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Sample records for torque density similar

  1. Neuromuscular fatigue following isometric contractions with similar torque time integral.

    PubMed

    Rozand, V; Cattagni, T; Theurel, J; Martin, A; Lepers, R

    2015-01-01

    Torque time integral (TTI) is the combination of intensity and duration of a contraction. The aim of this study was to compare neuromuscular alterations following different isometric sub-maximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles but with similar TTI. Sixteen participants performed 3 sustained contractions at different intensities (25%, 50%, and 75% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) torque) with different durations (68.5±33.4 s, 35.1±16.8 s and 24.8±12.9 s, respectively) but similar TTI value. MVC torque, maximal voluntary activation level (VAL), M-wave characteristics and potentiated doublet amplitude were assessed before and immediately after the sustained contractions. EMG activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) and -rectus femoris (RF) muscles was recorded during the sustained contractions. MVC torque reduction was similar in the 3 conditions after the exercise (-23.4±2.7%). VAL decreased significantly in a similar extent (-3.1±1.3%) after the 3 sustained contractions. Potentiated doublet amplitude was similarly reduced in the 3 conditions (-19.7±1.5%), but VL and RF M-wave amplitudes remained unchanged. EMG activity of VL and RF muscles increased in the same extent during the 3 contractions (VL: 54.5±40.4%; RF: 53.1±48.7%). These results suggest that central and peripheral alterations accounting for muscle fatigue are similar following isometric contractions with similar TTI. TTI should be considered in the exploration of muscle fatigue during sustained isometric contractions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The biomechanical effect of artificial and human bone density on stopping and stripping torque during screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Matthew; Crookshank, Meghan; Olsen, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad

    2013-06-01

    Orthopedic surgeons apply torque to metal screws manually by "subjective feel" to obtain adequate fracture fixation, i.e. stopping torque, and attempt to avoid accidental over-tightening that leads to screw-bone interface failure, i.e. stripping torque. Few studies have quantified stripping torque in human bone, and only one older study from 1980 reported stopping/ stripping torque ratio. The present aim was to measure stopping and stripping torque of cortical and cancellous screws in artificial and human bone over a wide range of densities. Sawbone blocks were obtained having densities from 0.08 to 0.80g/cm(3). Sixteen fresh-frozen human femurs of known standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) were also used. Using a torque screwdriver, 3.5-mm diameter cortical screws and 6.5-mm diameter cancellous screws were inserted for adequate tightening as determined subjectively by an orthopedic surgeon, i.e. stopping torque, and then further tightened until failure of the screw-bone interface, i.e. stripping torque. There were weak (R=0.25) to strong (R=0.99) linear correlations of absolute and normalized torque vs. density or sBMD. Maximum stopping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 15.2N/mm (cortical screws) and 13.4N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 20.9N/mm (cortical screws) and 6.1N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Maximum stripping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 23.4N/mm (cortical screws) and 16.8N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 29.3N/mm (cortical screws) and 8.3N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Combined average stopping/ stripping torque ratios were 80.8% (cortical screws) and 76.8% (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks, as well as 66.6% (cortical screws) and 84.5% (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Surgeons should be aware of stripping torque limits for human femurs and monitor stopping torque during surgery. This is the first study of the

  3. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  4. Primary stability, insertion torque, and bone density of conical implants with internal hexagon: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardi, Davide; Paolantonio, Michele; Spoto, Giuseppe; D'Addona, Antonio; Perfetti, Giorgio

    2013-05-01

    Between implants and peri-implant bone, there should be a minimum gap, without micromotions over a threshold, which could cause resorption and fibrosis. The higher the implant insertion torque, the higher will be the initial stability. The aim was to evaluate in vitro the correlation between micromotions and insertion torque of implants in bone of different densities. The test was performed on bovine bone of hard, medium, and soft density: 150 implants were used, 10 for each torque (20, 35, 45, 70, and 100 N/cm). Samples were fixed on a loading device. On each sample, we applied a 25-N horizontal force. Insertion torque and micromotions are statistically correlated. In soft bone with an insertion force of 20 and 35 N/cm, the micromotion resulted significantly over the risk threshold, which was not found with an insertion force of 45 and 70 N/cm and in hard and medium bones with any insertion torque. The increase in insertion torque reduces the amount of micromotions between implant and bone. Therefore, the immediate loading may be considered a valid therapeutic choice, even in low-density bone, as long as at least 45 N/cm of insertion torque is reached.

  5. Design and analysis of a direct-drive wind power generator with ultra-high torque density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Linni; Shi, Yujun; Wei, Jin; Zheng, Yanchong

    2015-05-01

    In order to get rid of the nuisances caused by mechanical gearboxes, generators with low rated speed, which can be directly connected to wind turbines, are attracting increasing attention. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new direct-drive wind power generator (DWPG), which can offer ultra-high torque density. First, magnetic gear (MG) is integrated to achieve non-contact torque transmission and speed variation. Second, armature windings are engaged to achieve electromechanical energy conversion. Interior permanent magnet (PM) design on the inner rotor is adopted to boost the torque transmission capability of the integrated MG. Nevertheless, due to lack of back iron on the stator, the proposed generator does not exhibit prominent salient feature, which usually exists in traditional interior PM (IPM) machines. This makes it with good controllability and high power factor as the surface-mounted permanent magnet machines. The performance is analyzed using finite element method. Investigation on the magnetic field harmonics demonstrates that the permanent-magnetic torque offered by the MG can work together with the electromagnetic torque offered by the armature windings to balance the driving torque captured by the wind turbine. This allows the proposed generator having the potential to offer even higher torque density than its integrated MG.

  6. Breaking the current density threshold in spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yin; Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2018-04-01

    Spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory (SOT-MRAM) is a promising technology for the next generation of data storage devices. The main bottleneck of this technology is the high reversal current density threshold. This outstanding problem is now solved by a new strategy in which the magnitude of the driven current density is fixed while the current direction varies with time. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density is only a fraction (the Gilbert damping coefficient) of the threshold current density of the conventional strategy. The Euler-Lagrange equation for the fastest magnetization reversal path and the optimal current pulse is derived for an arbitrary magnetic cell and arbitrary spin-orbit torque. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density and current density for a GHz switching rate of the new reversal strategy for CoFeB/Ta SOT-MRAMs are, respectively, of the order of 105 A/cm 2 and 106 A/cm 2 far below 107 A/cm 2 and 108 A/cm 2 in the conventional strategy. Furthermore, no external magnetic field is needed for a deterministic reversal in the new strategy.

  7. An investigation into the torque density capabilities of flux-focusing magnetic gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppalapati, Krishna Kiran

    Wind and many rotary based ocean energy conversion devices rely on a mechanical gearbox to increase their speed so as to match the requirements of the electromagnetic generator. However, mechanical gearboxes have a number of disadvantages such as the need for gear lubrication, no overload protection and the creation of acoustic noise. Frequently direct-drive generators are employed to overcome these issues, wherein the gearbox is removed and the shaft of the turbine is directly connected to the synchronous generator, either with an electrically excited or permanent magnet rotor. If the input speed to the generator is very low the torque must be very high in order to generate the necessary power. However, as the electrical loading of a synchronous generator is thermally limited, the size of the generator will become excessively large at high power levels. An alternative to these technologies is to consider replacing the mechanical gearbox with a magnetic gear. A magnetic gear can create speed change without any physical contact. It has inherent overload protection, and its non-contact operation offers the potential for high reliability. Despite significant progress, existing magnetic gear designs do not achieve torque densities that are competitive with mechanical gearboxes. This research has focused on designing a coaxial magnetic gear that can operate at a volumetric torque density that is comparable to a mechanical gearbox. A flux-focusing rotor topology also called spoke-type rotor magnet arrangement was adopted to improve the air-gap magnetic flux density which in turn improves the torque transferred between the rotors. Finite element analysis was utilized to conduct a parameter sweep analysis of the different geometric parameters of the magnetic gear. A sub-scale magnetic gear with a diameter of 110 mm and a scaled-up magnetic gear with a diameter of 228 mm was designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated. The torque and torque density of sub

  8. Modeling and Analysis of High Torque Density Transverse Flux Machines for Direct-Drive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Iftekhar

    Commercially available permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) typically use rare-earth-based permanent magnets (PM). However, volatility and uncertainty associated with the supply and cost of rare-earth magnets have caused a push for increased research into the development of non-rare-earth based PM machines and reluctance machines. Compared to other PMSM topologies, the Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) is a promising candidate to get higher torque densities at low speed for direct-drive applications, using non-rare-earth based PMs. The TFMs can be designed with a very small pole pitch which allows them to attain higher force density than conventional radial flux machines (RFM) and axial flux machines (AFM). This dissertation presents the modeling, electromagnetic design, vibration analysis, and prototype development of a novel non-rare-earth based PM-TFM for a direct-drive wind turbine application. The proposed TFM addresses the issues of low power factor, cogging torque, and torque ripple during the electromagnetic design phase. An improved Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) based analytical model was developed as an alternative to the time-consuming 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for faster electromagnetic analysis of the TFM. The accuracy and reliability of the MEC model were verified, both with 3D-FEA and experimental results. The improved MEC model was integrated with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to further enhance the capability of the analytical tool for performing rigorous optimization of performance-sensitive machine design parameters to extract the highest torque density for rated speed. A novel concept of integrating the rotary transformer within the proposed TFM design was explored to completely eliminate the use of magnets from the TFM. While keeping the same machine envelope, and without changing the stator or rotor cores, the primary and secondary of a rotary transformer were embedded into the double-sided TFM. The proposed

  9. Mechanical torque measurement in the proximal femur correlates to failure load and bone mineral density ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Grote, Stefan; Noeldeke, Tatjana; Blauth, Michael; Mutschler, Wolf; Bürklein, Dominik

    2013-06-07

    Knowledge of local bone quality is essential for surgeons to determine operation techniques. A device for intraoperative measurement of local bone quality has been developed by the AO-Research Foundation (Densi - Probe®). We used this device to experimentally measure peak breakaway torque of trabecular bone in the proximal femur and correlated this with local bone mineral density (BMD) and failure load. Bone mineral density of 160 cadaver femurs was measured by ex situ dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry. The failure load of all femurs was analyzed by side-impact analysis. Femur fractures were fixed and mechanical peak torque was measured with the DensiProbe® device. Correlation was calculated whereas correlation coefficient and significance was calculated by Fisher's Ztransformation. Moreover, linear regression analysis was carried out. The unpaired Student's t-test was used to assess the significance of differences. The Ward triangle region had the lowest BMD with 0.511 g/cm(2) (±0.17 g/cm(2)), followed by the upper neck region with 0.546 g/cm(2) (±0.16 g/cm(2)), trochanteric region with 0.685 g/cm(2) (±0.19 g/cm(2)) and the femoral neck with 0.813 g/cm(2) (±0.2 g/cm(2)). Peak torque of DensiProbe® in the femoral head was 3.48 Nm (±2.34 Nm). Load to failure was 4050.2 N (±1586.7 N). The highest correlation of peak torque measured by Densi Probe® and load to failure was found in the femoral neck (r=0.64, P<0.001). The overall correlation of mechanical peak torque with T-score was r=0.60 (P<0.001). A correlation was found between mechanical peak torque, load to failure of bone and BMD in vitro. Trabecular strength of bone and bone mineral density are different aspects of bone strength, but a correlation was found between them. Mechanical peak torque as measured may contribute additional information about bone strength, especially in the perioperative testing.

  10. Correlation Between Bone Density and Instantaneous Torque at Implant Site Preparation: A Validation on Polyurethane Foam Blocks of a Device Assessing Density of Jawbones.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bone density at implant placement sites is one of the key factors affecting implant primary stability, which is a determinant for implant osseointegration and rehabilitation success. Site-specific bone density assessment is, therefore, of paramount importance. Recently, an implant micromotor endowed with an instantaneous torque-measuring system has been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of this system. Five blocks with different densities (0.16, 0.26, 0.33, 0.49, and 0.65 g/cm(3)) were used. A single trained operator measured the density of one of them (0.33 g/cm(3)), by means of five different devices (20 measurements/device). The five resulting datasets were analyzed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to investigate interdevice variability. As differences were not significant (P = .41), the five devices were each assigned to a different operator, who collected 20 density measurements for each block, both under irrigation (I) and without irrigation (NI). Measurements were pooled and averaged for each block, and their correlation with the actual block-density values was investigated using linear regression analysis. The possible effect of irrigation on density measurement was additionally assessed. Different devices provided reproducible, homogenous results. No significant interoperator variability was observed. Within the physiologic range of densities (> 0.30 g/cm(3)), the linear regression analysis showed a significant linear correlation between the mean torque measurements and the actual bone densities under both drilling conditions (r = 0.990 [I], r = 0.999 [NI]). Calibration lines were drawn under both conditions. Values collected under irrigation were lower than those collected without irrigation at all densities. The NI/I mean torque ratio was shown to decrease linearly with density (r = 0.998). The mean error introduced by the device-operator system was less than 10% in the range of normal jawbone density

  11. Cogging Torque Reduction Techniques for Spoke-type IPMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrim, F. S.; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.; Jusoh, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    A spoke-type interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is extending its tentacles in industrial arena due to good flux-weakening capability and high power density. In many of the application, high strength of permanent magnet causes the undesirable effects of high cogging torque that can aggravate performance of the motor. High cogging torque is significantly produced by IPMSM due to the similar length and the effectiveness of the magnetic air-gap. The address of this study is to analyze and compare the cogging torque effect and performance of four common techniques for cogging torque reduction such as skewing, notching, pole pairing and rotor pole pairing. With the aid of 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) by JMAG software, a 6S-4P Spoke-type IPMSM with various rotor-PM configurations has been designed. As a result, the cogging torque effect reduced up to 69.5% for skewing technique, followed by 31.96%, 29.6%, and 17.53% by pole pairing, axial pole pairing and notching techniques respectively.

  12. Primary stability, insertion torque and bone density of cylindric implant ad modum Branemark: is there a relationship? An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Trisi, Paolo; De Benedittis, Simona; Perfetti, Giorgio; Berardi, Davide

    2011-05-01

    Protocols of immediate loading have been reported in several studies. It has also been demonstrated that the cause of failure of immediate loaded implants is due to the micromotion on the bone-implant interface induced by immediate loading. There should be a minimum gap between the implant and the peri-implant bone, without micromotions occurring above a definite threshold risk as they induce bone resorption and fibrosis around the implant. Measurement of the torque necessary to insert an implant in the bone is a parameter for measuring initial stability. The higher the implant insertion torque, the higher the initial stability attained. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the correlation between the micromotion of cylindric screw implants ad modum Branemark and the insertion torque in bone of different densities. The test was carried out on 2 × 2 cm samples of fresh bovine bone of three different densities: hard (H), medium (M) and soft (S). One hundred and fifty hexa implants ad modum Branemark were used, 3.75 mm in diameter and 9 mm long. To screw in the implants, a customized manual key was used, controlled digitally to evaluate the peak insertion torques. Ten implants were prepared for each torque (20, 35, 45, 70 and 100 N/cm). The bone sample was then fixed on a loading device, which allowed evaluating the micromotion. On each sample, we applied a 25 N horizontal force. The results indicate that the peak insertion torque and the implant micromotion are statistically correlated, and statistically significant differences in H and M bone were found compared with S bone. In S bone, we noted a micromotion significantly higher than the risk threshold, and it was not possible to reach peak insertion torque above 35 N/cm. In H and M bone, the micromotion is below the threshold of all insertion torques. Increasing the peak insertion torque, we can reduce the extent of the micromotion between the implant and the bone when submitted to lateral forces in

  13. First ever in-situ density measurements in Venus' polar upper atmosphere by combined drag and torque measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Mueller, Michael; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    Information on the atmospheric density in the altitude range 150-200 km in the atmosphere of Venus is difficult to gather remotely. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Neutral Mass Spectrometer measured gas densities in the equatorial upper atmosphere in-situ, but no such measurements have ever been made in the polar regions of Venus. The Venus Express spacecraft on its orbit approaches the planet in the northern polar region, but is not equipped with a mass spectrometer instrument for in-situ gas density measurements. By reducing the pericentre altitude the total mass density can however be measured in situ by monitoring the orbital decay caused by the drag on the spacecraft by the atmosphere via direct tracking of the Doppler signal on the telecommunication link. Such measurements have been performed with Venus Express several times during the last year as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). The results indicate a large variability within only a few days and have led to questions if these variations are real or within the uncertainty of the measurements. A completely different and independent measurement is given by monitoring the torque asserted by the atmosphere on the spacecraft. This is done by monitoring the momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels during the pericentre pass and at the same time considering all other perturbing forces. This requires the spacecraft to fly in an asymmetric attitude with respect to the centre of gravity, centre of drag and the velocity vector. This technique has proven very sensitive, in particular if the asymmetry is large, and offers a further method of measuring atmospheric densities in-situ that previously had not been explored with the Venus Express spacecraft. Similar measurements have been done in the past by Magellan at Venus and by Cassini at Titan. First torque measurements carried out during last years' low pericentre passes have confirmed the density measurements by the VExADE drag measurements

  14. Kilohertz and Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation With the Same Pulse Duration Have Similar Efficiency for Inducing Isometric Knee Extension Torque and Discomfort.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Flávia Vanessa; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Lucas, Tiago Pires; Modesto, Karenina Arrais; Bo, Antonio Padilha L; Cipriano, Gerson; Babault, Nicolas; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypotheses that, as compared with pulsed current with the same pulse duration, kilohertz frequency alternating current would not differ in terms of evoked-torque production and perceived discomfort, and as a result, it would show the same current efficiency. A repeated-measures design with 4 stimuli presented in random order was used to test 25 women: (1) 500-microsecond pulse duration, (2) 250-microsecond pulse duration, (3) 500-microsecond pulse duration and low carrier frequency (1 kHz), (4) 250-microsecond pulse duration and high carrier frequency (4 kHz). Isometric peak torque of quadriceps muscle was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Discomfort was measured using a visual analog scale. Currents with long pulse durations induced approximately 21% higher evoked torque than short pulse durations. In addition, currents with 500 microseconds delivered greater amounts of charge than stimulation patterns using 250-microsecond pulse durations (P < 0.05). All currents presented similar discomfort. There was no difference on stimulation efficiency with the same pulse duration. Both kilohertz frequency alternating current and pulsed current, with the same pulse duration, have similar efficiency for inducing isometric knee extension torque and discomfort. However, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with longer pulse duration induces higher NMES-evoked torque, regardless of the carrier frequency. Pulse duration is an important variable that should receive more attention for an optimal application of NMES in clinical settings.

  15. Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.

  16. Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd /Co /AlOx Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  17. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiwei; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Xi, Li; Si, Mingsu; Yang, Dezheng; Xue, Desheng

    2018-03-01

    We studied the current-induced spin-orbit torques in a perpendicularly magnetized Pt (1 nm)/Co (0.8 nm)/Pt (5 nm) heterojunction by harmonic Hall voltage measurements. Owing to similar Pt/Co/Pt interfaces, the spin-orbit torques originated from the Rashba effect are reduced, but the contribution from the spin Hall effect is still retained because of asymmetrical Pt thicknesses. When the temperature increases from 50 to 300 K, two orthogonal components of the effective field, induced by spin-orbit torques, reveal opposite temperature dependencies: the field-like term (transverse effective field) decreases from 2.3 to 2.1 (10-6 Oe (A cm-2)-1), whereas the damping-like term (longitudinal effective field) increases from 3.7 to 4.8 (10-6 Oe (A cm-2)-1). It is noticed that the damping-like term, usually smaller than the field-like term in the similar Pt/Co interfaces, is twice as large as the field-like term. As a result, the damping-like spin-orbit torque reaches an efficiency of 0.15 at 300 K. Such a temperature-dependent damping-like term in a Pt/Co/Pt heterojunction can efficiently reduce the switching current density which is 2.30  ×  106 A cm-2 at 300 K, providing an opportunity to further improve and understand spin-orbit torques induced by spin Hall effect.

  18. Resonance Trapping due to Nebula Disk Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J. M.; Ward, W. R.

    1996-03-01

    A protoplanet embedded in the solar nebula launches spiral density waves from its Lindblad resonances in the gas disk, and its gravitational attraction for these disturbances results in a mutual torque exerted between the protoplanet and the disk. Consequently the orbit of a sufficiently massive protoplanet may decay on a timescale shorter than the nebula lifetime, and this mechanism is most significant during the formation of the cores of the giant planets. Due to their increased mobility, migrating protoplanets may have been able to accrete large swaths of the disk and/or encounter other protoplanets. Thus disk torques may have played an important role in determining the formation history and orbit spacings of the giant planets. An interesting phenomenon also associated with orbit decay is resonance trapping, whereby a large body is able to halt further orbit decay of smaller bodies at commensurability resonances. Examples of this effect include the trapping of planetesimals experiencing aerodynamic gas drag and dust suffering Poynting-Robertson drag. Below we address the cosmogonic implications of resonance trapping of planetary embryos experiencing orbit decay due to nebula disk torques. The following employs an approach similar to Malhotra's (1993) discussion of the gas drag trapping problem.

  19. Non-inductive Hybrid Scenario-Transport and Turbulence at Reduced Plasma Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Petty, C. C.; Pace, D. C.; Turco, F.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2016-10-01

    As the neutral beam injection (NBI) torque is lowered in steady-state hybrid plasmas via counter-beam injection, increased turbulence and thermal transport is observed, particularly in the ion channel. These discharges require Pco-NBI = 11 MW and PECH = 3 MW to achieve zero surface loop voltage. As the beam torque is reduced from 8.5 N-m to 4 N-m with βN 3 and q95 6 , the global confinement decreases from H 98 y , 2 of 1.5 to 1.2 . Local transport analysis using TRANSP shows that the lower torque discharges have increased ion thermal diffusivity across the whole profile and increased electron thermal diffusivity localized to the ρ = 0.7 region. Similarly, Doppler Backscattering shows increased density fluctuations at intermediate wavenumbers at the lower torque. However, fast-ion transport caused by off-axis fishbones favorably decreases from 0.7m2 /s to 0.1m2 /s as the torque is lowered, partially offsetting the thermal transport reduction. These measured changes in turbulence and transport are being compared to plasma simulations using TGLF/GYRO to better predict the confinement of future steady-state hybrids that will be primarily RF-heated. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. Density correlators in a self-similar cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz˙; Ewski, J.

    1999-09-01

    Multivariate density moments (correlators) of arbitrary order are obtained for the multiplicative self-similar cascade. This result is based on the calculation by Greiner, Eggers and Lipa where the correlators of the logarithms of the particle densities have been obtained. The density correlators, more suitable for comparison with multiparticle data, appear to have a simple factorizable form.

  1. A spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory-based high-density and ultralow-power associative memory for fully data-adaptive nearest neighbor search with current-mode similarity evaluation and time-domain minimum searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    A high-density nonvolatile associative memory (NV-AM) based on spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), which achieves highly concurrent and ultralow-power nearest neighbor search with full adaptivity of the template data format, has been proposed and fabricated using the 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction hybrid process. A truly compact current-mode circuitry is developed to realize flexibly controllable and high-parallel similarity evaluation, which makes the NV-AM adaptable to any dimensionality and component-bit of template data. A compact dual-stage time-domain minimum searching circuit is also developed, which can freely extend the system for more template data by connecting multiple NM-AM cores without additional circuits for integrated processing. Both the embedded STT-MRAM module and the computing circuit modules in this NV-AM chip are synchronously power-gated to completely eliminate standby power and maximally reduce operation power by only activating the currently accessed circuit blocks. The operations of a prototype chip at 40 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The average operation power is only 130 µW, and the circuit density is less than 11 µm2/bit. Compared with the latest conventional works in both volatile and nonvolatile approaches, more than 31.3% circuit area reductions and 99.2% power improvements are achieved, respectively. Further power performance analyses are discussed, which verify the special superiority of the proposed NV-AM in low-power and large-memory-based VLSIs.

  2. Role of external torque in the formation of ion thermal internal transport barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analytic study of the impact of external torque on the formation of ion internal transport barriers (ITBs). A simple analytic relation representing the effect of low external torque on transport bifurcations is derived based on a two field transport model of pressure and toroidal momentum density. It is found that the application of an external torque can either facilitate or hamper bifurcation in heat flux driven plasmas depending on its sign relative to the direction of intrinsic torque. The ratio between radially integrated momentum (i.e., external torque) density to power input is shown to be a key macroscopic control parameter governing the characteristics of bifurcation.

  3. Correlation between Initial BIC and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral Recorded with an Instantaneous Torque-Measuring Implant Motor: An in vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Capparé, Paolo; Vinci, Raffaele; Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Traini, Tonino; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Gastaldi, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative intraoperative evaluation of bone quality at implant placement site and postinsertion implant primary stability assessment are two key parameters to perform implant-supported rehabilitation properly. A novel micromotor has been recently introduced allowing to measure bone density at implant placement site and to record implant insertion-related parameters, such as the instantaneous, average and peak insertion torque values, and the insertion torque/depth integral. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo if any correlation existed between initial bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone density and integral values recorded with the instrument. Twenty-five patients seeking for implant-supported rehabilitation of edentulous areas were consecutively treated. Before implant placement, bone density at the insertion site was measured. For each patient, an undersized 3.3 × 8-mm implant was placed, recording the insertion torque/depth integral values. After 15 minutes, the undersized implant was retrieved with a 0.5 mm-thick layer of bone surrounding it. Standard implants were consequently placed. Retrieved implants were analyzed for initial BIC quantification after fixation, dehydration, acrylic resin embedment, sections cutting and grinding, and toluidine-blue and acid fuchsine staining. Correlation between initial BIC values, bone density at the insertion site, and the torque/depth integral values was investigated by linear regression analysis. A significant linear correlation was found to exist between initial BIC and (a) bone density at the insertion site (R = 0.96, explained variance R(2)  = 0.92) and (b) torque/depth integral at placement (R = 0.81, explained variance R(2)  = 0.66). The system provided quantitative, reliable data correlating significantly with immediate postinsertion initial BIC, and could therefore represent a valuable tool both for clinical research and for the oral implantologist in his/her daily clinical

  4. The insertional torque of a pedicle screw has a positive correlation with bone mineral density in posterior lumbar pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Lee, J-H; Park, J W; Shin, Y H

    2012-01-01

    In patients with osteoporosis there is always a strong possibility that pedicle screws will loosen. This makes it difficult to select the appropriate osteoporotic patient for a spinal fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and the magnitude of torque required to insert a pedicle screw. To accomplish this, 181 patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine were studied prospectively. Each underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and intra-operative measurement of the torque required to insert each pedicle screw. The levels of torque generated in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those achieved in normal patients. Positive correlations were observed between BMD and T-value at the instrumented lumbar vertebrae, mean BMD and mean T-value of the lumbar vertebrae, and mean BMD and mean T-value of the proximal femur. The predictive torque (Nm) generated during pedicle screw insertion was [-0.127 + 1.62 × (BMD at the corresponding lumbar vertebrae)], as measured by linear regression analysis. The positive correlation between BMD and the maximum torque required to insert a pedicle screw suggests that pre-operative assessment of BMD may be useful in determining the ultimate strength of fixation of a device, as well as the number of levels that need to be fixed with pedicle screws in patients who are suspected of having osteoporosis.

  5. Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1993-01-01

    -up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  6. Optical forces, torques, and force densities calculated at a microscopic level using a self-consistent hydrodynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kun; Chan, C. T.

