and glazing firing cycles. Three Pd-Cu-Ga alloys, Spartan Plus (S), Liberty (B), and Freedom Plus (F), and 5 Pd-Ga alloys, Legacy (L), IS 85 (I), Protocol (P), Legacy XT (X), and Jelenko No.1 (N), were examined. A Pd-Ag alloy, Super Star (T), was included for comparison to the high-palladium alloys, and the Au-Pd alloy, Olympia (O), served as the control. Six cast discs (16 x 1 mm) were prepared from each of the alloys. Shade B1 opaque porcelain (Vita-Omega) was applied at a final thickness of 0.1 mm. After 2 opaque porcelain firing cycles, the surfaces were airborne-particle abraded, and the specimens were divided into 2 groups. In the first group, 0.9 mm of B1 dentin porcelain was applied. The other group of specimens with only opaque porcelain underwent the same dentin porcelain and glazing firing cycles. Color differences (DeltaE) were determined with a colorimeter between the control and each experimental group, after the second opaque porcelain, second dentin porcelain, and glazing firing cycles. One-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's multiple range test were performed on the DeltaE data (alpha=.05). After the application of dentin porcelain, the 3 Pd-Cu-Ga alloys showed significantly different (P<.05) DeltaE values (S=2.3 +/- 0.5, B=1.4 +/- 0.3, and F=1.3 +/- 0.7) than the control group. After the glazing cycle of this group, the 3 Pd-Cu-Ga alloys and the Pd-Ag alloy exhibited significantly different (P<.05) DeltaE values (S=2.8 +/- 0.8, B=2.2 +/- 0.3, F=1.9 +/- 1.0, and T=1.4 +/- 0.5) than the control group. After the simulated dentin porcelain firing

  7. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  8. Dental Cell Sheet Biomimetic Tooth Bud Model

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nelson; Smith, Elizabeth E.; Angstadt, Shantel; Zhang, Weibo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies offer promising therapies for both medicine and dentistry. Our long-term goal is to create functional biomimetic tooth buds for eventual tooth replacement in humans. Here, our objective was to create a biomimetic 3D tooth bud model consisting of dental epithelial (DE) – dental mesenchymal (DM) cell sheets (CSs) combined with biomimetic enamel organ and pulp organ layers created using GelMA hydrogels. Pig DE or DM cells seeded on temperature-responsive plates at various cell densities (0.02, 0.114 and 0.228 cells 106/cm2) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days were used to generate DE and DM cell sheets, respectively. Dental CSs were combined with GelMA encapsulated DE and DM cell layers to form bioengineered 3D tooth buds. Biomimetic 3D tooth bud constructs were cultured in vitro, or implanted in vivo for 3 weeks. Analyses were performed using micro-CT, H&E staining, polarized light (Pol) microscopy, immunofluorescent (IF) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. H&E, IHC and IF analyses showed that in vitro cultured multilayered DE-DM CSs expressed appropriate tooth marker expression patterns including SHH, BMP2, RUNX2, tenascin and syndecan, which normally direct DE-DM interactions, DM cell condensation, and dental cell differentiation. In vivo implanted 3D tooth bud constructs exhibited mineralized tissue formation of specified size and shape, and SHH, BMP2 and RUNX2and dental cell differentiation marker expression. We propose our biomimetic 3D tooth buds as models to study optimized DE-DM cell interactions leading to functional biomimetic replacement tooth formation. PMID:27565550

  9. [Study on the appropriate parameters of automatic full crown tooth preparation for dental tooth preparation robot].

    PubMed

    Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y P; Sun, Y C; Wang, D X; Lyu, P J

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To further study the most suitable parameters for automatic full crown preparation using oral clinical micro robot. Its purpose is to improve the quality of automated tooth preparing for the system and to lay the foundation for clinical application. Methods: Twenty selected artificial resin teeth were used as sample teeth. The micro robot automatic tooth preparation system was used in dental clinic to control the picosecond laser beam to complete two dimensional cutting on the resin tooth sample according to the motion planning path. Using the laser scanning measuring microscope, each layer of cutting depth values was obtained and the average value was calculated. The monolayer cutting depth was determined. The three-dimensional (3D) data of the target resin teeth was obtained using internal scanner, and the CAD data of full-crown tooth preparation was designed by CAD self-develged software. According to the depth of the single layer, 11 complete resin teeth in phantom head were automatically prepared by the robot controlling the laser focused spot in accordance with the layer-cutting way. And the accuracy of resin tooth preparation was evaluated with the software. Using the same method, monolayer cutting depth parameter for cutting dental hard tissue was obtained. Then 15 extracted mandibular and maxillary first molars went through automatic full crown tooth preparation. And the 3D data of tooth preparations were obtained with intra oral scanner. The software was used to evaluate the accuracy of tooth preparation. Results: The results indicated that the single cutting depth of cutting resin teeth and in vitro teeth by picosecond laser were (60.0±2.6) and (45.0±3.6) μm, respectively. Using the tooth preparation robot, 11 artificial resin teeth and 15 complete natural teeth were automatically prepared, and the average time were (13.0±0.7), (17.0±1.8) min respectively. Through software evaluation, the average preparation depth of the occlusal surface

  10. [Clinical evaluation of influence of aspirin on post-operative bleeding after tooth extraction in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ying; Cui, Nian-hui; Wang, En-bo; Zhang, Wei

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of continuation of aspirin before tooth extraction in the elderly. The patients enrolled in this study were the elderly requiring a single non-impacted tooth extraction. 300 elderly outpatients used lidocaine local infiltration anesthesia, 200 patients without using aspirin before tooth extraction served as control group I, 100 patients with prolong use of aspirin before tooth extraction as observation group I. 300 elderly outpatients used compound articaine local infiltration anesthesia, 200 patients without using aspirin before tooth extraction served as control group II, 100 patients with prolong use of aspirin before tooth extraction as observation group II.Bleedings at 5, 10, 30 min, 24 h after tooth extraction were observed and the relationship between postoperative bleeding and intake of aspirin was analyzed. There was no significant difference at 5, 10, 30 min, 24 h in postoperative bleeding after extraction between control group I and observation group. The incidence of bleeding of observation group II after tooth extraction at 5 min was higher than that of control group II and there was no significant difference at 10, 30 min, 24 h between the two groups. Continuation of aspirin have no influence on postoperative bleeding. Therefore we suggest that there was no indication to discontinue aspirin for the elderly before a single non-impacted tooth extraction.

