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Sample records for toothpaste

  1. Toothpaste overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Poisonous ingredients include: Sodium fluoride Triclosan ... when swallowing a large amount of toothpaste containing fluoride: Convulsions Diarrhea Difficulty breathing Drooling Heart attack Salty ...

  2. Ingestible Toothpaste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Developed by Dr. Ira L. Shannon, dental consultant to Johnson Space Center associates with Oral Disease Research Lab of Virginia Hospital in Houston, TX. Toothpaste is foamless and can be swallowed after use, making it practical for zero-gravity environment of space. Also has applications with certain patients who are bedridden, wheelchair confined or patients with oral facial paralysis whose ability to expectorate is limited. Also useful as a first toothpaste for children. This product is no longer commercially available.

  3. Explore your toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2006-07-01

    A simple packet of toothpaste is a good starting point for investigations by students. By looking at (i) the modern packaging and (ii) the fine abrasive material in the toothpaste, pupils can appreciate one way in which modern technology shapes the world around us.

  4. Antiplaque and antigingivitis toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Mariano; Serrano, Jorge; Iniesta, Margarita; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Herrera, David

    2013-01-01

    Dentifrices are a general term used to describe preparations that are used together with a toothbrush with the purpose to clean and/or polish the teeth. Active toothpastes were first formulated in the 1950s and included ingredients such as urea, enzymes, ammonium phosphate, sodium lauryl sarcosinate and stannous fluoride. Later, therapeutic agents were included. Today's toothpastes have two objectives: to help the toothbrush in cleaning the tooth surface and to provide a therapeutic effect. The therapeutic effect may have an antiplaque or anti-inflammatory basis when the nature of the agents is antimicrobial. Plaque inhibitory and antiplaque activity of toothpastes used for chemical plaque control is evaluated in distinct consecutive stages, the last being home use randomized clinical trials of at least 6 months' duration. In this chapter, the scientific evidence supporting the use of the most common antiplaque agents, included in toothpaste formulations, is reviewed, with a special emphasis on 6-month clinical trials, and systematic reviews with meta-analyses of the mentioned studies. Among the active agents, the following have been included in toothpastes: enzymes, amine alcohols, herbal or natural products, triclosan, bisbiguanides (chlorhexidine), quaternary ammonium compounds (cetylpyridinium chloride) and different metal salts (zinc salts, stannous fluoride, stannous fluoride with amine fluoride). Dentifrices are the ideal vehicles for any active ingredient used as an oral health preventive measure since they are used in combination with toothbrushing, which is the most frequently employed oral hygiene method. The most important indications of dentifrices with active ingredients are associated with long-term use to prevent bacterial biofilm formation, mostly in gingivitis patients or in patients on supportive periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Advertising of toothpaste in parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hammond, Rodney; Guinta, Alexis; Rajan, Sonali; Basch, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    We assessed advertisements for children's toothpaste in two widely read US parenting magazines. Data on the number and type of toothpaste advertisements in two parenting magazines were collected from 116 magazine issues between 2007 and 2011. The number of children's toothpaste advertisements per year and across magazines was computed. The amount of toothpaste presented in each advertisement was categorized. We noted whether the toothpaste advertisement stated that the toothpaste was fluoridated. We identified a total of 117 children's toothpaste advertisements in these magazines and confirmed that the majority of the magazine issues contained at least one toothpaste advertisement. Of the 31 advertisements that depicted a picture of a toothbrush with toothpaste, all but one (96.8 %) depicted a full swirl of toothpaste covering the entire toothbrush head, which is well over the recommended amount. The pictures on the advertisements show an excessive amount of toothpaste on the brush, which directly conflicts with the instructions on many toothpastes and dentist recommendations. Those advertisements with photographs that depict a toothbrush with a full brush head of toothpaste are showing over four times the recommended amount for children.

  6. Utilization of toothpaste and fluoride content in toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kikwilu, Emil N; Frencken, Jo E; Mulder, Jan

    2008-10-01

    To determine the use of toothpaste, the reasons behind its irregular use, the cost perceptions, and the fluoride concentrations in locally manufactured toothpaste. A total of 978 dental patients attending 13 dental clinics for 2 weeks in June 2007 completed a pre-tested questionnaire on toothpaste use. Toothpaste was collected from shops in Dar es Salaam and analyzed at the laboratory of the Dental School in Amsterdam. Logistic regression was applied to determine the relative importance of independent variables on usage and perceptions about the cost of toothpaste. Eighty-six percent of respondents used toothpaste daily. Of the 130 who used toothpaste less than once a day, 57.7% gave financial reasons for their irregular use. Toothpaste was perceived as expensive by 34.8% of respondents. Urban residents were five times more likely than rural residents to use toothpaste. Younger respondents were more likely than older respondents: to perceive toothpaste as important, to brush their teeth, to use toothpaste, and to brush their teeth regularly. All toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania had free fluoride concentrations below 400 ppm. Most respondents used toothpaste regularly and one-third regarded it as expensive. Toothpaste manufactured in Tanzania had free fluoride concentrations below the optimum levels for dental caries prevention. For a well-functioning Basic Package of Oral Care, the authority responsible for oral health has to take measures aimed at lowering the price of toothpaste, and toothpaste manufacturers have to ensure that their products have the optimal fluoride concentration for dental caries prevention.

  7. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  8. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo

    2014-01-01

    Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.

  9. Dentin abrasivity of various desensitizing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Gröger, Ch; Bizhang, M; Naumova, E A

    2016-04-02

    The aim of this study was to compare the abrasivity of various commercially available toothpastes that claim to reduce dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin discs were prepared from 70 human extracted molars. The discs were etched with lemon juice for 5 min, and one half of the discs were covered with aluminum tape. Following this, they were brushed with 6 different toothpastes, simulating a total brushing time of 6 months. As a negative control, discs were brushed with tap water only. The toothpastes contained pro-arginine and calcium carbonate, strontium acetate, stannous fluoride, zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, new silica, or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate and hydroxyapatite. After brushing, the height differences between the control halves and the brushed halves were determined with a profilometer and statistically compared using a Mann-Whitney U test for independent variables. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in height difference between the controls and the toothpaste-treated samples was found in all cases, except for the stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste (p = 0.583). The highest abrasion was found in the toothpaste containing zinc carbonate and hydroxyapatite, and the lowest was found in the toothpaste containing pro-arginine and calcium carbonate. Desensitizing toothpastes with different desensitizing ingredients have different levels of abrasivity, which may have a negative effect on their desensitizing abilities over a long period of time.

  10. Contact Allergy to (Ingredients of) Toothpastes.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton

    The literature on contact allergy to (ingredients of) toothpastes is critically reviewed. We have found 47 case reports, small case series (n = 2-5) and citations published between 1900 and 2016 describing more than 60 patients allergic to toothpastes, and in addition 3 larger case series and many descriptions of toothpaste allergy among selected groups of patients. Allergic reactions usually manifest as cheilitis with or without dermatitis around the mouth, less frequently by oral symptoms. Formerly, many reactions were caused by cinnamon derivatives; more recently, reported allergens are diverse. A semiopen test or closed patch test with the toothpaste "as is" may be performed as an initial test, but a positive reaction should always be followed by confirmatory tests. The role of contact allergy to toothpastes in patients with oral symptoms (stomatitis, glossitis, gingivitis, buccal mucositis, burning, soreness, and possibly burning mouth syndrome and recurrent aphthous ulcers) is unclear and should be further investigated.

  11. Use of full strength fluoride toothpaste among preschoolers in New Zealand, and factors determining toothpaste choice.

    PubMed

    Li, Judy; Dallas, Sarah; McBride-Henry, Karen

    2016-06-10

    International researchers have highlighted an inconsistent knowledge-base for parents and caregivers regarding the use of toothpaste among preschoolers. The New Zealand Government has published recommendations on the use of toothpaste in this age group. This study aimed to explore parents and caregivers' knowledge about toothpaste, with the aim of improving health literacy and overall oral health of New Zealand preschoolers. The study was conducted via an online sample of parents and caregivers of preschoolers (n=1,056). Only 19% of the preschoolers in the sample used full-strength fluoride toothpaste. Preschoolers were significantly more likely to use full-strength toothpaste if they were not the first child in the family (OR=1.77, 1.28-2.47) or have previously visited a dental professional (OR=1.84, 1.18-2.85). In addition, parents and caregivers made decisions around purchasing of toothpaste based on the level of trust they had in the brand (59%) and also matching age-specific toothpaste to their child (49%). The findings of this research highlight the need for timely advice for parents and caregivers on toothpaste choices for preschool children. The New Zealand Government has published recommendations on the use of full-strength fluoride toothpaste for all ages, including pre-schoolers.

  12. Caries lesion remineralization with fluoride toothpastes and chlorhexidine - effects of application timing and toothpaste surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Almohefer, Sami A.; Levon, John A.; Gregory, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Habitual toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste followed by rinsing with antibacterial mouthwashes is a method to maintain good oral hygiene and to diminish the occurrence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. However, our understanding of how antimicrobial agents in mouthwashes affect fluoride-mediated caries lesion remineralization is still poor. Objective: The objectives of this in vitro study were a) to determine the effects of the waiting period of chlorhexidine (CHX) rinsing after fluoride toothpaste use and b) to further determine the effect of the type of toothpaste surfactant [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB)] on caries lesion remineralization associated with CHX rinsing. Material and Methods: Caries lesions were formed in bovine enamel specimens and assigned to 10 treatment groups (n=18) based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN). Lesions were then pH-cycled for 10 days with daily regimen comprised of twice daily toothpaste slurry treatments (1150 ppm fluoride, with SDS or CAPB), followed by CHX solution treatments [0, 15, 30 or 60 minutes following slurry treatment or no CHX treatment (negative control)]. VHN was measured again and the extent of lesion remineralization calculated (∆VHN). Results: ∆VHN with SDS-toothpaste was significantly lower than with CAPB-toothpaste, indicating more remineralization for the CAPB-toothpaste. ∆VHN with 0-minute waiting time was significantly lower than with 30-minute waiting time and with negative control. Conclusions: The absence of CHX as an adjunct to fluoride toothpastes led to greater remineralization of enamel lesions compared with the immediate use of CHX treatment for both SDS- and CAPB-toothpastes. CAPB-toothpastes indicated significantly greater remineralization than SDS-toothpastes, and can be suggested for patients at high risk of caries. A 30-minute waiting time for CHX treatment is recommended after brushing.

  13. Fluoride toothpaste utilization behaviour among preschool children in Perlis, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tay, H L; Zainudin, I S; Jaafar, N

    2009-12-01

    Very mild fluorosis is quite prevalent in children and one of the sources may be attributed to poor fluoride toothpaste utilization habits. To investigate the frequency of toothbrushing, parental supervision, the person who usually applied the toothpaste, toothpaste swallowing and spitting habits, size of toothbrush, type of toothpaste used and amount of toothpaste used by shape and weight. Observational cross-sectional study of a representative random sample of 373 children aged 5-6 year-old. The children were interviewed using a structured close ended questionnaire. Direct observations were made on their toothpaste dispensing habit during a toothbrushing exercise. All children reported practising toothbrushing with 90% on a daily basis. Almost all used fluoridated toothpaste (91.4%). About one-half (50.7%) reported that their parents never supervised them. More than one-third of children used adult toothpaste and 60.1% of the toothpaste was flavoured. Most (92%) used toothbrush meant for children. About 40% applied a pea-sized amount of toothpaste. The mean weight of toothpaste applied was 0.43 g (SID + 0.35 g). The majority used the recommended child-sized toothbrush and toothpaste that contained fluoride but less than one-half of the parents supervised their children. Most children used flavoured children's toothpaste but a sizable proportion used toothpastes meant for adults. The amount applied by shape and weight exceeded the amount recommended by experts.

  14. The in vitro impact of toothpaste extracts on cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cvikl, Barbara; Lussi, Adrian; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Toothpastes contain three main components: detergents, abrasives, and fluoride. Detergents, particularly sodium lauryl sulfate, have been proposed as components that enable toothpastes to produce cytotoxic effects in vitro. However, not all toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate, and almost no studies have found an association between detergents and the in vitro cytotoxicity of toothpastes. The present study examined the in vitro cytotoxicity of nine commercially available toothpastes containing four different detergents. Toothpastes were diluted in serum-free medium, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The half-lethal concentration of the toothpaste-conditioned medium (TCM) was calculated based on the formation of formazan by gingival fibroblasts, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells, and L929 cells. Cell proliferation was analyzed, and live-dead staining was performed, after exposure of cells to conditioned medium prepared with 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). It was found that toothpastes containing sodium lauryl sulfate and amine fluoride strongly inhibited cell viability with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with approximately 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). Toothpastes containing cocamidopropyl betaine and Steareth-20 showed higher half-lethal concentration values, with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with 10% (10% TCM) and 70% (70% TCM) toothpaste, respectively. Proliferation and live-dead data were consistent with the cell-viability analyses. These results demonstrate that the type of detergent in toothpastes can be associated with changes in in vitro cell toxicity. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Comparative effect of a stannous fluoride toothpaste and a sodium fluoride toothpaste on a multispecies biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingqun; Liu, Jinman; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Lijiang; Liu, Jiquan; Xu, Xin

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed to compare the mode of action of a stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste with a conventional sodium fluoride-containing toothpaste on anti-biofilm properties. A three-species biofilm model that consists of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Porphyromonas gingivalis was established to compare the anti-biofilm properties of a stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste (CPH), a conventional sodium fluoride-containing toothpaste (CCP) and a negative control (PBS). The 48h biofilms were subjected to two-minute episodes of treatment with test agents twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Crystal violet staining and XTT assays were used to evaluate the biomass and viability of the treated biofilm. Live/dead staining and bacteria/extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) double-staining were used to visualize the biofilm structure and to quantify microbial/extracellular components of the treated biofilms. Species-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to analyze microbial composition of the biofilms after treatment. The biomass and viability of the biofilms were significantly reduced after CPH toothpaste treatment. The inhibitory effect was further confirmed by the live/dead staining. The EPS amounts of the three-species biofilm were significantly reduced by CCP and CPH treatments, and CPH toothpaste demonstrated significant inhibition on EPS production. More importantly, CPH toothpaste significantly suppressed S. mutans and P. gingvalis, and enriched S. sanguinis in the three-species biofilm. In all experiments CPH had a significantly greater effect than CCP (p<0.05) and CCP had a greater effect than PBS (p<0.05). Stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste not only showed better inhibitory effect against oral microbial biofilm, but was also able to modulate microbial composition within multi-species biofilm compared with conventional sodium fluoride-containing toothpaste. Copyright © 2016

  16. Toothpaste allergy as a cause of cheilitis in Israeli patients.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Yaron; Slodownik, Dan; Trattner, Akiva; Ingber, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact cheilitis may appear after exposure to different substances, including dental materials, toothpastes, cosmetics, foods and medications. To compare the rate of toothpaste allergy between patients with and without cheilitis and to examine the yield of our proposed toothpaste patch test kit for use in patients with cheilitis. A patch test kit containing 11 substances used in toothpastes was formed. The study sample consisted of 44 patients, 24 with cheilitis (study group) and 20 with contact dermatitis but without cheilitis (control group). Eleven patients in the study group (45%) were found to be allergic to toothpaste, compared to only one patient (5%) in the control group (p < .05). The rate of toothpaste allergy among patients with cheilitis might be higher than previously reported. Patch-testing with our toothpaste series is recommended in the evaluation of cheilitis.

  17. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Danying; Smith, Richard N; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo. Salivary pellicle coated human extracted teeth were brushed with either a slurry of a toothpaste containing blue covarine (BC), a formulation containing an increased level of blue covarine (BC+) or a negative control toothpaste containing no blue covarine. The colour of the specimens were measured in vitro using either a Minolta chromameter or a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer, before and after brushing and changes in CIELAB values and tooth Whiteness Index (WIO) values calculated. In a double-blind cross-over clinical study, subjects brushed with either BC or BC+ toothpaste and tooth colour changes were measured with a digital image analysis system. The in vitro studies demonstrated that toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a significantly (p<0.05) greater change in b* and WIO values than the negative control toothpaste; the BC+ toothpaste gave a significantly greater increase in b* and WIO values than the BC toothpaste, and BC+ gave a significant increase in shade change versus the negative control. Clinical results showed that BC and BC+ gave a significant reduction in b* (p<0.0001) and increase in WIO (p<0.0001) from baseline indicating significant tooth whitening had occurred. The parameter changes were significantly greater when brushing with the BC+ toothpaste than with the BC toothpaste (WIO p=0.006; b* p=0.013). Toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a statistically significant reduction in tooth yellowness and improvement in tooth whiteness immediately after brushing in both in vitro and clinical studies. In addition, the higher concentration blue covarine toothpaste gave statistically significant greater tooth whitening benefits than the lower concentration blue covarine toothpaste. The silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine evaluated in the current study gave tooth whitening benefits

  18. Reduction of erosion by protein-containing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Jager, D H J; Vissink, A; Timmer, C J; Bronkhorst, E; Vieira, A M; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of protein-containing toothpastes on the progression of dental erosion in situ (with pellicle) and in vitro (without pellicle). A combined split-mouth (extraoral water or toothpaste brushing) and crossover (type of toothpaste) setup was used. Two protein-containing (high/low concentrations of colostrum) and one nonprotein (placebo) toothpaste were investigated. Sixteen volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing 2 human enamel samples on 3 afternoons for pellicle growth during 90 min. One enamel sample was brushed for 5 s with one of the three toothpastes and subsequently exposed to a slurry of the corresponding toothpaste for 2 min. The other sample was exposed to water. Both samples were subsequently exposed to citric acid (extraorally). Loss of calcium and inorganic phosphate were determined. The same sequence of exposures was applied to 16 enamel samples in an in vitro setup without pellicle. With the in situ-formed pellicle, all toothpastes significantly reduced calcium loss compared to water brushing, although no significant differences were found among toothpastes (p = 0.073). For the loss of phosphate, a significant reduction could be found with the use of the high-protein toothpaste compared to the nonprotein toothpaste. Overall there were only slight differences between the toothpastes. Toothpaste effects were less clear in the in vitro experiment. The addition of proteins to toothpaste shows some promise for the prevention of erosion. Further research is needed to investigate the performance of the protein-containing toothpastes in longer in situ studies with regard to erosive wear. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Potential benefits of toothpaste advertising on dental health.

    PubMed

    Kioulafas, K E; Athanassouli, T N; Weatherell, J A

    1989-03-01

    This paper considers the effect of advertising on the sales of various brands of toothpaste. It has attempted to investigate the relationship between the level of sales of a brand and those of its competitors. Econometric estimations of the demand-function for toothpaste have been made and the authors have tried to determine the interrelationships between advertisement and toothpaste sales. The findings cast doubt upon the efficiency of the present system of competitive advertisement and suggest a possible alternative approach to the marketing of toothpaste which could increase sales and, at the same time, beneficially influence dental health.

  20. Fluoride toothpastes and fluoride mouthrinses for home use.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Bánóczy, Jolán

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses with emphasis on their use at home. Toothpastes and mouthrinses are just two of many ways of providing fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The first investigations into incorporating fluoride into toothpastes and mouthrinses were reported in the middle 1940s. Unlike water fluoridation (which is 'automatic fluoridation'), fluoride-containing toothpastes and fluoridecontaining mouthrinses are, primarily, for home use and need to be purchased by the individual. By the 1960s, research indicated that fluoride could be successfully incorporated into toothpastes and clinical trials demonstrated their effectiveness. By the end of the 1970s, almost all toothpastes contained fluoride. The widespread use of fluoride- containing toothpastes is thought to be the main reason for much improved oral health in many countries. Of the many fluoride compounds investigated, sodium fluoride, with a compatible abrasive, is the most popular, although amine fluorides are used widely in Europe. The situation is similar for mouthrinses. Concentrations of fluoride (F), commonly found, are 1500 ppm (1500 μg F/g) for toothpastes and 225 ppm (225 μg F/ml) for mouthrinse. Several systematic reviews have concluded that fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses are effective, and that there is added benefit from their use with other fluoride delivery methods such as water fluoridation. Guidelines for the appropriate use of fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses are available in many countries. Fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses have been developed and extensive testing has demonstrated that they are effective and their use should be encouraged. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. [Effectiveness of Paradontax toothpaste in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Silin, A V; Satygo, E A; Reutskaya, K V

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of toothpaste Parodontax in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The results showed that fixed orthodontic appliances deteriorated oral hygiene, increased the viscosity of saliva and reduced mineralizing capacity of saliva (MCS). Use of Parodontax toothpaste based on sodium bicarbonate improved OHI-S, reduced the viscosity of saliva, increased MCS and normalized oral microbiota.

  2. Investigating Toothpastes through Inquiry-Based Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2005-01-01

    This authentic inquiry-based chemistry experiment provides high school students with an opportunity to investigate the effect of toothpastes on the rate of tooth decay. Students need to design and carry out a fair test to compare the effects of different brands of toothpaste. The author has developed rubrics for assessing students' planning skills…

  3. The tribulations of toothpaste trials: Unethical arginine dentifrice research.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D; Naimi-Akbar, A; Astvaldsdottir, A

    2015-12-18

    Arginine toothpaste is being promoted as being more efficacious than conventional fluoride-only toothpaste. Recent revelations concerning the design and conduct of the clinical trials conducted on schoolchildren in China and Thailand cast serious doubt on these claims. This paper describes and analyses the ethical and design flaws affecting these studies.

  4. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  5. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  6. The measurement of enamel wear of two toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew; Weader, Elizabeth; Cox, Trevor F

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the enamel abrasivity of a whitening toothpaste with a standard silica toothpaste. Polished human enamel blocks (4 x 4 mm) were indented with a Knoop diamond. The enamel blocks were attached to the posterior buccal surfaces of full dentures and worn by adult volunteers for 24 hours per day. The blocks were brushed ex vivo for 30 seconds, twice per day with the randomly assigned toothpaste (n = 10 per treatment). The products used were either a whitening toothpaste containing Perlite or a standard silica toothpaste. After four, eight and twelve weeks, one block per subject was removed and the geometry of each Knoop indent was re-measured. From the baseline and post-treatment values of indent length, the amount of enamel wear was calculated from the change in the indent depth. The mean enamel wear (sd) for the whitening toothpaste and the standard silica toothpaste after four weeks was 0.20 (0.11) and 0.14 (0.10); after 8 weeks was 0.44 (0.33) and 0.18 (0.17), and after 12 weeks was 0.60 (0.72) and 0.67 (0.77) microns respectively. After four, eight and twelve weeks, the difference in enamel wear between the two toothpastes was not of statistical significance (p > 0.05, 2 sample t-test) at any time point. The whitening toothpaste did not give a statistically significantly greater level of enamel wear as compared to a standard silica toothpaste over a 4-, 8- and 12-weeks period.

  7. Effectiveness of various toothpastes on dentine tubule occlusion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Prange, M; Naumova, E A

    2015-04-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is an increasing problem in dentistry. Several products are available that claim to occlude open dentine tubules and to reduce dentine hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of several different products on dentine tubule occlusion using qualitative and quantitative methods. Dentine discs were prepared from extracted human premolars and molars. The dentine discs were brushed with 6 different experimental toothpastes, 1 positive control toothpaste and 1 negative control without toothpaste; the brushing simulated a total brushing time of 1 year. Half of the discs were etched with lemon juice after toothpaste application. Standardized scanning electron microphotographs were taken and converted into binary black and white images. The black pixels, which represented the open dentine tubules, were counted and statistically evaluated. Then, half of the dentine discs were broken, and the occlusion of the dentine tubules was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The number of open dentine tubules decreased significantly after brushing with 5 of the 6 tested toothpastes. A significant effect was observed after acid erosion for 3 of the 6 tested toothpastes. EDS revealed partly closed dentine tubules after brushing with 3 toothpastes; however, no partly closed dentine tubules were observed after acid erosion. Some toothpastes are capable of partial dentine tubule occlusion. This occlusion is unstable and can be removed with acid erosion. Desensitizing toothpastes are the most common products that are used against dentine hypersensitivity, and these toothpastes affect dentine tubule occlusion. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Marketing strategies and warning labels on children's toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-10-01

    The overconsumption of toothpaste has negative consequences, particularly for children. This study's objectives were to describe misleading marketing strategies used in selling children's fluoridated toothpaste and identify warning label characteristics. Two researchers independently coded the packaging from 26 over-the-counter toothpastes that are specifically marketed for children. Aggressive marketing strategies targeting children were identified: every toothpaste in this sample displayed at least 1 children's animated character, 50% had at least 1 picture of a food item, 92.3% stated they were flavored and 26.9% depicted a full swirl of toothpaste, directly contradicting dentist recommendations for young children. Further, on most toothpaste tubes, warnings regarding fluoride overconsumption for young children were only listed on the back and in very small font. Misleading marketing strategies are regularly used in selling children's toothpaste as if it is a food product, while warnings regarding overconsumption among youth are minimized. Dental hygienists are in an important position to help parents of young children implement safe oral care practices. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Important considerations in the development of toothpaste formulations for children.

    PubMed

    Stovell, Alex G; Newton, Bernie M; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    A number of factors should be taken into account when designing toothpaste formulations for use by children at the different stages of their development. While adult toothpaste formulations may provide caries prevention benefits for children at risk of caries, these formulations may also contain higher levels of abrasive in order to address the staining needs of the adult population owing to smoking and the consumption of dietary chromogens such as coffee and tea, which are not normally found in the diet of children. While toothpastes formulated for adults are also likely to contain higher concentrations of surfactant and flavour, many children prefer toothpastes with mild flavours and modest foaming characteristics. An ideal children's toothpaste formulation should therefore aim to maximise fluoride availability, with appropriate abrasivity, while still delivering effective cleaning, as well as levels and types of flavour and surfactant to provide an acceptable brushing experience. Selection of toothpaste flavour types for children of different ages should ideally be based directly upon preference data from children. Flavours perceived as pleasant during brushing studies have been linked to increased brushing time, which, in turn, can increase the delivery and efficacy of fluoride from toothpastes. Therefore, manufacturers select tested, child-friendly flavours to maximise compliance, providing a more pleasurable brushing experience and oral health benefits. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Francalanci, S; Sertoli, A; Giorgini, S; Pigatto, P; Santucci, B; Valsecchi, R

    2000-10-01

    The present work reports the results of a multicentre study of toothpaste allergic contact cheilitis (TACC) conducted by GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali). The study examined 54 patients with eczematous lesions on the lips, the possible cause of which was suspected to be the use of toothpastes. Patch tests were conducted with a standard series, a specially-targeted series (toothpaste cheilitis series, TCS), and with suspected toothpaste(s). A stop-restart test (SRT) was carried out with these, together with a use test to identify possible alternative products. The TCS produced 17 positive reactions in 13 patients, the most frequent being to spearmint oil. Of the 54 patients, 5 displayed positive reactions only to the TCS. The patch tests with toothpaste produced positive reactions in 11/32 patients, the SRT a positive response in 10/12 cases. The diagnosis of TACC was confirmed in 15/54 patients. Alternative products were identified for 5 patients. In conclusion, the allergens most frequently responsible for TACC were the flavourings, and the additional series proved to be useful in many cases (together with patch tests with toothpastes and the SRT) for correct diagnosis and to initiate effective prevention.

  11. Clinical effectiveness of some fluoride-containing toothpastes*

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the clinical effectiveness of two small groups of fluoride-containing toothpastes on the basis of published and unpublished information available to the group. One comparison showed that particular sodium fluoride/silica and stannous fluoride/calcium pyrophosphate formulations were effective in reducing the incidence of dental caries in schoolchildren and that the former toothpaste was more effective than the latter. A separate comparison showed that certain toothpastes containing sodium monofluorophosphate formulated with either an alumina or an insoluble metaphosphate abrasive were also effective in reducing and controlling caries. The group recommended that there was a need for additional field trials in which direct comparisons could be made between a wide variety of formulations, and that further research should be carried out to develop improved formulations. Extension of the use of adequately formulated fluoride-containing toothpastes is recommended as a valuable public health measure to reduce the incidence of dental caries. PMID:6291796

  12. Fluoride Availability and Stability in Children's Toothpastes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Licet Alvarez; Fager, Anunzziatta Fabruccini; Santos Moreira, Maurício José; Maltz, Marisa; Hashizume, Lina Naomi

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability and stability of fluoride in children's toothpastes in Uruguay. Six commercial brands of children's toothpaste available in Uruguay were tested. Analyses were made when the dentifrices were purchased (fresh samples) and after one year of storage (aged samples). Total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) concentrations were determined using an ion specific electrode. Four of the children's dentifrices showed TF concentration similar to that specified on the package. Three products showed similar concentrations of TF and TSF with no variations after the one-year storage period. Two dentifrices showed an initial insoluble fluoride concentration greater than 50 percent, which increased with toothpaste aging. Most tested toothpastes showed a decrease in the soluble fluoride content with aging. The high quantity of insoluble fluoride found in two tested dentifrices may compromise their anti-caries efficacy.

  13. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (p<0.05) after brushing for an equivalent of one month and an equivalent of three months. Using toothpaste containing charcoal can increase the surface roughness of tooth enamel.

  14. [Neurophysiological effect of flavor and caffeine added to toothpaste].

    PubMed

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Hosoya, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that tooth brushing can be used for active resting as a fatigue-reducing method. In this study, we focused on toothpaste, aiming at increasing the fatigue-reducing effect of tooth brushing. Flavoring and caffeine were added to toothpaste, and their effects were investigated employing the Flicker value, event-related potential P300, and mood scale. Thirteen healthy male and female adults (6 males and 7 females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 28.2 +/- 6.5 yr) performed a 25-minute calculation task using a personal computer, brushed their teeth using the toothpaste, and then repeated the calculation task. The P300 peak latency was significantly shortened after tooth brushing with the toothpaste containing flavoring and caffeine, compared to that after brushing with toothpaste containing no additives (p<0.01), and prolongation of the P300 peak latency after the calculation task was significantly inhibited (p<0.01). In addition, the accuracy of the calculation task tended to increase (p<0.1). Regarding the mood scale, "general fatigue" decreased (p<0.1), "lassitude" was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and "feeling of being refreshed" and "feeling of clear-headedness" were significantly increased (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). These findings suggest the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste with added flavoring and caffeine as a fatigue-reducing method.

  15. In Vivo Antiplaque Effect of Three Edible Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Limeres, Jacobo; García-Caballero, Lucía; Abeleira, María T.; Diz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B&B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four products (the three edible toothpastes and water) at intervals of one week. Bacterial vitality in the saliva was analysed by epifluorescence microscopy and plaque regrowth was evaluated using the Turesky-Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: Bacterial vitality in the saliva was significantly higher after toothbrushing with water (positive control) than with the three toothpastes (P=0.002, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The plaque index was significantly higher after using these three toothpastes than after toothbrushing with water (P=0.047, P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The three edible toothpastes analysed have some antimicrobial activity but favour plaque regrowth. Key words:Edible toothpaste, dental plaque, oral bacteria. PMID:23986022

  16. Toothpaste microstructure and rheological behaviors including aging and partial rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Jiali; Deng, Linhong

    2015-08-01

    Toothpastes are mainly composed of a dense suspension of abrasive substances, flavors, and therapeutic ingredients in a background liquid of humectants and water, and usually exhibit complex rheological behaviors. However, the relationship between the rheology and microstructure of toothpaste remains to be studied. In this paper, three commonly used toothpastes, namely Colgate, Darlie and Yunnan Baiyao (Ynby), were qualitatively and quantitatively studied as soft glassy materials. We found that although the three toothpastes generally behaved in similar fashion in terms of rheology, each particular one was distinct from others in terms of the quantitative magnitude of the rheologcial properties including thixotropy, creep and relaxation, yield stress, and power-law dependence of modulus on frequency. In addition, the history-dependent effects were interpreted in terms of aging and rejuvenation phenomena, analogous to those existing in glassy systems, and Ynby seemed to result in greater extent of aging and rejuvenation as compared to the other two. All these differences in toothpaste rheology may well be attributed to the different microscopic network microstructures as observed in this study. Therefore, this study provides first evidence of microstructurebased rheological behaviors of toothpaste, which may be useful for optimizing its composition, manufacturing processing as well as end-user applications.

  17. Choice of toothpaste for the elderly: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Souza-Rodrigues, Renata Duarte de; Ferreira, Stella da Silva; D'Almeida-Couto, Roberta Souza; Lachowski, Karina Monteleone; Sobral, Maria Ângela Pita; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2015-01-01

    Hyposalivation and dental root exposure in the elderly are problems that require special oral care. In this context, the characteristics of certain toothpastes are of particular importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and dentin wear caused by seven different toothpastes. For dentin wear analysis, 40 root dentin specimens were submitted to 20,000 brushing cycles with the different toothpastes and distilled water (control group-CG), using a brushing machine. Dentin surface loss (SL) was measured by contact profilometer. The cytotoxicity of each toothpaste was tested using cultured fibroblasts submitted to a cell-culture-conditioned medium. Fresh medium served as the control. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after 24 h of contact with the conditioned media. The data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The SL of the CG was minimal and significantly lower than that of the Oral B Pro Health (OBPH) group (p < 0.05). All other groups presented SL in between that of the CG and the Oral B Pro Health OBPH group, except for the Sensodyne (SEN) group, which presented SL similar to that of CG (p = 0.05). The SEN group presented a percentage of viable cells similar to that of CG: between 60-89%. All the other toothpastes showed high cytotoxicity, with cell viability less than 50% of the CG. Considering study limitations, we concluded that only one of the seven tested toothpastes exhibited the most desirable toothpaste characteristics for the worldwide growing elderly population (e.g. low cytotoxicity and low-abrasive potential).

  18. Toothpaste Prevents Debonded Brackets on Erosive Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Érico Luiz Damasceno; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Ellwood, Roger Phillip; Pretty, Ian; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n = 12): WN (distilled water/no acid challenge), W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge), and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge) were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F−/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were with 5000 μg F−/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05). Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. Clinical relevance: the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel. PMID:25879058

  19. Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marinho, V C; Higgins, J P; Sheiham, A; Logan, S

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride toothpastes have been widely used for over three decades and remain a benchmark intervention for the prevention of dental caries. To determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride toothpastes in the prevention of caries in children and to examine factors potentially modifying their effect. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (May 2000), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2000), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2000), plus several other databases. We handsearched journals, reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials with blind outcome assessment, comparing fluoride toothpaste with placebo in children up to 16 years during at least one year. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (D(M)FS). Inclusion decisions, quality assessment and data extraction were duplicated in a random sample of one third of studies, and consensus achieved by discussion or a third party. Authors were contacted for missing data. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF) that is the difference in caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the increment in the control group. Random effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random effects meta-regression analyses. Seventy-four studies were included. For the 70 that contributed data for meta-analysis (involving 42,300 children) the D(M)FS pooled PF was 24% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21 to 28%; p<0.0001). This means that 1.6 children need to brush with a fluoride toothpaste (rather than a non-fluoride toothpaste) over three years to prevent one D(M)FS in populations with caries increment of 2.6 D(M)FS per year. In populations with caries increment of 1.1 D(M)FS per year, 3

  20. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of natural infant fluoride-free toothpastes on oral micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabíola G; Negrini, Thais De Cássia; Sacramento, Luis Victor S; Hebling, Josimeri; Spolidorio, Denise M P; Duque, Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six toothpastes for infants: 3 fluoride-free experimental toothpastes--cashew-based, mango-based and without plant extract and fluoride compared with 2 commercially fluoride-free toothpastes and 1 fluoridated toothpastes. Six toothpastes for infants were evaluated in this study: (1) experimental cashew-based toothpaste; (2) experimental mango-based toothpaste; (3) experimental toothpaste without plant extract and fluoride (negative control); (4) First Teeth brand toothpaste; (5) Weleda brand toothpaste; and (6) Tandy brand toothpaste (positive control). The antimicrobial activity was recorded against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans using the agar plate diffusion test. First Teeth, Weleda, mango-based toothpaste, and toothpaste without plant extract presented no antimicrobial effect against any of the tested micro-organisms. Cashew toothpaste had antimicrobial activity against S mutans, S sobrinus, and L acidophilus, but it showed no antimicrobial activity against C albicans. There was no statistical difference between the inhibition halo of cashew and Tandy toothpastes against S mutans and L acidophilus. Cashew fluoride-free toothpaste had inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and these results were similar to those obtained for fluoridated toothpaste.

  1. Dentine Tubule Occlusion by Novel Bioactive Glass-Based Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaojing

    2018-01-01

    There are numerous over-the-counter (OTC) and professionally applied (in-office) products and techniques currently available for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more recently, the use of bioactive glasses in toothpaste formulations have been advocated as a possible solution to managing DH. Aim. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to compare several bioactive glass formulations to investigate their effectiveness in an established in vitro model. Materials and Methods. A 45S5 glass was synthesized in the laboratory together with several other glass formulations: (1) a mixed glass (fluoride and chloride), (2) BioMinF, (3) a chloride glass, and (4) an amorphous chloride glass. The glass powders were formulated into five different toothpaste formulations. Dentine discs were sectioned from extracted human teeth and prepared for the investigation by removing the cutting debris (smear layer) following sectioning using a 6% citric acid solution for 2 minutes. Each disc was halved to provide test and control halves for comparison following the brushing of the five toothpaste formulations onto the test halves for each toothpaste group. Following the toothpaste application, the test discs were immersed in either artificial saliva or exposed to an acid challenge. Results. The dentine samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and observation of the SEM images indicated that there was good surface coverage following artificial saliva immersion. Furthermore, although the acid challenge removed the hydroxyapatite layer on the dentine surface for most of the samples, except for the amorphous chloride glass, there was evidence of tubular occlusion in the dentine tubules. Conclusions. The conclusions from the study would suggest that the inclusion of bioactive glass into a toothpaste formulation may be an effective approach to treat DH. PMID:29849637

  2. [Anticaries effectiveness of fluoride toothpaste: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Vieira-da-Silva, Lígia Maria

    2002-10-01

    To carry out a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of fluoride toothpaste for reducing dental caries to calculate the effect size of different hypothesis. MEDLINE and LILACS databases were studied in the period from 1980 to 1998. To evaluate the quality of the studies, methodological rigor criteria proposed by Kay & Locker (1996) were applied after the criteria were submitted to an expert committee of CNPq (National Scientific Council of Brazil) senior researchers. Of 43 papers selected, 22 met the proposed criteria. The effect size of intervention was calculated from differences among the groups and the overall effect of five groups of hypothesis. The high concentration of fluoride in the toothpaste is associated with a larger effect (overall effect = -0.17 CI 95% -0.22/-0.12). The largest caries reductions were observed when comparing fluoride toothpastes and no fluoride toothpastes (overall effect = -0.29 IC 95% -0.34/-0.24). The addiction of antimicrobial agents (overall effect = -0.03 IC 95% -0.07/+0.02), differences in abrasive systems (overall effect = -0.02 IC 95% -0.09/+0.04) and active components do not increase the effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes (overall effect = -0.04 IC 95% -0.10/+0.01). The highest caries reductions were seen in studies where there was supervised tooth brushing. This review reinforced the importance of tooth brushing with fluoride toothpastes for controlling dental caries. However it showed the emphasis put on medical approaches for disease control rather than specific educational actions. The heterogeneity of the results shows the need to consider issues such as the scenario for implementing preventive methods in the evaluation process.

  3. Protective effect of zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpastes on enamel erosion: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Gulino, Chiara; Mirando, Maria; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the impact of different toothpastes with Zinc-Hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAP) on preventing and repairing enamel erosion compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride. The following four toothpastes were tested: two toothpastes with Zn-HAP, one toothpaste with fluoride and one toothpaste without fluoride. An additional control group was used in which enamel specimens were not treated with toothpaste. Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. Enamel hardness, after the erosive challenge and toothpaste treatment was monitored using surface micro-hardness measurements. As expected, repeated erosive challenge by a soft drink for total of 8 min significantly reduced enamel surface hardness (ANOVA, p < 0.05). No re-hardening of the surface softened enamel was observed in the group treated with fluoride-free toothpaste. Surface hardness of the softened enamel increased when the specimens were treated with the fluoride toothpaste and the two toothpastes with Zn-HAP ( p < 0.05). Toothpaste with Zn-HAP resulted in significant enamel remineralisation of erosively challenged enamel, indicating that these toothpastes could provide enamel health benefits relevant to enamel erosion. Key words: Enamel, erosion, remineralization, surface hardness, toothpastes.

  4. Triclosan/copolymer containing toothpastes for oral health.

    PubMed

    Riley, Philip; Lamont, Thomas

    2013-12-05

    Periodontal disease and dental caries are highly prevalent oral diseases that can lead to pain and discomfort, oral hygiene and aesthetic problems, and eventually tooth loss, all of which can be costly to treat and are a burden to healthcare systems. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent with low toxicity, which, along with a copolymer for aiding retention, can be added to toothpastes to reduce plaque and gingivitis (inflammation of the gums). It is important that these additional ingredients do not interfere with the anticaries effect of the fluoride present in toothpastes, and that they are safe. To assess the effects of triclosan/copolymer containing fluoride toothpastes, compared with fluoride toothpastes, for the long-term control of caries, plaque and gingivitis in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 August 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 August 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 August 2013), and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (clinicaltrials.gov) (to 19 August 2013). We applied no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the searches of the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects triclosan/copolymer containing toothpastes on oral health. Two review authors independently assessed the search results against the inclusion criteria for this review, extracted data and carried out risk of bias assessments. We attempted to contact study authors for missing information or clarification when feasible. We combined sufficiently similar studies in meta-analyses using random-effects models when there were at least four studies (fixed-effect models when fewer than four studies), reporting mean differences (MD) for continuous data and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data. We included 30 studies, analysing 14,835 participants, in

  5. Efficacy of Miswak toothpaste and mouthwash on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Samim A.; Qasim, Huda J.; Al-Derzi, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Salvadora persica (Miswak) products on cariogenic bacteria in comparison with ordinary toothpaste. Methods: The study was conducted in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq during the period from October 2013 to January 2014. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 40 students randomly allocated into 4 groups. They were instructed to use Mismark toothpaste, Miswak mouthwash, and ordinary toothpaste with water or with normal saline. Salivary samples were collected at 3-time intervals: before, immediately after use, and after 2 weeks of use. The effect of each method on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was evaluated by using caries risk test. Results: One-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and least significant difference tests were used. Miswak wash has a significant reduction effect on both bacteria immediately and after 2 weeks of use. Miswak paste has a similar effect on Lactobacilli, while Streptococcus mutans showed a significant decrease only after 2 weeks of use. Ordinary paste showed a non significant effect on both bacteria at both time intervals; while the addition of normal saline showed a significant effect on both bacteria only after 2 weeks of use. Conclusion: Miswak products, especially mouth wash, were more effective in reducing the growth of cariogenic bacteria than ordinary toothpaste. PMID:27570858

  6. Conventional and whitening toothpastes: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effect on the enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Santana-Melo, Gabriela Fátima; Ferreira, Lara Tolentino; El Achkar, Vivian Narana Ribeiro; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of whitening and common toothpastes, and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with both toothpastes. Samples of whitening toothpastes [Colgate Whitening (CW) and Oral-B Whitening (OBW)] and regular (non-whitening) toothpastes (Colgate and Oral-B) were extracted in culture medium. Gingival human fibroblasts (FMM-1) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to such materials, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus formation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79). The cell survival rate and micronuclei number were assessed before and after exposure to the toothpaste extracts. For the surface roughness evaluation, 20 bovine tooth specimens, divided into four groups according to toothpastes, were submitted to 10,000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and two-way ANOVA tests (P < 0.05). MTT assay showed that Colgate was significantly less cytotoxic than CW, Oral-B and OBW at all dilutions (P < 0.01). CW was the most cytotoxic toothpaste (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes showed the highest numbers of micronuclei compared to the untreated control (UC) (P < 0.01). Colgate and Oral-B toothpastes were not genotoxic compared to UC (P = 0.326). The OBW toothpaste was statistically significantly abrasive to the enamel surface (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes and Oral-B were cytotoxic to the cells. The whitening toothpastes were more genotoxic to cells in vitro than the common toothpastes, and genotoxicity was more pronounced in the OBW toothpaste.

  7. Anti-calculus activity of a toothpaste with microgranules.

    PubMed

    Chesters, R K; O'Mullane, D M; Finnerty, A; Huntington, E; Jones, P R

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the trial was to determine the efficacy of the proven anticalculus active system (zinc citrate trihydrate [ZCT] and triclosan), when the ZCT is delivered from microgranules incorporated in a silica-based toothpaste containing 1450 ppm F as sodium fluoride. A monadic, single-blind, two phase design clinical trial was used to compare the effect of the test and a negative control fluoridated toothpaste on the formation of supragingival calculus. Male and female calculus-forming volunteers, aged 18 or over, were recruited for the study following a 2-week screening phase. All subjects were given a scale and polish of their eight lower anterior teeth at the start of both the pre-test and test phases. Subjects were supplied with a silica-based 1450 F ppm fluoridated toothpaste with no anti-calculus active for use during an 8-week pre-test phase. Calculus was assessed at the end of the pre-test and test phases using the Volpe-Manhold index (VMI). Subjects were stratified according to their pre-test VMI score (8-10, 10.5-12, > 12) and gender and then allocated at random to test or negative control toothpaste groups. Subjects with < 8 mm of calculus were excluded from further participation. The outcome variable was the mean VMI score for the test and negative control groups. The test toothpaste caused a statistically significant 30% reduction in calculus compared with the control paste after a 13-week use. No adverse events were reported during the study. The incorporation of the ZCT in microgranules did not adversely affect the anticalculus activity of the new formulation.

  8. In vitro dentin tubule occlusion and remineralization competence of various toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Moheet, Imran Alam; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentin tubule occlusion and remineralization competence of various toothpastes containing fluoride, bioactive glass (BG), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) as active ingredients. Sixty dentin discs that were etched with ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were randomly divided into nine groups. The first five groups containing eight dentin discs corresponded to subsequent brushing experiments: control, distilled water, fluoride toothpaste, BG toothpaste, and HAP toothpaste. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate tubule occlusion after 7 days of simulated brushing (twice a day for 2min), which was followed by a citric acid challenge. The discs were stored in freshly prepared artificial saliva (AS) after every brushing cycle. The remaining four groups that contained five discs each received the following treatment: discs kept in distilled water (control), discs kept in a mixture of AS (pH 7.2) and 2g fluoride toothpaste, discs kept in a mixture of AS and 2g BG toothpaste, and discs kept in a mixture of AS and 2g HAP toothpaste. These discs were left in the mixture for one week at 37°C and were then examined under SEM. The pH of the leftover mixture was analyzed using a pH meter. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to identify any statistically significant differences (p<0.05). All toothpastes demonstrated tubule occlusion after simulated brushing experiments. However, after the citric acid challenge, particles of fluoride toothpaste were completely washed away from the tubules whereas HAP and BG toothpastes demonstrated tremendous resistance to the acid challenge. After immersion of the discs in the mixture of AS and toothpaste, HAP and BG toothpastes again showed superior tubule occlusion in comparison to the other groups, but the highest pH increase was observed for fluoride toothpaste after mixing the toothpastes in AS. The results of this study demonstrate that the highest tubule occlusion competence

  9. Estimated fluoride doses from toothpastes should be based on total soluble fluoride.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria José L; Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2013-11-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children's toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children's toothpaste is used.

  10. Self-reported changes in using fluoride toothpaste among older adults in Sweden: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Olga; Moberg Sköld, Ulla; Birkhed, Dowen; Gabre, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of increasing knowledge about the caries-reducing effects of fluoride (F) toothpaste and to increase the use of F toothpaste among older adults through an intervention. 63-67-year-olds in Sweden, who 2 years earlier had answered a questionnaire about their knowledge of F toothpaste, toothbrushing and toothpaste habits and who had shown less favourable habits with regard to toothpaste use, were invited to participate. The 20-min intervention, performed at a Public Dental Clinic, was implemented by a dental hygienist (author OJ) and consisted of individual information and instruction on the use of F toothpaste. The questionnaire was repeated 4 months after the intervention and a population in another city in Sweden served as control. In the intervention group, 68 individuals responded and 151 in the control group. Knowledge of the benefits of F toothpaste in the intervention group had improved between the times of the first and second questionnaires, but the same effect was also noted in the control group. After the intervention, a clear improvement concerning the use of F toothpaste was reported: the individuals brushed for a longer time, used more toothpaste and used less water during and after brushing. In the control group, there were no changes of habits between the first and second occasions. Individually-based interventions performed by a dental hygienist had a positive effect on changing the way older adults used F toothpaste.

  11. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Tenuta, Livia M. A.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children’s toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used. PMID:24189183

  12. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  13. Reduction of erosive wear in situ by stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Huysmans, M C D N J M; Jager, D H J; Ruben, J L; Unk, D E M F; Klijn, C P A H; Vieira, A M

    2011-01-01

    Stannous fluoride (SnF) has been suggested as a dental erosion-preventive agent. The aim of this single-centre, randomized, double-blind, in situ study was to evaluate the effect of toothpastes with SnF in the prevention of erosive enamel wear. A combined split-mouth (extra-oral water or toothpaste brushing) and crossover (type of toothpaste) set-up was used. Twelve volunteers wore palatal appliances containing human enamel samples. Three toothpastes were used, in three consecutive runs, in randomized order: two toothpastes containing SnF (coded M and PE) and one toothpaste containing only sodium fluoride (coded C). On day 1 of each run the appliances were worn for pellicle formation. On days 2-5 the samples were also brushed twice with a toothpaste-water slurry or only water (control). Erosion took place on days 2-5 extra-orally 3 times a day (5 min) in a citric acid solution (pH 2.3). Enamel wear depth was quantified by optical profilometry. The effect of toothpastes was tested using General Linear Modeling. Average erosive wear depth of control samples was 23 μm. Both SnF toothpastes significantly reduced erosive wear: M by 34% (SD 39%) and PE by 26% (SD 25%). The control toothpaste reduced erosive wear non-significantly by 7% (SD 20%). Both SnF-containing toothpastes significantly reduced erosive wear compared to the sodium fluoride toothpaste. We conclude that SnF-containing toothpastes are able to reduce erosive tooth wear in situ. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Toothpastes and enamel erosion/abrasion - Impact of active ingredients and the particulate fraction.

    PubMed

    Ganss, C; Marten, J; Hara, A T; Schlueter, N

    2016-11-01

    To investigate in vitro a range of differently characterised toothpastes with respect to their efficacy in an erosion/abrasion setting with special emphasis on the role of the particulate ingredients. Human enamel samples were erosively demineralised with citric acid (2min, 6×/day; 0.5%, pH 2.5; 10 days) and immersed in slurries (2min, 2×/day) either without or with brushing (15s, load 200g). The toothpastes were eight NaF-toothpastes, three hydroxyapatite-toothpastes (one without and two with NaF), one fluoride-free chitosan-toothpaste and three Sn-toothpastes. Negative control was erosion only, positive control was SnF 2 gel. Tissue loss was quantified profilometrically. The SnF 2 gel was most effective (reduction of tissue loss of 79%). Most of the products reduced tissue loss significantly when applied as slurries (between 28 and 66%). Brushing increased tissue loss in almost all toothpastes, only 5 formulations (all Sn-toothpastes and 2 NaF-toothpastes) reduced tissue loss significantly when compared to negative control (between 33 and 59%). There was a non-linear association between abrasiveness and amount of particles in a formulation, the particle size had no impact. Toothpastes had a protecting effect when applied as slurries but to a much lesser degree when applied with brushing. The particulate fraction may be a determinant for toothpaste efficacy in erosion/abrasion settings. Toothpastes are important carriers of active agents against erosion, but physical impacts through brushing modifies efficacy distinctly. Understanding the role of the particulate fraction in toothpastes may offer perspectives for designing effective formulations for patients with erosive lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    PubMed

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p <0.05. Also, plaque index reductions at various sites due to brushing with baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p < 0.05). Graphically, the baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes

  16. Effect of Fluoride-Containing Toothpastes on Enamel Demineralization and Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Architecture.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Constanza E; Fontana, Margherita; Samarian, Derek; Cury, Jaime A; Rickard, Alexander H; González-Cabezas, Carlos

    This study aimed to explore the effect of fluoridated toothpastes on biofilm architecture and enamel demineralization in an in vitro biofilm model. Streptococcus mutans was grown on enamel and treated with slurries of commercial toothpastes, containing SnF2 or NaF. Water and chlorhexidine were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. The developed biofilms were imaged and enamel demineralization was measured. SnF2 and NaF toothpaste treatments significantly reduced enamel demineralization, but SnF2 toothpaste was more effective. Only SnF2 toothpaste and chlorhexidine treatments caused reductions on biofilm mass and thickness. In conclusion, this biofilm model was able to differentiate the effects of the SnF2 and NaF toothpastes on biofilm architecture and enamel demineralization. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Surface roughness of composite resin veneer after application of herbal and non-herbal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, S.; Herda, E.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the surface roughness of composite resin veneer after brushing. In this study, 24 specimens of composite resin veneer are divided into three subgroups: brushed without toothpaste, brushed with non-herbal toothpaste, and brushed with herbal toothpaste. Brushing was performed for one set of 5,000 strokes and continued for a second set of 5,000 strokes. Roughness of composite resin veneer was determined using a Surface Roughness Tester. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Post Hoc Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that the highest difference among the Ra values occurred within the subgroup that was brushed with the herbal toothpaste. In conclusion, the herbal toothpaste produced a rougher surface on composite resin veneer compared to non-herbal toothpaste.

  18. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  19. Control of Plaque and Gingivitis by an Herbal Toothpaste - A Randomised Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Geidel, Alexander; Krüger, Monika; Schrödl, Wieland; Jentsch, Holger

    To compare the efficacy of an herbal toothpaste with two other chemically active toothpastes regarding plaque and gingivitis control. Seventy-six (27 females and 49 males, mean age 47.8 years, range 40-58 years) of 84 initial participants with slight and moderate chronic periodontitis used standardised manual toothbrushes and their usual technique for daily manual mechanical plaque control for 24 weeks of supportive periodontal therapy. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: group 1 used the herbal toothpaste, group 2 a triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, and group 3 an amine/stannous fluoride toothpaste. OHI, API, SBI, BOP, PD and AL were recorded at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks (PD and AL only at baseline). The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Moderate changes occurred in API and OHI in all groups. The herbal toothpaste resulted in significantly lower API and OHI in comparison to the fluoride toothpaste during the study period (p = 0.001 and 0.049, minimum and maximum of cases, respectively). SBI was significantly improved in all groups starting after 12 weeks (p = 0.001 and 0.033). BOP remained largely unchanged in all groups and was always significant lower in the herbal toothpaste group (p = 0.001 and 0.036). During the study period of 24 weeks, the herbal toothpaste was as good as the control toothpastes. No side effects were seen. In terms of improving periodontal conditions, the tested herbal toothpaste could be a suitable alternative to conventional toothpastes with artificial chemical ingredients.

  20. Comparative clinical efficacy of three toothpastes in the control of supragingival calculus formation.

    PubMed

    Kraivaphan, Petcharat; Amornchat, Cholticha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this double-blind, parallel clinical study was to assess clinical efficacy in supragingival calculus formation reduction using Abhaibhubejhr Herbal Toothpaste compared to Colgate Total and Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes. A total of 150 subjects participated in the pretest phase. All subjects were given oral soft/hard tissue evaluation, calculus examination using Volpe-Manhold calculus, and whole mouth oral prophylaxis. They received noncalculus control fluoride toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to brush for 1 min two times daily for 8 weeks. After which, subjects were given a test phase oral soft/hard tissue evaluation and calculus examination and were randomized into one of the three toothpaste groups. All subjects in the test phase received a whole mouth oral prophylaxis and were given their assigned toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to brush for 1 min two times a day for 12 weeks. Thereafter, subjects were assessed for their oral soft/hard tissue and calculus formation. Mean Volpe-Manhold calculus index scores for the Cavity Protection, Abhaibhubejhr, and Total toothpaste groups were 0.78, 0.62, and 0.48, respectively, at the 12-week test phase evaluation. Abhaibhubejhr and Total toothpaste groups show 20.51% and 38.46% significantly less calculus formation than the Cavity Protection toothpaste group ( P < 0.05). Total toothpaste group also show 22.58% significantly less calculus formation than the Abhaibhubejhr toothpaste group ( P < 0.05). The use of Colgate Total toothpaste over a 12-week period was clinically more effective than either Abhaibhubejhr or Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes in controlling supragingival calculus formation.