    2018-04-01

    The calculation of optical force density distribution inside a material is challenging at the nanoscale, where quantum and nonlocal effects emerge and macroscopic parameters such as permittivity become ill-defined. We demonstrate that the microscopic optical force density of nanoplasmonic systems can be defined and calculated using the microscopic fields generated using a self-consistent hydrodynamics model that includes quantum, nonlocal, and retardation effects. We demonstrate this technique by calculating the microscopic optical force density distributions and the optical binding force induced by external light on nanoplasmonic dimers. This approach works even in the limit when the nanoparticles are close enough to each other so that electron tunneling occurs, a regime in which classical electromagnetic approach fails completely. We discover that an uneven distribution of optical force density can lead to a light-induced spinning torque acting on individual particles. The hydrodynamics method offers us an accurate and efficient approach to study optomechanical behavior for plasmonic systems at the nanoscale.

  7. Current control of PMSM based on maximum torque control reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, Takumi

    2017-07-01

    This study presents a new method of current controls of PMSMs (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors) based on a maximum torque control reference frame, which is suitable for high-performance controls of the PMSMs. As the issues of environment and energy increase seriously, PMSMs, one of the AC motors, are becoming popular because of their high-efficiency and high-torque density in various applications, such as electric vehicles, trains, industrial machines, and home appliances. To use the PMSMs efficiently, a proper current control of the PMSMs is necessary. In general, a rotational coordinate system synchronizing with the rotor is used for the current control of PMSMs. In the rotating reference frame, the current control is easier because the currents on the rotating reference frame can be expressed as a direct current in the controller. On the other hand, the torque characteristics of PMSMs are non-linear and complex; the PMSMs are efficient and high-density though. Therefore, a complicated control system is required to involve the relation between the torque and the current, even though the rotating reference frame is adopted. The maximum torque control reference frame provides a simpler way to control efficiently the currents taking the torque characteristics of the PMSMs into consideration.

  8. Extraneous torque and compensation control on the electric load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zongxia; Li, Chenggong; Ren, Zhiting

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a novel motor-drive load simulator based on compensation control strategy is proposed and designed. Through analyzing the torque control system consisting of DC torque motor, PWM module and torque sensor, it is shown that performance of the motor-drive load simulator is possible to be as good as that of the electro-hydraulic load simulator in the range of small torque. In the course of loading, the rotation of the actuator would cause a strong disturbance torque through the motor back-EMF, which produces extraneous torque similar as in electro-hydraulic load simulator. This paper analyzes the cause of extraneous torque inside the torque motor in detail and presents an appropriate compensation control with which the extraneous torque can be compensated and the good performance of the torque control system can be obtained. The results of simulation indicate that the compensation is very effective and the track performance is according with the request.

  9. New Cogging Torque Reduction Methods for Permanent Magnet Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrim, F. S.; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.; Jusoh, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    Permanent magnet type motors (PMs) especially permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are expanding its limbs in industrial application system and widely used in various applications. The key features of this machine include high power and torque density, extending speed range, high efficiency, better dynamic performance and good flux-weakening capability. Nevertheless, high in cogging torque, which may cause noise and vibration, is one of the threat of the machine performance. Therefore, with the aid of 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) and simulation using JMAG Designer, this paper proposed new method for cogging torque reduction. Based on the simulation, methods of combining the skewing with radial pole pairing method and skewing with axial pole pairing method reduces the cogging torque effect up to 71.86% and 65.69% simultaneously.

  10. Operant learning of Drosophila at the torque meter.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Bjoern

    2008-06-16

    For experiments at the torque meter, flies are kept on standard fly medium at 25 degrees C and 60% humidity with a 12hr light/12hr dark regime. A standardized breeding regime assures proper larval density and age-matched cohorts. Cold-anesthetized flies are glued with head and thorax to a triangle-shaped hook the day before the experiment. Attached to the torque meter via a clamp, the fly's intended flight maneuvers are measured as the angular momentum around its vertical body axis. The fly is placed in the center of a cylindrical panorama to accomplish stationary flight. An analog to digital converter card feeds the yaw torque signal into a computer which stores the trace for later analysis. The computer also controls a variety of stimuli which can be brought under the fly's control by closing the feedback loop between these stimuli and the yaw torque trace. Punishment is achieved by applying heat from an adjustable infrared laser.

  11. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-04-01

    We examine the migration of low mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by midplane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  12. Low-mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-07-01

    We examine the migration of low-mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large-scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by mid-plane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  13. Antidamping spin-orbit torques in epitaxial-Py(100)/β-Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Dhananjay; Behera, Nilamani; Kumar, Akash; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.; Åkerman, Johan; Muduli, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    We perform spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements on the Si(100)/TiN(100)/epi-Py(100)/β-Ta system. We demonstrate current induced modulation of the Gilbert damping constant, which is about 30% for a current density of 6.25 × 109 A/m2. We show that the observed modulation of the Gilbert damping constant cannot be explained by spin transfer torques arising from the spin Hall effect of the β-Ta layer. An additional mechanism such as antidamping spin-orbit torque resulting from the interface or the crystalline structure of Py thin films needs to be considered.

  14. Optimal Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Aerodynamic Torques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    His design resembles a badminton shuttlecock and “uses passive aerodynamic drag torques to stabilize pitch and yaw” and active magnetic torque...Ravindran’s and Hughes’ ‘arrow-like’ design. Psiaki notes that “this arrow concept has been modified to become a badminton shuttlecock-type design...panels were placed to the rear of the center-of-mass, similar to a badminton shuttlecock, to provide passive stability about the pitch and yaw axes

  15. Does maximum torque mean optimal pullout strength of screws?

    PubMed

    Tankard, Sara E; Mears, Simon C; Marsland, Daniel; Langdale, Evan R; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2013-04-01

    To determine the relationship between insertion torque and pullout strength of 3.5-mm-diameter cortical screws in cadaveric humeri with different bone mineral densities (BMDs). Five pairs of human humeri from each of 3 BMD groups (normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic) were used. Holes were drilled in each humerus, and maximum insertion torque (T(max)) was measured by tightening a screw until stripping occurred. In the remaining holes, screws were tightened to 50%, 70%, or 90% of the T(max). A servohydraulic testing machine pulled each screw out at 1 mm/s while resulting force and axial displacement were recorded at 10 Hz. The authors checked for an effect of insertion torque (percent T(max)) on pullout strength using a general linearized and latent mixed model (Stata10), controlling for cortical thickness and BMD (T-score). Pullout strength for normal and osteoporotic bone was greatest for screws inserted to 50% T(max) and was significantly greater than that at T(max) but not significantly different from that at 70% or 90% T(max). For osteopenic bone, pullout strength was greatest at 70% peak torque, but it was not significantly different from the pullout strength at the 50% or 90% T(max) levels. Tightening screws beyond 50% T(max) does not increase pullout strength of the screw and may place bone at risk for damage that might result in loss of fixation. Even after adjusting for bone thickness and density, there is no clear relationship between pullout strength and screw torque.

  16. Tool for Torquing Circular Electrical-Connector Collars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulke, Kathryn; Werneth, Russell; Grunsfeld, John; O'Neill, Patrick; Snyder, Russ

    2006-01-01

    An improved tool has been devised for applying torque to lock and unlock knurled collars on circular electrical connectors. The tool was originally designed for, and used by, astronauts working in outer space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The tool is readily adaptable to terrestrial use in installing and removing the same or similar circular electrical connectors as well as a wide variety of other cylindrical objects, the tightening and loosening of which entail considerable amounts of torque.

  17. Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.

  18. Torque teno virus: an improved indicator for viral pathogens in drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jennifer S; Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2008-10-03

    Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial indicators do not co-occur exclusively with infectious viruses, nor do they respond in the same manner to environmental or engineered stressors. Thus, a more appropriate indicator of health risks from infectious enteric viruses is needed. Torque teno virus is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus that likely exhibits similar transport characteristics to pathogenic enteric viruses. Torque teno virus is unique among enteric viral pathogens in that it appears to be ubiquitous in humans, elicits seemingly innocuous infections, and does not exhibit seasonal fluctuations or epidemic spikes. Torque teno virus is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and can be assayed using rapid molecular techniques. We hypothesize that Torque teno virus is a more appropriate indicator of viral pathogens in drinking waters than currently used indicator systems based solely on bacteria. To test the hypothesis, a multi-phased research approach is needed. First, a reliable Torque teno virus assay must be developed. A rapid, sensitive, and specific PCR method using established nested primer sets would be most appropriate for routine monitoring of waters. Because PCR detects both infectious and inactivated virus, an in vitro method to assess infectivity also is needed. The density and occurrence of Torque teno virus in feces, wastewater, and source waters must be established to define spatial and temporal stability of this potential indicator. Finally, Torque teno virus behavior through drinking water treatment plants must be determined with co-assessment of traditional indicators and enteric viral pathogens to assess whether correlations exist

  19. Torque teno virus: an improved indicator for viral pathogens in drinking waters

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Jennifer S; Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2008-01-01

    Background Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial indicators do not co-occur exclusively with infectious viruses, nor do they respond in the same manner to environmental or engineered stressors. Thus, a more appropriate indicator of health risks from infectious enteric viruses is needed. Presentation of the hypothesis Torque teno virus is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus that likely exhibits similar transport characteristics to pathogenic enteric viruses. Torque teno virus is unique among enteric viral pathogens in that it appears to be ubiquitous in humans, elicits seemingly innocuous infections, and does not exhibit seasonal fluctuations or epidemic spikes. Torque teno virus is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and can be assayed using rapid molecular techniques. We hypothesize that Torque teno virus is a more appropriate indicator of viral pathogens in drinking waters than currently used indicator systems based solely on bacteria. Testing the hypothesis To test the hypothesis, a multi-phased research approach is needed. First, a reliable Torque teno virus assay must be developed. A rapid, sensitive, and specific PCR method using established nested primer sets would be most appropriate for routine monitoring of waters. Because PCR detects both infectious and inactivated virus, an in vitro method to assess infectivity also is needed. The density and occurrence of Torque teno virus in feces, wastewater, and source waters must be established to define spatial and temporal stability of this potential indicator. Finally, Torque teno virus behavior through drinking water treatment plants must be determined with co-assessment of traditional indicators

  20. Electromagnetic Torque in Tokamaks with Toroidal Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Nikolas Christopher

    coils is often proportional to the energy put into the dominant ideal MHD kink mode. This reduces the control of nonresonant torque to a single mode model, enabling efficient feed forward optimization of applied fields. Initial results including the anisotropic kinetic pressure tensor directly in the plasma eigenmode calculations are presented here, and may eventually provide accurate metrics for multimodal coupling similar to the established single mode metrics.

  1. In vivo analysis of insertional torque during pedicle screwing using cortical bone trajectory technique.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Keitaro; Yato, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takashi; Imabayashi, Hideaki; Asazuma, Takashi; Nemoto, Koichi

    2014-02-15

    The insertional torque of pedicle screws using the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) was measured in vivo. To investigate the effectiveness of the CBT technique by measurement of the insertional torque. The CBT follows a mediolateral and caudocephalad directed path, engaging with cortical bone maximally from the pedicle to the vertebral body. Some biomechanical studies have demonstrated favorable characteristics of the CBT technique in cadaveric lumbar spine. However, no in vivo study has been reported on the mechanical behavior of this new trajectory. The insertional torque of pedicle screws using CBT and traditional techniques were measured intraoperatively in 48 consecutive patients. A total of 162 screws using the CBT technique and 36 screws using the traditional technique were compared. In 8 of 48 patients, the side-by-side comparison of 2 different insertional techniques for each vertebra were performed, which formed the H group. In addition, the insertional torque was correlated with bone mineral density. The mean maximum insertional torque of CBT screws and traditional screws were 2.49 ± 0.99 Nm and 1.24 ± 0.54 Nm, respectively. The CBT screws showed 2.01 times higher torque and the difference was significant between the 2 techniques (P < 0.01). In the H group, the insertional torque were 2.71 ± 1.36 Nm in the CBT screws and 1.58 ± 0.44 Nm in the traditional screws. The CBT screws demonstrated 1.71 times higher torque and statistical significance was achieved (P < 0.01). Positive linear correlations between maximum insertional torque and bone mineral density were found in both technique, the correlation coefficient of traditional screws (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) was higher than that of the CBT screws (r = 0.59, P < 0.01). The insertional torque using the CBT technique is about 1.7 times higher than the traditional technique. 2.

  2. A magneto-rheological fluid-based torque sensor for smart torque wrench application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Washington, Gregory N.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the authors have developed a new application where MR fluid is being used as a sensor. An MR-fluid based torque wrench has been developed with a rotary MR fluid-based damper. The desired set torque ranges from 1 to 6 N.m. Having continuously controllable yield strength, the MR fluid-based torque wrench presents a great advantage over the regular available torque wrenches in the market. This design is capable of providing continuous set toque from the lower limit to the upper limit while regular torque wrenches provide discrete set torques only at some limited points. This feature will be especially important in high fidelity systems where tightening torque is very critical and the tolerances are low.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled tumbling-helical motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane

    2013-05-01

    Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.

  4. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled tumbling-helical motions.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2013-05-01

    Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.

  5. Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2014-03-01

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 104 A/cm2 in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics.

  6. Spin torque switching of 20 nm magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Nowak, J. J.; Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Hu, G.; Brown, S.; Zhu, Y.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-03-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is one of the most promising emerging non-volatile memory technologies. MRAM has so far been demonstrated with a unique combination of density, speed, and non-volatility in a single chip, however, without the capability to replace any single mainstream memory. In this paper, we demonstrate the basic physics of spin torque switching in 20 nm diameter magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials. This deep scaling capability clearly indicates the STT MRAM device itself may be suitable for integration at much higher densities than previously proven.

  7. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi

    2014-04-14

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation.

  8. Current evidence demonstrates similar effects of kilohertz-frequency and low-frequency current on quadriceps evoked torque and discomfort in healthy individuals: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Durigan, João Luiz Quaglioti; Arena, Ross; de Noronha, Marcos; Gurney, Burke; Cipriano, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely utilized to enhance muscle performance. However, the optimal NMES waveform with respect to treatment effect has not been established. To investigate the effects of kilohertz-frequency alternating current (KFAC) and low-frequency pulsed current (PC) on quadriceps evoked torque and self-reported discomfort. PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SinoMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (QRCTs). Two reviewers independently selected potential studies according to the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Studies were eligible if they compared KFAC versus PC interventions. Studies that included outcome measures for percentage of maximal isometric voluntary contraction (%MIVC) torque and self-reported discomfort level were eligible for evaluation. Seven studies involving 127 individuals were included. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 5 on the 10-point PEDro scale. Overall, PC was no better than KFAC in terms of evoked torque and there was no difference in self-reported discomfort level. KFAC and PC have similar effects on quadriceps evoked torque and self-reported discomfort level in healthy individuals. The small number and overall methodological quality of currently available studies included in this meta-analysis indicate that new RCTs are needed to better determine optimal NMES treatment parameters.

  9. Electromagnetic torque tweezers: a versatile approach for measurement of single-molecule twist and torque.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Xander J A; Lipfert, Jan; Jager, Tessa; Daudey, Renier; Beekman, Jaap; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-07-11

    The well-established single-molecule force-spectroscopy techniques have recently been complemented by methods that can measure torque and twist directly, notably magnetic torque tweezers and the optical torque wrench. A limitation of the current torque measurement schemes is the intrinsic coupling between the force and torque degrees of freedom. Here we present electromagnetic torque tweezers (eMTT) that combine permanent and electromagnets to enable independent control of the force and torsional trap stiffness for sensitive measurements of single molecule torque and twist. Using the eMTT, we demonstrate sensitive torque measurements on tethered DNA molecules from simple tracking of the beads' (x,y)-position, obviating the need for any angular tracking algorithms or markers. Employing the eMTT for high-resolution torque measurements, we experimentally confirm the theoretically predicted torque overshoot at the DNA buckling transition in high salt conditions. We envision that the flexibility and control afforded by the eMTT will enable a range of new torque and twist measurement schemes from single-molecules to living cells.

  10. Effect of long-term steam autoclaving on changes in torque delivery of spring- and friction-type torque wrenches.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie; Beck, Frank M; McGlumphy, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Two types of mechanical torque-limiting devices (MTLD) are available: friction-style and spring-style. Limited information is available regarding the accuracy of different types of MTLDs after sterilization. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the accuracy of MTLDs after sterilization. Three new friction-style and 3 new spring-style MTLDs (Astra Tech/Dentsply, Zimmer Dental, Biohorizons, Biomet 3i, Straumann [ITI] and Nobel Biocare; n=5 per manufacturer; 30 total) were selected to evaluate their accuracy in delivering the target torque values preset by their manufacturers before and after sterilization. Target torque measurements were made with a digital torque gauge (model DFS2-R-ND; Chatillon) 10 times for each device. All MTLDs were sterilized following the manufacturers' recommendations. The sterilization procedure was repeated 100 times, and the accuracy of all MTLDs was retested. Absolute torque differences were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with instrument as the repeated factor. MTLD type (friction or spring) and MTLD status (new or autoclaved) were the independent variables. Post hoc testing was done using the Tukey method for balanced data. No significant difference was found between the spring-style and friction-style MTLDs or within the spring-style and friction-style MTLDs before and after sterilization (P>.05). After 100 cycles of steam autoclaving, the accuracy of spring-style and friction-style MTLDs was similar. All MTLDs fell within ±10% of the target torque value before and after sterilization. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoscale imaging of magnetization reversal driven by spin-orbit torque

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Ian; Chen, P. J.; Gopman, Daniel B.

    We use scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis to image deterministic, spin-orbit torque-driven magnetization reversal of in-plane magnetized CoFeB rectangles in zero applied magnetic field. The spin-orbit torque is generated by running a current through heavy metal microstrips, either Pt or Ta, upon which the CoFeB rectangles are deposited. We image the CoFeB magnetization before and after a current pulse to see the effect of spin-orbit torque on the magnetic nanostructure. The observed changes in magnetic structure can be complex, deviating significantly from a simple macrospin approximation, especially in larger elements. Overall, however, the directions of the magnetization reversal inmore » the Pt and Ta devices are opposite, consistent with the opposite signs of the spin Hall angles of these materials. Lastly, our results elucidate the effects of current density, geometry, and magnetic domain structure on magnetization switching driven by spin-orbit torque.« less

  12. Nanoscale imaging of magnetization reversal driven by spin-orbit torque

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, Ian; Chen, P. J.; Gopman, Daniel B.; ...

    2016-09-23

    We use scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis to image deterministic, spin-orbit torque-driven magnetization reversal of in-plane magnetized CoFeB rectangles in zero applied magnetic field. The spin-orbit torque is generated by running a current through heavy metal microstrips, either Pt or Ta, upon which the CoFeB rectangles are deposited. We image the CoFeB magnetization before and after a current pulse to see the effect of spin-orbit torque on the magnetic nanostructure. The observed changes in magnetic structure can be complex, deviating significantly from a simple macrospin approximation, especially in larger elements. Overall, however, the directions of the magnetization reversal inmore » the Pt and Ta devices are opposite, consistent with the opposite signs of the spin Hall angles of these materials. Lastly, our results elucidate the effects of current density, geometry, and magnetic domain structure on magnetization switching driven by spin-orbit torque.« less

  13. Torque-onset determination: Unintended consequences of the threshold method.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Raffy; Jenkins, Glenn; O'Brien, Thomas D; Hansen, Steve; Falk, Bareket

    2016-12-01

    Compared with visual torque-onset-detection (TOD), threshold-based TOD produces onset bias, which increases with lower torques or rates of torque development (RTD). To compare the effects of differential TOD-bias on common contractile parameters in two torque-disparate groups. Fifteen boys and 12 men performed maximal, explosive, isometric knee-extensions. Torque and EMG were recorded for each contraction. Best contractions were selected by peak torque (MVC) and peak RTD. Visual-TOD-based torque-time traces, electromechanical delays (EMD), and times to peak RTD (tRTD) were compared with corresponding data derived from fixed 4-Nm- and relative 5%MVC-thresholds. The 5%MVC TOD-biases were similar for boys and men, but the corresponding 4-Nm-based biases were markedly different (40.3±14.1 vs. 18.4±7.1ms, respectively; p<0.001). Boys-men EMD differences were most affected, increasing from 5.0ms (visual) to 26.9ms (4Nm; p<0.01). Men's visually-based torque kinetics tended to be faster than the boys' (NS), but the 4-Nm-based kinetics erroneously depicted the boys as being much faster to any given %MVC (p<0.001). When comparing contractile properties of dissimilar groups, e.g., children vs. adults, threshold-based TOD methods can misrepresent reality and lead to erroneous conclusions. Relative-thresholds (e.g., 5% MVC) still introduce error, but group-comparisons are not confounded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Torque Control of a Rehabilitation Teaching Robot Using Magneto-Rheological Fluid Clutches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakogi, Hokuto; Ohaba, Motoyoshi; Kuramochi, Naimu; Yano, Hidenori

    A new robot that makes use of MR-fluid clutches for simulating torque is proposed to provide an appropriate device for training physical therapy students in knee-joint rehabilitation. The feeling of torque provided by the robot is expected to correspond to the torque performance obtained by physical therapy experts in a clinical setting. The torque required for knee-joint rehabilitation, which is a function of the rotational angle and the rotational angular velocity of a knee movement, is modeled using a mechanical system composed of typical spring-mass-damper elements. The robot consists of two MR-fluid clutches, two induction motors, and a feedback control system. In the torque experiments, output torque is controlled using the spring and damper coefficients separately. The values of these coefficients are determined experimentally. The experimental results show that the robot would be suitable for training physical therapy students to experience similar torque feelings as needed in a clinical situation.

  15. Measurements of the toroidal torque balance of error field penetration locked modes

    DOE PAGES

    Shiraki, Daisuke; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Hanson, Jeremy M.; ...

    2015-01-05

    Here, detailed measurements from the DIII-D tokamak of the toroidal dynamics of error field penetration locked modes under the influence of slowly evolving external fields, enable study of the toroidal torques on the mode, including interaction with the intrinsic error field. The error field in these low density Ohmic discharges is well known based on the mode penetration threshold, allowing resonant and non-resonant torque effects to be distinguished. These m/n = 2/1 locked modes are found to be well described by a toroidal torque balance between the resonant interaction with n = 1 error fields, and a viscous torque inmore » the electron diamagnetic drift direction which is observed to scale as the square of the perturbed field due to the island. Fitting to this empirical torque balance allows a time-resolved measurement of the intrinsic error field of the device, providing evidence for a time-dependent error field in DIII-D due to ramping of the Ohmic coil current.« less

  16. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  17. Accuracy of dental torque wrenches.

    PubMed

    Wood, James S; Marlow, Nicole M; Cayouette, Monica J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the actual torque of 2 manual wrench systems to their stated (target) torque. New spring- (Nobel Biocare USA, LLC) and friction-style (Zimmer Dental, Inc.) manual dental torque wrenches, as well as spring torque wrenches that had undergone sterilization and clinical use, were tested. A calibrated torque gauge was used to compare actual torque to target torque values of 15 and 35 N/cm. Data were statistically analyzed via mixed-effects regression model with Bonferroni correction. At a target torque of 15 N/cm, the mean torque of new spring wrenches (13.97 N/cm; SE, 0.07 N/cm) was significantly different from that of used spring wrenches (14.94 N/cm; SE, 0.06 N/cm; P < 0.0001). However, the mean torques of new spring and new friction wrenches (14.10 N/cm; SE, 0.07 N/cm; P = 0.21) were not significantly different. For torque measurements calibrated at 35 N/cm, the mean torque of new spring wrenches (35.29 N/cm; SE, 0.10 N/cm) was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from the means of new friction wrenches (36.20 N/cm; SE, 0.08 N/cm) and used spring wrenches (36.45 N/cm; SE, 0.08 N/cm). Discrepancies in torque could impact the clinical success of screw-retained dental implants. It is recommended that torque wrenches be checked regularly to ensure that they are performing to target values.

  18. Twin-enhanced magnetic torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobza, Anthony; García-Cervera, Carlos J.; Müllner, Peter

    2018-07-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys experience magnetic-field-induced torque due to magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy. In a homogeneous magnetic field, torque results in bending of long samples. This study investigates the torque on a single crystal of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy constrained with respect to bending in an external magnetic field. The dependence of the torque on external magnetic field magnitude, strain, and twin boundary structure was studied experimentally and with computer simulations. With increasing magnetic field, the torque increased until it reached a maximum near 700 mT. Above 200 mT, the torque was not symmetric about the equilibrium orientation for a sample with one twin boundary. The torque on two specimen with equal strain but different twin boundary structures varied systematically with the spatial arrangement of crystallographic twins. Numerical simulations show that twin boundaries suppress the formation of 180° domains if the direction of easy magnetization between two twin boundaries is parallel to a free surface and the magnetic field is perpendicular to that surface. For a particular twin microstructure, the torque decreases with increasing strain by a factor of six due to the mutual compensation of magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropy. When free rotation is suppressed such as in transducers of magneto-mechanical actuators, magnetic-field-induced torque creates strong bending forces, which may cause friction and failure under cyclic loading.

  19. Pelvic rotation torque during fast-pitch softball hitting under three ball height conditions.

    PubMed

    Iino, Yoichi; Fukushima, Atsushi; Kojima, Takeji

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of hip joint angles to the production of the pelvic rotation torque in fast-pitch softball hitting and to examine the effect of ball height on this production. Thirteen advanced female softball players hit stationary balls at three different heights: high, middle, and low. The pelvic rotation torque, defined as the torque acting on the pelvis through the hip joints about the pelvic superior-inferior axis, was determined from the kinematic and force plate data using inverse dynamics. Irrespective of the ball heights, the rear hip extension, rear hip external rotation, front hip adduction, and front hip flexion torques contributed to the production of pelvic rotation torque. Although the contributions of the adduction and external rotation torques at each hip joint were significantly different among the ball heights, the contributions of the front and rear hip joint torques were similar among the three ball heights owing to cancelation of the two torque components. The timings of the peaks of the hip joint torque components were significantly different, suggesting that softball hitters may need to adjust the timings of the torque exertions fairly precisely to rotate the upper body effectively.

  20. Gravitational torque on the inner core and decadal polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumberry, Mathieu

    2008-03-01

    A decadal polar motion with an amplitude of approximately 25 milliarcsecs (mas) is observed over the last century, a motion known as the Markowitz wobble. The origin of this motion remains unknown. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that a time-dependent axial misalignment between the density structures of the inner core and mantle can explain this signal. The longitudinal displacement of the inner core density structure leads to a change in the global moment of inertia of the Earth. In addition, as a result of the density misalignment, a gravitational equatorial torque leads to a tilt of the oblate geometric figure of the inner core, causing a further change in the global moment of inertia. To conserve angular momentum, an adjustment of the rotation vector must occur, leading to a polar motion. We develop theoretical expressions for the change in the moment of inertia and the gravitational torque in terms of the angle of longitudinal misalignment and the density structure of the mantle. A model to compute the polar motion in response to time-dependent axial inner core rotations is also presented. We show that the polar motion produced by this mechanism can be polarized about a longitudinal axis and is expected to have decadal periodicities, two general characteristics of the Markowitz wobble. The amplitude of the polar motion depends primarily on the Y12 spherical harmonic component of mantle density, on the longitudinal misalignment between the inner core and mantle, and on the bulk viscosity of the inner core. We establish constraints on the first two of these quantities from considerations of the axial component of this gravitational torque and from observed changes in length of day. These constraints suggest that the maximum polar motion from this mechanism is smaller than 1 mas, and too small to explain the Markowitz wobble.