  11. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  12. A numerical simulation of tooth movement by wire bending.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yukio; Fukui, Hisao

    2006-10-01

    In orthodontic treatment, wires are bent and attached to teeth to move them via elastic recovery. To predict how a tooth will move, the initial force system produced from the wire is calculated. However, the initial force system changes as the tooth moves and may not be used to predict the final tooth position. The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive mechanical, 3-dimensional, numerical model for predicting tooth movement. Tooth movements produced by wire bending were simulated numerically. The teeth moved as a result of bone remodeling, which occurs in proportion to stress in the periodontal ligament. With an off-center bend, a tooth near the bending position was subjected to a large moment and tipped more noticeably than the other teeth. Also, a tooth far from the bending position moved slightly in the mesial or the distal direction. With the center V-bend, when the second molar was added as an anchor tooth, the tipping angle and the intrusion of the canine increased, and movement of the first molar was prevented. When a wire with an inverse curve of Spee was placed in the mandibular arch, the calculated tendency of vertical tooth movements was the same as the measured result. In these tooth movements, the initial force system changed as the teeth moved. Tooth movement was influenced by the size of the root surface area. Tooth movements produced by wire bending could be estimated. It was difficult to predict final tooth positions from the initial force system.

  13. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  14. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-08-29

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders.

  15. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders. PMID:29563430

  16. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with themore » broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.« less

  17. Rapid and selective removal of composite from tooth surfaces with a 9.3 µm CO2 laser using spectral feedback.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Dental composite restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants, or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. In this study, a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-µm with a pulse duration of 10-20-microsecond and a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 Hz was integrated with a galvanometer based scanner and used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. Spectra of the plume emission were acquired after each laser pulse and used to differentiate between the ablation of dental enamel or composite. Microthermocouples were used to monitor the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite removal. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser beam was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. The laser was able to rapidly remove composite from tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel and without excessive heat accumulation in the tooth. This study demonstrated that composite can be selectively removed from tooth surfaces at clinically relevant rates using a CO(2) laser operating at 9.3-µm with high pulse repetition rates with minimal heat deposition and damage to the underlying enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A new method for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S; Ai, M; Mizutani, H

    1993-09-01

    A new portable system for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts has been devised. This system was suitable for patients to take home and record tooth contacts by themselves. A micro photo sensor using optical fibres was applied to detect tooth contacts. The sensor and the target were accurately fixed to opposed molars, respectively on the same side, with removable metal attachments. Patients were instructed to set the attachment to their tooth each experimental night. In the present study, data was assembled for four or five nights in three subjects who were free of masticatory pain and dysfunction. Each subject showed an individual tooth contact pattern. It is suggested that this new system is useful and convenient for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts.

  19. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one self-adhesive cement (Panavia SA plus) were included in this study. The interface of the cement and the tooth surface with the different pre-treatments was analyzed using SEM. pH values of the cements and primers were measured. RESULTS The highest bond strength values for all cements were achieved with etching and primer on enamel (25.6 ± 5.3 - 32.3 ± 10.4 MPa). On dentin, etching and priming produced the highest bond strength values for all cements (8.6 ± 2.9 - 11.7 ± 3.5 MPa) except for Panavia V5, which achieved significantly higher bond strengths when pre-treated with primer only (15.3 ± 4.1 MPa). Shear bond strength values were correlated with the micro-retentive surface topography of enamel and the tag length on dentin except for Panavia V5, which revealed the highest bond strength with primer application only without etching, resulting in short but sturdy tags. CONCLUSION The highest bond strength can be achieved for Panavia F 2.0, Permaflo DC, and Panavia SA plus when the tooth substrate is previously etched and the respective primer is applied. The new cement Panavia V5 displayed low technique-sensitivity and attained significantly higher adhesion of all tested cements to dentin when only primer was applied. PMID:28435616

  20. [Daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities. Comparative analyses between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance].

    PubMed

    Chiwata, Kaoru; Takeda, Fumi

    2007-06-01

    To clarify 1) differences in daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities and 2) chronological changes in daily living activities and oral condition for residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those never receiving tooth-brushing assistance. Subjects were 44 residents at a care facility for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, who underwent dental screening in July 1994 and October 2003. At each time point, daily living activities, behavior during oral health guidance, behavior during dental health screening and oral condition were compared between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance (assistance group) and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance (independent group). Furthermore, chronological changes were analyzed for residents requiring assistance at both screenings, those requiring assistance only at the second screening, and those not requiring assistance at either screening. 1) In the assistance group, 100% and 36.4% of residents were unable to brush their teeth independently in 1994 and 2003, respectively. Significant differences between the assistance and independent groups were observed in all items of behavior during dental health screening in 1994, but not in 2003. No significant intergroup differences in oral condition were observed in 1994, but differences were seen in 2003; when compared to the assistance group, the number of lost teeth was significantly higher in the independent group, while the number of remaining teeth was lower. 2) Regarding changes over the nine-year period, a significantly greater proportion of residents not requiring assistance at either screening and those requiring assistance only at the second screening finally required assistance in bathing. As for oral condition, no significant changes in healthy teeth were observed in residents requiring assistance at both screening time points, while significant increases in dental

  1. Quantitative evaluation of toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing.

    PubMed

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Yu, Yong; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Murakami, Daisuke; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Morizono, Ken; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Iwase, Yoko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2015-07-01

    It is very difficult for dental professionals to objectively assess tooth brushing skill of patients, because an obvious index to assess the brushing motion of patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing. Tooth brushing motion, performed by dental hygienists for 15 s, was captured using a motion-capture system that continuously calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of object's motion relative to the floor. The dental hygienists performed the tooth brushing on the buccal and palatal sides of their right and left upper molars. The frequencies and power spectra of toothbrush motion and joint angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were calculated and analyzed statistically. The frequency of toothbrush motion was higher on the left side (both buccal and palatal areas) than on the right side. There were no significant differences among joint angle frequencies within each brushing area. The inter- and intra-individual variations of the power spectrum of the elbow flexion angle when brushing were smaller than for any of the other angles. This study quantitatively confirmed that dental hygienists have individual distinctive rhythms during tooth brushing. All arm joints moved synchronously during brushing, and tooth brushing motion was controlled by coordinated movement of the joints. The elbow generated an individual's frequency through a stabilizing movement. The shoulder and wrist control the hand motion, and the elbow generates the cyclic rhythm during tooth brushing.