  1. Comparative clinical efficacy of three toothpastes in the control of supragingival calculus formation

    PubMed Central

    Kraivaphan, Petcharat; Amornchat, Cholticha

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this double-blind, parallel clinical study was to assess clinical efficacy in supragingival calculus formation reduction using Abhaibhubejhr Herbal Toothpaste compared to Colgate Total and Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 subjects participated in the pretest phase. All subjects were given oral soft/hard tissue evaluation, calculus examination using Volpe-Manhold calculus, and whole mouth oral prophylaxis. They received noncalculus control fluoride toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to brush for 1 min two times daily for 8 weeks. After which, subjects were given a test phase oral soft/hard tissue evaluation and calculus examination and were randomized into one of the three toothpaste groups. All subjects in the test phase received a whole mouth oral prophylaxis and were given their assigned toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to brush for 1 min two times a day for 12 weeks. Thereafter, subjects were assessed for their oral soft/hard tissue and calculus formation. Results: Mean Volpe-Manhold calculus index scores for the Cavity Protection, Abhaibhubejhr, and Total toothpaste groups were 0.78, 0.62, and 0.48, respectively, at the 12-week test phase evaluation. Abhaibhubejhr and Total toothpaste groups show 20.51% and 38.46% significantly less calculus formation than the Cavity Protection toothpaste group (P < 0.05). Total toothpaste group also show 22.58% significantly less calculus formation than the Abhaibhubejhr toothpaste group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of Colgate Total toothpaste over a 12-week period was clinically more effective than either Abhaibhubejhr or Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes in controlling supragingival calculus formation. PMID:28435373

  2. Plaque triclosan concentration and antimicrobial efficacy of a new calcium carbonate toothpaste with 0.3% triclosan compared to a marketed 0.3% triclosan toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Chandrasekhar, Sembian; Shashikumar, K V; Payne, David; Maclure, Robert; Kapadiya, Bhavin; Schäfer, Fred; Adams, Suzi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the delivery and retention of triclosan in dental plaque, and to compare the antibacterial efficacy of a newly developed toothpaste to a marketed calcium carbonate toothpaste. Two clinical delivery/retention studies were carried out to determine the concentration of triclosan in plaque 10 minutes, and two and four hours after brushing with a new triclosan-containing toothpaste with magnesium aluminium silicate or a marketed triclosan-containing toothpaste. Both studies had a double-blind, randomized, complete cross-over design. Supragingival plaque samples (minimum 2 microg) were taken from smooth surfaces of all teeth (1-7) in all four quadrants for the 10-minute plaque measurements and in two randomly allocated quadrants at the two- and four-hour time points. Triclosan concentration was measured by HPLC. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro using a biofilm formation approach. Three replicate experiments were carried out to check for repeatability and consistency of the assay. Toothpaste slurries were prepared by stirring one part by weight of each toothpaste with two parts by weight of deionized water. An overnight culture suspension of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) was prepared and then adjusted to give a bacterial count of approximately 10(7) CFU/ml. Sterile HAP discs were used as substrate and treated with the toothpaste slurry before inoculation with the standardized culture suspension of S. mutans. Following incubation in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 2% sucrose for four hours, standard Total Viable Count (TVC) procedures were carried out and colonies counted (log10 values). Brushing with the new calcium carbonate/triclosan toothpaste resulted in a higher triclosan concentration in plaque after 10 minutes, and two and four hours compared to a marketed triclosan toothpaste. The increase ranged from 14% to 35% and was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The antibacterial efficacy of the new calcium carbonate

  3. Determination of Fluoride in Toothpaste Using an Ion-Selective Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Truman S.; Cappuccino, Carleton C.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the theory of chemical potentiometry, describes the experimental procedure for free fluoride determination, and presents sample data of fluoride concentration for various brands of toothpaste. (GS)

  4. Influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle end-rounding quality of toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, G J P L; de Aveiro, J M; Pavone, C; Marcantonio, R A C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of different toothpaste abrasives on the bristle wear and bristle tip morphology of toothbrushes with different degrees of hardness. Ninety samples of bovine incisor teeth were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups according to the bristle hardness of the toothbrush used: soft bristles (S); extra-soft bristles (ES); hard bristles (H). The toothbrushes of each group were randomly divided into six subgroups with five toothbrushes each, according to the abrasive of the toothpaste used in the simulation: Negative control (distilled water); toothpaste 1 (silica); toothpaste 2 (hydrated silica); toothpaste 3 (calcium carbonate, calcium bicarbonate and silica); toothpaste 4 (tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, silica and titanium dioxide); toothpaste 5 (calcium carbonate). The samples were placed in a toothbrushing simulating machine that simulating three months of brushing. The toothbrush bristles were evaluated by the bristle wear index, and the bristle tips morphology was evaluated by the bristle tip morphology index. The ES brush presented the highest bristle wear among the toothbrushes. Additionally, the S brushes showed better morphology of the bristles followed by ES and H brushes. The type of abrasive only influenced the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. The toothpaste 3 induced the worse bristle tip morphology than all the other toothpastes. Different abrasives have influence only on the bristle tip morphology of the ES brushes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  6. Exploratory randomised controlled clinical study to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two occluding toothpastes - a 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate toothpaste and an 8% arginine/calcium carbonate toothpaste - for the longer-term relief of dentine hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Claire; Mason, Stephen; Cooke, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    To compare the longer-term clinical efficacy of two occlusion-technology toothpastes - a 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) toothpaste and a commercially available 8% arginine/calcium carbonate toothpaste - in relieving dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Efficacy was also compared with that of a regular fluoride toothpaste control. This was an exploratory, randomised, examiner-blind, parallel-group, 11-week, controlled study in healthy adults with self-reported and clinically diagnosed DH. After an acclimatisation period, subjects were randomised to one of three study treatments with which they brushed their teeth twice daily. Sensitivity was assessed at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 11 weeks treatment in response to evaporative (air) and tactile stimuli (measured by the Schiff Sensitivity Scale/visual analogue scale and tactile threshold, respectively). A total of 135 subjects were randomised to treatment. The two occlusion-technology toothpastes performed similarly over the 11-week treatment period. All study treatments showed statistically significant reductions from baseline in DH at all timepoints for all measures (p<0.05). Statistically significant and clinically relevant sensitivity relief was observed for both occluding formulations compared with the regular fluoride toothpaste: for evaporative (air) sensitivity within 1 week and for tactile sensitivity at Week 11. No significant differences were detected between the two occluding formulations at any timepoint, for any endpoint. Study treatments were generally well tolerated. In this exploratory study, a 5% CSPS occluding toothpaste was effective in relieving DH compared with a regular fluoride toothpaste; an 8% arginine/calcium carbonate anti-sensitivity toothpaste provided similar benefits. Improvements in DH continued throughout the 11-week study. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common and painful condition. Twice-daily use of a 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate toothpaste reduces DH within 1

  7. Total and Free Fluoride Concentration in Various Brands of Toothpaste Marketed in India

    PubMed Central

    Siddanna, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Background For fluoridated toothpaste to be effective in controlling dental caries, an adequate concentration of soluble fluoride must be available in the oral cavity. Aim To determine the total and free fluoride concentration in various brands of toothpaste marketed in India. Materials and Methods Three samples of 12 different toothpastes were purchased from supermarkets in Mysore city, Karnataka, India. Toothpastes were analysed in duplicate using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) were determined. Results Measured TF was consistent with that declared by the manufacturer in five products. Four toothpastes showed lower TF and two higher TF than declared. Most toothpastes exhibited TSF concentrations similar to the TF content except four samples that displayed considerably lower TSF than TF. Conclusion The measurement of total and free fluoride concentrations of toothpastes available in India showed inhomogenities. Therefore there is a need for stringent regulatory control measures for the determination of fluoride content in toothpastes in developing country like India. PMID:26557607

  8. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  9. Protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion: SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Rattalino, Davide; Mirando, Maria; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste against an erosive challenge produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Methods Forty specimens were assigned to 4 groups of 10 specimens each (group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 3: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 4: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. A visual rating system was used to evaluate the condition of the enamel surface; results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the samples untreated and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1, 2); the highest grade of damage was found in group 2, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 4. Comparing the groups, the two analyzed toothpaste tended to protect in different extend. Conclusions In this study treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. This was greater than the effect observed for a normal fluoride toothpaste and confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology can provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges. PMID:28149449

  10. Protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion: SEM study.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Rattalino, Davide; Mirando, Maria; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste against an erosive challenge produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Forty specimens were assigned to 4 groups of 10 specimens each (group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 3: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 4: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. A visual rating system was used to evaluate the condition of the enamel surface; results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples untreated and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1, 2); the highest grade of damage was found in group 2, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 4. Comparing the groups, the two analyzed toothpaste tended to protect in different extend. In this study treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. This was greater than the effect observed for a normal fluoride toothpaste and confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology can provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges.

  11. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    PubMed

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (P< 0.05). G1 promoted the highest enamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  12. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel; Barakat, Ali

    2012-05-01

    To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals.

  13. Effect of low-fluoride toothpastes combined with hexametaphosphate on in vitro enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    da Camara, Danielle Mendes; Miyasaki, Marcela Lumi; Danelon, Marcelle; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries effect of low-fluoride toothpastes combined with hexametaphosphate (HMP) on enamel demineralization. Bovine enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling and treatment with toothpaste's slurries (15 groups; 2×/day). Toothpaste mixtures contained the following: no fluoride (F) plus HMP (from 0 to 3.0%); 250ppm F plus HMP (from 0 to 3.0%); 500ppm F; 1100ppm F; and a commercial toothpaste (1100ppm F). After pH cycling, surface and cross-sectional hardness, as well as F present in the enamel were determined. The demineralization depth was analyzed using polarized light microscopy. The variables were subjected to 1-way ANOVA, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). In the absence of fluoride, 0.5% HMP promoted the lowest mineral loss and its effect was similar to that of a 250ppm F toothpaste (p>0.05). The combination of 0.5% HMP and 250ppm F resulted in lower mineral loss (p<0.05) and similar lesion depth when compared to the 1100ppm F toothpaste (p>0.05). To conclude, the combination of 0.5% HMP and 250ppm fluoride in a toothpaste has a similar inhibitory effect on enamel demineralization in vitro when compared to a toothpaste containing 1100ppm F. The anticaries effect of toothpaste containing 250ppm F combined with 0.5% HMP was similar to that of a 1100ppm F toothpaste, despite the 4-fold difference in F concentration. Although such effects still need to be demonstrated in clinical studies, it may be a viable alternative for preschool children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel; Barakat, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals. PMID:23569933

  15. Effect of desensitizing toothpastes on dentine hypersensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Long; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, You-Dong; Yan, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Chan; Lin, Hong

    2018-05-19

    To evaluate the desensitizing effect of toothpastes that contain ingredients that act against dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and to compare this effect with negative controls. Five databases were searched to identify relevant articles published up to November 27, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing desensitizing toothpastes with a toothpastes without desensitizing component in adult patients that suffer from DH were included. The risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane guidelines, and the quality of the evidence was evaluated using the GRADE tool. Inverse variance random-effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using RevMan 5.3 software. 53 RCTs with 4796 patients were finally included in the meta-analysis. The toothpastes that contain active desensitization ingredients showed a better desensitizing effect on DH than the negative control, except the strontium- and amorphous calcium phosphate-containing toothpastes. The amorphous calcium phosphate-containing toothpaste had very low-quality evidence, the strontium, potassium and strontium, and potassium and stannous fluoride-containing toothpastes had low-quality evidence, and the other five toothpastes had moderate quality evidence. Our result support the premise that toothpastes containing potassium, stannous fluoride, potassium and strontium, potassium and stannous fluoride, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, arginine, and nano-hydroxyapatite relieve the symptoms of DH, but does not advise the use of toothpastes that contain strontium and amorphous calcium phosphate. Furthermore, high-quality studies are needed to confirm our results. (PROSPERO CRD42018085639). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of toothpastes in oral malodor management.

    PubMed

    Dadamio, Jesica; Laleman, Isabelle; Quirynen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    One out of four people suffers from persistent bad breath. In most of the cases, the cause can be found in the mouth, with the presence of tongue coating as the leading factor, followed by gingivitis and periodontitis, and it is referred to as oral malodor. Because oral malodor is the result of the degradation of organic substrates by anaerobic bacteria of the oral cavity, the management is mostly done by masking the odorous compounds or eliminating the cause (bacteria and their substrates) either mechanically or chemically. Toothpaste formulations have been modified to carry antimicrobial and oxidizing agents with an impact on the process of oral malodor formation. We performed extensive literature search regarding the effect of dedicated toothpastes in the management of oral malodor. The main characteristics of the in vitro and in vivo investigations and their most relevant findings are presented for discussion. Even though the amount of publications regarding this topic is far smaller than for others such as caries, plaque control and whitening, antibacterial ingredients such as triclosan and metal ions like stannous and zinc appear to be effective in the control of oral malodor. On the other hand, data supporting the use of hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, essential oils and flavors in the management of oral malodor are rather few and inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fluoride toothpaste: a cause of acne-like eruptions

    SciT

    Saunders, M.A. Jr.

    1976-04-01

    The author described closed comedonal or papular acne in about 65 adult females, aged 20 to 40, in a slightly fan-like distribution on the corner of the mouth and the chin and the proximal area of the cheeks. All patients had had extensive dermatological treatment including dietary control, tetracycline special washing agents, etc. The localization of the lesions suggested to the author that some kind of chemical carried in the saliva might be draining in the areas and in the follicles of the skin and induce this process. In view of the fact that erythematous eruptions resembling acne have beenmore » described following application of fluoridated steroids and after exposure to industrial halogram fumes the author suggested that his patients switch to a nonfluoridated toothpaste. In approximately one half of the patients, the lesions cleared within two to four weeks. When the remaining patients were asked to switch from their dentrifice containing brightening and other unknown chemicals, to baking soda and a commercially available mouthwash, nearly all those treated improved considerably; in most of them the acne-like eruptions cleared up completely. Several patients were concerned about their dental health and resumed the use of fluoride toothpaste; they promptly developed the same distribution of the acne-like eruption that had previously been present.« less

  18. In vitro effect of sodium trimetaphosphate additives to conventional toothpastes on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Luciene Pereira; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Danelon, Marcelle; Passarinho, Amanda; Percinoto, Célio

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of conventional toothpastes (1100 ppm F) supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) in demineralization. Blocks of enamel were selected and then divided into seven experimental groups of 12: toothpaste without F and TMP (placebo), toothpaste with 1100 ppm F (1100), and toothpaste with 1100 ppm F supplemented with TMP-1 % (1100 1 % TMP), 3 % (1100 3 % TMP), 4.5 % (1100 4.5 % TMP), 6 % (1100 6 % TMP), and 9 % (1100 9 % TMP). Blocks were subjected to five pH cycles (demineralizing/remineralizing solutions) at 37 °C and treated with toothpaste slurries twice daily, after which the blocks were maintained for 2 days in fresh remineralizing solution. Following treatments, surface hardness (SHf) and cross-sectional hardness were determined for calculating the integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN). The fluoride present in the enamel was also measured. The SHf and ΔKHN measurements showed that supplementation with 3 % TMP was the most effective (p < 0.001) and showed greater concentration of F in the enamel (p < 0.001). Addition of 3 % TMP to a conventional toothpaste (1100 ppm F) showed greater efficacy in reducing enamel demineralization. Fluoride toothpastes containing trimetaphosphate possess good anticaries potential required to reduce the prevalence of dental caries in high-risk patients.

  19. Effectiveness of a miswak extract-containing toothpaste on gingival inflammation: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azaripour, A; Mahmoodi, B; Habibi, E; Willershausen, I; Schmidtmann, I; Willershausen, B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of a miswak extract-containing toothpaste (Salvadora persica) on gingival inflammation was compared with that of a herbal and a conventional toothpaste. Non-smoking outpatients with sulcus bleeding index (SBI) ≥25% and with periodontal pocket depths ≤3 mm were randomly selected and divided into three groups: M-group, miswak extract-containing toothpaste; P-group, herbal toothpaste; and C-group, conventional toothpaste. After instructing the patients to brush their teeth twice a day for 3 weeks with the assigned toothpaste using a flat-trimmed manual toothbrush, a thorough oral examination was performed by a calibrated examiner (EH). The primary outcome was the SBI after 21 days. Furthermore, the amount of plaque was measured by approximal plaque index (API). Sixty-six patients with a mean age of 57.8 ± 10.2 years were recruited and enrolled. After 3 weeks of brushing, all three patient groups showed a significant reduction in SBI. The P-group (SBI reduction: 17.1% ± 9.1) and the M-group (14.5% ± 8.1) showed the strongest effect followed by the C-group (9.4% ± 7.8). All three groups showed a significant reduction in API without significant differences between the groups. The use of each of the three tested toothpastes caused a significant reduction in gingival inflammation and amount of plaque. The miswak extract-containing toothpaste showed a similar effect as the herbal toothpaste and can be safely used for domestic oral hygiene in patients with gingivitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Antibacterial Effects of Toothpastes Evaluated in an 
In Vitro Biofilm Model.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eva; Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Llama-Palacios, Arancha; Sanz, Mariano; Herrera, David

    To test the antibacterial effects of different toothpastes with the slurry method of toothpaste application in an in vitro oral biofilm model including relevant periodontal pathogens. Four commercially available toothpastes, two containing sodium fluoride (NaF) at different concentrations (1450 and 2500 ppm), two NaF with either triclosan or stannous fluoride, and a control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used. Multispecies biofilms containing 6 species of oral bacteria were grown on hydroxyapatite disks for 72 h and then exposed for 2 min to the toothpaste slurries or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by immersion, under continuous agitation at 37°C. Biofilms were then analysed by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with propidium monoazide (PMA). Statistical evaluation was performed using ANOVA and Student's t-test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The toothpastes containing NaF and stannous fluoride demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity for A. actinomycetencomitans, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum when compared to those containing NaF and triclosan, 1450 ppm NaF or 2500 ppm NaF in this multispecies biofilm model. The proposed model for the evaluation of toothpastes in the form of slurries detected significant differences in the antimicrobial effects among the tested NaF-containing toothpastes, with the stannous fluoride-based formulation achieving better results than the other formulations. The use of toothpaste as slurries and real-time PCR with PMA is an adequate method for comparing the in vitro antimicrobial effect of different toothpastes.

  1. In situ evaluation of low-fluoride toothpastes associated to calcium glycerophosphate on enamel remineralization.

    PubMed

    Zaze, A C S F; Dias, A P; Amaral, J G; Miyasaki, M L; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-fluoride toothpastes with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) on enamel remineralization in situ. Volunteers (n=10) wore palatal devices holding four bovine enamel blocks. The treatments involved 5 experimental phases of 3 days each according to the following toothpastes: placebo, 500 ppm F (500 NaF), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 NaF CaGP), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 MFP CaGP) and 1100 ppm F (1100; positive control). After this experimental period, the fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ion concentrations from enamel were determined. Surface and cross-sectional hardness were also performed. Data were analysed by 1-way ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls' test and by Pearson's correlation. The addition of 0.25% CaGP improved the remineralization potential of low-fluoride toothpastes and the NaF as source of fluoride yielded the best results (p<0.001) as evidenced by the hardness analysis. The 1100 ppm F toothpaste provided higher presence of fluoride in the enamel after remineralization (p<0.001). The addition of CaGP to the NaF and MFP toothpastes led to similar calcium concentration in the enamel as the observed with the positive control (p=0.054). Toothpastes with 500 ppm F (NaF or MFP) and CaGP showed similar remineralization potential than 1100 ppm F toothpaste. Toothpastes containing 500 ppm F associated to CaGP, with both fluoride source (NaF or MFP), showed a potential of remineralization similar to commercial toothpaste. Although there is a need for confirmation in the clinical setting, these results point to an alternative for improving the risk-benefit relationship between fluorosis and dental caries in small children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toothpaste lava from the Barren Island volcano (Andaman Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Kumar, Alok; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Awasthi, Neeraj

    2011-04-01

    Toothpaste lava is a basaltic lava flow type transitional between pahoehoe and aa and has been described from Paricutin, Kilauea and Etna volcanoes. Here we describe a spectacular example of toothpaste lava, forming part of a recent (possibly 1994-95) aa flow on the active volcano of Barren Island (Andaman Sea). This flow of subalkalic basalt shows abundant squeeze-ups of viscous toothpasate lava near its entry into the sea. The squeeze-ups are sheets and slabs, up to several meters across and tens of centimeters thick, extruded from boccas. They are often prominently curved, have striated upper surfaces with close-spaced, en echelon linear ridges and grooves, broad wave-like undulations perpendicular to the striations, and sometimes, clefts. Textural, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data on the squeeze-ups and the exposed aa flow core indicate very crystal-rich, viscous, and isotopically very homogeneous lava. We envisage that a greatly reduced speed of this viscous flow at the coastline, possibly aided by a shallowing of the basal slope, led to lateral spreading of the flow, which caused tension in its upper parts. This, with continued (albeit dwindling) lava supply at the back, led to widespread tearing of the flow surface and extrusion of the squeeze-ups. The larger slabs, while extruding in a plastic condition, curved under their own weight, whereas their surfaces experienced brittle deformation, forming the en echelon grooves. The extruded, detached, and rotated sheets and slabs were carried forward for some distance atop the very slowly advancing aa core, before the flow solidified.

  3. Solar energy from spinach and toothpaste: fabrication of a solar cell in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, F.; Bunk, A.; Fischer, K.; Korneck, F.; Engel, H.; Roux, D.

    1998-01-01

    We will show how pupils can make a solar cell with spinach, toothpaste and a few other items found in any school laboratory. This device is called a Graetzel cell, and could trigger off a revolution in photovoltaic technology.

  4. Dental Detectives. The Trial of the Toothpastes Presents No Problems for the Tooth Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Joan Braunagel

    1991-01-01

    Described is an activity where students determine the effect of different toothpastes on teeth. Students used observational data and pH changes to determine any changes in the teeth. Included are a list of materials, procedures, and results. (KR)

  5. Prevention of dentine erosion by brushing with anti-erosive toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Aykut-Yetkiner, Arzu; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2014-07-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of brushing with anti-erosive toothpastes compared to a conventional fluoride toothpaste on dentine erosion. Bovine dentine specimens (n=12 per subgroup) were eroded in an artificial mouth (6 days, 6×30 s/day) using either citric acid (pH:2.5) or a hydrochloric acid/pepsin solution (pH:1.6), simulating extrinsic or intrinsic erosive conditions, respectively. In between, the specimens were rinsed with artificial saliva. Twice daily, the specimens were brushed for 15 s in an automatic brushing machine at 2.5 N with a conventional fluoride toothpaste slurry (elmex, AmF) or toothpaste slurries with anti-erosive formulations: Apacare (NaF/1% nHAP), Biorepair (ZnCO3-HAP), Chitodent (Chitosan), elmex Erosionsschutz (NaF/AmF/SnCl2/Chitosan), mirasensitive hap (NaF/30% HAP), Sensodyne Proschmelz (NaF/KNO3). Unbrushed specimens served as control. Dentine loss was measured profilometrically and statistically analysed using two-way and one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post hoc tests. RDA-values of all toothpastes were determined, and linear mixed models were applied to analyse the influence of toothpaste abrasivity on dentine wear (p<0.05). Dentine erosion of unbrushed specimens amounted to 5.1±1.0 μm (extrinsic conditions) and 12.9±1.4 μm (intrinsic conditions). All toothpastes significantly reduced dentine erosion by 24-67% (extrinsic conditions) and 21-40% (intrinsic conditions). Biorepair was least effective, while all other toothpastes were not significantly different from each other. Linear mixed models did not show a significant effect of the RDA-value of the respective toothpaste on dentine loss. Toothpastes with anti-erosive formulations reduced dentine erosion, especially under simulated extrinsic erosive conditions, but were not superior to a conventional fluoride toothpaste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way

    PubMed Central

    Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and methods. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. Results. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. Conclusion. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called ‘whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes. PMID:22746180

  7. Fluoride toothpaste efficacy and safety in children younger than 6 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wright, J Timothy; Hanson, Nicholas; Ristic, Helen; Whall, Clifford W; Estrich, Cameron G; Zentz, Ronald R

    2014-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of fluoride toothpaste use in children younger than 6 years. The authors defined research questions to formulate a search strategy. They screened studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias systematically. They conducted meta-analyses to determine the effects of brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Use of fluoride toothpaste brushing had a statistically significant effect on mean decayed, missing and filled primary tooth surfaces and decayed, missing and filled primary teeth for populations at high risk of developing caries (standard mean difference [95 percent confidence interval {CI}], -0.25 [-0.36 to -0.14] and -0.19 [-0.32 to -0.06], respectively). The effects of using different fluoride concentration toothpastes on caries varied. Study findings showed either a decrease in the odds of having fluorosis (odds ratio [OR] [95 percent CI] = 0.66 [0.48-0.90]) when the use of fluoride toothpaste was initiated after 24 months or no statistically significant difference (OR [95 percent CI] = 0.92 [0.71-1.18]). Beginning use after 12 or 14 months of age decreased the risk of fluorosis (OR = 0.70 [0.57-0.88]). Limited scientific evidence demonstrates that for children younger than 6 years, fluoride toothpaste use is effective in caries control. Ingesting pea-sized amounts or more can lead to mild fluorosis. Practical Implications. To minimize the risk of fluorosis in children while maximizing the caries-prevention benefit for all age groups, the appropriate amount of fluoride toothpaste should be used by all children regardless of age. Dentists should counsel caregivers by using oral description, visual aids and actual demonstration to help ensure that the appropriate amount of toothpaste is used.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Effects of 16 Commercial Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Ghapanchi, Jannan; Kamali, Fereshteh; Moattari, Afagh; Poorshahidi, Sara; Shahin, Esmaiel; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Khorshidi, Hooman; Jamshidi, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toothpastes are considered as one of the most common and usable cosmetic and hygienic materials. Such materials contain chemicals which may have an adverse effect on oral tissue in humans. The present study aimed to compare the toxic effect of current commercial toothpastes including Iranian products and imported types which are consumed globally on oral epithelial- and HeLa cells as well as to evaluate their antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 16 types of commercial toothpastes were prepared, and their effect was determined on primer epithelial cells of the oral cavity and HeLa cells. Toothpastes anti streptococcal property and toxicity were examined in vitro in different intervals of 1, 2, and 5 min. Data collection and analysis were done using one-way analysis of variance. Results: All experimented toothpastes revealed variable toxic effects on cultured cells. Through an increase in the time of exposure with toothpastes, the toxicity of these materials substantially increased (P = 0.005). On the other hand, all tested toothpastes showed varying degrees of anti-streptococcal effect in the laboratory (P = 0.005). Conclusions: The most cytotoxic effect on primer epithelial cells of oral mucosa and HeLa cells, respectively, belongs to Bath, Daroogar2, Latifeh2, Crend, Sehat, Nasim and Aqua fresh toothpastes; however, the least cytotoxic effect on primer epithelial cells of oral mucosa and HeLa cells, respectively, belongs to Pronamel followed by Crest (sensitive), Close-up, Oral-B, Signal, Colgate, Paradent, and AME. PMID:25878477

  9. The importance of measuring toothpaste abrasivity in both a quantitative and qualitative way.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Gunnar; Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Annsofi; Liljeborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relative abrasivity of different toothpastes and polishing pastes both qualitatively and quantitatively. Acrylic plates were exposed to brushing in a brushing machine with a toothpaste/water slurry for 1 and 6 h. Twelve different toothpastes were used and also four different polishing pastes. The results were evaluated using a profilometer after 1 and 6 h of brushing (corresponding to 2000 and 12 000 double strokes, respectively). A surface roughness value (Ra-value) and also a volume loss value were calculated from the profilometer measurements. These values were then correlated to each other. An unpaired t-test for the difference in the abrasion values between the toothpastes and the abrasion values over time was used. The polishing paste RDA® 170 yielded higher Ra-values than RDA 250®, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing (1.01 ± 0.22 and 8.99 ± 1.55 compared to 0.63 ± 0.26 and 7.83 ± 5.89, respectively) as well as volume loss values (3.71 ± 0.17 and 20.20 ± 2.41 compared to 2.15 ± 1.41 and 14.79 ± 11.76, respectively), thus poor correlations between the RDA and Ra and Volume loss values were shown. Among the toothpastes, Apotekets® showed the highest Ra value after 1 h of brushing and Pepsodent® whitening after 6 h of brushing. Pepsodent® whitening also showed the highest volume loss values, both after 1 and 6 h of brushing. This study emphasizes the importance of not only considering the RDA value, but also a roughness value, when describing the abrasivity of a toothpaste. Furthermore, it can be concluded that so called 'whitening' toothpastes do not necessarily have a higher abrasive effect than other toothpastes.

  10. Remineralizing Potential of a Low Fluoride Toothpaste with Sodium Trimetaphosphate: An in situ Study.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Eliana M; Danelon, Marcelle; Castro, Luciene P; Cunha, Robson F; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a low-fluoride (F) toothpaste supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization in situ. Bovine enamel blocks were selected on the basis of their surface hardness (SH) after caries-like lesions had been induced, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups, according to the toothpastes used: without F or TMP (placebo); 500 ppm F; 500 ppm F plus 1% TMP; and 1,100 ppm F. The study design was blinded and crossover and performed in 4 phases of 3 days each. Eleven subjects used palatal appliances containing 4 bovine enamel blocks which were treated 3 times per day during 1 min each time, with natural slurries of saliva and toothpaste formed in the oral cavity during toothbrushing. After each phase, the percentages of surface (%SHR) and subsurface hardness recovery (%ΔKHNR) were calculated. F, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (Pi) contents in enamel were also determined. Data were analyzed by 1-way, repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.05). Toothpaste with 500 ppm F + TMP and 1,100 ppm F showed similar %SHR and %ΔKHNR as well as enamel F, Ca, and Pi concentrations. The addition of TMP to a low-fluoride toothpaste promoted a similar remineralizing capacity to that of a standard (1,100 ppm F) toothpaste in situ. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Antibacterial Efficacy of a Propolis Toothpaste and Mouthrinse Against a Supragingival Multispecies Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Rosmarie; Waldner-Tomic, Nadine Michèle; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To determine in vitro the antibacterial properties of propolis toothpaste and mouthrinse against an in vitro multispecies biofilm model. Six-species biofilms grown anaerobically on pellicle-coated hydroxyapatite disks were fed with glucose/sucrose-supplemented medium 3 times daily for 45 min and incubated in 37°C saliva between feedings for up to 64.5 h. At each interval, biofilms were exposed to six different slurries and solutions, including: 1) toothpaste without propolis, 2) toothpaste with propolis, 3) toothpaste with chlorhexidine, 4) mouthrinse with propolis, 5) mouthrinse with chlorhexidine, 6) saline solution (control). Afterwards, biofilms were harvested and the number of colony forming units were determined (CFU). The results were analysed using ANOVA, followed by the Bonferroni test at a 5% significance level. The strongest CFU reduction was shown after treatment with 0.12% chlorhexidine (p<0.0004). When comparing the different toothpastes, there was no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in CFU reduction. However, they all showed a significant reduction in CFU of more than one log-step vs the saline control group. Nevertheless, the propolis-containing mouthrinse showed no significant reduction in CFU. All toothpastes under investigation displayed some growth inhibition in this supragingival biofilm model, which accounted for an approximately 80%-88% linear reduction. However, the propolis mouthwash had no effect.

  12. Effect of tetracalcium phosphate/monetite toothpaste on dentin remineralization and tubule occlusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Medvecky, L; Stulajterova, R; Giretova, M; Mincik, J; Vojtko, M; Balko, J; Briancin, J

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the tubule occlusion and remineralization potential of a novel toothpaste with active tetracalcium phosphate/monetite mixtures under de/remineralization cycling. Dentin de/remineralization cycling protocol consisted of demineralization in 1% citric acid at pH 4.6 with following remineralization with toothpastes and soaking in artificial saliva. Effectiveness of toothpastes to promote remineralization was evaluated by measurement of microhardness recovery, analysis of surface roughness, thickness of coating and scanning electron microscopy. The novel tetracalcium phosphate/monetite dentifrice had comparable remineralization potential as commercial calcium silicate/phosphate (SENSODYNE ® ) and magnesium aluminum silicate (Colgate ® ) toothpastes and significantly higher than control saliva (p<0.02). Surface roughness was significantly lower after treatment with prepared and SENSODYNE ® dentifirice (p<0.05). The coatings on dentin surfaces was significantly thicker after applying toothpastes as compared to negative control (p<0.001). The new fluoride toothpaste formulation with bioactive tetracalcium phosphate/monetite calcium phosphate mixture effectively occluded dentin tubules and showed good dentin remineralization potential under de/remineralization cycling. It could replace professional powder preparation based on this mixture. It was demonstrated that prepared dentifrice had comparable properties with commercial fluoride calcium silicate/phosphate or magnesium aluminum silicate dentifrices. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes in human dental enamel-microhardness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Melina Mayumi; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes. Ninety-five dental fragments were obtained from nonerupted third molars. The fragments were embedded in polystyrene resin and sequentially polished with abrasive papers (400-, 600-, and 1,000-grit) and diamond pastes of 6, 3, and 1 microm. The fragments were assigned in five groups according to toothpaste treatment: G1 = Rembrandt Plus with Peroxide; G2 = Crest Dual Action Whitening; G3 = Aquafresh Whitening Triple Protection; and the control groups: G4 = Sensodyne Original (without fluoride); G5 = Sensodyne Sodium Bicarbonated (with fluoride). The initial enamel microhardness evaluations were done. For 2 weeks the fragments were submitted daily to a de-remineralization cycle followed by a 10-minute toothpaste slurry. After that, the final microhardness tests were done. The percentage of mineral loss of enamel was determined for statistical analysis. Analysis of variance and the Tukey test were applied. The results did not show statistically significant differences in mineral loss among groups G1, G2, G3, and G5, which statistically differ from G4 (toothpaste without fluoride). G4 showed the highest mineral loss (P < or = .05). The whitening toothpastes evaluated showed a cariostatic effect similar to regular, nonwhitening toothpaste.

  14. Investigation on the remineralization effect of arginine toothpaste for early enamel caries: nanotribological and nanomechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping; Arola, Dwayne D.; Min, Jie; Yu, Dandan; Xu, Zhou; Li, Zhi; Gao, Shanshan

    2016-11-01

    Remineralization is confirmed as a feasible method to restore early enamel caries. While there is evidence that the 8% arginine toothpaste has a good remineralization effect by increasing surface microhardness, the repair effect on wear-resistance and nanomechanical properties still remains unclear. Therefore, this research was conducted to reveal the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties changes of early caries enamel after remineralized with arginine toothpaste. Early enamel caries were created in bovine enamel blocks, and divided into three groups according to the treatment solutions: distilled and deionized water (DDW group), arginine toothpaste slurry (arginine group) and fluoride toothpaste slurry (fluoride group). All of the samples were subjected to pH cycling for 12 d. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties were evaluated via the nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests. The wear depth and scratch morphology were observed respectively by scanning probe microscopic (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for element analysis of remineralized surfaces. Results showed that the wear depth of early caries enamel decreased after remineralization treatment and both the nanohardness and elastic modulus increased. Compared with the fluoride group, the arginine group exhibited higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with higher levels of calcium, fluoride, nitrogen and phosphorus; this group also underwent less wear and related damage. Overall, the synergistic effect of arginine and fluoride in arginine toothpaste achieves better nanotribological and nanomechanical properties than the single fluoride toothpaste, which could have significant impact on fight against early enamel caries.

  15. The effect of a toothpaste containing aloe vera on established gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Namiranian, Homa; Serino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing high concentrations of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in patients attending regular dental care by a dental hygienist. Fifteen subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, intra-individual and controlled clinical study. Participants were non-smokers, with signs of gingivitis (bleeding index 30%) and no signs of periodontitis. Subjects were followed for three 6-month periods during which they used either their own toothpaste, or an Aloe vera or a control toothpaste. Plaque and gingival indices were recorded atthe start and end of each period. There was a statistically and clinically significant reduction of about 20% of the plaque and gingivitis indices at the end of the clinical trial compared to baseline values, but no differences between the Aloe vera and the control toothpaste. It may be concluded that in patients motivated to improve their oral hygiene habits, the use of a toothpaste containing Aloe Vera showed no additional effect on plaque and gingivitis compared to a control toothpaste.

  16. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dental health behavior of parents of children using non-fluoride toothpaste: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the dental health goals of Health Japan 21, in which the Japanese government clarified its health policy, was to ensure the use of fluoride toothpaste in 90% or more of schoolchildren. This goal was not achieved. The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to evaluate the characteristics of parents whose children use non-fluoride toothpaste. Methods In December 2010, questionnaire forms were sent to 18 elementary schools or school dentists. Students (6-12 years old) were asked to take the forms home for their parents to fill in, and to bring the completed questionnaire to school. The collected questionnaires were mailed from schools to the author’s institution by the end of March 2011. The relationship between fluoride in toothpaste and reasons for choice of toothpaste, the child’s toothbrushing habits, and attitude toward child caries prevention was examined in the 6,069 respondents who answered all the questions for the analyses and indicated that their children use toothpaste. Results Non-fluoride toothpaste users accounted for 5.1% of all toothpaste users. Among the children using non-fluoride toothpaste, significantly greater numbers gave ‘anti-gingivitis’, ‘halitosis prevention’ or ‘tartar control’ as reasons for choice of toothpaste; did not give ‘has fluoride’, ‘is cheaper’ or ‘tastes good’ as reasons for choice of toothpaste; or used toothpaste sometimes, or were in 4th - 6th grades. There was no significant relationship between use of non-fluoride toothpaste and measures taken for caries prevention in children. Multilevel (first level: individual, second level: school) logistic regression analysis indicated that use of non-fluoride toothpaste was significantly related to: giving ‘anti-gingivitis’ (odds ratio: 1.44) as a reason for choice of toothpaste; not giving ‘has fluoride’ (0.40), ‘tastes good’ (0.49) or ‘is cheaper’ (0.50) as the reason for choice of toothpaste; to

  18. Evaluation of the Oral Tolerance of Three Fluoride Toothpaste Formulations in a Dry Mouth Population: Results from Two Randomized Studies.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Ward, John; Shneyer, Lucy; Skinner, Jacob; Jeal, Nathan; Cronin, Matthew; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the oral tolerance of three experimental toothpaste formulations containing sodium fluoride (NaF), compared with two marketed sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)-containing biotène® toothpastes, in a dry mouth population after 14 days (primary objective) and 7 days (secondary objective) of use. Toothpastes were tested in two separate dual-site, examiner-blind, randomized, parallel group studies in subjects (35-84 years) with self-reported dry mouth. Oral soft tissue (OST) and oral hard tissue (OHT) examinations were performed at screening, followed by a 7- to 28-day wash-in period using a control toothpaste. Subjects were randomized to receive a NaF-containing toothpaste (Study 1: commercially available toothpaste Pronamel® for Children, n = 82; Study 2: experimental plaque biofilm-loosening formula [PBF] toothpaste, n = 79; or experimental Gentle Mint toothpaste, n = 78) or a reference toothpaste (Study 1: biotène® Fresh Mint Original toothpaste [previously marketed formulation], n = 82; Study 2: biotène® Gentle Mint Gel toothpaste [previously marketed formulation], n = 77) during the 14-day treatment phase. Subjects brushed their teeth twice daily for one timed minute with a ribbon of toothpaste to cover the head of the toothbrush provided. Subjects received further OST and OHT examinations at Day 1 and Day 15, and an additional OST examination at Day 8. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were reported throughout the study. Study 1: At Day 15, 42 oral treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were reported in 33 subjects, of which seven in five subjects (commercially available toothpaste Pronamel for Children: n = 2; control: n = 3) were considered to be treatment-related. One SAE (dyspnea) was reported in a participant who was randomized but withdrew from the study before receiving the allocated toothpaste. Study 2: At Day 15, 41 oral TEAEs were reported in 38 subjects, of which two in two subjects (experimental Gentle Mint toothpaste: n = 1

  19. Inflammatory reaction of the anterior dorsal tongue presumably to sodium lauryl sulfate within toothpastes: a triple case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Smith, Langston; Glascoe, Alison L

    2018-02-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a popular surface active agent ingredient within toothpastes, is known for its foaming action. Surface active agents increase the effectiveness of toothpastes with respect to dental plaque removal. SLS is a known irritant and also has allergenic potential. The authors report 3 patients with oral pain secondary to inflammation of the dorsal anterior tongue. These patients were all using toothpastes with SLS as an ingredient. The dorsal tongue lesions and oral pain resolved upon switching to toothpastes without SLS as an ingredient. Clinicians should be aware of the potential of SLS within toothpastes to cause oral mucosal inflammatory reactions of the anterior dorsal tongue. To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of oral mucosal inflammatory reactions of the anterior dorsal tongue associated with SLS containing toothpastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of a toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan on bacterial viability and plaque growth in vivo compared to a toothpaste containing 0.3% Triclosan and 2% copolymer.

    PubMed

    Adams, S E; Theobald, A J; Jones, N M; Brading, M G; Cox, T F; Mendez, A; Chesters, D M; Gillam, D G; Hall, C; Holt, J

    2003-12-01

    To compare the antimicrobial efficacy and effect on plaque growth of a new silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate/ 0.3% Triclosan with a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing 0.3% Triclosan/2% copolymer. In Study 1, plaque was collected after one week's use of each toothpaste and assessed for bacterial viability, live/ dead ratio and microbial membrane integrity. In study 2, plaque was measured immediately and 18 hours after a single brushing with the specified toothpastes. The 2% zinc citrate/0.3% Triclosan formulation significantly reduced the total number of viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (p = 0.0223 and p = 0.0443 respectively) compared to the 0.3% Triclosan/2% copolymer formulation. Both toothpastes increased the bacterial membrane permeability significantly. However, the proportion of live bacteria for the 2% zinc citrate/0.3% Triclosan product was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Study 2 showed significantly less plaque growth 18 hours after using the 2% zinc citrate/0.3% Triclosan toothpaste compared to the 0.3% Triclosan/2% copolymer toothpaste (p < 0.01). Regular use of a fluoride toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan, significantly reduced the viability of plaque bacteria compared to a fluoride toothpaste containing 0.3% Triclosan/ 2% copolymer 12 hours after brushing. In addition, a clinical plaque growth study confirmed that this anti-microbial efficacy leads to a significant reduction in plaque growth.

  1. Whole-Saliva Fluoride Levels and Saturation Indices in 65+ Elderly during Use of Four Different Toothpaste Regimens.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Ekstrand, Mia Linding; Lykkeaa, Joan; Bardow, Allan; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Elderly individuals suffering from subnormal saliva secretion combined with inadequate oral hygiene may develop rampant caries and caries in parts of the dentition not normally affected by caries if preventive measures are not undertaken. Such measures include elevating fluoride levels at the saliva/biofilm/tooth interface. To analyse whole-saliva fluoride levels and mineral saturation indices during different fluoride toothpaste regimens in home-living elderly. Whole saliva was collected from 27 subjects (7 males and 20 females, mean age 73.5±6.1 years) at ten time points covering the whole day during five 2-week periods. During the first period, participants used their normal toothpaste without instructions (baseline). This was followed by TP1: 1,450-ppm NaF toothpaste; TP2: 1,450-ppm monofluorophosphate (MFP) toothpaste with addition of calcium; TP3: 5,000-ppm NaF toothpaste, and TP4: the same toothpaste with additional 'smearing' of toothpaste on the teeth, twice daily. During TP1-TP4, the participants were instructed to brush 3 times per day using 1.5 g of toothpaste without rinsing. Salivary fluoride levels increased with toothpaste fluoride content (p<0.001), although major interindividual and intraindividual variations were observed. The highest fluoride values appeared in the morning and at night (p<0.001). Saturation indices for calcium fluoride were affected by the fluoride content in pastes (p<0.05). Concerning hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite, indices were highest with the MFP toothpaste and extra calcium (NS to p<0.05). Use of a high-fluoride toothpaste resulted in significantly increased fluoride levels in whole saliva and mineral saturation indices were indeed influenced by choice of toothpaste. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The effects of low-fluoride toothpaste supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares Fraga; Dias, Ana Paula; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) in toothpastes with low-fluoride (low-F) concentrations on enamel demineralization by using a bovine enamel and pH cycling model. Experimental toothpastes containing 0 or 500 μg F/g (NaF) and CaGP concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 % were manufactured. A commercial toothpaste was used as a positive control (1,100 μg F/g). After polishing and hardness tests, enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 5 days and toothpaste treatment twice daily. The treatment regimen involved soaking all blocks in the corresponding slurry for 1 min (2 ml/block). Surface and cross-sectional hardness and fluoride concentrations in enamel were analyzed. The hardness data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. Fluoride concentrations were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The mineral loss with the toothpaste containing 500 μg F/g and 0.25 % CaGP was lower than that in the other groups (p < 0.05). Fluoride concentrations in the enamel treated with 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 % CaGP toothpastes were similar to those in the enamel treated with the 500 μg F/g toothpaste (p > 0.05). A greater concentration of CaGP reduced the fluoride levels in enamel (p < 0.05). The results from the present in vitro study show that a low-F (500 μg F/g) toothpaste is capable of maintaining the efficacy of 1,100 μg F/g toothpaste when supplemented with 0.25 % of CaGP. The developed toothpaste prevents caries as a standard one and is safe for individuals of any age group.

  3. A Randomized Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effect of Two Experimental Toothpastes on Tooth Enamel Gloss and Smoothness.

    PubMed

    Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Creeth, Jonathan E; Butler, Andrew; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-03-01

    The study compared the effects on examiner-assessed tooth gloss and smoothness of two experimental toothpastes (1% or 2% alumina abrasive) with a reference, silica-based toothpaste used twice daily for one, four, and eight weeks. The study also monitored the safety of the products. This was a randomized, examiner-blind study, stratified by gloss score and age, three-treatment, parallel-group using healthy adult volunteers. Following a two-week washout period where subjects brushed with a conventional silica-abrasive toothpaste, 169 subjects began the trial period after receiving a dental scaling and polishing using the washout toothpaste. Subjects brushed for two minutes, twice daily, with their assigned toothpaste. The experimental toothpastes contained 927 ppm fluoride as NaF with either 1% or 2% alumina as the sole abrasive. The reference toothpaste contained 927 ppm fluoride as NaF in a conventional amorphous silica abrasive base. Enamel polish (i.e., gloss) was assessed visually by comparing the facial surfaces of the maxillary incisors with a set of standards. Tooth smoothness was assessed by lightly dragging a dental explorer over the surface. Subjects using the 2% alumina toothpaste had significantly higher gloss compared to the reference toothpaste at Weeks 1 and 4, but the difference was of borderline significance at Week 8 (one-covariate analysis: p = 0.0529; two-covariate analysis: p = 0.0494). Subjects using the 1% alumina toothpaste had significantly higher gloss improvement scores than the reference toothpaste at Weeks 4 and 8, but not at Week 1. All three treatment groups' gloss scores improved during the study. Regarding tooth smoothness, the effects of the experimental toothpastes followed a broadly similar profile to the effects on tooth gloss. After four weeks' use, both experimental toothpastes were superior to the reference. After eight weeks' use, however, only the 2% alumina toothpaste approached significant superiority versus the reference

  4. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of silver and gold in toothpastes: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Junevičius, Jonas; Žilinskas, Juozas; Česaitis, Kęstutis; Česaitienė, Gabrielė; Gleiznys, Darius; Maželienė, Žaneta

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the antimicrobial activity of identical toothpastes differing only in silver or gold nanoparticles against the activity of one of the common toothpastes containing a chemical active ingredient. We also compared the active concentrations of the toothpastes. For this study, we selected "Royal Denta" toothpastes containing silver and gold particles, and the "Blend-A-Med Complete" toothpaste containing zinc citrate as the active ingredient. We used 8 standard microorganism cultures on the basis of their individual mechanisms of protection. The antimicrobial activity of each studied preparation was evaluated at 9 concentrations. Most effective against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) was the "Silver Technology" – MIC was 0.004-0.0015 g/mL. Neither "Silver Technology" nor "Orange and Gold Technology" had any effect on Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrobial activity against the motile bacterium Proteus mirabilis was observed in "Silver Technology", "Orange and Gold Technology", and "Blend-A-Med Complete" – the MIC was 0.015 g/mL or lower. No antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans fungus at the studied concentrations was observed in the "Orange and Gold Technology". The toothpaste "Blend-A-Med" demonstrated the most effective antimicrobial activity - the MIC of 0.0015 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, and the MIC of 0.15 g/mL inhibited the growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans. Silver in toothpaste has a greater antimicrobial effect than gold, but its effect is still inferior to that of a chemical antimicrobial agent.

  6. Erosion Remineralization Efficacy of Gel-to-Foam Fluoride Toothpastes in situ: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nehme, Marc; Jeffery, Peter; Mason, Stephen; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2016-01-01

    This single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, four-treatment, four-period crossover study compared the enamel remineralization effects of low- and medium-abrasivity gel-to-foam toothpastes and a reference toothpaste (all 1,450 ppm fluoride as NaF) versus placebo toothpaste (0 ppm fluoride) using a short-term in situ erosion model. Subjects (n = 56) wearing a palatal appliance holding acid-softened bovine enamel specimens brushed their teeth with the test toothpastes. Thereafter, the specimens were removed for analysis of percent surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR) and percent relative erosion resistance (%RER) at 2, 4, and 8 h. Both low- and medium-abrasivity gel-to-foam fluoride toothpastes and the reference toothpaste provided significantly greater %SMHR than placebo at all assessment time points (all p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference of %SMHR was observed between the fluoride treatment groups at any time point. Similarly, all fluoride products provided significantly superior %RER versus placebo (all p < 0.0001), whereas no significant difference of this parameter was noted between the fluoride treatment groups. Increasing numerical improvements of %SMHR and %RER were observed in all four treatment groups over time (2, 4, and 8 h). The present in situ model is a sensitive tool to investigate intrinsic and fluoride-enhanced rehardening of eroded enamel. All three fluoride toothpastes were more efficacious than placebo, and there were no safety concerns following single dosing in this short-term in situ model. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Randomized Trial of Plaque-Identifying Toothpaste: Decreasing Plaque and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fasula, Kim; Evans, Carla A; Boyd, Linda; Giblin, Lori; Belavsky, Benjamin Z; Hetzel, Scott; McBride, Patrick; DeMets, David L; Hennekens, Charles H

    2017-06-01

    Randomized data are sparse about whether a plaque-identifying toothpaste reduces dental plaque and nonexistent for inflammation. Inflammation is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is accurately measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a sensitive marker for cardiovascular disease. The hypotheses that Plaque HD (TJA Health LLC, Joliet, Ill), a plaque-identifying toothpaste, produces statistically significant reductions in dental plaque and hs-CRP were tested in this randomized trial. Sixty-one apparently healthy subjects aged 19 to 44 years were assigned at random to this plaque-identifying (n = 31) or placebo toothpaste (n = 30) for 60 days. Changes from baseline to follow-up in dental plaque and hs-CRP were assessed. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the plaque-identifying toothpaste reduced mean plaque score by 49%, compared with a 24% reduction in placebo (P = .001). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of 38 subjects with baseline levels >0.5 mg/L, the plaque-identifying toothpaste reduced hs-CRP by 29%, compared with a 25% increase in placebo toothpaste (P = .041). This plaque-identifying toothpaste produced statistically significant reductions in dental plaque and hs-CRP. The observed reduction in dental plaque confirms and extends a previous observation. The observed reduction in inflammation supports the hypothesis of a reduction in risks of cardiovascular disease. The direct test of this hypothesis requires a large-scale randomized trial of sufficient size and duration designed a priori to do so. Such a finding would have major clinical and public health implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes on Dentin Abrasion: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinario; Nogueira, Marcia Bessa; Gaio, Eduardo Jose; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Santiago, Sergio Lima; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio

    To compare the effect of toothbrushing abrasion with hydrated silica-based whitening and regular toothpastes on root dentin using contact profilometry. Ninety dentin specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 18) according to the toothpaste: three whitening (W1, W2 and W3) and two regular toothpastes (R1 and R2) produced by two different manufacturers. Using a brushing machine, each specimen was brushed with a constant load of 300 g for 2500 cycles (4.5 cycles/s). The toothpastes were diluted at a ratio of 1:3 w/w (dentifrice:distilled water). The brush diamond tip of the profilometer moved at a constant speed of 0.05 mm/s with a force of 0.7 mN. The average value of brushing abrasion in μm (mean ± SD) was obtained from five consecutive measurements of each specimen: W1 = 8.86 ± 1.58, W2 = 7.59 ± 1.04, W3 = 8.27 ± 2.39, R1 = 2.89 ± 1.05 and R2= 2.94 ± 1.29. There was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). Post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons showed differences between all the whitening and regular toothpastes, but not among the whitening nor among the regular toothpastes. The whitening toothpastes tested can cause more dentin abrasion than the regular ones.

  9. In vitro assessment of a toothpaste range specifically designed for children.

    PubMed

    Churchley, David; Schemehorn, Bruce R

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the ability of a range of low abrasivity experimental toothpastes designed for use by children at different stages of their development (typically ages 0-2 years, 3-5 years and 6+ years) to promote fluoride uptake and remineralisation of artificial caries lesions. pH cycling study: demineralised human permanent enamel specimens were subjected to a daily pH cycling regime consisting of four 1-minute treatments with toothpaste slurries, a 4-hour acid challenge and remineralisation in pooled whole human saliva. Surface microhardness (SMH) was measured at baseline, 10 days and 20 days, and the fluoride content determined at 20 days. Enamel Fluoride Uptake (EFU): these studies were based on Method #40 described in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) testing procedures. Abrasivity: relative enamel abrasivity (REA) and relative dentine abrasivity (RDA) were measured using the Hefferren abrasivity test. Bioavailable fluoride: the bioavailable fluoride was determined for all experimental toothpastes from slurries of one part toothpaste plus 10 parts deionised water. Enamel remineralisation measured by changes in SMH correlated with enamel fluoride content. A statistically significant fluoride dose response was observed for all toothpastes tested across all age groups (P < 0.05). The fluoride content of specimens in the pH cycling model correlated with the EFU testing results. The enamel and dentine abrasivities were low and the level of bioavailable fluoride was high for all experimental toothpastes. A series of low abrasivity experimental toothpastes were developed which were effective at promoting fluoride uptake and remineralisation of artificial caries lesions. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Relationship between toothpastes properties and patient-reported discomfort: crossover study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mariana; Taddeo, Fernando; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Boaro, Letícia Cristina Cidreira; Moreira, Maria Stella N A; Marques, Márcia Martins; Calheiros, Fernanda Calabró

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to correlate patient-reported reactions with in vitro analyses of the pH, abrasive quality, and cytotoxicity of four toothpastes. One hundred twenty-one patients received non-identified samples of toothpaste to be used for 6 days and answered a questionnaire about their sensations. In vitro analysis: the pH of toothpastes was measured with a pH meter. The abrasivity of toothpastes was evaluated against composite resin specimens (n = 10). A toothbrushing machine was used to simulate wear, which was indirectly measured by mass loss using a scale. Cell culture media conditioned with toothpaste were used to assess the cytotoxicity. Confluent cells were kept in contact with the conditioned media or control for 24 h. The cell viability was measured using the 3-(bromide, 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT)-reduction assay. The obtained data on the pH, weight loss, and cell viability were compared by ANOVA/Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). With the exception of the bleaching effect paste, the Oral B® paste produced the highest frequencies of irritation reports, tooth sensitivity, taste discomfort, and texture discomfort in the clinical study; patients also reported rougher teeth, soft tissue peeling, dry mouth, thrush, tingling, and taste changes in response to this paste. The in vitro analysis demonstrated that Oral B® had the lowest pH, the highest abrasivity, and produced the lowest cell viability (p < 0.01). Results suggest that low pH toothpastes that are highly abrasive and cytotoxic may cause undesirable reactions in patients. Toothpaste's properties should be well known for indication to patient therefore minimizing discomfort reports.

  11. The Impact of Selected Fluoridated Toothpastes on Dental Erosion in Profilometric Measurement.

    PubMed

    Fita, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Some fluoridated toothpastes, available commercially, are described to have a protective effect against dental erosion. To evaluate the influence of the selected marketed toothpastes on the human enamel exposed to acid beverages. Enamel specimens from extracted human teeth were prepared (n = 40). Specimens were randomly divided into 10 experimental groups, 4 specimens each, which were subjected to acid challenge for 10 min using orange juice (pH 3.79) or Pepsi Cola (pH 2.58) and then immersed for 2 min into a slurry of five marketed toothpastes with distilled water (1 : 3 w/w). The tested toothpastes contained 1450 or 5000 ppm fluoride, CPP-ACP with 900 ppm fluoride, 1450 ppm fluoride with potassium nitrate 5%, all of them as sodium fluoride, and 700 ppm fluoride as amine and sodium fluoride with 3500 ppm SnCl2. Enamel roughness (Ra parameter) by contact profilometer at baseline and after exposure onto soft drinks and slurry was measured. Exposure to both beverages caused a similar increase of enamel surface roughness. After the specimens immersion into slurries of toothpastes with 1450 or 5000 ppm fluoride, 1450 ppm fluoride with potassium nitrate 5% and CPP-ACP with 900 ppm fluoride the significant decrease of Ra values were found, reaching the baseline values. However, toothpaste with 700 ppm fluoride and 3500 ppm SnCl2 did not cause any fall in Ra value, probably due to other mechanism of action. Within the limitation of the study we can conclude that the sodium fluoride toothpastes are able to restore the surface profile of enamel exposed shortly to acidic soft drinks.