  1. The effect of implant design and bone quality on insertion torque, resonance frequency analysis, and insertion energy during implant placement in low or low- to medium-density bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong-Mei; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Juo-Song; Lin, Li-Deh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of implant design and bone quality on insertion torque (IT), implant stability quotient (ISQ), and insertion energy (IE) by monitoring the continuous change in IT and ISQ while implants were inserted in artificial bone blocks that simulate bone of poor or poor-to-medium quality. Polyurethane foam blocks (Sawbones) of 0.16 g/cm³ and 0.32 g/cm³ were respectively used to simulate low density and low- to medium-density cancellous bone. In addition, some test blocks were laminated with a 1-mm 0.80 g/cm³ polyurethane layer to simulate cancellous bone with a thin cortical layer. Four different implants (Nobel Biocare Mk III-3.75, Mk III-4.0, Mk IV-4.0, and NobelActive-4.3) were placed into the different test blocks in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The IT and ISQ were recorded at every 0.5-mm of inserted length during implant insertion, and IE was calculated from the torque curve. The peak IT (PIT), final IT (FIT), IE, and final ISQ values were statistically analyzed. All implants showed increasing ISQ values when the implant was inserted more deeply. In contrast to the ISQ, implants with different designs showed dissimilar IT curve patterns during the insertion. All implants showed a significant increase in the PIT, FIT, IE, and ISQ when the test-block density increased or when the 1-mm laminated layer was present. Tapered implants showed FIT or PIT values of more than 40 Ncm for all of the laminated test blocks and for the nonlaminated test blocks of low to medium density. Parallel-wall implants did not exhibit PIT or FIT values of more than 40 Ncm for all of the test blocks. NobelActive-4.3 showed a significantly higher FIT, but a significantly lower IE, than Mk IV-4.0. While the existence of cortical bone or implant designs significantly affects the dynamic IT profiles during implant insertion, it does not affect the ISQ to a similar extent. Certain implant designs are more suitable than others if high IT is

  2. How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing-stance transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuliang; Wei, Shutao; Zhong, Yunjian; Fu, Weijie; Li, Li; Liu, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases.

  3. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  4. Torque Compensator for Mirror Mountings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Device nulls flexural distributions of pivotal torques. Magnetic compensator for flexing pivot torque consists of opposing fixed and movable magnet bars. Magnetic torque varies nonlinearly as function of angle of tilt of movable bar. Positions of fixed magnets changed to improve magnetic torque linearity.

  5. Influence of reverse torque values in abutments with or without internal hexagon indexes.

    PubMed

    Cerutti-Kopplin, Daiane; Rodrigues Neto, Dimas João; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical stability of the implant-abutment connection is of fundamental importance for successful implant-supported restorations. Therefore, understanding removal torque values is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reverse torque values of indexed and nonindexed abutments of the Morse Taper system. Twelve Morse taper implants with their respective abutments were divided into 2 groups (n=6): group NI, nonindexed abutments; and group IN, indexed abutments. Each abutment received a sequence of 2 consecutive torques for insertion (15 Ncm) at an interval of 10 minutes, and 1 reverse torque, all measured with a digital torque wrench. The Student t test with a 5% significance level was used to evaluate the data. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in reverse torque values between nonindexed and indexed abutments (P=.57). When comparing insertion torque and reverse torque values between the groups, group NI presented a mean torque loosening percentage of 8% (P=.013), whereas group IN presented a loosening of 15.33% (P<.001). The use of indexed abutments for the Morse taper system presented similar biomechanical stability when compared with nonindexed abutments, both with a significant reduction in reverse torque values. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting Swing–Stance Transition

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  7. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk-planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  8. Torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fgeppert, E.

    1984-09-01

    Mechanical means for sensing turning torque generated by the load forces in a rotary drive system is described. The sensing means is designed to operate with minimal effect on normal operation of the drive system. The invention can be employed in various drive systems, e.g., automotive engine-transmission power plants, electric motor-operated tools, and metal cutting machines. In such drive systems, the torque-sensing feature may be useful for actuation of various control devices, such as electric switches, mechanical clutches, brake actuators, fluid control valves, or audible alarms. The torque-sensing function can be used for safety overload relief, motor de-energization, engine fuel control transmission clutch actuation, remote alarm signal, tool breakage signal, etc.

  9. Assessment of the correlation between insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis of implants placed in bone tissue of different densities.

    PubMed

    Filho, Luiz Carlos Magno; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Hayashi, Fernando; Feng, Hsu Shao; Conte, Alexandre; Dib, Luciano Lauria; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2014-06-01

    The primary stability of dental implants is fundamental for osseointegration. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the correlation between insertion torque (IT) and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) of implants placed in mandibles and maxillas of different bone densities. Eighty dental implants were placed in maxillas and mandibles, and IT and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) were measured at the time of implant insertion. Bone density was assessed subjectively by the Lekholm and Zarb index. The type I and II densities were grouped together (group A)as were the type III and IV densities (group B). The IT in group A was higher (Student t test, P = .0013) than in group B (46.27 ± 18.51 Ncm, 33.62 ± 14.74 Ncm, respectively). The implants placed in group A showed higher ISQ (Student t test, P = .0004) than those placed in group B (70.09 ± 7.50, 63.66 ± 8.00, respectively). A significant correlation between IT and the ISQ value was observed for group A (Pearson correlation test; r = 0.35; P = .0213) and for group B (r = 0.37; P = .0224). Within the limitations of this study, it was possible to conclude that there is a correlation between IT and RFA of implants placed in mandibles and maxillas of different bone densities.

  10. Spin-torque diode frequency tuning via soft exchange pinning of both magnetic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudorozhkov, A. A.; Skirdkov, P. N.; Zvezdin, K. A.; Vetoshko, P. M.; Popkov, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    A spin-torque diode, which is a magnetic tunnel junction with magnetic layers softly pinned at some tilt to each other, is proposed. The resonance operating frequency of such a dual exchange-pinned spin-torque diode can be significantly higher (up to 9.5 GHz) than that of a traditional free layer spin-torque diode, and, at the same time, the sensitivity remains rather high. Using micromagnetic modeling we show that the maximum microwave sensitivity of the considered diode is reached at the bias current densities slightly below the self-sustained oscillations initiating. The dependence of the resonance frequency and the sensitivity on the angle between pinning exchange fields is presented. Thus, a way of designing spin-torque diode with a given resonance response frequency in the microwave region in the absence of an external magnetic field is proposed.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of oversized drilling technique on primary implant stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Fernández-González, Felipe J.; Chávarri-Prado, David; Chento-Valiente, Yelko; Solaberrieta, Eneko; Diéguez-Pereira, Markel; Yurrebaso-Asúa, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the influence of implant site preparation depth on primary stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Material and Methods Thirty-two implant sites were prepared in eight veal rib blocks. Sixteen sites were prepared using the conventional drilling sequence recommended by the manufacturer to a working depth of 10mm. The remaining 16 sites were prepared using an oversize drilling technique (overpreparation) to a working depth of 12mm. Bone density was determined using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). The implants were placed and primary stability was measured by two methods: insertion torque (Ncm), and RFA (implant stability quotient [ISQ]). Results The highest torque values were achieved by the conventional drilling technique (10mm). The ANOVA test confirmed that there was a significant correlation between torque and drilling depth (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were obtained between ISQ values at 10 or 12 mm drilling depths (p>0.05) at either measurement direction (cortical and medullar). No statistical relation between torque and ISQ values was identified, or between bone density and primary stability (p >0.05). Conclusions Vertical overpreparation of the implant bed will obtain lower insertion torque values, but does not produce statistically significant differences in ISQ values. Key words:Implant stability quotient, overdrilling, primary stability, resonance frequency analysis, torque. PMID:27398182

  12. Torques Induced by Scattered Pebble-flow in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Pessah, Martin E.

    2018-03-01

    Fast inward migration of planetary cores is a common problem in the current planet formation paradigm. Even though dust is ubiquitous in protoplanetary disks, its dynamical role in the migration history of planetary embryos has not been assessed. In this Letter, we show that the scattered pebble-flow induced by a low-mass planetary embryo leads to an asymmetric dust-density distribution that is able to exert a net torque. By analyzing a large suite of multifluid hydrodynamical simulations addressing the interaction between the disk and a low-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, and neglecting dust feedback onto the gas, we identify two different regimes, gas- and gravity-dominated, where the scattered pebble-flow results in almost all cases in positive torques. We collect our measurements in a first torque map for dusty disks, which will enable the incorporation of the effect of dust dynamics on migration into population synthesis models. Depending on the dust drift speed, the dust-to-gas mass ratio/distribution, and the embryo mass, the dust-induced torque has the potential to halt inward migration or even induce fast outward migration of planetary cores. We thus anticipate that dust-driven migration could play a dominant role during the formation history of planets. Because dust torques scale with disk metallicity, we propose that dust-driven outward migration may enhance the occurrence of distant giant planets in higher-metallicity systems.

  13. Effect of stripe height on the critical current density of spin-torque noise in a tunneling magnetoresistive read head with a low resistance area product below 1.0 Ω μm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yasushi, E-mail: endo@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Fan, Peng; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    To understand the spin-torque effect on the noise in tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) read heads, the GHz range noise spectra of TMR read heads with a narrow track width (w = 36 nm), and various stripe heights (h) are investigated as a function of the external magnetic field (H{sub ex}) and dc bias current density (j). The strong noise peak intensity depends on both H{sub ex} and j, indicating that the spin-torque affects the thermal mag-noise under a positive (negative) j for a positive (negative) H{sub ex}, regardless of h in the TMR heads. Due to the increased shape anisotropy, the critical current densitymore » (j{sub c}), where the non-thermal fluctuation noise originates from the spin-torque, increases markedly as the head dimension is reduced, and the maximum value of j{sub c} is approximately +1.5 × 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2} for a head with w = 36 nm and h = 15 nm. These results demonstrate that the non-thermal fluctuation noise originating from the spin-torque in the TMR head can be suppressed in the current density range below 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, as the head dimension is reduced and the shape anisotropy is increased.« less

  14. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - I. Static migration torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Gressel, Oliver; Lyra, Wladimir

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by models suggesting that the inner planet forming regions of protoplanetary discs are predominantly lacking in viscosity-inducing turbulence, and are possibly threaded by Hall-effect generated large-scale horizontal magnetic fields, we examine the dynamics of the corotation region of a low-mass planet in such an environment. The corotation torque in an inviscid, isothermal, dead zone ought to saturate, with the libration region becoming both symmetrical and of a uniform vortensity, leading to fast inward migration driven by the Lindblad torques alone. However, in such a low viscosity situation, the material on librating streamlines essentially preserves its vortensity. If there is relative radial motion between the disc gas and the planet, the librating streamlines will no longer be symmetrical. Hence, if the gas is torqued by a large-scale magnetic field so that it undergoes a net inflow or outflow past the planet, driving evolution of the vortensity and inducing asymmetry of the corotation region, the corotation torque can grow, leading to a positive torque. In this paper, we treat this effect by applying a symmetry argument to the previously studied case of a migrating planet in an inviscid disc. Our results show that the corotation torque due to a laminar Hall-induced magnetic field in a dead zone behaves quite differently from that studied previously for a viscous disc. Furthermore, the magnetic field induced corotation torque and the dynamical corotation torque in a low viscosity disc can be regarded as one unified effect.

  15. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  16. Two-Finger Tightness: What Is It? Measuring Torque and Reproducibility in a Simulated Model.

    PubMed

    Acker, William B; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J; Irwin, Todd A; Holmes, James R

    2016-05-01

    Residents in training are often directed to insert screws using "two-finger tightness" to impart adequate torque but minimize the chance of a screw stripping in bone. This study seeks to quantify and describe two-finger tightness and to assess the variability of its application by residents in training. Cortical bone was simulated using a polyurethane foam block (30-pcf density) that was prepared with predrilled holes for tightening 3.5 × 14-mm long cortical screws and mounted to a custom-built apparatus on a load cell to capture torque data. Thirty-three residents in training, ranging from the first through fifth years of residency, along with 8 staff members, were directed to tighten 6 screws to two-finger tightness in the test block, and peak torque values were recorded. The participants were blinded to their torque values. Stripping torque (2.73 ± 0.56 N·m) was determined from 36 trials and served as a threshold for failed screw placement. The average torques varied substantially with regard to absolute torque values, thus poorly defining two-finger tightness. Junior residents less consistently reproduced torque compared with other groups (0.29 and 0.32, respectively). These data quantify absolute values of two-finger tightness but demonstrate considerable variability in absolute torque values, percentage of stripping torque, and ability to consistently reproduce given torque levels. Increased years in training are weakly correlated with reproducibility, but experience does not seem to affect absolute torque levels. These results question the usefulness of two-finger tightness as a teaching tool and highlight the need for improvement in resident motor skill training and development within a teaching curriculum. Torque measuring devices may be a useful simulation tools for this purpose.

  17. Reduction of phase noise in nanowire spin orbit torque oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Verba, Roman; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Schneider, Tobias; Smith, Andrew; Duan, Zheng; Youngblood, Brian; Lenz, Kilian; Lindner, Jürgen; Slavin, Andrei N.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.

    2015-01-01

    Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are compact, tunable sources of microwave radiation that serve as a test bed for studies of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at the nanometer length scale. The spin torque in an STO can be created by spin-orbit interaction, but low spectral purity of the microwave signals generated by spin orbit torque oscillators hinders practical applications of these magnetic nanodevices. Here we demonstrate a method for decreasing the phase noise of spin orbit torque oscillators based on Pt/Ni80Fe20 nanowires. We experimentally demonstrate that tapering of the nanowire, which serves as the STO active region, significantly decreases the spectral linewidth of the generated signal. We explain the observed linewidth narrowing in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model. The model reveals that spatial non-uniformity of the spin current density in the tapered nanowire geometry hinders the excitation of higher order spin-wave modes, thus stabilizing the single-mode generation regime. This non-uniformity also generates a restoring force acting on the excited self-oscillatory mode, which reduces thermal fluctuations of the mode spatial position along the wire. Both these effects improve the STO spectral purity. PMID:26592432

  18. A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by torque sensors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-04-09

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  19. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  20. Effect of screw torque level on cortical bone pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Cleek, Tammy M; Reynolds, Karen J; Hearn, Trevor C

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were 2-fold: (1) to perform detailed analysis of cortical screw tightening stiffness during automated insertion, and (2) to determine the effect of 3 torque levels on the holding strength of the bone surrounding the screw threads as assessed by screw pullout. Ten pairs of ovine tibiae were used with 3 test sites spaced 20 mm apart centered along the shaft. One side of each pair was used for measuring ultimate failure torque (Tmax). These Tmax and bone-density values were used to predict Tmax at contralateral tibia sites. Screws were inserted and tightened to 50%, 70%, and 90% of predicted Tmax at the contralateral sites to encompass the average clinical level of torque (86% Tmax). Pullout tests were performed and maximum force values were normalized by cortical thickness. Torque to failure tests indicated tightening to 86% Tmax occurs after yield and leads to an average 51% loss in stiffness. Normalized pullout strength for screws tightened to 50% Tmax, 70% Tmax, and 90% Tmax were 2525 +/- 244, 2707 +/- 280, and 2344 +/- 346 N, respectively, with a significant difference between 70% Tmax and 90% Tmax groups (P < 0.05). Within the limitations of our study involving the testing of 1 type of screw purchase in ovine tibiae, results demonstrate that clinical levels of lag screw tightening (86% Tmax) are past the yield point of bone. Tightening to these high torque levels can cause damage leading to compromised holding strength. Further research is still required to establish the appropriate level of torque required for achieving optimal fracture fixation and healing.

  1. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind 2014 (TORQUE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Bak, Christian; Bechmann, Andreas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Dellwik, Ebba; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Giebel, Gregor; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Jensen, Dorte Juul; Larsen, Gunner; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Natarajan, Anand; Rathmann, Ole; Sathe, Ameya; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Nørkær Sørensen, Niels

    2014-06-01

    The 186 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the fifth Science of Making Torque from Wind conference, which is organized by the European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE, www.eawe.eu). The conference, also called Torque 2014, is held at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) 17-20 June 2014. The EAWE conference series started in 2004 in Delft, the Netherlands. In 2007 it was held in Copenhagen, in 2010 in Heraklion, Greece, and then in 2012 in Oldenburg, Germany. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown approximately by 25% annually over the last couple of decades and covers now 2-3% of the global electrical power consumption. In order to make a significant impact on one of the large challenges of our time, namely global warming, the growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research and education in wind turbine aerodynamics and wind resources, the two topics which are the main subjects of this conference. Similar to the growth in electrical power production by wind is the growth in scientific papers about wind energy. Over the last decade the number of papers has also grown by about 25% annually, and many research based companies all over the world are founded. Hence, the wind energy research community is rapidly expanding and the Torque conference series offers a good opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. We hope that the Torque 2014 will heighten the quality of the wind energy research, while the participants will enjoy each others company in Copenhagen. Many people have been involved in producing the Torque 2014 proceedings. The work by more than two hundred reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of sixteen ''section editors'' all from DTU Wind Energy: Christian Bak, Andreas Bechmann, Ferhat Bingöl, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolay Dimitrov, Gregor Giebel, Martin

  2. Cogging Torque Estimation of Permanent Magnet Motors Resulting from Magnetic Anisotropy of Non-oriented Electrical Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daikoku, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Shinichi; Toide, Yukari; Fujiwara, Koji; Takahashi, Norio

    This paper examines the cogging torque of permanent magnet motors resulting from the magnetic anisotropy of non-oriented steel sheets used for magnetic core. The cogging torque due to the magnetic anisotropy is calculated by FEM using two modeling methods; one is the newly developed method which takes account of the two-dimensional magnetic properties in arbitrary directions, and the other is the conventional method which uses only two magnetization curves both in rolling and transverse directions. In the proposed method, the measured magnetic properties are treated in two different ways; in the first way the data are used directly, and in the second way the data are interpolated using Bèzier surface. As a result, all of three models show the cogging torque component resulting from the magnetic anisotropy, that has less pulsation numbers per rotation than that of isotropic model. The difference of the cogging torque amplitude between the three models is small in the region of low magnetic flux density, however, it gradually becomes large along with the increase in magnetic flux density. The measured results of cogging torque is proximate to the results calculated by two-dimensional magnetic property method using the magnetic property data directly. The error is approximately 4% at the point where the cogging torque component resulting from the magnetic anisotropy is maximum.

  3. Low Handicap Golfers Generate More Torque at the Shoe-Natural Grass Interface When Using a Driver

    PubMed Central

    Worsfold, Paul; Smith, Neal A.; Dyson, Rosemary J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rotational torque occurring at the shoe-natural grass interface during golf swing performance with different clubs, and to determine the influence of handicap and golf shoe design. Twenty-four golfers (8 low 0-7; 8 medium 8-14; and 8 high 15+) performed 5 shots with a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron when 3 shoes were worn: a modern 8 mm metal 7-spike shoe, an alternative 7-spike shoe and a flat soled shoe. Torque was measured at the front and back foot by grass covered force platforms in an outdoor field. Torque at the shoe- natural turf interface was similar at the front foot when using a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron with maximum mean torque (Tzmax 17-19 Nm) and torque generation in the entire backswing and downswing approximately 40 Nm. At the back foot, torque was less than at the front foot when using the driver, 3-iron and 7-iron. At the back foot Tzmax was 6-7 Nm, and torque generation was 10-16 Nm, with a trend for greater torque generation when using the driver rather than the irons. The metal spike shoe allowed significantly more back foot torque generation when using a driver than a flat- soled shoe (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the metal and alternative spike shoes for any torque measure (p > 0.05), although back foot mean torques generated tended to be greater for the metal spike shoe. The golf shot outcomes were similar for low, medium and high handicappers in both metal and alternative spike shoes (metal: 87%; 76%; 54%; alternative: 85%; 74%; 54% respectively). The better, low handicap golfers generated significantly more back foot torque (metal spike: 18.2 Nm; alternative: 15.8 Nm; p < 0.05) when using a driver. Further research should consider back foot shoe-grass interface demands during driver usage by low handicap and lighter body-weight golfers. Key pointsShoe to natural turf torque generation is an important component in performing a golf swing with a driver club.Torque at the shoe to natural turf

  4. A model predictive current control of flux-switching permanent magnet machines for torque ripple minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wentao; Hua, Wei; Yu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Due to high airgap flux density generated by magnets and the special double salient structure, the cogging torque of the flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine is considerable, which limits the further applications. Based on the model predictive current control (MPCC) and the compensation control theory, a compensating-current MPCC (CC-MPCC) scheme is proposed and implemented to counteract the dominated components in cogging torque of an existing three-phase 12/10 FSPM prototyped machine, and thus to alleviate the influence of the cogging torque and improve the smoothness of electromagnetic torque as well as speed, where a comprehensive cost function is designed to evaluate the switching states. The simulated results indicate that the proposed CC-MPCC scheme can suppress the torque ripple significantly and offer satisfactory dynamic performances by comparisons with the conventional MPCC strategy. Finally, experimental results validate both the theoretical and simulated predictions.

  5. Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeill, D.; Stiehl, G. M.; Guimaraes, M. H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.; Park, J.; Ralph, D. C.

    2017-03-01

    Recent discoveries regarding current-induced spin-orbit torques produced by heavy-metal/ferromagnet and topological-insulator/ferromagnet bilayers provide the potential for dramatically improved efficiency in the manipulation of magnetic devices. However, in experiments performed to date, spin-orbit torques have an important limitation--the component of torque that can compensate magnetic damping is required by symmetry to lie within the device plane. This means that spin-orbit torques can drive the most current-efficient type of magnetic reversal (antidamping switching) only for magnetic devices with in-plane anisotropy, not the devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are needed for high-density applications. Here we show experimentally that this state of affairs is not fundamental, but rather one can change the allowed symmetries of spin-orbit torques in spin-source/ferromagnet bilayer devices by using a spin-source material with low crystalline symmetry. We use WTe2, a transition-metal dichalcogenide whose surface crystal structure has only one mirror plane and no two-fold rotational invariance. Consistent with these symmetries, we generate an out-of-plane antidamping torque when current is applied along a low-symmetry axis of WTe2/Permalloy bilayers, but not when current is applied along a high-symmetry axis. Controlling spin-orbit torques by crystal symmetries in multilayer samples provides a new strategy for optimizing future magnetic technologies.

  6. Influence of Joint Angle on EMG-Torque Model During Constant-Posture, Torque-Varying Contractions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Clancy, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Relating the electromyogram (EMG) to joint torque is useful in various application areas, including prosthesis control, ergonomics and clinical biomechanics. Limited study has related EMG to torque across varied joint angles, particularly when subjects performed force-varying contractions or when optimized modeling methods were utilized. We related the biceps-triceps surface EMG of 22 subjects to elbow torque at six joint angles (spanning 60° to 135°) during constant-posture, torque-varying contractions. Three nonlinear EMG σ -torque models, advanced EMG amplitude (EMG σ ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) and the duration of data used to train models were investigated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the six distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.01±1.2% MVC(F90) resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so achieved a statistically equivalent error of 4.06±1.2% MVC(F90). Results demonstrated that advanced EMG σ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation as do longer model training durations.

  7. Torques on Low-mass Bodies in Retrograde Orbit in Gaseous Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Chametla, Raúl O.; Santillán, A.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate the torque acting on a gravitational perturber on a retrograde circular orbit in the midplane of a gaseous disk. We assume that the mass of this satellite is so low that it weakly disturbs the disk (type I migration). The perturber may represent the companion of a binary system with a small mass ratio. We compare the results of hydrodynamical simulations with analytic predictions. Our 2D simulations indicate that the torque acting on a perturber with softening radius R soft can be accounted for by a scattering approach if {R}soft}< 0.3H, where H is defined as the ratio between the sound speed and the angular velocity at the orbital radius of the perturber. For R soft > 0.3H, the torque may present large and persistent oscillations, but the resultant time-averaged torque decreases rapidly with increasing R soft/H, in agreement with previous analytical studies. We then focus on the torque acting on small-size perturbers embedded in full 3D disks and argue that the density waves propagating at distances ≲H from the perturber contribute significantly to the torque because they transport angular momentum. We find a good agreement between the torque found in 3D simulations and analytical estimates based on ballistic orbits. We compare the radial migration timescales of prograde versus retrograde perturbers. For a certain range of the perturber’s mass and aspect ratio of the disk, the radial migration timescale in the retrograde case may be appreciably shorter than in the prograde case. We also provide the smoothing length required in 2D simulations in order to account for 3D effects.

  8. Propeller torque load and propeller shaft torque response correlation during ice-propeller interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polić, Dražen; Ehlers, Sören; Æsøy, Vilmar

    2017-03-01

    Ships use propulsion machinery systems to create directional thrust. Sailing in ice-covered waters involves the breaking of ice pieces and their submergence as the ship hull advances. Sometimes, submerged ice pieces interact with the propeller and cause irregular fluctuations of the torque load. As a result, the propeller and engine dynamics become imbalanced, and energy propagates through the propulsion machinery system until equilibrium is reached. In such imbalanced situations, the measured propeller shaft torque response is not equal to the propeller torque. Therefore, in this work, the overall system response is simulated under the ice-related torque load using the Bond graph model. The energy difference between the propeller and propeller shaft is estimated and related to their corresponding mechanical energy. Additionally, the mechanical energy is distributed among modes. Based on the distribution, kinetic and potential energy are important for the correlation between propeller torque and propeller shaft response.

  9. Primary stability and self-tapping blades: biomechanical assessment of dental implants in medium-density bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yung-Soo; Lim, Young-Jun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the influence of self-tapping blades in terms of primary implant stability between implants with self-tapping blades and implants without self-tapping blades using five different analytic methods, especially in medium-density bone. Two different types of dental implants (4 × 10 mm) were tested: self-tapping and non-self-tapping. The fixture design including thread profiles was exactly the same between the two groups; the only difference was the presence of cutting blades on one half of the apical portion of the implant body. Solid rigid polyurethane blocks with corresponding densities were selected to simulate medium-density bone. Five mechanical assessments (insertion torque, resonance frequency analysis [RFA], reverse torque, pull-out and push in test) were performed for primary stability. Implants without self-tapping blades showed significantly higher values (P<0.001) in four biomechanical assessments, except RFA (P=0.684). However, a statistically significant correlation could not be detected between insertion torque values with the four different outcome variables (P>0.05). The outcomes of the present study indicate that the implant body design without self-tapping blades has a good primary stability compared with that with self-tapping blades in medium-density bone. Considering the RFA, a distinct layer of cortical bone on marginal bone will yield implant stability quotient values similar to those in medium-bone density when implants have the same diameter. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Installation Torque Tables for Noncritical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera-Rosario, Hazel T.; Powell, Joseph S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project is to define torque values for bolts and screws when loading is not a concern. Fasteners require a certain torque to fulfill its function and prevent failure. NASA Glenn Research Center did not have a set of fastener torque tables for non-critical applications without loads, usually referring to hand-tight or wrench-tight torqueing. The project is based on two formulas, torque and pullout load. Torque values are calculated giving way to preliminary data tables. Testing is done to various bolts and metal plates, torqueing them until the point of failure. Around 640 torque tables were developed for UNC, UNF, and M fasteners. Different lengths of thread engagement were analyzed for the 5 most common materials used at GRC. The tables were put together in an Excel spreadsheet and then formatted into a Word document. The plan is to later convert this to an official technical publication or memorandum.

  11. Explosive sport training and torque kinetics in children.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Raffy; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cohen, Rotem; Gabriel, David; Klentrou, Panagiota; Falk, Bareket

    2013-07-01

    A high rate of force development (RFD) is often more important than maximal force in daily and sports activities. In children, resistance training has been shown to increase maximal force. It is unclear whether, or to what extent, can children improve RFD and force kinetics. For this study, we compared strength and force kinetics of boy gymnasts with those of untrained boys and untrained men. Eight boy gymnasts (age, 9.5 ± 1.2 y), 20 untrained boys (age, 10.1 ± 1.3 y), and 20 untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.4 y) performed maximal, explosive, isometric elbow flexions (EF) and knee flexions (KF). Peak torque (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)), elapsed times to 10%-100% MVC, peak rate of torque development (RTDpk), and other kinetics parameters were determined. When gymnasts were compared with untrained boys, size-normalized EF MVC was 11%-20% higher, RTDpk was 32% higher, and times to 30% and 80% MVC were 16% and 55% shorter, respectively (p < 0.05). No corresponding differences were observed in KF. Furthermore, although the normalized EF MVC was 28% lower in gymnasts than in men (p < 0.001), their torque kinetics parameters were similar. These findings highlight the specificity of gymnastics training, which markedly elevated the torque kinetics of young, prepubertal boys to adult levels, but only moderately affected peak torque. It is suggested that neurologic adaptations, such as enhanced firing and activation rates or increased type II motor-unit recruitment, as well as changes in musculotendinous stiffness, could explain these findings.