  2. The evolution of tooth wear indices

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tooth wear—attrition, erosion and abrasion—is perceived internationally as an ever-increasing problem. Clinical and epidemiological studies, however, are difficult to interpret and compare due to differences in terminology and the large number of indices that have been developed for diagnosing, grading and monitoring dental hard tissue loss. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical. Some record lesions on an aetiological basis (e.g. erosion indices), others record lesions irrespective of aetiology (tooth wear indices); none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. It reviews the literature to consider how current indices have evolved and discusses if these indices meet the clinical and research needs of the dental profession. PMID:17701430

  3. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  4. Mineral loss and color change of enamel after bleaching and staining solutions combination.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleão; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Catelan, Anderson; Fraga Briso, André Luiz; Fraga Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2013-10-01

    Pigments of food and beverages could affect dental bleaching efficacy. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate color change and mineral loss of tooth enamel as well as the influence of staining solutions normally used by adolescent patients undergoing home bleaching. Initial hardness and baseline color were measured on enamel blocks. Specimens were divided into five groups (n=5): G1 (control) specimens were kept in artificial saliva throughout the experiment (3 weeks); G2 enamel was exposed to 10% carbamide peroxide for 6 h daily, and after this period, the teeth were cleaned and stored in artificial saliva until the next bleaching session; and G3, G4, and G5 received the same treatments as G2, but after bleaching, they were stored for 1 h in cola soft drink, melted chocolate, or red wine, respectively. Mineral loss was obtained by the percentage of hardness reduction, and color change was determined by the difference between the data obtained before and after treatments. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Fisher's test (α=0.05). G3 and G5 showed higher mineral loss (92.96 ± 5.50 and 94.46 ± 1.00, respectively) compared to the other groups (p ≤ 0.05). G5 showed high-color change (9.34 ± 2.90), whereas G1 presented lower color change (2.22 ± 0.44) (p ≤ 0.05). Acidic drinks cause mineral loss of the enamel, which could modify the surface and reduce staining resistance after bleaching.

  5. Developing a tooth restorability index.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ailbhe; Setchell, Derrick

    2005-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the inherent strength of a tooth is dependent on the remaining dentine. It therefore seems logical that preservation of coronal dentine is important to the survival of intra- and extra-coronal restorations. The clinical assessment of the amount of dentine needed for functional requirements and the strategic value of remaining tooth structure is currently based on clinical opinion. This paper discusses what recommendations have been published and proposes an index that may be useful in assessing the restorability of a tooth. An index used to assess the amount and contribution of remaining coronal dentine to resistance and retention form could be of value in treatment planning.

  6. [Knowledge of Andalusian pediatricians and parents about early-onset tooth decay].

    PubMed

    González, E; Pérez-Hinojosa, S; Alarcón, J A; Peñalver, M A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge of pediatricians and parents from Andalucía (southern Spain) about early-onset tooth decay, and to assess if pediatricians provide information to parents about pediatric oral care and visits to the pediatric dentist. A random sample of 113 pediatricians and 112 parents with children under 3 years of age received an anonymous questionnaire comprising 14 items for pediatricians and 16 items for parents, grouped into five blocks: visits to the dentist, oral hygiene, caries, nutritional habits, and treatment of caries. The chi-squared test was used to assess differences between groups. Pediatricians showed deficiencies in their knowledge about visits to the dentist and treatment of caries, however their level of knowledge on oral hygiene, tooth decay and nutritional habits were adequate. Parents showed a low level of knowledge in all aspects of the study, mainly about the treatment of tooth decay. There were no significant differences between pediatricians and parents in the knowledge about visits to the dentist, however pediatricians had more knowledge than the parents about hygiene, tooth decay, nutritional habits and treatment (P<0.001). Most of the parents indicated that pediatricians did not provide them detailed information on oral care, and about the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Andalusian pediatricians should improve their knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and provide more information to parents about the oral care and the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Parents have a very low level of knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and particularly about treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of tooth wear associated with methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Richards, J R; Brofeldt, B T

    2000-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse is a significant worldwide problem. This prospective study was conducted to determine if MAP users had distinct patterns of tooth wear. Methamphetamine users were identified and interviewed about their duration and preferred route of MAP use. Study participants were interviewed in the emergency department of a large urban university hospital serving a geographic area with a high rate of illicit MAP production and consumption. Tooth wear was documented for each study participant and scored using a previously validated index and demographic information was obtained using a questionnaire. Forty-three MAP patients were interviewed. Preferred route of administration was injection (37%) followed by snorting (33%). Patients who preferentially snorted MAP had significantly higher tooth wear in the anterior maxillary teeth than patients who injected, smoked, or ingested MAP (P = 0.005). Patients who use MAP have distinct patterns of wear based on route of administration. This difference may be explained anatomically.

  8. Common developmental pathways link tooth shape to regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gareth J.; Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    In many non-mammalian vertebrates, adult dentitions result from cyclical rounds of tooth regeneration wherein simple unicuspid teeth are replaced by more complex forms. Therefore and by contrast to mammalian models, the numerical majority of vertebrate teeth develop shape during the process of replacement. Here, we exploit the dental diversity of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes to ask how vertebrates generally replace their dentition and in turn how this process acts to influence resulting tooth morphologies. First, we used immunohistochemistry to chart organogenesis of continually replacing cichlid teeth and discovered an epithelial down-growth that initiates the replacement cycle via a labial proliferation bias. Next, we identified sets of co-expressed genes from common pathways active during de novo, lifelong tooth replacement and tooth morphogenesis. Of note, we found two distinct epithelial cell populations, expressing markers of dental competence and cell potency, which may be responsible for tooth regeneration. Related gene sets were simultaneously active in putative signaling centers associated with the differentiation of replacement teeth with complex shapes. Finally, we manipulated targeted pathways (BMP, FGF, Hh, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin) in vivo with small molecules and demonstrated dose-dependent effects on both tooth replacement and tooth shape. Our data suggest that the processes of tooth regeneration and tooth shape morphogenesis are integrated via a common set of molecular signals. This linkage has subsequently been lost or decoupled in mammalian dentitions where complex tooth shapes develop in first generation dentitions that lack the capacity for lifelong replacement. Our dissection of the molecular mechanics of vertebrate tooth replacement coupled to complex shape pinpoints aspects of odontogenesis that might be re-evolved in the lab to solve problems in regenerative dentistry. PMID:23422830

  9. [Effect of transparent yellow and orange colored contact lenses on color discrimination in the yellow color range].