  12. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. Objective To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Material and Methods Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). Results The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. Conclusions The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks. PMID:29412362

  13. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-02-01

    Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks.

  14. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks: Ultrastructural analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Material and Methods Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge, toothpaste without fluoride, group 4: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 5: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the samples used as control and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1 and 2): indeed among all groups the highest grade of damage was found in group 2. Instead the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 5 (Zinc hydroxyapatite toothpaste). Conclusions The results of this study confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology could provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges. The treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. Key words:Dental erosion, enamel, SEM, toothpaste. PMID:28828151

  15. The In vitro Evaluation of the effect of xyliwhite, probiotic, and the conventional toothpastes on the enamel roughness and microhardness.

    PubMed

    Maden, E Arat; Altun, C; Polat, G Guven; Basak, F

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride, Xylitol, Probiotic, and Whitening toothpastes on the permanent teeth enamel roughness and microhardness. One hundred and twenty teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups, each group having 60 samples. G1: The group in which enamel roughness was examined (n = 60). G2: The group in which enamel microhardness was examined (n = 60). Then, these groups were randomly divided into 4 groups among themselves (n = 15). Each group was brushed using four different toothpastes for 1 week with a battery-powered toothbrush in the morning and evening for 2 min. Vicker's hardness tester was used to measure the changes in microhardness, and the profilometer was used to measure the changes in surface roughness. No statistically significant differences were found on surface roughness and microhardness values measured after tooth brushing process in group brushed with Colgate MaxFresh toothpaste (P > 0.01). Statistically significant decrease was observed on Vicker's hardness values measured after tooth brushing process in groups brushed with Ipana White Power Carbonate toothpaste, Xyliwhite Toothpaste Gel, and Periobiotic Probiotic Toothpaste (P < 0.01). Statistically significant increase was observed on surface roughness values in groups brushed with Ipana White Power Carbonate toothpaste, Xyliwhite Toothpaste Gel, Periobiotic Probiotic Toothpaste (P < 0.01). As a result, Colgate MaxFresh abrasive-free toothpaste with fluoride has no effect on permanent tooth enamel surface roughness and microhardness. Xyliwhite, Periobiotic, and Ipana White Power Carbonate-containing abrasive toothpastes led to changes negatively on permanent tooth enamel surface roughness and microhardness.

  16. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks: Ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge, toothpaste without fluoride, group 4: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 5: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples used as control and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1 and 2): indeed among all groups the highest grade of damage was found in group 2. Instead the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 5 (Zinc hydroxyapatite toothpaste). The results of this study confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology could provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges. The treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. Key words: Dental erosion, enamel, SEM, toothpaste.

  17. Effect of Toothpaste Application Prior to Dental Bleaching on Whitening Effectiveness and Enamel Properties.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Junior, W F; Lima, D A N L; Tabchoury, C P M; Ambrosano, G M B; Aguiar, F H B; Lovadino, J R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on the enamel properties and effectiveness of bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) when applying toothpastes with different active agents prior to dental bleaching. Seventy enamel blocks (4 × 4 × 2 mm) were submitted to in vitro treatment protocols in a tooth-brushing machine (n=10): with distilled water and exposure to placebo gel (negative control [NC]) or HP bleaching (positive control [PC]); and brushing with differing toothpastes prior to HP bleaching, including potassium nitrate toothpaste (PN) containing NaF, conventional sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste (FT), arginine-based toothpastes (PA and SAN), or a toothpaste containing bioactive glass (NM). Color changes were determined using the CIE L*a*b* system (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb), and a roughness (Ra) analysis was performed before and after treatments. Surface microhardness (SMH) and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) were analyzed after treatment. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA for Ra, one-way ANOVA (SMH, ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb), split-plot ANOVA (CSMH), and Tukey post hoc test (α<0.05). The relationship between the physical surface properties and color properties was evaluated using a multivariate Canonical correlation analysis. Color changes were statistically similar in the bleached groups. After treatments, SMH and CSMH decreased in PC. SMH increased significantly in the toothpaste groups vs the negative and positive control (NM > PA = SAN > all other groups) or decreased HP effects (CSMH). Ra increased in all bleached groups, with the exception of NM, which did not differ from the NC. The variation in the color variables (ΔL, Δa, and Δb) explained 21% of the variation in the physical surface variables (Ra and SMH). The application of toothpaste prior to dental bleaching did not interfere with the effectiveness of treatment. The bioactive glass based toothpaste protected the enamel against the deleterious

  18. Comparison of Fluoridated Miswak and Toothbrushing with Fluoridated Toothpaste on Plaque Removal and Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Baeshen, Hosam; Salahuddin, Sabin; Dam, Robel; Zawawi, Khalid H; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-04-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are all induced by oral biofilm (dental plaque). This study was conducted to evaluate if fluoride-impregnated miswak is as effective in plaque removal and fluoride release as toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. This single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted at the Department of Cariology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, from February 2010 to January 2011. Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were instructed to use the following: (1) 0.5% NaF-impregnated miswak, (2) nonfluoridated miswak, (3) toothbrush with nonfluoride toothpaste, and (4) toothbrush with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Each method was used twice a day for 1 week after which plaque amount and fluoride concentration in resting saliva were measured. There was a 1-week washout period between each method. No significant difference between miswak and tooth-brushing was found regarding plaque removal on buccal and lingual surfaces. A somewhat higher fluoride concentration in resting saliva was found after using impregnated miswak when compared with toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (p < 0.05). Miswak and toothbrushing showed the same plaque removing effect on buccal and lingual surfaces. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF resulted in a higher concentration of fluoride in saliva than brushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and toothbrushing results in comparable plaque removal and about the same fluoride concentration in saliva even it was somewhat higher for impregnated miswak.

  19. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Karibasappa, G N; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19-21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05) levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05) and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05) from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dentinal tubules occluded by bioactive glass-containing toothpaste exhibit high resistance toward acidic soft drink challenge.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Hossain, M Z; Razak, F A; Saqina, Z H; Misroni, A A; Ab-Murat, N; Kitagawa, J; Saub, R B

    2017-06-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated. One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations. The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period. The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Effectiveness of a Toothpaste with Low Fluoride Content Combined with Trimetaphosphate on Dental Biofilm and Enamel Demineralization in situ.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Eliana M; Danelon, Marcelle; Castro, Luciene P; Sassaki, Kikue T; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in situ whether a toothpaste with low fluoride associated with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) would provide similar effect to that of a 1,100 ppm F toothpaste. This crossover double-blind study consisted of 4 phases (14 days each), during which 10 volunteers wore oral appliances containing 4 enamel bovine blocks. The cariogenic challenge was performed by the application of a 20% sucrose solution (6×/day). The toothpaste treatments (2×/day) were: placebo, 500 ppm F, 500 ppm F plus 1% TMP, and 1,100 ppm F. At the end, enamel mineral loss and biofilm composition were analyzed. The toothpaste with 500 ppm F plus 1% TMP showed the lowest mineral loss (p < 0.05). Regarding the fluoride and calcium concentrations in the enamel and in the biofilm, there were no significant differences between 500 ppm F plus 1% TMP, and 1,100 ppm F toothpastes (p > 0.569), but they were significantly different when compared to toothpaste with 500 ppm F (p < 0.050). The addition of 1% TMP to a low-fluoride toothpaste reduces enamel demineralization in situ similar to a 1,100 ppm F toothpaste. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nano calcium carbonate upon nanofill composite resin surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhani, A. M.; Herda, E.; Triaminingsih, S.

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of brushing with toothpaste containing nanocalcium carbonate on the roughness of nanofill composite resin surface. Brushing was conducted with 3 types of materials for 3 consecutive brushing periods of 10 minutes each. Surface roughness was measured using a surface-roughness tester and the results were analyzed using the repeated ANOVA and the one-way ANOVA test. The surface morphology was observed using SEM after 3 months’ worth of brushing with the 3 materials. It was found that the nanofill composite resin surface-roughness value increased significantly (p<0.005) after brushing with toothpaste containing nano calcium carbonate for 3 months, but the value was not as high as that obtained when brushing with other types of toothpaste.

  3. Assessment of alpha radioactivity in lipstick, nailpolish, toothpaste and vermilion using CR-39 detector.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Maiti, Sunil; Haldar, Subrata; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Bhaitacharyya, Rini

    2010-04-01

    Human beings are always exposed to radiation from chemical cosmetics. In order to collect information regarding the radioactivity of chemical cosmetics used in our daily life, we studied the alpha radioactivity in different cosmetics samples, such as lipsticks, nail-polish, toothpaste and vermilion. The significant accumulation ofradionuclide in and on the tissues, directly or indirectly exposed due to the lipsticks, toothpaste, vermilion, may cause health hazards. Different samples of these cosmetic materials (Indian and foreign brands) were collected from the local markets of Kolkata, India. CR-39--a useful solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) was used to detect alpha radioactivity of these samples. Such exhaustive measurement of radioactivity in lipsticks, nail-polish, toothpaste and vermilion has not been reported so far.

  4. Effect of theobromine-containing toothpaste on dentin tubule occlusion in situ.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; Mathews, Sapna M; Mensinkai, Poornima K

    2015-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is treated by either occlusion of dentin tubules or nerve desensitization. This in situ study compared dentin tubules occlusion by theobromine-containing dentifrices with (Theodent-classic-F®, TCF) and without (Theodent-classic®, TC) fluoride with 1,500 ppm fluoride toothpaste, Colgate®-Regular (Fluoride) and Novamin®-containing toothpaste, Sensodyne®-5000-Nupro (Novamin®). Each subject wore four intraoral appliances bearing dentin blocks while using one of four test dentifrices (n = 20/dentifrice) twice daily for 7 days. The four appliances were removed successively after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days. Treated blocks and their control (untreated) blocks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects were compared statistically (ANOVA/Tukey's) based on percentage of surface area covered by deposited precipitate layer (%DPL) and percentage of fully open (%FOT), partially occluded (%POT), and completely occluded (%COT) tubules in each block calculated relative to the number of tubules in their control blocks. SEM observation indicated an increased %COT and %DPL over time. After 1 and 2 days, %COT was comparable with TC and TCF, and significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared with Novamin® and Fluoride. Following 3 and 7 days, %COT was comparable among TC, TCF, and Novamin®, but remained significantly lower in Fluoride. At any time, %DPL was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in TC, TCF, and Novamin® compared with Fluoride. Theobromine-containing toothpastes with and without fluoride have equal potential in occluding dentin tubules within a shorter time period than Novamin®-containing toothpaste; however, the three demonstrated equal potential after 1 week, but not the fluoride toothpaste. Theobromine-containing toothpaste promoted dentin tubule occlusion thus shows potential to relief DH.

  5. Potential hazards of toxic metals found in toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Okolo, Kenneth Obinna; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze

    2016-01-01

    Toothpastes have multi-functional configurations as oral care products. They can however constitute a pos- sible source, amongst others, of toxic metal exposure in public health. Indeed, the public health impact of personal hygiene and consumer products is largely unknown. To determine the level of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel) in toothpastes available in Nigeria, (home produced and imported), and assess the potential risk to the people. The samples of toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria were tested. Using a market basket protocol thirty five different brands of toothpaste were used. Samples were digest by addition of 10 mL mixture of conc. nitric and hydrochloric acids (HCl:HNO(3), 3:1), followed by heating to dryness. 20 mL deionized water was added, stirred and filtered. The filtrate was made up in standard volumetric flask and lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt and nickel concentrations were determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry 205A. The daily intake of metals and target hazard quotient (THQ) were then calculated. Pepsodent and Flodent had the highest levels of lead at respectively 23.575 and 18.092 mg/kg while Colgate Herbal had the highest nickel of 18.535 mg/kg. The daily intake estimates of all imported toothpaste samples were below the stated upper limits (UL). All target hazard quotients were also found to be below one. Although the UL, THQ and daily intake rates were all normal, the high levels of lead in some of the tooth- pastes an important concern to public health suggesting that pre-marketing safety studies of toothpastes may be worthwhile for the regulatory authorities.

  6. Desensitizing toothpaste versus placebo for dentin hypersensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kyun; Myung, Seung-Kwon

    2015-02-01

    The aim is to assess the effect of desensitizing toothpaste on dentin hypersensitivity. We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, and Embase on December 20, 2013. Out of the 626 articles searched, a total of 31 randomized controlled clinical trials were included. The Standardized mean differences (SMD) for potassium-containing toothpaste (n = 8) was -1.28 (95% Confidence interval (CI) -2.05 to -0.51; I(2) = 93%); Stannous fluoride- (n = 6) was -1.37 (95% CI, -2.30 to -0.44; I(2) = 95%); Potassium and stannous fluoride- (n = 3) was -2.50 (95% CI, -4.10 to -0.91; I(2) = 95%); Calcium sodium phosphosilicate- (n = 4) was -2.36 (95% CI, -3.72 to -1.00; I(2) = 92%); Arginine- (n = 8) was -3.25 (95% CI, -3.87 to -2.63; I(2) = 86%). The desensitizing effect was favoured in the intervention group treated with potassium-, stannous fluoride-, potassium and stannous fluoride-, calcium sodium phosphosilicate-, and arginine-containing toothpaste compared to placebo. Whereas, strontium-containing toothpaste (SMD, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.34 to 0.44; I(2) = 64%) was found to have no statistically significant desensitizing effect in the meta-analysis of four studies. The study reports that there is sufficient evidence to support the use of potassium-, stannous fluoride-, potassium and stannous fluoride-, calcium sodium phosphosilicate-, and arginine-containing desensitizing toothpastes for dentin hypersensitivity, but not the use of strontium-containing desensitizing toothpaste. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Efficacy of Crest Herbal Toothpaste in “Clearing Internal Heat”: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Xu; Liu, Yue-Yun; Wang, Shao-Xian; Li, Xiao-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Evaluation of the efficacy of Crest Herbal Crystal Toothpaste in “clearing internal heat.” Methods. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled parallel design clinical test of a product that was already on the market. 72 subjects were randomly assigned to control group (group A with Colgate Herbal Salty Toothpaste) or treatment group (group B with Crest Herbal Crystal Toothpaste) with ratio of 1 : 2. Subjects were instructed to brush with 1g toothpaste for 2 minutes each time, 2 times per day in a 4-aweek test period; measurement with the rating scale on the efficacy of “clearing internal heat” for the herbal toothpaste was done at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks of toothpaste usage. Results. The rating scale on efficacy of “clearing internal heat” for the herbal toothpaste reveals that the primitive points of 72-case intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and 67-case per-protocol (PP) analysis for subjects in group A and subjects in group B were found to be reduced progressively with statistical significance (P < 0.05). The overall effective rates for group A and group B were, respectively, 62.50%, 56.25% (ITT) and 62.50%, 60.64% (PP). The statistical results indicated that the symptoms of fire-heat for both groups of subjects have been improved after application of toothpaste. Conclusion. The efficacy of Crest Herbal Crystal Toothpaste in “clearing internal heat” was confirmed by the trial as compared to Colgate Herbal Salty Toothpaste. And its efficacy was objectively evaluated by the rating scale on efficacy of “clearing internal heat.” PMID:24228064

  8. Efficacy of 'Gamadent' toothpaste on the healing of gingival tissues: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Taiyeb-Ali, Tara Bai; Zainuddin, Siti Lailatul Akmar; Swaminathan, Dasan; Yaacob, Hashim

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this randomised, parallel, double-blind study, in which 28 adult patients diagnosed with chronic gingivitis or early stages of chronic periodontitis were recruited, was to evaluate the efficacy of 'Gamadent' toothpaste compared to a placebo toothpaste. 'Gamadent' toothpaste has all the basic constituents of a toothpaste with the addition of a sea cucumber extract (SCE) of the species Stichopus sp. 1 to improve the healing potential of tissues. The placebo has the same basic constituents minus the extract. Out of the 28 patients, 14 were placed in the test group who used the 'Gamadent' toothpaste, and 14 patients were placed in the control group (2 control subjects defaulted and were excluded), who brushed using the placebo toothpaste. The longitudinal study was carried out over a period of 3 months with assessments made at baseline, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after conventional therapy at the baseline visit. The clinical parameters used during the trial were Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Papilla Bleeding Index (PBI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). A predetermined number of sites on a molar, premolar, canine and an incisor were examined and evaluated in each quadrant. After the baseline assessment, the patients had full mouth scaling and debridement as well as oral hygiene instructions. Patients were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day with the toothbrush provided (Oral-B plus, size 35) and toothpaste (test or control), using the Bass technique. At the 1-month assessment, there were significant mean reductions to baseline mean values in PI (P < 0.005) and GI (P < 0.001) in the test group as compared to the control group. At the end of the 2-month interval, significant reductions were observed in PI, PBI and PPD (P < 0.001). By the end of 3 months, there were significant differences in the mean reduction of all the parameters i.e. PI, PBI, GI and PPD (P < 0.001), between the test and control sites. In conclusion, 'Gamadent' toothpaste

  9. Caries-preventive effect of anti-erosive and nano-hydroxyapatite-containing toothpastes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Oliveira, M; Santos, N M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Wierichs, R J; Rodrigues, J A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the caries-preventive effect of newly developed fluoride and fluoride-free toothpastes specially designed for erosion prevention. The hypothesis was that these products might also show superior caries-inhibiting effect than regular fluoride toothpastes, since they were designed for stronger erosive acid challenges. Enamel specimens were obtained from bovine teeth and pre-demineralized (pH = 4.95/21 days) to create artificial caries lesions. Baseline mineral loss (ΔZ B ) and lesion depth (LD B ) were determined using transversal microradiography (TMR). Ninety specimens with a median ΔZ B (SD) of 6027 ± 1546 vol% × μm were selected and randomly allocated to five groups (n = 18). Treatments during pH-cycling (14 days, 4 × 60 min demineralization/day) were brushing 2×/day with AmF (1400 ppm F - , anti-caries [AC]); AmF/NaF/SnCl 2 /Chitosan (700 ppm F - /700 ppm F - /3500 ppm Sn 2+ , anti-erosion [AE1]); NaF/KNO 3 (1400 ppm F - , anti-erosion [AE2]); nano-hydroxyapatite-containing (0 ppm F - , [nHA]); and fluoride-free toothpastes (0 ppm F - , negative control [NC]). Toothpaste slurries were prepared with mineral salt solution (1:3 wt/wt). After pH-cycling specimens presenting lesion, surface loss (mainly by NC and nHA) were discarded. For the remaining 77 specimens, new TMR analyses (ΔZ E /LD E ) were performed. Changes in mineral loss (ΔΔZ = ΔZ B  - ΔZ E ) and lesion depth (ΔLD = LD B  - LD E ) were calculated. All toothpastes caused significantly less demineralization (lower ΔΔZ) than NC (p < 0.05, ANOVA) except for nHA. The fluoride toothpastes did not differ significantly regarding ΔΔZ and ΔLD (p > 0.05, ANOVA). While both anti-erosive and anti-caries toothpastes reduced mineral loss to a similar extent, the fluoride-free nano-hydroxyapatite-containing toothpaste seemed not to be suitable for inhibition of caries demineralization in vitro.

  10. Using Elephant's Toothpaste as an Engaging and Flexible Curriculum Alignment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing focus across all educational sectors to ensure that learning objectives are aligned with learning activities and assessments. An attractive approach previously published is that of curriculum alignment projects. This paper discusses the use of the fun and famous "Elephant's Toothpaste" experiment as a customizable…

  11. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product

    PubMed Central

    Kownacki, Patryk; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Piekarz, Tomasz; Bogacz, Mateusz; Kasperski, Jacek; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A) which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C) without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed. PMID:28265291

  12. Surface texture and composition of titanium brushed with toothpaste slurries of different pHs.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Awlad; Okawa, Seigo; Miyakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    This in vitro study characterized the surface texture and composition of titanium brushed with toothpaste slurries of different pHs, and thereby elucidated mechanochemical interactions between the metal and abrasive material in dentifrice. Two fluoride-free toothpastes, which contained crystalline CaHPO(4).2H(2)O and amorphous SiO(2) particles as abrasive, were mixed with acidic buffers to provide slurries of pH 6.8 and 4.8. Specimens were cast from CP Ti, mirror-polished, and then toothbrushed at 120strokes/min for 350,400 strokes under a load of 2.45N. Specimen surfaces were characterized by means of SPM and EPMA. The obtained data were compared with the already reported results of water-diluted alkaline slurries. SPM data of each paste were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey test. Irrespective of toothpaste, neutral slurries, as with alkaline slurries, yielded a chemically altered surface with rough texture, whereas acidic slurries formed a chemically clean surface with relatively smooth texture. Mechanochemical polishing effect might be mainly responsible for the cleanness and smoothness. Acidic slurry-induced smooth surface may minimize plaque formation. However, the augmentation of released titanium ions may be adverse to the human body. For evaluation of toothpaste abrasion effects on titanium, paste slurry pH should be taken into account.

  13. Micro-shear bond strength of resin cement to dentin after application of desensitizing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, Andac Barkin; Goktas, Baris; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Eskitascioglu, Gurcan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of three desensitizing toothpastes on bonding of resin cements to dentin. The occlusal surfaces of 72 maxillary third molars were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces and then divided into three groups according to three desensitizing toothpastes used: Sensodyne Rapid Relief (GlaxoSmithKline, SmithKline Beecham Ltd., Slough, UK), Signal Sensitive Expert (Unilever Sanayi ve Ticaret Türk A.Ş., Ümraniye, İstanbul, Turkey) and Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief (Colgate Palmolive, New York, NY). Following bonding of the resin cement (Clearfil™ SA Cement, Kuraray Co, Osaka, Japan) to dentin, the specimens were light cured for 40 s with a LED (Elipar S10, 3M Espe, St. Paul, MN). The strength measurements were accomplished with a micro-shear testing machine (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until the failure occurs. Failure modes were examined using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). ANOVA revealed that the application of desensitizing toothpastes had significant effects on bond strength of the resin cement tested to dentin (p < 0.05). Mixed failures were observed in all of the groups. The use of a desensitizing toothpaste before cementation might alter the bond strength of adhesively luted restorations.

  14. Influence of the Relative Enamel Abrasivity (REA) of Toothpastes on the Uptake of KOH-soluble and Structurally Bound Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Elmazi, Valbona; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Imfeld, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of the relative enamel abrasivity (REA) of fluoridated toothpaste on the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel. Bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to 6 groups (n=36 per group). Groups A to C were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpastes and groups D to F with amine fluoride (AmF) toothpastes (1500 ppm F each). The REA in groups A and D was 2, in groups B and E it was 6 and in groups C and F it was 9. Twice a day, 18 samples of each group were immersed for 2 min in a slurry (toothpaste:artificial saliva=1:3), while the remaining samples were brushed with the respective slurry (2.5 N force; 60 strokes/min; 2 min). All samples were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After five days, the amount of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was determined and statistically compared by Scheffe's post-hoc tests. REA value and mode of application (immersion or brushing) had no significant influence on the amount of either kind of fluoride from NaF toothpastes. Only for the NaF toothpaste with REA 6 was the amount of KOH-soluble fluoride significantly higher after brushing. With AmF toothpastes, KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride concentrations were significantly higher when the samples were brushed. Furthermore, in the REA-2 group, the amounts of KOH-soluble fluoride (brushed or immersed) and structurally bound fluoride (brushed) were significantly higher than in the other groups. The REA dependency of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was found only for the AmF toothpastes. Using AmF toothpaste, the mode of application influenced the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel.

  15. Sodium trimetaphosphate enhances the effect of 250 p.p.m. fluoride toothpaste against enamel demineralization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Missel, Emilene M C; Cunha, Robson F; Vieira, Ana E M; Cruz, Nathália V S; Castilho, Flavia C N; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2016-08-01

    This in vitro study investigated the effect of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP), added to toothpaste containing 250 p.p.m. fluoride, on enamel demineralization. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 96) were subjected to five pH cycles over a 7-d period and treatment with suspensions of toothpastes containing 0, 250, 500, and 1,100 p.p.m. fluoride (as sodium fluoride), as well as with 250 p.p.m. fluoride containing TMP at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0%. Treatment with toothpaste suspensions was performed under agitation twice a day, for 1 min. Surface and cross-sectional hardness, and fluoride firmly bound to enamel, were quantified. Data were subjected to one-way anova, followed by Tukey's test. Low-fluoride toothpastes containing TMP at 0.25-1.0% resulted in enamel mineral loss similar to that seen for the toothpaste containing 1,100 p.p.m. fluoride. Also, the addition of TMP to the toothpaste containing 250 p.p.m. fluoride promoted enamel fluoride concentrations similar to those obtained for the 500 p.p.m. fluoride group. The toothpaste containing 250 p.p.m. fluoride and 0.25% TMP led to the lowest mineral loss among all groups. It was concluded that the addition of as little as 0.25% TMP to a toothpaste containing 250 p.p.m. fluoride can reduce enamel demineralization to levels similar to those seen for a conventional toothpaste containing 1,100 p.p.m. fluoride, in vitro. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Remineralization and repair of enamel surface by biomimetic Zn-carbonate hydroxyapatite containing toothpaste: a comparative in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Marco; Putignano, Angelo; Marchetti, Marco; Foltran, Ismaela; Mangani, Francesco; Procaccini, Maurizio; Roveri, Norberto; Orsini, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of acidic foods and drinks and other factors that cause enamel wear are responsible for the daily enamel loss and degradation. Use of some toothpastes that have been showed to possess different properties of remineralisation and/or repair of the enamel surface may help to protect tooth enamel. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of toothpaste containing Zn-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanostructured microcrystals may exert remineralization/repair effects of the enamel surface. Two groups of patients, aged between 18 and 75 years, used a Zn-CHA nanocrystals-based toothpaste (experimental group) and a potassium nitrate/sodium fluoride toothpaste (active control group) for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, extractions were performed in five subjects per study group. Negative controls consisted of two subjects treated with non-specified fluoride toothpaste. Teeth were processed for morphological and chemical-physic superficial characterizations by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Elementary analysis, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and Infrared analysis. In this study, the use of a Zn-CHA nanocrystals toothpaste led to a remineralization/repair of the enamel surface, by deposition of a hydroxyapatite-rich coating. On the other hand, the use of both a nitrate potassium/sodium fluoride and non-specified fluoride toothpastes did not appreciably change the enamel surface. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the toothpaste containing Zn-CHA nanostructured microcrystals, differently from nitrate potassium/sodium fluoride and non-specified fluoride toothpastes, may promote enamel superficial repair by means of the formation of a protective biomimetic CHA coating. PMID:25249980

  17. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance Between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farhadifard, Homa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires. Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 significance level. The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (P<0.05). The highest and lowest frictional resistance values were related to Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health toothpaste and the control group, respectively. Among the evaluated toothpastes, the orthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires.

  18. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Tut, Ohnmar; Milgrom, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of supervised tooth-brushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and reduce mutans streptococci. In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 196 four- to five-year-old children in four Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400 ppm/31 percent fluoride xylitol or 1,450 ppm fluoride sorbitol toothpaste. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was the surface-level primary molar caries increment (d(2-3)mfs) after six months. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children), and two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d(2-3)mfs. The mean d(2-3)mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d(2-3)mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 2.37; P=.07). No adverse effects were reported. After six months, brushing with a low-strength xylitol/fluoride tooth-paste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride-only toothpaste in a high caries-risk child population.

  19. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430

  20. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients.

    PubMed

    Otten, Marieke P T; Busscher, Henk J; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C; van Hoogmoed, Chris G

    2012-10-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h after brushing and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were measured. The contributions of plaque and saliva towards substantivity were determined by combining control plaques with experimental plaque or saliva samples and subsequently assessing their viabilities. Bacterial compositions in the various plaque and saliva samples were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The viabilities of plaques after brushing with Colgate-Total® and Crest-Pro-Health® were smaller than of control plaques and up to 12 h after brushing with Crest-Pro-Health® plaques still contained effective, residual antibacterial activity against control plaques. No effective, residual antibacterial activity could be measured in saliva samples after brushing. There was no significant difference in bacterial composition of plaque or saliva after brushing with the different toothpastes. Plaque-left-behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the substantive action of an antibacterial toothpaste containing stannous fluoride (Crest-Pro-Health®). The absorptive capacity of plaque-left-behind after brushing is of utmost clinical importance, since plaque is predominantly left behind in places where its removal and effective killing matter most. Therewith this study demonstrates a clear and new beneficial effect of the use of antibacterial toothpastes.

  1. Clinical efficacy of a bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste. A double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Llena, Carmen; Oteo, Carlos; Oteo, Jesús; Amengual, José; Forner, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of a bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste. A randomized clinical trial was carried out, comprising 48 participants with teeth exhibiting color A3 or higher according to the Vita Classical guide. One-half of the sample received the bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste (White Kin(®)), while the other received placebo toothpaste. Both products were supplied in identical containers and had the same composition except for the active components. The teeth color was measured with a spectrophotometer. The patients were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day during 3 min with the assigned product, during 12 weeks. The color measurements were repeated after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of treatment. Color variation was based on the CIE L*a*b* coordinates, ΔE and the EW index. The relationship of these variables at different observation times were performed using a generalized estimating equations model, which evaluated the effect of treatment, time and interaction. The patients using the bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste showed an increase in lightness (80.14 -treatment- versus 79.25 -control group-) and a reduction in component b*. ΔE was found higher in the treatment group (p=0.064), close to statistical significance. The bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste could be potentially efficient in the modification in tooth color progressing from the third to ninth week of treatment, tending to stabilize after the ninth week. A very low carbamide peroxide concentration, with the incorporation of lactoperoxidase, tooth paste, tends to offer clinically satisfactory results, in terms of modifications in tooth color, nevertheless no significant differences were founded when compared to the control group, with an oral hygiene controlled along the study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Abrasives Play a Role in Toothpaste Efficacy against Erosion/Abrasion?

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Möllers, Maike; Schlueter, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Abrasives may counteract the efficacy of anti-erosion toothpastes either due to physical effects or due to interaction with active agents. This study aimed to investigate whether the amount of abrasives is a determinant for the efficacy of Sn2+-containing toothpastes with or without chitosan additive. Enamel samples were eroded (0.50 wt% citric acid, pH 2.5; 6 × 2 min/day) on a shaking desk - 30/min in experiment 1 (E1) and 35/min in experiments 2 (E2) and 3 (E3) - and immersed in toothpaste slurries (2 × 2 min). Half of the samples were additionally brushed (15 s, load 200 g) within the immersion time. The toothpastes contained 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% silica. In E1 and E2 the active ingredients were F- (700 ppm as amine fluoride, 700 ppm as NaF) and Sn2+ (3,500 ppm as SnCl2); in E3 chitosan (0.5%) was additionally added. The placebo contained 20% silica. Tissue loss was determined profilometrically. In E1, slurries completely inhibited tissue loss; distinct surface deposits occurred. With brushing, tissue loss significantly increased up to an abrasive content of 10%, but decreased significantly with higher amounts; 20% silica revealed similar values as the abrasive-free formulation. In E2, all slurries inhibited tissue loss distinctly irrespective of the amounts of abrasives. With brushing, a similar trend as in E1 was observed but with much less efficacy. The chitosan-containing formulations in E3 were much more effective; similar results as in E1 were found. In conclusion, the amount of abrasives had no effect when toothpastes were applied as slurries, but played an important role with brushing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Superior Anti-caries Efficacy of Fluoride Toothpaste Containing 1.5% Arginine.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D

    2016-06-01

    Innovation in the dental caries area and the development of new superior efficacy treatments to prevent dental caries are as important today as they have ever been, because caries remains a highly prevalent disease globally. Appropriately designed and well-conducted, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are best-in-class evidence of the effectiveness of a new intervention in medicine and dentistry, and traditional two- to threeyear caries clinical trials are currently the gold standard for proof of superior caries prevention efficacy. Based upon a detailed understanding of plaque metabolism and the importance of pH rise factors in the prevention of caries, a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride has been developed, and its superior efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone has been validated in an unprecedented series of ten RCTs. The results of these RCTs are summarized, and some of the details of the procedures used in the studies are clarified in order to provide an opportunity for objective assessment of their quality. In addition, the results of studies which explored the mechanism of action of this toothpaste are summarized. The arginine-containing fluoride toothpaste offers its users the opportunity to supplement mechanical plaque control with a new technology that helps maintain the natural oral flora in a state that is compatible with health, so as to retain the beneficial effects of the natural flora while significantly reducing the risk of dental caries compared to conventional fluoride toothpaste. Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

  4. Potential of desensitizing toothpastes to reduce the hydrogen peroxide diffusion in teeth with cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Sánchez, Andrés; Montenegro, Andrés Fernando; Alfonso, Arana-Gordillo; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the occlusive potential of four toothpastes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after bleaching and quantify the hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffusion into the pulp chamber after application of desensitizing toothpastes in teeth with cervical lesions. In 52 human extracted premolars, 2-mm deep artificial cervical lesions (ACL) were prepared and rinsed with EDTA for 10 seconds. Then teeth were adapted in a brushing machine and brushed with one of the following toothpastes [Regular toothpaste with no occlusive compounds Colgate Cavity Protection (CP), Oral-B Pro Health (OB), Colgate ProRelief (PR) and Sensodyne Rapid Relief (RR)] under constant loading (250 g; 4.5 cycles/seconds; 3 minutes). In 13 teeth (control group), no artificial cervical lesion was prepared. After that, the teeth were bleached with 35% HP with three 15-minute applications. The HP diffusion was measured spectrophotometrically as a stable red product based on HP reaction with 4-aminoanthipyrine and phenol in presence of peroxidase, at a wavelength of 510 nm and the dentin surfaces of ACL were evaluated before and after bleaching by AFM. Data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). In the AFM images, some modifications of the dentin surface were observed after application of OB and RR. However, only for RR the formation of a surface deposit was produced, which occluded the majority of the dentin tubules. Also, only for RR, this deposit was not modified/removed by bleaching. Despite this, all groups with ACL showed higher HP penetration than sound teeth, regardless of the toothpaste used (P < 0.001).

  5. Effect of fluoride toothpaste with nano-sized trimetaphosphate on enamel demineralization: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Danelon, Marcelle; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Souza-Neto, Francisco Nunes; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of toothpastes containing 1100ppm F associated or not with micrometric or nano-sized sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization in vitro, using a pH cycling model. Bovine enamel blocks (4mm×4mm, n=96) were randomly allocated into eight groups (n=12), according to the test toothpastes: Placebo (without fluoride or TMP); 1100ppm F (1100F); 1100F plus micrometric TMP at concentrations of 1%, 3% or 6%; and 1100F plus nanosized TMP at 1%, 3% or 6%. Blocks were treated 2×/day with slurries of toothpastes and submitted to a pH cycling regimen for five days. Next, final surface hardness (SHf), integrated hardness loss (IHL), differential profile of integrated hardness loss (ΔIHL) and enamel fluoride (F) concentrations were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). The use of 1100F/3%TMPnano led to SHf 30% higher (p<0.001) and IHL∼80% lower (p<0.001) when compared to 1100F. This toothpaste also resulted in ∼64% reduction of mineral loss (ΔIHL) when compared to 1100F. Moreover, the addition of nano-sized TMP promoted increases in enamel F uptake of 90%, 160% and 100%, respectively for the concentrations of 1%, 3% and 6%, when compared to 1100F (p<0.001). The addition of nano-sized TMP at 3% to a conventional toothpaste significantly decreased enamel demineralization when compared to its counterparts without TMP or supplemented with micrometric TMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Lomax, A; Patel, S; Wang, N; Kakar, K; Kakar, A; Bosma, M L

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, toothpastes with high levels of sodium bicarbonate (>50%) have reduced gingival inflammation and oral malodour. This study compared the effects of brushing for 6 weeks with 67% (test group) or 0% (control group) sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingival health. This was a single-centre, single examiner-blind, randomized, controlled, two-treatment, parallel-group study. Eligible subjects (≥18 years) had ≥20 gradable teeth, mild-to-moderate gingivitis, a positive response to bleeding on brushing and ≥20 bleeding sites. The primary objective was to compare the number of bleeding sites following twice-daily use of 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste or 0% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste after 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Bleeding Index (BI) and volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), assessed after 6 weeks. Safety was assessed by treatment-emergent oral soft tissue abnormalities and adverse events. Of 148 patients randomized (74 to each treatment), 66 (89.2%) completed the study in the test group, compared with 69 (93.2%) in the control group. Compared with the control group, the test group had a significant reduction in the number of bleeding sites at Week 6 (absolute difference - 11.0 [-14.0, -8.0], P < 0.0001; relative difference - 25.4%), together with significant reductions in MGI and BI (both P < 0.0001). Although the median reductions from baseline for VSC were numerically greater in the test group, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.9701). This 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste provided statistically significant improvements in gingival health and bleeding after 6 weeks of use. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of a single brushing with two Zn-containing toothpastes on VSC in morning breath: a 12 h, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Young, A; Jonski, G

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, double-blind, 12 h clinical study tested the effect of a single brushing with two Zn-containing toothpastes on volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels in morning breath. The following toothpastes were each tested by all 28 participants: A-Zn toothpaste, B--experimental toothpaste (Zn citrate + PVM/MA copolymer) and C--control toothpaste without Zn. The evening prior to test days participants brushed their teeth for 2 min with 1 g toothpaste. 12 h later and prior to eating or performing oral hygiene, morning breath levels of VSC (H(2)S, CH(3)SH) were analysed by gas chromatography. Subjects then rinsed for 30 s with 5 ml cysteine and breath samples were analysed for H(2)S (H(2)S(cys)). Median VSC (area under the curve) values were compared for A, B and C and the effects of A and B on VSC were compared with C. Toothpaste B was more effective than both toothpastes A and C in reducing H(2)S, CH(3)SH and H(2)S(cys) (p < 0.05). Compared with toothpaste C, toothpastes A and B reduced H(2)S by 35% and 68%, respectively (p = 0.003), and CH(3)SH by 12% and 47%, respectively (p = 0.002). Toothpaste B reduced H(2)S(cys) by 48% compared with toothpaste C (p = 0.001). It is suggested that the superior effect of the experimental toothpaste was most likely due to a higher Zn concentration combined with longer retention of Zn due to the PVM/MA copolymer.

  8. [Clinical study on the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and dental plaque].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Dan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Fen

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and plaque. The study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trail with a total of 100 subjects who were divided into two groups, experimental group and control group. The subjects in experimental group used anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste to brush twice daily for 3 minutes, and the subjects in control group used none anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste. The examiner recorded GI, PI and BOP index of all subjects at the baseline, 6-weeks and 12-weeks. SPSS21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Twelve weeks later, there were significant differences in GI and BOP between the two groups. Yet no significant difference was found in PI. Anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste is effective in control of gingivitis.

  9. Evaluation of low fluoride toothpaste using primary enamel and a validated pH-cycling model.

    PubMed

    Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo Campos; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Romão, Dayse Andrade; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-11-01

    To develop and validate pH-cycling model for primary enamel, which was then used to evaluate the anti-caries potential of fluoride toothpastes. Human primary enamel slabs were subjected to pH-cycling model for 10 days and maintained for 6 h in demineralizing solution and 18 h in remineralizing solution daily. Twice/day, the slabs were treated. To validate it, the treatments were water or solutions containing 62.5, 125, 250, and 375 μg F/mL. Commercial toothpastes containing no fluoride, 500, 1100, and 1450 μg F/g were evaluated. Demineralization was assessed by percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and cross-sectional hardness (ΔS). Fluoride dose-response effect was analysed by quadratic regression and the effects of toothpastes by Tukey's test. Dose-response effect was found between fluoride concentration and %SHL (R 2  = 0.7047; P < 0.01) or ΔS (R 2  = 0.4465; P < 0.01). %SHL and ΔS (mean ± SD) for the group treated with 500 μg F/g toothpaste was 36.6 ± 8.0 and 6298.5 ± 1221.3, respectively, which were significantly higher than those treated with 1100 (25.2 ± 8.7; 4565.7 ± 1122) and 1450 μg F/g (24.2 ± 5.2; 2339.1 ± 879.7) toothpastes. The developed pH-cycling model may be used to evaluate and compare the anti-caries potential of toothpaste formulations with low fluoride concentration because it presents dose-response effects on the reduction of primary enamel demineralization. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fluoride penetration from toothpastes into incipient enamel erosive lesions investigated using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fowler, C E; Gracia, L; Edwards, M I; Brown, A; Rees, G D

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the utility of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) as a convenient and sensitive technique for determining fluoride uptake and distribution into incipient human enamel erosive lesions in vitro. A secondary aim was to correlate the extent of lesion rehardening following treatment with a toothpaste slurry, with relative fluoride uptake determined by DSIMS. The final aim was to compare fluoride uptake by incipient lesions treated with toothpastes containing different sources of fluoride using DSIMS. Relative fluoride uptake into the surface and body of enamel erosive lesions was monitored by DSIMS as a function of fluoride concentration in a series of formulation-matched experimental pastes. Fluoride uptake into lesions that had been subjected to treatment with different toothpaste slurries in a single-treatment enamel lesion rehardening model was also determined, and its relationship with regard to the extent of rehardening and also the fluoride source investigated. Fluoride uptake by incipient erosive lesions treated with toothpastes containing NaF was quantitatively compared by DSIMS and found to be directly proportional to the fluoride concentration over the studied range (0-1400 ppm). Lesion repair observed in a single-treatment lesion rehardening model was positively correlated with the extent of fluoride uptake by the treated lesions. DSIMS was also able to show differences between commercial toothpastes containing different sources of fluoride and their ability to deliver the fluoride into the body of the lesion. The detrimental effect of sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) present in Crest Pro-Health formulations previously reported in the single-treatment lesion rehardening model was also evident from the DSIMS elemental line scans obtained from the lesion cross-sections. DSIMS has been shown to be a powerful selective technique for quantifying relative fluoride uptake into enamel erosive lesions, and

  11. Comparison of effectiveness of abrasive and enzymatic action of whitening toothpastes in removal of extrinsic stains - a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Patil, P A; Ankola, A V; Hebbal, M I; Patil, A C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of abrasive component (perlite/calcium carbonate) and enzymatic component (papain and bromelain) of whitening toothpaste in removal of extrinsic stains. This study is a randomized, triple blind and parallel group study in which 90 subjects aged 18-40 years were included. At baseline, stains scores were assessed by Macpherson's modification of Lobene Stain Index and subjects were randomly assigned to two groups with 45 subjects in each. Group 1 used whitening toothpaste with enzymatic action and group 2 with abrasive action. After 1 month, stain scores were assessed for the effectiveness of the two toothpastes and 2 months later to check the stain prevention efficacy. Wilcoxson's test was used to compare between baseline 1 and 2 months stain scores, and Mann-Witney U-test was applied for intragroup comparison. The mean baseline total stain score for the subjects allocated to the enzymatic toothpaste was 37.24 ± 2.11 which reduced to 30.77 ± 2.48 in 1 month, and for the abrasive paste, total stain reduced from 35.08 ± 2.96 to 32.89 ± 1.95. The reductions in total stain scores with both the pastes were significant compared with baseline stain scores (at 1 month Group 1, P = 0.0233 and Group 2, P = 0.0324; at 2 months, Group 1 P = 0.0356). Both the toothpastes proved to be equally good in removal of extrinsic stains; however, the enzymatic paste showed better results as compared to abrasive toothpaste. Whitening toothpaste with abrasive action and enzymatic action are equally effective in removal of extrinsic stains; however, whitening toothpaste with abrasive action needs to be used with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of toothpaste on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel: An in vitro white light interferometer study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maria; Kitasako, Yuichi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of brushing using toothpastes marketed under different categories on abrasion of sound and eroded enamel in vitro at nanometer scale using a white light interferometer (WLI). Enamel surface of resin-embedded bovine incisors were fine polished with diamond slurry and divided into testing area (approximately 2 mm x 4 mm) and reference area using a nail varnish. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to 10 groups (n = 10 each); six of which were subjected to erosive challenge. The testing area in these eroded groups was exposed to 10 ml of Coca-Cola for 90 seconds and then rinsed for 10 seconds in deionized water (DW). Enamel specimens, except for those in one eroded group, were brushed by an automatic brushing machine with 120 linear motion strokes in 60 seconds under load of 250 g with/without toothpaste slurry. After the toothbrushing abrasion, each specimen was rinsed for 10 seconds with DW followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 2 hours. Toothpaste slurries were prepared containing one of the four toothpastes used and DW in a ratio of 1:2. The erosion-abrasion cycle was repeated three times. Then, the nail varnish was removed and enamel surface loss (SL) was measured by the WLI. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's correction at significance level of 0.05. For eroded specimens, the mean SL values of groups not brushed and brushed with no toothpaste were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those of whitening, anti-erosion and anti-caries toothpaste groups (P < 0.001). The whitening toothpaste group showed significantly higher SL than all other groups (P < 0.001). For sound enamel specimens, SL was not measured except for the whitening toothpaste group.

  13. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  14. Influence of an arginine-containing toothpaste on bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Ana Cláudia Pietrobom; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin following toothbrushing with an arginine-containing toothpaste. Sixty standardized 3 × 3 × 2-mm fragments of root dentin (n = 10) were prepared. After all surfaces except the buccal surfaces were impermeabilized, specimens were subjected to an erosive wear protocol and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. The specimens underwent 1000 toothbrushing cycles with an arginine-containing toothpaste, an arginine-free toothpaste (positive control group), or artificial saliva (negative control group). Following application of a self-etching or an etch-and-rinse adhesive to the buccal surfaces of the specimens, 6-mm-high composite resin blocks were built up in 2-mm increments. After 24 hours' storage in 100% relative humidity, microtensile test specimens with an approximate area of 1 mm² were prepared. The test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until specimen fracture, and the failure patterns were evaluated using a stereoscopic loupe. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the toothpastes, the adhesive systems, or the interactions between toothpaste and adhesive system in terms of the bond strength to eroded dentin (P > 0.05). The predominant failure pattern was adhesive in all groups. It was concluded that a toothpaste containing arginine did not interfere with the bond between either the self-etching or the etch-and-rinse adhesive system and eroded dentin.

  15. Shade changing effectiveness of plasdone and blue covarine-based whitening toothpaste on teeth stained with chlorhexidine and black tea.

    PubMed

    Bergesch, Vania; Baggio Aguiar, Flávio Henrique; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Gomes França, Fabiana Mantovani; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Botelho Amaral, Flávia Lucisano

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of toothbrushing with whitening toothpaste in altering the shade of stained human enamel. Thirty fragments of human enamel, stained with chlorhexidine/black tea underwent 1000 and 5000 brushing cycles (BC) with ( n = 10): PLS (Gel Dental Day, Bitufo), Close Up White Now, Unilever (COVB) and regular (Gel Dental Night, Bitufo) toothpaste. Images were taken before staining (baseline), after staining (STN) and following 1000 and 5000 BC and were analyzed using the CIELAB parameters (ΔE, Δb and ΔL). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). ΔE was higher from STN to baseline; 1000 BC to STN and 5000 BC to STN ( P < 0.001). Significant differences in Δb values were found from 1000 BC to STN and 5000 BC to STN. For COVB, greater ΔL was observed from 1000 BC to STN, what differed statistically from the regular toothpaste ( P < 0.05). There was no difference between toothpaste when ΔL was calculated from 5000 CB to STN. Toothpaste containing COVB or PLS in association with 5000 BCs showed similar effectiveness in changing enamel shade; but after the first 1000 toothbrushing cycles, the use of COVB toothpaste promoted higher lightness in stained enamel.

  16. Determination of exposure and probable ingestion of fluoride through tea, toothpaste, tobacco and pan masala.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Kaushik, C P; Haritash, Anil Kumar; Singh, Bhupender; Raghuvanshi, Shiv Pratap; Kansal, Ankur

    2007-04-02

    Levels of water soluble and acid soluble fluoride in tea, toothpaste, tobacco and pan masala (mouth freshener) were estimated. These items are, generally, ignored while calculating the total dietary intake of fluoride. Tea, toothpaste, tobacco, pan masala (with tobacco and without tobacco) frequently expose human body to 3.88-137.09, 53.5-338.5, 28.0-113.0, 16.5-306.5 and 23.5-185.0 microg of fluoride per gram of these items, respectively. An effort was also made to quantify, on the basis of available studies, the probable human ingestion of fluoride through these substances. Increased leaching of fluoride from some of these substances has been observed in acidic conditions in the present study. The results can be extrapolated to acidic conditions of human stomach.

  17. Inhibitory effect for proliferation of oral bacteria in dogs by tooth brushing and application of toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Matsukawa, Yuki; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    To investigate inhibitory effect for oral bacterial proliferation, we divided 12 dogs into 3 groups; scaling alone (C; control group), brushing (B) and application of toothpaste (P). Before scaling (Pre) and at 0 to 8 weeks after scaling (0-8 w), we collected oral bacteria from the dental surface every week and counted them using a bacterial counter. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of oral bacteria for group B relative to Pre and group C, as well as for group P relative to group C at 5-7 w. Consequently, brushing may inhibit an increase in the number of oral bacteria, and toothpaste may be effective at a certain level, although not more than that of brushing.

  18. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Triclosan- Containing, Herbal and Homeopathy Toothpastes- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawaz, Mohammed Alimullah; Narahari, Rao; Shahela, Tanveer; Syed, Afroz

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of antimicrobial agents is one of the important strategies to prevent oral diseases. These agents vary in their abilities to deliver preventive and therapeutic benefits. Objectives This invitro study was conducted to assess antimicrobial efficacy of different toothpastes against various oral pathogens. Materials and Methods A total of nine toothpastes in three groups were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 0266P) and Candida albicans (Laboratory Strain) by modified agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis was performed using Minitab Software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Triclosan-based dental formulation with combination of fluoride (1000ppm) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against test organisms than the combination of lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Among herbal dentifrices, formulation containing Neem, Pudina, Long, Babool, Turmeric and Vajradanti showed significant antimicrobial activity against all the four tested microorganisms (p<0.05). However, against Streptococcus mutans, all three herbal products showed significant antimicrobial activity. Homeo products showed least antimicrobial activity on the tested strains. Formulation with kreosotum, Plantago major and calendula was significantly effective only against Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the toothpaste containing both triclosan and fluoride (1000ppm) as active ingredients showed a significant difference (p< 0.05) against all four tested microflora compared to that of with lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Of herbal groups, the only dentifrice containing several phytochemicals was found to be significantly effective and comparable to triclosan-fluoride (1000ppm) formulation. Thus, this herbal toothpaste can be used as alternative to

  19. Effect of toothpaste with nano-sized trimetaphosphate on dental caries: In situ study.

    PubMed

    Danelon, Marcelle; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Neto, Francisco Nunes Souza; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-07-01

    This in situ study was to evaluate the remineralizing effect of a fluoride toothpaste supplemented with nano-sized sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP). This blind and cross-over study was performed in 4 phases of 3 days each. Twelve subjects used palatal appliances containing four bovine enamel blocks with artificial caries lesions. Volunteers were randomly assigned into the following treatment groups: Placebo (without F and TMP); 1100 ppm F (1100), 1100 supplemented with 3% micrometric TMP (1100 TMP) and with nano-sized TMP (1100 TMPnano). Volunteers were instructed to brush their natural teeth with the palatal appliances in the mouth during 1min (3 times/day), so that blocks were treated with natural slurries of toothpastes. After each phase, the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR), integrated mineral recovery (IMR) and integrated differential mineral area profile (ΔIMR) in enamel lesions were calculated. F in enamel was also determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Enamel surface became 20% harder when treated with 1100 TMPnano in comparison with 1100 (p<0.001). 1100 TMPnano showed remineralizing capacity (IMR; ΔIMR) 66% higher when compared with 1100 TMP (p<0.001). Enamel F uptake in the 1100 TMPnano group was 2-fold higher when compared to its counterpart without TMP (p<0.001). The addition of 3% TMPnano to a conventional toothpaste was able to promote an additional remineralizing effect of artificial caries lesions. Toothpaste containing 1100 ppm F associated with TMPnano showed a potential of higher remineralization to 1100 ppm F and 1100 ppm F micrometric TMP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of discontinuation of fluoride intake from water and toothpaste on urinary excretion in young children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Cury, Jaime A

    2011-06-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p<0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p>0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste.

  1. Preventive effect of toothpastes with MMP inhibitors on human dentine erosion and abrasion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Angelica Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Cardoso, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Pereira, José Carlos; Tjäderhane, Leo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of gels and mouthrinses with MMP inhibitors (chlorhexidine, and green tea extract) was shown to prevent erosive wear. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors on dentine loss induced by erosion in vitro. Material and Methods Five groups each containing 12 specimens of human root dentine were prepared. The specimens were subjected to 1 min erosion by immersion in a cola drink, 4 times a day, for 5 d. Each day, after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were brushed for 15 s with a slurry of dentifrice and water (1:3) containing placebo, 1,100 ppm fluoride, 0.61% green tea extract, 0.12% chlorhexidine or 0.004% chlorhexidine (commercial toothpaste). Between the acid challenges, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva with remineralizing potential until the next treatment. Dentine loss was determined using profilometry. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA after log transform (p<0.05). Results The mean wear values (μm) were as follows: placebo 1.83±0.53; 0.61% green tea extract 1.00±0.21; fluoride 1.27±0.43; 0.12% chlorhexidine 1.19±0.30; and 0.004% chlorhexidine 1.22±0.46. There was a significant difference in wear between placebo and all the treatment toothpastes, which did not differ from each other. Conclusion The results suggest that toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors are as effective as those based on NaF in preventing dentine erosion and abrasion. PMID:27008258

  2. Preventive effect of toothpastes with MMP inhibitors on human dentine erosion and abrasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannas, Angelica Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Cardoso, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Pereira, José Carlos; Tjäderhane, Leo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    The use of gels and mouthrinses with MMP inhibitors (chlorhexidine, and green tea extract) was shown to prevent erosive wear. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors on dentine loss induced by erosion in vitro. Five groups each containing 12 specimens of human root dentine were prepared. The specimens were subjected to 1 min erosion by immersion in a cola drink, 4 times a day, for 5 d. Each day, after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were brushed for 15 s with a slurry of dentifrice and water (1:3) containing placebo, 1,100 ppm fluoride, 0.61% green tea extract, 0.12% chlorhexidine or 0.004% chlorhexidine (commercial toothpaste). Between the acid challenges, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva with remineralizing potential until the next treatment. Dentine loss was determined using profilometry. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA after log transform (p<0.05). The mean wear values (μm) were as follows: placebo 1.83±0.53; 0.61% green tea extract 1.00±0.21; fluoride 1.27±0.43; 0.12% chlorhexidine 1.19±0.30; and 0.004% chlorhexidine 1.22±0.46. There was a significant difference in wear between placebo and all the treatment toothpastes, which did not differ from each other. The results suggest that toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors are as effective as those based on NaF in preventing dentine erosion and abrasion.

  3. Mitigation of enamel erosion using commercial toothpastes evaluated with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia Fernandes; Maia, Ana Marly Araújo; Monteiro, Gabriela Queiroz de Melo; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercial toothpastes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF2), or casein phosphopeptides (CPP)-amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/NaF regarding their potential to inhibit enamel erosion. Twenty-eight 4×4 mm enamel specimens were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=7): negative control; Pronamel (NaF); Pro Health (SnF2/NaF); Mi Paste Plus (CPP-ACP/NaF). Erosive cycles with 0.5% citric acid, 5 times, 3 minutes/day for 7 days were performed. After the first and last cycle of each day, toothpaste slurries were applied for 2 min. The quantitative analysis was accomplished using Contact Profilometry and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), complemented by roughness and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. OCT and Profilometry analysis showed similar effectiveness in measuring the reduction of mineral loss. A significant increase in the mean roughness values was observed on eroded surface and also on treated surface as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The use of SnF2/NaF toothpaste was the most effective method for reducing mineral loss. As quantitative methods, OCT and Contact Profilometry showed no statistical differences. OCT, which was used for this purpose for the first time, has the advantage of being noninvasive, and therefore have the potential for clinical application.