  12. The flagellar motor of Caulobacter crescentus generates more torque when a cell swims backward

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Pushkar P.; Roland, Thibault; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Chen, Yihao; Berg, Howard C.

    2016-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus, a monotrichous bacterium, swims by rotating a single right-handed helical filament. CW motor rotation thrusts the cell forward 1, a mode of motility known as the pusher mode; CCW motor rotation pulls the cell backward, a mode of motility referred to as the puller mode 2. The situation is opposite in E. coli, a peritrichous bacterium, where CCW rotation of multiple left-handed filaments drives the cell forward. The flagellar motor in E. coli generates more torque in the CCW direction than the CW direction in swimming cells 3,4. However, monotrichous bacteria including C. crescentus swim forward and backward at similar speeds, prompting the assumption that motor torques in the two modes are the same 5,6. Here, we present evidence that motors in C. crescentus develop higher torques in the puller mode than in the pusher mode, and suggest that the anisotropy in torque-generation is similar in two species, despite the differences in filament handedness and motor bias (probability of CW rotation). PMID:27499800

  13. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...

  14. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...

  15. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...

  16. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...

  17. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...

  18. Enhanced spin-torque in double tunnel junctions using a nonmagnetic-metal spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. H.; Cheng, Y. H.; Ko, C. W.

    2015-10-12

    This study proposes an enhancement in the spin-transfer torque of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) designed with double-barrier layer structure using a nonmagnetic metal spacer, as a replacement for the ferromagnetic material, which is traditionally used in these double-barrier stacks. Our calculation results show that the spin-transfer torque and charge current density of the proposed double-barrier MTJ can be as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the traditional double-barrier one. In other words, the proposed double-barrier MTJ has a spin-transfer torque that is three orders larger than that of the single-barrier stack. This improvement may be attributed tomore » the quantum-well states that are formed in the nonmagnetic metal spacer and the resonant tunneling mechanism that exists throughout the system.« less

  19. Pressurized fluid torque driver control and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  20. Estimation of critical end-test torque using neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps in humans.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Natalie R; Hight, Robert E; Patel, Darshit S; Campbell, Jason A; Larson, Rebecca D; Black, Christopher D

    2018-05-02

    Characterization of critical power/torque (CP/CT) during voluntary exercise requires maximal effort, making difficult for those with neuromuscular impairments. To address this issue we sought to determine if electrically stimulated intermittent isometric exercise resulted in a critical end-test torque (ETT) that behaved similar to voluntary CT. In the first experiment participants (n = 9) completed four bouts of stimulated exercise at a 3:2 duty cycle, at frequencies of 100, 50, 25 Hz, and a low frequency below ETT (Sub-ETT; ≤ 15 Hz). The second experiment (n = 20) consisted of four bouts at a 2:2 duty cycle-two bouts at 100 Hz, one at an intermediate frequency (15-30 Hz), and one at Sub-ETT. The third experiment (n = 12) consisted of two bouts at 50 Hz at a 3:2 duty* cycle with proximal blood flow occlusion during one of the bouts. ETT torque was similar (p ≥ 0.43) within and among stimulation frequencies in experiment 1. No fatigue was observed during the Sub-ETT bouts (p > 0.05). For experiment 2, ETT was similar at 100 Hz and at the intermediate frequency (p ≥ 0.29). Again, Sub-ETT stimulation did not result in fatigue (p > 0.05). Altering oxygen delivery by altering the duty cycle (3:2 vs. 2:2; p = 0.02) and by occlusion (p < 0.001) resulted in lower ETT values. Stimulated exercise resulted in an ETT that was consistent from day-to-day and similar regardless of initial torque, as long as that torque exceeded ETT, and was sensitive to oxygen delivery. As such we propose it represents a parameter similar to voluntary CT.

  1. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

  2. Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

    2011-10-01

    When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

  3. Implant Insertion Torque: Its Role in Achieving Primary Stability of Restorable Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Gary; Cavallaro, John

    2017-02-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the role of insertion torque in attaining primary stability of dental implants. The review is comprised of articles that discussed the amount of torque needed to achieve primary implant stability in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets prior to immediate implant loading. Studies were appraised that addressed the effects of minimum and maximum forces that can be used to successfully place implants. The minimum torque that can be employed to attain primary stability is undefined. Forces ≥30 Ncm are routinely used to place implants into healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets prior to immediate loading of implants. Increased insertion torque (≥50 Ncm) reduces micromotion and does not appear to damage bone. In general, the healing process after implant insertion provides a degree of biologic stability that is similar whether implants are placed with high or low initial insertion torque. Primary stability is desirable when placing implants, but the absence of micromotion is what facilitates predictable implant osseointegration. Increased insertion torque helps achieve primary stability by reducing implant micromotion. Furthermore, tactile information provided by the first surgical twist drill can aid in selecting the initial insertion torque to achieve predictable stability of inserted dental implants.

  4. Superconductor-Magnet Bearings With Inherent Stability and Velocity-Independent Drag Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Ma, Ki Bui; Wilson, Thomas L.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid superconductor magnet bearing system has been developed based on passive magnetic levitation and the flux pinning effect of high-temperature superconductivity. The rationale lies in the unique capability of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) to enhance system stability passively without power consumption. Characterization experiments have been conducted to understand its dynamic behavior and to estimate the required motor torque for its driving system design. These experiments show that the hybrid HTS-magnet bearing system has a periodic oscillation of drag torque due mainly to the nonuniform magnetic field density of permanent magnets. Furthermore, such a system also suffers from a small superimposed periodic oscillation introduced by the use of multiple HTS disks rather than a uniform annulus of HTS material. The magnitude of drag torque is velocity independent and very small. These results make this bearing system appealing for high-speed application. Finally, design guidelines for superconducting bearing systems are suggested based on these experimental results.

  5. Charge-induced spin torque in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayashi, Daichi; Nomura, Kentaro

    In this work, we present phenomenological and microscopic derivations of spin torques in magnetically doped Weyl semimetals. As a result, we obtain the analytical expression of the spin torque generated, without a flowing current, when the chemical potential is modulated. We also find that this spin torque is a direct consequence of the chiral anomaly. Therefore, observing this spin torque in magnetic Weyl semimetals might be an experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly. This spin torque has also a great advantage in application. In contrast to conventional current-induced spin torques such as the spin-transfer torques, this spin torque does not accompany a constant current flow. Thus, devices using this operating principle is free from the Joule heating and possibly have higher efficiency than devices using conventional current-induced spin torques. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H05854 and JP26400308.

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of new torque-controlled endodontic motors and low-torque NiTi rotary instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G

    2001-12-01

    The main problem with the NiTi rotary instrumentation technique is instrument failure. During shaping procedures, rotary instruments might lock and/or screw into canals and, consequently, be subjected to high levels of stress. This may frequently lead to instrument separation or deformation. If a high-torque motor is used, the applied forces are usually very high and the instrument-fracture limit is often exceeded, thus increasing the risk of intracanal failure. A possible solution of this problem is to use a low-torque endodontic motor, which operates below the maximum permissible torque limit of each and every rotary instrument. During clinical instrumentation of root canals, if a torque-controlled motor is loaded right up to the instrument-specific torque, the motor stops momentarily and/or starts rotating counter-clockwise (auto-reverse function) to disengage the locked instrument. These safety mechanisms were developed to reduce the risk of instrument fracture. The author fully discusses the rationale for selecting lower torque values in everyday endodontic practice, and provides clinicians with useful information on the advantages and disadvantages of new endodontic motors with torque control.

  7. Pullout strength of cancellous screws in human femoral heads depends on applied insertion torque, trabecular bone microarchitecture and areal bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Ab-Lazid, Rosidah; Perilli, Egon; Ryan, Melissa K; Costi, John J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-12-01

    For cancellous bone screws, the respective roles of the applied insertion torque (TInsert) and of the quality of the host bone (microarchitecture, areal bone mineral density (aBMD)), in contributing to the mechanical holding strength of the bone-screw construct (FPullout), are still unclear. During orthopaedic surgery screws are tightened, typically manually, until adequate compression is attained, depending on surgeons' manual feel. This corresponds to a subjective insertion torque control, and can lead to variable levels of tightening, including screw stripping. The aim of this study, performed on cancellous screws inserted in human femoral heads, was to investigate which, among the measurements of aBMD, bone microarchitecture, and the applied TInsert, has the strongest correlation with FPullout. Forty six femoral heads were obtained, over which microarchitecture and aBMD were evaluated using micro-computed tomography and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Using an automated micro-mechanical test device, a cancellous screw was inserted in the femoral heads at TInsert set to 55% to 99% of the predicted stripping torque beyond screw head contact, after which FPullout was measured. FPullout exhibited strongest correlations with TInsert (R=0.88, p<0.001), followed by structure model index (SMI, R=-0.81, p<0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R=0.73, p<0.001) and aBMD (R=0.66, p<0.01). Combinations of TInsert with microarchitectural parameters and/or aBMD did not improve the prediction of FPullout. These results indicate that, for cancellous screws, FPullout depends most strongly on the applied TInsert, followed by microarchitecture and aBMD of the host bone. In trabecular bone, screw tightening increases the holding strength of the screw-bone construct. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of aging on the isometric torque sharing patterns among the plantar flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Liliam F; Verneque, Debora; Menegaldo, Luciano L

    2017-01-01

    Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) reduction of the triceps surae (TS) muscles during aging suggests a proportional loss of torque among its components: soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemii. However, direct measurements of muscle forces in vivo are not feasible. The purpose of this paper was to compare, between older and young women, isometric ankle joint torque sharing patterns among TS muscles and tibialis anterior (TA). An EMG-driven model was used for estimating individual muscle torque contributions to the total plantar flexor torque, during sustained contractions of 10% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Relative individual muscle contributions to the total plantar flexion torque were similar between older and young women groups, for both intensities, increasing from LG, MG to SOL. Muscle strength (muscle torque/body mass) was significantly greater for all TS components in 40% MVC contractions. Increased TA activation was observed in 10% of MVC for older people. Despite the reduced maximum isometric torque and muscle strength, the results suggest small variations of ankle muscle synergies during the aging process.

  9. An Alternative Approach to ``Measuring Horsepower and Torque Curves of a Car''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Chris M.

    2005-09-01

    The article in the September 2003 issue of TPT by John Ross Buschert of Goshen College entitled "Measuring Horsepower and Torque Curves of a Car" was excellent. I attained similar results using existing automobile test data. Automobile performance tests done by magazines such as Road & Track are a treasure trove of good-quality physics data. Performance tests often contain all the data needed to replicate Professor Buschert's analysis of the power and torque output of automobile engines.

  10. Heat generation during implant placement in low-density bone: effect of surgical technique, insertion torque and implant macro design.

    PubMed

    Marković, Aleksa; Mišić, Tijana; Miličić, Biljana; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Aleksić, Zoran; Ðinić, Ana

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of surgical technique, implant macrodesign and insertion torque on bone temperature changes during implant placement. In the in vitro study, 144 self-tapping (blueSKY(®) 4 × 10 mm; Bredent) and 144 non-self-tapping (Standard implant(®) 4.1 × 10 mm; Straumann) were placed in osteotomies prepared in pig ribs by lateral bone condensing or bone drilling techniques. The maximum insertion torque values of 30, 35 and 40 Ncm were used. Real-time bone temperature measurement during implant placement was performed by three thermocouples positioned vertically, in tripod configuration around every osteotomy, at a distance of 5 mm from it and at depths of 1, 5 and 10 mm. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-tests and Regression analysis. Significant predictor of bone temperature at the osteotomy depth of 1 mm was insertion torque (P = 0.003) and at the depth of 10-mm implant macrodesign (P = 0.029), while no significant predictor at depth of 5 mm was identified (P > 0.05). Higher insertion torque values as well as non-self-tapping implant macrodesign were related to higher temperatures. Implant placement in sites prepared by bone drilling induced significantly higher temperature increase (P = 0.021) compared with bone condensing sites at the depth of 5 mm, while no significant difference was recorded at other depths. Compared with 30 Ncm, insertion torque values of 35 and 40 Ncm produced significantly higher temperature increase (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively) at the depth of 1 mm. There was no significant difference in temperature change induced by 35 and 40 Ncm, neither by implant macrodesign at all investigated depths (P > 0.05). Placement of self-tapping implants with low insertion torque into sites prepared by lateral bone condensing technique might be advantageous in terms of thermal effect on bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. EDITORIAL: Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2011-09-01

    This cluster, consisting of five invited articles on spin-transfer torque, offers the very first review covering both magnetization reversal and domain-wall displacement induced by a spin-polarized current. Since the first theoretical proposal on spin-transfer torque—reported by Berger and Slonczewski independently—spin-transfer torque has been experimentally demonstrated in both vertical magnetoresistive nano-pillars and lateral ferromagnetic nano-wires. In the former structures, an electrical current flowing vertically in the nano-pillar exerts spin torque onto the thinner ferromagnetic layer and reverses its magnetization, i.e., current-induced magnetization switching. In the latter structures, an electrical current flowing laterally in the nano-wire exerts torque onto a domain wall and moves its position by rotating local magnetic moments within the wall, i.e., domain wall displacement. Even though both phenomena are induced by spin-transfer torque, each phenomenon has been investigated separately. In order to understand the physical meaning of spin torque in a broader context, this cluster overviews both cases from theoretical modellings to experimental demonstrations. The earlier articles in this cluster focus on current-induced magnetization switching. The magnetization dynamics during the reversal has been calculated by Kim et al using the conventional Landau--Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, adding a spin-torque term. This model can explain the dynamics in both spin-valves and magnetic tunnel junctions in a nano-pillar form. This phenomenon has been experimentally measured in these junctions consisting of conventional ferromagnets. In the following experimental part, the nano-pillar junctions with perpendicularly magnetized FePt and half-metallic Heusler alloys are discussed from the viewpoint of efficient magnetization reversal due to a high degree of spin polarization of the current induced by the intrinsic nature of these alloys. Such switching can

  12. Spin-transfer torque switched magnetic tunnel junctions in magnetic random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jonathan Z.

    2016-10-01

    Spin-transfer torque (or spin-torque, or STT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is at the heart of a new generation of magnetism-based solid-state memory, the so-called spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory, or STT-MRAM. Over the past decades, STT-based switchable magnetic tunnel junction has seen progress on many fronts, including the discovery of (001) MgO as the most favored tunnel barrier, which together with (bcc) Fe or FeCo alloy are yielding best demonstrated tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR); the development of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin CoFeB-type of thin films sufficient to support high density memories with junction sizes demonstrated down to 11nm in diameter; and record-low spin-torque switching threshold current, giving best reported switching efficiency over 5 kBT/μA. Here we review the basic device properties focusing on the perpendicularly magnetized MTJs, both in terms of switching efficiency as measured by sub-threshold, quasi-static methods, and of switching speed at super-threshold, forced switching. We focus on device behaviors important for memory applications that are rooted in fundamental device physics, which highlights the trade-off of device parameters for best suitable system integration.

  13. Development of an ankle torque measurement device for measuring ankle torque during walking.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Genichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Mizuno, Shiho; Maeda, Hirofumi; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Orand, Abbas; Takeda, Kotaro; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To develop a device for measuring the torque of an ankle joint during walking in order to quantify the characteristics of spasticity of the ankle and to verify the functionality of the device by testing it on the gait of an able-bodied individual and an equinovarus patient. [Subjects and Methods] An adjustable posterior strut (APS) ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) was used in which two torque sensors were mounted on the aluminum strut for measuring the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Two switches were also mounted at the heel and toe in order to detect the gait phase. An able-bodied individual and a left hemiplegic patient with equinovarus participated. They wore the device and walked on a treadmill to investigate the device's functionality. [Results] Linear relationships between the torques and the corresponding output of the torque sensors were observed. Upon the analyses of gait of an able-body subject and a hemiplegic patient, we observed toque matrices in both AP and ML directions during the gait of the both subjects. [Conclusion] We developed a device capable of measuring the torque in the AP and ML directions of ankle joints during gait.

  14. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  15. Passive and active floating torque during swimming.

    PubMed

    Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of passive underwater torque on active body angle with the horizontal during front crawl swimming and to assess the effect of body size on passive torque and active body angle. Additionally, the effects of passive torque, body angle and hydrostatic lift on maximal sprinting performance were addressed. Ten boys [aged 11.7 (0.8) years] and 12 male adult [aged 21.4 (3.7) years] swimmers volunteered to participate. Their body angle with the horizontal was measured at maximal velocity, and at two submaximal velocities using an underwater video camera system. Passive torque and hydrostatic lift were measured during an underwater weighing procedure, and the center of mass and center of volume were determined. The results showed that passive torque correlated significantly with the body angle at a velocity 63% of v(max) ( alpha(63) r=-0.57), and that size-normalized passive torque correlated significantly with the alpha(63) and alpha(77) (77% of v(max)) with r=-0.59 and r=-0.54 respectively. Hydrostatic lift correlated with alpha(63) with r=-0.45. The negative correlation coefficients are suggested to be due to the adults having learned to overcome passive torque when swimming at submaximal velocities by correcting their body angle. It is concluded that at higher velocities the passive torque and hydrostatic lift do not influence body angle during swimming. At a velocity of 63% of v(max), hydrostatic lift and passive torque influences body angle. Passive torque and size-normalized passive torque increases with body size. When corrected for body size, hydrostatic lift and passive torque did not influence the maximal sprinting velocity.

  16. Improved Force-And-Torque Sensor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Improved sensor assembly measures forces and torques of interaction between supporting and supported object. Measures all three components of force and all three components of torque. Force measurements uncoupled from torque measurements. Price for improved measurement capability, complexity and flexibility, excessive in some applications.

  17. High and low torque handpieces: cutting dynamics, enamel cracking and tooth temperature.

    PubMed

    Watson, T F; Flanagan, D; Stone, D G

    2000-06-24

    The aim of these experiments was to compare the cutting dynamics of high-speed high-torque (speed-increasing) and high-speed low-torque (air-turbine) handpieces and evaluate the effect of handpiece torque and bur type on sub-surface enamel cracking. Temperature changes were also recorded in teeth during cavity preparation with high and low torque handpieces with diamond and tungsten carbide (TC) burs. The null hypothesis of this study was that high torque handpieces cause more damage to tooth structure during cutting and lead to a rise in temperature within the pulp-chamber. Images of the dynamic interactions between burs and enamel were recorded at video rate using a confocal microscope. Central incisors were mounted on a specially made servomotor driven stage for cutting with a type 57 TC bur. The two handpiece types were used with simultaneous recording of cutting load and rate. Sub-surface enamel cracking caused by the use of diamond and TC burs with high and low torque was also examined. Lower third molars were sectioned horizontally to remove the cusp tips and then the two remaining crowns cemented together with cyanoacrylate adhesive, by their flat surfaces. Axial surfaces of the crowns were then prepared with the burs and handpieces. The teeth were then separated and the original sectioned surface examined for any cracks using a confocal microscope. Heat generation was measured using thermocouples placed into the pulp chambers of extracted premolars, with diamond and TC burs/high-low torque handpiece variables, when cutting occlusal and cervical cavities. When lightly loaded the two handpiece types performed similarly. However, marked differences in cutting mechanisms were noted when increased forces were applied to the handpieces with, generally, an increase in cutting rate. The air turbine could not cope with steady heavy loads, tending to stall. 'Rippling' was seen in the interface as this stall developed, coinciding with the bur 'clearing' itself. No

  18. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  19. EMG Versus Torque Control of Human-Machine Systems: Equalizing Control Signal Variability Does not Equalize Error or Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reva E; Kording, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors. Second, we quantified uncertainty by measuring the just-noticeable difference of a visual perturbation. We found that for equal errors, EMG resulted in higher movement uncertainty than both torque and torque+noise. The differences suggest that performance and confidence are influenced by more than just the noisiness of the control signal, and suggest that other factors, such as the user's ability to incorporate feedback and develop accurate internal models, also have significant impacts on the performance and confidence of a person's actions. We theorize that users have difficulty distinguishing between random and systematic errors for EMG control, and future work should examine in more detail the types of errors made with EMG control.

  20. Calibration of the optical torque wrench.

    PubMed

    Pedaci, Francesco; Huang, Zhuangxiong; van Oene, Maarten; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-02-13

    The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique that expands the capability of standard optical tweezers to torque manipulation and measurement, using the laser linear polarization to orient tailored microscopic birefringent particles. The ability to measure torque of the order of kBT (∼4 pN nm) is especially important in the study of biophysical systems at the molecular and cellular level. Quantitative torque measurements rely on an accurate calibration of the instrument. Here we describe and implement a set of calibration approaches for the optical torque wrench, including methods that have direct analogs in linear optical tweezers as well as introducing others that are specifically developed for the angular variables. We compare the different methods, analyze their differences, and make recommendations regarding their implementations.

  1. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

  2. Development of a Portable Torque Wrench Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Gou, C.; Su, D.

    2018-03-01

    A portable torque wrench tester (PTWT) with calibration range from 0.5 Nm to 60 Nm has been developed and evaluated for periodic or on-site calibration of setting type torque wrenches, indicating type torque wrenches and hand torque screwdrivers. The PTWT is easy to carry with weight about 10 kg, simple and efficient operation and energy saving with an automatic loading and calibrating system. The relative expanded uncertainty of torque realized by the PTWT was estimated to be 0.8%, with the coverage factor k=2. A comparison experiment has been done between the PTWT and a reference torque standard at our laboratory. The consistency between these two devices under the claimed uncertainties was verified.

  3. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  4. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  5. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  6. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  7. Spin Transfer torques in Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaoui, Hamed; Waintal, Xavier; Manchon, Aurelien; Spsms, Cea, Grenoble France Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Spin Transfer Torque (STT) has attracted tremendously growing interest in the past two decades. Consisting on the transfer of spin angular momentum of a spin polarized current to local magnetic moments, the STT gives rise to a complex dynamics of the magnetization. Depending on the the structure, the STT shows a dominated In plane component for spin valves, whereas both components coexist for magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ). For latter case the symmetry of the structure is considered to be decisive in identifying the nature and behavior of the torque. In the present study we are interested in magnetic structures where we substitute either one or both of the magnetic layers by antiferromagnets (AF). We use Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism applied on a tight-binding model to investigate the nature of the spin torque. We notice the presence of two types of torque exerted on (AF), a torque which tends to rotate the order parameter and another one that competes with the exchange interaction. We conclude by comparison with previous works.

  8. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  9. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...

  10. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...

  11. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...

  12. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...

  13. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...

  14. Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects. PMID:21359137

  15. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  16. Force, torque, linear momentum, and angular momentum in classical electr odynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2017-10-01

    The classical theory of electrodynamics is built upon Maxwell's equations and the concepts of electromagnetic (EM) field, force, energy, and momentum, which are intimately tied together by Poynting's theorem and by the Lorentz force law. Whereas Maxwell's equations relate the fields to their material sources, Poynting's theorem governs the flow of EM energy and its exchange between fields and material media, while the Lorentz law regulates the back-and-forth transfer of momentum between the media and the fields. An alternative force law, first proposed by Einstein and Laub, exists that is consistent with Maxwell's equations and complies with the conservation laws as well as with the requirements of special relativity. While the Lorentz law requires the introduction of hidden energy and hidden momentum in situations where an electric field acts on a magnetized medium, the Einstein-Laub (E-L) formulation of EM force and torque does not invoke hidden entities under such circumstances. Moreover, total force/torque exerted by EM fields on any given object turns out to be independent of whether the density of force/torque is evaluated using the law of Lorentz or that of Einstein and Laub. Hidden entities aside, the two formulations differ only in their predicted force and torque distributions inside matter. Such differences in distribution are occasionally measurable, and could serve as a guide in deciding which formulation, if either, corresponds to physical reality.

  17. Angular dependent torque measurements on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Gao, B.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    2016-08-01

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF (Ca1 1 1 1) single crystals. In the normal state, the torque data shows \\sin 2θ angular dependence and H 2 magnetic field dependence, as a result of paramagnetism. In the mixed state, the torque signal is a combination of the vortex torque and paramagnetic torque, and the former allows the determination of the anisotropy parameter γ. At T   =  11.5 K, γ (11.5 K ≃ 0.5 T c)  =  19.1, which is similar to the result of SmFeAsO0.8F0.2, γ ≃ 23 at T≃ 0.4{{T}\\text{c}} . So the 11 1 1 is more anisotropic compared to 11 and 122 families of iron-based superconductors. This may suggest that the electronic coupling between layers in 1 1 1 1 is less effective than in 11 and 122 families.

  18. The Spin Torque Lego - from spin torque nano-devices to advanced computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grollier, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Spin transfer torque (STT), predicted in 1996, and first observed around 2000, brought spintronic devices to the realm of active elements. A whole class of new devices, based on the combined effects of STT for writing and Giant Magneto-Resistance or Tunnel Magneto-Resistance for reading has emerged. The second generation of MRAMs, based on spin torque writing : the STT-RAM, is under industrial development and should be out on the market in three years. But spin torque devices are not limited to binary memories. We will rapidly present how the spin torque effect also allows to implement non-linear nano-oscillators, spin-wave emitters, controlled stochastic devices and microwave nano-detectors. What is extremely interesting is that all these functionalities can be obtained using the same materials, the exact same stack, simply by changing the device geometry and its bias conditions. So these different devices can be seen as Lego bricks, each brick with its own functionality. During this talk, I will show how spin torque can be engineered to build new bricks, such as the Spintronic Memristor, an artificial magnetic nano-synapse. I will then give hints on how to assemble these bricks in order to build novel types of computing architectures, with a special focus on neuromorphic circuits. Financial support by the European Research Council Starting Grant NanoBrain (ERC 2010 Stg 259068) is acknowledged.

  19. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  20. History dependence of the EMG-torque relationship.

    PubMed

    Paquin, James; Power, Geoffrey A

    2018-05-28

    The influence of active lengthening (residual force enhancement: RFE) and shortening (force depression: FD) on the electromyography (EMG)-torque relationship was investigated by matching torque and activation at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Sixteen males performed lengthening and shortening contractions of the dorsiflexors over 25° into an isometric steady-state. There was 5% greater torque, with no change in agonist EMG during the RFE condition as compared to the isometric condition. Sub-maximally, in the force enhanced state, there was less agonist EMG during the torque clamp at all intensities relative to isometric, and greater torque during the activation clamps relative to isometric was observed across all intensities except 20% MVC. During the FD state compared to isometric, there was less torque produced during MVC (∼15%) with no change in agonist EMG. Sub-maximally, in the FD state, there was greater agonist EMG during the torque clamp and less torque during the activation clamp relative to the isometric condition across all intensities. The EMG-torque relationship was bilinear for all contraction types but was shifted to the left and right for FD and RFE, respectively as compared with isometric, indicating altered neuromuscular activation strategies in the history-dependent states of RFE and FD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Alternative Determination of Density of the Titan Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan; Brown, Jay; Feldman, Antonette; Peer, Scott; Wamg. Eric

    2009-01-01

    An alternative has been developed to direct measurement for determining the density of the atmosphere of the Saturn moon Titan as a function of altitude. The basic idea is to deduce the density versus altitude from telemetric data indicative of the effects of aerodynamic torques on the attitude of the Cassini Saturn orbiter spacecraft as it flies past Titan at various altitudes. The Cassini onboard attitude-control software includes a component that can estimate three external per-axis torques exerted on the spacecraft. These estimates are available via telemetry.