    PubMed

    Schürer, M; Walter, A; Brünner, H; Langenbucher, A

    2015-08-01

    Colored transparent filters cause a change in color perception and have an impact on the perceptible amount of different colors and especially on the ability to discriminate between them. Yellow or orange tinted contact lenses worn to enhance contrast vision by reducing or blocking short wavelengths also have an effect on color perception. The impact of the yellow and orange tinted contact lenses Wöhlk SPORT CONTRAST on color discrimination was investigated with the Erlangen colour measurement system in a study with 14 and 16 subjects, respectively. In relation to a yellow reference color located at u' = 0.2487/v' = 0.5433, measurements of color discrimination thresholds were taken in up to 6 different color coordinate axes. Based on these thresholds, color discrimination ellipses were calculated. These results are given in the Derrington, Krauskopf and Lennie (DKL) color system. Both contact lenses caused a shift of the reference color towards higher saturated colors. Color discrimination ability with the yellow and orange colored lenses was significantly enhanced along the blue-yellow axis in comparison to the reference measurements without a tinted filter. Along the red-green axis only the orange lens caused a significant reduction of color discrimination threshold distance to the reference color. Yellow and orange tinted contact lenses enhance the ability of color discrimination. If the transmission spectra and the induced changes are taken into account, these results can also be applied to other filter media, such as blue filter intraocular lenses.

  10. The color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on the substrates with different values.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Javadi Sharif, Mahdiye; Massoumi, Farhood; Namdari, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Background. The color masking ability of a restoration plays a significant role in coveringa discolored substructure; however, this optical property of zirconia ceramics has not been clearly determined yet. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on substrates with different values. Methods. Ten zirconia disk specimens,0.5 mm in thickness and 10 mm in diameter, were fabricated by a CAD/CAM system. Four substrates with different values were prepared, including: white (control), light grey, dark grey, and black. The disk specimens were placed over the substratesfor spectrophotometric measurements. A spectrophotometer measured the L * , a * , and b * color attributes of the specimens. Additionally, ΔE values were calculated to determine the color differences between each group and the control,and were then compared with the perceptional threshold of ΔE=2.6. Repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and one-sample t-test were used to analyze data. All the tests were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. Results. The means and standard deviations of ΔE values for the three groups of light grey, dark grey and black were 9.94±2.11, 10.40±2.09, and 13.34±1.77 units, respectively.Significant differences were detected between the groups in the ΔE values (P<0.0001).The ΔE values in all the groups were more than the predetermined perceptional threshold(ΔE>2.6) (P<0.0001). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the tested zirconia ceramic did not exhibit sufficient color masking ability to hide the grey and black substrates.

  11. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole ... or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  12. Diagnosing and treatment planning inadequate tooth display.

    PubMed

    Spear, F

    2016-10-21

    Some of the most challenging patients to produce a pleasing smile for are those who present with inadequate tooth display (either due to tooth position, the patient has normal size teeth, but they aren't exposed adequately to fill out the smile) or due to tooth size (the teeth are small, often due to tooth wear). The key to understanding how to manage these patients is to learn to understand the possible aetiologies that could produce the condition, and learn how to diagnose which aetiologies exist for your patient. Potential aetiologies for inadequate tooth display in patients with normal length unworn anterior teeth: excessive lip length; inadequate lip mobility; inadequate vertical eruption of the anterior teeth; inadequate facial prominence of the maxillary anterior teeth; vertical maxillary deficiency; and anterior maxillary deficiency.This article, the first in a British Dental Journal series on the topic of aesthetic dentistry, reviews the clinical findings consistent with diagnosing each of the above etiologies, and then reviews the treatment options available for correcting the inadequate tooth display.

  13. Tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; He, L H; Lyons, K; Swain, M V

    2012-03-01

    Tooth wear has been recognised as a major problem in dentistry. Epidemiological studies have reported an increasing prevalence of tooth wear and general dental practitioners see a greater number of patients seeking treatment with worn dentition. Although the dental literature contains numerous publications related to management and rehabilitation of tooth wear of varying aetiologies, our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of tooth wear is still limited. The wear behaviour of dental biomaterials has also been extensively researched to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for the development of restorative materials with good wear resistance. The complex nature of tooth wear indicates challenges for conducting in vitro and in vivo wear investigations and a clear correlation between in vitro and in vivo data has not been established. The objective was to critically review the peer reviewed English-language literature pertaining to prevalence and aetiology of tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry identified through a Medline search engine combined with hand-searching of the relevant literature, covering the period between 1960 and 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... life-threatening infections. Tooth decay (called early childhood caries) is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood. Tooth decay may also be called nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay . Healthy dental habits ...

  15. Comparison of Amount of Primary Tooth Reduction Required for Anterior and Posterior Zirconia and Stainless Steel Crowns.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larkin; Wells, Martha H; Harris, Edward F; Lou, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel (SSC) crowns. One hundred primary typodont teeth were divided into five groups (10 posterior and 10 anterior) and assigned to: Cheng Crowns (CC); EZ Pedo (EZP); Kinder Krowns (KKZ); NuSmile (NSZ); and SSC. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in tooth reduction among brand/type for both the anterior and posterior. Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD), when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Tukey's HSD test, applied to posterior data, revealed that CC required significantly greater removal of crown structure, while EZP, KKZ, and NSZ were statistically equivalent, and SSCs required significantly less removal. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth. Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. For posterior teeth, reduction for three brands (EZ Pedo, Kinder Krowns, NuSmile) did not differ, while Cheng Crowns required more reduction.