  4. Sensitivity of titanium brackets to the corrosive influence of fluoride-containing toothpaste and tea.

    PubMed

    Harzer, W; Schröter, A; Gedrange, T; Muschter, F

    2001-08-01

    Titanium brackets are used in orthodontic patients with an allergy to nickel and other specific substances. In recent studies, the corrosive properties of fluoride-containing toothpastes with different pH values were investigated. The present in vivo study tested how the surfaces of titanium brackets react to the corrosive influence of acidic fluoride-containing toothpaste during orthodontic treatment. Molar bands were placed on 18 orthodontic patients. In these same patients, titanium brackets were bonded on the left quadrants and stainless steel brackets on the right quadrants of the upper and lower arches. Fifteen patients used Gel Kam containing soluble tin fluoride (pH 3.2), whereas 3 used fluoride-free toothpaste. The brackets were removed for evaluation by light microscopy and scanning microscopy 5.5 to 7.0 months and 7.5 to 17 months after bonding. The quality and quantity of elements present were measured by scanning microscopy. Macroscopic evaluation showed the matte gray color of titanium brackets dominating over the silver gleam of the steel brackets. The plaque accumulation on titanium brackets is high because of the very rough surface. Pitting and crevices were observed in only 3 of the 165 brackets tested. The present in vivo investigation confirms the results of in vitro studies, but the changes are so minor that titanium brackets can safely be used for up to 18 months. Wing surfaces should be improved by modifying the manufacturing process.

  5. LLL2: an international global level questionnaire on toothbrushing and use of fluoride toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Llodra, Juan Carlos; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Bourgeois, Denis M; Horn, Virginie

    2014-10-01

    To determine the evolution of toothbrushing frequency and use of fluoridetoothpaste in the FDI-Unilever partnership Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme using a self-reported questionnaire. The study was conducted in 23 countries. The key focus of this partnership was to educate people about the benefits of twice-daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste and to support people in adopting this important oral health behaviour. The partnership offers a choice of four project options to the local partnership team of the National Dental Association and local Unilever-operating companies. A self-report questionnaire was used in all participating subjects in local projects to evaluate the brushing frequency, the brushing timing and the use of fluoride toothpaste. After implementation of the project interventions, a clear improvement in the reported frequency of brushing twice a day, regardless of the type of project, was observed. Subjects also increased day and night brushing and the use of fluoride toothpaste. The strategy of using mothers to increase healthy behaviours in oral health achieved the greatest increase in twice-daily toothbrushing, followed by the intervention in schools. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Remineralization efficacy of a toothpaste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yajing; Duan, Yanxia; Qian, Yingzi; Huang, Rui; Yang, Zhengyan; Li, Yueheng; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the remineralization efficacy of different types of toothpastes on initial enamel lesions in vitro. Artificial initial lesions were created on 150 enamel discs from freshly extracted bovine incisors. These enamel discs were divided into five groups. The test treatment consisted of undiluted Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief Toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate and 1,450 ppm fluoride that was applied on the enamel surface under a pH-cycling including 4 x 3-minute application daily for 12 days and soaked in remineralizing solution during the untreated periods. The two other test products were commercial products: Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste, containing 0.11% fluoride and GC Tooth Mousse, a professional remineralizing treatment paste (the active ingredients: casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride). NaF solution (0.14% fluoride) was used as the positive control, while double distilled water (ddH2O) was used as the negative control. The remineralization of enamel discs was evaluated using Knoop hardness test, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM), and the caries lesion depth was quantified using an image analyzer. The data were analyzed by ANOVA. All test products showed a recovery of the Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) after remineralization cycling treatment. The recovery of enamel KHN for Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief, GC Mousse, Crest toothpasteand NaF groups were 44.53 +/- 6.72%, 35.00 +/- 7.83%, 24.56 +/- 5.95% and 42.51 +/- 6.74% respectively, while the recovery of negative control group was 18.99 +/- 4.98%. PLM results indicated the lesion depth recovery of 49.63 +/- 8.06%, 35.08 +/- 2.19%, 22.60 +/- 7.30% and 53.20 +/- 1.48% respectively, which were also significantly greater than that of the negative group (20.51 +/- 4.80%). CLSM analysis showed a reduction of average area, and total and average dye fluorescence of the lesions after treatment. The Colgate Sensitive

  7. Effect of phytate and zinc ions on fluoride toothpaste efficacy using an in situ caries model.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Charles R; Burnett, Gary R; Creeth, Jonathan E; Lynch, Richard J M; Budhawant, Chandrashekhar; Lippert, Frank; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T

    2018-06-01

    To compare and explore the dose-response of phytate-containing 1150 ppm fluoride toothpastes on model caries lesions and to determine the impact of zinc ions. This was a single-centre, randomised, blinded (examiner/laboratory analyst), six-treatment, four-period crossover, in situ study in adults with a removable bilateral maxillary partial denture. Study treatments were toothpastes containing: 0.425% phytate/F; 0.85% phytate/F; 0.85% phytate/Zn/F; F-only; Zn/F and a 0% F placebo. Where present, F was 1150 ppm as NaF; Zn was 0.3% as ZnCl 2 . Human enamel specimens containing early-stage, surface-softened (A-lesions) or more advanced, subsurface (B-lesions) caries lesions were placed into the buccal flanges of participants' modified partial denture (one of each lesion type per side). A-lesions were removed after 14 days of twice-daily treatment use; B-lesions were removed after a further 14 days. A-lesions were analysed for surface microhardness recovery. Both lesion types were analysed by transverse microradiography and for enamel fluoride uptake, with B-lesions additionally analysed by quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Comparison was carried out using an analysis of covariance model. Statistically significant differences between 1150 ppm F and the placebo toothpastes (p < 0.05) were shown for all measures, validating the model. No differences between fluoride toothpastes were observed for any measure with little evidence of a dose-response for phytate. Study treatments were generally well-tolerated. Results suggest phytate has little impact on fluoride's ability to promote early-stage lesion remineralisation or prevent more advanced lesion demineralisation in this in situ caries model. Similarly, results suggest zinc ions do not impair fluoride efficacy. Toothpastes may contain therapeutic or cosmetic agents that could interfere with fluoride's caries prevention efficacy. The present in situ caries study has demonstrated that phytate, added to

  8. Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis With 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae Toothpaste: A Randomized, Double-Masked Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P < 0.001). Compared to the baseline, the test group had reductions in GI and PI of 14.39% and 17.86%, respectively (both P < 0.001); the control group had reductions in GI and PI of 3.7% and 3.93%, respectively (both P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. The toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae was effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.

  9. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A; Granström, E; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Double-blind cross-over study. Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years of age. In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0.185 mg fluoride added and 0.375 mg fluoride added. The experiment was performed twice with (Part I) and without (Part II) parental tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Urinary fluoride excretion. The 24-hour urinary fl uoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg intervention with use of 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The difference compared with the placebo intervention was not statistically significant for any of the interventions when fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟩0.05) while it was statistically significantly different when non-fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟨0.05). All sources of fluoride must be considered when designing community programs. With 0.5 mg F/L in the drinking water and daily use of fluoride toothpaste, most children had a fluoride intake optimal for dental health. In this setting, additional intake of fluoride milk was within safe limits up to 0.185 mg/day while conclusions about the safety of 0.375 mg/day were uncertain. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd

  10. Protocol for measurement of enamel loss from brushing with an anti-erosive toothpaste after an acidic episode.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mojdeh; Vieira Ozorio, Jose Estevam; Chanin, Simon; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2017-01-01

    Tooth erosion from an acidic insult may be exacerbated by toothbrushing. The purposes of this study were to develop an in vitro methodology to measure enamel loss after brushing immediately following an acidic episode and to investigate the effect of brushing with an anti-erosive toothpaste. The null hypotheses tested were that tooth erosion after brushing with the toothpaste would not be different from brushing with water and that a 1-hour delay before brushing would not reduce tooth erosion. Forty bovine enamel slabs were embedded, polished, and subjected to baseline profilometry. Specimens were bathed in hydrochloric acid for 10 minutes to simulate stomach acid exposure before post-acid profilometry. Toothbrushing was then simulated with a cross-brushing machine and followed by postbrushing profilometry. Group 1 was brushed with water; group 2 was brushed with a 50:50 toothpaste-water slurry; and groups 3 and 4 were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 hour before brushing with water or the toothpaste slurry, respectively. The depth of enamel loss was analyzed and compared using 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc testing (α = 0.05). Greater enamel loss was measured in groups brushed with toothpaste than in groups brushed with water. One-hour immersion in artificial saliva significantly reduced enamel loss when teeth were brushed with water (group 3; P < 0.05) but not with toothpaste (group 4). This study established a protocol for measuring enamel loss resulting from erosion followed by toothbrush abrasion. The results confirmed the abrasive action of toothpaste on acid-softened enamel.

  11. Randomized clinical study of alterations in the color and surface roughness of dental enamel brushed with whitening toothpaste.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Rego Roselino, Lourenço; Tirapelli, Camila; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2018-03-30

    This clinical study evaluated the influence of whitening toothpaste on color and surface roughness of dental enamel. Initially, the abrasiveness of the toothpastes used (Sorriso Dentes Brancos [SDB]; Colgate Luminous White and Close up White Now) was tested on 30 (n = 10) plexiglass acrylic plates that were submitted to mechanical tooth brushing totalizing 29,200 cycles. Subsequently, 30 participants were selected, and received a toothbrush and nonwhitening toothpaste (SDB). The participants used these products for 7 days and initial color readouts (Spectrophotometer) and surface roughness of one maxillary central incisors was performed after this period of time. For surface roughness readouts, one replica of the maxillary central incisor was obtained by a polyvinyl siloxane impression material (Express) and polyurethane resin. After baseline measurements, participants were separated into three groups (n = 10), according to the toothpaste used. The participants returned after 7, 30, and 90 days when new color readouts and surface roughness were recorded. The measured values were statistically analyzed (2-way-ANOVA, repeated measures, Tukey, P < .05). Whitening toothpastes did not promote significant (P > .05) color alteration and nor increased the surface roughness of the dental enamel in brushing time of the study. The abrasiveness of whitening toothpaste and the brushing trial period did not affect the surface roughness of dental enamel. However, color changes observed on enamel were above the perceptibility and acceptability thresholds reported in the literature. The over-the-counter toothpastes tested had an effect on dental enamel color above the perceptibility and acceptability thresholds but did not change the surface roughness of the teeth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparative scanning electron microscope analysis of diode laser and desensitizing toothpastes for evaluation of efficacy of dentinal tubular occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Guntakala Vikram; Akula, Sushma; Malgikar, Suryakanth; Babu, Palaparthy Raja; Reddy, Gooty Jagadish; Josephin, Johnson Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser alone and in combination with desensitizing toothpastes in occluding dentinal tubules (both partially occluded and completely occluded tubules) by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Fifty human teeth were extracted, cervical cavities were prepared and etched with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and smear layer was removed to expose the tubules. The teeth were divided into five groups: Group I – Application of NovaMin-formulated toothpaste, Group II – Application of Pro-Argin™-formulated toothpaste, Group III – Application of diode laser in noncontact mode, Group IV – NovaMin-formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation, and Group V – Pro-Argin™-formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation. After treatment, quantitative analysis of occluded dentinal tubules was done by SEM analysis. Results: The mean values of percentages of total occlusion of dentinal tubules in Groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 92.73% ± 1.38, 90.67% ± 1.86, 96.57% ± 0.64, 97.3% ± 0.68, and 96.9% ± 6.08, respectively. Addition of diode laser (Groups III, IV, and V) yielded a significant occlusion of the dentinal tubules when compared to desensitizing toothpastes alone (Groups I and II). Conclusion: Diode laser (Group III) has shown more efficacy in occluding dentinal tubules when compared with desensitizing toothpastes which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the five groups, NovaMin + diode laser (Group IV) showed the highest percentage of occluded dentinal tubules. PMID:29398853

  13. Comparative scanning electron microscope analysis of diode laser and desensitizing toothpastes for evaluation of efficacy of dentinal tubular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Guntakala Vikram; Akula, Sushma; Malgikar, Suryakanth; Babu, Palaparthy Raja; Reddy, Gooty Jagadish; Josephin, Johnson Juliet

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser alone and in combination with desensitizing toothpastes in occluding dentinal tubules (both partially occluded and completely occluded tubules) by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifty human teeth were extracted, cervical cavities were prepared and etched with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and smear layer was removed to expose the tubules. The teeth were divided into five groups: Group I - Application of NovaMin-formulated toothpaste, Group II - Application of Pro-Argin ™ -formulated toothpaste, Group III - Application of diode laser in noncontact mode, Group IV - NovaMin-formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation, and Group V - Pro-Argin ™ -formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation. After treatment, quantitative analysis of occluded dentinal tubules was done by SEM analysis. The mean values of percentages of total occlusion of dentinal tubules in Groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 92.73% ± 1.38, 90.67% ± 1.86, 96.57% ± 0.64, 97.3% ± 0.68, and 96.9% ± 6.08, respectively. Addition of diode laser (Groups III, IV, and V) yielded a significant occlusion of the dentinal tubules when compared to desensitizing toothpastes alone (Groups I and II). Diode laser (Group III) has shown more efficacy in occluding dentinal tubules when compared with desensitizing toothpastes which was statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Among the five groups, NovaMin + diode laser (Group IV) showed the highest percentage of occluded dentinal tubules.

  14. Effects of desensitizing toothpastes on the permeability of dentin after different brushing times: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Lin, Hong; Jiang, Ruodan; Zheng, Gang

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of three commercially available desensitizing toothpastes on dentin permeability, and compare the efficacy of each product for reducing dentin permeability in the short term according to the frequency and duration of usage. 100 dentin discs with no caries were prepared from freshly extracted human third molar teeth. The dentin discs were brushed with three desensitizing toothpastes or with a non-desensitizing toothpaste and distilled water, which served as control. The 100 dentin slices were randomly divided into two groups (n= 50): one group underwent continuous brushing (brushed for 3 minutes continuously), and the other group underwent discontinuous brushing (brushed three times, each time for 1 minute). Then, the two groups were divided into five subgroups (n = 10) for the five brushing applications. Dentin permeability was measured with a hydraulic permeability system before and after brushing. All desensitizing toothpastes reduced dentin permeability significantly after treatment. Sensodyne Repair and Protect (calcium sodium phosphosilicate) and discontinuous brushing reduced dentin permeability significantly compared with continuous brushing. Dentin permeability values showed no significant difference between the three toothpastes after 3 minutes of continuous brushing. When comparing the three toothpastes under discontinuous brushing conditions after 3 minutes, Sensodyne Repair and Protect (calcium sodium phosphosilicate) reduced dentin permeability significantly. Sensodyne Repair and Protect (calcium sodium phosphosilicate) and discontinuous brushing reduced dentin permeability significantly compared with continuous brushing. Moreover, brushing with Sensodyne Repair and Protect (calcium sodium phosphosilicate) resulted in the lowest dentin permeability compared with those of the other two toothpastes. These results indicated that Sensodyne Repair and Protect may relieve dentin hypersensitivity.

  15. Is the fluoride intake by diet and toothpaste in children living in tropical semi-arid city safe?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Priscila Ferreira Torres de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Vale, Glauber Campos; Lima, Marina de Deus Moura de; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Moura, Marcoeli Silva de

    2018-01-01

    Data about total fluoride intake in children living in a tropical semi-arid climate city is scarce, thus we conducted this study. Fifty-eight children aged two to five years, living in a Brazilian tropical city with optimally fluoridated water were selected. Dietary samples were collected using the duplicate diet method on two non-consecutive days in the children's home toothpaste was determined by subtracting the amount of fluoride recovered after brushing from the amount placed on the toothbrush. The mean total dose (SD) of fluoride intake was 0.043(0.016) mg F·kg-1·d-1, with the major (60.6%) contribution from water. The factors associated with the ingestion of fluoride from toothpaste were fluoride concentration of the toothpaste (p = 0.03) and the use of kids toothpaste (p = 0.02). The findings suggest that children have a low fluoride intake, measured by at-home meals and use of fluoride toothpaste; drinking water is the main source of fluoride ingestion.

  16. Oral hygiene grade and quality of life in children with chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a randomized study on the impact of a fluoride toothpaste with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol.

    PubMed

    Bardellini, E; Amadori, F; Majorana, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the use of a fluoride toothpaste (Bioxtra ® , Biopharm, Milan, Italy) with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol on the oral hygiene grade and on the quality of life (QoL) of children with oral mucositis (OM) grade 1 or 2 receiving chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). Patients between 6 and 14 years with OM were randomly assigned to two groups, group A (Bioxtra ® toothpaste) and group B (fluoride toothpaste without menthol). The patients were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day using a soft toothbrush with a small head. Oral hygiene grade was assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s); quality of life was assessed using the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The patients were evaluated on day 1(diagnosis of OM-T0) and on day 8 (T1). Statistical analysis was performed. A total of 64 patients were enrolled. A significant difference (P < 0.001) between the mean of the OHI-s in group A (0.9 ± 1.2) and in group B (1.5 ± 1.3) was found; the overall OHIP-14 scores were not associated with the use of one or the other toothpaste (P = 0.33). Although the use of Bioxtra ® toothpaste does not affect the QoL of children undergoing chemotherapy, it may be recommended as clinically effective in improving the oral hygiene grade. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  18. The protective effect of SnF2 containing toothpastes and solution on enamel surfaces subjected to erosion and abrasion in situ.

    PubMed

    Hove, L H; Stenhagen, K R; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2014-08-01

    Stannous fluoride solutions have shown promising protective effect against erosion/abrasion, but the effect of SnF2 toothpastes is uncertain. The aim of the study was to test the inhibiting effect of two SnF2 toothpastes and a SnF2 solution against erosive/abrasive wear in a single-blind, randomised in situ study, using a white light interferometer. Sixteen human molars were each divided into four specimens, mounted on mouth appliances and worn by 8 volunteers for 9 days. Specimens were brushed with toothpaste twice each day for 30 s either with fluoride-free toothpaste or toothpastes including SnF2. Toothpaste was left on the surface for 90 additional seconds. Group 1, fluoride-free toothpaste; Group 2, toothpaste A (0.4% SnF2, Solidox); Group 3, toothpaste B (0.454 % SnF2, Oral-B(®)); Group 4, brushed with fluoride-free toothpaste (30 s) and treated for 2 min with a 0.4 % SnF2 solution (1,000 ppm F). To mimic gastric reflux/vomit, specimens were etched for 2 min twice a day (0.01 M HCl). Procedures were performed extra-orally. The mean enamel wear (in μm) for the control specimens was: -29.2 ± SD 10.5; for group 2 -14.5 SD ± 9.3; for group 3 -33.3 SD ± 7.4, and for group 4 +0.4 SD ± 1.3. The specimens treated with SnF2 solution and toothpaste A showed significantly lower enamel wear than the control group. Toothpaste B gave no significant reduction in enamel wear. The SnF2 solution fully protected the enamel surface against erosive and abrasive challenges. The SnF2 toothpaste A (Solidox) showed less, but significant protection of the enamel, while no statistically significant protection was demonstrated by SnF2 toothpaste B (Oral-B(®) Pro-Expert).

  19. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste. PMID:21776221

  20. Comparison of residual salivary fluoride retention using amine fluoride toothpastes in caries-free and caries-prone children.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, H; Duggal, M S; Kowash, M B; Kang, J; Toumba, K J

    2016-06-01

    This was to compare the salivary fluoride levels following tooth brushing with amine fluoride toothpastes containing three different concentrations of F (250 ppm F, 500 ppm F and 1250 ppm F) and to evaluate the effect of rinsing with water on the oral fluoride levels up to 90 min. A double blind randomised six-arm crossover study was conducted with 32 child participants. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their caries experience with caries-free group (n = 17, mean age = 72.9 months) and caries-prone group (n = 15, mean age = 69.6 months, mean dmfs = 12.3). Each participant brushed their teeth with a smear of dentifrice containing (250 ppm, 500 ppm and 1250 ppm F toothpastes) for 60 s. After spitting out the dentifrice/saliva slurry, participants either rinsed with water or did not rinse at all. Samples of whole mixed unstimulated saliva were collected at 0 (baseline), 1, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 mins post-brushing/rinsing. After completing the study on residual fluoride concentration it was found that caries was not a significant variable (p = 0.567) while every other variable was (all p values <0.001). Time, toothpaste F concentration and rinse had significant effects (p < 0.001). In general, higher residual salivary F concentrations were found with increased F concentration in toothpastes and when no rinsing was performed after brushing. The results of this study support the current recommendation of using toothpastes with >1000 ppm F concentration in children with an increased caries risk in addition to spitting excess toothpaste with no rinsing following brushing.

  1. Effect of the addition of nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate to fluoride toothpastes on tooth demineralization: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dalpasquale, Giovanna; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Nunes, Gabriel Pereira; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Neto, Francisco Nunes Souza; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Danelon, Marcelle

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of toothpastes containing 1100 ppm F associated with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization in vitro using a pH-cycling model. Bovine enamel blocks (4 mm × 4 mm, n = 72) selected by initial surface hardness (SHi) were randomly allocated into six groups (n = 12), according to the test toothpastes: without fluoride or HMPnano (Placebo), 550 ppm F (550F), 1100 ppm F (1100F), 1100F plus HMPnano at concentrations of 0.25% (1100F/0.25%HMPnano), 0.5% (1100F/0.5%HMPnano), and 1.0% (1100F/1.0%HMPnano). Blocks were treated 2×/day with slurries of toothpastes and submitted to five pH cycles (demineralizing/remineralizing solutions) at 37 °C. Next, final surface hardness (SHf), integrated loss subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), integrated mineral loss (g HA p × cm -3 ), and enamel fluoride (F) concentrations were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Toothpaste with 1100F/0.5%HMPnano led to the lowest mineral loss and the highest mineral concentration among all groups, which were 26% (SHf) and 21% (ΔKHN) lower and ~58% higher (g HA p × cm -3 ) when compared to 1100F (p < 0.001). Similar values of enamel F were observed for all fluoridated toothpastes (p > 0.001). The addition of 0.5%HMPnano to a 1100 F toothpaste significantly enhances its effects against enamel demineralization when compared to its counterpart without HMPnano in vitro. Toothpaste containing 1100 ppm F associated with HMPnano has a higher potential to reduce the demineralization compared to 1100 ppm F. This toothpaste could be a viable alternative to patients at high risk of caries.

  2. The Anticaries Efficacy of a 1.5% Arginine and Fluoride Toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Wolff, M S; Schenkel, A B

    2018-02-01

    Dental caries remains a world-wide disease despite the global distribution of fluoride. It has become apparent that the introduction of significant levels of sugar (fermentable carbohydrate) into the diet has resulted in a change in the biofilm, encouraging acid formation. Further, there has been a shift in the microbiota in the biofilm to a flora that produces acid, and thrives and reproduces in an acidic environment. The management of caries activity under these conditions has focused on brushing to remove the biofilm with fluoride pastes, and high-dose fluoride treatments. Kleinberg, in the 1970s, identified an arginine-containing compound in saliva that several oral biofilm bacterial species metabolize to produce base. Multiple in situ and in vivo studies have been conducted, and have discussed the ability of multiple bacteria to increase the resting pH of the biofilm and even reduce the decrease in pH when the biofilm is challenged with glucose. This shift in resting pH can shift the level of caries formation by the biofilm. Here, we present 8 clinical studies, with different clinical designs, measuring different clinical outcomes, for a diverse, world-wide population. Each of these studies demonstrates reductions in caries formation beyond that seen with fluoride alone and several demonstrate the reversal of early caries lesions. Significant clinical research has been shown that 1.5% arginine combined with fluoride toothpaste has superior anti-caries efficacy to toothpaste containing fluoride alone.

  3. Changes in the oral ecosystem induced by the use of 8% arginine toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jessica E; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Buijs, Mark J; Brandt, Bernd W; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Zaura, Egija

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism of arginine in the oral cavity has a pH-raising and thus, potential anti-caries effect. However, the influence of arginine on the oral microbial ecosystem remains largely unresolved. In this pilot study, nine healthy individuals used toothpaste containing 8% arginine for eight weeks. Saliva was collected to determine arginolytic potential and sucrose metabolic activity at the Baseline, Week 4, Week 8 and after a two weeks Wash-out period. To follow the effects on microbial ecology, 16S rDNA sequencing on saliva and plaque samples at Baseline and Week 8 and metagenome sequencing on selected saliva samples of the same time-points was performed. During the study period, the arginolytic potential of saliva increased, while the sucrose metabolism in saliva decreased. These effects were reversed during the Wash-out period. Although a few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in plaque changed in abundance during the study period, there was no real shift in the plaque microbiome. In the saliva microbiome there was a significant compositional shift, specifically the genus Veillonella had increased significantly in abundance at Week 8. Indeed, the presence of arginine in toothpaste affects the arginolytic capacity of saliva and reduces its sucrose metabolic activity. Additionally, it leads to a shift in the salivary microbiome composition towards a healthy ecology from a caries point of view. Therefore, arginine can be regarded as a genuine oral prebiotic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microhardness and Roughness of Enamel Bleached with 10% Carbamide Peroxide and Brushed with Different Toothpastes: An In Situ Study

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Carolina França de Medeiros; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This in situ study evaluated the roughness and microhardness of enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (PC10) and brushed with different toothpastes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of volunteers received PC10 and placebo agents for 21 days in two phases in a crossover 2 × 3 study. Fragments of human enamel were distributed among intraoral removable appliances (IRA). Nine fragments, divided into three triplets, were used in each IRA, and these were brushed with toothpastes R (Colgate), W (Colgate Total 12 Whiteness Gel) or BS (Colgate Whitening Oxygen Bubbles Fluoride). Treatments agents were applied for 8 h overnight. After brushing, the volunteers used the IRA for about 16 h/day. After a washout period, new IRAs were distributed and the volunteers were crossed over to the alternate agent for 21 days. Roughness and microhardness were measured before and after each phase. Results: According to the paired Student’s t-test, roughness of enamel increased and microhardness decreased (P < 0.05). According to analysis of variance generalized linear models, only the toothpaste factor was significant (P = 0.037) for roughness. Conclusion: Enamel microhardness and surface roughness are altered when PC10 bleaching is associated with tooth brushing using toothpastes BS, R, and W. PMID:25214727

  5. Effect of a third application of toothpastes (1450 and 5000 ppm F), including a 'massage' method on fluoride retention and pH drop in plaque.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Anna; Birkhed, Dowen

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate fluoride (F) retention in plaque, saliva and pH drop in plaque using high-F toothpaste (5000 ppm F) or standard toothpaste (1450 ppm F) twice a day or 3-times a day. A method using the toothpaste as a 'lotion' and massaging the buccal surfaces with the fingertip was also evaluated. The investigation had a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over design and 16 subjects participated in six brushing regimes: (1) 5000 ppm F; twice a day, (2) 5000 ppm; 3-times/day, (3) 5000 ppm; twice a day, plus the 'massage' method once a day, (4) 1450 ppm F; twice a day, (5) 1450 ppm; 3-times/day and (6) 1450 ppm; twice a day, plus the 'massage' method once a day. The outcome measure was F retention in plaque, saliva and the plaque-pH change after a sucrose rinse. The highest F concentration was found using high-F toothpaste (No 1-3) and differed significantly from those with 1450 ppm (No 4-6). Brushing with high-F toothpaste 3-times a day (No 2) resulted in a 3.6-times higher F saliva value compared with standard toothpaste twice a day (No 4) (p < 0.001). Increasing the frequency of application, from twice to 3-times a day, increased the F retention in plaque significantly when the two methods for application 3-times a day were pooled (p < 0.05). Brushing with 5000 and 1450 ppm toothpastes twice a day plus the 'massage' once a day resulted in the same F concentration in saliva and plaque as brushing 3-times a day with the same paste. A third application of toothpaste is increasing the F retention and toothpaste as a 'lotion' and massaging the buccal surfaces with the fingertip may be a simple and inexpensive way of delivering F a third time during the day.

  6. Preventive Effect of CPP-ACPF Paste and Fluoride Toothpastes Against Erosion and Erosion Plus Abrasion 
In Vitro - A 3D Profilometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Genaina Guimarães; Magalhães, Pâmela Amorim; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Tostes, Monica Almeida; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Coutinho, Thereza Christina Lopes

    To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACPF paste and fluoride toothpastes on enamel subjected to erosion and erosion plus abrasion in vitro. A total of 220 human enamel blocks were divided into eleven groups (n = 20): CPP-ACPF paste (MPP), potassium nitrate/sodium fluoride toothpaste (PE), sodium fluoride toothpaste (FD), fluoride-free toothpaste (SO) and control (erosion only with no paste or toothpastes; CO) according to the experimental design: erosion or erosion plus abrasion immediately after erosion (ERO+I-ABR) or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30min-ABR). For 5 days, the specimens were subjected to: (1) erosive challenge (EC) (cola drink, 4 x 5 min/day), topical application of the undiluted paste or diluted toothpastes (1:2 w/w) (4 x 1 min/ day) plus 1 h in artificial saliva (AS) between cycles and overnight; or (2) EC plus abrasion (4 x /60 s/day) performed with the diluted toothpastes (no MMP) plus 1 h in AS between cycles and overnight. Erosion depth was quantified through a 3D profilometer. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (p = 0.05). CPP-ACPF paste and NaF toothpaste showed lowest enamel wear among groups and reduced tissue loss by 89% in erosion challenge. Abrasion led to higher enamel wear than erosion only (p = 0.030). ERO+30min-ABR had no protective effect when compared to ERO+I-ABR (p > 0.05). A high frequency of CPP-ACPF paste application (4x daily) is effective in reducing the effects of erosion. A waiting period before performing toothbrushing does not protect enamel against erosion regardless the composition of the toothpastes.

  7. Efficacy of triclosan-based toothpastes in the prevention and treatment of plaque-induced periodontal and peri-implant diseases.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of triclosan (T)-based toothpaste formulations in the prevention and treatment of plaque-induced periodontal and peri-implant diseases. A review of the existing literature was conducted with a systematic approach in order to retrieve pertinent articles. i) Compared with a control fluoride dentifrice, a fluoride dentifrice containing T formulations provides a more effective level of plaque control and gingival health in patients affected by gingivitis; ii) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF formulation and 0.3% T/0.13% Ca glicerophosphate/1000 ppm F toothpaste in a natural Ca carbonate base seem the most effective T-based toothpaste formulations in controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis or mild/moderate periodontitis over a 6-month period; iii) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation can reduce clinical attachment loss in young adolescents when compared with a 0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation, the magnitude of the difference being greater for patients with deep periodontal pockets at baseline; iv) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation is either similarly or more efficacious in preventing the progression/recurrence of periodontal destruction when compared to a conventional fluoride toothpaste; v) 0.3% T/2% copolymer/0.243% NaF toothpaste formulation seems to be more effective than a fluoride toothpaste formulation in controlling the severity of mucosal inflammation, the incidence of mucosal bleeding as well as reducing probing pocket depth around dental implants.

  8. The prevention of plaque re-growth by toothpastes and solutions containing block copolymers with and without polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Claydon, N C; Addy, M; Newcombe, R; Moran, J

    2005-06-01

    Chemicals which have a direct effect at inhibiting or reducing bacterial adherence to tooth surfaces may subsequently inhibit plaque growth and reduce gingival inflammation. This study investigated whether two anti-adherent systems could inhibit plaque re-growth in the mouth when rinsed as a solution or as a toothpaste slurry. A total of 21 subjects took part in a partially blind, seven cell cross-over study which compared the effects on plaque re-growth of a binary system containing block copolymers, a ternary system containing block copolymers and polypeptide, both used as toothpaste slurry rinses, their corresponding solution rinses, a conventional fluoride toothpaste rinse, a positive control chlorhexidine rinse and a negative water control. Following a dental prophylaxis subjects then rinsed with 10 ml of one of the test products for 1 min. twice a day over a 4-day period. Throughout each trial period the subjects were not permitted to use any other forms of oral hygiene. On the fifth day (96 h), the volunteers returned to the clinic, and plaque was assessed by (1) plaque index and (2) plaque area following disclosing with a food dye. The test phase of the trial was repeated for each agent and was followed by a 10-day "washout" period. Essentially neither of the anti-adherent systems inhibited plaque re-growth, whether administered in a toothpaste slurry or solution compared with the controls. If anything, neither of the test pastes were as effective as the marketed commercial paste (p<0.001). As expected plaque recorded following use of the chlorhexidine rinse was significantly less than that seen with any of the other rinses (p<0.001). Using this 4-day plaque re-growth model, the findings of this study failed to show any benefit in using the anti-adherent systems, either in a rinse or toothpaste, with the aim of inhibiting or reducing plaque formation.

  9. Formation of protective deposits by anti-erosive toothpastes-A microscopic study on enamel with artificial defects.

    PubMed

    Bradna, Pavel; Vrbova, Radka; Fialova, Vlasta; Housova, Devana; Gojisova, Eva

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated formation of protective deposits on the enamel surface after application of several anti-erosive toothpastes with different active ingredients. NaF-containing Sensodyne Pronamel, SnCl 2 /F-based Elmex Erosion Protection and calcium phosphate-based BioRepair Plus Sensitivity Control, SensiShield and Enamel Care toothpastes with claimed anti-erosive properties were tested. Artificial saliva and Elmex Erosion Protection mouth rinse served as control groups. The toothpastes were applied 30 times by a toothbrush for 2 min per day, mouth rinse for 30 s on polished enamel of thirty five human molars (n = 5) with series of five rhomboid-shaped indents of various length prepared by a Knoop indentor. After 15 and 30 applications, the shape of the indents and surface morphology was characterised using light and scanning electron microscopy. At the end of treatment, the samples were exposed to 0.2 wt. % citric acid (pH 3.30) to test resistance of the treated enamel to erosion. Pronounced differences were observed between protective properties of the toothpastes. While Sensodyne Pronamel and BioRepair Plus Sensitivity Control did not produce any protective deposits, Enamel Care formed a compact layer of deposits which protected the enamel surface against erosion. With Elmex Erosion Protection and SensiShield fractured indent edges and scratches on the treated enamel suggested that their abrasive properties prevailed over ability of active ingredients to form deposits. These results revealed that toothpastes with strong potential to form acid-resistant deposits on the enamel surface and of low abrasivity should be used for effective prevention of enamel erosion. SCANNING 38:380-388, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Poornima; Kaur, Suminder; Sodhi, Alka

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th ) studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3%) study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033) and in anemic children (P<0.001). However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02), source of drinking water (P=0.417), and with BMI (P=0.826). As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth) among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  11. Toothpaste lava: Characteristics and origin of a lava structural type transitional between pahoehoe and aa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, Scott K.; Walker, George P. L.

    1987-08-01

    Toothpaste lava, an important basalt structural type which illustrates the transition from pahoehoe to aa, is particularly well displayed on the 1960 Kapoho lava of Kilauea Volcano. Its transitional features stem from a viscosity higher than that of pahoehoe and a rate of flow slower than that of aa. Viscosity can be quantified by the limited settling of olivine phenocrysts and rate of flow by field observations related to the low-angle slope on which the lava flowed. Much can be learned about the viscosity, rheologic condition, and flow velocity of lavas long after solidification by analyses of their structural characteristics, and it is possible to make at least a semiquantitative assessment of the numerical values of these parameters.

  12. High-fluoride toothpaste: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in adults

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Murali; Schimmel, Martin; Riesen, Martine; Ilgner, Alexander; Wicht, Michael J; Warncke, Michael; Ellwood, Roger P; Nitschke, Ina; Müller, Frauke; Noack, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this single – blind, multicenter, parallel, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of a high-fluoride toothpaste on root caries in adults. Methods Adult patients (n = 130, ♂ = 74, ♀ = 56; mean age ± SD: 56.9 ± 12.9) from three participating centers, diagnosed with root caries, were randomly allocated into two groups: Test (n = 64, ♂ = 37, ♀ = 27; lesions = 144; mean age: 59.0 ± 12.1; intervention: high-fluoride toothpaste with 5000 ppm F), and Control (n = 66, ♂ = 37, ♀ = 29; lesions = 160; mean age: 54.8 ± 13.5; intervention: regular-fluoride toothpaste with 1350 ppm F) groups. Clinical examinations and surface hardness scoring of the carious lesions were performed for each subject at specified time intervals (T0 – at baseline before intervention, T1 – at 3 months and T2 – at 6 months after intervention). Mean surface hardness scores (HS) were calculated for each patient. Statistical analyses comprised of two-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni–Dunn correction. Results At T0, there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to gender (P = 0.0682, unpaired t-test), or age (P = 0.9786, chi-squared test), and for the overall HS (Test group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.61; Control group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.66; P = 0.8757, unpaired t-test). The anova revealed significantly better HS for the test group than for the control groups (T1: Test group: HS = 2.9 ± 0.67; Control group: HS = 3.1 ± 0.75; T2: Test group: HS = 2.4 ± 0.81; Control group: HS = 2.8 ± 0.79; P < 0.0001). However, the interaction term time-point*group was not significant. Conclusions The application of a high-fluoride containing dentifrice (5000 ppm F) in adults, twice daily, significantly improves the surface hardness of otherwise untreated root caries lesions when compared with the use of regular fluoride

  13. Comparison of efficacy of an arginine-calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste to a calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste in controlling supragingival calculus formation and gingivitis: a 6-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Lee, Sean; Stephens, Joni; Mateo, Luis R; Zhang, Yun Po; DeVizio, William

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether the long-term use (6 months) of an arginine-calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste would affect calculus formation and/or gingivitis when compared to a calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste. This was a double-blind clinical study. Eligible adult subjects (120) entered a 2-month pre-test phase of the study. After receiving an evaluation of oral tissue and a dental prophylaxis, the subjects were provided with a regular fluoride toothpaste, a soft-bristled adult toothbrush with instructions to brush their teeth for 1-minute twice daily (morning and evening) for 2 months. The subjects were then examined for baseline calculus using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index (VMI) and gingivitis using the Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI), along with an oral tissue examination. Qualifying subjects were randomized to two treatment groups: (1) Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Test group), or (2) Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste containing 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Control group). Subjects were stratified by the VMI score and gender. After a dental prophylaxis (VMI=0), the subjects entered a 6-month test phase. Each received the assigned toothpaste and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use with instructions of brushing teeth for 1 minute twice daily (morning and evening). The examinations of VMI, Löe-Silness GI and oral tissues were conducted after 3 and 6 months. Prior to each study visit, subjects refrained from brushing their teeth as well as eating and drinking for 4 hours. 99 subjects complied with the study protocol and completed the 6-month test phase. No within-treatment comparison was performed for the VMI because it was brought down to zero after the prophylaxis at the baseline of the test phase. For the Löe-Silness GI, subjects of the Test group exhibited a significant difference from baseline at the 3- and 6-month examinations. The 3-month Löe-Silness GI of the Control

  14. Effects of the CO II laser combined with fluoridated toothpaste on human dental enamel demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla; Alvarez Vidigal, Evelyn; Silva Soares, Luís Eduardo; Abrahão Martin, Airton; Brugnera-Júnior, Aldo; Aparecida Zanin, Fátima Antonia; Nobre dos Santos, Marinês

    2006-02-01

    This in vitro pilot study investigated the CO II laser effects on demineralization inhibition in sound human dental enamel. Thirty six human enamel specimens were used and randomly assigned to 6 groups, as follows: I) Control; II) 1W; III) 2W; IV) 3W; V) 4W; VI) 5W. Group I one was kept as control and others were irradiated using a pulsed CO II laser (λ=10.6 μm) with low crescent potencies. Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of specimens after irradiation. One specimen from each group was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and the remaining ones were submitted to an 8-day pH cycling model with use of fluoridated toothpaste twice a day. After pH-cycling, the cross-sectional microhardness was performed for mineral loss (ΔZ) quantification. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tuckey test (α=0.05). No changes were found either in SEM photomicrographies or RAMAN Spectra of the specimens in all groups. The ΔZ values (n=5; mean+/-SD) for I-VI groups were: 1741.6+/-725.3a 1782.7+/-639.0a 1427.2+/-237.0a 1780.6+/-552.4a 1385.2+/-602.2a 943.1+/-228.1a respectively. The highest percentage of caries inhibition was found in group VI (45.8%); however the differences between ΔZ of the groups were not statistically significant. The use of CO II laser with low fluencies did not prevent more caries development than the use of fluoridated toothpaste, even though group VI had present good results in caries inhibition. Energy densities higher than 0.0125 J/cm 2 should be used to promote chemical or morphological changes on enamel surface, which are able of inhibiting mineral.

  15. Effectiveness of a baking soda toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Hooper, W; Winston, A E; Sowinski, J; Bowman, J; Sharma, N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness and safety of a single-phase dentifrice that delivers calcium, phosphate, and fluoride to the tooth surface (Arm & Hammer Enamel Care for Sensitive Teeth toothpaste, United Kingdom) in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. Two-hundred and eight qualifying subjects were randomly assigned to either the Enamel Care dentifrice group or a control dentifrice group, and brushed twice daily with their assigned dentifrice for eight weeks. Pain/discomfort in response to a thermal stimulus was assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 8 using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; primary outcome variable) and the Schiff Thermal Sensitivity Scale (STSS; secondary outcome variable). After eight weeks, volunteers from the Enamel Care group were switched to the control dentifrice and participated in a second eight-week study to determine the degree of persistence of pain reduction. Both groups had statistically significant VAS score reductions from baseline at weeks 4 and 8, with mean VAS scores in the Enamel Care group decreasing by 45.6% at week 4 and 61.1% at week 8 (p < 0.0001). Enamel Care was statistically significantly more effective than the control at weeks 4 and 8, with respective mean VAS reductions of 63% (p < 0.0001) and 33% (p = 0.0004) greater than the control. Consistent with the VAS score results, the Enamel Care group had respective statistically significant STSS score reductions of 77% and 58% greater than the control group (p < 0.0001). The reductions in dentinal hypersensitivity seen in the Enamel Care group at week 8 persisted for an additional eight weeks, during which the subjects discontinued use of Enamel Care and brushed with the control dentifrice. Enamel Care for Sensitive Teeth toothpaste (United Kingdom) is an effective dentifrice for the management of dentinal hypersensitivity, and its efficacy persists for a least eight weeks following discontinued product use.

  16. Comparison of the incipient lesion enamel fluoride uptake from various prescription and OTC fluoride toothpastes and gels.

    PubMed

    Schemehorn, B R; DiMarino, J C; Movahed, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the fluoride uptake into incipient enamel lesions of a novel 970 ppm F- ion SnF2 over-the-counter (OTC) gel (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel) and a novel 1150 ppm F- ion OTC toothpaste (Enamelon), each delivering amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), to the uptake from two different prescription strength, 5000 ppm F- ion dentifrices containing tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and a prescription 900 ppm F- ion paste containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The test procedure followed method #40 in the US-FDA Anticaries Drug Products for OTC Human Use, Final Monograph testing procedures. Eight sets of twelve incisor enamel cores were mounted in Plexiglas rods and the exposed surfaces were polished. The indigenous fluoride levels of each specimen were determined prior to treatment. The treatments were performed using slurries of a negative control (water) and the following products applied to a set of sound enamel cores: 5000 ppm F- ion, sodium fluoride (NaF) prescription (Rx) dentifrice "A" containing TCP; 5000 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx dentifrice "B" containing TCP; 900 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx paste with CPP-ACP; 1150 ppm F- ion, NaF OTC toothpaste; 1150 ppm F- ion, stannous fluoride (SnF2) OTC toothpaste delivering ACP (Enamelon); 1100 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC toothpaste; and 970 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC gel delivering ACP (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel). The twelve specimens of each group were immersed into 25 ml of their assigned slurry with constant stirring (350 rpm) for 30 minutes. Following treatment, one layer of enamel was removed from each specimen and analyzed for fluoride and calcium. The pre-treatment fluoride (indigenous) level of each specimen was subtracted from the post-treatment value to determine the change in enamel fluoride due to the test treatment. The increase in the average fluoride uptake for treated enamel cores was: 10,263 ± 295 ppm for the 970 ppm F- ion, Enamelon Preventive

  17. Fluoride gastrointestinal absorption from Na2FPO3/CaCO3- and NaF/SiO2-based toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Falcão, A; Tenuta, L M A; Cury, J A

    2013-01-01

    Depending on toothpaste formulation, part of the fluoride is insoluble and would not be totally absorbable in the gastrointestinal tract, thus changing dental fluorosis risk estimation. This hypothesis was tested with formulations with either all fluoride in a soluble form (NaF/SiO2-based toothpaste, 1,100 µg F/g as labeled, 1,129.7 ± 49.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed) or with around 20% of insoluble fluoride (Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste, 1,450 µg F/g as labeled, 1,122.4 ± 76.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed). Toothpastes were evaluated either fresh or after accelerated aging, which increased insoluble fluoride to 40% in the Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste. In a blind, crossover clinical trial conducted in five legs, 20 adult volunteers ingested 49.5 µg of total fluoride/kg body weight from each formulation or purified water (control). Whole saliva and urine were collected as bioavailability indicators, and pharmacokinetics parameters calculated showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower fluoride bioavailability for Na2FPO3/CaCO3 toothpaste, which was reduced further after aging. A significant correlation between the amount of soluble fluoride ingested, but not total fluoride, and fluoride bioavailability was found (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). The findings suggest that the estimated fluorosis risk as a result of ingestion of Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpastes should be calculated based on the toothpaste's soluble rather than total fluoride concentration. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate in the relief of dentin hypersensitivity: An 8-week randomized study (Study 2).

    PubMed

    Sufi, Farzana; Hall, Claire; Mason, Stephen; Shaw, David; Milleman, Jeffery; Milleman, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% (w/w) calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) in relieving dentin hypersensitivity (DH) with that of control toothpastes containing no known anti-sensitivity ingredients. This was the second of two exploratory, randomized, four-treatment, examiner-blind, parallel-design, single-site, 8-week studies in healthy subjects with self-reported and clinically diagnosed DH. After an initial lead-in period, subjects were randomized to one of four study treatments: the experimental toothpaste containing 5% CSPS with a modified surfactant system, developed to enhance its organoleptic properties; an abrasivity-matched placebo formulation (0% CSPS) with additional abrasive silica replacing the CSPS; or one of two commercially available fluoride toothpastes as controls. Subjects were instructed to brush twice daily for the next 8 weeks. DH was assessed at baseline and following 4 and 8 weeks of treatment by response to tactile and evaporative (air) stimuli, and using a Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ; a validated quality of life measure for DH). A total of 137 subjects were included in the efficacy analysis. The experimental 5% CSPS toothpaste demonstrated statistically significant reductions from baseline in sensitivity at Week 4 and Week 8 for each clinical measure (all P< 0.01). It also demonstrated significantly greater improvements in DH compared with the two control toothpastes for the majority of clinical measures at Week 4 (P ≤ 0.01) and for all clinical measures at Week 8 (all P < 0.01). The abrasivity-matched 0% CSPS toothpaste was associated with similar outcomes to the 5% CSPS toothpaste. The DHEQ responses did not reveal any consistent statistically significant within-treatment changes from baseline or between-treatment differences. Strong correlations with DHEQ outcomes were only observed for the subjects' sensitivity rating in response to evaporative (air) stimuli at Week 8

  19. Effect of a toothpaste containing triclosan, cetylpyridinium chloride, and essential oils on gingival status in schoolchildren: a randomized clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Strohmenger, Laura; Basile, Valentina; Abati, Silvio; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-05-01

    This randomized double-blind in vivo pilot study has evaluated the effects of a toothpaste containing fluoride (control) versus toothpaste containing fluoride, triclosan, cetylpyridinium chloride and essential oils (experimental) in controlling supragingival dental plaque and bleeding on probing in a sample of healthy schoolchildren. In total, 48 children (8 to 10 years) were selected and randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control), using the two different toothpastes twice a day for 2 minutes each for a 4-week period. The investigation included an evaluation of plaque quantity, using the Turesky modified Quigley-Hein method, and bleeding on probing that was recorded dichotomously. The unit of analysis was set at the gingival site level. Plaque Index and bleeding on probing were analyzed using distribution tables and chi-square test. A generalized estimating equation was used to estimate the parameters of a generalized linear model with a possible unknown correlation between outcomes. In total, 40 schoolchildren completed the trial. Considering each group separately, a statistically significant difference in plaque scores was recorded for both treatments (z-test = 9.23, P < .01 for the experimental toothpaste; and z-test = 7.47, P < .01 for the control toothpaste). Nevertheless, the effect over time was higher for the experimental toothpaste than for the control one (3.38 vs 1.96). No statistically significant results were observed regarding bleeding on probing. The 4-week use of the experimental toothpaste seems to produce higher plaque reduction compared to fluoridated toothpaste without other antibacterial ingredients. This finding has to be confirmed in a larger study.

  20. Effect of various rinsing protocols after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste on the bacterial composition of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, C; Gerardu, V A M; Sissons, C H; van Bekkum, M; ten Cate, J M

    2009-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of different oral hygiene protocols on the bacterial composition of dental plaque. After a 2-week period of using fluoride-free toothpaste, 30 participants followed three 1-week experimental protocols, each followed by 2-week fluoride-free washout periods in a randomized crossover examiner-blind controlled trial. The 1-week experimental protocols comprised the use of AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste twice daily, after which participants either (1) rinsed with tap water, (2) did not rinse but only spat out the toothpaste, or (3) rinsed with an AmF/SnF(2) mouthwash. In the fluoride-free washout periods, the participants brushed their teeth with fluoride-free toothpaste without further instructions. Six hours after the last brushing (+/- rinsing) of each period, buccal plaque samples in the upper molar region were taken. The microbiota composition of the plaque samples was analyzed by checkerboard DNA:DNA hybridization. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total amount of DNA of the 39 major plaque species measured, and in the proportions of some acid-producing bacterial strains after the period having used the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste + AmF/SnF(2) mouthrinsing. The results indicate that using the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste and rinse combination could result in plaque of lower cariogenicity. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Can a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine demonstrate the same bleaching as conventional techniques? An in vitro, randomized and blinded study.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Andréa Abi Rached; Bortolatto, Janaina Freitas; Roncolato, Ávery; Merchan, Hugo; Floros, Michael Christopher; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Oliveira Junior, Osmir Batista de

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine vs. conventional tooth bleaching techniques using peroxides (both in-office and at-home). Samples were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=15): C - Control; BC - Bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine; WBC - Bleaching toothpaste without Blue Covarine; HP35 - In-office bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide; and CP10 - At-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide. The dental bleaching efficacy was determined by the color difference (ΔE), luminosity (ΔL), green-red axis (Δa), and blue-yellow axis (Δb). The CIELab coordinates were recorded with reflectance spectroscopy at different times: T0 - baseline, T1 - immediately after bleaching, T2 - 7 days, T3 - 14 days, and T4 - 21 days after the end of treatments. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures mixed ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test, with a significance level of 5%. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups C, BC, and WBC. The groups HP35 and CP10 showed significantly higher whitening efficacy than groups C, BC, and WBC. There were no significant differences in the whitening efficacy between a Blue Covarine containing toothpaste, a standard whitening toothpaste, and a control. Neither of the whitening toothpastes tested were as effective as in-office or at-home bleaching treatments.

  2. Can a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine demonstrate the same bleaching as conventional techniques? An in vitro, randomized and blinded study

    PubMed Central

    DANTAS, Andréa Abi Rached; BORTOLATTO, Janaina Freitas; RONCOLATO, Ávery; MERCHAN, Hugo; FLOROS, Michael Christopher; KUGA, Milton Carlos; de OLIVEIRA, Osmir Batista

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine vs. conventional tooth bleaching techniques using peroxides (both in-office and at-home). Material and Methods Samples were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=15): C - Control; BC – Bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine; WBC – Bleaching toothpaste without Blue Covarine; HP35 - In-office bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide; and CP10 – At-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide. The dental bleaching efficacy was determined by the color difference (ΔE), luminosity (ΔL), green-red axis (Δa), and blue-yellow axis (Δb). The CIELab coordinates were recorded with reflectance spectroscopy at different times: T0 - baseline, T1 – immediately after bleaching, T2 - 7 days, T3 - 14 days, and T4 - 21 days after the end of treatments. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures mixed ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test, with a significance level of 5%. Results No significant differences were found between the treatment groups C, BC, and WBC. The groups HP35 and CP10 showed significantly higher whitening efficacy than groups C, BC, and WBC. Conclusions There were no significant differences in the whitening efficacy between a Blue Covarine containing toothpaste, a standard whitening toothpaste, and a control. Neither of the whitening toothpastes tested were as effective as in-office or at-home bleaching treatments. PMID:26814462

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Nano-hydroxyapatite and 8% Arginine Containing Toothpastes in Managing Dentin Hypersensitivity: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Anand, Suresh; Rejula, Fathima; Sam, Joseph V G; Christaline, Ramakrishnan; Nair, Mali G; Dinakaran, Shiji

    This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effects of Nano-hydroxyapatite toothpaste as compared to 8% Arginine containing toothpaste in the management of Dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Patients (30 in each group) suffering from DH and eliciting a VAS score higher than 2 in air blast and tactile test were randomly allocated (block randomization) into either a group 1 (arginine toothpaste) or group 2 (nHA toothpaste). The primary outcome evaluated was the reduction of DH as measured by the electrical stimulus reading on the digital pulp tester. Current required for eliciting a VAS score of 2 was recorded before application of dentifrice. 1 cm of toothpaste was then expressed on the tooth surface for two minutes in each group and rinsed off. The electrical stimulus required to elicit a VAS score of 2 was recorded after 5 minutes, 1 week and 4 weeks. The desensitizing paste containing arginine provided a statistically significant reduction in DH and so did the paste containing nHA. Mean increase in amperage value (reduction in DH) was higher for nHA based than the arginine containing dentifrice. This difference was not statistically significant showing that both toothpastes are equally effective. The findings of the present study encourage the use of Nano-hydroxyapatite and arginine containing dentifrice as an effective desensitizing agent providing relief from symptoms 5 minutes after application and after 1 and 4 weeks.

  4. Effect of Sugar-Free and Regular Toothpaste on Salivary Glucose and pH among Type 2 Diabetes- A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Junaid; Dodamani, Arun; Baviskar, Priya; Karibasappa, G N; Pathak, Parag; Bezalwar, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases of mankind having general as well as oral health manifestations. Also, there is an increase of salivary glucose level in diabetic, inducing saccharolytic bacteria in saliva which can have adverse effects on oral tissue. To assess and compare the effect of sugar-free toothpaste on salivary glucose and pH among Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. A randomized controlled-crossover study was carried out on 30 Type 2 diabetic (Group A) and 45 non-diabetic (Group B) subjects. In first half of study, subjects in Group A and Group B were intervened with sugar-free and regular toothpaste respectively. Salivary glucose and pH was assessed before and after brushing at interval of one week for a period of four weeks. In second half, toothpastes were switched over between the groups, after sufficient washout period. Salivary glucose and pH were assessed again in the same manner for both the groups. The data was subjected to paired t-test and unpaired t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison respectively. Salivary glucose level was significantly reduced and salivary pH was increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups with sugar free toothpaste when compared to regular toothpaste. Sugar free toothpaste showed beneficial effect on salivary glucose level and salivary pH level on diabetes and non-diabetes population.

  5. Effect of Sugar-Free and Regular Toothpaste on Salivary Glucose and pH among Type 2 Diabetes- A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodamani, Arun; Baviskar, Priya; Karibasappa, GN; Pathak, Parag; Bezalwar, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases of mankind having general as well as oral health manifestations. Also, there is an increase of salivary glucose level in diabetic, inducing saccharolytic bacteria in saliva which can have adverse effects on oral tissue. Aim To assess and compare the effect of sugar-free toothpaste on salivary glucose and pH among Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled-crossover study was carried out on 30 Type 2 diabetic (Group A) and 45 non-diabetic (Group B) subjects. In first half of study, subjects in Group A and Group B were intervened with sugar-free and regular toothpaste respectively. Salivary glucose and pH was assessed before and after brushing at interval of one week for a period of four weeks. In second half, toothpastes were switched over between the groups, after sufficient washout period. Salivary glucose and pH were assessed again in the same manner for both the groups. The data was subjected to paired t-test and unpaired t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison respectively. Results Salivary glucose level was significantly reduced and salivary pH was increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups with sugar free toothpaste when compared to regular toothpaste. Conclusion Sugar free toothpaste showed beneficial effect on salivary glucose level and salivary pH level on diabetes and non-diabetes population. PMID:28893048

  6. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism.

  7. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; BUX, Miriam; FILIPUZZI-JENNY, Elisabeth; KULIK, Eva Maria; WALTIMO, Tuomas; WEIGER, Roland; WALTER, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the

  8. The effect of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride 
toothpaste on plaque formation, gingivitis, and 
dentin hypersensitivity: A single-blinded 
randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Farasin, Rawan; Khader, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The daily removal of supragingival dental plaque is a key factor in the prevention of gingivitis. The aim of the study was to compare the gingival health benefits of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Total, a fluoride toothpaste containing an antiseptic) to a commercially available toothpaste containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Herbal, a conventional fluoride toothpaste with herbal extracts). A total of 50 patients with gingivitis and at least one sensitive tooth were included. The subjects were randomly stratified into two groups: Colgate Total toothpaste, and Colgate Herbal toothpaste. After a 4-week pre-experimental phase, baseline Plaque Index (Quigley-Hein Index) (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were assessed. The PI, GI, GBI, and VAS were reexamined at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after the baseline. Fifty subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. The conventional fluoride toothpaste with herbal extracts group and the fluoride toothpaste containing an antiseptic group exhibited significant reductions in PI, GI, GBI, and VAS over time. The amount of reduction after 6 months of the treatment was higher in the Total group compared to Herbal group (1.82 vs 1.39, P = .015 for PI; 0.67 vs 0.37, P < .005 for GI; and 56.64% vs 34.26%, P < .005 for GBI). No significant difference was seen for VAS. Twice daily brushing with a toothpaste containing 0.3% triclosan and polyvinyl methyl ether and maleic acid copolymer provides a more effective level of plaque control and gingival health with no effect on decreasing dentin hypersensitivity compared to conventional fluoride toothpaste. Toothpastes containing triclosan/copolymer, in addition to fluoride, result in a higher reduction in plaque, gingival inflammation, and gingival bleeding when compared with fluoride toothpastes without triclosan/copolymer.