  2. EMG-Torque Dynamics Change With Contraction Bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Mahsa A; Jalaleddini, Kian; Kearney, Robert E

    2018-04-01

    An accurate model for ElectroMyoGram (EMG)-torque dynamics has many uses. One of its applications which has gained high attention among researchers is its use, in estimating the muscle contraction level for the efficient control of prosthesis. In this paper, the dynamic relationship between the surface EMG and torque during isometric contractions at the human ankle was studied using system identification techniques. Subjects voluntarily modulated their ankle torque in dorsiflexion direction, by activating their tibialis anterior muscle, while tracking a pseudo-random binary sequence in a torque matching task. The effects of contraction bandwidth, described by torque spectrum, on EMG-torque dynamics were evaluated by varying the visual command switching time. Nonparametric impulse response functions (IRF) were estimated between the processed surface EMG and torque. It was demonstrated that: 1) at low contraction bandwidths, the identified IRFs had unphysiological anticipatory (i.e., non-causal) components, whose amplitude decreased as the contraction bandwidth increased. We hypothesized that this non-causal behavior arose, because the EMG input contained a component due to feedback from the output torque, i.e., it was recorded from within a closed-loop. Vision was not the feedback source since the non-causal behavior persisted when visual feedback was removed. Repeating the identification using a nonparametric closed-loop identification algorithm yielded causal IRFs at all bandwidths, supporting this hypothesis. 2) EMG-torque dynamics became faster and the bandwidth of system increased as contraction modulation rate increased. Thus, accurate prediction of torque from EMG signals must take into account the contraction bandwidth sensitivity of this system.

  3. Biomechanical measurements of stopping and stripping torques during screw insertion in five types of human and artificial humeri.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mina Sr; Tsuji, Matthew Rs; Nicayenzi, Bruce; Crookshank, Meghan C; Bougherara, Habiba; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-05-01

    During orthopedic surgery, screws are inserted by "subjective feel" in humeri for fracture fixation, that is, stopping torque, while trying to prevent accidental over-tightening that causes screw-bone interface failure, that is, stripping torque. However, no studies exist on stopping torque, stripping torque, or stopping/stripping torque ratio in human or artificial humeri. This study evaluated five types of humeri, namely, human fresh-frozen (n = 19), human embalmed (n = 18), human dried (n = 15), artificial "normal" (n = 13), and artificial "osteoporotic" (n = 13). An orthopedic surgeon used a torque screwdriver to insert 3.5-mm-diameter cortical screws into humeral shafts and 6.5-mm-diameter cancellous screws into humeral heads by "subjective feel" to obtain stopping and stripping torques. The five outcome measures were raw and normalized stopping torque, raw and normalized stripping torque, and stopping/stripping torque ratio. Normalization was done as raw torque/screw-bone interface area. For "gold standard" fresh-frozen humeri, cortical screw tests yielded averages of 1312 N mm (raw stopping torque), 30.4 N/mm (normalized stopping torque), 1721 N mm (raw stripping torque), 39.0 N/mm (normalized stripping torque), and 82% (stopping/stripping torque ratio). Similarly, fresh-frozen humeri gave cancellous screw average results of 307 N mm (raw stopping torque), 0.9 N/mm (normalized stopping torque), 392 N mm (raw stripping torque), 1.2 N/mm (normalized stripping torque), and 79% (stopping/stripping torque ratio). Of the five cortical screw parameters for fresh-frozen humeri versus other groups, statistical equivalence (p ≥ 0.05) occurred in four cases (embalmed), three cases (dried), four cases (artificial "normal"), and four cases (artificial "osteoporotic"). Of the five cancellous screw parameters for fresh-frozen humeri versus other groups, statistical equivalence (p ≥ 0.05) occurred in five cases (embalmed), one case (dried), one case (artificial "normal

  4. Effect of environmental torques on short-term attitude prediction for a rolling-wheel spacecraft in a sun-synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical evaluation and an analysis of the effects of environmental disturbance torques on the attitude of a hexagonal cylinder rolling wheel spacecraft were performed. The resulting perturbations caused by five such torques were found to be very small and exhibited linearity such that linearized equations of motion yielded accurate results over short periods and the separate perturbations contributed by each torque were additive in the sense of superposition. Linearity of the torque perturbations was not affected by moderate system design changes and persisted for torque-to-angular momentum ratios up to 100 times the nominal expected value. As these conditions include many possible applications, similar linear behavior might be anticipated for other rolling-wheel spacecraft.

  5. Influence of Different Screw Torque Levels on the Biomechanical Behavior of Tapered Prosthetic Abutments.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Paulo Eduardo; de Carvalho, Eduardo Bortolas; Salatti, Rafael C; Valgas, Laiz; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    To study the force used for tightening tapered one-piece prosthetic abutments and their influence on the removal torque value and stress level of the prosthetic abutment after cyclic loading. Fourteen implants and prosthetic abutments were divided into two groups (n = 7): G1, 20 Ncm; and G2, 32 Ncm (manufacturer recommended). A 20-mm T-shaped horizontal bar was adapted to the abutments. A 12-Hz cyclic loading was applied to the specimens in an electrodynamic testing system with the maximum number of cycles set to 10 6 . Specimens were inclined by 15 degrees from the vertical axis, and a 5-mm off-center vertical load was applied to generate a combination of bending and torquing moments on the tapered connections. Progressive loads (from 164.85 to 362.85 N) were applied when the previous sample survived 10 6 cycles. The paired t test compared the screw removal torque with the initial tightening torque for each group (α = .05). A finite element analysis (FEA) of the mechanical testing analyzed the regions of stress concentration. No specimens failed after 10 6 cyclic loadings. The mean screw removal torque for both groups was similar to the initial abutment torque value applied for each group (G1, 20.36 ± 8.73 Ncm; and G2, 35.61 ± 6.99 Ncm) (P > .05). FEA showed similar stress behavior for both groups in the study despite the different simulated screw preloads (G1: 200 N; G2: 320 N). The coronal region of the implant body presented the highest strain values in both groups. Tightening tapered one-piece prosthetic abutments at 20 and 32 Ncm maintains a stable connection after cyclic loading. The stresses generated by the different tightening forces during cyclic loading are highest at the coronal level of the connection.

  6. Modelling grain alignment by radiative torques and hydrogen formation torques in reflection nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2015-04-01

    Reflection nebulae - dense cores - illuminated by surrounding stars offer a unique opportunity to directly test our quantitative model of grain alignment based on radiative torques (RATs) and to explore new effects arising from additional torques. In this paper, we first perform detailed modelling of grain alignment by RATs for the IC 63 reflection nebula illuminated both by a nearby γ Cas star and the diffuse interstellar radiation field. We calculate linear polarization pλ of background stars by radiatively aligned grains and explore the variation of fractional polarization (pλ/AV) with visual extinction AV across the cloud. Our results show that the variation of pV/AV versus AV from the dayside of IC 63 to its centre can be represented by a power law (p_V/A_V∝ A_V^{η }) with different slopes depending on AV. We find a shallow slope η ˜ -0.1 for AV < 3 and a very steep slope η ˜ -2 for AV > 4. We then consider the effects of additional torques due to H2 formation and model grain alignment by joint action of RATs and H2 torques. We find that pV/AV tends to increase with an increasing magnitude of H2 torques. In particular, the theoretical predictions obtained for pV/AV and peak wavelength λmax in this case show an improved agreement with the observational data. Our results reinforce the predictive power of the RAT alignment mechanism in a broad range of environmental conditions and show the effect of pinwheel torques in environments with efficient H2 formation. Physical parameters involved in H2 formation may be constrained using detailed modelling of grain alignment combined with observational data. In addition, we discuss implications of our modelling for interpreting latest observational data by Planck and other ground-based instruments.

  7. Improvement of the limit torque for the torque limiter with magnetic rheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Noritsugu; Kita, Shizuo

    Robots are coming to support and help our life. The robots that work together with human need to avoid sever hitting and holding that force is more than the adequate and comfortable range. In order to keep the force to the safe level in the robot arms, t he limit torque should be controlled on the basis of the case the robot used. Magnetic rheological fluids were tried to be used for the clutch that transmission torque can be controlled continuously because MR fluids can be controlled its viscosity by magnetic field. However those clutch devices were too heavy and large to use for the robot arms. Therefore we tried to increase the sensitivity of magnetic field to viscosity of MR fluids. By applying rough surface for the mating surface, sensitivity of the magnetic field to the shearing torque increase drastically in the case of co-axial torque meter. On the other hand, the changing of the size of the orifice is effective to increase the sensitivity of the magnetic field on the flow resistance in the case of the orifice type equipment.

  8. Spin-orbit torque-driven skyrmion dynamics revealed by time-resolved X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Seonghoon; Song, Kyung Mee; Han, Hee-Sung

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected spin textures with attractive properties suitable for high-density and low-power spintronic device applications. Much effort has been dedicated to understanding the dynamical behaviours of the magnetic skyrmions. However, experimental observation of the ultrafast dynamics of this chiral magnetic texture in real space, which is the hallmark of its quasiparticle nature, has so far remained elusive. Here, we report nanosecond-dynamics of a 100nm-diameter magnetic skyrmion during a current pulse application, using a time-resolved pump-probe soft X-ray imaging technique. We demonstrate that distinct dynamic excitation states of magnetic skyrmions, triggered by current-induced spin-orbit torques, can be reliablymore » tuned by changing the magnitude of spin-orbit torques. Our findings show that the dynamics of magnetic skyrmions can be controlled by the spin-orbit torque on the nanosecond time scale, which points to exciting opportunities for ultrafast and novel skyrmionic appl ications in the future.« less

  9. Spin-orbit torque-driven skyrmion dynamics revealed by time-resolved X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Woo, Seonghoon; Song, Kyung Mee; Han, Hee-Sung; ...

    2017-05-24

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected spin textures with attractive properties suitable for high-density and low-power spintronic device applications. Much effort has been dedicated to understanding the dynamical behaviours of the magnetic skyrmions. However, experimental observation of the ultrafast dynamics of this chiral magnetic texture in real space, which is the hallmark of its quasiparticle nature, has so far remained elusive. Here, we report nanosecond-dynamics of a 100nm-diameter magnetic skyrmion during a current pulse application, using a time-resolved pump-probe soft X-ray imaging technique. We demonstrate that distinct dynamic excitation states of magnetic skyrmions, triggered by current-induced spin-orbit torques, can be reliablymore » tuned by changing the magnitude of spin-orbit torques. Our findings show that the dynamics of magnetic skyrmions can be controlled by the spin-orbit torque on the nanosecond time scale, which points to exciting opportunities for ultrafast and novel skyrmionic appl ications in the future.« less

  10. Achievable accuracy of hip screw holding power estimation by insertion torque measurement.

    PubMed

    Erani, Paolo; Baleani, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    To ensure stability of proximal femoral fractures, the hip screw must firmly engage into the femoral head. Some studies suggested that screw holding power into trabecular bone could be evaluated, intraoperatively, through measurement of screw insertion torque. However, those studies used synthetic bone, instead of trabecular bone, as host material or they did not evaluate accuracy of predictions. We determined prediction accuracy, also assessing the impact of screw design and host material. We measured, under highly-repeatable experimental conditions, disregarding clinical procedure complexities, insertion torque and pullout strength of four screw designs, both in 120 synthetic and 80 trabecular bone specimens of variable density. For both host materials, we calculated the root-mean-square error and the mean-absolute-percentage error of predictions based on the best fitting model of torque-pullout data, in both single-screw and merged dataset. Predictions based on screw-specific regression models were the most accurate. Host material impacts on prediction accuracy: the replacement of synthetic with trabecular bone decreased both root-mean-square errors, from 0.54 ÷ 0.76 kN to 0.21 ÷ 0.40 kN, and mean-absolute-percentage errors, from 14 ÷ 21% to 10 ÷ 12%. However, holding power predicted on low insertion torque remained inaccurate, with errors up to 40% for torques below 1 Nm. In poor-quality trabecular bone, tissue inhomogeneities likely affect pullout strength and insertion torque to different extents, limiting the predictive power of the latter. This bias decreases when the screw engages good-quality bone. Under this condition, predictions become more accurate although this result must be confirmed by close in-vitro simulation of the clinical procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron Drift Speed And Current-Induced Drive Torques On A Domain Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Luc

    2009-03-01

    It has become fashionable to describe [1] current-induced torques on a DW in terms of an electron drift speed u = - P*j*muB/e*M where muB is the Bohr magneton and M the saturation magnetization. While appropriate for adiabatic torques, this quantity u is misleading and not the best choice in the case of non-adiabatic torques. For example, it leads [2] to beta not equal to alpha, where beta represents the intensity of the non-adiabatic torque, and alpha is the damping parameter. By writing equations of motion for conduction- electron spins in a moving frame where the electron gas is at rest, we find [3] a direct relation between damping and non- adiabatic torques. The correct electron drift speed turns out to be the speed of the frame, and is v = P*j/(n*q) where n and q are the carrier density and charge. It is related to the ordinary Hall constant R0 by v P*R0*j. After substituting v for u in the expression of the non-adiabatic torque, we find that beta = alpha holds now. Because v is larger than u in Permalloy, it can explain better the large current-induced DW speeds found [4] experimentally. In materials where R0> 0 and the carriers are dominantly hole-like, v and u have opposite signs, leading to different predictions for the sense of DW motion. We discuss examples of such materials. 1. G. Tatara and H. Kohno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 086601 (2004). 2. H. Kohno et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 75, 113706 (2006). 3. L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 75, 174401 (2007). 4. M. Hayashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 037204 (2007).

  12. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  13. Viscous Torques on a Levitating Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, F.; Wang, T.

    1982-01-01

    New analytical expressions for viscous torque generated by orthogonal sound waves agree well with experiment. It is possible to calculate torque on an object levitated in a fluid. Levitation has applications in containerless materials processing, coating, and fabrication of small precision parts. Sound waves cause fluid particles to move in elliptical paths and induce azimuthal circulation in boundary layer, giving rise to time-averaged torque.

  14. Torque and Learning and Behavior Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendel, Ivan H.; Pihl, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    Findings indicate minimal differences, on diagnostic tests, between children who exhibited torque and those who did not. Torque is defined as the circling of any X in a clockwise direction. Torque is not associated with learning problems in school. Diagnostic utility of torque should be carefully considered. (Author)

  15. Damping torque analysis of VSC-based system utilizing power synchronization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Du, W. J.; Zheng, K. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Power synchronization control is a new control strategy of VSC-HVDC for connecting a weak power system. Different from the vector control method, this control method utilizes the internal synchronization mechanism in ac systems, in principle, similar to the operation of a synchronous machine. So that the parameters of controllers in power synchronization control will change the electromechanical oscillation modes and make an impact on the transient stability of power system. This paper present a mathematical model for small-signal stability analysis of VSC station used power synchronization control and analyse the impact of the dynamic interactions by calculating the contribution of the damping torque from the power synchronization control, besides, the parameters of controllers which correspond to damping torque and synchronous torque in the power synchronization control is defined respectively. At the end of the paper, an example power system is presented to demonstrate and validate the theoretical analysis and associated conclusions are made.

  16. Structure-dependent magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xingtao; Tang, Huimin; Wang, Shizhuo; Qin, Minghui

    2017-02-01

    We predict large magnetoresistance (MR) and spin transfer torque (STT) in antiferromagnetic Fe |MgO |FeMn |Cu tunnel junctions based on first-principles scattering theory. MR as large as ˜100 % is found in one junction. Magnetic dynamic simulations show that STT acting on the antiferromagnetic order parameter dominates the spin dynamics, and an electronic bias of order 10-1mV and current density of order 105Acm-2 can switches a junction of three-layer MgO, they are about one order smaller than that in Fe |MgO |Fe junction with the same barrier thickness, respectively. The multiple scattering in the antiferromagnetic region is considered to be responsible for the enhanced spin torque and smaller switching current density.

  17. Torque exerted on the side of crustal blocks controls the kinematics of Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye; Cuffaro, Marco; Doglioni, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic stress at active plate boundary can arises from 1) a torque applied on the side of lithospheric blocks and 2) a torque at the base of the lithosphere due to the flow of the underlying mantle. In this paper we use a simple force balance analysis to compare side and basal shear stresses and their contribution in driving kinematics and deformation in the Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of the East African Rift System (EARS). Assuming the constraints of the ER given by the dimension of the lithospheric blocks, the strain rate, the viscosity of the low velocity zone (LVZ) and the depth of the brittle-ductile transition zone, the lateral torque is several orders of magnitude higher than the basal torque. The minor contribution of basal torque might be due to low viscosity in the LVZ. Both Africa and Somalia plates are moving to the ;west; relative to the mantle and there are not slabs that can justify this pull and consequent motion. Therefore, we invoke that westerly oriented tidal torque on Africa and Somalia plates in providing the necessary side torque in the region. This plate motion predicts significant sinistral transtension along the ER and rift parallel strike-slip faulting similar to the estimated angular velocity vector for tectonic blocks and GPS observations. Vertical axis block rotations are observed in areas where the lithospheric mantle is removed and strain is widely distributed.

  18. Quantification of bone strength by intraoperative torque measurement: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Suhm, Norbert; Haenni, Markus; Schwyn, Ronald; Hirschmann, Michael; Müller, Andreas Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bone strength describes the resistance of bone against mechanical failure. Bone strength depends on both the amount of bone and the bone's quality, and the bone strength may be looked upon as a relevant parameter to judge an osteosynthesis' stability. Information about bone strength was barely available intraoperatively in the past. The previous work of our group reported on development and laboratory evaluation of mechanical torque measurement as a method for the intraoperative quantification of bone strength. With the clinical series presented here we intend to verify that the im gesamten Text DensiProbe instrumentation for intraoperative torque measurement and the related measurement method are eligible for intraoperative use based on the following criteria: application of the method may not create complications, the measurement can be performed by the surgeon himself and may only cause a limited increase in the procedure time. From December 2006 until May 2007 ten patients with a pertrochanteric femoral fracture or a lateral femoral neck fracture eligible for stabilization with DHS were included in the study after having received informed consent. Any medication and comorbidity that might have influenced bone quality or bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients was documented. Bone strength was intraoperatively measured with DensiProbe. Complications that were obviously related with torque measurement were documented as well as any deviation from the suggested procedure; 6 and 12 weeks postoperative follow-up included clinical and radiological examination. The time required for torque measurement, the overall operating time and the number of persons present in the operating room were protocolled. BMD values of the contralateral femoral neck were postoperatively assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and compared to intraoperative peak torque values measured by DensiProbe. No major complication was observed during intraoperative application of

  19. Torque measurements reveal sequence-specific cooperative transitions in supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oberstrass, Florian C.; Fernandes, Louis E.; Bryant, Zev

    2012-01-01

    B-DNA becomes unstable under superhelical stress and is able to adopt a wide range of alternative conformations including strand-separated DNA and Z-DNA. Localized sequence-dependent structural transitions are important for the regulation of biological processes such as DNA replication and transcription. To directly probe the effect of sequence on structural transitions driven by torque, we have measured the torsional response of a panel of DNA sequences using single molecule assays that employ nanosphere rotational probes to achieve high torque resolution. The responses of Z-forming d(pGpC)n sequences match our predictions based on a theoretical treatment of cooperative transitions in helical polymers. “Bubble” templates containing 50–100 bp mismatch regions show cooperative structural transitions similar to B-DNA, although less torque is required to disrupt strand–strand interactions. Our mechanical measurements, including direct characterization of the torsional rigidity of strand-separated DNA, establish a framework for quantitative predictions of the complex torsional response of arbitrary sequences in their biological context. PMID:22474350

  20. The insertion torque-depth curve integral as a measure of implant primary stability: An in vitro study on polyurethane foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-07-08

    Recent research has shown that dynamic parameters correlate with insertion energy-that is, the total work needed to place an implant into its site-might convey more reliable information concerning immediate implant primary stability at insertion than the commonly used insertion torque (IT), the reverse torque (RT), or the implant stability quotient (ISQ). Yet knowledge on these dynamic parameters is still limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether an energy-related parameter, the torque-depth curve integral (I), could be a reliable measure of primary stability. This was done by assessing if (I) measurement was operator-independent, by investigating its correlation with other known primary stability parameters (IT, RT, or ISQ) by quantifying the (I) average error and correlating (I), IT, RT, and ISQ variations with bone density. Five operators placed 200 implants in polyurethane foam blocks of different densities using a micromotor that calculated the (I) during implant placement. Primary implant stability was assessed by measuring the ISQ, IT, and RT. ANOVA tests were used to evaluate whether measurements were operator independent (P>.05 in all cases). A correlation analysis was performed between (I) and IT, ISQ, and RT. The (I) average error was calculated and compared with that of the other parameters by ANOVA. (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density plots were drawn, and their slopes were compared by ANCOVA. The (I) measurements were operator independent and correlated with IT, ISQ, and RT. The average error of these parameters was not significantly different (P>.05 in all cases). The (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density curves were linear in the 0.16 to 0.49 g/cm³ range, with the (I)-density curves having a significantly greater slope than those regarding the other parameters (P≤.001 in all cases). The torque-depth curve integral (I) provides a reliable assessment of primary stability and shows a greater

  1. Towards novel organic high-Tc superconductors: Data mining using density of states similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilhufe, R. Matthias; Borysov, Stanislav S.; Kalpakchi, Dmytro; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2018-02-01

    Identifying novel functional materials with desired key properties is an important part of bridging the gap between fundamental research and technological advancement. In this context, high-throughput calculations combined with data-mining techniques highly accelerated this process in different areas of research during the past years. The strength of a data-driven approach for materials prediction lies in narrowing down the search space of thousands of materials to a subset of prospective candidates. Recently, the open-access organic materials database OMDB was released providing electronic structure data for thousands of previously synthesized three-dimensional organic crystals. Based on the OMDB, we report about the implementation of a novel density of states similarity search tool which is capable of retrieving materials with similar density of states to a reference material. The tool is based on the approximate nearest neighbor algorithm as implemented in the ANNOY library and can be applied via the OMDB web interface. The approach presented here is wide ranging and can be applied to various problems where the density of states is responsible for certain key properties of a material. As the first application, we report about materials exhibiting electronic structure similarities to the aromatic hydrocarbon p-terphenyl which was recently discussed as a potential organic high-temperature superconductor exhibiting a transition temperature in the order of 120 K under strong potassium doping. Although the mechanism driving the remarkable transition temperature remains under debate, we argue that the density of states, reflecting the electronic structure of a material, might serve as a crucial ingredient for the observed high Tc. To provide candidates which might exhibit comparable properties, we present 15 purely organic materials with similar features to p-terphenyl within the electronic structure, which also tend to have structural similarities with p

  2. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification. Verify torque-measurement systems by performing the verifications described in §§ 1066.270 and... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Torque transducer verification. 1066...

  3. Evaluation of force-torque displays for use with space station telerobotic activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrich, Robert C.; Bierschwale, John M.; Manahan, Meera K.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments which addressed Space Station remote manipulation tasks found that tactile force feedback (reflecting forces and torques encountered at the end-effector through the manipulator hand controller) does not improve performance significantly. Subjective response from astronaut and non-astronaut test subjects indicated that force information, provided visually, could be useful. No research exists which specifically investigates methods of presenting force-torque information visually. This experiment was designed to evaluate seven different visual force-torque displays which were found in an informal telephone survey. The displays were prototyped in the HyperCard programming environment. In a within-subjects experiment, 14 subjects nullified forces and torques presented statically, using response buttons located at the bottom of the screen. Dependent measures included questionnaire data, errors, and response time. Subjective data generally demonstrate that subjects rated variations of pseudo-perspective displays consistently better than bar graph and digital displays. Subjects commented that the bar graph and digital displays could be used, but were not compatible with using hand controllers. Quantitative data show similar trends to the subjective data, except that the bar graph and digital displays both provided good performance, perhaps do to the mapping of response buttons to display elements. Results indicate that for this set of displays, the pseudo-perspective displays generally represent a more intuitive format for presenting force-torque information.

  4. Are insertion torque and early osseointegration proportional? A histologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Felipe E B; Jimbo, Ryo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Barbosa, Darceny Z; Oliveira, Maiolino T F; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this histologic study was to determine the effect of three drilling protocols (oversized, intermediate, and undersized) on biologic responses to a single implant type at early healing periods (2 weeks in vivo) in a beagle dog model. Ten beagle dogs were acquired and subjected to surgeries in the tibia 2 weeks before euthanasia. During surgery, each dog received three Unitite implants, 4 mm in diameter by 10 mm in length, in bone sites drilled to 3.5, 3.75, and 4.0 mm in final diameter. The insertion torque was recorded during surgery, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) measured from the histology. Each outcome measure was compared between treatment conditions with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Bonferroni-corrected statistical significance was set to 95%. Insertion torque increased as an inverse function of drilling diameter, as indicated by significant differences in torque levels between each pair of conditions (P = 0.005). BIC and BAFO levels were highest and statistically similar in the recommended and undersized conditions and significantly reduced in the oversized condition (P < 0.01). Reduced drilling dimensions resulted in increased insertion torque (primary stability). While BIC and BAFO were maximized when drilling the recommended diameter hole, only the oversized hole resulted in evidence of statistically reduced integration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-11-12

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices.

  6. Power tong torque control

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, D.A.; James, R.N.

    1987-10-20

    Torque controlled powered pipe tongs, are described the apparatus comprises: (a) a power tong powered by a fluid motor; (b) a fluid power source connected to the motor; (c) a force conducting element attached to the power tong, situated to oppose reaction torque from the tongs when torque is applied to pipe; (d) force sensing means operatively associated with the force conducting element situated to sense at least part of the force experienced by the force conducting element, arranged to produce a pressure signal proportional to force sensed; and (e) a fluid by-pass valve, adjustably biased toward a closed position,more » responsive to the signal to tend to move toward an open position, the by-pass valve connected between the fluid power source and the motor.« less

  7. Matching initial torque with different stimulation parameters influences skeletal muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Azuero, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental barrier to using electrical stimulation in the clinical setting is an inability to maintain torque production secondary to muscle fatigue. Electrical stimulation parameters are manipulated to influence muscle torque production, and they may also influence fatigability during repetitive stimulation. Our purpose was to determine the response of the quadriceps femoris to three different fatigue protocols using the same initial torque obtained by altering stimulator parameter settings. Participants underwent fatigue protocols in which either pulse frequency (lowHz), pulse duration (lowPD), or voltage (lowV) was manipulated to obtain an initial torque that equaled 25% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Muscle soreness was reported on a visual analog scale 48 h after each fatigue test. The lowHz protocol resulted in the least fatigue (25% +/- 14%); the lowPD (50% +/- 13%) and lowV (48% +/- 14%) protocols had similar levels of fatigue. The lowHz protocol resulted in significantly less muscle soreness than the higher frequency protocols. Stimulation protocols that use a lower frequency coupled with long pulse durations and high voltages result in lesser amounts of muscle fatigue and perceived soreness. The identification of optimal stimulation patterns to maximize muscle performance will reduce the effect of muscle fatigue and potentially improve clinical efficacy.

  8. Knudsen torque on heated micro beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction ofmore » the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3μm at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.« less

  9. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  10. Loss of knee extensor torque complexity during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions occurs exclusively above the critical torque.