  16. Effect of Salivary pH on Color Stability of Different Flowable Composites - A Prospective In-vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Batra, Renu; Kataria, Pratik; Kapoor, Sonali

    2016-10-01

    Scientifically and clinically there has been lot of development in the field of aesthetic dentistry. However, there is limited or restricted information regarding the color stability of flowable composite materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrophotometric color stability of three different flowable composite materials with respect to three different pH of saliva. The study included 90 different samples. Thirty samples in each composite group; (Group A: G-aenial universal flo; Group B: Z 350 XT flowable; Group C: Esthet x flow). All samples from each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Total color difference (ΔE) was recorded for each sample. After this 10 samples from each group were respectively immersed in 6.5, 7 and 7.5 pH of artificial saliva. All samples were kept in dark room for seven days and then ΔE for each sample was recorded and was compared to previous recorded ΔE for the same sample. Maximum color change was seen irrespective of material in 6.5 pH of saliva. G-aenial universal flo showed least change irrespective of pH of saliva. Thus, the present study reveals that acidic pH level affects the coloration of composite resins by affecting the surface integrity and as reported in previous studies, various coloring agents in beverages and other dietary components assists the process due to absorption of these coloring substances into the resin matrix.

  17. A plea for the development of an universally accepted modular tooth wear evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Wetselaar, P; Faris, A; Lobbezoo, F

    2016-11-03

    Tooth wear is considered an increasing oral health problem. Due to its multifactorial nature, recognizing and diagnosing of tooth wear is difficult but nevertheless important. Over the years, a wide variety of evaluation systems has been developed, yet none of them is universally accepted. This has implications for both research and clinical practice. This paper describes an in-depth analysis of four commonly used tooth wear evaluation systems, namely, the Eccles index, the Tooth Wear Index, the Lussi index, and the Basic Erosive Wear Examination. Comparing those systems revealed that despite several similarities, they differ considerably from each other. Notably, all four systems have their specific advantages and disadvantages. However, neither one of them meets all necessary characteristics of a hypothetical, broadly applicable tooth wear evaluation system. In fact, it is not realistic that a single system qualifies for all purposes (for example, diagnosing or monitoring individual patients, performing epidemiological studies, etc.). As a potentially feasible solution for this issue, the development of an evaluation system is recommended that consists of multiple, coherent modules, which cover different purposes.

  18. Accelerated tooth eruption in children with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shantanu; Cheng, Bin; Kaplan, Selma; Softness, Barney; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Lalla, Evanthia; Lamster, Ira B

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth eruption in 6- to 14-year-old children with diabetes mellitus. Tooth eruption status was assessed for 270 children with diabetes and 320 control children without diabetes. Data on important diabetes-related variables were collected. Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Children with diabetes exhibited accelerated tooth eruption in the late mixed dentition period (10-14 years of age) compared to healthy children. For both case patients and control subjects the odds of a tooth being in an advanced eruptive stage were significantly higher among girls than boys. There was also a trend associating gingival inflammation with expedited tooth eruption in both groups. No association was found between the odds of a tooth being in an advanced stage of eruption and hemoglobin A(1c) or duration of diabetes. Patients with higher body mass index percentile demonstrated statistically higher odds for accelerated tooth eruption, but the association was not clinically significant. Children with diabetes exhibit accelerated tooth eruption. Future studies need to ascertain the role of such aberrations in dental development and complications such as malocclusion, impaired oral hygiene, and periodontal disease. The standards of care for children with diabetes should include screening and referral programs aimed at oral health promotion and disease prevention.

  19. Analysis of the Color and Fluorescence Alterations of Enamel and Dentin Treated With Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide whitening on fluorescence and color of bovine enamel and dentin. Twenty five dentin discs and 25 enamel discs, with 6 mm diameter and 1 mm thick, were obtained. Direct fluorescence (spectrofluorophotometry) and color (spectrophotometry) were assessed. After fluorescence and color baseline measurements, specimens were immersed in a 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) solution for 1 h. This procedure was repeated after 7 days. Final fluorescence and color measurements were performed after the second immersion. Chemical characterization of 5 additional specimens was also performed. Data were submitted to repeated analysis of variance and Tukey's test for fluorescence and unpaired t-test for color and chemical components (p<0.05). Fluorescence decreased significantly in dentin specimens after whitening. Enamel presented lower fluorescence than dentin at baseline, but this parameter did not decrease after whitening. Color changes were observed for both substrates, with significantly greater whitening effect in dentin (ΔE=10.37) (p<0.001). Whitening by hydrogen peroxide induced significant decrease in fluorescence of tooth dentin and promoted significant color changes in dentin and enamel with more accentuated outcomes in dentin.

  20. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  1. Rapid and Selective Removal of Composite From Tooth Surfaces With a 9.3 μm CO2 Laser Using Spectral Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dental composite restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants, or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. Methods In this study, a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10–20-microsecond and a pulse repetition rate of ~200 Hz was integrated with a galvanometer based scanner and used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. Spectra of the plume emission were acquired after each laser pulse and used to differentiate between the ablation of dental enamel or composite. Microthermocouples were used to monitor the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite removal. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser beam was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. Results The laser was able to rapidly remove composite from tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel and without excessive heat accumulation in the tooth. Conclusion This study demonstrated that composite can be selectively removed from tooth surfaces at clinically relevant rates using a CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates with minimal heat deposition and damage to the underlying enamel. PMID:21956630

  2. Minimizing the extra-oral time in autogeneous tooth transplantation: use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) as a duplicate model tooth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jong; Kim, Euiseong

    2012-08-01

    The maintenance of the healthy periodontal ligament cells of the root surface of donor tooth and intimate surface contact between the donor tooth and the recipient bone are the key factors for successful tooth transplantation. In order to achieve these purposes, a duplicated donor tooth model can be utilized to reduce the extra-oral time using the computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) technique. Briefly, a three-dimensional digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image with the real dimensions of the donor tooth was obtained from a computed tomography (CT), and a life-sized resin tooth model was fabricated. Dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were calculated. And extra-oral time was recorded during the autotransplantation of the teeth. The average extra-oral time was 7 min 25 sec with the range of immediate to 25 min in cases which extra-oral root canal treatments were not performed while it was 9 min 15 sec when extra-oral root canal treatments were performed. The average radiographic distance between the root surface and the alveolar bone was 1.17 mm and 1.35 mm at mesial cervix and apex; they were 0.98 mm and 1.26 mm at the distal cervix and apex. When the dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were measured in cadavers, the average of absolute error was 0.291 mm between real teeth and CARP model. These data indicate that CARP may be of value in minimizing the extra-oral time and the gap between the donor tooth and the recipient alveolar bone in tooth transplantation.