  9. Effects of Bleaching Agents Combined with Regular and Whitening Toothpastes on Surface Roughness and Mineral Content of Enamel.

    PubMed

    Attia, Mariana Lerner; Cavalli, Vanessa; do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Martin, Airton Abrahão; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; do Rego, Marcos Augusto; Cavalcanti, Andréa Nóbrega; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface roughness and changes in the composition of enamel submitted to different bleaching protocols and toothbrushing with regular and whitening toothpastes. Bleaching treatment could promote morphological and chemical changes in enamel surface. Enamel blocks were randomized into nine groups (n=10) according to the bleaching treatment (no bleaching, control group; 6% hydrogen peroxide, HP; or 10% carbamide peroxide, CP) and toothpaste used (placebo, PL; regular, R; or whitening dentifrice, W). Bleaching was performed according to manufacturers' instructions and all groups were submitted to 30,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing with toothpaste (PL, R, or W). Mineral content evaluation and enamel roughness were evaluated initially (T1), after bleaching (T2), and after toothbrushing (T3), using an energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and profilometry, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed with two way ANOVA, Tukey, and Dunnett tests (5%). Enamel surface roughness was influenced by bleaching and toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased for the groups that brushed with the placebo dentifrice (CP+PL, HP+PL, C+PL) and for the control group that brushed with whitening dentifrice (C+W). Enamel Ca/P ratio decreased after bleaching, but toothbrushing, regardless of the dentifrice used, did not reduce the enamel mineral content. The bleaching treatment resulted in a decrease of enamel mineral content, but the studied dentifrices did not contribute to surface mineral loss.

  10. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marinho, V C C; Higgins, J P T; Logan, S; Sheiham, A

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride therapy (TFT) in the form of varnish, gel, mouthrinse or toothpaste has been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. To determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride varnishes, gels, mouthrinses, and toothpastes in the prevention of dental caries in children and to examine factors potentially modifying their effect. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (May 2000), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2000), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2000), plus several other databases. We handsearched journals, reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials with blind outcome assessment, comparing fluoride varnish, gel, mouthrinse, or toothpaste with placebo or no treatment in children up to 16 years during at least 1 year. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (D(M)FS). Inclusion decisions, quality assessment and data extraction were duplicated in a random sample of one third of studies, and consensus achieved by discussion or a third party. Authors were contacted for missing data. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF) that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. Random effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random effects metaregression analyses. There were 144 studies included. For the 133 that contributed data for meta-analysis (involving 65,169 children) the D(M)FS pooled prevented fraction estimate was 26% (95% CI, 24% to 29%; p < 0.0001). There was substantial heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (p < 0.0001), but the direction of effect was consistent. The effect of topical fluoride varied according to type of control group used

  11. Remineralization of early enamel caries lesions using different bioactive elements containing toothpastes: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Li; Gong, Lin; Li, Jialing; He, Shaowei; Ji, Yan; Sun, Weibin

    2016-09-14

    Demineralization can be arrested or reversed when remineralization agents are applied to incipient carious or non-cavitated carious lesions. A large number of therapeutic agents including non-fluoridated products have been developed to promote enamel remineralization. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of different bioactive elements containing toothpastes in remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial carious lesions were created on 40 human enamel slabs, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (no treatment), (2) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate group (CPP-ACP, GC Tooth Mousse), (3) 8% arginine and calcium carbonate group (ACC, Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief), (4) calcium sodium phosphosilicate group (CSP, NovaMin®). All samples were subjected to 15 days of pH-cycling. Subsequently, a one-hour acid resistance test was carried out. Surface hardness of the samples was assessed using the Knoop hardness test, and surface morphology and roughness were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and paired t test. The three tested toothpastes exhibited a significantly higher remineralization efficacy compared with the control group (P< 0.05 for all). After pH-cycling, the specimens treated with Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® showed a significant higher surface hardness (P< 0.001 and P= 0.03, respectively) and lower surface roughness (P< 0.05 for both) compared those treated with GC Tooth Mousse. While after the acid resistance test, all groups showed a significant loss of surface hardness (P< 0.001 for all) and significant increase of surface roughness (P< 0.05). The specimens treated with Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® still showed a significant higher surface hardness and lower surface roughness in comparison with those treated with GC Tooth Mousse (P< 0.05 for all). No significant difference was

  12. Investigation of distribution of radioactivity with effects of heavy metals in toothpastes from Penang markets.

    PubMed

    Salih, Najeba F; Jafri, Zubir M; Jaafar, Mohamad S

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, and 238 U in 25 different toothpastes available in the local market in Penang, Malaysia, using a CR-39 detector. The results showed the maximum concentration of radon/ radium/uranium to be 4197.644 Bq.m -3 , 54.369 Bq.Kgm -1 , and 0.044 ppm in Colgate4; the annual effective dose was found (0.402 mSvy -1 ) in S07. The average concentration of radon (42 %, 3.224 KBq.m -3 ) was higher than the concentration of 214 Po, 218 Po in POS (32 %, 2.415 KBq.m -3 ) and POW (26 %, 1.979 KBq.m -3 ). Also the values of pH of samples ranged from 4.21 (highly acidic) in S04 to 9.97 (highly basic) in S07, with an average of 6.33 which tended towards an acidic behavior; a low or high pH for a long period of time can cause harmful side-effects and enamel erosion. Concentrations of heavy metals varied from the maximum value 56.156 ppm in the Ca elements in the Colgate 4 sample to a minimum value of -0.858 ppm in the Cd elements in Colgate 6 (Ca 56.156 ppm > Cd 51.572 ppm > Zn 41.039 ppm > Mg 11.682 ppm > Pb 11.009 ppm]. Monitoring the accumulation of these metals in toothpaste samples is very important: the average annual effective dose (0.3118 mSvy -1 ) was below the range (3-10 mSvy -1 ) reported by ICRP (1993), and therefore there is no evidence of health problems. Significant strong positive correlations were found (r = 1, Pearson correlation, p < 0.000) in concentration of radon, radium, uranium, annual effective dose, pH, and electrical conductivity.

  13. A comparative in vitro study investigating the occlusion and mineralization properties of commercial toothpastes in a four-day dentin disc model.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Charles R; Willson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative level of dentin tubule occlusion and dentin mineralization conferred by a 5% w/w calcium sodium phosphosilicate (45S5)/1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste in comparison to a range of commercial toothpastes reported to occlude dentin tubules. Two separate experiments were employed to (i) determine the level of dentin tubule occlusion, and (ii) explore the change in dentin mineralization conferred by a number of marketed toothpastes and controls, following twice-daily brushing in a longitudinal, acid challenge-based, dentin disc model. In Study I, 192 bovine dentin discs, polished and etched in citric acid to provide a smooth dentin surface with patent tubules, were divided into eight treatment groups and subjected to brushing with one of seven test toothpastes or deionized water over four days. Prior to and between treatments, the dentin samples were stored in saliva. The test products were fluoridated toothpastes containing: calcium sodium phosphosilicate (45S5); strontium acetate; arginine/calcium carbonate; amine fluoride; calcium sulphate/diphosphate; stannous fluoride; casein stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate toothpaste; and a non-occluding negative control, deionized water. At the end of each treatment day (1 though 4), one group of samples was removed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and graded on a categorical visual scale to assess the level of dentin tubule occlusion. A subset of samples from Study I was also cross-sectioned and examined using SEM. For the exploratory mineralization study (Study II), 120 dentin specimens were prepared as previously described and divided into four treatment groups consisting of A, C, F, and a tooth sealant varnish (I), and subjected to the treatment regimen described in Study I. The dentin samples were assessed for changes in surface microhardness using an indenter fitted with a Knoop probe and the level of dentin occlusion. In Study I, the 5% w/w calcium

  14. Efficacy of a Calcium Sucrose Phosphate Based Toothpaste in Elevating the Level of Calcium, Phosphate Ions in Saliva and Reducing Plaque: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Leena Unnikrishnan; Varma, R. Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun Mamachan; Govinda, Bhat Sangeetha; Kumar, J. Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of “calcium sucrose phosphate” (CaSP) toothpaste (Enafix 5%) with ordinarily used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste in elevating the level of calcium, phosphate ions in saliva. Secondary aims were to evaluate substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Thirty study participants of age group 6–13 years were divided into two groups: Group X (Control group) was made to continue brushing with their regularly used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste and Group Y (Test group) was allotted CaSP toothpaste. 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was periodically collected from both groups to determine any alteration in the salivary calcium, phosphate level. Parameters such as substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste were also evaluated. Salivary mineral's intergroup comparison was evaluated by Student's t-test while its intragroup comparison along with the plaque amount variation in Group Y was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Group Y showed an increase in the salivary calcium level though not statistically significant. The increase was pronounced in samples collected on day 1. Group Y showed a consistent level of calcium, phosphate in samples collected immediately and 6 h postbrushing, indicating its substantivity. In addition, Group Y had an impact in reducing the plaque level when the 1st-month plaque score was compared with the 12th-month score. Conclusion: CaSP leads to an increase in the salivary calcium level though it was not statistically significant. Supervised brushing and dietary habits showed a positive effect on both the groups. CaSP toothpaste also showed substantivity and plaque-reducing ability.

  15. Mode of action studies on the formation of enamel minerals from a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuekui; Li, Xiaoke; Deng, Yan; Sun, Jianing N; Tao, DanYing; Chen, Hui; Hu, Qinghong; Liu, Renjiang; Liu, Weining; Feng, Xiping; Wang, Jinfang; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    To investigate in vitro and in situ the deposition and formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on enamel surfaces following brushing with a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate (CaSi), sodium phosphate salts and fluoride. Polished enamel blocks were brushed in vitro with a slurry of the CaSi toothpaste. After one brush and four weeks simulated brushing the enamel surfaces were analysed. In an in situ protocol, enamel blocks were attached to first or second molar teeth of healthy subjects, exposed to 4 weeks twice per day brushing with the CaSi toothpaste and then analysed. The surface deposits were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In addition, the CaSi toothpaste was slurried in simulated oral fluid (SOF) over a 3 hour period and the solids were isolated and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR study demonstrated that calcium phosphate phases had formed and these became increasingly crystalline over 3 hours. CaSi was deposited onto enamel surfaces following one brushing with the toothpaste in vitro.The deposited particles showed evidence of HAP crystalline phases associated with the CaSi. Following 4 weeks brushing in vitro, the deposition increased and analyses showed that the deposited material was HAP. These results were confirmed by the in situ study. Calcium silicate can be deposited onto enamel surfaces from a novel toothpaste formulation where it can form the enamel mineral HAP. A novel toothpaste formulation containing CaSi can form HAP on enamel surfaces. The potential of this technology is for a novel approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel during acid exposure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Six-Month Evaluation of a Sodium Bicarbonate-Containing Toothpaste for Reduction of Established Gingivitis: A Randomized USA-Based Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Pratten, Jonathan; Bosma, Mary-Lynn; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Wang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    Short-term use of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-containing toothpaste reduces plaque and improves clinical measures of gingivitis. To examine this over a longer period, we compared efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily brushing for 24 weeks with 67% or 0% NaHCO3-containing toothpastes in USA-based participants with moderate gingivitis (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02207400). This was a six-month, randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, clinical trial. Investigators randomized adults with blood in expectorate after brushing and ≥ 20 gingival bleeding sites to 67% NaHCO3 (n = 123; n = 107 completed study) or 0% NaHCO3 (n = 123; n = 109 completed study) toothpastes. Primary efficacy variables included between-treatment differences in number of bleeding sites and Modified Gingival Index (MGI) score at 24 weeks. Secondary efficacy variables included Bleeding Index and Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (overall and interproximal sites) at six, 12, and 24 weeks. A subset of 50 participants underwent sampling to assess plaque microbiology over the course of treatment. Compared with the 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste, the 67% NaHCO3 toothpaste produced statistically significant improvements at Week 24 in number of bleeding sites (46.7% difference) and MGI (33.9% difference), and for all other endpoints (all p < 0.0001). There was no significant between-treatment difference in the proportion of participants harboring opportunistic pathogens. Products were generally well tolerated, with two and five treatment-related adverse events reported in the 67% and 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste groups, respectively. Gingival bleeding, gingivitis, and plaque indices were significantly improved at six, 12, and 24 weeks with twice-daily brushing with 67% NaHCO3-containing toothpaste in participants with moderate gingivitis. Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

  17. Relationship between family characteristics and children's regular toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Kino, S; Bernabé, E; Sabbah, W; Aukett, J

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between toothbrushing habits of 8-9 year-olds and maternal behaviours and attitudes towards oral health in a sample of Japanese population. Cross-sectional data on mothers' behaviours and attitudes towards oral health and children's toothbrushing habits were collected from 378 mother-child pairs by self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression examined the association of children's daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste with family characteristics, mother's behaviour (toothbrushing frequency, use of interdental aids and supervision of children's toothbrushing), and mother's attitudes towards oral health (priority for toothbrushing and dental fear). Children's favourable brushing habits were positively associated with child's gender (female) (OR 1.29; 95%CI:1.09,1.53), child's order of birth (first) (OR 1.53; 95%CI:1.05,2.23), maternal brushing habits (OR 2.42; 95%CI:1.73,3.40), and maternal dental fear (OR 1.45; 95%CI:1.10,1.90). None of the other examined factors were significantly associated with child toothbrushing behaviour. Matemal oral hygiene practice and attitude towards dentists appear to be important predictors of children's toothbrushing habits in this Japanese community sample.

  18. Coronal Loop Temperatures Obtained with Hinode XRT: A Toothpaste-Tube Analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Saar, S. H.; Weber, M. A.; Deluca, E. E.; Golub, L.

    2009-12-01

    Multi-filter data observed by the Hinode X-Ray Telescope on 10 and 2007 July 13 were used to investigate the thermal properties of coronal loops. At several positions along the loops, differential emission measure analysis revealed a strong peak at log T = 6.1 (which would predict the presence of a TRACE loop) and a much weaker hot component (which we speculated might be a nanoflare signature). TRACE observations, however, did not reveal the predicted loop, so we were forced to re-examine our assumptions. Good differential emission measure results require high- and low-temperature constraints, but our data sets did not contain images from the thinnest and thickest filters, which would be most likely to provide these constraints. Since differential emission measure programs aim to match observed intensities and get low values of χ2, they may place emission measure in high- and low-temperature bins where it does not belong. We draw an analogy to squeezing the toothpaste tube in the middle. Our analysis was repeated for a loop observed on 2007 May 13 when the instrument acquired data in 11 filters and filter combinations, including both the thinnest and thickest filters. These results show that the loop is multi-thermal, with significant emission measure in the range 6.0 < log T < 6.5.

  19. From toothpaste to topological insulators and materials for valleytronics: The journeys of fluorinated tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Rivero, Pablo; Yan, Jia-An; Garcia-Suarez, Victor Manuel; Ferrer, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Tin fluoride has a vast literature. This material is stable in bulk form at room temperature and has commercial applications that include fluorinated toothpaste. Bulk tin fluoride has a pair of fluorine atoms bridging two tin atoms. In the recent past the electronic properties of 2D tin with honeycomb structure have been discussed thus generating a wealth of literature that emphasizes its non-topologically-trivial electronic properties due to the combination of a Dirac-like dispersion and a strong spin-orbit coupling given its large atomic mass. Nevertheless the stability of such freestanding structures has been contested recently. As it turns out, the most stable form of fluorinated tin does not possess a graphane-like structure either. In the most stable phase to be discussed here, fluorine atoms tilt away from (graphane-like) positions over/below tin atoms; in an atomistic arrangement similar to the one seen on their parent bulk structure. Electronic properties depend on atomistic coordination, and the most stable form of fluorinated tin does not possess non-trivial topological properties. Nevertheless it represents a new paradigm for valleytronics in 2D.

  20. Innovative formulation of nystatin particulate systems in toothpaste for candidiasis treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto Reis, Catarina; Vasques Roque, Luís; Baptista, Marina; Rijo, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a mycosis on the mucous membranes of the mouth but not limited to the mouth. Nystatin is one of the most frequently employed antifungal agents to treat infections and may be safely given orally as well as applied topically but its absorption through mucocutaneous membranes such as the gut and the skin is minimal. The purpose of this study is to enhance the effectiveness of nystatin using particulate system such as beads, micro- and nanoparticles of alginate incorporated into toothpaste. Those particulate systems of nystatin were prepared by extrusion/external gelation for beads and emulsification/internal gelation for micro- and nanoparticles and characterized. Small, anionic charged and monodispersed particles were successfully produced. The type of particulate system influenced all previous parameters, being microparticles the most suitable particulate system of nystatin showing the slowest release, the highest inhibitory effect of Candida albicans over a period of one year. Those results allowed the conclusion that alginate exhibits properties that enable the in vitro functionality of encapsulated nystatin and thus may provide the basis for new successful approaches for the treatment of oral antifungal infections such as oral candidiasis.

  1. Role of Colgate Total toothpaste in helping control plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Rover, Jo-Ann; Leu-Wai-See, Petal

    2014-06-01

    To assess the anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effects of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer and 0.243% (1,100 ppm) sodium fluoride in subjects with moderate plaque-induced gingivitis. This was a single center, monadic study. Subjects had at least 20 teeth remaining in the functional dentition, excluding third molars. Following a baseline examination for plaque, gingival inflammation and bleeding, 75 qualified healthy adult males and females, ages 18-70 were selected to participate in the study. Dental prophylaxis was performed and subjects were provided with two tubes of toothpaste (Colgate Total) and a soft-bristle toothbrush (Colgate Wave Toothbrush). The subjects were instructed to brush twice daily using a modified Bass brushing technique. At the end of the 6- to 8-week period subjects returned for collection of clinical and subjective data. 75 subjects completed the study. Both clinical and subjective reductions were significant. The results showed statistically significant reductions in plaque index, gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing. The overall conclusion was that Colgate Total was a comprehensive dentifrice that produced a significant reduction in gingivitis, plaque, and bleeding.

  2. Comparing three toothpastes in controlling plaque and gingivitis: A 6-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Triratana, Terdphong; Kraivaphan, Petcharat; Amornchat, Cholticha; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Dibart, Serge; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of three toothpastes in controlling established gingivitis and plaque over 6 months. 135 subjects were enrolled in a single-center, double-blind, parallel group, randomized clinical study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% copolymer and 1,450 ppm F as sodium fluoride in a silica base; herbal/bicarbonate dentifrice containing herbal extract and 1,400 ppm F as sodium fluoride in a sodium bicarbonate base; or fluoride dentifrice containing 450 ppm F as sodium fluoride, and 1,000 ppm F as sodium monofluorophosphate. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 1 minute for 6 months. After 6 months, subjects assigned to the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index scores and plaque index scores as compared to subjects assigned to the herbal/bicarbonate group by 35.4% and 48.9%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in gingival index and plaque index between subjects in the herbal/ bicarbonate group and those in the fluoride group. The triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice was statistically significantly more effective in reducing gingivitis and dental plaque than the herbal/bicarbonate dentifrice, and this difference in efficacy was clinically meaningful.

  3. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, Elżbieta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  4. Remineralisation effect of a dual-phase calcium silicate/phosphate gel combined with calcium silicate/phosphate toothpaste on acid-challenged enamel in situ.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew; Schäfer, Fred; Naeeni, Mojgan M; Gupta, Ashok K; Zero, Domenick T

    2014-06-01

    To test if a novel dual-phase gel system (calcium silicate and phosphate with 1450 ppmF, as NaF/MFP; TG) combined with a toothpaste (calcium silicate and sodium phosphate with 1450 ppmF, as MFP; TG) was able to re-harden previously acid-challenged enamel to a greater extent than other toothpastes. The study consisted of a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design with four 7-day treatment legs. In each leg, subjects wearing a partial denture holding four demineralised enamel specimens (25 min in 0.3% citric acid, pH3.8) used either the test regimen (TG+TP) or one of the three controls. (placebo TG+TP; Positive Control - placebo TG+marketed 1450 ppmF toothpaste; Negative Control - placebo TG+placebo TP). Enamel specimens were removed after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. The gel systems were applied once per day for the first three days during which subjects also brushed with the corresponding toothpaste; this was followed by four days use of the toothpastes only. Toothpastes were used in the conventional way brushing twice per day throughout the seven days. The outcome variable was %Surface Microhardness Recovery calculated after three and seven days of in situ treatment. The results showed a statistically significant (p<0.001) re-hardening effect for all treatments compared to pre-treatment hardness. After three days and after seven days of in situ treatment significantly greater hardening (p<0.05) was found in the samples treated with calcium silicate/phosphate gel system plus calcium silicate/phosphate toothpaste than in the control groups. It is concluded that the test regimen based on the novel dual-phase gel system combined with toothpaste was able to re-harden acid-challenged tooth enamel to a greater extent than a normal fluoride toothpaste. The novel oral care products containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride is a new approach to the repair of demineralised enamel. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear.

  6. Comparing the effectiveness of four desensitizing toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion: A scanning electron microscope analysis.

    PubMed

    Jena, Amit; Kala, Soumik; Shashirekha, Govind

    2017-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a sudden short sharp pain best explained by hydrodynamic theory. Several agents are available throughout the market that can treat DH either by blocking the nerves that helps in conducting pain or by blocking the open dentinal tubules. The aim of the present study was to compare the tubule occluding efficacy of four different desensitizing dentifrices under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sixty-two dentin blocks measuring 5 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm were obtained from extracted human molar teeth and were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 - no treatment (control, n = 2); Group 2 - Pepsodent Pro-sensitive relief and repair ( n = 15); Group 3 - Sensodyne repair and protect ( n = 15); Group 4 - Remin Pro ( n = 15); Group 5 - Test toothpaste containing 15% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) crystals ( n = 15). The specimens were brushed for 2 min/day for 14 days and stored in artificial saliva. After final brushing, specimens were gold sputtered and viewed under SEM at ×2000 magnification. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and least significant difference post hoc test. All test groups showed significant increase in dentin tubule occlusion as compared to control group. The highest percentage of tubules occluded was shown by Group 4 and Group 5 which was significantly different from other groups ( P ≤ 0.05), and there was no significant difference in tubule occlusion among them. Newer desensitizing dentifrices containing 15% n-HA and Remin Pro can provide effective tubule occlusion and thereby reduce the pain and discomfort caused by DH.

  7. Effect of whitening toothpastes on bonding of restorative materials to enamel of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Abdelmegid, F Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to measure shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin composite and a resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth after application of different whitening toothpastes (WTs). Eighty labial enamel surfaces of primary incisors were randomly distributed into 8 groups of 10 each according to the surface treatment and bonding material. G1 and G2, control (brushed with water without WT); G3 and G4, (brushed with Colgate Optic White WT [Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, NY, USA]), G5 and G6, (brushed with Crest Pro-Health Whitening WT [Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH, USA]) and G7 and G8, (brushed with Arm and Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening with Stain Defense WT [Church and Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ, USA]). SBS was measured at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and the type of bond failure was assessed using a stereomicroscope. There was significant difference between SBS of composite resin in groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 (P < 0.001), but no difference between resin-modified glass ionomer in groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 (P < 0.056). SBS of group 1 (control) was greater than groups 3, 5, and 7. There was a significant difference between group 1 and group 2 as well as group 7 and group 8 (P < 0.001). WTs affect SBS of resin composite, but not resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth. No difference of failure modes between different groups of tested materials.

  8. Streptococcus mutans adhesion to titanium after brushing with fluoride and fluoride-free toothpaste simulating 10 years of use.

    PubMed

    Fais, Laiza M G; Carmello, Juliana C; Spolidorio, Denise M P; Adabo, Gelson L

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of fluoride on the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to titanium using an experimental paradigm simulating 10 years of brushing. Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) disks (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm thick) were mirror-polished and randomly assigned to one of the following six groups (n = 6): immersion (I) or brushing (B) in deionized water (groups IW [control] and BW), fluoride-free toothpaste (groups IT and BT), or fluoridated toothpaste (groups IFT and BFT). Specimens subjected to immersion were statically submerged into the solutions without brushing. For the brushed specimens, a linear brushing machine with a soft-bristled toothbrush was used. The experiments lasted a total of 244 hours. Before and after treatment, the specimens were analyzed under an atomic force microscope to determine the mean roughness (Ra) and the mean of the maximum peak-to-valley heights of the profile (Rtm). The disks were contaminated with standard strains of S mutans in well plates with brain-heart infusion broth. Adhesion was analyzed based on the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU/mL) of adhered viable cells using scanning electronic microscopy. Differences in CFU/mL between the groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Immersion did not affect either surface. As suggested by Ra and Rtm, BW, BT, and BFT induced changes on the surface of cpTi, whereas only BT and BTF induced changes on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. No significant differences were observed regarding CFU/mL among the cpTi or Ti-6Al-4V groups. S mutans adhesion was similar for all surfaces. The changes in titanium induced by 10 years of simulated brushing with fluoride toothpaste did not increase the adhesion of S mutans.

  9. Studies on stannous fluoride toothpaste and gel (2). Effects on salivary bacterial counts and plaque regrowth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Greenman, J; Renton-Harper, P; Newcombe, R; Doherty, F

    1997-02-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in stannous fluoride (SF) products in particular to provide oral hygiene and gingival health benefits. The aim of this study was to assess the persistence of antimicrobial action of a number of SF formulations in the mouth and relate these to plaque inhibitory activity. The formulations were 2 SF toothpastes (SF1, SF2), 2 SF plus stannous pyrophosphate toothpastes (SFSP1, SFSP2), a SF gel (G), a NaF toothpaste (C) and saline (S) as control. Both studies involve 2 different groups of 21 healthy dentate volunteers. The studies were single, blind, randomised, crossover designs balanced for residual effects, with a minimum 2 1/2 day washout period. Salivary bacterial counts were determined before and to 7 h after a single rinse with the formulations. Plaque regrowth from a zero baseline (day 1) was measured by index and area on day 5, after 2x daily rinsing with slurries of the formulations or saline. For bacterial counts, highly significant treatment differences were found. Bacterial counts were variably reduced by all treatments to 30 min then showed a variable rate of return towards baseline. All test agents were significantly better than S at some timepoints. The order for greatest persistence of action downwards was; (1) SFSP2; (2) SFSP1, G, and SF1; (3) SF2; (4) C; (5) S. Highly significant differences in plaque regrowth between treatments were found with similar mean ordering of efficacy as for salivary bacterial counts from most effective downwards namely; (1) SFSP1 and SFSP2; (2) SF1; (3) SF2; G and C; (4) S. The results were consistent with a parallel study measuring tea staining in vitro, whereby formulations causing the most staining produced the greatest persistence of action and plaque inhibitory activity. This suggests the availability of stannous ions was important for the clinical effects. It is concluded that stannous ions can enhance the plaque inhibitory action of toothpaste via a persistent antimicrobial

  10. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO 2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO 2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO 2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO 2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO 2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO 2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO 2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO 2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of aloe vera tooth gel and two popular commercial toothpastes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    George, Dilip; Bhat, Sham S; Antony, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) has been suggested for a wide variety of ailments but its use in dentistry is limited. This article reviews the uses of the plant and describes an in vitro investigation that compared the antimicrobial effectiveness of aloe vera tooth gel with two popular, commercially available dentifrices. The preliminary results showed that aloe vera tooth gel and the toothpastes were equally effective against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Aloe vera tooth gel demonstrated enhanced antibacterial effect against S. mitis.

  12. Attitudes and behavioural factors relating to toothbrushing and the use of fluoride toothpaste among caries-active Swedish adolescents - a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Anna; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify attitudes and behaviour relating to fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushing habits among caries-active Swedish adolescents. This cross-sectional study is based on an earlier clinical, two-year toothpaste intervention study. At the last appointment, 206 adolescents (of 211) answered a questionnaire comprising nine semi-closed questions. The majority (93%) brushed their teeth every day, while 7% did so only occasionally. Most participants (77%) brushed twice a day, while 12% brushed just once a day. About half of those brushing just once a day forgot to brush in the evening. Similarly, more than half of the adolescents (53%) used 1 cm of toothpaste or less on their toothbrush. Moreover, 49% brushed for less than 2 min, 41% brushed for 2 min and 10% for more than 2 min. The majority (73%) rinsed with water after toothbrushing. A difference between boys and girls was also observed; 87% of the girls brushed twice a day, whereas only 67% of the boys did so and boys more frequently forgot in the evening. Attitudes and behaviour relating to fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushing habits among caries-active Swedish adolescents are still inadequate after two years of toothpaste intervention. There are several areas where improvements can be made, such as frequency of brushing, brushing time, amount of toothpaste and post-brushing procedures. The majority (81%) included 'fresh breath' as a reason for performing oral hygiene and this aspect can be used by dental staff in health promotion.

  13. A randomised clinical study to evaluate experimental children's toothpastes in an in-situ palatal caries model in children aged 11-14 years.

    PubMed

    Newby, Evelyn E; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Hara, Anderson; Lippert, Frank; Kelly, Sue A; Fleming, Nancy; Butler, Andrew; Bosma, Mary Lynn; Zero, Domenick T

    2013-12-01

    To compare three children's sodium fluoride toothpastes to placebo with respect to enamel remineralisation potential, enamel fluoride uptake and net acid resistance using an in situ palatal caries model in children aged 11-14 years following a single brushing. This was a randomised, single blind (laboratory analyst), single-centre, four-treatment, crossover study with a 7-day washout period between treatments. The treatments were 1,426 ppm fluoride, 1,000 ppm fluoride, 500 ppm fluoride and 0 ppm fluoride (placebo) toothpaste (NaF/silica). A custom made in situ palatal appliance was used by each subject in all treatment periods. At each of the four treatment visits subjects wore the appliance containing four partially demineralised human enamel specimens for 5 minutes and then brushed their teeth using a standardised procedure for 60 seconds under supervision using 1.0 g (±0.1 g) of their assigned toothpaste. After 4 hours the appliance was removed and enamel specimen recovered. This process was repeated until all subjects completed all four study treatment visits. Recovered enamel specimens were analysed for per cent surface microhardness recovery (%SMHR; Knoop) and enamel fluoride uptake (EFU; microdrill biopsy). Subsequently, specimens were demineralised in vitro to determine their % net acid resistance (%NAR; Knoop). All three fluoride toothpastes demonstrated significantly greater %SMHR, EFU and %NAR compared with 0 ppm F toothpaste. The model demonstrated a dose response over the range 0 to 1,426 ppm fluoride for %SMHR, EFU and %NAR. There was no significant difference between 500 ppm F and 1,000 ppm F for %SMHR and between 1,000 ppm F and 1,426 ppm F for %SMHR, EFU and %NAR. The present in situ study demonstrated that the children's fluoride toothpastes tested are capable of delivering cariostatic amounts of fluoride to early caries lesions following a single brushing. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Two Whitening Toothpastes on Microhardness of the Enamel and a Microhybride Composite Resin: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Z.; Kasraie, Sh.; Rezaei-Soufi, L.; Jebeli, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Whitening toothpastes which have been accepted in populations may affect properties of enamel and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of human enamel and Z250 microhybrid composite resin after brushing with two whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study of enamel specimens, forty five freshly extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into three groups of control enamel (ClE), Crest enamel (CtE) and Aquafresh enamel (AfE). For composite resin specimens, forty five cylindrical-shaped specimens of light-cured Z250 composite were prepared and divided into three groups of control composite (ClC), Crest composite (CtC) and Aquafresh composite (AfC). The control groups were brushed without toothpaste. Crest and Aquafresh group specimens were brushed with Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes, respectively. Vickers microhardness test was performed for all groups. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Microhardness values of ClE, CtE, AfE, ClC, CtC and AfC groups were 332.99 ± 26.59, 313.99 ± 20.56, 323.57 ± 27.96, 137.1 ± 3.16, 122.95 ± 3.27 and 130.36 ± 4.8, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among three enamel groups but there was significant difference among composite groups (p<0.01). Conclusion: Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes did not affect enamel hardness but reduced the microhardness value of Z-250 composite resin. However, Crest whitening toothpaste decreased the microhardness more than Aquafresh. PMID:21998788

  15. Efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate in the relief of dentin hypersensitivity: An 8-week randomized study (Study 1).

    PubMed

    Sufi, Farzana; Hall, Claire; Mason, Stephen; Shaw, David; Kennedy, Liam; Gallob, John T

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% (w/w) calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) in relieving dentin hypersensitivity (DH) compared with control toothpastes containing no known anti-sensitivity ingredients. This was the first of two exploratory, randomized, four-treatment, examiner-blind, parallel-design, single-site, 8-week studies in healthy subjects with self-reported and clinically diagnosed DH. The experimental toothpaste contained 5% CSPS with a modified surfactant system, developed to enhance its organoleptic properties. Efficacy was evaluated against an abrasivity-matched placebo formulation (0% CSPS) with additional abrasive silica replacing the CSPS, and two commercially available fluoride toothpastes as controls. After an initial lead-in period, subjects were randomized to one of the four study treatments and instructed to brush twice daily for the next 8 weeks. DH was assessed at baseline and following 4 and 8 weeks of treatment by response to tactile and evaporative (air) stimuli, and using a Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ; a validated quality-of-life measure for DH). A total of 134 subjects were randomized and completed the study. All treatments demonstrated statistically significant reductions in sensitivity from baseline at Week 4 and Week 8 for each clinical measure of sensitivity (all P ≤ 0.001). The 0% CSPS toothpaste demonstrated small but statistically significant reductions in Schiff sensitivity score compared with the other study toothpastes at Week 8 (all P< 0.05), whereas the experimental 5% CSPS toothpaste significantly improved the tactile threshold at Week 4 compared with the 0% CSPS toothpaste (P = 0.0467). The DHEQ responses did not reveal any consistent statistically significant within-treatment changes from baseline or between-treatment differences. Correlation analysis showed weak-to-moderate associations between the DHEQ outcomes and clinical endpoints. Study treatments

  16. Anti-Halitosis Effect of Toothpaste Supplemented with Alkaline Extract of the Leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sheng, Hong; Ono, Koki; Komine, Yusuke; Miyadai, Tomoharu; Terada, Yuji; Nakada, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Masaru; Yasui, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Koichi; Junye, Jia; Natori, Takenori; Suguro-Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown activity against viruses, bacteria, inflammation and oral lichenoid dysplasia of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE), suggesting its possible application to oral diseases. In the present study, we performed a small-scale clinical test to investigate whether SE is effective against halitosis and in oral bacterial reduction. A total of 12 volunteers participated in this study. They brushed their teeth immediately after meals three times each day with SE-containing toothpaste (SETP) or placebo toothpaste. Halitosis in the breath and bacterial number on the tongue were measured by commercially available portable apparatuses at a specified time in the morning. Some relationship was observed between halitosis and bacterial number from each individual, especially when those with severe halitosis were included. Repeated experiments demonstrated that SETP significantly reduced halitosis but not the bacterial number on the tongue. The present study provides for the first time the basis for anti-halitosis activity of SE. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Titanium surface topography after brushing with fluoride and fluoride-free toothpaste simulating 10 years of use.

    PubMed

    Fais, Laiza M G; Fernandes-Filho, Romeu B; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Vaz, Luis G; Adabo, Gelson L

    2012-04-01

    To conduct a controlled study contrasting titanium surface topography after procedures that simulated 10 years of brushing using toothpastes with or without fluoride. Commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V disks (6 mm Ø×4 mm) were mirror-polished and treated according to 6 groups (n=6) as a function of immersion (I) or brushing (B) using deionised water (W), fluoride-free toothpaste (T) and fluoride toothpaste (FT). Surface topography was evaluated at baseline (pretreatment) and post-treatment, using atomic force microscope in order to obtain three-dimensional images and mean roughness. Specimens submitted to immersion were submerged in the vehicles without brushing. For brushed specimens, procedures were conducted using a linear brushing machine with a soft-bristled toothbrush. Immersion and brushing were performed for 244 h. IFT and BFT samples were analysed under scanning electron microscope with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Pre and post-treatment values were compared using the paired Student T-test (α=.05). Intergroup comparisons were conducted using one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-test (α=.05). cp Ti mean roughness (in nanometers) comparing pre and post-treatment were: IW, 2.29±0.55/2.33±0.17; IT, 2.24±0.46/2.02±0.38; IFT, 2.22±0.53/1.95±0.36; BW, 2.22±0.42/3.76±0.45; BT, 2.27±0.55/16.05±3.25; BFT, 2.27±0.51/22.39±5.07. Mean roughness (in nanometers) measured in Ti-6Al-4V disks (pre/post-treatment) were: IW, 1.79±0.25/2.01±0.25; IT, 1.61±0.13/1.74±0.19; IFT, 1.92±0.39/2.29±0.51; BW, 2.00±0.71/2.05±0.43; BT, 2.37±0.86/11.17±2.29; BFT, 1.83±0.50/15.73±1.78. No significant differences were seen after immersions (p>.05). Brushing increased the roughness of cp Ti and of Ti-6Al-4V (p<.01); cp Ti had topographic changes after BW, BT and BFT treatments whilst Ti-6Al-4V was significantly different only after BT and BTF. EDS has not detected fluoride or sodium ions on metal surfaces. Exposure to toothpastes (immersion

  18. Low-levels of fluoride in plaque and saliva and their effects on the demineralisation and remineralisation of enamel; role of fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, R J M; Navada, R; Walia, R

    2004-01-01

    To summarise support for current consensus on the likely means by which fluoride toothpastes reduce caries and review some relevant studies of the effect of low levels of fluoride on the demineralisation and remineralisation of enamel. The major anti-caries effect of fluoride toothpastes is thought to result from small but protracted elevations in levels of fluoride in plaque and saliva. Fluoride incorporated into enamel systemically does not reduce enamel solubility sufficiently to exert an anti-caries effect. Fluoride has the potential to exert an anti-caries benefit largely through three mechanisms; inhibition of demineralisation, promotion of remineralisation and interference with bacterial growth and metabolism. However, the low levels of fluoride thought to influence caries are insufficient to have a significant effect via the latter mechanism. Thus reductions in caries resulting from the use of fluoride toothpastes can be linked to modification of the demineralisation/remineralisation balance by direct effects on dental mineral exerted topically by low levels of fluoride. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that low levels of fluoride, typical of those found after many hours in resting plaque and saliva, and resulting from the regular use of fluoride toothpastes, can have a profound effect on enamel demineralisation and remineralisation.

  19. 'I take for granted that patients know' - oral health professionals' strategies, considerations and methods when teaching patients how to use fluoride toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Jensen, O; Gabre, P; Sköld, U M; Birkhed, D; Povlsen, L

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the oral health professionals' (OHPs') perspectives regarding their strategies, considerations and methods when teaching their patients the most effective way of toothbrushing with fluoride (F) toothpaste. A qualitative research method was used to collect data. To stimulate interactivity among the participants, interviews were performed in focus groups. Five groups of OHPs, including dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses, were interviewed a total of 23 individuals. The interviews were analysed using manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. Data were systematically condensed and coded to the relevant phrases that identified their content. Three categories were identified in the manifest and latent content analysis: (i) strategies and intentions, (ii) providing oral hygiene information and instruction and (iii) barriers to optimal oral healthcare education. Health promotion and seeing to the patients' best interest were driving forces among the OHPs as well as personal success in their preventive work. They focused on toothbrushing techniques more than on how to use F toothpaste. Barriers to oral health information were cost to the patients and, to some extent, the opinion of the OHPs that some patients were impossible to motivate or that patients already know what to do. The OHPs described toothbrushing with F toothpaste as very important, although the plaque removal perspective dominated. They did not focus on how to use F toothpaste, because they believed that knowledge about and appropriate behaviour concerning F toothpaste were already familiar to their patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Anne-Kathrin; Obeid, Rima; Weder, Stine; Awwad, Hussain M; Sputtek, Andreas; Geisel, Juergen; Keller, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier. Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status. Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo ( n = 34) or vitamin B-12 ( n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects ( n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline tHcy, postintervention concentrations of tHcy tended to be lower ( P = 0.051), and the changes in tHcy (-0.7 ± 4.4 compared with 2.0 ± 5.6 μmol/L, respectively) were greater in the vitamin B-12 group than in the placebo group. Changes in vitamin B-12 markers were more prominent in vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements. Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered

  1. The internal structure of lava flows—insights from AMS measurements II: Hawaiian pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'ā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo; Walker, George P. L.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    1997-03-01

    We studied the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 22 basaltic flow units, including S-type pahoehoe, P-type pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'ā emplaced over different slopes in two Hawaiian islands. Systematic differences occur in several aspects of AMS (mean susceptibility, degree of anisotropy, magnetic fabric and orientation of the principal susceptibilities) among the morphological types that can be related to different modes of lava emplacement. AMS also detects systematic changes in the rate of shear with position in a unit, allowing us to infer local flow direction and some other aspects of the velocity field of each unit. 'A'ā flows are subject to stronger deformation than pahoehoe, and also their internal parts behave more like a unit. According to AMS, the central part of pahoehoe commonly reveals a different deformation history than the upper and lower extremes, probably resulting from endogenous growth.

  2. Control of brushing variables for the in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity using a novel laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Parry, Jason; Harrington, Edward; Rees, Gareth D; McNab, Rod; Smith, Anthony J

    2008-02-01

    Design and construct a tooth-brushing simulator incorporating control of brushing variables including brushing force, speed and temperature, thereby facilitating greater understanding of their importance in toothpaste abrasion testing methodologies. A thermostable orbital shaker was selected as a base unit and 16- and 24-specimen brushing rigs were constructed to fit inside, consisting of: a square bath partitioned horizontally to provide brushing channels, specimen holders for 25 mm diameter mounted specimens to fit the brushing channels and individually weighted brushing arms, able to support four toothbrush holders suspended over the brushing channels. Brush head holders consisted of individually weighted blocks of Delrin, or PTFE onto which toothbrush heads were fixed. Investigating effects of key design criteria involved measuring abrasion depths of polished human enamel and dentine. The brushing simulator demonstrated good reproducibility of abrasion on enamel and dentine across consecutive brushing procedures. Varying brushing parameters had a significant impact on wear results: increased brushing force demonstrated a trend towards increased wear, with increased reproducibility for greater abrasion levels, highlighting the importance of achieving sufficient wear to optimise accuracy; increasing brushing temperature demonstrated increased enamel abrasion for silica and calcium carbonate systems, which may be related to slurry viscosities and particle suspension; varying brushing speed showed a small effect on abrasion of enamel at lower brushing speed, which may indicate the importance of maintenance of the abrasive in suspension. Adjusting key brushing variables significantly affected wear behaviour. The brushing simulator design provides a valuable model system for in vitro assessment of toothpaste abrasivity and the influence of variables in a controlled manner. Control of these variables will allow more reproducible study of in vitro tooth wear processes.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of providing free fluoride toothpaste from the age of 12 months on reducing caries in 5-6 year old children.

    PubMed

    Davies, G M; Worthington, H V; Ellwood, R P; Bentley, E M; Blinkhorn, A S; Taylor, G O; Davies, R M

    2002-09-01

    To assess the impact of regularly supplying free fluoride toothpaste regularly to children, initially aged 12 months, and living in deprived areas of the north west of England on the level of caries in the deciduous dentition at 5-6 years of age. A further aim was to compare the effectiveness of a programme using a toothpaste containing 440 ppmF (Colgate 0-6 Gel) with one containing 1,450 ppmF (Colgate Great Regular Flavour) in reducing caries. Randomised controlled parallel group clinical trial. Clinical data were collected from test and control groups when the children were 5-6 years old. A programme of posting toothpaste with dental health messages to the homes of children initially aged 12 months. Clinical examinations took place in primary schools. 7,422 children born in 3-month birth cohorts living in high caries areas in nine health districts in north west England. Within each district children were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Toothpaste, containing either 440 ppmF or 1450 ppmF, and dental health literature posted at three monthly intervals to children in test groups until they were aged 5-6 years. The dmft index, missing teeth and the prevalence of caries experience. An analysis of 3,731 children who were examined and remained in the programme showed the mean dmft to be 2.15 for the group who had received 1,450 ppmF toothpaste and 2.49 for the 440 ppmF group. The mean dmft for the control group was 2.57. This 16% reduction between the 1,450 ppmF and control group was statistically significant (P<0.05). The difference between the 440 ppmF group and control was not significant. Further analyses to estimate the population effect of the programme also confirmed this relationship. This study demonstrates that a programme distributing free toothpaste containing 1,450 ppmF provides a significant clinical benefit for high caries risk children living in deprived, non-fluoridated districts.

  4. Effect of a chitosan additive to a Sn2+-containing toothpaste on its anti-erosive/anti-abrasive efficacy--a controlled randomised in situ trial.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, N; Klimek, J; Ganss, C

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Sn(2+) is a notable anti-erosive agent. There are indications that biopolymers such as chitosan can enhance the effect of Sn(2+), at least in vitro. However, little information exists about their anti-erosive/anti-abrasive in situ effects. In the present in situ study, the efficacy of Sn(2+)-containing toothpastes in the presence or absence of chitosan was tested. Ten subjects participated in the randomised crossover study, wearing mandibular appliances with human enamel specimens. Specimens were extraorally demineralised (7 days, 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.6; 6 × 2 min/day) and intraorally exposed to toothpaste suspensions (2 × 2 min/day). Within the suspension immersion time, one half of the specimens were additionally brushed intraorally with a powered toothbrush (5 s, 2.5 N). Tested preparations were a placebo toothpaste (negative control), two experimental toothpastes (F/Sn = 1,400 ppm F(-), 3,500 ppm Sn(2+); F/Sn/chitosan = 1,400 ppm F(-), 3,500 ppm Sn(2+), 0.5 % chitosan) and an SnF2-containing gel (positive control, GelKam = 3,000 ppm Sn(2+), 1,000 ppm F(-)). Substance loss was quantified profilometrically (μm). In the placebo group, tissue loss was 11.2 ± 4.6 (immersion in suspension) and 17.7 ± 4.7 (immersion in suspension + brushing). Immersion in each Sn(2+)-containing suspension significantly reduced tissue loss (p ≤ 0.01); after immersion in suspension + brushing, only the treatments with GelKam (5.4 ± 5.5) and with F/Sn/chitosan (9.6 ± 5.6) significantly reduced loss [both p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo; F/Sn 12.8 ± 6.4 (not significant)] Chitosan enhanced the efficacy of the Sn(2+)-containing toothpaste as an anti-erosive/anti-abrasive agent. The use of Sn(2+)- and chitosan-containing toothpaste is a good option for symptomatic therapy in patients with regular acid impacts.

  5. Short-term effect of strontium- and zinc-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses on volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Léo G; Jonski, Grazyna; Tinoco, Eduardo M B; Young, Alix

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) reduces the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) associated with oral malodour. Although strontium (Sr) is included in some products for reducing dental hypersensitivity, it may also have anti-halitosis properties. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study compared the anti-VSC effect of brushing with commercial toothpastes and rinses containing Zn and Sr. The volunteers (n = 30) either brushed/rinsed with/without tongue brushing using Zn-containing toothpaste/rinse, Sr-containing toothpaste/rinse, or placebo (control). Volatile sulphur compounds [hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH)] were measured, in morning breath, using gas chromatography. The anti-VSC effects of the test toothpastes and test rinses were significantly better than the anti-VSC effects of the respective controls. Toothbrushing with test toothpastes gave median reductions, compared with the control, of 70% for H2 S and 55-57% for CH3 SH. Rinsing with the Sr- and Zn-containing solutions had the same anti-VSC effect as toothbrushing and tooth- and tongue brushing with the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes. Zinc-containing rinse resulted in a significantly higher median salivary level of Zn compared with brushing with Zn-containing toothpaste, although this effect did not correlate with the anti-VSC effect. It can be concluded that the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes and the Zn- and Sr-containing rinses, when used in the evening, are equally effective in reducing morning-breath VSCs the following day. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Gumber, Samita; Kaur, Nirapjeet

    2017-01-01

    Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization). Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of fluoride levels in nails of 18-30-month-old children that were using toothpastes with 500 and 1100 μg F/g.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jackeline G; Freire, Isabelle R; Valle-Neto, Eduardo F R; Cunha, Robson F; Martinhon, Cleide C R; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride concentration in the fingernails and toenails of children aged 18-30 months during use of fluoride-containing toothpastes supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) or sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP). According to the toothpaste used, children (n = 56) were randomly assigned into three groups: 500 μg F/g with 1% TMP, 500 μg F/g with 0.25% CaGP, and 1100 μg F/g. Fingernails and toenails were collected monthly over a period of 330 days, from the beginning of toothpaste use. Fluoride concentration in the water consumed by the volunteers and fluoride intake from diet and toothpaste were also determined. Fluoride analyses were performed with the electrode after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion or by the direct method, according to the samples. Data passed normality and homoscedasticity tests and were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (anova) and 1-way anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). Fluoride levels in the fingernails and toenails as well as fluoride intake from toothpaste were similar for the groups treated with 500 μg F/g with 1% TMP and 500 μg F/g with 0.25% CaGP toothpastes, but significantly lower than the 1100 μg F/g group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted among the groups regarding fluoride intake from diet and that by water consumed by the volunteers (P > 0.05). The results of the longitudinal study suggest that the level of fluoride present in nails was lower with the use of toothpastes with a low fluoride concentration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous determination of potassium and total fluoride in toothpastes using a SIA system with two potentiometric detectors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olmos, R; Soto, J C; Zárate, N; Díez, I

    2008-05-12

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for the first time to quantify potassium and total fluoride in toothpastes and gels used to prevent both dentinal hypersensitivity and dental caries. To enable this simultaneous determination, potentiometric detection, using a conventional fluoride electrode and a tubular potassium selective electrode, formed by a PVC membrane containing valinomycin as ionophore, was carried out. A manifold that uses a three-way solenoid valve was designed. The former under binary sampling conditions, provides reproducible mixing ratios of two solutions. This fact facilitates that the system automatically generates, on-line, the calibration curves required by the analytical procedure. The calibration ranged from 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) for both potassium and total fluoride determinations. The R.S.D. (11 readings) resulted to be less than 1.5% for both determinations. Off-line studies related to the dissolution of the solid samples, the transformation of monofluorophosphate in fluoride, the elimination of organic matrix interference onto the plastic membrane of the potassium electrode, and the selection of the most adequate TISAB solution for fluoride determination, were also considered. A sampling rate of 18 samples h(-1) for both determinations was attained, their precisions and accuracies being statistically indistinguishable from those achieved by atomic emission spectroscopy (for potassium determination) and by a conventional batch potentiometry (for total fluoride determination) adopted as reference techniques.

  9. A prospective randomized clinical trial into the capacity of a toothpaste containing NovaMin to prevent white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Derek A; Clark, Andrew E; Rody, Wellington J; McGorray, Susan P; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2015-01-01

    White spot lesions and gingivitis represent common, yet challenging, dilemmas for orthodontists. Fluoride has shown some benefit as a protective measure against demineralization; however, this is usually insufficient for orthodontic patients with less than ideal oral hygiene. Dentifrices containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate bioactive glass (NovaMin) have been proposed to aid in prevention of white spot lesions and gingival inflammation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if the use of NovaMin reduces the formation of white spot lesions and improves gingival health in orthodontic patients. This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Forty-eight patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated to two groups. The control group consisted of 24 patients who received over-the-counter fluoride toothpaste (Crest®), while the study group consisted of 24 patients who were given the test dentifrice (ReNew™) containing 5 % NovaMin and fluoride. Patients were followed up for 6 months on a monthly basis. Decalcification, gingival health, plaque, and bacteria levels were evaluated every 3 months. Statistical analysis was performed using both parametric and non-parametric tests to identify differences between groups at different time points. There were no significant differences between the groups in regard to changes in white spot lesions, plaque, or gingival health (P > 0.05). There was a trend toward improvement in white spot lesions found in subjects using Crest® at the 3-month time point; however, this was not sustained throughout the study. Our results indicate that a toothpaste containing NovaMin does not differ significantly compared to traditional fluoride toothpaste for improving white spot lesions and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.

  10. The effects of an Ayurvedic medicinal toothpaste on clinical, microbiological and oral hygiene parameters in patients with chronic gingivitis: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel allocation clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Howshigan, J; Perera, K; Samita, S; Rajapakse, P S

    2015-12-01

    Plant derived preparations have been essential components for maintenance of oral hygiene and the treatment of oral diseases globally since ancient times. Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnate L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Zingiber offici-nale Roscoe., individually or in combination, have been used for this purpose because of their beneficial effects. To study the efficacy of an Ayurvedic toothpaste containing these herbs in patients with chronic gingivitis. Otherwise healthy males and non-pregnant females (n=80) aged 18-35 years with ≥20 teeth were randomly assigned to Group 1 (herbal toothpaste) and Group 2 (placebo toothpaste). Quigley Hein plaque index (PS), bleeding on probing (BOP) and probing pocket depth (PPD), were recorded for all teeth at six sites, and one ml of resting saliva was collected to ascertain anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. Full-mouth prophylaxis was performed and instructions for brushing with the allocated toothpaste for 6 months were given at baseline. Sixty-six participants, 34 in Group 1 and 32 in Group 2 completed the study. Clinical examinations were performed by the same examiner blinded to group allocation. Linear mixed model analysis revealed significant reductions of PS, BOP, PPD (p<0.0001) and total salivary anaerobic counts (p<0.05) in Group 1 at all prescribed visits compared to Group 2. Moreover the reduction increased overtime. No unpleasant effects of toothpaste use were reported. This study provides robust evidence of the beneficial antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of the test herbal toothpaste Sudantha® on patients with chronic gingivitis.

  11. Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala.

    PubMed

    Rajwanshi, P; Singh, V; Gupta, M K; Kumari, V; Shrivastav, R; Ramanamurthy, M; Dass, S

    1997-01-30

    Studies were conducted in order to assess the level of aluminium (Al) in samples of Indian tea, coffee, toothpaste, paan masala (mouth freshener) and baking powder. Leaching of Al from cookware while preparing tea and coffee was also studied. Experiments were also conducted to study the sequential leaching of Al from cookware by preparing tea and coffee in the presence of standard size Al sheets (coupons). A small amount of Al was found to have leached from coupons during preparation of tea. Tea leaves, were found to be a rich source of Al and a maximum of 2.2% Al is extracted in tea infusions. Coffee powder on the other hand was not found to be a rich source of Al. Baking powder was found to be a rich source of Al and 1 kg of cake prepared with 1-3 teaspoon of baking powder may contain 2-12.7 mg of Al in each serving (25 g). Toothpaste also contains a significant quantity of Al, more so, when packed in Al tubes. Ingestion pattern of Al from these items by humans is also discussed.

  12. In vitro effect of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride toothpastes on bovine enamel erosion under hyposalivation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Taís; Borges, Alessandra B; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride (F) toothpastes in preventing enamel erosion under low salivary flow simulating conditions. Enamel and dentin bovine specimens were assigned to the following groups: A - placebo; B - 1,100 ppm F/NaF (Aquafresh Advanced); C - 5,000 ppm F/NaF (Prevident 5000 Booster); D - 5000 ppm F/NaF+calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Topex Renew); and E - 5,000 ppm F/NaF+tri-calcium phosphate (Clinpro 5000). Specimens were positioned in custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the surface, connected to peristaltic pumps. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 minutes, followed by artificial saliva (0.05 ml/minute), for 60 minutes, 4x/day, for 3 days. Aquafresh was also tested under normal salivary flow (0.5 ml/minute), as reference (Group F). Specimens were exposed to the toothpastes for 2 minutes, 2x/day. After cycling, surface loss (SL) and concentration of loosely- and firmly-bound F were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Group A (placebo) presented highest surface loss (SL), while Group F had the lowest, for both substrates. For enamel, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B or among each other. For dentin, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B, but Group E showed greater protection than Group C. Group E presented the highest F concentrations for both substrates, only matched by Group D for firmly-bound fluoride on enamel. All fluoridated dentifrices tested reduced SL, with no additional benefit from higher F concentrations. Some formulations, especially Clinpro 5000, increased F availability on the dental substrates, but no further erosion protection was observed.