    PubMed

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of knee extensor torque time series decreases during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions. We hypothesized that because of peripheral fatigue, this loss of torque complexity would occur exclusively during contractions above the critical torque (CT). Nine healthy participants performed isometric knee extension exercise (6 s of contraction, 4 s of rest) on six occasions for 30 min or to task failure, whichever occurred sooner. Four trials were performed above CT (trials S1-S4, S1 being the lowest intensity), and two were performed below CT (at 50% and 90% of CT). Global, central, and peripheral fatigue were quantified using maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) with femoral nerve stimulation. The complexity of torque output was determined using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis-α scaling exponent (DFA-α). The MVC torque was reduced in trials below CT [by 19 ± 4% (means ± SE) in 90%CT], but complexity did not decrease [ApEn for 90%CT: from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 0.75 ± 0.06, 95% paired-samples confidence intervals (CIs), 95% CI = -0.23, 0.10; DFA-α from 1.36 ± 0.01 to 1.32 ± 0.03, 95% CI -0.12, 0.04]. Above CT, substantial reductions in MVC torque occurred (of 49 ± 8% in S1), and torque complexity was reduced (ApEn for S1: from 0.67 ± 0.06 to 0.14 ± 0.01, 95% CI = -0.72, -0.33; DFA-α from 1.38 ± 0.03 to 1.58 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.12, 0.29). Thus, in these experiments, the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity occurred exclusively during contractions performed above the CT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  12. [Biomechanical testing of the new torque-segmented arch (TSA)].

    PubMed

    Wichelhaus, A; Sander, F G

    1995-07-01

    New torque-segmented arch wires are presented which consist of a superelastic anterior component with 30 degrees or 45 degrees torque and which are connected to 2 steel lateral components by means of a crimped connector. When using such torque-segmented arch wires, the crimped connector rests mesially to the canine bracket and the lateral components exhibit a torque of 0 degree. The use of the torque-segmented arch wires requires the practitioner to adjust the anterior tooth segment, to bend in first order bends in the steel lateral portion as well as to bend in a sweep to avoid an anterior tooth extrusion, and, if desired, to bend in third order bends to influence premolars and molars. In some cases the simultaneous application of palatal arches can become necessary, because each torque transfer results in a transversal enlargement in the molar area. Compared to conventional steel wires with dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022 in which an anterior tooth torque is bent, the torque segmented arch wires exhibit considerably fewer side effects, but there is a larger distally rotating moment for the molars. 1. When applying torque-segmented arch wires, the extrusive force transferred to the anterior teeth is considerably smaller. 2. The protrusive force acting on the anterior teeth is also considerably smaller, which results in a reduced demand being placed on the anchorage of the molars. 3. The torque transfer to the incisors rests in a quite moderate range, even in the case of a 50 degrees torque. For this reason, the practitioner can expect diminished or no resorptions at all compared to the aforementioned steel wires. 4. The Martensite plateau of the torque-segmented arch wires exhibit constant moments in large areas so that such arch wires can be used in almost every anterior tooth position. 5. The segmented wires presented here can be applied not only in the case of the standard edgewise technique but also in each case of the straight-wire technique. 6. These new arch

  13. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  14. Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.

  15. Turbine Windage Torque Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    chamber, with a 0-60,000 RPM, 300 HP dynamometer, was selected as the test facility. A rotary transformer ( brushless ) torque sensor, using air /oil... brushless ) of 100 and 500 in-lb torque ranges were selected from Lebow Associates, Inc. of Troy, Michigan. Special air / oil mist lubrication for the...period August 1979 - October 1980 I Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. _ DTIC AERO PROPULSION LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL

  16. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  17. Spin-orbit torque in a thin film of the topological insulator Bi2Se3: Crossover from the ballistic to diffusive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.

  18. Accuracy of mechanical torque-limiting devices for dental implants.

    PubMed

    L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie; Yilmaz, Burak; Chien, Hua-Hong; McGlumphy, Edwin

    2015-10-01

    A common complication in implant dentistry is unintentional implant screw loosening. The critical factor in the prevention of screw loosening is the delivery of the appropriate target torque value. Mechanical torque-limiting devices (MTLDs) are the most frequently recommended devices by the implant manufacturers to deliver the target torque value to the screw. Two types of MTLDs are available: friction-style and spring-style. Limited information is available regarding the influence of device type on the accuracy of MTLDs. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the accuracy of spring-style and friction-style MTLDs. Five MTLDs from 6 different dental implant manufacturers (Astra Tech/Dentsply, Zimmer Dental, Biohorizons, Biomet 3i, Straumann [ITI], and Nobel Biocare) (n=5 per manufacturer) were selected to determine their accuracy in delivering target torque values preset by their manufacturers. All torque-limiting devices were new and there were 3 manufacturers for the friction-style and 3 manufacturers for the spring-style. The procedure of target torque measurement was performed 10 times for each device and a digital torque gauge (Chatillon Model DFS2-R-ND; Ametek) was used to record the measurements. Statistical analysis used nonparametric tests to determine the accuracy of the MTLDs in delivering target torque values and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to assess pairwise comparisons. Median absolute difference between delivered torque values and target torque values of friction-style and spring-style MTLDs were not significantly different (P>.05). Accuracy of Astra Tech and Zimmer Dental friction-style torque-limiting devices were significantly different than Biohorizons torque-limiting devices (P<.05). There is no difference between the accuracy of new friction-style MTLDs and new spring-style MTLDs. All MTLDs fell within ±10% of the target torque value. Astra Tech and Zimmer Dental friction-style torque-limiting devices were significantly

  19. A self-calibrating multicomponent force/torque measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangoni, Rafael R.; Schleichert, Jan; Rahneberg, Ilko; Hilbrunner, Falko; Fröhlich, Thomas

    2018-07-01

    A multicomponent self-calibrating force and torque sensor is presented. In this system, the principle of a Kibble balance is adapted for the traceable force and torque measurement in three orthogonal directions. The system has two operating modes: the velocity mode and the force/torque sensing mode. In the velocity mode, the calibration of the sensor is performed, while in the force/torque sensing mode, forces and torques are measured by using the principle of the electromagnetic force compensation. Details about the system are provided, with the main components of the sensor and a description of the operational procedure. A prototype of the system is currently being implemented for measuring forces and torques in a range of  ±2 N and  ±0.1 N · m respectively. A maximal relative expanded measurement uncertainty (k  =  2) of 1 · 10‑4 is expected for the force and torque measurements.

  20. Displaceable Spur Gear Torque Controlled Driver and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driven members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  1. Displaceable spur gear torque controlled driver and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driver members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  2. Vastus lateralis single motor unit EMG at the same absolute torque production at different knee angles.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, T M; de Haan, A; Verdijk, P W L; van Mechelen, W; de Ruiter, C J

    2009-07-01

    Single motor unit electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors was investigated at different knee angles with subjects (n = 10) exerting the same absolute submaximal isometric torque at each angle. Measurements were made over a 20 degrees range around the optimum angle for torque production (AngleTmax) and, where feasible, over a wider range (50 degrees ). Forty-six vastus lateralis (VL) motor units were recorded at 20.7 +/- 17.9 %maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) together with the rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) of the superficial VL muscle. Due to the lower maximal torque capacity at positions more flexed and extended than AngleTmax, single motor unit recruitment thresholds were expected to decrease and discharge rates were expected to increase at angles above and below AngleTmax. Unexpectedly, the recruitment threshold was higher (P < 0.05) at knee angles 10 degrees more extended (43.7 +/- 22.2 N.m) and not different (P > 0.05) at knee angles 10 degrees more flexed (35.2 +/- 17.9 N.m) compared with recruitment threshold at AngleTmax (41.8 +/- 21.4 N.m). Also, unexpectedly the discharge rates were similar (P > 0.05) at the three angles: 11.6 +/- 2.2, 11.6 +/- 2.1, and 12.3 +/- 2.1 Hz. Similar angle independent discharge rates were also found for 12 units (n = 5; 7.4 +/- 5.4 %MVC) studied over the wider (50 degrees ) range, while recruitment threshold only decreased at more flexed angles. In conclusion, the similar recruitment threshold and discharge behavior of VL motor units during submaximal isometric torque production suggests that net motor unit activation did not change very much along the ascending limb of the knee-angle torque relationship. Several factors such as length-dependent twitch potentiation, which may contribute to this unexpected aspect of motor control, are discussed.

  3. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert D.; De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; Szczesny, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

  4. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  5. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accuracy of torque-limiting devices: A comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Haydar; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Tursun, Funda; Kocaagaoglu, Hasan Huseyin; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the loosening of implant screws, clinicians should be aware of the output torque values needed to achieve the desired preload. Accurate torque-control devices are crucial in this regard; however, little information is currently available comparing the accuracy of mechanical with that of electronic torque-control devices. The purpose of this in vitro study was to identify and compare the accuracy of different types of torque-control devices. Devices from 5 different dental implant manufacturers were evaluated, including 2 spring-type (Straumann, Implance) mechanical devices (MTLD), 2 friction-type (Biohorizons, Dyna) MTLDs, and 1 (Megagen) electronic torque-control device (ETLD). For each manufacturer, 5 devices were tested 5 times with a digital torque tester, and the average for each device was calculated and recorded. The percentage of absolute deviations from the target torque values (PERDEV) were calculated and compared by using 1-way ANOVA. A 1-sample t test was used to evaluate the ability of each device to achieve its target torque value within a 95% confidence interval for the true population mean of measured values (α=.05 for all statistical analyses). One-way ANOVAs revealed statistically significant differences among torque-control devices (P<.001). ETLD showed higher PERDEVs (28.33 ±9.53) than MTLDs (P<.05), whereas PERDEVS of friction-type (7.56 ±3.64) and spring-type (10.85 ±4.11) MTLDs did not differ significantly. In addition, devices produced by Megagen had a significantly higher (P<.05) PERDEV (28.33 ±9.53) other devices, whereas no differences were found in devices manufactured by Biohorizons (7.31 ±5.34), Dyna (7.82 ±1.08), Implance (8.43 ±4.77), and Straumann (13.26 ±0.79). However, 1-sample t tests showed none of the torque-control devices evaluated in this study were capable of achieving their target torque values (P<.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, MTLDs were shown to be significantly more accurate

  7. Neutron star dynamics under time dependent external torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. A.; Gügercinoğlu, E.

    2017-12-01

    The two component model of neutron star dynamics describing the behaviour of the observed crust coupled to the superfluid interior has so far been applied to radio pulsars for which the external torques are constant on dynamical timescales. We recently solved this problem under arbitrary time dependent external torques. Our solutions pertain to internal torques that are linear in the rotation rates, as well as to the extremely non-linear internal torques of the vortex creep model. Two-component models with linear or nonlinear internal torques can now be applied to magnetars and to neutron stars in binary systems, with strong variability and timing noise. Time dependent external torques can be obtained from the observed spin-down (or spin-up) time series, \\dot Ω ≤ft( t \\right).

  8. How Fo-ATPase generates rotary torque.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Wang, H; Grabe, M

    2000-04-29

    The F-ATPases synthesize ATP using a transmembrane ionmotive force (IMF) established by the electron transport chain. This transduction involves first converting the IMF to a rotary torque in the transmembrane Fo portion. This torque is communicated from Fo to the F1 portion where the energy is used to release the newly synthesized ATP from the catalytic sites according to Boyer's binding change mechanism. Here we explain the principle by which an IMF generates this rotary torque in the Fo ion engine.

  9. Enhanced precision of ankle torque measure with an open-unit dynamometer mounted with a 3D force-torque sensor.

    PubMed

    Toumi, A; Leteneur, S; Gillet, C; Debril, J-F; Decoufour, N; Barbier, F; Jakobi, J M; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have focused on maximum torque exerted by ankle joint muscles during plantar flexion. While strength parameters are typically measured with isokinetic or isolated ankle dynamometers, these devices often present substantial limitations for the measurement of torque because they account for force in only 1 dimension (1D), and the device often constrains the body in a position that augments torque through counter movements. The purposes of this study were to determine the contribution of body position to ankle plantar-flexion torque and to assess the use of 1D and 3D torque sensors. A custom designed 'Booted, Open-Unit, Three dimension, Transportable, Ergometer' (B.O.T.T.E.) was used to quantify plantar flexion in two conditions: (1) when the participant was restrained within the unit (locked-unit) and (2) when the participant's position was independent of the ankle dynamometer (open-unit). Ten young males performed maximal voluntary isometric plantar-flexion contractions using the B.O.T.T.E. in open and locked-unit mechanical configurations. The B.O.T.T.E. was reliable with ICC higher than 0.90, and CV lower than 7 %. The plantar-flexion maximal resultant torque was significantly higher in the locked-unit compared with open-unit configuration (P < 0.001; +61 to +157 %) due to the addition of forces from the body being constrained within the testing device. A 1D compared with 3D torque sensor significantly underestimated the proper capacity of plantar-flexion torque production (P < 0.001; -37 to -60 %). Assessment of plantar-flexion torque should be performed with an open-unit dynamometer mounted with a 3D sensor that is exclusive of accessory muscles but inclusive of all ankle joint movements.

  10. The influence of arch supports on knee torques relevant to knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Dicharry, Jay; Riley, Patrick O; Jackson, Keith; Wilder, Robert P; Kerrigan, D Casey

    2008-05-01

    Changes in footwear and foot orthotic devices have been shown to significantly alter knee joint torques thought to be relevant to the progression if not the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. The purpose of this study was to determine if commonly prescribed arch support cushions promote a medial force bias during gait similar to medial-wedged orthotics, thereby increasing knee varus torque during both walking and running. Twenty-two healthy, physically active young adults (age, 29.2 +/- 5.1 yr) were analyzed at their self-selected walking and running speeds in control shoes with and without arch support cushions. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected in synchrony with ground reaction force (GRF) data collected from an instrumented treadmill. Peak external knee varus torque during walking and running were calculated through a full inverse dynamic model and compared. Peak knee varus torque was statistically significantly increased by 6% (0.01 +/- 0.02 N.m.(kg.m)(-1)) in late stance during walking and by 4% (0.03 +/- 0.03 N.m.(kg.m)(-1)) during running with the addition of arch support cushions. The addition of material under the medial aspect of the foot by way of a flexible arch support promotes a medial force bias during walking and running, significantly increasing knee varus torque. These findings suggest that discretion be employed with regard to the prescription of commonly available orthotic insoles like arch support cushions.

  11. A new adaptive self-tuning Fourier coefficients algorithm for periodic torque ripple minimization in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto

    2013-03-19

    A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.

  12. Torque Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Young, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A proposed torque sensor would be capable of operating over the temperature range from 1 to 400 K, whereas a typical commercially available torque sensor is limited to the narrower temperature range of 244 to 338 K. The design of this sensor would exploit the wide temperature range and other desirable attributes of differential transducers based on tunnel-diode oscillators as described in "Multiplexing Transducers Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillators". The proposed torque sensor would include three flexural springs that would couple torque between a hollow outer drive shaft and a solid inner drive shaft. The torque would be deduced from the torsional relative deflection of the two shafts, which would be sensed via changes in capacitances of two capacitors defined by two electrodes attached to the inner shaft and a common middle electrode attached to the outer shaft.

  13. Torque Splitting by a Concentric Face Gear Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filler, Robert R.; Heath, Gregory F.; Slaughter, Stephen C.; Lewicki, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Tests of a 167 Kilowatt (224 Horsepower) split torque face gearbox were performed by the Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, while working under a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP). This paper provides a summary of these cooperative tests, which were jointly funded by Boeing and DARPA. Design, manufacture and testing of the scaled-power TRP proof-of-concept (POC) split torque gearbox followed preliminary evaluations of the concept performed early in the program. The split torque tests were run using 200 N-m (1767 in-lbs) torque input to each side of the transmission. During tests, two input pinions were slow rolled while in mesh with the two face gears. Two idler gears were also used in the configuration to recombine torque near the output. Resistance was applied at the output face gear to create the required loading conditions in the gear teeth. A system of weights, pulleys and cables were used in the test rig to provide both the input and output loading. Strain gages applied in the tooth root fillets provided strain indication used to determine torque splitting conditions at the input pinions. The final two pinion-two idler tests indicated 52% to 48% average torque split capabilities for the two pinions. During the same tests, a 57% to 43% average distribution of the torque being recombined to the upper face gear from the lower face gear was measured between the two idlers. The POC split torque tests demonstrated that face gears can be applied effectively in split torque rotorcraft transmissions, yielding good potential for significant weight, cost and reliability improvements over existing equipment using spiral bevel gearing.

  14. Methodology for Determining Limit Torques for Threaded Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hissam, Andy

    2011-01-01

    In aerospace design, where minimizing weight is always a priority, achieving the full capacity from fasteners is essential. To do so, the initial bolt preload must be maximized. The benefits of high preload are well documented and include improved fatigue resistance, a stiffer joint, and resistance to loosening. But many factors like elastic interactions and embedment tend to lower the initial preload placed on the bolt. These factors provide additional motivation to maximize the initial preload. But, to maximize bolt preload, you must determine what torque to apply. Determining this torque is greatly complicated by the large preload scatter generally seen with torque control. This paper presents a detailed methodology for generating limit torques for threaded fasteners. This methodology accounts for the large scatter in preload found with torque control, and therefore, addresses the statistical nature of the problem. It also addresses prevailing torque, a feature common in aerospace fasteners. Although prevailing torque provides a desired locking feature, it can also increase preload scatter. In addition, it can limit the amount of preload that can be generated due to the torsion it creates in the bolt. This paper discusses the complications of prevailing torque and how best to handle it. A wide range of torque-tension bolt testing was conducted in support of this research. The results from this research will benefit the design engineer as well as analyst involved in the design of bolted joints, leading to better, more optimized structural designs.

  15. Detecting Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhujing; Li, Tongcang

    2017-09-01

    The linear momentum and angular momentum of virtual photons of quantum vacuum fluctuations can induce the Casimir force and the Casimir torque, respectively. While the Casimir force has been measured extensively, the Casimir torque has not been observed experimentally though it was predicted over 40 years ago. Here we propose to detect the Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod near a birefringent plate in vacuum. The axis of the nanorod tends to align with the polarization direction of the linearly polarized optical tweezer. When its axis is not parallel or perpendicular to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal, it will experience a Casimir torque that shifts its orientation slightly. We calculate the Casimir torque and Casimir force acting on a levitated nanorod near a birefringent crystal. We also investigate the effects of thermal noise and photon recoils on the torque and force detection. We prove that a levitated nanorod in vacuum will be capable of detecting the Casimir torque under realistic conditions, and will be an important tool in precision measurements.

  16. Measurement of torque during mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando D; Lukas, Saylan; Forsthoffer, Dina

    2008-05-01

    In a prospective study, 26 patients aged 9 days to 12 years old underwent mandibular distraction. There were 18 bilateral and 8 unilateral distractions performed. Five patients had previous distraction. Torque measurements were performed during the distraction process. A modest linear increase in torque was noted during the distraction process. Older patients required more torque to achieve the same distraction length as younger patients. The results of this study suggest that distraction forces are relatively modest, which may allow for greater freedom of distractor design.

  17. Eccentric knee flexor torque following anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Osternig, L R; James, C R; Bercades, D T

    1996-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare eccentric knee flexor torque and muscle activation in the limbs of normal (NOR) subjects and in subjects who had undergone unilateral ACI, autograft surgical reconstruction (INJ) and to assess the effect of movement speed on EMG/ torque ratios and eccentric-concentric actions. Fourteen subjects (7 NOR and 7 INJ) were tested for knee eccentric flexor torque and EMG activity at four isokinetic speeds (15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees and 60 degrees.s-1). Results revealed that post-surgical limbs (ACL) produced significantly less (P < 0.05) eccentric torque and flexor EMG activity at 60 degrees.s-1 than uninjured (UNI) contralateral limbs. Eccentric torque rose significantly as speed increased from 45 degrees to 60 degrees.s-1 for surgical group uninjured limbs and NOR group left and right limbs. Eccentric flexor torque increased with speed for both groups and approximated equality with concentric extensor torque at 60 degrees.s-1 for INJ group ACL and UNI limbs. Concentric flexor muscle EMG/torque ratios were 30-191% greater than eccentric muscle actions across groups and speeds. The results suggest that ACL dysfunction may result in reduced eccentric flexor torque at rapid movement speeds, that eccentric flexor torque increases with movement speed and may have the capacity to counter forceful extensor concentric torque, and that eccentric muscle actions produce less muscle activation per unit force than concentric actions which may reflect reduced energy cost.

  18. An Electromyographic-driven Musculoskeletal Torque Model using Neuro-Fuzzy System Identification: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Zohreh; Edrisi, Mehdi; Marateb, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the torque from high-density surface electromyography signals of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and the medial and lateral heads of triceps brachii muscles during moderate-to-high isometric elbow flexion-extension. The elbow torque was estimated in two following steps: First, surface electromyography (EMG) amplitudes were estimated using principal component analysis, and then a fuzzy model was proposed to illustrate the relationship between the EMG amplitudes and the measured torque signal. A neuro-fuzzy method, with which the optimum number of rules could be estimated, was used to identify the model with suitable complexity. Utilizing the proposed neuro-fuzzy model, the clinical interpretability was introduced; contrary to the previous linear and nonlinear black-box system identification models. It also reduced the estimation error compared with that of the most recent and accurate nonlinear dynamic model introduced in the literature. The optimum number of the rules for all trials was 4 ± 1, that might be related to motor control strategies and the % variance accounted for criterion was 96.40 ± 3.38 which in fact showed considerable improvement compared with the previous methods. The proposed method is thus a promising new tool for EMG-Torque modeling in clinical applications. PMID:25426427

  19. Monitoring bolt torque levels through signal processing of full-field ultrasonic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Colin; Yeager, Michael; Todd, Michael; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    Using full-field ultrasonic guided wave data can provide a wealth of information on the state of a structure through a detailed characterization of its wave propagation properties. However, the need for appropriate feature selection and quantified metrics for making rigorous assessments of the structural state is in no way lessened by the density of information. In this study, a simple steel bolted connection with two bolts is monitored for bolt loosening. The full-field data were acquired using a scanning-laser-generated ultrasound system with a single surface-mounted sensor. Such laser systems have many advantages that make them attractive for nondestructive evaluation, including their high-speed, high spatial resolution, and the ability to scan large areas of in-service structures. In order to characterize the relationship between bolt torque and the resulting wavefield in this specimen, the bolt torque in each of the bolts is independently varied from fully tightened to fully loosened in several steps. First, qualitative observations about the changes in the wavefield are presented. Next, an approach to quantifying the wave transmission through the bolted joint is discussed. Finally, a method of monitoring the bolt torque using the ultrasonic data is demonstrated.

  20. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yan; Wu, Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuelei; Manchon, Aurelien; Xiao, John Q.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-03-01

    We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in C u40A u60/N i80F e20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.

  1. Applying torque to the Escherichia coli flagellar motor using magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    van Oene, Maarten M; Dickinson, Laura E; Cross, Bronwen; Pedaci, Francesco; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2017-03-07

    The bacterial flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is a nanoscale rotary engine essential for bacterial propulsion. Studies on the power output of single motors rely on the measurement of motor torque and rotation under external load. Here, we investigate the use of magnetic tweezers, which in principle allow the application and active control of a calibrated load torque, to study single flagellar motors in Escherichia coli. We manipulate the external load on the motor by adjusting the magnetic field experienced by a magnetic bead linked to the motor, and we probe the motor's response. A simple model describes the average motor speed over the entire range of applied fields. We extract the motor torque at stall and find it to be similar to the motor torque at drag-limited speed. In addition, use of the magnetic tweezers allows us to force motor rotation in both forward and backward directions. We monitor the motor's performance before and after periods of forced rotation and observe no destructive effects on the motor. Our experiments show how magnetic tweezers can provide active and fast control of the external load while also exposing remaining challenges in calibration. Through their non-invasive character and straightforward parallelization, magnetic tweezers provide an attractive platform to study nanoscale rotary motors at the single-motor level.

  2. Applying torque to the Escherichia coli flagellar motor using magnetic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Oene, Maarten M.; Dickinson, Laura E.; Cross, Bronwen; Pedaci, Francesco; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is a nanoscale rotary engine essential for bacterial propulsion. Studies on the power output of single motors rely on the measurement of motor torque and rotation under external load. Here, we investigate the use of magnetic tweezers, which in principle allow the application and active control of a calibrated load torque, to study single flagellar motors in Escherichia coli. We manipulate the external load on the motor by adjusting the magnetic field experienced by a magnetic bead linked to the motor, and we probe the motor’s response. A simple model describes the average motor speed over the entire range of applied fields. We extract the motor torque at stall and find it to be similar to the motor torque at drag-limited speed. In addition, use of the magnetic tweezers allows us to force motor rotation in both forward and backward directions. We monitor the motor’s performance before and after periods of forced rotation and observe no destructive effects on the motor. Our experiments show how magnetic tweezers can provide active and fast control of the external load while also exposing remaining challenges in calibration. Through their non-invasive character and straightforward parallelization, magnetic tweezers provide an attractive platform to study nanoscale rotary motors at the single-motor level. PMID:28266562

  3. Atmospheric Gravitational Torque Variations Based on Various Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rowlands, David; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Advancements in the study of the Earth's variable rate of rotation and the motion of its rotation axis have given impetus to the analysis of the torques between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth. The output from global general circulation models of the atmosphere (pressure, surface stress) is being used as input to the torque computations. Gravitational torque between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth is an important component of the torque budget. Computation of the gravitational torque involves the adoption of a gravitational model from a wide variety available. The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain to what extent this choice might influence the results of gravitational torque computations.

  4. Perspective: Interface generation of spin-orbit torques

    SciTech Connect

    Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.

    We present that most of the modern spintronics developments rely on the manipulation of magnetization states via electric currents, which started with the discovery of spin transfer torque effects 20 years ago. By now, it has been realized that spin-orbit coupling provides a particularly efficient pathway for generating spin torques from charge currents. At the same time, spin-orbit effects can be enhanced at interfaces, which opens up novel device concepts. Here, we discuss two examples of such interfacial spin-orbit torques, namely, systems with inherently two-dimensional materials and metallic bilayers with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling at their interfaces. We show howmore » ferromagnetic resonance excited by spin-orbit torques can provide information about the underlying mechanisms. In addition, this article provides a brief overview of recent developments with respect to interfacial spin-orbit torques and an outlook of still open questions.« less

  5. Perspective: Interface generation of spin-orbit torques

    DOE PAGES

    Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; ...

    2016-11-14

    We present that most of the modern spintronics developments rely on the manipulation of magnetization states via electric currents, which started with the discovery of spin transfer torque effects 20 years ago. By now, it has been realized that spin-orbit coupling provides a particularly efficient pathway for generating spin torques from charge currents. At the same time, spin-orbit effects can be enhanced at interfaces, which opens up novel device concepts. Here, we discuss two examples of such interfacial spin-orbit torques, namely, systems with inherently two-dimensional materials and metallic bilayers with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling at their interfaces. We show howmore » ferromagnetic resonance excited by spin-orbit torques can provide information about the underlying mechanisms. In addition, this article provides a brief overview of recent developments with respect to interfacial spin-orbit torques and an outlook of still open questions.« less

  6. Enceladus Plume Density Modeling and Reconstruction for Cassini Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, Cassini detected jets composed mostly of water, spouting from a set of nearly parallel rifts in the crust of Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn. During an Enceladus flyby, either reaction wheels or attitude control thrusters on the Cassini spacecraft are used to overcome the external torque imparted on Cassini due to Enceladus plume or jets, as well as to slew the spacecraft in order to meet the pointing needs of the on-board science instruments. If the estimated imparted torque is larger than it can be controlled by the reaction wheel control system, thrusters are used to control the spacecraft. Having an engineering model that can predict and simulate the external torque imparted on Cassini spacecraft due to the plume density during all projected low-altitude Enceladus flybys is important. Equally important is being able to reconstruct the plume density after each flyby in order to calibrate the model. This paper describes an engineering model of the Enceladus plume density, as a function of the flyby altitude, developed for the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, and novel methodologies that use guidance, navigation, and control data to estimate the external torque imparted on the spacecraft due to the Enceladus plume and jets. The plume density is determined accordingly. The methodologies described have already been used to reconstruct the plume density for three low-altitude Enceladus flybys of Cassini in 2008 and will continue to be used on all remaining low-altitude Enceladus flybys in Cassini's extended missions.