  3. Effect of piezopuncture on tooth movement and bone remodeling in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Seok; Kim, Su-Jung; Yoon, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Peter Joohak; Moon, Won; Park, Young-Guk

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether a newly developed, minimally invasive procedure, piezopuncture, would be a logical modification for accelerating tooth movement in the maxilla and the mandible. Ten beagle dogs were divided into 2 groups. Traditional orthodontic tooth movement was performed in the control group. In the experimental group, a piezotome was used to make cortical punctures penetrating the gingiva around the moving tooth. Measurements were made in weeks 1 through 6. Tooth movement and bone apposition rates from the histomorphometric analyses were evaluated by independent t tests. The cumulative tooth movement distance was greater in the piezopuncture group than in the control group: 3.26-fold in the maxilla and 2.45-fold in the mandible. Piezopuncture significantly accelerated the tooth movements at all observation times, and the acceleration was greatest during the first 2 weeks for the maxilla and the second week for the mandible. Anabolic activity was also increased by piezopuncture: 2.55-fold in the maxilla and 2.35-fold in the mandible. Based on the different effects of piezopuncture on the maxilla and the mandible, the results of a clinical trial of piezopuncture with optimized protocols might give orthodontists a therapeutic benefit for reducing treatment duration. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  5. Tooth wear in three ethnic groups in Sabah (northern Borneo).

    PubMed

    Milosevic, A; Lo, M S

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence and associated aetiologies of tooth wear were investigated in three ethnic groups in Sabah (Northern Borneo) using the Tooth Wear Index (TWI). The number of surfaces with enamel wear only, dentine exposed for less than a third or dentine exposed for more than a third were categorised into the TW minimal, moderate or severe respectively. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit medical/dental history, oral hygiene practices, satisfaction with body image, diet and other personal habits/details. The sample comprised of a self selected sample of 148 dental hospital attenders; 47 (32 per cent) each of ethnic Chinese and Malay and 54 (36 per cent) of ethnic Kadazan, matched for age and with a similar number of scoreable teeth per subject. Dentine exposure within the total sample was a common finding (95 per cent TW with moderate, 41 per cent TW severe). The Kadazan group had significantly (P < 0.05) more surfaces with severe tooth wear than the Chinese or Malay. Tobacco chewing was positively associated (rho = +0.4, P < 0.05) with both moderate and severe tooth wear, as was the habit of crushing/eating bones. Neither carbonated beverages or fresh fruit intake were associated with tooth wear, but their frequency of consumption was low. The buccal and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth were the most severely worn. Generally, wear was greater in the upper anterior sextant compared to the lower anterior sextant, with the exception of the lower incisal edges in the Kadazan group. Tooth wear into dentine was a common occurrence, especially among the Kadazan subjects and least among the Chinese subjects. The aetiological factors associated with this tooth wear are different to those encountered in Western cultures.

  6. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  7. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Martin G. D.; Bomfim, Deborah I.; Austin, Rupert S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles. PMID:22315608

  8. Beyond mean allelic effects: A locus at the major color gene MC1R associates also with differing levels of phenotypic and genetic (co)variance for coloration in barn owls.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Luis M; Ducret, Valérie; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic variance in the barn owl, Tyto alba. The white MC1R allele, which associates with whiter plumage coloration, also associates with a pronounced phenotypic and additive genetic variance for distinct color traits. Contrarily, the rufous allele, associated with a rufous coloration, relates to a lower phenotypic and additive genetic variance, suggesting that this allele may be epistatic over other color loci. Variance differences between genotypes entailed differences in the strength of phenotypic and genetic associations between color traits, suggesting that differences in variance also alter the level of integration between traits. This study highlights that addressing variance differences of genotypes in wild populations provides interesting new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms and the genetic architecture underlying the phenotype. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  10. Color inference in visual communication: the meaning of colors in recycling.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Lessard, Laurent; Walmsley, Charlotte S; Foley, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    People interpret abstract meanings from colors, which makes color a useful perceptual feature for visual communication. This process is complicated, however, because there is seldom a one-to-one correspondence between colors and meanings. One color can be associated with many different concepts (one-to-many mapping) and many colors can be associated with the same concept (many-to-one mapping). We propose that to interpret color-coding systems, people perform assignment inference to determine how colors map onto concepts. We studied assignment inference in the domain of recycling. Participants saw images of colored but unlabeled bins and were asked to indicate which bins they would use to discard different kinds of recyclables and trash. In Experiment 1, we tested two hypotheses for how people perform assignment inference. The local assignment hypothesis predicts that people simply match objects with their most strongly associated color. The global assignment hypothesis predicts that people also account for the association strengths between all other objects and colors within the scope of the color-coding system. Participants discarded objects in bins that optimized the color-object associations of the entire set, which is consistent with the global assignment hypothesis. This sometimes resulted in discarding objects in bins whose colors were weakly associated with the object, even when there was a stronger associated option available. In Experiment 2, we tested different methods for encoding color-coding systems and found that people were better at assignment inference when color sets simultaneously maximized the association strength between assigned color-object parings while minimizing associations between unassigned pairings. Our study provides an approach for designing intuitive color-coding systems that facilitate communication through visual media such as graphs, maps, signs, and artifacts.

  11. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as ‘modern-day’ pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment. PMID:17938977

  12. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist.

    PubMed

    Kaidonis, John A

    2008-03-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as 'modern-day' pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment.

  13. Detecting Inter-Cusp and Inter-Tooth Wear Patterns in Rhinocerotids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lucy A.; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Schwitzer, Christoph; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Schulz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM(R)-S) to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM(R)-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other signals, leading to

  14. Detecting inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns in rhinocerotids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lucy A; Kaiser, Thomas M; Schwitzer, Christoph; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Schulz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM(R)-S) to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM(R)-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other signals, leading to

  15. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion), which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration. PMID:22899809

  16. Differences in the selection response of serially repeated color pattern characters: standing variation, development, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Allen, Cerisse E; Beldade, Patrícia; Zwaan, Bas J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-03-26