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of amine fluoride based tooth gels compared to a toothpaste in a phase 2/step 2 in-vitro test model

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Anne; Großjohann, Beatrice; Welk, Alexander; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Braun, Dagmar; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of various gel formulations on plaque formation; different tooth gels were compared to a toothpaste containing comparable antimicrobial ingredients with regard to its microbiocidal activity. The study was conducted under the assumption, that a chief requirement for the prevention of plaque formation is the combination of mechanical removal and antimicrobial activity, and not the sole capability of mechanical plaque removal. Methods: Ledermix® fluoride gel as commercially available with preservative, and without preservative and perfume oils, Elmex® gelée, and Meridol® toothpaste were tested in a standardized in-vitro test modification of the quantitative suspension test EN 1040. Instead of testing in a suspension, the respective product was directly placed on a standardized contaminated sterile stainless steel disk without adding any bio-burden. 50% egg yolk in Aqua dest. was used as a neutralizer. Results: Within 1 min, Elmex® gelée showed a RF >5 log10 against S. pyogenes and S. sanguinis. Against S. mutans, a log10 RF of ≥5 was achieved after 2 min, against C. albicans after 5 min, and against P. aeruginosa after 10 min S. aureus was the most difficult organisms to be reduced. After an application time of 10 min, only a log10 RF of 2.4 was achieved. Ledermix exceeded the antimicrobial efficacy of Elmex® gelée against S. mutans and C. albicans and was already effective against these organisms after 1 min, but did not show the same antimicrobial efficacy as Elmex® gelée against P. aeruginosa. Similar to Elmex® gelée, a required reduction of >5 log10 for antimicrobials under no organic challenge was not achieved against S. aureus. Ledermix® fluoride gel without preservatives and Ledermix® fluoride gel without preservatives and perfume oil did not show the antimicrobial efficacy of the standard Ledermix® fluoride gel formulation, indicating that the observed

  14. 3D-Image analysis of the impact of toothpaste abrasivity on the progression of simulated non-carious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Sabrah, Alaa H; Turssi, Cecilia P; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Kelly, Adam B; Hara, Anderson T

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of toothpaste abrasive level on the progression of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using 3D-image subtraction. Upper first premolars were allocated into seven groups (n = 16) of toothpaste/abrasive slurries: A-Zeodent113/5%, B-Zeodent124/10%, C-Zeodent103/15%, D-Sensodyne Pronamel, E-Crest Cavity-Protection, F-Crest Pro-Health-Whitening, and G-Deionized water (DIW). Teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks, and their root surfaces covered with acrylic resin, except for 2-mm near the cemento-enamel junction that was exposed to toothbrushing. Specimens were brushed with the slurries for 5000-, 15,000-, 35,000- and 65,000-strokes. Impressions were taken at baseline and after each brushing time, and then scanned by a 3D optical profilometer. Dentine volume loss was calculated by image subtraction software and subjected to mixed-model ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). No significant differences among slurries were observed at 5000 and 15,000. At 35,000, F showed higher loss than all other groups except C, which did not differ from the others. At 65,000, F (4.19 ± 3.29 mm 3 ) showed the highest loss, followed by C (2.33 ± 1.47 mm 3 ), which differed from all the other groups except B (1.85 ± 0.91 mm 3 ). Groups B, A (1.35 ± 0.65 mm 3 ), D (1.17 ± 0.48 mm 3 ), E (1.40 ± 0.68 mm 3 ) and G (1.12 ± 0.73 mm 3 ) did not differ from each other. Groups F and C showed significant increase of volume loss starting at 35,000, while B, A, D and E only at 65,000; no increase loss was observed for G. 3D-image subtraction was able to quantify and differentiate tooth loss, but only at advanced stages. The progression of NCCLs was more evident and faster for highly abrasive slurries. Upon root dentin exposure, brushing with lower abrasive dentifrices is advisable to reduce the risk for NCCLs development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. I Can’t Believe It’s Not Toothpaste! Poison Control Center Calls Regarding Dental and Oral-Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Suchard, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: A cluster of incidents in which non-tooth-paste products were used to brush teeth prompted a review of all calls to one Poison Control Center (PCC) regarding exposures to dental and oral-care products to determine if any resulted in significant toxicity. Methods: Retrospective review of 65,849 calls to one PCC during one calendar year. All inquiries about exposures to substances used as dental or oral-care products were analyzed by a single reviewer for reported adverse effects; including hospital admission or PCC referral for emergent medical evaluation. Results: 798 calls involved exposure to dental or oral-care products, comprising 1.21 % of all calls received. Toothbrushing incidents with non-toothpaste products (122 cases) did not result in any significant recognized toxicity. Twenty-four patients were either referred for emergent medical evaluation (14) or were admitted to the hospital (10). In 23 of these patients (96%), the toxic agent was either an over-the-counter analgesic or a local anesthetic used to treat dental pain. Conclusions: Among PCC calls received regarding dental and oral-care products, over-the-counter analgesics and local anesthetics used for dental pain resulted in the most frequent need for emergent medical evaluation or for hospital admission. PMID:20852712

  16. Synthesis and application of mesoporous molecular sieve for miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of bioactive flavonoids from toothpaste, plant, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wan; Cao, Jun; Ye, Li-Hong; Xu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Peng, Li-Qing

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the use of the mesoporous molecular sieve KIT-6 as a sorbent in miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in combination with ultra-performance LC for the determination of bioactive flavonoids in toothpaste, Scutellariae Radix, and saliva. In this study, for the first time, KIT-6 was used as a sorbent material for this mode of extraction. Compared with common silica-based sorbents (C18 and activated silica gel), the proposed KIT-6 dispersant with a three-dimensional cubic Ia3d structure and highly ordered arrays of mesoporous channels exhibits excellent adsorption capability of the tested compounds. In addition, several experimental variables, such as the mass ratio of sample to dispersant, grinding time, and elution solvent, were optimized to maximize the extraction efficiency. The proposed analytical method is simple, fast, and entails low consumption of samples, dispersants and elution solvents, thereby meeting "green chemistry" requirements. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of three bioactive flavonoids obtained by analyzing the spiked samples were from 89.22 to 101.17%. Also, the LODs and LOQs for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg/mL and 0.07-0.13 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion method was successfully applied to the analysis of target solutes in real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Detection of the level of fluoride in the commercially available toothpaste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with the marker atomic transition line of neutral fluorine at 731.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Maganda, Y. W.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Qahtan, T. F.

    2014-04-01

    Fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 266 nm) in combination with high resolution spectrograph equipped with Gated ICCD camera has been employed to design a high sensitive analytical system. This detection system is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and has been tested first time for analysis of semi-fluid samples to detect fluoride content present in the commercially available toothpaste samples. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an optically thin and in local thermo dynamic equilibrium plasma. This improved the limits of detection of fluoride present in tooth paste samples. The strong atomic transition line of fluorine at 731.102 nm was used as the marker line to quantify the fluoride concentration levels. Our LIBS system was able to detect fluoride concentration levels in the range of 1300-1750 ppm with a detection limit of 156 ppm.

  18. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2012-05-30

    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Why Is Brushing with Toothpaste Important?

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, June 29, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... Terms and Conditions © 1996-2018 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The University: Marketing Theories, Not Toothpaste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimsky, Sheldon

    1982-01-01

    Using genetic engineering as an example, issues related to functions of universities/industry and scientific research are discussed. A research agreement between MIT and Exxon Corporation (on combustion science) is outlined, addressing issues related to such agreements (including patents/patent ownership and publications). Suggests future…

  1. Denture Care: How Do I Clean Dentures?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid stiff-bristled brushes, strong cleansers and harsh toothpaste, as these are too abrasive and can damage your dentures. Whitening toothpastes. Toothpastes advertised as whitening pastes often contain peroxide, ...

  2. Let the Brushing Games Begin

    MedlinePlus

    ... unturned. Toothpaste Temptations All children can benefit from fluoride, but it’s important to use the right amount ... toothpaste. Current recommendations advise using a smear of fluoride toothpaste (or an amount about the size of ...

  3. Gums - swollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... dentures or other dental appliances Pregnancy Sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash Scurvy Side effect of a medicine ... such as mouthwashes, alcohol, and tobacco. Change your toothpaste brand and stop using mouthwashes if sensitivity to ...

  4. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an ingredient in many toothpastes and mouthwashes, has been linked to canker sores, ... you brush your teeth . Brush and rinse with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain SLS. And ...

  5. Healthy Smile for Your Young Child: Tips to Keep Your Child Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... teeth with a soft toothbrush and toothpaste with fluoride, twice a day, after breakfast and before bed. ... m Brush your child’s teeth with toothpaste with fluoride (floor-ide) twice a day, after breakfast and ...

  6. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... decay and gum disease by brushing daily with fluoride toothpaste and flossing. Also visit the dentist regularly ... Your Mouth Healthy Drink fluoridated water and use fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride protects against dental decay at all ...

  7. Remineralization Potential of Three Tooth Pastes on Enamel Caries.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rajnish K; Rai, Balwant

    2017-08-15

    Different formulations of dentifrices exist in the market. Usually, single toothpaste is used by all family members including children. There is a big concern of fluoride ingestion with the toothpaste containing high fluoride content in children. Recently, new toothpaste (including toothpaste) with remineralization potential without fluoride content has been formulated. There is an urgent need to compare remineralization potential of this new formulation with the exiting dentifrices. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to assess and compare the remineralization potential of three dentifrices with different compositions on artificially induced carious lesions in vitro by using scanning electron microscopy and polarised light microscopy. The present in vitro study was conducted on 21 healthy extracted primary central incisor teeth surfaces, which were divided into three groups and were treated by three different dentifrices. Artificial demineralization was followed by remineralization using dentifrice slurry as per the group distribution. All the samples were studied for remineralization by using scanning electron microscopy and polarised light microscopy. Data were analysed using SPSS version 11 software. A significant difference was found between the remineralization potential of incudent toothpaste and other toothpaste groups based on the analysis of polarised light microscopy and stereomicroscope. The remineralizing ability of incudent toothpaste for artificial enamel lesions was found to be significantly higher than that of Colgate® and Crest toothpaste. The limitations of this study include, being a short term study, low sample size and in vitro experiment. incudent toothpaste has exhibited a higher remineralizing potential as compared to fluoride based toothpaste in our study.

  8. Effect of saliva and blood contamination after etching upon the shear bond strength between composite resin and enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadi, A. S.; Usman, M.; Suprastiwi, E.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the surface roughness of composite resin veneer after brushing. In this study, 24 specimens of composite resin veneer are divided into three subgroups: brushed without toothpaste, brushed with non-herbal toothpaste, and brushed with herbal toothpaste. Brushing was performed for one set of 5,000 strokes and continued for a second set of 5,000 strokes. Roughness of composite resin veneer was determined using a Surface Roughness Tester. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Post Hoc Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that the highest difference among the Ra values occurred within the subgroup that was brushed with the herbal toothpaste. In conclusion, the herbal toothpaste produced a rougher surface on composite resin veneer compared to non-herbal toothpaste.

  9. [Modern hygiene products impact on oral microbial, pH and mineral balance].

    PubMed

    Gromova, S N; Rumiantsev, V A

    2012-01-01

    Several toothpastes are compared in the study: "Zhemchuzhnaya-complex protection" containing as abrasive substance finely dispersed dicalcium phosphate phosphathydrate, "Noviy zhemchug ftor" and "Zhemchug svezhaya myata" with calcium carbonate. "Zhemchuzhnaya-complex protection" and "Noviy zhemchug ftor" both contain sodium monophosphate as active substance. Impact of these toothpastes on oral microbial, pH and mineral balance was assessed in the study.

  10. Operational Reserve: National Guard Readiness when Current Conflicts End

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    toothpaste back in the tube”17 With probable post war reduction in DOD funding, it is not realistic to assume that the National Guard will obtain...necessitates that we don’t try to put the toothpaste back in the tube. We cannot undo the policies and procedures that have gotten us to the current state

  11. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  12. Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    supply generic products such as toothpaste which do not require satisfying unique federal requirements (and related paperwork). For these reasons... toothpaste . Proctor and Gamble may not need to deal with issues involving government-specific specifications and may have minimal incremental paperwork

  13. Federal Contractors and Sticky Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-05

    products such as toothpaste which do not require satisfying unique federal requirements (and related paperwork). For these reasons, it may not be...sales tend to be for off-the-shelf items such as toothpaste . Proctor and Gamble may not need to deal with issues involving government-specific

  14. A Critique of the Brushing for Life Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective: Brushing for Life is intended to promote regular brushing of children's teeth with fluoride toothpaste. The programme is delivered by health visitors who provide toothbrushes, toothpaste and dental health education material at children's 8, 18 and 36 month development checks. The purpose of the present paper was to…

  15. Changing risk factors for fluorosis among South Australian children.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A John; Do, Loc G

    2008-06-01

    Research in the last decade has shown changing exposure patterns to discretionary fluorides and declining prevalence of fluorosis among South Australian children, raising the question of how risk factors for fluorosis have changed. To examine and compare risk factors for fluorosis among representative samples of South Australian children in 1992/1993 and 2002/2003. Similar sampling strategies and data collection methods were employed in the Child Fluoride Study (CFS) Marks 1 (1992/1993) and 2 (2002/2003). Participants in each CFS round were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Exposure history was collected for fluoride in water, toothpaste, fluoride supplements and infant formula, allowing for a fluorosis risk assessment analysis. Data were re-weighted to represent the child population at each time. Changes in prevalence of fluorosis, defined as having a TF score of 1+ on maxillary central incisors, fluoride exposure and risk factors between the two rounds were evaluated. A total of 375 and 677 children participated in the 1992/1993 and 2002/2003 rounds respectively. Prevalence of fluorosis declined significantly from 45.3% to 25.9%. Reduced use of fluoride supplements and increased use of 400-550-ppm children F toothpaste were the most substantial fluoride exposure changes. Early toothpaste use, residence in fluoridated areas and fluoride supplement use were the risk factors in 1992/1993. Early toothpaste use and fluoride supplement use were not risk factors, leaving fluoridated water as the only risk factor among the common variables in 2002/2003. In an analysis stratified by the type of fluoridated toothpaste in 2002/2003, the large amount of toothpaste used was a risk factor in those who used 1000-ppm fluoridated toothpaste, and eating/licking toothpaste when toothpaste use started was a risk factor among children who used either 1000-ppm or 400-550-ppm fluoridated toothpaste. Introduction of the 400-550-ppm F toothpaste and use

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING CHOICE OF ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS BY DENTAL PATIENTS IN A NIGERIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Opeodu, O I; Gbadebo, S O

    2017-06-01

    Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. To assess the extent to which some factors influenced the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes among dental patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Two-hundred and two patients were interviewed on factors that influenced their choice of toothbrush and toothpaste. Some of the factors considered include the cost, packaging, brand, media advertisement and their previous experience. Factors that affected choice of toothbrush by respondents included texture (89.6%), brand (62.9%), previous experience (64.4%) and for toothpaste, fluoride content (62.4%), previous experience (69.3%), and advice by a dentist (55.0%). Media advertisement was the least influential in their choice of toothpaste (29.2%) and toothbrush (24.3%). Consideration for fluoride was a stronger factor than herbal contents in the choice of toothpaste (P<0.001). Previous experience seems to be a very strong factor in the choice of both the toothbrush and toothpaste in this study, which suggest that for as long as the respondents are satisfied with a particular product, they will stick to it.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING CHOICE OF ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS BY DENTAL PATIENTS IN A NIGERIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    Opeodu, O.I.; Gbadebo, S.O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors influenced the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes among dental patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Two-hundred and two patients were interviewed on factors that influenced their choice of toothbrush and toothpaste. Some of the factors considered include the cost, packaging, brand, media advertisement and their previous experience. Results: Factors that affected choice of toothbrush by respondents included texture (89.6%), brand (62.9%), previous experience (64.4%) and for toothpaste, fluoride content (62.4%), previous experience (69.3%), and advice by a dentist (55.0%). Media advertisement was the least influential in their choice of toothpaste (29.2%) and toothbrush (24.3%). Consideration for fluoride was a stronger factor than herbal contents in the choice of toothpaste (P<0.001) Conclusion: Previous experience seems to be a very strong factor in the choice of both the toothbrush and toothpaste in this study, which suggest that for as long as the respondents are satisfied with a particular product, they will stick to it. PMID:28970772

  18. Comparison of the clinical efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1000 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate to a commercially available toothpaste containing 1000 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate: an eight-week clinical trial on adults in New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kakar, A; Kakar, K; Sreenivasan, P K; DeVizio, W; Kohli, R

    2012-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated relief from dentin hypersensitivity among subjects who brushed their teeth with a new dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1000 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) to subjects who brushed with a commercially available dentifrice containing 1000 ppm MFP over an eight-week period. Adult subjects from the New Delhi, India area, with two teeth that exhibited dentin hypersensitivity, both to tactile stimulation using the Yeaple Probe and to stimulation using an air blast delivered by a standard dental unit syringe, were screened for study enrollment. Qualifying subjects were randomly assigned one of the study dentifrices and instructed to brush their teeth for one minute, twice daily (morning and evening) with the provided dentifrice. Follow-up examinations for dentin hypersensitivity were conducted after two, four, and eight weeks of product use. Subjects provided with the new dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1000 ppm MFP exhibited statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions in dentin hypersensitivity in response to tactile (81.9%, 90.5%, and 116.7%) and air blast (39.5%, 56.7%, and 76.7%) stimuli than subjects assigned the 1000 ppm MFP dentifrice after two, four, and eight weeks, respectively. The use of a new dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1000 ppm MFP provides superior efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity (p < 0.05) than a control dentifrice containing 1000 ppm MFP alone after two, four, and eight weeks of use.

  19. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... for teeth, fluoride is added to many public water supplies. It's also a common ingredient in toothpaste and ... checked regularly. Drink some tap water. Most public water supplies have added fluoride, which can help reduce tooth ...

  20. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole ... or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  1. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic En español Take Care of Your Child’s Teeth Browse Sections The Basics Overview Tooth Decay Take ... the toothpaste instead of swallowing it Make brushing teeth fun. Getting kids to brush their teeth can ...

  2. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouthwash, which also offer protection against tooth decay. Avoid using over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants ... and drinks because they increase your risk of tooth decay. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste — ask your dentist ...

  3. Consumer Chemistry for Middle/Jr. High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Objectives, materials needed, procedures, discussion questions, and follow-up activities are provided for five experiments. They include (1) testing for sugars; (2) comparing sugar to artificial sweeteners; (3) chewing gum scientifically; (4) soap making; and (5) making toothpaste. (JN)

  4. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

  5. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  6. EVALUATION OF TRICLOSAN AS A POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL (POSTER SESSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan is an industrial antibacterial agent commonly used in soaps, toothpaste and cleaners. The present investigation was designed to examine the endocrine modulating potential of Triclosan because its chemical structure closely resembles known non-steroidial estrogens (e.g. ...

  7. EVALUATION OF TRICLOSAN AS A POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan is an industrial antibacterial agent commonly used in soaps, toothpaste and cleaners. The present investigation was designed to examine the endocrine modulating potential of Triclosan because its chemical structure closely resembles known non-steroidial estrogens (e.g. ...

  8. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... when teeth are growing, it mixes with tooth enamel — that hard coating on your teeth. That prevents ... formed. It works with saliva to protect tooth enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, ...

  9. Plaque: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can do to prevent tooth decay: Use fluoride, a mineral that can prevent tooth decay from ... or stop, early tooth decay. You can get fluoride by Brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. Drinking tap ...

  10. Plaque and tartar on teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily, and the toothpaste should not be abrasive. Electric toothbrushes clean teeth better than manual ones. Brush for at least 2 minutes with an electric toothbrush each time. Floss gently at least once ...

  11. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  12. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-06-01

    Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire. Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan. Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.

  13. Humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y

    2001-06-01

    Most toothpastes contain either d-sorbitol or glycerin, or both, as humectants. Both compounds are about half as sweet as sucrose. This level of sweetness is not as intense as desired by most people when brushing teeth. Therefore, many brands of toothpaste add saccharin, a high-intensity sweetener, to increase product sweetness to acceptable levels. While this combination provides the required bulk, humectancy and sweetness, the last characteristic suffers from the widely perceived metallic, or bitter, aftertaste of saccharin. d-tagatose, a full-bulk, low-calorie, sucrose-like sweetener with about twice the sweetness of d-sorbitol, and which does not promote tooth decay, holds promise as a sole sweetener for toothpastes. The only untested aspect of this use of d-tagatose was its humectancy, the characteristic that retains the required level of moisture in toothpaste. The current study was made to investigate this important property, to make a direct comparison of the humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol as pure substances, and to determine whether the humectancy of d-tagatose is sufficient to counter the crystallizing potentiation of the abrasives used in toothpastes. The humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol were tested through measuring their water activity (a(w)) vs. water content. By comparing their desorption curves, d-tagatose was seen to have a humectancy equal to that of d-sorbitol when a(w) in the d-tagatose solution was above 0.62. d-Tagatose was then tested in toothpastes containing typical abrasives to determine whether the abrasives would induce crystallization of the sweetener. The addition of 20-25% wt/wt of d-tagatose to the Tom of Maine's toothpastes imparted a satisfactory sweetness. It was found that, within that range of concentration, d-tagatose retained its humectancy, and did not crystallize in the popular brands of commercial toothpastes tested. Thus, d-tagatose could be used as a humectant sweetener in toothpastes, although further

  14. Efficacy of whitening oral rinses and dentifrices on color stability of bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of whitening toothpastes and mouthrinses on the color stability of teeth bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) after immersion in coffee solution. Materials and methods: Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were bleached with 16% CP for 14 days. After bleaching, the specimens were stained in coffee solution for 24 h and randomly divided into eight groups according to the following products (n = 10): distilled water (control group, DW), Scope White mouthrinse (SW), Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWR), Crest 3D White toothpaste (CWT), Crest 3D White toothpaste and Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWT + CWR), Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWT), Listerine Whitening mouthrinse (LWR), and Listerine Whitening mouthrinse and Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWR + LWT). Color measurements were conducted using a spectrophotometer. The data were assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p < 0.05). Results: Immersion in coffee solution after bleaching caused perceptible staining on tooth specimens (ΔE > 3.46). The whitening effect of CWR on teeth stained after bleaching was significantly greater than that in the other groups (p < 0.001). Tooth whitening (ΔE) in each group showed no significant difference from 6 to 12 weeks (p > 0.05). The combination of mouthrinse and toothpaste did not increase the degree of tooth whitening. Conclusion: Whitening mouthrinse and toothpaste had similar effects on the control group in terms of whitening of teeth stained after bleaching. Nevertheless, Crest 3D White mouthrinse produced the greatest recovery whitening effect among all the products tested. PMID:28642898

  15. Abrasion of eroded and sound enamel by a dentifrice containing diamond abrasive particles

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J.; Hoegger, Vanessa G. M.; Attin, Thomas

    2017-07-24

    Eroded enamel is more susceptible to abrasive wear than sound enamel. New toothpastes utilizing diamond particles as abrasives have been developed. The present study investigated the abrasive wear of eroded enamel by three commercially available toothpastes (one containing diamond particles) and compared it to the respective wear of sound enamel caused by these toothpastes. Seventy-two bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups (S1–S3 and E1–E3; n=12). Samples were submitted to an abrasive (S1–S3) or erosion plus abrasion (E1–E3) cycling. Per cycle, all samples were brushed (abrasion; 20 brushing stokes) with the following toothpastes: S1/E1: Signal WHITE SYSTEM, S2/E2: elmex KARIESSCHUTZ and S3-E3: Candida WHITE DIAMOND (diamond particles). Groups E1–E3 were additionally eroded with HCl (pH 3.0) for 2 min before each brushing procedure. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles enamel wear was measured by surface profilometry. Within the same toothpaste and same number of cycles, enamel wear due to erosion plus abrasion was significantly higher than due to mere abrasion. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles, no significant difference in the wear in groups S1 and S2 was observed while the wear in group E1 was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Scheffecyc) lower than that in group E2. After 90 cycles, wear in group S3 was about 5 times higher than that in group S2, while wear in group E3 was about 1.3 times higher than that in group E2. As compared to the other two investigated toothpastes, the dentifrice containing diamond particles caused slightly higher abrasive wear of eroded enamel and distinctly higher wear of sound enamel compared to the conventional toothpastes under investigation.

  16. Comparative evaluation of effect of use of toothbrush with paste and munident on levels of Streptococcus mutans and gingival health in children: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rashmi N; Shetty, Sowmya B; Janardhanan, Sruthi; Shetty, Shamila; Shetty, Sharan; Raj, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which has a deleterious effect on the oral cavity. Improper oral hygiene habits are a cause for the same. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of Munident, an Ayurvedic (herbal) dentifrice with commercially available toothpaste. A total of forty subjects between the age group 9 and 12 years, resident of Bala Yeshu Nilaya Bhavan, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, were chosen for our study. They were divided into two groups containing twenty subjects in each; Group 1 for standard toothpaste and Group 2 for Munident. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores were noted from each subject. Group 1 was instructed to brush the teeth using commercially available toothpaste and Group 2 was instructed to brush using commercially available Munident (herbal) dentifrice. Both the groups brushed the teeth using soft variety of tooth brush. The gingival bleeding index and salivary Streptococcus mutans count were noted pre- and post-brushimg for both groups. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Munident (herbal) dentifrice showed better efficacy in comparison to toothpaste in terms of gingival bleeding index and salivary S. mutans count. Munident (herbal) dentifrice has better gingival bleeding index compared to standard formulation of toothpaste. Hence, the practice of using herbal dentifrice should be encouraged.

  17. ATP Bioluminometers Analysis on the Surfaces of Removable Orthodontic Aligners after the Use of Different Cleaning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Margherini, Silvia; Tenconi, Camilla; Vigetti, Davide; Muollo, Raffaele; Marco Abbate, Gian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim was to quantify the bacteria concentration on the surface of orthodontic clear aligners using three different cleaning methods. Furthermore the objective was to validate the efficacy of the bioluminometer in assessing the bacteria concentration. Materials and Methods. Twenty subjects (six males and fourteen females) undergoing orthodontic therapy with clear aligners (Invisalign® Align Technology, Santa Clara, California) were enrolled in this study. The observation time was of six weeks. The patients were instructed to use different cleaning methods (water, brushing with toothpaste, and brushing with toothpaste and use of sodium carbonate and sulphate tablet). At the end of each phase a microbiological analysis was performed using the bioluminometer. Results. The highest bacteria concentration was found on aligners cleaned using only water (583 relative light units); a value of 189 relative light units was found on aligners cleaned with brushing and toothpaste. The lowest bacteria concentration was recorded on aligners cleaned with brushing and toothpaste and the use of sodium carbonate and sulfate tablet. Conclusions. The mechanical removal of the bacterial biofilm proved to be effective with brushing and toothpaste. The best results in terms of bacteria concentration were achieved adding the use of sodium carbonate and sulfate tablet. PMID:27242901

  18. The technology behind Colgate Total Advanced Fresh.

    PubMed

    Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    In the early 1990s, a breakthrough toothpaste, Colgate Total, was launched with documented long-lasting activity against plaque, gingivitis, calculus, tooth decay, and bad breath. The technology behind this toothpaste is the combination of triclosan, a polyvinylmethylether/maleic acid copolymer, and sodium fluoride. The copolymer ensures maximal oral retention and subsequent release of the antibacterial triclosan. Effective levels of triclosan have been observed in the oral cavity 12 hours after brushing the teeth, allowing prolonged control of oral bacteria that may cause the most common dental problems, including bad breath. Similarly, the enhanced retention of triclosan to oral surfaces after using this revolutionary toothpaste for up to 2 years has led to significantly reduced incremental coronal caries compared to an American Dental Association-Approved anticavity fluoride toothpaste. Furthermore, significantly less calcium remained in dental plaque after brushing the teeth with the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, resulting in the formation of less tartar. In keeping with the multiple oral health benefits provided by Colgate Total, consumers are now offered a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, which provides the numerous therapeutic and esthetic benefits that are the hallmark of Colgate Total. The new dentifrice, which contains an impactful breath-freshening flavor, has been documented to provide sustained control of bad breath over 12 hours.

  19. Dentifrice Containing Extract of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.: An Antimicrobial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Higino, Jane Sheila; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; Crovella, Sérgio; Caldas, Arnaldo de França; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a dentifrice containing an alcoholic extract of rosemary on oral bacteria, compared to a commercially available herbal dentifrice. Standard strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 9811) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) were used, as well as different toothpastes based on rosemary (TR), on propolis (TH), triclosan (positive control) (TPC) and non-fluoridated dentifrice (negative control) (TNC). Bacteria were seeded in Petri dishes and paper discs soaked with dilutions of dentifrice placed on the plates. The inhibition halos were analyzed. It was observed that TR did not show statistical difference in relation to the TH to inhibit S. mutans and S. oralis, while TH was more active against L. rhamnosus. The toothpaste containing rosemary extract had the ability to inhibit the growth of S. mutans, S. oralis and L. rhamnosus, revealing an antimicrobial activity similar to commercially available toothpastes for inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis.

  20. Timetable for oral prevention in childhood-a current opinion.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paddy

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in young children remains a public health problem particularly for children whose families are socioeconomically deprived. A child's first dental visit should be at approximately 12 months of age and this should facilitate the provision of anticipatory guidance concerning oral health and dental development to the child's parents/guardians. Compliance with dietary advice is of key importance and motivational interviewing shows promise in relation to parents adopting good oral health practices for their children. Twice daily toothbrushing using toothpaste that contains in the range of 1000- 1500ppmF is a most important preventive measure. It is important to use a minimal amount of toothpaste, insure that it is not swallowed, have parental or adult supervision during toothbrushing and avoid rinsing with water following brushing with toothpaste. The professional application of topical fluoride varnish twice yearly is a proven caries preventative measure. The application of pit and fissure sealants to teeth with deep pits and fissures is recommended.

  1. An in vitro screening assay for dental stain cleaning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changxiang; Lucas, Robert; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2017-01-09

    The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model for stain removal from natural enamel for the assessment and comparison of oral hygiene products. Bovine teeth (n = 8 per group) were ground/polished to provide flat enamel specimens and ferric-tannate deposits were precipitated onto the enamel surfaces. The ferric-tannate stained enamel specimens were brushed using an in vitro tooth-brushing simulator with slurries containing commercially available toothpaste products, dental abrasive particles, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) solutions of different concentrations. The colour of the enamel surfaces was measured using a spectrophotometer before and after stain application as well as after the brushing treatments. Differences in stain removal efficacy were found between the toothpastes categorised as whitening and non-whitening comprising of different types of dental abrasives (hydrated silica and alumina). A mean value of 27% for stain removal was detected for the three non-whitening toothpastes and 59% of stain removal was detected for the three whitening toothpastes after 1000 strokes. Compared with the slurry with Zeodent 113 abrasive alone, the addition of STP provided better performance for stain removal under the same brushing conditions (mean value of 62% for Zeodent 113 abrasive alone and 72% with the addition of 5% (w/w) STP after 1000 strokes). No difference was evident between the STP concentration of 5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w). The ferric-tannate/bovine enamel model reported here provides good stain retention, is rapidly and easily prepared, and is shown to be progressively and reproducibly sensitive to toothbrushing using different toothpastes and surfactant/chelating agent solutions. Importantly, it provides good discrimination between various oral hygiene products. The stain removal assay reported here has considerable potential to enable comparative assessments of different toothpaste types in terms of their cleaning capabilities.

  2. Efficacy of calcium- and fluoride-containing materials for the remineralization of primary teeth with early enamel lesion.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Soltanimehr, Elham; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of different products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate for enamel remineralization in eroded primary teeth. A total of 90 sound primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of 18 teeth each: 1) control (polished enamel), 2) 5% DuraShield sodium fluoride varnish, 3) 500 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, 4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, and 5) Clinpro White varnish containing functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP). Enamel microhardness (EMH) was measured in all samples before and after demineralization and after 28 days of remineralization. Also 8 samples in groups 2 to 5 and four samples of sound and demineralized enamel were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Mean microhardness of demineralized enamel was significantly lower than in enamel at baseline (p<0.001). Remineralization significantly increased microharness in groups 2 to 5 compared to the control group (p<0.001). Percent EMH after remineralization with CPP-ACP was significantly higher than after fTCP (p=0.029), toothpaste (p< 0.001) or fluoride varnish (p<0.001); however, there was no significant difference between toothpaste and fluoride varnish (p=0.062). Microhardness increased more after fTCP treatment than after treatment with sodium fluoride varnish (p<0.001) or fluoridated toothpaste (p=0.045). AFM images showed that enamel roughness decreased most after treatment with fTCP, followed by CPP-ACP, toothpaste and fluoride varnish. The efficacy of CPP-ACP cream for remineralizing eroded enamel was greater than fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish or fTCP varnish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A double blind randomised controlled clinical trial comparing a novel anti-stain and calculus reducing dentifrice with a standard fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Adrian K; Marlow, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    This clinical trial tested the anti-stain efficacy at 3 and 6 months of a novel, sodium polyaspartate-containing, anti-stain dentifrice. In addition, the efficacy of the new dentifrice in controlling gingival inflammation and inhibition of calculus deposition was tested. Participants were recruited to this double blind randomised control clinical trial, and allocated to either test or control groups. The presence of stain and calculus were entry criteria. Measurements of stain, calculus and gingival inflammation were recorded using the Shaw and Murray Stain score, Volpe-Manhold Calculus score and the Modified Gingival Index respectively. Measurements were made at baseline, prior to the removal of stain and calculus, and after 3 and 6 months. Missing data were imputed by and the outcomes were analysed using univariate analysis. At three months, toothpaste containing sodium polyaspartate was better (difference of mean 1.13 with SEM 0.57) than control for the control of dental stain (p<0.05). Stain scores also showed a trend in favour of the test product (difference of mean 1.03 with SEM 0.78) at six months (p>0.05). There was no difference between toothpastes with respect to calculus deposition or gingival inflammation. Toothpaste containing sodium polyaspartate was more effective than a control toothpaste at preventing deposition of dental stain for 3 months after professional tooth cleaning but showed no significant effect at 6 months. Sodium polyaspartate toothpaste was more effective than a control toothpaste at preventing dental stain formation and maybe helpful in controlling staining between episodes of scaling and polishing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of pH, temperature and plaque thickness on the hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate in experimental dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Pearce, E I F; Dibdin, G H

    2003-01-01

    Monofluorophosphate (MFP), an anti-caries agent commonly used in toothpaste, is known to be degraded to fluoride and orthophosphate by bacterial phosphatases in dental plaque. We have examined the effect of pH, temperature, plaque thickness and some ions on this process. Both natural plaque and artificial microcosm plaque incubated with purified MFP at pH 4-10 showed an optimum pH of approximately 8 for hydrolysis. Diffusion and concomitant hydrolysis were examined in an apparatus in which artificial plaque was held between rigid membranes separating two chambers. When MFP diffused through a plaque of 0.51-mm thickness over 4 h it was almost completely hydrolysed at pH 8, but hydrolysis on diffusion decreased as the pH deviated from 8. MFP in toothpaste extract showed a similar pH susceptibility to hydrolysis, according to the inherent pH of the toothpaste. Hydrolysis of MFP in the toothpaste was reduced by no more than 10% when compared with a matched-pH control, suggesting that other toothpaste ingredients had no major influence on hydrolysis. Transport was slower and hydrolysis at pH 6 more complete the thicker the plaque, but hydrolysis was not significantly slower at 23 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The addition of various potential activating or inhibiting ions at 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/l had small and non-significant effects on hydrolysis. The results suggest that MFP toothpaste should be formulated and used to maximise enzymic hydrolysis of this complex anion, and that plaque pH control is probably the most important factor. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. The Efficacy of Xylitol, Xylitol-Probiotic and Fluoride Dentifrices in Plaque Reduction and Gingival Inflammation in Children: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Arat Maden, Eda; Altun, Ceyhan; Açikel, Cengizhan

    The present prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic on the decrease of plaque and gingival inflammation in children between 13 and 15 years of age. Forty-eight adolescents were randomly grouped into three groups of n = 16 each: study group A received xylitol (Xyliwhite) toothpaste; study group B received xylitol-probiotic (Periobiotic) toothpaste; and the control group C received fluoride (Colgate Max Fresh) toothpaste. The subjects were instructed to use the dentifrice determined and a modified Bass brushing technique twice a day for two minutes over a 6-week perioed. Clinical evaluation was performed using a gingival index and a plaque index at baseline and at the end of the 6-week period. From day 0 to 42, reductions in the plaque index were statistically significant in all groups, Colgate Max Fresh, PerioBiotic and Xyliwhite (p-values 0.001, 0.001 and 0.035, respectively), but reductions in the gingival index were statistically significant only in the Colgate Max Fresh and PerioBiotic groups (both with p = 0.001), not in the Xyliwhite group (p = 0.116). PerioBiotic toothpaste was found to be better than Xyliwhite and Colgate Max Fresh toothpastes at reducing plaque and gingival scores. However, statistically significant differences with PerioBiotic and Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste were not observed. It was concluded that PerioBiotic was an all-round dentifrice that produced a significant reduction in both gingivitis and plaque.

  6. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate and Tween as surfactants: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Venu, V; Prabhakar, A R; Basappa, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween as surfactants. It is a double-blind cross over the study, a total of 20 children within their mixed dentition period (7-13 year) having Streptococci mutans count more than 10(6) were selected for the main study. Three types of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices were used with a washout period of 1 week. Out of the three toothpastes, one was without surfactant and other two toothpastes contained SLS and Tween as surfactants respectively. 20 volunteers brushed for 1 min during the study day with their assigned toothpaste. Saliva samples were collected before brushing, immediately after brushing and 1, 3, 5, and 7 hand sent for microbial analysis. The culture carried out by inoculating saliva sample onto Mitis salivarius agar for selective isolation of S. mutans followed by counting of colony forming unit. Group I and III (Chlorhexidine and CHX + Tween) had shown statistically significant reduction in bacterial count until 7 h when compared to their baseline values ( P < 0.001). Group II toothpaste (CHX + SLS) had shown significant reduction in bacterial count until 3 h only. On inter group comparison, Group III had shown good amount of percentage reduction in bacterial count when compared to other groups. CHX + Tween toothpaste had shown statistically significant reduction in antibacterial activity and substantivity than other groups. These findings show chlorhexidine containing toothpaste with non-ionic surfactant will be able to maintain the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine.

  7. The Effect of Various Oral Hygiene Products on Bacterial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, S.; Aggrawal, A.; Vazirani, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, we tested the antimicrobial effectiveness of six different oral hygiene products. We used three natural cleansing products (coconut oil, sea salt, and baking soda), as well as three synthetic products, which were the Colgate toothpaste varieties of sensitivity, cavity protection, and whitening. We mixed water with each of the products to create a paste that could be uniformly applied to the surface of a disc. We then dipped the discs into the solutions and placed them in petri dishes that were pre-treated with bacterial cells. After 72 hours, we measured the area around the disc that was bacteria-free, which is known as the zone of inhibition. This experiment was repeated twice, with one petri dish per product for each trial, and two different types of agar. We were surprised to discover that almost all the products had no zone of inhibition, with bacteria growing throughout the petri dish, and to the disc. The only cleaning product that showed a significant antibacterial result was the Colgate sensitivity toothpaste. During the two trials, the sensitivity toothpaste had a zone of inhibition of 14.8 cm2 and 8.7 cm2, respectively. Coconut oil was the only other product to have a measurable zone of inhibition with an area of 0.3 cm2. We concluded that only the sensitivity toothpaste was effective in killing bacteria, perhaps due to its different hygienic goal of protecting the tooth's nerves. This toothpaste contains ingredients called potassium nitrate and strontium chloride, which blocks tubules in the dentin, the hard, bony tissue beneath the enamel. Sensitivity toothpaste strengthens the tooth, by blocking decaying substances such as oral bacteria (Knights, 2014).

  8. Erosion-protecting effect of oral-care products available on the Swiss market. A pilot study

    PubMed

    Wasser, Gregor; João-Souza, Samira H; Lussi, Adrian; Carvalho, Thiago S

    2018-03-28

    The present study sought to test oral-care products available on the Swiss market, such as toothpastes and gels, with respect to the protection of enamel against erosive tooth wear. A total of 56 enamel specimens were divided into 7 groups (n = 8): F-TP = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste (Negative Control); F+Sn3500-TP = Elmex Erosion Protection Toothpaste (Positive Control); F-TP + F+Oligopep-Gel = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste + Emofluor Protect Gel Professional; F+Sn3120-Gel = Emofluor Gel Intensive Care; F+Oligopep-TP = Candida Protect Professional Toothpaste; F+Sn1260-TP = Emoform-F Protect Toothpaste; and F+Sn3440-TP = Sensodyne Repair & Protect Toothpaste. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva for 30 min and then brushed in a toothbrushing machine (10 s brushing; total 2 min exposure to the product). After the toothbrush abrasion, the specimens were rinsed, dried and submitted to an erosive challenge (2 min; 1% citric acid; pH 3.6). This sequence was repeated 4 times, and the total enamel surface loss was calculated using indentation measurements before and after the brushing period. All groups presented progressive surface loss throughout the experiment; after 4 cycles, total surface loss values ranged from 0.11 µm (F+Sn3120-Gel) to 0.89 µm (F+Sn1260-TP). Regarding the total surface loss values (median; interquartile range), F-TP (0.54; 0.42–0.59) presented no significant differences compared to any of the other groups. F+Sn3500-TP (0.33; 0.30–0.40), F-TP + F+Oligopep-Gel (0.34; 0.29–0.42) and F+Sn3120-Gel (0.11; 0.09–0.15) presented lower surface loss than F+Oligopep-TP (0.75; 0.59–0.98), F+Sn1260-TP (0.89; 0.68–1.13) and F+Sn3440-TP (0.69; 0.66–0.78). Conclusion: Although some of the oral-care products containing stannous ions or oligopeptide-104 presented numerically lower SL values, they did not present significantly better protection than a regular fluoride toothpaste. The gels showed a general trend of better

  9. Equilibria of a Two-Person Non-Zerosum Noisy Game of Timing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-A097 158 YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT COWLES FOUNDATION FOR RESEARC -ETC F/B 12/1 EQUILIBRIA OF A TWO-PERSON ON-ZEROSUN OISY GAME OF TIMING, CUb .JAN al...pubUo zeleale Distribution Unlimited. 1. Introduction Two toothpaste manufacturers are competing for a larger share of the dentifrice market . Each is...successfully capturing a share of the market , if its product hits the stores first. (This is assuming that the toothpaste is being technologically

  10. Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic and Epibenthic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan is an anti-microbial and anti-bacterial compound that has been widely used since the 1970s in consumer products, such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Due to its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media including wastewater sludg...

  11. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Elgamily, Hanaa; Moussa, Amani; Elboraey, Asmaa; EL-Sayed, Hoda; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash. The two dental remedies were assessed against the same microbial strains. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA test to compare the inhibition zone diameter and t-test. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts as well as leaves extracts demonstrated the highest significant mean inhibition zone values (P ≤ 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. However, all extracts revealed no inhibition zone against Candida albicans. For dental remedies, experimental toothpaste exhibited higher mean inhibition than the mouthwash against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and only the toothpaste revealed antifungal effect against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains. PMID:28028395

  12. Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Campus, Guglielmo; Lallai, Maria Rosario; Carboni, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpaste and a varnish both on an NaMFP base. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected at baseline (t(0)), at the end of the 20 days' treatment phase (t(1)) and after 24 h, during which the volunteers refrained from any oral hygiene measure (t(2)). Saliva fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-specific electrode. All measurements were made in triplicate and analysed statistically using ANOVA. In saliva, the mean fluoride concentration increased significantly in each treatment group. In conclusion, the fluoride concentration in saliva can be maintained to an optimal therapeutic level with the regular use of fluoridated products. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred R. Jr.; Kessinger, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Describes a demonstration known as Elephant's Toothpaste in which the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by iodide. Oxygen is released and soap bubbles are produced. The foam produced is measured, and results show a good relationship between the amount of foam and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. (DDR)

  14. Effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic on dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y; Liu, J; Li, X; Yin, W; He, T; Hu, D; Liao, Y; Yao, X; Wang, Y

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to assess the ability and efficacy of HX-BGC, a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (SiO2-P2 O5-CaO-Na2 O-SrO), to reduce dentine tubule permeability. Dentine discs from human third molars were etched and randomly allocated into five groups: Group 1--distilled water; Group 2--Sensodyne Repair toothpaste (containing NovaMin®); Group 3--HX-BGC toothpaste (containing 7.5% HX-BGC); Group 4--control toothpaste (without HX-BGC); and Group 5--HX-BGC powder. Specimens were treated daily by brushing with an electric toothbrush for 20 seconds. Between daily treatments (7 days total), specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours. Dentine permeability was measured at baseline, after the first treatment, after the first 24-hour immersion in artificial saliva and at the end of day 7. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were observed by scanning electron microscopy after one day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Sensodyne Repair and bioactive glass-ceramic toothpaste significantly and immediately lowered dentine permeability. The HX-BGC powder group showed the highest reduction in dentine permeability after 7 days of treatment. The novel bioactive glass-ceramic material HX-BGC is effective in reducing dentine permeability by occluding open dentine tubules, indicating that HX-BGC may be a potential treatment for dentine hypersensitivity. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Computer Generated Graphics in Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloth, Dana

    An organization that has led the way in opening new frontiers in using advanced technology to create innovative commercials is Charlex, a New York-based company in business since 1977. Charlex has produced music videos, and also commercials for Diet Pepsi, Cherry Coke, Crest Toothpaste, and White Mountain Cooler. It has used a wide range of…

  16. The Development of a Hydroperm (Trademark) Microfiltration System for the Treatment of ’MUST’ Hospital Wastewater Effluents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    by pH extremes, and nonionic surfactants have been identified as bad actors" in causing membrane fouling1. Also the Hydroperm filtration technique...Talc 9. Soil (kaolinite) 10. Silver Chloride 11. Hair oil 12. Hair gel 13. Vegetable oil 14. Grease (Lard) 15. Toothpaste 16. Hair Shampoo 17

  17. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-21

    products including fish, tires, toothpaste , and toys. Two of these — Menu Foods pet food recall and Mattel’s voluntary recall of over 18 million toys...international bad actors. CRS-6 10 Statement by State Department spokesman Sean McCormack, March 8, 2007. 11 Broad, William J., “Orbiting junk, once a

  18. Globalization of the International Arms Industry: A Step Towards ABCA and NATO Interoperability?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    adversely affect national security. In the words of Bitzinger the challenge will be to: “distinguish between ‘good’ globalization and ‘ bad ...accurately captured the dilemma when he stated that: “We’re not just making toothpaste ; we’re in the business of national security. National borders do

  19. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    the beginning of a series of well publicized recalls of PRC imported products including fish, tires, toothpaste , and toys. Two of these — Menu Foods...rogue states and other international bad actors. China’s Growing Military Power. In its annual, congressionally mandated report on China’s Military Power

  20. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-17

    tires, toothpaste , and toys. Two of these — Menu Foods pet food recall and Mattel’s voluntary recall of over 18 million toys, announced on August 14...military and technological prowess; and PRC military and technological assistance to rogue states and other international bad actors. China’s Growing

  1. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    publicized recalls of PRC imported products including fish, tires, toothpaste , and toys. Two of these — Menu Foods pet food recall and Mattel’s...assistance to rogue states and other international bad actors. CRS-6 10 Statement by State Department spokesman Sean McCormack, March 8, 2007. 11 Broad

  2. Using Multiple Robust Parameter Design Techniques to Improve Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection Algorithm Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Set negative pixel values = 0 (remove bad pixels) -------------- [m,n] = size(data_matrix_new); for i =1:m for j= 1:n if...everything from packaging toothpaste to high speed fluid dynamics. While future engagements will continue to require the development of specialized

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    imported products including fish, tires, toothpaste , and toys. Two of these — Menu Foods pet food recall and Mattel’s voluntary recall of over 18...assistance to rogue states and other international bad actors. China’s Growing Military Power. In its annual, congressionally mandated report on China’s

  4. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  5. Triclosan Exposure enhances the Uterotrophic Response to Low Doses of Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) in the Female Wistar Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan [TCS; (5-cbloro-2-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol)] is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in personal care and sanitizing products, such as soaps, toothpaste and hair products. Recent studies have identified TCS in human breast milk, blood and urine. TCS has also been ...

  6. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is an antimicrobial that is currently found in a broad variety of personal care and sanitizing products, such as soaps, toothpaste and hair products. Triclosan (TCS) has been detected in human breast milk, blood samples and urine...

  7. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  8. The Effects of Oral Triclosan Exposure on Reproductive Endpoints in the Female Wistar Rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent commonly found in household personal care and consumer products such as soaps, toothpaste and kitchen utensils. Measurable amounts of TCS have been detected in human blood, urine, and breast milk. Recently, we and others have demonstrated...

  9. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  10. TRICLOSAN MONITORING OF WASTEWATER AND RIVER WATER SAMPLES FROM THE NORTHEAST OF SPAIN AND THE MIDWEST USA BY ELISA AND GC/MS

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a broad spectrum antibacterial that is incorporated into numerous household products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, toys, bedding, socks, and trash bags to decrease bacterial contamination. Triclosan is structurally similar to environmen...

  11. Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic and Epibenthic Organisms (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products, such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Due to its widespread use, TCS has been detected in various environmental media including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sedim...

  12. The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth whitening products using an in situ model.

    PubMed

    Joiner, A; Collins, L Z; Cox, T F; Pickles, M J; Weader, E; Liscombe, C; Holt, J S

    2005-01-01

    To determine the enamel and dentine wear of two whitening toothpastes using an in situ model with ex vivo brushing. Human enamel/dentine (approximately 50:50) blocks (approximately 4 x 4mm) were placed in the upper buccal aspects of full or partial dentures of a group of 25 subjects. Subjects brushed the specimens ex vivo with either a calcium carbonate/perlite or silica containing whitening toothpaste under exaggerated conditions as compared to normal for 30 s, twice per day. Specimens were removed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the wear to the enamel and dentine was determined. Enamel wear was determined by change in Knoop indent length and dentine wear was determined from the enamel-dentine step height, measured using optical profilometry. The mean wear after 12 weeks was for enamel 0.27 and 0.19 microns, and for dentine 34.3 and 61.1 microns, for the calcium carbonate/perlite and silica toothpastes respectively. There were no significant differences between products after 12 weeks. The rate of wear was found to decrease throughout the duration of the study. There were no significant differences between the two whitening toothpastes in terms of enamel and dentine wear after 12 weeks brushing.

  13. Comparison of two cleansing pastes for the removal of biofilm from dentures and palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; de Macedo, Leandro Dorigan; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena Guimarães; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of 2 oral hygiene products, an experimental toothpaste specific for complete denture cleansing and a regular standard toothpaste, was compared in terms of denture biofilm removal and cure of palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis. The degree of correlation between presence of biofilm and mucosa erythema was also evaluated. Twenty-four complete denture wearers (45-80 years old) were divided into 2 groups: experimental paste and standard toothpaste (Sorriso-Kolynos, Brazil). Both groups received soft toothbrushes. The internal surfaces of upper dentures were stained using 1% sodium fluorescein and photographed at a 45 masculine angle at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The slides were scanned and the areas of interest (denture total area and biofilm area) were measured (Image Tool software). The degree of erythema was evaluated on slides according to the Prosthesis Tissue Index. There was a significant reduction (1%) in the degree of biofilm (ANOVA/Tukey) between the two initial visits (0 and 15 days) and the two final visits (30 and 60 days), and in the average erythema scores (Kruskal-Wallis) between 0 and 60 days, in both groups. The Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference (1%) between pastes in terms of biofilm degree, but no difference was found for the erythema score. Correlation values between biofilm and erythema degree were 0.3801 (experimental paste) and (0.3678 (standard toothpaste). We may therefore conclude that the experimental product was efficient for the removal of denture plaque biofilm.

  14. Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M

    2004-10-01

    This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.

  15. Effects of a Chronic Lower Range of Triclosan Exposure on a Stream Mesocosm Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is an antimicrobial found in consumer soaps and toothpaste. It is in treated wastewater effluents at low part per billion concentrations, representing a potentially chronic exposure condition for biota inhabiting receiving strea...

  16. Tricolsan Effects on Marine Dwelling Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan, (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely used since the 1970s. Currently it is found in many consumer products including soaps, shampoos, deodorants, and toothpastes. In addition, it is commonly infused in many plastic toys and kit...

  17. An in situ investigation into the abrasion of eroded dental hard tissues by a whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Turssi, C P; Faraoni, J J; Rodrigues, A L; Serra, M C

    2004-01-01

    This crossover study aimed to investigate abrasion of previously eroded hard dental tissues by a whitening dentifrice compared to a regular dentifrice. After a 3-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of the toothpastes while wearing a removable appliance, containing 3 enamel and 3 root dentine slabs on each side. On the first day salivary pellicle was allowed to form. Twice daily for the following 3 days, one side of each appliance was immersed in an acidic carbonated drink ex vivo while the other side remained unexposed. Specimens were then brushed with the allocated dentifrice. After a 3-day washout period, new sets of enamel and dentine slabs were mounted in the appliances and the participants commenced period 2 using the alternative toothpaste. Acid-treated specimens always showed more wear than untreated specimens. The whitening dentifrice did not significantly increase the wear of softened enamel compared with the regular dentifrice. Brushing with the whitening toothpaste led to significantly greater wear of sound enamel and of both eroded and sound dentine than the regular dentifrice. The results suggest that whitening dentifrices may not increase the wear of acid-softened enamel but may have a more deleterious effect on dentine than regular toothpastes.

  18. Triclosan enhances the uterine response to ethynyl estradiol: A dose response evaluation in the weanling rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent found in personal care products, such as soaps and toothpaste. TCS has been detected in human breast milk, blood and urine and has been reported to decrease thyroxine and testosterone in rats; thus, rising concerns that this endocrine dis...

  19. Using a Novel Sediment Exposure to Determine the Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic Communities (SETAC Europe)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), is an emerging contaminant commonly used as an antimicrobial compound in many personal care products such as softsoap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, and is infused in many consumer products, such as kitchen utensils, toys, b...

  20. Using a Novel Sediment Exposure to Determine the Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), is an emerging contaminant commonly used as an antimicrobial compound in many personal care products such as softsoap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, and is infused in many consumer products, such as kitchen utensils, toys, b...

  1. Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions by theobromine.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, B T; Porteous, N; Ramalingam, K; Mensinkai, P K; Ccahuana Vasquez, R A; Sadeghpour, A; Nakamoto, T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the remineralization potential of theobromine in comparison to a standard NaF dentifrice. Three tooth blocks were produced from each of 30 teeth. Caries-like lesion was created on each block using acidified gel. A smaller block was cut from each block for baseline scanning electron microscopy imaging and electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for surface Ca level. A tooth slice was cut from each lesion-bearing block for transverse microradiography (TMR) quantification of baseline mineral loss (Δz) and lesion depth (LD). Then baseline surface microhardness (SMH) of each lesion was measured. The three blocks from each tooth were assigned to three remineralizing agents: (1) artificial saliva; (2) artificial saliva with theobromine (0.0011 mol/l), and (3) NaF toothpaste slurry (0.0789 mol/l F). Remineralization was conducted using a pH cycling model with storage in artificial saliva. After a 28-day cycle, samples were analyzed using EDS, TMR, and SMH. Intragroup comparison of pre- and posttest data was performed using t tests (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons were performed by post hoc multistep comparisons (Tukey). SMH indicated significant (p < 0.01) remineralization only with theobromine (38 ± 32%) and toothpaste (29 ± 16%). With TMR (Δz/lD), theobromine and toothpaste exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) higher mineral gain relative to artificial saliva. With SMH and TMR, remineralization produced by theobromine and toothpaste was not significantly different. With EDS, calcium deposition was significant in all groups, but not significantly different among the groups (theobromine 13 ± 8%, toothpaste 10 ± 5%, and artificial saliva 6 ± 8%). The present study demonstrated that theobromine in an apatite-forming medium can enhance the remineralization potential of the medium. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of bleaching agents and whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of human teeth enamel.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Pelin; Kansu, Gülay; Özak, Sule Tuğba; Kurtulmuş-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Kansu, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness of human enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide or 10% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents at different times and also subjected to different superficial cleaning treatments. One hundred and forty flat enamel samples were divided into 14 groups, Group 1-Group 14 (G1-G14). G1-G7 were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide and different dentifrices, G8-G14 were treated with 10% hydrogen peroxide and different dentifrices (G1 and G8: not brushed as control groups; G2 and G9: brushed with Ipana® toothpaste; G3 and G10: brushed with Clinomyn® toothpaste; G4 and G11: brushed with Moos Dent® toothpaste; G5 and G12: brushed with Signal® toothpaste; G6 and G13: brushed with Colgate® toothpaste; G7 and G14: brushed without dentifrice). A profilometer was used to measure average roughness values of the initial surface roughness and at each 7-day-interval. The bleaching was performed for 6 h a day and the surface cleaning treatment was performed 3-times a day, 2 min each time, for 4 weeks. The samples were stored in distilled water during the test period. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in surface roughness values over time for all groups except G1 and G8 (not brushed). The results of the surface roughness of all groups were nearly the same. The bleaching with 10% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide did not alter the enamel surface roughness, but when the bleaching treatment was performed combined with abrasive dentifrices, a significant increase in roughness values was observed.