  7. Torquing preload in a lubricated bolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The tension preload obtained by torquing a 7/8 in. diam UNC high strength bolt was determined for lubricated and dry conditions. Consistent preload with a variation of + or - 3% was obtained when the bolt head area was lubricated prior to each torque application. Preload tensions nearly 70% greater than the value predicted with the commonly used formula occurred with the lubricated bolt. A reduction to 39% of the initial preload was observed during 50 torque applications without relubrication. Little evidence of wear was noted after 203 cycles of tightening.

  8. Neutron star dynamics under time-dependent external torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gügercinoǧlu, Erbil; Alpar, M. Ali

    2017-11-01

    The two-component model describes neutron star dynamics incorporating the response of the superfluid interior. Conventional solutions and applications involve constant external torques, as appropriate for radio pulsars on dynamical time-scales. We present the general solution of two-component dynamics under arbitrary time-dependent external torques, with internal torques that are linear in the rotation rates, or with the extremely non-linear internal torques due to vortex creep. The two-component model incorporating the response of linear or non-linear internal torques can now be applied not only to radio pulsars but also to magnetars and to neutron stars in binary systems, with strong observed variability and noise in the spin-down or spin-up rates. Our results allow the extraction of the time-dependent external torques from the observed spin-down (or spin-up) time series, \\dot{Ω }(t). Applications are discussed.

  9. A reactive torque control law for gyroscopically controlled space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method of control is developed based on the reactive torques as seen by the individual CMG gimbals. The application of a torque to the gimbal of a CMG rotates the momentum vector and applies a torque to the spacecraft according to well-known laws. The response (rotation) of the vehicle produces a reverse or reaction torque opposing the torque producing the gimbal movement. The reactive torque and the pseudoinverse control schemes are contrasted in order to point out the simplicity of the first method. Simulation was performed only to the extent necessary to prove that reactive torque stabilization and control is feasible.

  10. Anomalistic Disturbance Torques during the Entry Phase of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions: A Telemetry and Mars-Surface Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Willcockson, William H.; Desai, Prasun N.; Thomas, Paige

    2006-01-01

    Shortly after landing on Mars, post-flight analysis of the "Spirit" entry data suggested that the vehicle experienced large, anomalistic oscillations in angle-of-attack starting at about M=6. Similar analysis for "Opportunity " found even larger oscillations starting immediately after maximum dynamic pressure at M=14. Where angles-of-attack of 1-2 degrees were expected from maximum dynamic pressure to drogue deployment, the reconstructions suggested 4 to 9 degrees. The next Mars lander, 2007 Phoenix project, was concerned enough to recommend further exploration of the anomalies. Detailed analysis of "Opportunity" data found significant anomalies in the hypersonic aerodynamic torques. The analysis showed that these torques were essentially fixed in the spinning vehicle. Nearly a year after landing, the "Oportunity" rover took pictures of its aeroshell on the surface, which showed that portions of the aeroshell thermal blanket assembly still remained. This blanket assembly was supposed to burn off very early in the entry. An analysis of the aeroshell photographs led to an estimate of the aerodynamic torques that the remnants could have produced. A comparison of two estimates of the aerodynamic torque perturbations (one extracted from telemetry data and the other from Mars surface photographs) showed exceptional agreement. Trajectory simulations using a simple data derived torque perturbation model provided rigid body motions similar to that observed during the "Opportunity" entry. Therefore, the case of the anomalistic attitude behavior for the "Opportunity" EDL is now considered closed and a suggestion is put forth that a similar event occurred for the "Spirit" entry as well.

  11. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, W. M.; Politzer, P. A.; Buttery, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hanson, J. M.; In, Y.; Jackson, G. L.; Kinsey, J. E.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Okabayashi, M.; Petty, C. C.; Turco, F.; Welander, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high βN, allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved βN ∼ 3.1 with H98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high βN phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high βN, or ramps βN up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the turbulent

  12. Spin-orbit torque in a three-dimensional topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructure: Crossover between bulk and surface transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Manchon, A.

    2018-04-01

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  13. Torque, power and muscle activation of eccentric and concentric isokinetic cycling.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Thomas, Kevin; Ross, Emma Z; Green, Steven C; Pringle, Jamie S M; Howatson, Glyn

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of cycling mode and cadence on torque, external power output, and lower limb muscle activation during maximal, recumbent, isokinetic cycling. After familiarisation, twelve healthy males completed 6 × 10 s of maximal eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) cycling at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 rpm with five minutes recovery. Vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris surface electromyography was recorded throughout. As cadence increased, peak torque linearly decreased during ECC (350-248 N·m) and CON (239-117 N·m) and peak power increased in a parabolic manner. Crank angle at peak torque increased with cadence in CON (+13°) and decreased in ECC (-9.0°). At all cadences, peak torque (mean +129 N·m, range 111-143 N·m), and power (mean +871 W, range 181-1406 W), were greater during ECC compared to CON. For all recorded muscles the crank angle at peak muscle activation was greater during ECC compared to CON. This difference increased with cadence in all muscles except the vastus lateralis. Additionally, peak vastus laterallis and biceps femoris activation was greater during CON compared to ECC. Eccentric cycling offers a greater mechanical stimulus compared to concentric cycling but the effect of cadence is similar between modalities. Markers of technique (muscle activation, crank angle at peak activation and torque) were different between eccentric and concentric cycling and respond differently to changes in cadence. Such data should be considered when comparing between, and selecting cadences for, recumbent, isokinetic, eccentric and concentric cycling. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  15. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  16. On the Dramatic Spin-up/Spin-Down Torque Reversals in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Mathew; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Dramatic torque reversals between spin-up and spin-down have been observed in half of the persistent X-ray pulsars monitored by the Burst and Transient Space Experiment (BATSE) all-sky monitor on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Theoretical models developed to explain early pulsar timing data can explain spin-down torques via a disk-magnetosphere interaction if the star nearly corotates with the inner accretion disk. To produce the observed BATSE torque reversals, however, these equilibrium models require the disk to alternate between two mass accretion rates, with M+/- producing accretion torques of similar magnitude but always of opposite sign. Moreover, in at least one pulsar (GX 1+4) undergoing secular spin-down, the neutron star spins down faster during brief (approximately 20 day) hard X-ray flares-this is opposite the correlation expected from standard theory, assuming that BATSE pulsed flux increases with mass accretion rate. The 10 day to 10 yr intervals between torque reversals in these systems are much longer than any characteristic magnetic or viscous timescale near the inner disk boundary and are more suggestive of a global disk phenomenon. We discuss possible explanations of the observed torque behavior. Despite the preferred sense of rotation defined by the binary orbit, the BATSE observations are surprisingly consistent with an earlier suggestion for GX 1+4: the disks in these systems somehow alternate between episodes of prograde and retrograde rotation. We are unaware of any mechanism that could produce a stable retrograde disk in a binary undergoing Roche lobe overflow, but such flip-flop behavior does occur in numerical simulations of wind-fed systems. One possibility is that the disks in some of these binaries are fed by an X-ray-excited wind.

  17. Bevel Gear Driver and Method Having Torque Limit Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including an axially displaceable gear with a biasing assembly to bias the displaceable gear into an engagement position. A rotatable cap is provided with a micrometer dial to select a desired output torque. An intermediate bevel gear assembly is disposed between an input gear and an output gear. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at a desired torque limit. The torque limit is adjustable and may be adjusted manually or automatically depending on the type of biasing assembly provided. A clutch assembly automatically limits axial force applied to a fastener by the operator to avoid alteration of the desired torque limit.

  18. Expanding torque possibilities: A skeletally anchored torqued cantilever for uprighting "kissing molars".

    PubMed

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly; Ferreira, Eduardo; Rösing, Cassiano

    2018-04-01

    Several uprighting mechanics and devices have been used for repositioning tipped molars. "Kissing molars" (KMs) are an uncommon tooth impaction involving 2 severely tipped mandibular molars with their occlusal surfaces positioned crown to crown, with the roots pointing in opposite directions. Orthodontic uprighting of KMs has not been a usual treatment protocol, and it can be a challenging task due to the severe tipping and double impaction, requiring efficient and well-controlled uprighting mechanics. An innovative skeletally anchored cantilever, which uses the torque principle for uprighting tipped molars, is suggested. This torqued cantilever is easy to manufacture, install, and activate; it is a well-known torque that is effective for producing root movement. A successful treatment of symptomatic KMs, involving the first and second molars, was achieved with this cantilever. Thus, clinicians should consider the suggested uprighting mechanics and orthodontic device as a more conservative alternative to extraction of KMs, depending on the patient's age, involved teeth in KMs, tipping severity, and impaction positions. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior

  20. Active motion assisted by correlated stochastic torques.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian; Radtke, Paul K; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hänggi, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The stochastic dynamics of an active particle undergoing a constant speed and additionally driven by an overall fluctuating torque is investigated. The random torque forces are expressed by a stochastic differential equation for the angular dynamics of the particle determining the orientation of motion. In addition to a constant torque, the particle is supplemented by random torques, which are modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with given correlation time τ(c). These nonvanishing correlations cause a persistence of the particles' trajectories and a change of the effective spatial diffusion coefficient. We discuss the mean square displacement as a function of the correlation time and the noise intensity and detect a nonmonotonic dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient with respect to both correlation time and noise strength. A maximal diffusion behavior is obtained if the correlated angular noise straightens the curved trajectories, interrupted by small pirouettes, whereby the correlated noise amplifies a straightening of the curved trajectories caused by the constant torque.

  1. Torque Measurement at the Single Molecule Level

    PubMed Central

    Forth, Scott; Sheinin, Maxim Y.; Inman, James; Wang, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for exerting and measuring forces on single molecules have revolutionized the study of the physics of biology. However, it is often the case that biological processes involve rotation or torque generation, and these parameters have been more difficult to access experimentally. Recent advances in the single molecule field have led to the development of techniques which add the capability of torque measurement. By combining force, displacement, torque, and rotational data, a more comprehensive description of the mechanics of a biomolecule can be achieved. In this review, we highlight a number of biological processes for which torque plays a key mechanical role. We describe the various techniques that have been developed to directly probe the torque experienced by a single molecule, and detail a variety of measurements made to date using these new technologies. We conclude by discussing a number of open questions and propose systems of study which would be well suited for analysis with torsional measurement techniques. PMID:23541162

  2. Torque measurement at the single-molecule level.

    PubMed

    Forth, Scott; Sheinin, Maxim Y; Inman, James; Wang, Michelle D

    2013-01-01

    Methods for exerting and measuring forces on single molecules have revolutionized the study of the physics of biology. However, it is often the case that biological processes involve rotation or torque generation, and these parameters have been more difficult to access experimentally. Recent advances in the single-molecule field have led to the development of techniques that add the capability of torque measurement. By combining force, displacement, torque, and rotational data, a more comprehensive description of the mechanics of a biomolecule can be achieved. In this review, we highlight a number of biological processes for which torque plays a key mechanical role. We describe the various techniques that have been developed to directly probe the torque experienced by a single molecule, and detail a variety of measurements made to date using these new technologies. We conclude by discussing a number of open questions and propose systems of study that would be well suited for analysis with torsional measurement techniques.

  3. Accuracy of electronic implant torque controllers following time in clinical service.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, R; Nicholls, J I; Phillips, K M; Ma, T

    2001-01-01

    Tightening of the screws in implant-supported restorations has been reported to be problematic, in that if the applied torque is too low, screw loosening occurs. If the torque is too high, then screw fracture can take place. Thus, accuracy of the torque driver is of the utmost importance. This study evaluated 4 new electronic torque drivers (controls) and 10 test electronic torque drivers, which had been in clinical service for a minimum of 5 years. Torque values of the test drivers were measured and were compared with the control values using a 1-way analysis of variance. Torque delivery accuracy was measured using a technique that simulated the clinical situation. In vivo, the torque driver turns the screw until the selected tightening torque is reached. In this laboratory experiment, an implant, along with an attached abutment and abutment gold screw, was held firmly in a Tohnichi torque gauge. Calibration accuracy for the Tohnichi is +/- 3% of the scale value. During torque measurement, the gold screw turned a minimum of 180 degrees before contact was made between the screw and abutment. Three torque values (10, 20, and 32 N-cm) were evaluated, at both high- and low-speed settings. The recorded torque measurements indicated that the 10 test electronic torque drivers maintained a torque delivery accuracy equivalent to the 4 new (unused) units. Judging from the torque output values obtained from the 10 test units, the clinical use of the electronic torque driver suggests that accuracy did not change significantly over the 5-year period of clinical service.

  4. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurélien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  5. Magnetic Torque in Single Crystal Ni-Mn-Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobza, Anthony; Müllner, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys deform in an external magnetic field in two distinct ways: by axial straining—known as magnetic-field-induced strain—and by bending when exposed to torque. Here, we examine the magnetic torque that a magnetic field exerts on a long Ni-Mn-Ga rod. A single crystal specimen of Ni-Mn-Ga was constrained with respect to bending and subjected to an external magnetic field. The torque required to rotate the specimen in the field was measured as a function of the orientation of the sample with the external magnetic field, strain, and the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The torque was analyzed based on the changes in the free energy with the angle between the field and the sample. The contributions of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy to the Zeeman energy determine the net torque. The torque is large when magneotcrystalline and shape anisotropies act synergistically and small when these anisotropies act antagonistically.

  6. Intrinsic domain wall flexing from current-induced spin torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatski, Elizabeth; Flatté, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Spin torque generated by coherent carrier transport in domain walls [1] is a major component in the development of spintronic devices [2]. We model spin torque in N'eel walls [3] using a piecewise linear transfer-matrix method [4] to calculate spin torque on interior wall segments. For a π wall with a total positive torque (current left-to-right), we find the largest positive and negative spin torques left of the central region, 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the center. The wall's rightward push comes from the back of the wall; all other significant regions pull to the left. Adding a second wall (both walls with positive total torque) changes the first wall little, but produces spin torques in the second wall with large canceling torques on the left, and the push rightward from a smaller torque on the right. The gradient of torque across the wall generates an intrinsic domain wall flexing (distinct from extrinsic wall flexing from pinning centers [5]). Work supported by an ARO MURI.[4pt] [1] M. Yamanouchi et al., Nature 428, 539 (2004).[0pt] [2] S. Parkin et al., Science 320, 190 (2008)[0pt] [3] G. Vignale and M. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 098302 (2002)[0pt] [4] E. Golovatski and M. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. B, 84, 115210 (2011)[0pt] [5] A. Balk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).

  7. Effect of immobilization and retraining on torque-velocity relationship of human knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Labarque, V L; Eijnde, B Op 't; Van Leemputte, M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 2 weeks immobilization of the uninjured right knee and 10 weeks of retraining on muscle torque-velocity characteristics was investigated in nine young subjects. Left and right knee extension and flexion maximal voluntary isometric torque (Tmax) and dynamic torque at 60 degrees s(-1) (T60) and 180 degrees x s(-1) (T180) were measured before (PRE) and after immobilization (POST) and after 3 (R3) and 10 (R10) weeks of dynamic retraining. The torque-velocity relationship was quantified by expressing T60 and T180 relative to Tmax (NT60 and NT180, respectively). For the right extensor muscles, percutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and fibre type distribution was measured. POST extension and flexion torque (mean of Tmax, T60 and T180) decreased by 27% and 11%, respectively. During the course of the experiment, the changes in NT60 and NT180 were similar. POST extensor muscle NTV (mean of NT60 and NT180) was decreased significantly (12%, P<0.05), but no significant change was found for flexor muscle NTV (+ 3%). At R3 Tmax, dynamic torque and NTV were restored to normal. Unlike isometric torque, NTV did not change from R3 to R10. No changes in fibre type distribution were found. The adaptation of muscle length is suggested as the mechanism to explain the change in NTV.

  8. Joint torques in a freely walking insect reveal distinct functions of leg joints in propulsion and posture control

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Determining the mechanical output of limb joints is critical for understanding the control of complex motor behaviours such as walking. In the case of insect walking, the neural infrastructure for single-joint control is well described. However, a detailed description of the motor output in form of time-varying joint torques is lacking. Here, we determine joint torques in the stick insect to identify leg joint function in the control of body height and propulsion. Torques were determined by measuring whole-body kinematics and ground reaction forces in freely walking animals. We demonstrate that despite strong differences in morphology and posture, stick insects show a functional division of joints similar to other insect model systems. Propulsion was generated by strong depression torques about the coxa–trochanter joint, not by retraction or flexion/extension torques. Torques about the respective thorax–coxa and femur–tibia joints were often directed opposite to fore–aft forces and joint movements. This suggests a posture-dependent mechanism that counteracts collapse of the leg under body load and directs the resultant force vector such that strong depression torques can control both body height and propulsion. Our findings parallel propulsive mechanisms described in other walking, jumping and flying insects, and challenge current control models of insect walking. PMID:26791608

  9. A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M.; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple. PMID:23519345

  10. A comparative assessment of torque generated by lingual and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Bourauel, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets. Incognito™ lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb™ lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), In-Ovation L lingual brackets (DENTSPLY GAC), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded on identical maxillary acrylic resin models with levelled and aligned teeth. Each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system and 10 0.0175 × 0.0175 TMA wires were used for each bracket type. The wire was ligated with elastomerics into the Incognito, STb, and conventional brackets and each measurement was repeated once after religation. A 15 degrees buccal root torque (+15 degrees) and then a 15 degrees palatal root torque (-15 degrees) were gradually applied to the right central incisor bracket. After each activation, the bracket returned to its initial position and the moments in the sagittal plane were recorded during these rotations of the bracket. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc multiple comparisons (Tukey test at 0.05 error rate) was conducted to assess the effect on bracket type on the generated moments. The magnitude of maximum moment at +15 degrees ranged 8.8, 8.2, 7.1, and 5.8 Nmm for the Incognito, STb, conventional Gemini, and the In-Ovation L brackets, respectively; similar values were recorded at -15 degrees: 8.6, 8.1, 7.0, and 5.7 Nmm, respectively. The recorded differences of maximum moments were statistically significant, except between the Incognito and STb brackets. Additionally, the torque angles were evaluated at which the crown torque fell well below the minimum levels of 5.0 Nmm, as well as the moment/torque ratio at the last part of the activation/deactivation curve, between 10 and 15 degrees. The lowest torque expression was observed at the self-ligating lingual brackets, followed by the conventional brackets. The Incognito and STb lingual brackets

  11. Effect of insertion torque on bone screw pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Lawson, K J; Brems, J

    2001-05-01

    The effect of insertion torque on the holding strength of 4.5-mm ASIF/AO cortical bone screws was studied in vitro. Screw holding strength was determined using an Instron materials testing machine (Bristol, United Kingdom) on 55 lamb femora and 30 human tibiocortical bone sections. Holding strength was defined as tensile stress at pullout with rapid loading to construct failure. Different insertion torques were tested, normalizing to the thickness of cortical bone specimen engaged. These represented low, intermediate, high, and thread-damaging insertion torque. All screws inserted with thread-damaging torque and single cortex engaging screws inserted to high torque tightening moments showed diminished holding strength. This loss of strength amounted to 40%-50% less than screws inserted with less torque.

  12. Measurement of clinicians' ability to hand torque dental implant components.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Ali; Richards, Mark W; Becker, Jeffery J; Monaco, Natalie E

    2009-01-01

    There is a varying degree of hand torque abilities using finger drivers among clinicians. Calibrating one's own abilities requires complicated instruments not readily available. This study evaluated a simple-to-use method that allows dental practitioners to have a quantifiable clinical assessment of relative torque ability using finger drivers to torque down dental implant components. A typodont that includes dental implants was mounted in a mannequin placed in a patient-reclined position. The subjects were asked to torque as tightly as they could a new healing abutment to an implant secured firmly in resin within the typodont. All participants wore moistened gloves when using a finger driver. The healing abutment was countertorqued using a certified precalibrated precision torque measurement device. The reading on the torque driver was recorded when the healing abutment disengaged. An average of torque values of dentists and dental students was calculated. Fifty subjects had an average maximum torque ability of 24 Ncm (male dentists: 28 Ncm; students: 22 Ncm; male students: 24 Ncm; female students: 19 Ncm). Maximum torque values for all participants ranged from 11 Ncm to 38 Ncm. There was no significant difference between groups. This study showed a varying degree of hand torquing abilities using a finger driver. Clinicians should regularly calibrate their ability to torque implant components to more predictably perform implant dentistry. Dental implant manufacturers should more precisely instruct clinicians as to maximum torque, as opposed to "finger tighten only".

  13. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master load-cell...

  14. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master load-cell...

  15. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master load-cell...

  16. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master load-cell...

  17. Spin-orbit torque magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, Murat; Boulle, Olivier; Drouard, Marc

    2014-01-27

    We report on the current-induced magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction by spin-orbit torque and its read-out using the tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. The device is composed of a perpendicular Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB stack on top of a Ta current line. The magnetization of the bottom FeCoB layer can be switched reproducibly by the injection of current pulses with density 5 × 10{sup 11} A/m{sup 2} in the Ta layer in the presence of an in-plane bias magnetic field, leading to the full-scale change of the TMR signal. Our work demonstrates the proof of concept of a perpendicular spin-orbit torque magnetic memorymore » cell.« less

  18. Removal Torque and Biofilm Accumulation at Two Dental Implant-Abutment Joints After Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jorge; Morsch, Carolina S; Henriques, Bruno; Nascimento, Rubens M; Benfatti, Cesar Am; Silva, Filipe S; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio Cm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque and in vitro biofilm penetration at Morse taper and hexagonal implant-abutment joints after fatigue tests. Sixty dental implants were divided into two groups: (1) Morse taper and (2) external hexagon implant-abutment systems. Fatigue tests on the implant-abutment assemblies were performed at a normal force (FN) of 50 N at 1.2 Hz for 500,000 cycles in growth medium containing human saliva for 72 hours. Removal torque mean values (n = 10) were measured after fatigue tests. Abutments were then immersed in 1% protease solution in order to detach the biofilms for optical density and colony-forming unit (CFU/cm²) analyses. Groups of implant-abutment assemblies (n = 8) were cross-sectioned at 90 degrees relative to the plane of the implant-abutment joints for the microgap measurement by field-emission guns scanning electron microscopy. Mean values of removal torque on abutments were significantly lower for both Morse taper (22.1 ± 0.5 μm) and external hexagon (21.1 ± 0.7 μm) abutments after fatigue tests than those recorded without fatigue tests (respectively, 24 ± 0.5 μm and 24.8 ± 0.6 μm) in biofilm medium for 72 hours (P = .04). Mean values of microgap size for the Morse taper joints were statistically signicantly lower without fatigue tests (1.7 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (3.2 ± 0.8 μm). Also, mean values of microgap size for external hexagon joints free of fatigue were statistically signicantly lower (1.5 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (8.1 ± 1.7 μm) (P < .05). The optical density of biofilms and CFU mean values were lower on Morse taper abutments (Abs630nm at 0.06 and 2.9 × 10⁴ CFU/cm²) than that on external hexagon abutments (Abs630nm at 0.08 and 4.5 × 10⁴ CFU/cm²) (P = .01). The mean values of removal torque, microgap size, and biofilm density recorded at Morse taper joints were lower in comparison to those recorded at external hexagon

  19. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.5±3.7years) and 9 old (76.1±5.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40° joint excursion (40°PF-0°PF) at angular velocities of 15°/s and 120°/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15°/s and 120°/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15°/s and 120°/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD

  20. Accuracy and precision of as-received implant torque wrenches.

    PubMed

    Britton-Vidal, Eduardo; Baker, Philip; Mettenburg, Donald; Pannu, Darshanjit S; Looney, Stephen W; Londono, Jimmy; Rueggeberg, Frederick A

    2014-10-01

    Previous implant torque evaluation did not determine if the target value fell within a confidence interval for the population mean of the test groups, disallowing determination of whether a specific type of wrench met a standardized goal value. The purpose of this study was to measure both the accuracy and precision of 2 different configurations (spring style and peak break) of as-received implant torque wrenches and compare the measured values to manufacturer-stated values. Ten wrenches from 4 manufacturers, representing a variety of torque-limiting mechanisms and specificity of use (with either a specific brand or universally with any brand of implant product). Drivers were placed into the wrench, and tightening torque was applied to reach predetermined values using a NIST-calibrated digital torque wrench. Five replications of measurement were made for each wrench and averaged to provide a single value from that instrument. The target torque value for each wrench brand was compared to the 95% confidence interval for the true population mean of measured values to see if it fell within the measured range. Only 1 wrench brand (Nobel Biocare) demonstrated the target torque value falling within the 95% confidence interval for the true population mean. For others, the targeted torque value fell above the 95% confidence interval (Straumann and Imtec) or below (Salvin Torq). Neither type of torque-limiting mechanism nor designation of a wrench to be used as a dedicated brand-only product or to be used as a universal product on many brands affected the ability of a wrench to deliver torque values where the true population mean included the target torque level. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical torque measurement predicts load to implant cut-out: a biomechanical study investigating DHS anchorage in femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Suhm, Norbert; Hengg, Clemens; Schwyn, Ronald; Windolf, Markus; Quarz, Volker; Hänni, Markus

    2007-08-01

    Bone strength plays an important role in implant anchorage. Bone mineral density (BMD) is used as surrogate parameter to quantify bone strength and to predict implant anchorage. BMD can be measured by means of quantitative computer tomography (QCT) or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). These noninvasive methods for BMD measurement are not available pre- or intra-operatively. Instead, the surgeon could determine bone strength by direct mechanical measurement. We have evaluated mechanical torque measurement for (A) its capability to quantify local bone strength and (B) its predictive value towards load at implant cut-out. Our experimental study was performed using sixteen paired human cadaver proximal femurs. BMD was determined for all specimens by QCT. The torque to breakaway of the cancellous bone structure (peak torque) was measured by means of a mechanical probe at the exact position of subsequent DHS placement. The fixation strength of the DHS achieved was assessed by cyclic loading in a stepwise protocol beginning with 1,500 N increasing 500 N every 5,000 cycles until 4,000 N. A highly significant correlation of peak torque with BMD (QCT) was found (r = 0.902, r (2) = 0.814, P < 0.001). Peak torque correlated highly significant with the load at implant cut-out (r = 0.795, P < 0.001). All specimens with a measured peak torque below 6.79 Nm failed at the first load level of 1,500 N. The specimens with a peak torque above 8.63 Nm survived until the last load level of 4,000 N. Mechanical peak torque measurement is able to quantify bone strength. In an experimental setup, peak torque identifies those specimens that are likely to fail at low load. In clinical routine, implant migration and cut-out depend on several parameters, which are difficult to control, such as fracture type, fracture reduction achieved, and implant position. The predictive value of peak torque towards cut-out in a clinical set-up therefore has to be carefully validated.

  2. Manipulation of Spin-Torque Generation Using Ultrathin Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongyu; Haku, Satoshi; Kanno, Yusuke; Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Maki, Hideyuki; Shi, Ji; Ando, Kazuya

    2018-06-01

    The generation and the manipulation of current-induced spin-orbit torques are of essential interest in spintronics. However, in spite of the vital progress in spin orbitronics, electric control of the spin-torque generation still remains elusive and challenging. We report on electric control of the spin-torque generation using ionic-liquid gating of ultrathin Au. We show that by simply depositing a SiO2 capping layer on an ultrathin-Au /Ni81Fe19 bilayer, the spin-torque generation efficiency is drastically enhanced by a maximum of 7 times. This enhancement is verified to be originated from the rough ultrathin-Au /Ni81Fe19 interface induced by the SiO2 deposition, which results in the enhancement of the interface spin-orbit scattering. We further show that the spin-torque generation efficiency from the ultrathin Au film can be reversibly manipulated by a factor of 2 using the ionic gating with an external electric field within a small range of 1 V. These results pave a way towards the efficient control of the spin-torque generation in spintronic applications.