    There is spectacular morphological diversity in nature but lineages typically display a limited range of phenotypes. Because developmental processes generate the phenotypic variation that fuels natural selection, they are a likely source of evolutionary biases, facilitating some changes and limiting others. Although shifts in developmental regulation are associated with morphological differences between taxa, it is unclear how underlying mechanisms affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change within populations under selection. Here we focus on two ecologically relevant features of butterfly wing color patterns, eyespot size and color composition, which are similarly and strongly correlated across the serially repeated eyespots. Though these two characters show similar patterns of standing variation and covariation within a population, they differ in key features of their underlying development. We targeted pairs of eyespots with artificial selection for coordinated (concerted selection) versus independent (antagonistic selection) change in their color composition and size and compared evolutionary responses of the two color pattern characters. The two characters respond to selection in strikingly different ways despite initially similar patterns of variation in all directions present in the starting population. Size (determined by local properties of a diffusing inductive signal) evolves flexibly in all selected directions. However, color composition (determined by a tissue-level response to the signal concentration gradient) evolves only in the direction of coordinated change. There was no independent evolutionary change in the color composition of two eyespots in response to antagonistic selection. Moreover, these differences in the directions of short-term evolutionary change in eyespot size and color composition within a single species are consistent with the observed wing pattern diversity in the genus. Both characters respond rapidly to selection for

  17. Contingent capture in cueing: the role of color search templates and cue-target color relations.

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Becker, Stefanie I

    2014-03-01

    Visual search studies have shown that attention can be top-down biased to a specific target color, so that only items with this color or a similar color can capture attention. According to some theories of attention, colors from different categories (i.e., red, green, blue, yellow) are represented independently. However, other accounts have proposed that these are related--either because color is filtered through broad overlapping channels (4-channel view), or because colors are represented in one continuous feature space (e.g., CIE space) and search is governed by specific principles (e.g., linear separability between colors, or top-down tuning to relative colors). The present study tested these different views using a cueing experiment in which observers had to select one target color (e.g., red) and ignore two or four differently colored distractors that were presented prior to the target (cues). The results showed clear evidence for top-down contingent capture by colors, as a target-colored cue captured attention more strongly than differently colored cues. However, the results failed to support any of the proposed views that different color categories are related to one another by overlapping channels, linear separability, or relational guidance (N = 96).

  18. Influence of Tooth Spacing Error on Gears With and Without Profile Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padmasolala, Giri; Lin, Hsiang H.; Oswald, Fred B.

    2000-01-01

    A computer simulation was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of profile modification for reducing dynamic loads in gears with different tooth spacing errors. The simulation examined varying amplitudes of spacing error and differences in the span of teeth over which the error occurs. The modification considered included both linear and parabolic tip relief. The analysis considered spacing error that varies around most of the gear circumference (similar to a typical sinusoidal error pattern) as well as a shorter span of spacing errors that occurs on only a few teeth. The dynamic analysis was performed using a revised version of a NASA gear dynamics code, modified to add tooth spacing errors to the analysis. Results obtained from the investigation show that linear tip relief is more effective in reducing dynamic loads on gears with small spacing errors but parabolic tip relief becomes more effective as the amplitude of spacing error increases. In addition, the parabolic modification is more effective for the more severe error case where the error is spread over a longer span of teeth. The findings of this study can be used to design robust tooth profile modification for improving dynamic performance of gear sets with different tooth spacing errors.

  19. Color calibration and color-managed medical displays: does the calibration method matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Rehm, Kelly; Silverstein, Louis D.; Dallas, William J.; Fan, Jiahua; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2010-02-01

    Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ▵E = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target.

  20. Objective evaluation of visibility in virtual chromoendoscopy for esophageal squamous carcinoma using a color difference formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahito; Miyake, Yoichi; Odaka, Takeo; Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakama, Atsunori; Zenbutsu, Satoki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) is a new dyeless imaging technique that enhances mucosal and vascular patterns. However, a method for selecting a suitable wavelength for a particular condition has not been established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the color difference method for quality assessment of FICE images of the intrapapillary capillary loop in magnifying endoscopy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The color difference between 60 microvessels and background mucosa observed using the magnifying endoscope was 8.31+/-2.84 SD under white light and 12.26+/-3.14 (p=0.0031), 11.70+/-4.49 (p=0.0106), and 17.49+/-5.40 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. The visibility scores for microvessels observed by medical students were 6.00+/-1.12 points under white light and 11.1+/-2.25 (p<0.0001), 8.65+/-2.06 (p=0.0001), and 12.55+/-2.56 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. Furthermore, the measurement of color difference was correlated with the visibility score assigned by medical students (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.583, p<0.0001) In conclusion, the color difference method corresponds to human vision and is an appropriate method for evaluation of endoscopic images.

  1. Comparison of Saudi child versus parent-report of child tooth-brushing practices.

    PubMed

    Salama, F; Abobakr, I; Al-Khodair, N; Al-Wakeel, M

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared Saudi children's tooth-brushing practices as reported by children and parents and then matched the agreement of reports. A sample of 100 Saudi parents and their children of ages 8-12 years participated in this cross-sectional investigation. A self-administered structured questionnaire regarding the current tooth-brushing practice and habits at home was filled by the child. The same questionnaire was filled independently by parents. Mothers were more likely to teach children about tooth-brushing and fathers were minimally helping children during tooth-brushing. Mothers were the first to teach the children and approximately 33% of the children started brushing their teeth by age 5. Children and parents reported that children clean their teeth using a tooth-brush (73.74% and 76.77%), miswak (5.05% and 5.05%), or both (21.21% and 18.18%), respectively. There was some agreement between reported tooth-brushing practice of children and their parents. It is important to question both the child and parent regarding oral hygiene practice and compare their answers to get more broad knowledge about their practices. Approximately, one-third of the children started brushing their teeth by age 5, which differs from recommended oral hygiene practices.

  2. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth.

    PubMed

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

  3. Evaluation of tablet PC as a tool for teaching tooth brushing to children.

    PubMed

    Salama, F; Abobakr, I; Al-Khodair, N; Al-Wakeel, M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a single time tooth brushing instruction using video on a tablet PC (Apple iPad) compared to operator presentation using jaw model for plaque removal. This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of 100 children divided into two groups. For Group 1 brushing was demonstrated to the child by the operator with the use of a jaw model. This demonstration was videotaped for subsequent use in Group 2 using a tablet PC (Apple iPad). Plaque index was recorded before and after demonstration of the assigned method of teaching tooth brushing. The results showed a significant difference using the two methods. The difference between the mean plaque index values with the jaw model and tablet PC at baseline and after tooth brushing represented 17.27% (50% improvement) and 11.56% (34% improvement) respectively. Boys showed a 18.3%. higher improvement in tooth brushing compared to girls. Seventy-five percent of the children reported using tablet computers in their daily life. CONCLUSION Teaching children by using a jaw model was more effective in improving plaque index score than using video on tablet PC by 16%. Both methods of tooth brushing teaching were fully accepted by all children.