  3. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  4. Factors influencing the caries experience of 6 and 12 year old children in Riga, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda; Abrams, Stephen H; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-01-01

    Authors assessed the influence of drinking tea with sugar, level of cariogenic microflora and use of fluoride toothpaste and tablets on caries experience of 6 and 12 year old children in Riga, Latvia. 141 six and 164 twelve year old children were examined clinically and with bitewing radiographs to determine their dmft/DMFT and dmfs/DMFS. Children or their parents responded to questionnaire on number teaspoons of sugar (TS) used per cup of tea, number of cups of tea consumed daily, using fluoride or non-fluoride toothpaste (TP), frequency of toothbrushing, using fluoride tablets or not (ft). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) levels were measured in children with dmft/DMFT>4.0 for age of 6 (73% (n=103)), and for age of 12 (54% (n=88)). Impact of variables in caries status was determined using frequency tables and ANOVA, while proportion differences were tested using chi-square test. In 6 year olds, statistically significant associations were observed between the salivary microflora (MS, LB) and dt/DT (p=0.032; dt=3.71, DT=0.42), use of F-toothpaste (p=0.020), and TS (p<0.001). In 12 year olds, statistically significant (p<0.01) associations were observed between salivary microflora and dt/DT, ds/DS and dmft/DMFT. In both age groups, significant (p<0.001) association was demonstrated between dmfs/DMFS and salivary microflora, F-toothpaste and TS. The present study indicated that the caries development in Latvian children was associated with consumption of sugary tea and use of non-fluoride toothpaste.

  5. Risk factors associated with fluorosis in a non-fluoridated population in Norway.

    PubMed

    Wang, N J; Gropen, A M; Ogaard, B

    1997-12-01

    In Norway, there is no water fluoridation and little naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride toothpaste is used by 95% of the population and there is a long tradition of fluoride supplement use. The purpose of this study was to record the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 8-year-old children and relate this to systemic fluoride exposure (supplements and toothpaste). All children (n = 551, born 1988) in a municipality in Norway were invited to participate. Dental fluorosis on the buccal surface of the upper permanent incisors was recorded according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF). Parents provided data on use of supplements and toothpaste. Complete data were obtained from 383 children. Sixty-seven percent of the children had used fluoride supplements regularly during childhood. At 8 months or earlier, the teeth of 26% of the children, and at age 14 months or earlier the teeth of 82%, were being brushed. Among children who used fluoride supplements regularly, periodically, seldom and not at all, 45%, 21%, 10% and 0%, respectively, had dental fluorosis. The dental fluorosis was mild (TF = 1) in 87% of the cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that, in addition to use of fluoride supplements, starting toothbrushing at an early age was associated with higher prevalence of dental fluorosis. The child's birth weight and liking for or swallowing of toothpaste did not influence the prevalence of fluorosis. Risk factors for fluorosis were use of toothpaste before the age of 14 months and regular use of fluoride supplements during childhood.

  6. The sugar tax - An opportunity to advance oral health.

    PubMed

    Wordley, V; Lee, H; Lomazzi, M; Bedi, R

    2017-07-07

    The new sugar tax was recently announced by Government, aiming to combat obesity through investment in school sports. Dental professionals should seize this rare opportunity to raise awareness of the other adverse effects of sugar; young children continue to suffer alarmingly high rates of dental cavities in the UK. A significant amount of money raised through the levy must be reinvested into ensuring fluoride toothpaste is more affordable. Since daily use of fluoride toothpaste is the most effective evidence-based oral health preventative measure that is widely used, this should receive tax exemption status from the government as a means of universal oral health prevention. There must also be a re-investment in innovative oral health education so that the next generation of children will alter their mind set about sugar. Oral health prevention advice must be tightly integrated into general health messages.

  7. Double-blind whitening Night-Guard study using ten percent carbamide peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, D; Los, S; Case, H; Healy, R

    1992-01-01

    The conservative technique of professionally dispensed and supervised, home-administered vital bleaching is now a routine treatment in the dental profession. This double-blind study evaluated the Rembrandt Lightening Gel and Whitening Toothpaste for shade change, colorimeter shade change. As well, it evaluated soft tissue health by periodontal probing, plaque index, and bleeding index. A patient questionnaire evaluated perception of whitening, perception of oral hygiene, average hours per day, and average days per week. Bleaching trays were worn over a 4-week period. The bleaching system showed definitive whitening effects as evaluated with the Vita shade guide and the colorimeter. The bleaching system had no deleterious effects on the soft tissue. The Rembrandt toothpaste alone demonstrated two-shade lightening. This vital bleaching system shows definitive whitening of the teeth in short periods of time with no adverse effects.

  8. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  9. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  10. Mouthwashes: Do They Work and Should We Use Them? Part 2: Anticaries, Antihalitosis and Dry Mouth Relief Efficacy of Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Penny

    2016-09-01

    This article will review the anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief efficacy of mouthwashes. Fluoride mouthwashes may provide an additional benefit to toothpaste and gel in children with a high risk of dental caries, but toothpaste alone may be a more acceptable mode of delivery. There may be a beneficial effect of fluoride mouthwashes on caries levels in older adults, particularly those at higher risk of root caries. The available data of the antihalitosis effect of mouthwashes neither supports nor contra-indicates their use. The key area where a mouthwash may be of use in the treatment of patients with a dry mouth is through the anticaries effect of fluoride. Clinical relevance: The evidence supporting the use of anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief mouthwashes is evaluated. This provides guidance for dentists and dental care professionals of when it is appropriate to recommend the use of a mouthwash in these situations.

  11. Investigating Individual Differences in General Comprehension Skill: The Role of Suppression and Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    001, they did not differ in their performance on the Air Force Qualifying Exam (p >. 15). Neither did they differ in their performance on the three...toilet, bathtub, hair dryer, shaving cream can, toothpaste, razor, and toothbrush; and the objects typical of an orchestra were a harp, piano, violin ...conductor, horn, music stand, and violin case. We constructed 40 experimental arrays from these 10 scene types by varying the number of objects in an

  12. Sodium fluoride mouthrinse used twice daily increased incipient caries lesion remineralization in an in situ model.

    PubMed

    Songsiripradubboon, Siriporn; Hamba, Hidenori; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Tagami, Junji

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the remineralizing effects of fluoride mouthrinses used at different times and frequency in addition to fluoride toothpaste. A randomized crossover single blinded study comprised 4 experimental phases of 21 days each. Twelve orthodontic volunteers were fixed with an orthodontic bracket containing an artificial carious enamel slab, which was from the same tooth in all 4 phases, and were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) brushing with F toothpaste 2× per day (F- brush), (2) F- brush+rinsing with 0.05% NaF (F- rinse) after lunch, (3) F- brush+F-rinse before bedtime, and (4) F- brush+F- rinse 2× per day. Mean mineral gain after each phase was determined from mineral density profiles obtained using Micro-CT. The mean mineral gain in all treatments with F- brush and F-rinse were significantly greater than those in F- brush (p<0.05). Moreover F- rinse 2× per day increased lesion remineralization more than F- rinse once a day. The twice-daily use of 0.05% NaF mouthrinse combined with twice-daily regular use of fluoride toothpaste resulted in the greatest remineralization of incipient caries. These data indicate that rinsing frequency is a factor affecting the effectiveness of fluoride mouthrinse. The rinsing frequency of NaF mouthrinse, when used with fluoride toothpaste, also affects the remineralization. This finding, if confirmed by a clinical study, would lead to a new recommendation for fluoride mouthrinse used in high caries risk patients who could benefit from using it twice a day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens

    PubMed Central

    Jongsma, Marije A; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Retention wires permanently bonded to the anterior teeth are used after orthodontic treatment to prevent the teeth from relapsing to pre-treatment positions. A disadvantage of bonded retainers is biofilm accumulation on the wires, which produces a higher incidence of gingival recession, increased pocket depth and bleeding on probing. This study compares in vivo biofilm formation on single-strand and multi-strand retention wires with different oral health-care regimens. Two-centimetre wires were placed in brackets that were bonded to the buccal side of the first molars and second premolars in the upper arches of 22 volunteers. Volunteers used a selected toothpaste with or without the additional use of a mouthrinse containing essential oils. Brushing was performed manually. Regimens were maintained for 1 week, after which the wires were removed and the oral biofilm was collected to quantify the number of organisms and their viability, determine the microbial composition and visualize the bacteria by electron microscopy. A 6-week washout period was employed between regimens. Biofilm formation was reduced on single-strand wires compared with multi-strand wires; bacteria were observed to adhere between the strands. The use of antibacterial toothpastes marginally reduced the amount of biofilm on both wire types, but significantly reduced the viability of the biofilm organisms. Additional use of the mouthrinse did not result in significant changes in biofilm amount or viability. However, major shifts in biofilm composition were induced by combining a stannous fluoride- or triclosan-containing toothpaste with the mouthrinse. These shifts can be tentatively attributed to small changes in bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity after the adsorption of the toothpaste components, which stimulate bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic oil, as illustrated for a Streptococcus mutans strain. PMID:25572920

  14. Contributions to Industrial Development of Science and Technology Institutions in Malaysia, Nigeria, and Colombia and Opportunities for Bilateral Cooperation (A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    inexpensive labor, and to modify products to meet the tastes of local consumers . Indeed, technology development for most industrial operations in these...of oil spills (Exxon) Local flavors added to toothpaste and cosmetics ( Colgate -Palmolive) Development of specialized electronic circuitry (Motorola...conditions, and to adjusting products to local consumer tastes. An exception is the Motorola laboratory in Penang. Using the highly skilled Chinese

  15. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    ileum-duodenum mandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes bone (sternum and both femurs) pancreas urinary bladder thyroid brain salivary glands lungs...Woodside, E.R. Kinkead, J.M. King, and L.J. Sullivan. 1971. Response of dogs to repeated intravenous injections of propylene glycol 4000 with notes on...Van Abbe. 1979. Safety evaluation of toothpaste containing chloroform. 1II. Long term studies in beagle dogs . J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 2:835-851

  16. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  17. Leveraging Lesson Learning in Tactical Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    then it may be a lesson, but as Vetock points out, determining useful lessons requires analysis. Discovery of the wrong lesson can be as bad as not...34lesson learning is a very dangerous business.൘ Distinguishing a good" lesson from a " bad " one requires experience, a good grasp of doctrine, and...section - - boasted 3 cigarette lighters, 1 bar of soap, 2 wallets, 40 bottles, 1 suspender, and 11 French toothpaste .55 49 As Vetock points out, the

  18. The Application of Radio Frequency Identification Technology to Overcome Three Common Aerial Port Challenges: A Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    better record keeping (d’Hont, 2004). Unilever , the 25th largest company in the world and manufacturer of toothpaste and shampoo, uses RFID...January 2004b. -----. “’Smart Pallet System’ at Unilever .” Excerpt from article from Texas Instruments company website, issue 16, 1996. n. pag...valuable background and perspective for this paper. Thank you Arlene for your patience during those long nights and several weekends when I needed to

  19. The Effects of Sanguinaria Extract on Plaque Retention and Gingival Health in Active Orthodontic Patients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Orthodontic Patients 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Robert A. Miller g. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND...8217-,"-’.’’.," .. ,-;,.’-. I 71 Sunmmary ’Controlling plaque accumulation in orthodontic patients is of primary im...effective in periodontal patients. This study tests a .03 per cent san- guinaria chloride mouthrinse and toothpaste in orthodontic patients. A 12 week

  20. In vivo biofilm formation on stainless steel bonded retainers during different oral health-care regimens.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Marije A; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-03-23

    Retention wires permanently bonded to the anterior teeth are used after orthodontic treatment to prevent the teeth from relapsing to pre-treatment positions. A disadvantage of bonded retainers is biofilm accumulation on the wires, which produces a higher incidence of gingival recession, increased pocket depth and bleeding on probing. This study compares in vivo biofilm formation on single-strand and multi-strand retention wires with different oral health-care regimens. Two-centimetre wires were placed in brackets that were bonded to the buccal side of the first molars and second premolars in the upper arches of 22 volunteers. Volunteers used a selected toothpaste with or without the additional use of a mouthrinse containing essential oils. Brushing was performed manually. Regimens were maintained for 1 week, after which the wires were removed and the oral biofilm was collected to quantify the number of organisms and their viability, determine the microbial composition and visualize the bacteria by electron microscopy. A 6-week washout period was employed between regimens. Biofilm formation was reduced on single-strand wires compared with multi-strand wires; bacteria were observed to adhere between the strands. The use of antibacterial toothpastes marginally reduced the amount of biofilm on both wire types, but significantly reduced the viability of the biofilm organisms. Additional use of the mouthrinse did not result in significant changes in biofilm amount or viability. However, major shifts in biofilm composition were induced by combining a stannous fluoride- or triclosan-containing toothpaste with the mouthrinse. These shifts can be tentatively attributed to small changes in bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity after the adsorption of the toothpaste components, which stimulate bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic oil, as illustrated for a Streptococcus mutans strain.

  1. Cognitive Complexity, Attitudinal Affect, and Dispersion in Affect Ratings for Products.

    PubMed

    Durand, Richard M

    1979-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between cognitive complexity, attitudinal affect, and dispersion of affect scores (N = 102 male business administration undergraduates). Models of automobiles and toothpaste brands were the content domains studied. Analysis using Pearson product-moment correlation supported the hypothesis that cognitive complex Ss had a lower level of affect and greater dispersion of affect scores than did simpler Ss.

  2. Distinct Circulating Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Among Injecting Drug Users and Sex Workers in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan. This cross-sectional study conducted between September 2006 and January 2008 surveyed SWs from Kabul...nonmonetary gift of hy- giene and grooming supplies (e.g., shampoo , toothpaste), whereas IDU participants received a small nonmonetary gift of hygiene...Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC): Afghanistan Drug Use Survey 2005. Kabul, Afghanistan. 2005. 10. Sanders-Buell E, Saad MD, Abed AS, et al

  3. Designing and Pre-Positioning Humanitarian Assistance Pack-Up Kits (HA PUKs) to Support Pacific Fleet Emergency Relief Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    surveying the area within 48 hours of the event and the first U.S. helicopters were airlifting supplies within 72 hours [Garamone, 2006]. 3...earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire [U.S. Geological Survey , 2006]. The Asia-Pacific region has recorded over 70% of the world’s earthquakes...distribute the items by aggregating the items into one, easily-distributed package. The kit should include soap, toothpaste, a toothbrush, shampoo

  4. Sharing the Dragon’s Teeth: Terrorist Groups and the Exchange of New Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    City: New Day Publishers, 1992; Syed Islam, “The Islamic Independence Movement in Pattani of Thailand and Mindanao of the Philippines,” Asian Survey ...Mecca for Transnational Terrorism in Southeast Asia 39 C4 compounds that were hidden in toothpaste tubes, deodorant cans, shampoo bottles, and...Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 3, No. 1, Summer 1998, p. 106. 14 Peter Hirshberg, “Getting Smart,” Jerusalem Post, December 17, 1992. 15 “Special Survey

  5. Balik-Terrorism: The Return of the Abu Sayyaf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    convenient way for the government to target them (MILF). In photos of the Malaysian International Monitoring Team’s Advance Survey Mission to the 108th...and reinjected into personal care products (toothpaste tubes and shampoo bottles). Intelligence officials believe that the only purpose for such...action is in the offing, as it is a very low priority of the public, and hence a poll-driven president. In March 2005 public opinion surveys by both the

  6. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Dodge, Iowa, ANG, for assis- tance in preparing the Flight for its winter involvement with "Elf One." After I surveyed our resources, Brigadier General...1978. 0 Cottrell, Alvin J. The Persian Gulf: A General Survey . Baltimore, Johns Hopins Univers. Press. 1980. Helms, Christine Moss. The Cohesion of...have your favorite brand. Recommendat ions: Razor flair Cream Shoe shine equipment Comb Shampoo Sewing kit Bath soap Toothbrush Toothpaste Deoderant

  7. The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M M; Browngardt, C; Xiaohui, X; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Burne, R A

    2014-02-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the pH of oral biofilms and reduces the risk for development of carious lesions. This study tested the hypothesis that increased availability of arginine in the oral environment through an exogenous source enhances the ADS activity levels in saliva and dental plaque. Saliva and supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 19 caries-free (CF) individuals (DMFT = 0) and 19 caries-active (CA) individuals (DMFT ≥ 2) before and after treatment, which comprised the use of a fluoride-free toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, or a regular fluoride-containing toothpaste twice daily for 4 weeks. ADS activity was measured by quantification of ammonia produced from arginine by oral samples at baseline, after washout period, 4 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks post-treatment. Higher ADS activity levels were observed in plaque samples from CF compared to those of CA individuals (P = 0.048) at baseline. The use of the arginine toothpaste significantly increased ADS activity in plaque of CA individuals (P = 0.026). The plaque microbial profiles of CA treated with the arginine toothpaste showed a shift in bacterial composition to a healthier community, more similar to that of CF individuals. Thus, an anti-caries effect may be expected from arginine-containing formulations due in large part to the enhancement of ADS activity levels and potential favorable modification to the composition of the oral microbiome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Community-level assessment of dental plaque bacteria susceptibility to triclosan over 19 years.

    PubMed

    Haraszthy, Violet I; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zambon, Joseph J

    2014-06-02

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in toothpaste to reduce dental plaque, gingivitis and oral malodor. This community-level assessment evaluated the susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to triclosan in samples collected over 19 years. A total of 155 dental plaque samples were collected at eleven different times over 19 years from 58 adults using 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride toothpaste and from 97 adults using toothpaste without triclosan. These included samples from 21 subjects who used triclosan toothpaste for at least five years and samples from 20 control subjects. The samples were cultured on media containing 0, 7.5 or 25 μg/ml triclosan. Descriptive statistics and p values were computed and a linear regression model and the runs test were used to examine susceptibility over time. Growth inhibition averaged 99.451% (91.209 - 99.830%) on media containing 7.5 μg/ml triclosan and 99.989% (99.670 - 100%) on media containing 25 μg/ml triclosan. There was no change in microbial susceptibility to triclosan over time discernible by regression analysis or the runs test in plaque samples taken over 19 years including samples from subjects using a triclosan-containing dentifrice for at least five years. This community-level assessment of microbial susceptibility to triclosan among supragingival plaque bacteria is consistent with the long-term safety of a 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice.

  9. Community-level assessment of dental plaque bacteria susceptibility to triclosan over 19 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in toothpaste to reduce dental plaque, gingivitis and oral malodor. This community-level assessment evaluated the susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to triclosan in samples collected over 19 years. Methods A total of 155 dental plaque samples were collected at eleven different times over 19 years from 58 adults using 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride toothpaste and from 97 adults using toothpaste without triclosan. These included samples from 21 subjects who used triclosan toothpaste for at least five years and samples from 20 control subjects. The samples were cultured on media containing 0, 7.5 or 25 μg/ml triclosan. Descriptive statistics and p values were computed and a linear regression model and the runs test were used to examine susceptibility over time. Results Growth inhibition averaged 99.451% (91.209 - 99.830%) on media containing 7.5 μg/ml triclosan and 99.989% (99.670 - 100%) on media containing 25 μg/ml triclosan. There was no change in microbial susceptibility to triclosan over time discernible by regression analysis or the runs test in plaque samples taken over 19 years including samples from subjects using a triclosan-containing dentifrice for at least five years. Conclusions This community-level assessment of microbial susceptibility to triclosan among supragingival plaque bacteria is consistent with the long-term safety of a 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice. PMID:24889743

  10. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-15

    dresses, jackets, and furniture uphol- stery, capacities to manufacture panty hose, shoes, paints, and toothpaste are being refitted. Clothing and...enterprises. As a result the annual production of knitted wear will increase by 22.5 million units, that of panty hose by 200 million pairs. Production of...new and high-fashion types of panty hose, knitted outer wear made from lighter linen, highly elastic bathing suits, and clothing for leisure and

  11. Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  12. What do expectant mothers need to know about oral health? A cohort study from a London maternity unit

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Patricia Nunes; Alkhatrash, Aishah; Williams, Catherine Ethel; Briley, Annette; Carter, Jenny; Poston, Lucilla; Hosey, Marie Therese

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of pregnant women and to report their future plans to provide dental care for their expected child. Design and setting: Prospective cohort study; Ultrasound maternity services at St Thomas’ Hospital, London, 2014. Pregnant women attending for a routine ultrasound scan completed a questionnaire. Results: Women did not know that milk, dried fruit or fruit juices can cause caries. Most women knew about the benefit of fluoridated toothpaste, dental floss and sugar-free chewing gum, but only a minority knew about fluoride varnish. Most pregnant women planned to read or seek advice before purchasing their child’s first toothpaste. There was no difference regarding knowledge of prevention tools (diet and fluoride supplements) for dental caries (P>0.05) between first-time mothers and those who had children already. Though the latter knew more about toothpaste dose and timing of starting toothbrushing (P<0.05). Discussion: Oral health knowledge among pregnant women was deficient with respect to the cariogenicity of prolonged night-time milk feeding, dried fruits and fruit juice consumption. There was also limited knowledge of the benefit of fluoride varnish and timing of starting toothbrushing. Conclusions: Oral health knowledge amongst pregnant women is still deficient in many aspects. In this study population the need to improve maternal knowledge was shown. PMID:29789770

  13. Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity by National Dental Practice-Based Research Network practitioners: results from a questionnaire administered prior to initiation of a clinical study on this topic.

    PubMed

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Litaker, Mark S; Chonowski, Sidney; Heft, Marc W; Gordan, Valeria V; Yardic, Robin L; Madden, Theresa E; Reyes, Stephanie C; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2017-01-13

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a common problem encountered in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to identify the management approaches for DH among United States dentists. One hundred eighty five National Dental Practice-Based Research Network clinicians completed a questionnaire regarding their preferred methods to diagnose and manage DH in the practice setting, and their beliefs about DH predisposing factors. Almost all dentists (99%) reported using more than one method to diagnose DH. Most frequently, they reported using spontaneous patient reports coupled with excluding other causes of oral pain by direct clinical examination (48%); followed by applying an air blast (26%), applying cold water (12%), and obtaining patient reports after dentist's query (6%). In managing DH, the most frequent first choice was desensitizing, over-the-counter (OTC), potassium nitrate toothpaste (48%), followed by fluorides (38%), and glutaraldehyde/HEMA (3%). A total of 86% of respondents reported using a combination of products when treating DH, most frequently using fluoride varnish and desensitizing OTC potassium nitrate toothpaste (70%). The most frequent predisposing factor leading to DH, as reported by the practitioners, was recessed gingiva (66%), followed by abrasion, erosion, abfraction/attrition lesions (59%) and bruxism (32%). The majority of network practitioners use multiple methods to diagnose and manage DH. Desensitizing OTC potassium nitrate toothpaste and fluoride formulations are the most widely used products to manage DH in dental practice setting.

  14. Atomic force microscopy study of enamel remineralization

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Lombardini, Marco; Colombo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of two products: a CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse, GC Corp.) and a desensitizing toothpaste (Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, Colgate-Palmolive) on preventing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola) by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Methods Thirty enamel specimens were assigned to 6 groups of 5 specimens each. 1: intact enamel, 2: enamel + soft drink, 3: intact enamel + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 4: enamel + soft drink + Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief, 5: intact enamel + GC Tooth Mousse, 6: enamel + soft drink + GC Tooth Mousse. The surface of each specimen was imaged by AFM. The root mean-square roughness (Rrms) was obtained from the AFM images and the differences in the averaged values among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results Comparing groups 4 and 6 (soft drink + toothpastes) with group 2 (eroded enamel) a statistical difference (P<0.05) was registered, suggesting effectiveness in protecting enamel against erosion of the products investigated. Conclusions The use of new formulation toothpastes can prevent enamel demineralization. PMID:25506414

  15. Extent and quality of systematic review evidence related to minimum intervention in dentistry: essential oils, powered toothbrushes, triclosan, xylitol.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2011-08-01

    To investigate extent and quality of current systematic review evidence regarding: powered toothbrushes, triclosan toothpaste, essential oil mouthwashes, xylitol chewing gum. Five databases were searched for systematic reviews until 13 November 2010. relevant to topic, systematic review according to title and/or abstract, published in English. Article exclusion criteria were based on QUOROM recommendations for the reporting of systematic review methods. Systematic review quality was judged using the AMSTAR tool. All trials included by reviews were assessed for selection bias. 119 articles were found, of which 11 systematic reviews were included. Of these, six were excluded and five accepted: one for triclosan toothpaste; one for xylitol chewing gum; two for powered toothbrushes; one for essential oil mouthwashes. AMSTAR scores: triclosan toothpaste 7; powered toothbrushes 9 and 11; xylitol chewing gum 9; essential oil mouthwashes 8. In total, 75 (out of 76) reviewed trials were identified. In-depth assessment showed a high risk of selection bias for all trials. The extent of available systematic review evidence is low. Although the few identified systematic reviews could be rated as of medium and high quality, the validity of their conclusions needs to be treated with caution, owing to high risk of selection bias in the reviewed trials. High quality randomised control trials are needed in order to provide convincing evidence regarding true clinical efficacy. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Clinical effects of probiotics containing Bacillus species on gingivitis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alkaya, B; Laleman, I; Keceli, S; Ozcelik, O; Cenk Haytac, M; Teughels, W

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used probiotics in oral health research. However, although probiotic effects have been suggested for other genera, such as bacilli, no trials are available to describe the effect of bacilli probiotics on gingivitis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a bacilli-containing toothpaste, a mouthrinse and a toothbrush cleaner versus a placebo in patients with generalized gingivitis. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients with generalized gingivitis were included. They used a placebo or an experimental probiotic Bacillus subtilis-, Bacillus megaterium- and Bacillus pumulus-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner for 8 wk. Primary outcome measures of interest were plaque and gingivitis index, and the secondary outcome measures were pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing. Twenty male and 20 female patients were randomized over the two groups. All participants could be included in the final analysis. Although plaque and gingivitis indices were significantly reduced after 8 wk, no intergroup differences could be found at any time point. Also, for the secondary outcome measure, intragroup but no intergroup differences could be detected. No harm or unintended effects were reported by the patients after using the study products. This study did not show any statistically significant differences between a placebo and a bacilli-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner on gingivitis parameters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In vitro reproduction of incisal/occlusal cupping/cratering.

    PubMed

    Dzakovich, John J; Oslak, Robert R

    2013-06-01

    Occlusal cupping/cratering (depressed dentin surrounded by elevated rims of enamel) has been postulated to be the result of abrasion, bruxism, attrition, acid erosion, stress corrosion, or a combination of these. The primary etiology or the multifactorial sequence of occlusal cupping/cratering remains scientifically unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to reproduce occlusal/incisal cupping/cratering in vitro. This study was designed to create cupping/cratering on the occlusal surfaces of extracted human teeth rather than to quantify the amount of lost tooth structure caused by abrasion. One name-brand toothbrush was tested with 2 different dentifrices (of different abrasive potentials [low and high]) and water only (nonabrasive) on extracted human teeth. Six specimens of 4 teeth each (24 teeth) were subjected to horizontal brushing in a 1:1 toothpaste/water slurry and water only. The control group, brushed with water only, demonstrated no visible loss of tooth structure. Each of the specimens brushed with toothpaste, regardless of the degree of abrasivity, demonstrated visible wear of the dentin, resulting in occlusal/incisal cupping/cratering. Pronounced cupping/cratering was caused by horizontal brushing with commercial toothpastes. Brushing in water demonstrated no visual loss of occlusal tooth structure. (J Prosthet Dent 2013;109:384-391). Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  19. The role of oral hygiene: does toothbrushing harm?

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Schlueter, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Although toothbrushing is considered a prerequisite for maintaining good oral health, it also has the potential to have an impact on tooth wear, particularly with regard to dental erosion. Experimental studies have demonstrated that tooth abrasion can be influenced by a number of factors, including not only the physical properties of the toothpaste and toothbrush used but also patient-related factors such as toothbrushing frequency and force of brushing. While abrasion resulting from routine oral hygiene can be considered as physiological wear over time, intensive brushing might further harm eroded surfaces by removing the demineralised enamel surface layer. The effects of brushing on eroded dentine are not fully elucidated, particular under in vivo conditions. However, there are indications that brushing after an acid impact causes less additional hard tissue loss in dentine than in enamel. Toothbrushing frequency and force as well as toothbrush hardness were shown to act as co-factors in the multifactorial aetiology of non-cervical carious lesions. In vitro studies showed that toothbrushing abrasion is primarily related to the abrasivity of the toothpaste, while the toothbrush acts as a carrier, only modifying the effects of the toothpaste. The benefits of normal oral hygiene procedure exceed possible side effects by far, but excessive toothbrushing - especially of eroded teeth - might cause some harmful effects. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm 2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups ( n = 10); group A - deionized water; group B - casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C - 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman ® ); group D - nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen ® ); and group E - tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro ® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups ( P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The fluoride 500 ppm and TCP toothpastes were equal in the deceleration of

  1. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  2. Malodor reductions and improved oral hygiene by toothbrushing and mouthrinsing.

    PubMed

    Nandlal, B; Shahikumar, P; Avinash, B S; Sreenivasan, P K; Subramanyam, R

    2016-01-01

    This clinical study compared the effects of an antibacterial regimen, comprising a triclosan toothpaste and a 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse, on malodor, self-reported malodor, and oral hygiene measures such as dental plaque, gingivitis, and bleeding relative to brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. At baseline, 36 subjects were evaluated for malodor (9-point organoleptic scale [OLT]), dental plaque (Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein; PI), gingivitis (Lφe-Silness; GI) and bleeding (Ainamo and Bay; BI) and randomized to (1) tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, or (2) a regimen comprising tooth brushing with a triclosan toothpaste and mouth rinsing with CPC mouthrinse. After the first use of assigned treatments, subjects were evaluated for malodor 2 h after breakfast (OLT-2 h) and used provided treatments for the next 14 days. On the 7 th and 14 th days, subjects refrained from oral hygiene for 12 h before evaluations (OLT, PI, GI, and BI) and then performed oral hygiene at the dental clinic. Subjects were evaluated for malodor 2 h after breakfast (OLT-2 h) and self-assessed their malodor on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). Treatment groups demonstrated no significant differences in OLT, PI, GI, BI at baseline (P > 0.05). OLT-2 h scores after the first use of regimen and after tooth brushing alone were 5.94 and 6.21, respectively, and were statistically significantly different (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the regimen demonstrated progressive reductions in OLT and OLT-2 h on the 7 th and 14 th day evaluations (5.81, 4.88, and 5.09, 4.20, respectively) and were significantly lower than after tooth brushing alone (6.49, 6.18, and 6.35, 5.99, respectively) (P < 0.05). From the 7 th to 14 th days, the regimen also demonstrated progressively lower PI, GI, BI, and self-reported malodor (VAS scores) which were significantly lower than tooth brushing alone (P < 0.05). Results from this study demonstrated that a regimen comprising a triclosan

  3. Analysis of the effect of CPP-ACP tooth mousse on enamel remineralization by circularly polarized images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guotao; Liu, Xinqiang; Hou, Yongfu

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate tooth mousse on the remineralization of bovine incisor by circularly polarized images. Eighty bovine incisors, each with a 4 x 4 mm artificially demineralized area, were used. The samples were divided into four groups: Group A, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate tooth mousse; Group B, fluoride toothpaste; Group C, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate tooth mousse and fluoride toothpaste; and Group D, no treatment. Circularly polarized images were taken after the specimens were treated for 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks, and the size of the demineralized area and the mean grey level were measured. Data analysis was done using repeated measures variance analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to evaluate the correlation between the size of the demineralized area and the mean grey level. In all four groups, the size of the demineralized area and the mean grey level declined with time. The size of the demineralized area of Group C was significantly smaller than that of Group A at the end of the third and sixth weeks (P = .039, P = .000, respectively), and the mean grey level of Group C was lower than that of Group A at the end of the 6th and 12th weeks (P = .037, P = .004, respectively). At the end of the 6th, 9th, and 12th weeks, the size of the demineralized area of Group C was smaller (P = .000, P = .005, P = .005, respectively) and the mean grey level was lower (P = .000) than those of Group B. No statistically significant correlations were detected between the size of the demineralized area and the mean grey level. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate tooth mousse can reduce the size and mean grey level of demineralized areas and promote the remineralization of bovine enamel. Combined application with fluoride toothpaste strengthens the effect.

  4. Efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries in primary molars: 1-year follow-up of a split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Jorge, R C; Souza, I P R; Soviero, V M

    2018-04-01

    The main purpose of this split month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was evaluate the efficacy of caries infiltration in controlling the progression of non-cavitated proximal lesions in primary molars. Anxiety and time required for the caries infiltration was also evaluated. Fifty healthy children, 5 to 9 years, presenting two primary molars with proximal caries lesions (1/2 of the enamel or outer 1/3 of dentin), were included. Lesions were randomly allocated to the test group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing + infiltration) or to the control group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing). Caries risk was based on the Cariogram model. The main outcome after 1-year radiographic follow up was assessed by an independent blinded examiner A facial image scale (FIS) was applied to assess dental anxiety and time required to perform the infiltration was recorded. Of the sample, 92.9% corresponded to high or medium caries risk. In 42 patients (1-year follow up), caries progression was observed in 11.9% (5/42) of the test lesions compared with 33.3% (14/42) of the control lesions (p < 0.05). Five control and three test lesions progressed to the middle 1/3 of dentin and were restored. No side effects were observed. Anxiety was both low before and after the treatment, and mean time required for the infiltration was 11.29 min (± 1.16 min). Caries infiltration of proximal caries lesions in primary molars is significantly more efficacious than standard therapy alone (fluoride toothpaste + flossing). Caries infiltration is an applicable and well-accepted method be used in children, representing a promising micro-invasive approach.

  5. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lapenaite, Egle; Lopatiene, Kristina; Ragauskaite, Aira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride and casein topical preparations in the prevention of white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment. Information search for controlled studies on humans published in the English language between 2008 and 2013 was conducted in Medline via PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Oxford University Press: Oxford journals and The Cochrane Library, as well as the Web search Google Scholar. 177 articles were reviewed; eleven clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. In the clinical studies it was concluded that high-concentration fluoride supplements are effective in reducing white spot lesions. Results of the studies showed the same usefulness of fluoride varnish, MI Paste, and usual oral hygiene using 1100 ppm of fluoride toothpaste. Effect on the prevention and treatment of white spot lesions of oral hygiene with toothpaste containing 1450 ppm of fluoride in orthodontic patients was evaluated. The positive effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate in white spot lesions treatment was found. Otherwise in some clinical studies use of casein derivates during fixed orthodontics for white spot lesions treatment was not effective. More clinical studies conducted during last five years yielded significantly positive results about the effectiveness of fluoride and caseine supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment. For a higher-risk patient group, additional supplements such as high-concentrated fluoride varnish, chewing sticks, or casein derivates, are required. A good oral hygiene regimen using high-fluoride toothpaste is as effective as fluoride or casein derivates in the prevention of new white spot lesions formation.

  6. The effect of cleaning substances on the surface of denture base material.

    PubMed

    Žilinskas, Juozas; Junevičius, Jonas; Česaitis, Kęstutis; Junevičiūtė, Gabrielė

    2013-12-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substances used for hygienic cleaning of dentures on the surface of the denture base material. Meliodent Heat Cure (Heraeus-Kulzer, Germany) heat-polymerized acrylic resin was used to produce plates with all the characteristics of removable denture bases (subsequently, "plates"). Oral-B Complete toothbrushes of various brush head types were fixed to a device that imitated tooth brushing movements; table salt and baking soda (frequently used by patients to improve tooth brushing results), toothpaste ("Colgate Total"), and water were also applied. Changes in plate surfaces were monitored by measuring surface reflection alterations on spectrometry. Measurements were conducted before the cleaning and at 2 and 6 hours after cleaning. No statistically significant differences were found between the 3 test series. All 3 plates used in the study underwent statistically significant (p<0.05 changed)--the reflection became poorer. The plates were most affected by the medium-bristle toothbrush with baking soda--the total reflection reduction was 4.82 ± 0.1%; among toothbrushes with toothpaste, the hard-type toothbrush had the greatest reflection-reducing effect--4.6 ± 0.05%, while the toothbrush with table salt inflicted the least damage (3.5 ± 0.16%) due to the presence of rounded crystals between the bristles and the resin surface. Toothbrushes with water had a uniform negative effect on the plate surface - 3.8 9 ± 0.07%. All substances used by the patients caused surface abrasion of the denture base material, which reduced the reflection; a hard toothbrush with toothpaste had the greatest abrasive effect, while soft toothbrushes inflicted the least damage.

  7. Comparison between amine fluoride and chlorhexidine with institutionalized elders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    López, Rosa Moreno; Uribe, Manuel Ribera; Rodríguez, Belisa Olmo; Casasempere, Inmaculada Vela

    2013-06-01

    Compare the efficacy of amine fluoride toothpaste and gel with chlorhexidine spray in an institutionalised population. People who live in nursing homes have poorer oral hygiene because of their dependency for the basic activities of daily living as they rely on caregivers. Twenty-six people over 65 years old who had at least four teeth and living in a nursing home. They were assigned to three groups: A: amine fluoride toothpaste and once a week amine fluoride gel (Elmex(®) ), B: 0.12% spray-chlorhexidine once a day (Perio-Aid(®) ) and C: brush teeth without toothpaste. The plaque and gingival index of Silness and Löe, General Oral Health Assessment Index, McLeran and Pfeiffer index were recorded, and the number of colonies of Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacillus and the remineralisation of caries were evaluated using Diagnodent(®). Measurements were taken at the beginning of the study and after 6 months.   Twenty-two people finished the study. No group showed a statistical difference in the plaque or gingival index, but there was a tendency to show improvement in the amine fluoride group. There was also no difference between the number of colonies of either S. mutans or lactobacillus. There was a significant difference between the plaque and gingival index and the cognitive status (p=0.0054), along with their requirement for assistance to perform good oral hygiene (p=0.0001). Both products remineralised the carious lesions in this period compared with the control group (p=0.0151). The plaque and gingival indices did not improve during the study, but both products remineralised the previous caries lesions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Most microbeads in a preliminary survey of personal care products are smaller than the typical 330µm trawl mesh size used in surface water surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkle, J. L.; Baez-Del Valle, C.; Turner, J.

    2016-02-01

    Research on plastic debris in aquatic environments, particularly the ocean, has recently exploded due to our emerging understanding of their ubiquitous presence and organismal effects. One study estimated that hundreds of thousands of tons of plastic float at our ocean surface, while another estimated that up to 12.7 million metric tons enter the ocean in a year. These studies produced reasonable estimates of oceanic loads, but research is needed to understand the sources and properties of plastics, particularly microplastics, entering the environment. In this preliminary study, polyethylene (PE) microbeads from 6 facial scrubs, 4 body washes and 3 toothpaste products were extracted and quantified by mass and particle count for the following size classes: 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000µm. Within the product classes, roughly half (face scrub, 55% and body wash, 48%) to nearly all (toothpaste, 97%) of PE microbeads on a mass basis were smaller than 300µm in diameter. When examining the size distribution by particle count, the results were even more astounding. Nearly all PE microbeads were smaller than 300µm for face scrub (95%), body wash (97%) and toothpaste (100%). The 300µm particle diameter is significant, as major surveys in the published literature (Eriksen et al., 2014; Law et al, 2014) used 330µm or greater mesh size to sample plastic debris and estimate oceanic plastic loads. Therefore, these published surveys, which are some of our best estimates of plastic debris at the ocean surface, likely underestimate total environmental loads because they may exclude half of the mass and nearly all of the individual PE microbead particles that enter our waste stream and potentially surface waters after the use of personal care products.

  9. Mafic-crystal distributions, viscosities, and lava structures of some Hawaiian lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, Scott K.; Walker, George P. L.

    1988-09-01

    The distribution patterns of mafic phenocrysts in some Hawaiian basalt flows are consistent with simple in situ gravitational settling. We use the patterns to estimate the crystal settling velocity and hence viscosity of the lava, which in turn can be correlated with surface structures. Numerical modeling generates theoretical crystal concentration profiles through lava flow units of different thicknesses for differing settling velocities. By fitting these curves to field data, crystal-settling rates through the lavas can be estimated, from which the viscosities of the flows can be determined using Stokes' Law. Lavas in which the crystal settling velocity was relatively high (on the order of 5 × 10 -4 cm/sec) show great variations in phenocryst content, both from top to bottom of the same flow unit, and from one flow unit to another. Such lava is invariably pahoehoe, flow units of which are usually less than 1 m thick. Lavas in which the crystal-settling velocity was low show a small but measurable variation in phenocryst content. These lavas are part of a progression from a rough pahoehoe to toothpaste lava to a'a. Toothpaste lava is characterized by spiny texture as well as the ability to retain surface grooves during solidification, and flow units are usually thicker than 1 m. In the thickest of Hawaiian a'a flows, those of the distal type, no systematic crystal variations are observed, and high viscosity coupled with a finite yield strength prevented crystal settling. The amount of crystal settling in pahoehoe indicates that the viscosity ranged from 600 to 6000 Pa s. The limited amount of settling in toothpaste lava indicates a viscosity greater than this value, approaching 12,000 Pa s. We infer that distal-type a'a had a higher viscosity still and also possessed a yield strength.

  10. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Synergy of brushing mode and antibacterial use on in vivo biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Marije A; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Busscher, Henk J; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic, multi-strand retention-wires are used as a generalized model for oral retention sites to investigate whether biofilm left-behind after powered toothbrushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials as compared with manual brushing. 2-cm multi-strand, stainless-steel retention-wires were placed in brackets bonded bilaterally in the upper arches of 10-volunteers. Volunteers used NaF-sodium-lauryl-sulphate-containing toothpaste and antibacterial, triclosan-containing toothpaste supplemented or not with an essential-oils containing mouthrinse. Opposite sides of the dentition including the retention-wires, were brushed manually or with a powered toothbrush. Health-care-regimens were maintained for 1-week, after which wires were removed and oral biofilm was collected. When powered toothbrushing was applied, slightly less bacteria were collected than after manual brushing, regardless whether an antibacterial-regimen was used or not. Powered-toothbrushing combined with antibacterial-regimens yielded lower biofilm viability than manual brushing, indicating better antibacterial penetration into biofilm left-behind after powered brushing. Major shifts in biofilm composition, with a decrease in prevalence of both cariogenic species and periodontopathogens, were induced after powered brushing using an antibacterial-regimen. Oral biofilm left-behind after powered brushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials than after manual brushing. Mechanical removal of oral biofilm is important for prevention of dental pathologies, but biofilm is always left-behind, such as in fissures, buccal pits, interproximal areas and gingival margins and around orthodontic appliances. Use of antibacterial toothpastes or mouthrinses can contribute to removal or killing of biofilm bacteria, but biofilm structure hampers antibacterial penetration. A synergy between brushing mode and antibacterial-regimen applied exists with clinically demonstrable effects

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries in adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Sheiham, Aubrey; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna L

    2014-08-01

    To explore the association between frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and caries increment over 4 years in adults. A second objective was to explore whether the association between frequency of SSB consumption and caries increment varied by socio-demographic characteristics and use of fluoride toothpaste. Data from 939 dentate adults who participated in both the Health 2000 Survey and the Follow-Up Study of Finnish Adults' Oral Health were analysed. At baseline, participants provided information on demographic characteristics, education and dental behaviours, including two questions on frequency of SSB consumption. The 4-year net DMFT increment was calculated using data from baseline and follow-up clinical oral examinations. The association was tested in negative binomial regression models and the moderating role of sex, age, education and use of fluoride toothpaste was examined by adding their two-way interaction with SSB consumption to the main effects model. A positive association was found between frequency of SBS consumption and 4-year net DMFT increment, regardless of participants' socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Adults drinking 1-2 and 3+ SSB daily had, respectively, 31% (Incidence Rate Ratio: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.02-1.67) and 33% (IRR: 1.33; 95%CI; 1.03-1.72) greater net DMFT increments than those not drinking any SSB. None of the four two-way interaction terms was significant (all p>0.05). There seems to be a dose-response relationship between frequency of SSB consumption and caries increment in adults. That association was consistent across socio-demographic characteristics, and more importantly, use of fluoride toothpaste. Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages on a daily basis is related to greater caries risk in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caries-preventive effectiveness of fluoride varnish as adjunct to oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing in preschool children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Agouropoulos, A; Twetman, S; Pandis, N; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children as an adjunct to school-based oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing with 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste. 424 preschool children, 2-5 year of age, from 10 different pre schools in Athens were invited to this double-blind randomized controlled trial and 328 children completed the 2-year programme. All children received oral health education with hygiene instructions twice yearly and attended supervised tooth brushing once daily. The test group was treated with fluoride varnish (0.9% diflurosilane) biannually while the control group had placebo applications. The primary endpoints were caries prevalence and increment; secondary outcomes were gingival health, mutans streptococci growth and salivary buffer capacity. The groups were balanced at baseline and no significant differences in caries prevalence or increment were displayed between the groups after 1 and 2 years, respectively. There was a reduced number of new pre-cavitated enamel lesions during the second year of the study (p=0.05) but the decrease was not statistically significant. The secondary endpoints were unaffected by the varnish treatments. Under the present conditions, biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children did not show significant caries-preventive benefits when provided as an adjunct to school-based supervised tooth brushing with 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste. In community based, caries prevention programmes, for high caries risk preschool children, a fluoride varnish may add little to caries prevention, when 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste is used daily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Schoolchildren's tooth brushing characteristics and oral hygiene habits assessed with video-recorded sessions at school and a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; González, María Clara; Tellez, Marisol; Guzmán, Adriana; Quintero, Ingrid K; Sáenz, Viviana; Martínez, Miguel; Mora, Angelica; Espinosa, Luis Fernando; Castiblanco, Gina A

    2012-01-01

    Tooth brushing habits become established during the first years of childhood and last throughout lifetime. To assess tooth-brushing characteristics, the procedure was videotaped at school and a questionnaire on oral hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices was completed. A total 146 5- to 8-year-old low-SES schoolchildren from Bogotá participated. The median total tooth brushing time was 115 sec (75% Q3-178 sec; 25% Q1-83 sec). The median time the toothbrush was in the child's mouth was 89 sec (75% Q3-145 sec; 25% Q1-65 sec). Most children brushed their maxillary (97%), mandibular (95%), anterior (96%) and posterior (81%) teeth. The surfaces most often brushed were the buccal-anterior-maxillary (96%) and mandibular (94%) surfaces. The amount of toothpaste dispensed was 2/3 of toothbrush head in 51% of children. Most children spat (93%), used the mirror (78%), and rinsed their mouth (72%). The majority (97%) was confident that the toothbrushing session was effective. The questionnaire revealed the following: none of the children brush their teeth at school; only 34% is supervised by an adult during the tooth brushing procedure, and only 30% brush twice a day. The study shows overall positive findings of tooth brushing while being observed, in terms of time and use of toothpaste. These results, together with the poor oral-health status and toothbrushing habits reported at home, highly recommend incorporating daily-supervised school-based tooth brushing sessions with fluoride toothpaste.

  15. Caries prevalence and fluoride use in low SES children in Clermont-Ferrand (France).

    PubMed

    Tubert-Jeannin, S; Riordan, P J; Manevy, R; Lecuyer, M M; Pegon-Machat, E

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the association between dental caries experience and preventive behaviours of children residing in a deprived area in Clermont-Ferrand (France). All 4-5 yr-olds attending nine schools in deprived areas of the city were invited to participate and 81% (n=282) consented and were examined. Dental caries was recorded at the dentine threshold. Parents completed a questionnaire concerning family demographics and the child's use of fluoride. Non-parametric tests and logistic regression assessed the relative importance of SES and fluoride variables on dental status (dt>1). Fifty four (19%) of the examined children were living in families with an immigrant background, 33% were fully covered by the national health insurance programme for deprived families. Caries experience was high; mean dft was 1.94 (3.31) and 30% of the children had >1 carious teeth. Thirty percent of the families reported using fluoridated salt. Tooth brushing once daily was reported for 39% and twice daily for 26%. Parents declared supervising tooth brushing for 60%. Two thirds of the children, according to their parents, used fluoride supplement between birth and two years. Supervised tooth brushing was significantly correlated with lower mean dt scores. Systemic fluoride use was poorly related to dental caries Immigrant background, family size, type of health insurance and mother's unemployment were significantly correlated with caries prevalence. In multivariate analysis, immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors. The majority of low SES children did not practice effective caries prevention; few reported twice daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Caries experience was very high and much was untreated. Immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors.

  16. Purification and characterization of α-Amylase from Miswak Salvadora persica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The miswak (Salvadora persica) is a natural toothbrush. It is well known that very little information has been reported on enzymes in miswak as medicinal plant. Recently, we study peroxidase in miswak. In the present study, the main goal of this work is to purify and characterize α-amylase from miswak. The second goal is to study the storage stability of α-amylase in toothpaste. Method The purification method included chromatographaphy of miswak α-amylase on DEAE-Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Molecular weight was determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Results Five α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b from miswak were purified and they had molecular weights of 14, 74, 16, 30 and 20 kDa, respectively. α-Amylases had optimum pH from 6 to 8. Affinity of the substrates toward all enzymes was studied. Miswak α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b had Km values for starch and glycogen of 3.7, 3.7, 7.1, 0.52, 4.3 mg/ml and 5.95, 5.9 4.16, 6.3, 6.49 mg/ml, respectively. The optimum temperature for five enzymes ranged 40°C- 60°C. Miswak α-amylases were stable up to 40°C- 60°C after incubation for 30 min. Ca+2 activated all the miswak α-amylases, while Ni2+, Co+2 and Zn+2 activated or inhibited some of these enzymes. The metal chelators, EDTA, sodium citrate and sodium oxalate had inhibitory effects on miswak α-amylases. PMSF, p-HMB, DTNB and 1,10 phenanthroline caused inhibitory effect on α-amylases. The analysis of hydrolytic products after starch hydrolysis by miswak α-amylases on paper chromatography revealed that glucose, maltose, maltotriose and oligosaccharide were the major products. Crude miswak α-amylase in the toothpaste retained 55% of its original activity after 10 months of storage at room temperature. Conclusions From these findings, α-amylases from miswak can be considered as beneficial enzymes for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, we study the storage stability of the crude α-amylase of miswak, which contained the five

  17. Coiling of viscous jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2004-11-01

    A stream of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a series of regular coils. I use a numerical model for a deformable fluid thread to predict the coiling frequency as a function of the thread's radius, the flow rate, the fall height, and the fluid viscosity. Three distinct modes of coiling can occur: viscous (e.g. toothpaste), gravitational (honey falling from a moderate height) and inertial (honey falling from a great height). When inertia is significant, three states of steady coiling with different frequencies can exist over a range of fall heights. The numerically predicted coiling frequencies agree well with experimental measurements in the inertial coiling regime.

  18. Growth of 3-D flower/grass-like metal oxide nanoarchitectures based on catalyst-assisted oxidation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lijiao; Ju, Yang; Hosoi, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    Cu2O grass-like and ZnO flower-like nanoarchitectures were fabricated directly on Cu powders and Zn powders using a novel thermal oxidation stress-induced (TOS) method based on catalyst assistance at a low temperature of 150°C under moderate humid atmosphere. The experiments of Al powder were also carried out based on TOS method. Overlapping migration (OLM) of Cu and Zn atoms and toothpaste squeezing migration (TSM) of Al atoms caused by different atom densities in metal oxide materials were studied.

  19. Designing of a fluoride selective receptor through molecular orbital engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Kumar, Virendra; Diwan, Uzra; Upadhyay, K. K.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    The stepwise substitution of appropriate groups over the 3-[(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hydrazono]-butyric acid ethyl ester (R3) lead receptor R1 which showed selectivity towards fluoride in DMSO. The UV-vis and 1H NMR titration studies revealed the details of the binding between receptor R1 and fluoride. The receptor R1 also recognized fluoride in a toothpaste solution to as low as 50 ppm. The theoretical simulations of recognition event at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level using B3LYP/6-31G** basis set and polarizable continuum model (PCM) approach lead a semi-quantitative match with the experimental results.

  20. Prostaglandin PGE2: a possible mechanism for bone destruction in calcinosis circumscripta.

    PubMed

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Runci, F; Bombardieri, S

    1978-02-28

    A patient showed evident osteolysis in phalanges and heavy periarticular calcium deposits of the fingers, wrists and toes which avidly took up 47Ca. The dense, white, tooth-paste like fluid contained in the periarticular calcium deposits has been studied by two different X-ray diffraction methods, by Ubatuba's bioassay for prostaglandin, by thin layer chromatography and by mass spectrometry. The calcium deposits were hydroxyapatite and prostaglandin PGE2 was detected in them. The bone resorption stimulating activity of PGE2 would be expected to result in increased bone destruction with release of calcium salts and this could be a working hypothesis of the pathogenesis of calcinosis circumscripta.

  1. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  2. Jacob Hemet. Dentist to royalty and entrepreneur extraordinaire.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2006-11-01

    One of the most prominent dentists in late-18th century London was Jacob Hemet, member of a long family of dentists. He was appointed royal dentist to Queen Charlotte, wife of George the Third, and to George's favorite daughter, Amelia, and the Prince of Wales. He advertised widely, both in this country and in several European countries, including his native France. However, what makes him noteworthy is the fact that he was the very first person to patent a dentifrice and the first to use marketing techniques similar to those used by the foremost toothpaste manufacturers of today.

  3. Squishy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habdas, Piotr; Weeks, Eric R.; Lynn, David G.

    2006-05-01

    Most people do not realize that many substances they use in the kitchen and the bathroom are not simple liquids or solids. Everyone is familiar with three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. However, creams, shampoo, toothpaste, and ketchup all have properties of both liquids and solids. This paper describes demonstrations and laboratory exercises1 that show intriguing properties of squishy substances, defined as materials that are not unambiguously solid, liquid, or gas. Unlike some areas of physics, the concepts behind squishy materials are understandable even by beginning students. Squishy physics can be used to show physics questions arising from everyday life and to convey the excitement of current research.

  4. Purification and characterization of α-Amylase from Miswak Salvadora persica.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Almulaiky, Yaaser Q; Ahmed, Youssri M; Al-Bar, Omar A M; Ibrahim, Ibrahim H

    2014-04-01

    The miswak (Salvadora persica) is a natural toothbrush. It is well known that very little information has been reported on enzymes in miswak as medicinal plant. Recently, we study peroxidase in miswak. In the present study, the main goal of this work is to purify and characterize α-amylase from miswak. The second goal is to study the storage stability of α-amylase in toothpaste. The purification method included chromatography of miswak α-amylase on DEAE-Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Molecular weight was determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Five α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b from miswak were purified and they had molecular weights of 14, 74, 16, 30 and 20 kDa, respectively. α-Amylases had optimum pH from 6 to 8. Affinity of the substrates toward all enzymes was studied. Miswak α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b had Km values for starch and glycogen of 3.7, 3.7, 7.1, 0.52, 4.3 mg/ml and 5.95, 5.9 4.16, 6.3, 6.49 mg/ml, respectively. The optimum temperature for five enzymes ranged 40°C- 60°C. Miswak α-amylases were stable up to 40°C- 60°C after incubation for 30 min. Ca+2 activated all the miswak α-amylases, while Ni2+, Co+2 and Zn+2 activated or inhibited some of these enzymes. The metal chelators, EDTA, sodium citrate and sodium oxalate had inhibitory effects on miswak α-amylases. PMSF, p-HMB, DTNB and 1,10 phenanthroline caused inhibitory effect on α-amylases. The analysis of hydrolytic products after starch hydrolysis by miswak α-amylases on paper chromatography revealed that glucose, maltose, maltotriose and oligosaccharide were the major products. Crude miswak α-amylase in the toothpaste retained 55% of its original activity after 10 months of storage at room temperature. From these findings, α-amylases from miswak can be considered as beneficial enzymes for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, we study the storage stability of the crude α-amylase of miswak, which contained the five α-amylases, in toothpaste. The enzyme in

  5. The study of efficiency of endogenous and exogenous preventive methods of tooth enamel remineralisation by FTIR microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshchapov, D. L.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Seredin, P. V.; Ippolitov, Y. A.; Plotnikova, Y. A.; Bambery, K.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency carious preventive methods was detected with the use of equipment for IR-spectromicroscopy and high-intensive synchrotron radiation. The results of the experiment are indicative of the use of exogenous caries prevention alone (use of a toothpaste) being inadequate in saturating hard dental tissues by mineral groups and, thus, keeping teeth healthy, as this method is only short-lived. The use of endogenous methods (mineral tablets based on calcium glycerophosphate) in combination with exogenous prevention enhances prevention as part of remineralisation of dental tissues.