  4. A comparative evaluation of the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composite to indian spices and food colorants: An In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Usha, Carounanidy; Rao, Sathyanarayanan Rama; George, Geena Mary

    2018-01-01

    Resin composite restorative materials can mimic the natural color and shade of the tooth. However, exogenous colorants from food and drinks can stain them due to adsorption. The influence of Indian food colorants and spices on resin composite restorations has not been evaluated extensively. This study aims to evaluate the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composites, to saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder. Forty samples of microhybrid (Kulzer Charisma) and nanohybrid (3M Filtek Z350) resin composites were prepared using an acrylic template of dimension 5 mm × 3 mm. They were randomly divided into four groups and immersed into solutions of saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder. Distilled water was used as the control group. Color values (LFNx01, aFNx01, bFNx01) were measured by colorimeter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 system before and after 72 h of immersion. Color differences ΔEFNx01ab were statistically analyzed. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey (honest significant difference) test were done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. : All the immersion media changed the color of the resin composites to varying degrees. However, turmeric solution showed the maximum mean color variation ΔEFNx01ab of 14.8 ± 2.57 in microhybrid resin composites and 16.8 ± 3.50 in nanohybrid resin composites. Microhybrid and nanohybrid resin composites tend to stain to Indian food colorants, especially to turmeric powder.

  5. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  6. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  7. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTURE TOOTH MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The applicability of the edge chipping method to denture tooth materials was assessed. These are softer materials than those usually tested by edge chipping. The edge chipping fracture resistances of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based and two filled resin composite denture tooth materials were compared. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to chip rectangular blocks and flattened anterior denture teeth. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Between 20 and 65 chips were made per condition depending upon the material, the scatter, and the indenter type. Different indenter types were used including Rockwell C, sharp conical 120°, Knoop, and Vickers. The edge toughness, Te, was evaluated for different indenter types. Results The edge chipping data collected on the blocks matched the data collected from flattened teeth. High scatter, particularly at large distances and loads, meant that many tests (up to 64) were necessary to compare the denture tooth materials and to ascertain the appropriate data trends. A linear force – distance trend analysis was adequate for comparing these materials. A power law trend might be more appropriate, but the large scatter obscured the definitive determination of the precise trend. Different indenters produce different linear trends, with the ranking of: sharp conical 120°, Rockwell C, and Knoop, from lowest to highest edge toughness. Vickers indenter data were extremely scattered and a sensible trend could not be obtained. Edge toughness was inversely correlated to hardness. Significance Edge chipping data collected either from simple laboratory scale test blocks or from actual denture teeth may be used to evaluate denture materials. The edge chipping method’s applicability has been extended to another class of restorative materials. PMID:24674342

  8. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  9. Examination of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dogru, Mehmet; Akpolat, Veysi; Dogru, Arzum Guler; Karadede, Beyza; Akkurt, Atilim; Karadede, M. Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) affect the amount of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The experiments were performed on 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6): cage-control (Cg-Cnt) group (n = 6); sinusoidal electromagnetic field (SEMF) group (n = 6); and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) group (n = 6). In SEMF and PEMF groups, rats were subjected to 1.5 mT EMF exposure eight hours per day for eight days. In order to obtain tooth movement, holes were drilled on the right and left maxillary central incisors of the rats at a distance 1.5–2 mm away from the gingiva and 20 g of orthodontic forces were applied to the teeth. Generated linear model for repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used to evaluate the differences between the groups. Interactions among groups by days were found by using Pillai's trace multivariate test. The results showed that significant differences were present among the groups (F = 5.035; p = 0.03) according to the extent of tooth movement. Significant differences between the amount of tooth movements were determined especially after the fifth day and the following days six, seven and eight (p < 0.001). Within the limitations, according to the results of the present study, the application of ELF-EMF accelerated the orthodontic tooth movement in rats. PMID:26019497

  10. [Principal reasons for extraction of permanent tooth in a sample of Mexicans adults].

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; De la Rosa-Santillana, Ruben; Navarete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Tooth extractions are one of the most common procedures in oral surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for tooth extraction in adult patients seeking care at teaching dental clinics. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 331 subjects between 18 and 85 (45.37 +/- 13.85) years of age seeking dental care in dental clinics of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, from January 2009 to December, 2009. Data pertaining to age, sex, tooth number and the reason for extraction according to Kay & Blinkhorn were analyzed with non-parametric tests. 779 extractions were undertaken. The main reason for extraction was dental caries (43.1%), periodontal disease (PD) (27.9%), and prosthetic reasons (21.5%). There was no significant difference across sex for reasons of extraction (p > 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for age (extraction due to periodontal disease increased with age); in patients attending in a single visit vs. patients attending a series of dental appointments (caries reasons were more common in patients having a single appointment vs. PD in those attending a series of appointments); for type of teeth (upper, posterior, and molars were extracted primarily because of caries, while lower, anterior and incisors were more often extracted because of PD). Dental caries was the most common reason for tooth extraction, followed by periodontal disease. Differences in the reasons for extraction were observed across patient characteristics and type of tooth.

  11. The effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences in CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Al Ben Ali, Abdulaziz; Kang, Kiho; Finkelman, Matthew D; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences (ΔE) for different shades of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate glass ceramics. A pilot study suggested n = 10 as an appropriate sample size for the number of lithium disilicate glass ceramic cylinders per group. High-transparency (HT) and low-transparency (LT) cylinders (diameter, 12 mm; length, 13 mm) were fabricated in three ceramic shades (BL1, A2, C3) using CAD/CAM technology and were cut into specimen disks (thickness, 1.2 mm; diameter, 12 mm) for placement on Natural Die (ND1 and ND4) backgrounds. Four combinations of translucency and background color were evaluated in terms of color differences for the three ceramic shades: group 1 (HT ND1, reference), group 2 (HT ND4), group 3 (LT ND1), and group 4 (LT ND4). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color differences. Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used to evaluate the color differences among the tested groups, and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction were used as pos