  6. Randomized clinical trial of two oral care regimens in reducing and controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Farid; Mateo, Luis R; Dillon, Rensi; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pilch, Shira; Stewart, Bernal

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a test regimen (TR) integrating the use of a commercially available triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and sodium fluoride containing toothpaste, an alcohol-free, fluoride-free cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash, and a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner compared to a negative control regimen (NCR) integrating a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash in the reduction and control of established plaque and gingivitis after 4 weeks of product use. A 4-week, two-cell, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical study was conducted in Cedar Knolls, New Jersey, USA. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to two regimens: (1) a commercially available toothpaste containing triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride, a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner, and commercially available mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC in a fluoride-free and alcohol-free base (TR), or (2) a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush with rounded/polished bristles, and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash (NCR). Subjects were examined for dental plaque and gingivitis. Gingival, Gingival Severity, Gingival Interproximal, Plaque, Plaque Severity and Plaque Interproximal Index scores were calculated. For regimen comparison, independent t-test and ANCOVA analyses were performed. 130 subjects were screened; 120 enrolled; and 115 subjects completed the randomized clinical trial (RCT). After 4 weeks of product use, subjects using TR exhibited statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions of 22.3%, 27.8% and 20.4% in mean Gingival, Gingival Severity and Gingival Interproximal Index scores, respectively, as compared to subjects using NCR. After 4 weeks of product use, subjects using TR exhibited statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions of 28

  7. [Parodontocid efficiency in complex treatment and prevention of gingivitis].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Turkina, A Iu; Poliakova, M A; Babina, K S

    2013-01-01

    Antiplaque/antigingivitis effect of an alcohol-free mouthrinse Parodontocid were evaluated by randomized parallel group clinical trial. Sixty patients with gingivitis were clinically examined to determine PHP, RMNPI and PMA indexes. After professional dental prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned in two groups to 10 days oral hygiene program. Group 1 patients used only toothbrush and prophylactic toothpaste while in group 2 persons used Parodontocid in conjunction with normal brushing and flossing.Parodontocid significantly reduced plaque and gingivitis compared to negative control.

  8. A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, M; Addy, M; Macdonald, E; Rees, J S

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate safety concerns with bleaching procedures by studying the effects of a high concentration hydrogen peroxide (HP) in-surgery bleaching product on enamel and dentine. Flat enamel and dentine samples embedded in epoxy resin were prepared from human third molar teeth. Erosion of enamel: groups of enamel samples were treated with 35% HP then citric acid (CA) or brushing with toothpaste or CA alone and water alone. Enamel Loss was measured using a profilometer. Abrasion/erosion of dentine: groups of dentine specimens were treated as follows: Group 1--brushed with water for 30 min. Group 2--brushed with 35% HP for 30 min. Group 3--power bleached for 30 min and then Group 4--brushed with toothpaste for 1 minute. Group 5--water soaked for 30 min followed by brushing with toothpaste for 1 min. Group 6--orange juice soaked for 30 min followed by brushing with toothpaste for 1 min. Treatment effects were measured using a profilometer. Hardness tests: enamel and dentine specimens were hardness tested using a Wallace indenter prior to and post bleaching. Scanning Electron Microscopy: enamel and dentine specimens were taped and the exposed tissue treated with 35% HP and then studied under scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM). Enamel erosion: bleaching enamel samples had no measurable effect on enamel. Pre-bleaching had no significant effect on subsequent CA erosion or brushing. Abrasion/erosion of dentine: no significant differences were found between treatments 1-5 with little change from baseline detected. Orange juice (Group 6) produced considerable and significantly more erosion than other treatments. Hardness tests: there were no significant changes in hardness values for enamel and dentine. SEM: there was no evidence of any topographical changes to either enamel or dentine. Using one of the highest concentrations of HP for tooth bleaching procedures and maximum likely peroxide exposure, there was no evidence of deleterious effects on

  9. Salt fluoridation--an alternative in automatic prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Marthaler, T M; Petersen, P E

    2005-12-01

    Despite great improvements in terms of reduced prevalence and amount of dental caries in populations worldwide, problems still persist particularly among the underprivileged groups of both developed and developing countries. Research and practical experience gained in several countries have demonstrated however, that dental caries can be prevented effectively through establishment of fluoride programmes. Water fluoridation, salt fluoridation, milk fluoridation and use of affordable fluoridated toothpastes play the major roles in public health. The present paper outlines the relevance and some practical aspects in relation to implementation of salt fluoridation programmes. The World Health Organisation Oral Health Programme provides technical assistance to countries in the process of planning, implementing and evaluating salt fluoridation projects.

  10. Dental health professional recommendation and consumer habits in denture cleansing.

    PubMed

    Axe, Alyson S; Varghese, Roshan; Bosma, MaryLynn; Kitson, Nicola; Bradshaw, David J

    2016-02-01

    Regular cleaning of dentures is essential to the oral and general health of denture wearers. Only limited systematic data are available on the recommendations that dental health care professionals (DHCPs) make to patients for denture cleaning. Data on denture wearers' cleaning regimens are also lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide data on recommendations that DHCPs make to patients for denture cleaning and on the cleaning regimens of denture wearers. DHCPs (n=613), including dentists and hygienists, were surveyed in developed (Japan, USA, Italy) and developing (Brazil, India) countries. A questionnaire assessing a range of denture cleaning recommendations was used. The questions addressed products, frequency, how to use remedies, the suggested dilution and duration of cleansing treatment, the location of dentures while cleaning, and the reasoning behind the recommendation of particular products or modes of treatment. Denture cleansing methods and the routine of denture wearers in developed and developing countries were also surveyed with a questionnaire (n=2862) and a 1-week diary (n=1462). An average of more than 2 treatments was recommended by DHCPs. Specialist denture cleanser tablets, "regular" toothpaste, mouthwash, soap and water, denture paste, foam or liquid denture cleanser, and dishwashing detergents were most commonly recommended; other product recommendations included baking soda, vinegar, salt water, and bleach. More than 10% of DHCPs made no primary recommendation on cleaning. Denture tablets were more commonly recommended in developed countries, whereas toothpaste was the most common recommendation in developing countries. Denture wearers used products and methods similar to those recommended by DHCPs. Toothpaste, water, and mouthwash were used more frequently than denture tablets. More than 75% of denture wearers reported using denture cleanser tablets for more than 5 minutes, whereas soap and toothpaste were typically used for less

  11. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved.

  12. Recommendation for a non-animal alternative to rat caries testing.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, John D B; Stookey, George K; Kaminski, Michael A; Faller, Robert V

    2011-10-01

    As a requirement of the Food & Drug Administration's final monograph on "Anticaries drug products for over-the-counter human use", the toothpaste industry has been conducting animal caries tests on every fluoride-containing toothpaste introduced into the U.S. market since 1996. The practice of testing in animals, although required by law, is in stark conflict with the corporate policy of many U.S. and global toothpaste manufacturers, in which, if possible, alternatives to animal testing are utilized. A provision does exist within the regulation which allows the use of an alternative method to demonstrate efficacy. However, to take advantage of this provision, a petition must be submitted to the FDA and in this petition data demonstrating the alternative provides results of "equivalent accuracy" must be included. After many years of research, model development and model comparisons, we have identified one particular laboratory model that demonstrated excellent correlation with the currently accepted animal caries models. This model, known as the Featherstone pH cycling model, is discussed in this paper. The Featherstone pH cycling model has been shown to produce results of equivalent accuracy to the animal caries model by: (1) demonstrating a clinically relevant fluoride dose response similar to that shown in the animal caries model (including 1100 ppm F, 250 ppm F and placebo); (2) demonstrating similar results to the animal caries model for clinically proven dentifrice formulations relative to positive and negative controls; (3) demonstrating discriminating ability in strong agreement with the animal caries model for differentiating between a dentifrice formulation with attenuated fluoride activity and a USP standard; and (4) providing a clinically relevant representation of the caries process, as demonstrated by orthodontic banding studies. In addition, the model sufficiently addresses both salivary and abrasive/anticalculus agent interference concerns. For more

  13. Influence of Media in the Choice of Oral Hygiene Products Used Among the Population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Logaranjani, Anitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Narayan, Rajeshree Rangari; Rajendran, Sathish; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2015-10-01

    To assess the factors influencing the awareness and practice of oral hygiene among the local population Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the choice and practice of oral hygiene products among the population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Data was collected by means of a self administered structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey. One thousand two hundred and nine subjects, with an age range of 15 to 70 years, who visited the Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai were selected for investigation. The data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0. The frequency of distribution and percentages were calculated. The results of the study showed that tooth brush (98.5%) and toothpaste (98%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and around 84.6% of the population brushed once daily. Information from the media (59.4%) and decay prevention (49.7%) were the major factors that influenced the choice of toothpaste among the study population. The major factor which influenced the choice of oral hygiene products was based on information obtained from advertisements and other sources. There is a need for the dental professionals to be aware of the ever-increasing development and marketing of oral hygiene products from various databases. Hence, the education of people regarding the importance of oral hygiene maintenance, proper selection of oral hygiene products is essential.

  14. Effects of oral hygiene products containing lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin on the composition of whole saliva and on subjective oral symptoms in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Kirstilä, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Söderling, E; Tenovuo, J

    1996-12-01

    This study evaluates the effects of two oral hygiene products containing nonimmunoglobulin antimicrobial agents on whole saliva and on subjective oral symptoms in patients with xerostomia. Twenty patients used a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste (Biotene) combined with the use of a mouthrinse (Biotene), comprising also lysozyme and lactoferrin, for 4 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at base line, after 4 weeks' use of the products, and at the end of a 4-week washout period. Samples were analyzed for selected biochemical and microbiologic factors. The effects on subjective oral symptoms were also recorded. A 4-week daily use of toothpaste and mouthrinse relieved the symptoms of oral dryness in 16 patients. The levels of salivary hypothiocyanite, lysozyme, lactoferrin, or myeloperoxidase activity did not change, but there was a significant decrease in salivary pH (P < 0.05), total peroxidase activity (P < 0.05), and total protein content (P = 0.01). In patients with the lowest salivary flow rates (n = 5) a significant (P > or = 0.04) increase was detected in salivary hypothiocyanite concentrations. No major changes occurred in salivary microflora. The products relieved subjective oral symptoms in most xerostomic patients, but this was not necessarily related to the presence of antimicrobial agents.

  15. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Jiménez, L; Soria Fregozo, C; Miranda Beltrán, M L; Gutiérrez Coronado, O; Pérez Vega, M I

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride (F) is a toxic and reactive element, and exposure to it passes almost unnoticed, with the consumption of tea, fish, meat, fruits, etcetera and articles of common use such as: toothpaste additives; dental gels, non-stick pans and razor blades as Teflon. It has also been used with the intention of reducing the dental cares. Fluoride can accumulate in the body, and it has been shown that continuous exposure to it causes damaging effects on body tissues, particularly the nervous system directly without any previous physical malformations. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that the F induces changes in cerebral morphology and biochemistry that affect the neurological development of individuals as well as cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. F can be toxic by ingesting one part per million (ppm), and the effects they are not immediate, as they can take 20 years or more to become evident. The prolonged ingestion of F may cause significant damage to health and particularly to the nervous system. Therefore, it is important to be aware of this serious problem and avoid the use of toothpaste and items that contain F, particularly in children as they are more susceptible to the toxic effects of F. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing leaflets to give dental health advice to Aboriginal families with young children.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  19. Impact of an Anticaries Mouthrinse on In Vitro Remineralization and Microbial Control

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Frank C.; Engelman, E. Eric; McGuire, James A.; Kosmoski, Gabrielle; Carratello, Lauren; Ricci-Nittel, Danette; Zhang, Jane Z.; Schemehorn, Bruce R.; Gambogi, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this research was to evaluate the caries control potential of a new fluoride mouthrinse that also contained antimicrobial agents and a biofilm disrupting agent using different in vitro models. Methods. Four in vitro studies were conducted to assess the performance of this three pronged approach to caries control: (1) traditional enamel fluoride uptake, (2) surface microhardness study using pH cycling model and subsequent fluoride uptake, (3) a salivary biofilm flow-through study to determine the anti-microbial activity, and (4) a single species biofilm model measuring effect on biofilm matrix disruption. Results. The data showed that a LISTERINE rinse with fluoride, essential oils and xylitol was superior in promoting enamel fluoride uptake and in enhancing antimicrobial activity over traditional commercially available fluoridated products. An increase of the surface microhardness was observed when the LISTERINE rinse was used in combination with fluoridated toothpaste versus the fluoridated toothpaste alone. Finally, it was demonstrated that xylitol solutions disrupted and reduced the biovolume of biofilm matrix of mature Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion. These in vitro studies demonstrated that a fluoride mouthrinse with antimicrobial agent and biofilm matrix disrupting agent provided multifaceted and enhanced anti-caries efficacy by promoting remineralization, reducing acidogenic bacteria and disrupting biofilm matrix. PMID:24648842

  20. Parental views on fluoride tooth brushing and its impact on oral health: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Mohammad; Kujan, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the current use and knowledge about fluoride toothpaste and children's oral hygiene habits among parents of Saudi children. In this cross-sectional study, the parents of children aged 7-12 years who visited the undergraduate pediatric dental clinics at the College of Dentistry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were interviewed. The interview included questions to assess the parents' level of fluoride knowledge, the dental appearance of their children, and any general dental health concerns and practices. A total of 463 parents (women 55.5%, men 44.5%) were included. Over half (60.3%) of the participants reported that they were unhappy with the appearance of their child's teeth. Only 11.5% received high fluoride knowledge scores. The additive index for the level of fluoride knowledge was significantly lower among mothers than among fathers. The majority of the parents were not able to correctly report whether the toothpaste their children used contained fluoride. Furthermore, the majority of the respondents were unaware of the benefits of fluoride in preventing dental caries. There is a need to enhance parental knowledge regarding high fluoride intake and its harmful consequences on children's health. Both mothers and fathers should have higher levels of awareness regarding oral health promotion to maintain optimal oral health in their children.

  1. [Dietary and hygienic aspects of fluoride exposure in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pregnant women to fluoride on the basis of diet preferences and hygienic habits revealed with a questionnaire. The group included 59 women aged 22-39, living in a large urban agglomeration. Questions concerned sources of fluoride such as diet (tap water, tea, fish, poultry), use of fluoride-containing preparations for oral hygiene and substances containing fluoride for additional prophylaxis. The oral health status was clinically examined and caries intensity was assessed with the mean DMF-t index. According to the clinical examination, the mean DMF-t index was 13.64 and ranged from 1 to 23. Consumption of tap water averaged 0.73 L (max. 2.5 L), including 0.55 L (max. 2.5 L) of tea. Poultry was a regular part of the diet in only 14 of the respondents (24%) and only 3 (5%) sporadically (once a week) ate ocean fish. All the respondents used toothpaste containing fluoride, but only 15.3% applied professional prophylaxis with fluoride preparations. As far as the diet is concerned, individual differences in the intake of fluorides were significant. Interestingly, despite the declared everyday use of fluorine-containing toothpaste, the caries intensity index was rather high, suggesting the need for special dental care in this group of patients.

  2. Retention of antimicrobial activity in plaque and saliva following mouthrinse use in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otten, M P T; Busscher, H J; van der Mei, H C; Abbas, F; van Hoogmoed, C G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of plaque and saliva towards the prolonged activity, also called substantivity, of three antimicrobial mouthrinses (Listerine®, Meridol®, Crest Pro Health®), used in combination with a toothpaste (Prodent Coolmint®). Volunteers brushed for 4 weeks with a toothpaste without antimicrobial claims, while during the last 2 weeks half of the volunteers used an antimicrobial mouthrinse in addition to brushing. At the end of the experimental period, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 h after oral hygiene, and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were determined. The contribution of plaque and saliva towards substantivity was assessed by combining plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only with plaque and saliva obtained after additional use of an antimicrobial rinse. Subsequently, resulting viabilities of the combined plaques were determined. The viabilities of plaque samples after additional rinsing with mouthrinses were lower than of plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only, regardless of the rinse involved. Moreover, plaque collected 6 h after rinsing with antimicrobial mouthrinses contained a surplus of antimicrobial activity. Only Listerine showed decreased viability in saliva, but none of the mouthrinses showed any residual antimicrobial activity in saliva. The findings indicate that plaque left behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the prolonged substantivity of antimicrobial mouthrinses. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Preventive dentistry 6. Prevention of caries in frail older people].

    PubMed

    van der Maarel-Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2017-06-01

    Many older people have a bad oral health, with (root) caries a prevalent cause. Alarming results of research projects raise the question whether sufficient preventive measures are being taken to prevent the development and progress of (root) caries in frail older people. A review of the recent literature revealed that in frail older people and physically or cognitively impaired adults, daily use of a 5,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste and quarterly application of chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride can decrease by half the risk of root caries. In the Netherlands, toothpaste containing 5,000 ppm fluoride is not (yet) on the market. At the present time, only the advice brochure 'Prevention of root caries' is available. Another measure to prevent deterioration of oral health among frail older people is paying attention to frail older people who do not visit their dentist on a regular basis due to physical limitations and care dependency. When this is the case, it is necessary to intensify professional oral healthcare with instructions to personal caregivers and professional care providers in order to fight (root) caries.

  4. Mössbauer Studies of Stannous Fluoride Reactivity with Synthetic Tooth Enamel - A Model for the Tooth Cavity Protection Actions of Novel Dentifrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dénès, Georges; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Kozak, Kathy M.; Baig, Arif A.; White, Donald J.

    2002-06-01

    SnF2 is an important toothpaste ingredient, added for the provision of clinical efficacy for hard and soft tissue diseases and in breath protection. Synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite powders were exposed to liquid supernates (25 w/w% toothpaste water slurries, centrifuged) of Crest Gum Care® (SnF2) dentifrice. One-minute treatments were followed by 3x water washing, centrifugation and lyophilization. Post treatment, powders were analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy with 0.5-1 gram of treated apatite powder. Results show that tooth mineral stannous fluoride interactions include: (1) formation of surface reaction products with both Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states; (2) Sn-F binding on mineral surfaces with no evidence of SnO. The surface binding is, however, not pure Sn-F but contains contributions of other ligands, probably oxygens from surface phosphates or hydroxyl groups. Results also suggest that surface reacted stannous tin is oxidized with time, even when bound as a layer on the tooth surface. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of Sn-F on tooth enamel post treatment and the contribution of passivation to long term stannous chemistry on tooth surfaces. The study also illustrates the practical applications of the Mössbauer technique.

  5. Clinical efficacy of a new tooth and tongue gel applied with a tongue cleaner in reducing oral halitosis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Dorothea; Himmelmann, Agnes; Axmann, Eva-Maria; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter

    2012-09-01

    The short-term and overnight effect of three treatment regimens on oral halitosis were investigated: toothbrushing with a reference toothpaste, toothbrushing with reference toothpaste and tongue cleaning, and toothbrushing and tongue cleaning with a tooth-and-tongue gel. Fifty-four subjects meeting the inclusion criteria for bad breath were enrolled in the study. All subjects received each of the three treatment regimens in a balanced design. Efficacy was assessed by organoleptic ratings and volatile sulfur compound (VSC) measurements 5 and 60 minutes after first application and overnight after 7 days of repeated use. The combination of toothbrushing and tongue cleaning with tooth-and-tongue gel provided the best results in terms of organoleptic ratings and VSC measurements at all time points compared to the other treatment regimens. The use of tooth and tongue gel for both toothbrushing and tongue cleaning showed a positive short-term and overnight effects after 7 days of use. This treatment regimen is a promising approach to control halitosis.

  6. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Niedzielska, Iwona; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Baron, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste's effect on plaque index (PLI) and gingival index (GI) in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P < 0.01) was shown during repeated examination. Insignificant change in GI was in the entire control group during the repeated examination compared to the baseline. Similar result was obtained in patients treated with multibracket and removable appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft.

  7. Effect of a dedicated oral care program on periodontal status of medically compromised patients at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Robert; Hebbes, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Medically compromised patients attending the dental clinic at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute have considerable gingival inflammation and breath odor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing on the periodontal status of these patients and to determine if there were any additional benefit in combining brushing with an application of an antibiotic rinse. During the first 7 days of the study, the teeth of 11 participants were brushed twice a day by a dental hygienist using a soft-bristle suction toothbrush without toothpaste. Soft interproximal brushes were used to clean interproximal surfaces from the facial aspect. During the second week, facial and interproximal cleaning were repeated in the same patients, but the toothbrush and interproximal brush were dipped in 10-mL of a solution consisting of water and 40 mg/mL of metronidazole with nystatin. Each patient underwent an oral examination and biofilm sampling at baseline, after brushing without toothpaste (week 1), and after brushing with antibiotic solution (week 2). After week 1, tissues improved substantially, and there was a notable change in the biofilm on the teeth. The addition of an antibiotic solution increased healing and resulted in a further decrease in oral biofilm. Medically compromised patients would benefit considerably from a treatment regimen of antibiotic solution to decrease oral infection followed by a daily oral care program of brushing and interdental cleaning to maintain healthy oral tissues.

  8. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanasiewicz, Marta; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste's effect on plaque index (PLI) and gingival index (GI) in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P < 0.01) was shown during repeated examination. Insignificant change in GI was in the entire control group during the repeated examination compared to the baseline. Similar result was obtained in patients treated with multibracket and removable appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft. PMID:27672397

  9. Dental Erosion in Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Patricia Alves Drummond; Paiva, Saul Martins; De Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Auad, Sheyla Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on dental erosion (DE) in children and analyze the association between dental erosion and diet, oral hygiene, and sociodemographic characteristics. This case-control study encompassed 43 two- to 14-year-olds diagnosed positive for GERD by the 24-hour pH monitoring, paired by age group with 136 healthy controls, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. DE was assessed by one calibrated examiner using the O'Sullivan index. A questionnaire was self-administered by parents collecting information regarding sociodemographics, oral hygiene, and dietary habits. Dental erosion experience was compared between the groups, and a stratified analysis was performed (P<0.05). Dental erosion was diagnosed in 10.6 percent (N equals 19) of all the children; 25.6 percent (N equals 11) of GERD children and 5.9 percent (N equals eight) of children without GERD, P=0.001). Dental erosion was not associated with dietary consumption or sociodemographic characteristics in both groups (P≥0.05). Children who used adult toothpaste had a 5.79 higher chance of having dental erosion in the group with GERD. Children diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease were at an increased risk of having dental erosion when compared to healthy subjects; among the GERD children, dental erosion was associated with the use of adult toothpaste.

  10. The investigations of changes in mineral-organic and carbon-phosphate ratios in the mixed saliva by synchrotron infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, Pavel; Goloshchapov, Dmitry; Kashkarov, Vladimir; Ippolitov, Yuri; Bambery, Keith

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the saturation of mixed saliva by mineral complexes and groups necessary for the remineralisation of tooth enamel using exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention. Using IR spectroscopy and high-intensity synchrotron radiation, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva were identified when exogenous and endogenous methods of caries prevention are employed. Based on the calculations of mineral/organic and carbon/phosphate ratios, changes in the composition of the human mixed saliva depending on a certain type of prevention were identified. It is shown that the use of a toothpaste (exogenous prevention) alone based on a multi-mineral complex including calcium glycerophosphate provides only a short-term effect of saturating the oral cavity with mineral complexes and groups. Rinsing of the oral cavity with water following the preventive use of a toothpaste completely removes the effect of the saturation of the mixed saliva with mineral groups and complexes. The use of tablets of a multi-mineral complex with calcium glycerophosphate (endogenous prevention) in combination with exogenous prevention causes an average increase of ∼10% in the content of mineral groups and complexes in the mixed saliva and allows long-term saturation of the oral fluid by them. This method outperforms the exogenous one owing to a long-term effect of optimal concentrations of endogenous and biologically available derivatives of phosphates on the enamel surface.

  11. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for preventing white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances-a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kirschneck, Christian; Christl, Jan-Joachim; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The development of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets and gingivitis is a common problem during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This prospective randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial investigated the preventive efficacy of a one-time application of two commonly used fluoride varnishes in patients with low to moderate caries risk. Ninety adolescent orthodontic patients with a low to moderate caries risk were prospectively randomized to three groups of 30 patients each: (1) standardized dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste and one-time application of placebo varnish (control) or (2) of elmex® fluid or (3) of Fluor Protector S on all dental surfaces at the start of fixed therapy. The extent of enamel demineralization and gingivitis was determined with the ICDAS and the gingivitis index (GI) at baseline and after 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Each treatment group showed a significant increase of the ICDAS index, but not of the GI over the course of time with no significant intergroup differences detectable. A one-time application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment did not provide any additional preventive advantage over sufficient dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste with regard to formation of white spots and gingivitis in patients with a low to moderate caries risk. In dental practice, patients often receive an application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. However, the efficacy of this procedure is still unclear.

  12. The clinical anticalculus efficacy of a tartar control whitening dentifrice for the prevention of supragingival calculus in a three-month study.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J; Petrone, D M; Battista, G; Petrone, M E; Crawford, R; Patel, S; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the effect of a new dentifrice (Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Fluoride Toothpaste) for the prevention of supragingival calculus, with that of a commercially available calculus-inhibiting dentifrice (Crest Tartar Control Toothpaste). The study involved adult male and female subjects who had pre-qualified for participation by developing sufficient supragingival calculus (greater than 7.0 on the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index) during an eight-week screening period. Subjects received a full oral prophylaxis, and were stratified into two treatment groups balanced for age, sex and qualifying calculus score. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for dental calculus were performed after twelve weeks' use of the study dentifrices, using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index, Fifty-eight (58) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. The Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening group exhibited a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 34.6% reduction in mean calculus score compared to the Crest Tartar Control group.

  13. Supragingival calculus in children with gastrostomy feeding: significant reduction with a caregiver-applied tartar-control dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laurie M; Casamassimo, Paul S; Griffen, Ann; Tatakis, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the anti-calculus benefit of Crest Dual Action Whitening Toothpaste in gastrostomy (GT) children compared to a control anti-caries dentifrice. A double-blind randomized crossover design was used to compare the two dentifrices. A convenience sample of 24 GT subjects, 3-12 years old, was given a consensus baseline Volpe-Manhold Index calculus score by 2 trained examiners, followed by a dental prophylaxis to remove all calculus. Each child was randomly assigned to either study or control dentifrice groups. Caregivers brushed subjects' teeth twice daily with the unlabelled dentifrice for at least 45 seconds. Calculus was scored at 8 weeks (+/- 1 week) by the same investigators. Subjects then had a prophylaxis and received the alternative dentifrice. Subjects returned 8 weeks (+/- 1 week) later for final calculus scoring. The study dentifrice significantly reduced supragingival calculus from baseline by 58% compared to control dentifrice (p<0.005 need exact p-value unless it is <.001; maybe it's reported in the paper). Calculus levels decreased by 68% over the study duration, irrespective of dentifrice. ANOVA found no significant differences in calculus scores based on gender, race, history of reflux, aspiration pneumonia, or oral intake of food. Calculus was significantly related to history of aspiration pneumonia (p<0.05 need exact p-value here). Crest Dual Action Whitening Toothpaste was effective and better than anti-caries control dentifrice in reducing calculus in GT children.

  14. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of knowledge, attitude, and practice survey, and prevalence of dental caries among 11- to 13-year-old children in an urban community in India.

    PubMed

    Suprabha, Baranya Shrikrishna; Rao, Arathi; Shenoy, Ramya; Khanal, Sanskriti

    2013-04-30

    The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge-attitude-practice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.

  16. Determining the exposure factors of personal and home care products for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-03-01

    An accurate understanding of the usage patterns of consumer products is important for realistic exposure assessment. Since such patterns differ by country, a Korean national database for exposure factors is needed. We determined the exposure factors of 10 consumer products (face cleanser, toothpaste, shampoo, hair conditioner, body wash, dish and laundry detergents, fabric deodorizer, antistatic spray, and shoe polish. Field survey staff visited homes and collected product use information by questionnaire. In total, 816 men and 2517 women aged 15 years and older from 2500 households completed the questionnaire. Field technicians also re-visited 85 households to investigate the circumstances of use and the reliability of the questionnaire data. Greater than 97% of the sampled population reported use of toothpaste and shampoo. Hair conditioner, body wash, and face cleanser were used by ~60% of the population and by specific age groups and genders. The amount of consumer products used was comparable between that reported in the questionnaire and that measured directly during house visits, and the ratios of usage amounts ranged from 0.75 to 1.69. The exposure factor data obtained from this study could be useful for regulatory agencies when setting safety guidelines for product use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dental caries in Iraqi 12-year-olds and background fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    Matloob, M H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 12-year-old Iraqi schoolchildren ingesting water and beverages with low fluoride content. A total of 1,526 twelve-year-olds were clinically examined in autumn 2013 for dental caries in accordance with the WHO criteria. Two questionnaires were distributed to gather data concerning daily intakes of drinking water, beverages and tea extracts and how often participants brushed their teeth, visiting doctors and eating snacks between meals. The fluoride content of 279 brands of drinking water, beverages, tea, toothpaste and table salts were determined using fluoride ion selective electrode. Results The mean DMFT and SIC index were 1.6 (SD 1.7) and 3.5 (SD 1.4) respectively. The caries prevalence was 64.0%, and the Care Index was 1.9%. The average fluoride content of drinking water, beverages, toothpaste and food was less than 0.50 mg/kg. The mean DMFT value for Iraqi 12-year-olds is still higher than the WHO category of very low caries (<1.2). The daily fluoride exposure by 12-year-old Iraqi children was too low for caries prevention. In order to improve the oral health status, the Iraqi health authorities had to focus more care on the preventive oral health programme.

  18. Does an oral care protocol reduce VAP in patients with a tracheostomy?

    PubMed

    Conley, Patricia; McKinsey, David; Graff, Jason; Ramsey, Anthony R

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) 0.12% solution reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients with endotracheal tubes in the ICU. Minimal evidence shows the effectiveness of any oral care protocols in preventing VAP in mechanically ventilated patients with tracheostomies in a step-down or progressive care unit (PCU). To determine the effectiveness of an oral care protocol in reducing the VAP rate in mechanically ventilated patients with tracheostomies in the PCU. A 12-month prospective study was conducted on 75 mechanically ventilated patients who had tracheostomies. The oral care protocol consisted of tooth brushing with toothpaste and applying CHG 0.12% solution every 12 hours. At the conclusion of the study, the VAP rate in the study population was compared with the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) report for 2009 benchmark of 1.5 per 1,000 ventilator days. After the oral care protocol was implemented in the PCU, the VAP rate was 1.1 per 1,000 ventilator days over 12 months, compared with the NHSN report for 2009 of 1.5 per 1,000 ventilator days. Tooth brushing with toothpaste and applying CHG 0.12% solution may be an effective oral care protocol to reduce the VAP rate in patients in PCUs with tracheostomies who are being mechanically ventilated.

  19. Managing Early Childhood Caries for Young Children in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kitty Jieyi; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Duangthip, Duangporn; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2018-01-30

    The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.

  20. Managing Early Childhood Caries for Young Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kitty Jieyi; Duangthip, Duangporn; Lo, Edward Chin Man

    2018-01-01

    The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment. PMID:29385684

  1. Reducing early childhood caries in a Medicaid population: a systems model analysis.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Hirsch, Gary; Frosh, Marcy; Kumar, Jayanth

    2015-04-01

    Despite early childhood caries (ECC) being largely preventable, its repair accounts for a disproportionate share of Medicaid expenditures. In this study, the authors model disease reductions and cost savings from ECC management alternatives. The authors apply system dynamics modeling to the New York State Medicaid population of young children to compare potential outcomes of 9 preventive interventions (water fluoridation, fluoride varnish, fluoride toothpaste, medical screening and fluoride varnish application, bacterial transmission reduction, motivational interviewing, dental prevention visits, secondary prevention, and combinations) and the effect of defluoridating New York City. Model simulations help project 10-year disease reductions and net savings from water fluoridation, motivational interviewing, and fluoride toothpaste. Interventions requiring health professionals cost more than they save. Interventions that target children at high risk, begin early, and combine multiple strategies hold greatest potential. Defluoridating New York City would increase disease and costs dramatically. The variety of population-level and individual-level interventions available to control ECC differ substantially in their capacity to improve children's oral health and reduce state Medicaid expenditures. Using Medicaid and health department dollars to deliver ECC preventive and management interventions holds strong promise to improve children's oral health while reducing state dental expenditures in Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Supervised toothbrushing programs in primary schools and early childhood settings: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Swift, V; Kenny, A; Gussy, M; de Silva, A M; Farmer, J; Bracksley-O'Grady, S

    2017-12-01

    In this article we report the findings of a scoping review that aimed to identify and summarise the range of programs and guidelines available for toothbrushing programs in schools and early childhood settings. Dental caries is one of the most common preventable diseases affecting children worldwide. Untreated caries can impact on child health and wellbeing, development, socialisation and school attendance. Supervised toothbrushing programs in schools and other early childhood settings can be effective in improving the oral health of young children. There is limited understanding of the salient issues to consider when developing such programs or how they are best implemented in real world settings. A scoping review methodology was utilised to provide a summary of the guidelines and programs available. Key search terms were developed, mapped and utilised to identify guidelines and programs across 6 databases and key search engines. We located 26 programs and guidelines that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the review. These were collated and summarised across key countries and critical aspects of program development and implementation were identified. Toothbrush type and storage, toothpaste strength and method of dispensing, toothbrush storage, staff training and parental consent are key considerations that varied widely. Guidelines for supervised toothbrushing programs vary within and across countries due to differences in water fluoridation and availability of low fluoride toothpastes. The results of this review provide critical information to be considered when establishing and implementing toothbrushing programs in these settings. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  3. Application of tooth brushing behavior to active rest.

    PubMed

    Sadachi, Hidetoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori; Tonomura, Manabu; Yada, Yukihiro; Simoyama, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of tooth brushing with toothpaste as active rest using the flicker value as a physiological parameter and a subjective questionnaire as a psychological parameter. Seventeen healthy, right-handed subjects (12 males and 5 females) aged 22.5 +/- 1.5 yr (mean +/- standard deviation) were randomly divided into tooth brushing with toothpaste (N=9) and non-tooth brushing groups (N=8). The subjects performed a serial calculation task for 20 min using personal computers. Subsequently, the tooth brushing group brushed their teeth, and the flicker value and mood were compared before and after the tooth brushing. The flicker value significantly increased in the tooth brushing group compared with the non-tooth brushing group (p<0.05). Concerning the mood, in the tooth brushing group, the incidence of a "feeling of being refreshed" significantly increased (p<0.05), that of "concentration power" or a "feeling of clear-headedness" tended to increase (p<0.1), and that of "lassitude" or "sleepiness" significantly decreased (p<0.01). Somatosensory stimulation and intraoral tactile stimulation during tooth brushing activated cerebral activity, producing refreshing effects. These results suggest the applicability of tooth brushing to active rest.

  4. Survey of Oral Health Awareness in Neuchâtel 9th Graders.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Müller, Magali E; Lussi, Adrian

    The oral health habits of pupils had not yet been analyzed for the canton of Neuchâtel. A questionnaire was provided to 9th grade high school pupils (final year) of the three schools located in the Neuchâtel area to asses both oral health knowledge and habits in this connection. The average age was 15.5±0.8 years, and 78.1% of the questionnaires were returned. The prophylaxis program was conducted for a total of 4.5 h during pupils’ entire time at school. The results showed that both knowledge and oral health habits could be improved. As a positive outcome, 99% of the pupils brush their teeth before going to bed. Comparisons with similar 10-year-old studies from other cantons (Bern, Vaud) showed major differences in knowledge, for example on the importance of fluoridation. Only 54% of the pupils in Neuchâtel knew that fluoride offers some protection against caries, in spite of the fact that 89% thought that brushing with fluoridated toothpaste protects against caries. Most of the pupils used a fluoridated toothpaste. Furthermore, we found that self-reported sugar consumption was correlated with caries experience, but brushing frequency was not. We recommend introducing a review course for pupils in their last school year, in order to practice interdental cleaning, redefine appropriate, tooth-friendly snacks, and emphasize the importance of regular dental check-ups.

  5. Determination of glycerophosphate and other anions in dentifrices by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongxin; Ye, Mingli; Cui, Hairong; Wu, Feiyan; Zhu, Yan; Fritz, James S

    2006-06-16

    Simple, reliable and sensitive analytical methods to determine the anions, such as fluoride, monofluorophaosphate, glycerophosphate related to anticaries are necessary for basic investigations of anticaries and quality control of dentifrices. A method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids, organic anions and inorganic anions in the sample of commercial toothpaste is proposed. Nine anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, monofluorophaosphate, glycerophosphate and oxalic acid) were analyzed by means of ion chromatography using a gradient elution with KOH as mobile phase, IonPac AS18 as the separation column and suppressed conductivity detection. Optimized analytical conditions were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision and total uncertainty and the results showed the reliability of the IC method. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the retention time and peak area of all species were less than 0.170 and 1.800%, respectively. The correlation coefficients for target analytes ranged from 0.9985 to 0.9996. The detection limit (signal to noise ratio of 3:1) of this method was at low ppb level (<15 ppb). The spiked recoveries for the anions were 96-103%. The method was applied to toothpaste without interferences.

  6. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  7. Comparative Efficacy of a Soft Toothbrush with Tapered-tip Bristles to an ADA Reference Toothbrush on Gingival Abrasion over a 12-Week Period.

    PubMed

    Gallob, John; Petrone, Dolores M; Mateo, Luis R; Chaknis, Patricia; Morrison, Boyce M; Panagakos, Foti; Williams, Malcolm

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip (Test Toothbrush) bristles and an ADA reference toothbrush (ADA Toothbrush) on gingival abrasion over a 12-week period. This was a randomized, single-center, examiner-blind, two-cell, parallel clinical research study and used the Danser Gingival Abrasion Index to assess the level of gingival abrasion after a single brushing, as well as after six weeks and 12 weeks of twice-daily brushing. Adult male and female subjects from the Central New Jersey, USA area refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours. They reported to the study site after refraining from eating, drinking, and smoking for four hours. Following a qualifying examination using plaque and gingivitis scores along with a baseline gingival abrasion examination, subjects were randomized into two balanced groups, each group using one of the two study toothbrushes. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute, under supervision, with their assigned toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste (Colgate© Cavity Protection Toothpaste), after which they were again evaluated for gingival abrasion. Subjects were dismissed from the study site with their assigned toothbrush and toothpaste, and instructed to brush twice daily at home for the next 12 weeks. The subjects were instructed to brush for one minute during each tooth brushing. The subjects reported to the study site after six weeks and 12 weeks of product use, at which time they were evaluated for gingival abrasion. Seventy-one (71) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the clinical study. The results of this study showed that the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions in gingival abrasion scores as compared to the gingival abrasion scores of the ADA Toothbrush after a single tooth brushing, after six weeks, and after 12 weeks of product use (75.0%, 85.5%, 73.9%, respectively). The soft toothbrush

  8. A randomized clinical study comparing the plaque inhibition effect of a SnF2/SHMP dentifrice (blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION) and a chlorhexidine digluconate dentifrice (Lacalut Aktiv).

    PubMed

    Bellamy, P G; Khera, N; Day, T N; Mussett, A J; Barker, M L

    2009-01-01

    To compare the plaque inhibition benefits of a control 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnF2/SHMP with 1450 ppm F) to a chlorhexidine digluconate (0.05%), aluminum lactate (0.8%), and aluminum fluoride (AlF3/Chx with 1400 ppm F) dentifrice. Twenty-nine subjects were randomized to a two-period, two-treatment, double-blind crossover sequence using blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION toothpaste (SnF2/SHMP) and Lacalut Aktiv toothpaste (AlF3/Chx). Each treatment was used along with a standard manual toothbrush (Oral-B P35 Indicator) for 17 days. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was used at the end of each period for three consecutive days to evaluate plaque levels; a) overnight (A.M. pre-brush); b) following 40 seconds of brushing with the test product (A.M. post-brush); and c) mid-afternoon (P.M.). Images were analyzed using an objective computer algorithm to calculate the total area of visible plaque. A four-day washout period was instituted for the crossover phase. Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. The SnF2/SHMP dentifrice provided a statistically significant lower level of plaque area coverage compared to the AlF3/Chx dentifrice at all time points. For the SnF2/SHMP dentifrice, plaque coverage was 19.4% lower (p = 0.0043) at the A.M. pre-brush, 25.6% lower (p = 0.0014) at the A.M. post-brush, and 19.8% lower (p = 0.0057) at the P.M. measure relative to the AlF3/Chx dentifrice. The blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION toothpaste inhibits plaque regrowth, both overnight and during the day, to a significantly greater degree than Lacalut Aktiv. Additionally, immediately after brushing with blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION, subjects had significantly less plaque than after brushing with Lacalut Aktiv.

  9. Lava-snow interactions at Tolbachik 2012-13 eruption: comparison to recent field observations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.; Belousov, A.; Belousova, M.; Izbekov, P. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Gardeev, E.; Muravyev, Y. D.; Melnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    More than a dozen volcanic eruptions in the past twenty years have produced lava interaction with snow or ice, some of which have produced damaging floods/lahars. However, the factors controlling melting during lava-snow/ice interactions is not well understood. Recent observations from the presently ongoing eruption at Tolbachik, Kamchatka confirm some general observations from large-scale experiments, and recent eruptions (2010 Fimmvorduhals; Edwards et al, 2012), but also show new types of behavior not before described. The new observations provide further constraints on heat transfer between ice/snow and three different lava morphologies: ';a'a, pahoehoe, and toothpaste. ';A'a flows at Tolbachik commonly were able to travel over seasonal snow cover (up to 4 m thick), especially where the snow was covered by tephra within 1.5 km of the vent area. Locally, heated meltwater discharge events issued from beneath the front of advancing lava, even though snow observation pits dug in front of advancing ';a'a flows also showed that in some areas melting was not as extensive. Once, an ';a'a flow was seen to collapse through snow, generating short-lived phreatomagmatic/phreatic activity. Closer to the vent, pahoehoe flow lobes and sheet flows occasionally spilled over onto snow and were able to rapidly transit snow with few obvious signs of melting/steam generation. Most of these flows did melt through basal snow layers within 24 hours however. We were also able to closely observe ';toothpaste' lava flows ';intruding' into snow in several locations, including snow-pits, and to watch it pushing up through snow forming temporary snow domes. Toothpaste lava caused the most rapid melting and most significant volumes of steam, as the meltwater drained down into the intruding lava. Behaviour seen at Tolbachik is similar to historic (e.g., Hekla 1947; Einarrson, 1949) and recent observations (e.g. Fimmvorduhals), as well as large-scale experiments (Edwards et al., 2013). While

  10. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  11. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained

  12. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Mulder, Jan; Holmgren, Christopher; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim H

    2012-11-21

    Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries.The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3) caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3) caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment). Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61). In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54). Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non-toothbrushing children. Hazard ratios reached statistical

  13. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  14. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3) caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. Methods The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3) caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment). Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. Results In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61). In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54). Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non-toothbrushing children. Hazard

  15. Cocamidopropyl betaine.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Amini, Sadegh

    2008-01-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is an amphoteric synthetic detergent that has been increasingly used in cosmetics and personal hygiene products (eg, shampoos, contact lens solutions, toothpaste detergents, makeup removers, bath gels, skin care products, cleansers, liquid soaps, antiseptics, and gynecologic and anal hygiene products) because it induces relatively mild skin irritation. Delayed T-cell-mediated type IV hypersensitivity reactions to CAPB have been reported, and contact sensitization prevalence is estimated at between 3.0 and 7.2%. The increasing rates of sensitization led to CAPB's being named Allergen of the Year in 2004. Related impurities rendered during the manufacturing process (such as amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine) are thought to play a role in sensitization.

  16. Degradation of triclosan by environmental microbial consortia and by axenic cultures of microorganisms with concerns to wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Bester, Kai

    2018-05-07

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent, which is widely used in personal care products including toothpaste, soaps, deodorants, plastics, and cosmetics. Widespread use of triclosan has resulted in its release into wastewater, surface water, and soils and has received considerable attention in the recent years. It has been reported that triclosan is detected in various environmental compartments. Toxicity studies have suggested its potential environmental impacts, especially to aquatic ecosystems. To date, removal of triclosan has attracted rising attention and biodegradation of triclosan in different systems, such as axenic cultures of microorganisms, full-scale WWTPs, activated sludge, sludge treatment systems, sludge-amended soils, and sediments has been described. In this study, an extensive literature survey was undertaken, to present the current knowledge of the biodegradation behavior of triclosan and highlights the removal and transformation processes to help understand and predict the environmental fate of triclosan. Experiments at from lab-scale to full-scale field studies are shown and discussed.

  17. Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, T; Krishnan, Vidya; Rajendran, R; Madhusudhanan, N

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of toothpastes and toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing gingival problems and maintaining oral health in a natural way. Neem twigs are used as oral deodorant, toothache reliever and for cleaning of teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research.

  18. Interference of oral hygiene products with an adhesion-based assay of salivary mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Söderling, E; Ketola, T; Parviainen, T

    1991-04-01

    The effect of several oral hygiene products on an adhesion-based assay for salivary mutans streptococci (Dentocult-SM Strip Mutans) was studied in three women. The mutans streptococci levels were recorded for up to 24 h after a 1-min rinse with the product. The chlorhexidine (0.05%) and stanno-amine fluoride solutions (corresponding 0.025% F) interfered selectively with the adhesion-based assay. No such effect was observed for a polyvidoneiodine solution (10 micrograms/ml) or two toothpastes containing either sodium lauryl sulfate or amine fluorides. The results indicate that antimicrobial agents showing retention in the oral cavity may interfere for several hours after their use with adhesion-based assays of salivary mutans streptococci.

  19. Descriptive analysis of toothbrushing used as an aid for primary prevention: a population-based study in Sebha, Libya.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Singh, A J A Ranjith; Alagamuthu, G; Abdalla, Khaled Awidat; Naveen Kumar, P G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess toothbrushing behavior and descriptively analyze the effect of age and gender. Two thousand and six people from the city of Sebha, Libya, aged 1 to 64 years (mean age 26.9 ± 11.6 years, 1,463 females and 543 males) constituted the study sample. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 85.3% were using a toothbrush and toothpaste as a cleaning aid, whereas 6.3% never brushed their teeth. Only 36.1% brushed twice daily. Age and gender were significantly associated with use of a toothbrush and frequency of toothbrushing. This data serves as a baseline to implement a "preventive self-care instruction program."

  20. Effect of nickel and chromium on gingival tissues during orthodontic treatment: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed Abdel-Fattah

    2004-01-01

    To determine the influence of chromium and nickel concentrations in saliva and their effects on gingival tissues during orthodontic treatment. Twenty orthodontic patients (10 males and 10 females), 17 to 20 years of age, were treated with fixed orthodontic appliances in the maxillary arch. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, the concentration of both metals was recorded during pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months into treatment, and 1 month after debonding. The depth of gingival crevice was recorded as well. After 3 months, 20% of females and 10% of males in this study showed allergic reaction in a form of gingivitis. This had disappeared by 1 month after appliance removal. While allergy to either nickel or chromium is not a serious medical problem, oral hygiene measures in at-risk patients should be optimal, with use of fluoride-free toothpaste and mouthrinse.

  1. White spot lesions: prevention and management during the orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Popovska, Lidija; Kapusevska, Biljana; Stefanovska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions, or enamel demineralization, around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which marks the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors and preventive methods of these orthodontics scars. Preventive programmes must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. The responsibility of an orthodontist is to minimize the risk of the patient having decalcification as a consequence of orthodontic treatment by educating and motivating the patients for excellent oral hygiene practice. Prophylaxis with topical fluoride application should be implemented: high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels and varnishes during and after the orthodontic treatment, especially for patients at high risk of caries.

  2. [White spot lesions and orthodontic treatment. Prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Morrier, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Decalcification of the enamel surface adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a common and frequent well-known side-effect of orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances and the bonding materials increase the retention of biofilm and encourage the formation of white spot lesions. Management of these lesions begins with a good oral hygiene regime and needs to be associated with use of fluoride agents (fluoridated toothpaste, fluoride containing mouth rinse, gel, varnish, bonding materials, elastic ligature), CPP-ACP, antiseptics, LASER, tooth whitening, resin infiltration, micro-abrasion. The purpose of this review is to access the direct evidence regarding the prevention and management of white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  3. The worn dentition--pathognomonic patterns of abrasion and erosion.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the dental literature has revealed various causes of tooth wear, yet it has failed to provide a conclusive method of differentiation and diagnosis of the condition. The categories of tooth wear encountered most commonly in dental practice are abrasion and erosion. The major causes of wear from abrasion are bruxism and toothpaste abuse, and the major causes of wear from erosion are regurgitation, coke-swishing and fruit-mulling. Through in-depth clinical study of these causes, this paper provides a diagnostic system that will enable dental professionals to determine and differentiate the exact aetiology of the worn dentition simply by the recognition of the pathognomonic wear patterns on diagnostic casts, which are based upon the position and quantity of the non-carious loss of tooth structure.

  4. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers in children's homes in Colombia].

    PubMed

    González Martínez, Farith; Sierra Barrios, Carmen Cecilia; Morales Salinas, Luz Edilma

    2011-01-01

    To describe knowledge,attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers. A total of 333 parents and eight caregivers in children's homes in Colombia in 2010 completed questionnaires and participated in focus group interviews.The data was analyzed for frequency using the χ² test to evaluate significance. The qualitative information was interpreted using triangulated comments to detect patterns and discrepancies. For parents, good levels of knowledge (58.9%) and favorable attitudes (74.5%) were observed. In terms of practices, 50.6% of the children brushed their teeth before bed, with 69.6% of the parents applying the toothpaste to the brush. Among caregivers, a positive attitude toward developing promotional strategies was perceived, but they considered parents to have the main responsibility in matters of healthy oral habits. Parents and caregivers demonstrated favorable conditions in terms of their perceptions, which can be considered an opportunity to promote hygiene habits in children.

  5. Preferences of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders concerning oral health and dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Lauren E; Bimstein, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the preferences of parents of children with or without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) concerning oral health and dental treatment. A questionnaire that queried demographics, dental needs, perceptions of dental materials and treatments, and parental concerns regarding relevant ASD issues in medicine and dentistry was distributed in the waiting rooms of a pediatric dental clinic and an autism clinic to parents or legal guardians of children undergoing treatment. The responses for the children with or without ASDs were compared. Statistically significant differences between the ASDs (N=23) and non-ASDs (N=33) groups existed for: parental age; frequency of dental visits per year; supervision of tooth-brushing; and use of a fluoridated toothpaste. Statistically insignificant differences were found in attitudes toward: amalgam; composite; fluoride products; or behavior guidance techniques. Parents or legal guardians of children with autism spectrum disorders are likely to have special beliefs and preferences regarding dental materials and dental behavior guidance.

  6. Risk factors for dental problems: Recommendations for oral health in infancy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2017-11-01

    Primary care providers, gynaecologists and paediatricians have to be aware of the importance of oral health in infancy and possible consequences for child's development, growth, health and quality of life. Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, developmental defects of the dental tissues and periodontal or orthodontic issues have a complex and interrelated aetiology with common, primarily behavioral based risk factors. A sugar-rich diet is the key risk factor with detrimental consequences for general and oral health, particularly in combination with an insufficient oral hygiene. Therefore, daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and reducing of sugar intake are the key pillars to prevent oral diseases, including a positive effect on numerous chronic diseases. Future preventive approaches should focus on pregnant women and mothers of infants with a common vision of health and a shared responsibility for children's oral health care to promote healthy lifestyles and self-care practices in families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding soft glassy materials using an energy landscape approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert A.; Crocker, John C.

    2016-09-01

    Many seemingly different soft materials--such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells--display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space. We find that these downhill paths, when viewed in this configuration space, are, surprisingly, fractal. The complex behaviour of our model, including power-law rheology and non-diffusive bubble motion and avalanches, stems directly from the fractal dimension and energy function of these paths. Our results suggest that ubiquitous soft glassy rheology may be a consequence of emergent fractal geometry in the energy landscapes of many complex fluids.

  8. [Halitosis: a multidisciplinary problem].

    PubMed

    Bollen, C M; Rompen, E H; Demanez, J P

    1999-01-01

    Bad breath, or halitosis, affects between 50 and 65% of the population. Despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared taboo. In about 8% of the cases, bad breath is related to an ENT pathology (sinusitis, tonsillitis, ...). More rarely it is caused by a metabolic (diabetes, trimethylaminuremia, ...) or gastric dysfunction. Ninety percent of the cases however, are associated to an oral disease: either gingivitis due to an inadequate removal of dental plaque, especially from interdental spaces, or periodontitis (alveolar bone destruction), or bacterial accumulation on the dorsum of the tongue. In most cases, an intensive disinfection of the mouth by scaling and root planing and/or instruction of a perfect oral hygiene will be sufficient to solve the problem. Perfumed mouthwashes or toothpastes will only give a short-term masking effect. An effective collaboration between a dentist or a periodontist and an ENT specialist is of great importance to dealt with bad breath.

  9. A thermodynamic unification of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kevin; Brodsky, E. E.; Kavehpour, H. P.

    2008-05-01

    Fragile materials ranging from sand to fire retardant to toothpaste are able to exhibit both solid and fluid-like properties across the jamming transition. Unlike ordinary fusion, systems of grains, foams and colloids jam and cease to flow under conditions that still remain unknown. Here, we quantify jamming using a thermodynamic approach by accounting for the structural ageing and the shear-induced compressibility of dry sand. Specifically, the jamming threshold is defined using a non-thermal temperature that measures the `fluffiness' of a granular mixture. The thermodynamic model, cast in terms of pressure, temperature and free volume, also successfully predicts the entropic data of five molecular glasses. Notably, the predicted configurational entropy averts the Kauzmann paradox-an unresolved crisis where the configurational entropy becomes negative-entirely. Without any free parameters, the proposed equation-of-state also governs the mechanism of shear banding and the associated features of shear softening and thickness invariance.

  10. A thermodynamic equation of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kevin; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.

    2008-03-01

    Materials ranging from sand to fire-retardant to toothpaste are considered fragile, able to exhibit both solid and fluid-like properties across the jamming transition. Guided by granular flow experiments, our equation of jammed states is path-dependent, definable at different athermal equilibrium states. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics based on a structural temperature incorporate physical ageing to address the non-exponential, non-Arrhenious relaxation of granular flows. In short, jamming is simply viewed as a thermodynamic transition that occurs to preserve a positive configurational entropy above absolute zero. Without any free parameters, the proposed equation-of-state governs the mechanism of shear-banding and the associated features of shear-softening and thickness-invariance.

  11. Novel fluorogenic probe for fluoride ion based on the fluoride-induced cleavage of tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2007-06-01

    A highly sensitive and selective fluorogenic probe for fluoride ion, 4-methylumbelliferyl tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether (4-MUTBS), was designed and synthesized. 4-MUTBS was a weakly fluorescent compound and was synthesized via the one-step reaction of 4-MU with tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride. Upon incubation with fluoride ion in acetone-water solution (7:3, v/v), the Si-O bond of 4-MUTBS was cleaved and highly fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was released, hence leading to the fluorescence increase of the reaction solution. The fluorescence increase is linearly with fluoride concentration in the range 50-8000 nmol l -1 with a detection limit of 19 nmol l -1 (3 σ). Because of the high affinity of silicon toward fluoride ion, the proposed probe shows excellent selectivity toward fluoride ion over other anions. The method has been successfully applied to the fluoride determination in toothpaste and tap water samples.

  12. Dental health of Spanish children: an investigation in primary care.

    PubMed

    Turabián, J L; de Juanes, J R

    1990-03-01

    The oral hygiene of patients between seven and 14 years old from a health centre in Toledo was studied through case-finding from March to December 1987. A total of 304 interviews were held; bad dental care (frequency of teeth brushing with fluoride toothpaste less than once per day and/or daily consumption of chocolate and sweets) was found in 83%, and caries were diagnosed through inspection in 92% of the patients. Seventy three per cent reported washing their teeth only occasionally or never; 40% consumed sweets daily; 53% had never visited the dentist; and 50% had not received preventive care for dental disease. These results contrast with those from the United Kingdom and other developed countries, indicating a precarious state of dental health in Spain, a fact which should be taken into account by the Spanish health organization when comparing the health levels between different countries.

  13. [A PhD completed. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and bad breath].

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, E; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2018-01-01

    Rinsing the mouth with water, or brushing with a dry toothbrush, does not contribute to an improvement in plaque removal during toothbrushing, nor does brushing according to a