  3. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  4. Inductive detection of fieldlike and dampinglike ac inverse spin-orbit torques in ferromagnet/normal-metal bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Edwards, Eric R. J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Karenowska, Alexy D.; Weiler, Mathias; Silva, Thomas J.

    2018-03-01

    Functional spintronic devices rely on spin-charge interconversion effects, such as the reciprocal processes of electric field-driven spin torque and magnetization dynamics-driven spin and charge flow. Both dampinglike and fieldlike spin-orbit torques have been observed in the forward process of current-driven spin torque and dampinglike inverse spin-orbit torque has been well studied via spin pumping into heavy metal layers. Here, we demonstrate that established microwave transmission spectroscopy of ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers under ferromagnetic resonance can be used to inductively detect the ac charge currents driven by the inverse spin-charge conversion processes. This technique relies on vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements. We show that in addition to the commonly extracted spectroscopic information, VNA-FMR measurements can be used to quantify the magnitude and phase of all ac charge currents in the sample, including those due to spin pumping and spin-charge conversion. Our findings reveal that Ni80Fe20/Pt bilayers exhibit both dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torques. While the magnitudes of both the dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torque are of comparable scale to prior reported values for similar material systems, we observed a significant dependence of the dampinglike magnitude on the order of deposition. This suggests interface quality plays an important role in the overall strength of the dampinglike spin-to-charge conversion.

  5. State diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin-torque oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Mengwei; Wang, Longze; Wei, Dan, E-mail: weidan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    The state diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin torque oscillator (STO) with perpendicular reference layer and planar field generation layer (FGL) is studied by the macrospin model and the micromagnetic model. The state diagrams of current densities are calculated under various external fields. The simulation shows that there are two phase-lock current density regions. In the phase-locked STOs in low current region I, the spin configuration of FGL is uniform; in high current region II, the spin configuration of FGL is highly nonuniform. In addition, the results with different STOs separation L{sub s} are compared, and the coupling between twomore » STOs is largely decreased when L{sub s} is increased from 40 nm to 60 nm.« less

  6. An Efficient Power Regeneration and Drive Method of an Induction Motor by Means of an Optimal Torque Derived by Variational Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Ogata, Kenji; Kato, Toshiji

    When the motor speed is reduced by using a regenerative brake, the mechanical energy of rotation is converted to the electrical energy. When the regenerative torque is large, the corresponding current increases so that the copper loss also becomes large. On the other hand, the damping effect of rotation increases according to the time elapse when the regenerative torque is small. In order to use the limited energy effectively, an optimal regenerative torque should be discussed in order to regenerate electrical energy as much as possible. This paper proposes a design methodology of a regenerative torque for an induction motor to maximize the regenerative electric energy by means of the variational method. Similarly, an optimal torque for acceleration is derived in order to minimize the energy to drive. Finally, an efficient motor drive system with the proposed optimal torque and the power storage system stabilizing the DC link voltage will be proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by both simulations and experiments.

  7. Torque balance, Taylor's constraint and torsional oscillations in a numerical model of the geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumberry, Mathieu; Bloxham, Jeremy

    2003-11-01

    Theoretical considerations and observations suggest that, to a first approximation, the Earth's dynamo is in a quasi-Taylor state, where the axial Lorentz torque on cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis vanishes, except for the part involved in torsional oscillations. The latter are rigid azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces which oscillate with typical periods of decades. We present a solution of a numerical model of the geodynamo in which rigid accelerations of cylinder surfaces are observed. The underlying dynamic state in the model is not a Taylor state because the Reynolds stresses and viscous torque remain large and provide an effective way to balance a large Lorentz torque. This is a consequence of the limited parameter regime which can be attained numerically. Nevertheless, departures in the torque equilibrium are primarily counterbalanced by rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces, which, in turn, excite rigid azimuthal oscillations of the surfaces. We show that the azimuthal motion is indeed quasi-rigid, though the torsional oscillations that are produced in the model probably differ from those in the Earth's core because of the large influence of the Reynolds stresses on their dynamics. We also show that the continual excitation of rigid cylindrical accelerations is produced by the advection of the non-axisymmetric structure of the fields by a mean differential rotation of the cylindrical surfaces which produces disconnections and reconnections and continual fluctuations in the Lorentz torque and Reynolds stresses. We propose that the torque balance in Earth's core may evolve in a similar chaotic fashion, except that the influence of the Reynolds stresses is probably weaker. If this is the case, the Lorentz torque on a cylindrical surface is continually fluctuating, even though its time-averaged value vanishes and satisfies Taylor's constraint. Rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces are continually excited by the

  8. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Adam; Jarocka, Marta; Walawski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age. PMID:26646385

  9. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  10. Lunar and Solar Torques on the Oceanic Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Bills, Bruce G.; Chao, Benjamin F.

    1998-01-01

    Brosche and Seiler recently suggested that direct lunar and solar tidal torques on the oceanic tides play a significant role in the earth's short-period angular momentum balance ("short-period" here meaning daily and sub-daily). We reexamine that suggestion here, concentrating on axial torques and hence on variations in rotation rate. Only those spherical harmonic components of the ocean tide having the same degree and order as the tidal potential induce nonzero torques. Prograde components (those moving in the same direction as the tide-generating body) produce the familiar secular braking of the earth's rotation. Retrograde components, however, produce rapid variations in UTI at twice the tidal frequency. There also exist interaction torques between tidal constituents, e.g. solar torques on lunar tides. They generate UTI variations at frequencies equal to the sums and differences of the original tidal frequencies. We give estimates of the torques and angular momentum variations for each of the important regimes, secular to quarter-diurnal. For the M(sub 2) potential acting on the M(sub 2) ocean tide, we find an associated angular momentum variation of amplitude 3 x 10(exp 19) N m. This is 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the angular momentum variations associated with tidal currents. We conclude that these torques do not play a significant role in the short-period angular momentum balance.

  11. Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikakhwa, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.

  12. Cerebellar ataxia: abnormal control of interaction torques across multiple joints.

    PubMed

    Bastian, A J; Martin, T A; Keating, J G; Thach, W T

    1996-07-01

    1. We studied seven subjects with cerebellar lesions and seven control subjects as they made reaching movements in the sagittal plane to a target directly in front of them. Reaches were made under three different conditions: 1) "slow-accurate," 2) "fast-accurate," and 3) "fast as possible." All subjects were videotaped moving in a sagittal plane with markers on the index finger, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. Marker positions were digitized and then used to calculate joint angles. For each of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, inverse dynamics equations based on a three-segment limb model were used to estimate the net torque (sum of components) and each of the component torques. The component torques consisted of the torque due to gravity, the dynamic interaction torques induced passively by the movement of the adjacent joint, and the torque produced by the muscles and passive tissue elements (sometimes called "residual" torque). 2. A kinematic analysis of the movement trajectory and the change in joint angles showed that the reaches of subjects with cerebellar lesions were abnormal compared with reaches of control subjects. In both the slow-accurate and fast-accurate conditions the cerebellar subjects made abnormally curved wrist paths; the curvature was greater in the slow-accurate condition. During the slow-accurate condition, cerebellar subjects showed target undershoot and tended to move one joint at a time (decomposition). During the fast-accurate reaches, the cerebellar subjects showed target overshoot. Additionally, in the fast-accurate condition, cerebellar subjects moved the joints at abnormal rates relative to one another, but the movements were less decomposed. Only three subjects were tested in the fast as possible condition; this condition was analyzed only to determine maximal reaching speeds of subjects with cerebellar lesions. Cerebellar subjects moved more slowly than controls in all three conditions. 3. A kinetic analysis of torques generated at

  13. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque.... (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and supporting structure must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361...

  14. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque.... (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and supporting structure must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361...

  15. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque.... (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and supporting structure must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361...

  16. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque.... (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and supporting structure must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361...

  17. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque.... (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and supporting structure must be designed to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361...

  18. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kelledes, William L.; St. John, Don K.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  19. Mechanical torque measurement for in vivo quantification of bone strength in the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Marc Andreas; Hengg, Clemens; Hirschmann, Michael; Schmid, Denise; Sprecher, Christoph; Audigé, Laurent; Suhm, Norbert

    2012-10-01

    Bone strength determines fracture risk and fixation strength of osteosynthesis implants. In vivo, bone strength is currently measured indirectly by quantifying bone mineral density (BMD) which is however only one determinant of the bone's biomechanical competence besides the bone's macro- and micro-architecture and tissue related parameters. We have developed a measurement principle (DensiProbe™ Hip) for direct, mechanical quantification of bone strength within the proximal femur upon hip fracture fixation. Previous cadaver tests indicated a close correlation between DensiProbe™ Hip measurements, 3D micro-CT analysis and biomechanical indicators of bone strength. The goal of this study was to correlate DensiProbe™ Hip measurements with areal bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-three hip fracture patients were included in this study. Intraoperatively, DensiProbe™ Hip was inserted to the subsequent hip screw tip position within the femoral head. Peak torque to breakaway of local cancellous bone was registered. Thirty-seven patients underwent areal BMD measurements of the contralateral proximal femur. Failure of fixation was assessed radio graphically 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Peak torque and femoral neck BMD showed significant correlations (R=0.60, P=0.0001). In regression analysis, areal BMD explained 46% of femoral neck BMD variance in a quadratic relationship. Throughout the 12-week follow-up period, no failure of fixation was observed. DensiProbe™ Hip may capture variations of bone strength beyond areal BMD which are currently difficult to measure in vivo. A multicenter study will clarify if peak torque predicts fixation failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque transducer verification and...

  1. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Torque transducer verification and...

  2. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1... rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used. (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361...

  3. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1... rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used. (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361...

  4. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1... rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used. (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361...

  5. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1... rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used. (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361...

  6. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1... rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used. (b) For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361...

  7. Displacement of Implant Abutments Following Initial and Repeated Torqueing.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Gilbert, Andy B; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    To measure and compare the three-dimensional (3D) position of nine different abutments manufactured by different manufacturers after repeated torqueing on an internal-hexagon implant. Nine tapered implants were placed into an acrylic resin block. Five specimens each of nine different abutments (n = 45) were placed into one of nine implants. The abutments were handtightened and then torqued to the manufacturer-recommended torque of 30 Ncm. After 10 minutes, 30 Ncm of torque was reapplied. Another 10 minutes elapsed before testing was completed. Images were recorded in 12-second intervals. The spatial relationship of the abutments to the resin block was determined using 3D digital image correlation. Commercial image correlation software was used to analyze the displacements. Mean displacements for the abutments were calculated in three dimensions and overall for both torque applications. Statistical comparisons were done with a t test and a step-down Bonferroni correction. The overall 3D displacement of the Atlantis Titanium abutment after the second applied torque was significantly greater than that of two of the eight other abutments. Displacement in all three dimensions for the Atlantis Titanium abutment changed direction between the first and second torque applications. All abutments moved further in the same direction except for the Atlantis Titanium abutment, which moved back toward its original hand-tightened position horizontally after the second torque application. Re-torqueing of abutments after a 10-minute interval leads to minor displacement of varying degrees between the abutment and a tapered implant. A potential effect of embedment relaxation and/or manufacturing errors should be taken into consideration when selecting an abutment for a cement-retained crown on a tapered implant. Accordingly, clinicians may benefit from adjusting cement-retained implant crowns after re-torqueing the abutments to prevent potential occlusal and interproximal contact

  8. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  9. Spin-Orbit Torques and Anisotropic Magnetization Damping in Skyrmion Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, Kjetil; Brataas, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically study the effects of reactive and dissipative homogeneous spin-orbit torques and anisotropic damping on the current-driven skyrmion dynamics in cubic chiral magnets. Our results demonstrate that spin-orbit torques play a significant role in the current-induced skyrmion velocity. The dissipative spin-orbit torque generates a relativistic Magnus force on the skyrmions, whereas the reactive spin-orbit torque yields a correction to both the drift velocity along the current direction and the transverse velocity associated with the Magnus force. The spin-orbit torque corrections to the velocity scale linearly with the skyrmion size, which is inversely proportional to the spin-orbit coupling. Consequently, the reactive spin-orbit torque correction can be the same order of magnitude as the non-relativistic contribution. More importantly, the dissipative spin-orbit torque can be the dominant force that causes a deflected motion of the skyrmions if the torque exhibits a linear or quadratic relationship with the spin-orbit coupling. In addition, we demonstrate that the skyrmion velocity is determined by anisotropic magnetization damping parameters governed by the skyrmion size.

  10. Analytic and simulation studies on the use of torque-wheel actuators for the control of flexible robotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Kenny, Sean

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents results of analytic and simulation studies to determine the effectiveness of torque-wheel actuators in suppressing the vibrations of two-link telerobotic arms with attached payloads. The simulations use a planar generic model of a two-link arm with a torque wheel at the free end. Parameters of the arm model are selected to be representative of a large space-based robotic arm of the same class as the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator, whereas parameters of the torque wheel are selected to be similar to those of the Mini-Mast facility at the Langley Research Center. Results show that this class of torque-wheel can produce an oscillation of 2.5 cm peak-to-peak in the end point of the arm and that the wheel produces significantly less overshoot when the arm is issued an abrupt stop command from the telerobotic input station.

  11. Torque during canal instrumentation using rotary nickel-titanium files.

    PubMed

    Sattapan, B; Palamara, J E; Messer, H H

    2000-03-01

    Nickel-titanium engine-driven rotary instruments are used increasingly in endodontic practice. One frequently mentioned problem is fracture of an instrument in the root canal. Very few studies have been conducted on torsional characteristics of these instruments, and none has been done under dynamic conditions. The purposes of this study were to measure the torque generated and the apical force applied during instrumentation with a commercial engine-driven nickel-titanium file system, and to relate torque generated during simulated clinical use to torsional failure of the instruments. Ten extracted human teeth (five with small-sized and five with medium-sized straight root canals) were instrumented with Quantec Series 2000 files, and the torque and apical force generated were measured. The applied apical force was generally low, not exceeding 150 g in either small or medium canals. The torque depended on the tip size and taper of each instrument, and on canal size. Instruments with 0.05 and 0.06 taper generated the highest torque, which was greater in small than in medium canals. The torque at failure was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than torque during instrumentation, but with considerable variation in the extent of the difference.

  12. Towards Scalable Strain Gauge-Based Joint Torque Sensors

    PubMed Central

    D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cannella, Ferdinando; Caldwell, Darwin G.; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    During recent decades, strain gauge-based joint torque sensors have been commonly used to provide high-fidelity torque measurements in robotics. Although measurement of joint torque/force is often required in engineering research and development, the gluing and wiring of strain gauges used as torque sensors pose difficulties during integration within the restricted space available in small joints. The problem is compounded by the need for a scalable geometric design to measure joint torque. In this communication, we describe a novel design of a strain gauge-based mono-axial torque sensor referred to as square-cut torque sensor (SCTS), the significant features of which are high degree of linearity, symmetry, and high scalability in terms of both size and measuring range. Most importantly, SCTS provides easy access for gluing and wiring of the strain gauges on sensor surface despite the limited available space. We demonstrated that the SCTS was better in terms of symmetry (clockwise and counterclockwise rotation) and more linear. These capabilities have been shown through finite element modeling (ANSYS) confirmed by observed data obtained by load testing experiments. The high performance of SCTS was confirmed by studies involving changes in size, material and/or wings width and thickness. Finally, we demonstrated that the SCTS can be successfully implementation inside the hip joints of miniaturized hydraulically actuated quadruped robot-MiniHyQ. This communication is based on work presented at the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR). PMID:28820446

  13. Towards Scalable Strain Gauge-Based Joint Torque Sensors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hamza; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Cannella, Ferdinando; Caldwell, Darwin G; Cuschieri, Alfred; Semini, Claudio

    2017-08-18

    During recent decades, strain gauge-based joint torque sensors have been commonly used to provide high-fidelity torque measurements in robotics. Although measurement of joint torque/force is often required in engineering research and development, the gluing and wiring of strain gauges used as torque sensors pose difficulties during integration within the restricted space available in small joints. The problem is compounded by the need for a scalable geometric design to measure joint torque. In this communication, we describe a novel design of a strain gauge-based mono-axial torque sensor referred to as square-cut torque sensor (SCTS) , the significant features of which are high degree of linearity, symmetry, and high scalability in terms of both size and measuring range. Most importantly, SCTS provides easy access for gluing and wiring of the strain gauges on sensor surface despite the limited available space. We demonstrated that the SCTS was better in terms of symmetry (clockwise and counterclockwise rotation) and more linear. These capabilities have been shown through finite element modeling (ANSYS) confirmed by observed data obtained by load testing experiments. The high performance of SCTS was confirmed by studies involving changes in size, material and/or wings width and thickness. Finally, we demonstrated that the SCTS can be successfully implementation inside the hip joints of miniaturized hydraulically actuated quadruped robot- MiniHyQ . This communication is based on work presented at the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR).

  14. Spin-orbit torques and anisotropic magnetization damping in skyrmion crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Brataas, Arne

    2014-02-01

    The length scale of the magnetization gradients in chiral magnets is determined by the relativistic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Thus, even conventional spin-transfer torques are controlled by the relativistic spin-orbit coupling in these systems, and additional relativistic corrections to the current-induced torques and magnetization damping become important for a complete understanding of the current-driven magnetization dynamics. We theoretically study the effects of reactive and dissipative homogeneous spin-orbit torques and anisotropic damping on the current-driven skyrmion dynamics in cubic chiral magnets. Our results demonstrate that spin-orbit torques play a significant role in the current-induced skyrmion velocity. The dissipative spin-orbit torque generates a relativistic Magnus force on the skyrmions, whereas the reactive spin-orbit torque yields a correction to both the drift velocity along the current direction and the transverse velocity associated with the Magnus force. The spin-orbit torque corrections to the velocity scale linearly with the skyrmion size, which is inversely proportional to the spin-orbit coupling. Consequently, the reactive spin-orbit torque correction can be the same order of magnitude as the nonrelativistic contribution. More importantly, the dissipative spin-orbit torque can be the dominant force that causes a deflected motion of the skyrmions if the torque exhibits a linear or quadratic relationship with the spin-orbit coupling. In addition, we demonstrate that the skyrmion velocity is determined by anisotropic magnetization damping parameters governed by the skyrmion size.

  15. Spin currents and spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic trilayers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Heon C; Amin, Vivek P; Oh, Young-Wan; Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Geun-Hee; Kim, Kab-Jin; Stiles, M D; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic torques generated through spin-orbit coupling 1-8 promise energy-efficient spintronic devices. For applications, it is important that these torques switch films with perpendicular magnetizations without an external magnetic field 9-14 . One suggested approach 15 to enable such switching uses magnetic trilayers in which the torque on the top magnetic layer can be manipulated by changing the magnetization of the bottom layer. Spin currents generated in the bottom magnetic layer or its interfaces transit the spacer layer and exert a torque on the top magnetization. Here we demonstrate field-free switching in such structures and show that its dependence on the bottom-layer magnetization is not consistent with the anticipated bulk effects 15 . We describe a mechanism for spin-current generation 16,17 at the interface between the bottom layer and the spacer layer, which gives torques that are consistent with the measured magnetization dependence. This other-layer-generated spin-orbit torque is relevant to energy-efficient control of spintronic devices.

  16. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.

  17. Design of a lightweight, tethered, torque-controlled knee exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Witte, Kirby Ann; Fatschel, Andreas M; Collins, Steven H

    2017-07-01

    Lower-limb exoskeletons show promise for improving gait rehabilitation for those with chronic gait abnormalities due to injury, stroke or other illness. We designed and built a tethered knee exoskeleton with a strong lightweight frame and comfortable, four-point contact with the leg. The device is structurally compliant in select directions, instrumented to measure joint angle and applied torque, and is lightweight (0.76 kg). The exoskeleton is actuated by two off-board motors. Closed loop torque control is achieved using classical proportional feedback control with damping injection in conjunction with iterative learning. We tested torque measurement accuracy and found root mean squared (RMS) error of 0.8 Nm with a max load of 62.2 Nm. Bandwidth was measured to be phase limited at 45 Hz when tested on a rigid test stand and 23 Hz when tested on a person's leg. During bandwidth tests peak extension torques were measured up to 50 Nm. Torque tracking was tested during walking on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s with peak flexion torques of 30 Nm. RMS torque tracking error averaged over a hundred steps was 0.91 Nm. We intend to use this knee exoskeleton to investigate robotic assistance strategies to improve gait rehabilitation and enhance human athletic ability.

  18. Evidence of Temporal Variation of Titan Atmospheric Density in 2005-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Lim, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    One major science objective of the Cassini mission is an investigation of Titan's atmosphere constituent abundances. Titan's atmospheric density is of interest not only to planetary scientists but also to mission design and mission control engineers. Knowledge of the dependency of Titan's atmospheric density with altitude is important because any unexpectedly high atmospheric density has the potential to tumble the spacecraft during a flyby. During low-altitude Titan flyby, thrusters are fired to counter the torque imparted on the spacecraft due to the Titan atmosphere. The denser the Titan's atmosphere is, the higher are the duty cycles of the thruster firings. Therefore thruster firing telemetry data could be used to estimate the atmospheric torque imparted on the spacecraft. Since the atmospheric torque imparted on the spacecraft is related to the Titan's atmospheric density, atmospheric densities are estimated accordingly. In 2005-2013, forty-three low-altitude Titan flybys were executed. The closest approach altitudes of these Titan flybys ranged from 878 to 1,074.8 km. Our density results are also compared with those reported by other investigation teams: Voyager-1 (in November 1980) and the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, HASI (in January 2005). From our results, we observe a temporal variation of the Titan atmospheric density in 2005-2013. The observed temporal variation is significant and it isn't due to the estimation uncertainty (5.8%, 1 sigma) of the density estimation methodology. Factors that contributed to this temporal variation have been conjectured but are largely unknown. The observed temporal variation will require synergetic analysis with measurements made by other Cassini science instruments and future years of laboratory and modeling efforts to solve. The estimated atmospheric density results are given in this paper help scientists to better understand and model the density structure of the Titan atmosphere.

  19. Magnetic torque on a rotating superconducting sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The London theory of superconductivity is used to calculate the torque on a superconducting sphere rotating in a uniform applied magnetic field. The London theory is combined with classical electrodynamics for a calculation of the direct effect of excess charge on a rotating superconducting sphere. Classical electrodynamics, with the assumption of a perfect Meissner effect, is used to calculate the torque on a superconducting sphere rotating in an arbitrary magnetic induction; this macroscopic approach yields results which are correct to first order. Using the same approach, the torque due to a current loop encircling the rotating sphere is calculated.

  20. Magnetic vortex excitation as spin torque oscillator and its unusual trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Muthuraj, Ponsudana; Rajamani, Amuda; Arumugam, Brinda

    2018-05-01

    We report an interesting observation of unusual trajectories of vortex core oscillations in a spin valve pillar. Micromagnetic simulation in the composite free layer spin valve nano-pillar shows magnetic vortex excitation under critical current density. When current density is slightly increased and wave vector is properly tuned, for the first time we observe a star like and square gyration. Surprisingly this star like and square gyration also leads to steady, coherent and sustained oscillations. Moreover, the frequency of gyration is also very high for this unusual trajectories. The power spectral analysis reveals that there is a marked increase in output power and frequency with less distortions. Our investigation explores the possibility of these unusual trajectories to exhibit spin torque oscillations.

  1. Diffusion of torqued active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Lauga, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Motivated by swimming microorganisms whose trajectories are affected by the presence of an external torque, we calculate the diffusivity of an active particle subject to an external torque and in a fluctuating environment. The analytical results are compared with Brownian dynamics simulations showing excellent agreement between theory and numerical experiments. This work was funded in part by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Mexico (Conacyt postdoctoral fellowship to M. S.) and the US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0746285 to E.L.).

  2. Impact of lubricant parameters on rotary instrument torque and force.

    PubMed

    Boessler, Claudia; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    In the current study, the impact of lubricant parameters on simulated root canal instrumentation was investigated. Using size 30 ProFile .06 instruments in milled artificial root canals in human dentin, the effects of sodium hypochlorite (1% NaOCl) and a chelator (18% etidronic acid) in aqueous irrigants on maximum torque, full torsional load, and maximum force values were gauged using a torque testing platform. Furthermore, the impact of the time a chelating lubricant was exposed to dentin as well as its galenic form (aqueous vs. gel-type) on the above outcome variables was evaluated. Aqueous lubricants significantly (p < 0.05, ANOVA, Newman-Keuls) reduced all outcome variables compared to dry conditions. The incorporation of a chelator further reduced these values (p < 0.05), whereas hypochlorite behaved similar to water. The chelator effect was immediate and did not increase with time. An aqueous lubricant was more beneficial than a gel-type counterpart.

  3. Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y. -H.; Chu, F. -C.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We predict a giant field-like spin torque, , in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF’s exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds. PMID:26095146

  4. Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

    2013-12-01

    The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

  5. Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Kalitsov, Alan; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek

    2014-12-01

    Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.

  6. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum which the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical implementation strategies for specific wheel configurations are also considered.

  7. The effect of gravitational and pressure torques on Titan's length-of-day variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoolst, T.; Rambaux, N.; Karatekin, Ö.; Baland, R.-M.

    2009-03-01

    Cassini radar observations show that Titan's spin is slightly faster than synchronous spin. Angular momentum exchange between Titan's surface and the atmosphere over seasonal time scales corresponding to Saturn's orbital period of 29.5 year is the most likely cause of the observed non-synchronous rotation. We study the effect of Saturn's gravitational torque and torques between internal layers on the length-of-day (LOD) variations driven by the atmosphere. Because static tides deform Titan into an ellipsoid with the long axis approximately in the direction to Saturn, non-zero gravitational and pressure torques exist that can change the rotation rate of Titan. For the torque calculation, we estimate the flattening of Titan and its interior layers under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. The gravitational forcing by Saturn, due to misalignment of the long axis of Titan with the line joining the mass centers of Titan and Saturn, reduces the LOD variations with respect to those for a spherical Titan by an order of magnitude. Internal gravitational and pressure coupling between the ice shell and the interior beneath a putative ocean tends to reduce any differential rotation between shell and interior and reduces further the LOD variations by a few times. For the current estimate of the atmospheric torque, we obtain LOD variations of a hydrostatic Titan that are more than 100 times smaller than the observations indicate when Titan has no ocean as well as when a subsurface ocean exists. Moreover, Saturn's torque causes the rotation to be slower than synchronous in contrast to the Cassini observations. The calculated LOD variations could be increased if the atmospheric torque is larger than predicted and or if fast viscous relaxation of the ice shell could reduce the gravitational coupling, but it remains to be studied if a two order of magnitude increase is possible and if these effects can explain the phase difference of the predicted rotation variations

  8. Modeling of toroidal torques exerted by internal kink instability in a tokamak plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, D. L.; Wang, S.; Xia, G. L.; Dong, G. Q.; Bai, X.

    2017-08-01

    Toroidal modeling efforts are initiated to systematically compute and compare various toroidal torques, exerted by an unstable internal kink in a tokamak plasma, using the MARS-F/K/Q suite of codes. The torques considered here include the resonant electromagnetic torque due to the Maxwell stress (the EM or JXB torque), the neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque, and the torque associated with the Reynolds stress. Numerical results show that the relative magnitude of the net resonant electromagnetic and the Reynolds stress torques increases with the equilibrium flow speed of the plasma, whilst the net NTV torque follows the opposite trend. The global flow shear sensitively affects the Reynolds stress torque, but not the electromagnetic and the NTV torques. Detailed examinations reveal dominant contributions to the Maxwell and Reynolds stress torques, in terms of the poloidal harmonic numbers of various perturbation fields, as well as their relative toroidal phasing.

  9. Tool for Coupling a Torque Wrench to a Round Cable Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Burge, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    A tool makes it possible to couple a torque wrench to an externally knurled, internally threaded, round cable connector. The purpose served by the tool is to facilitate the tightening of multiple such connectors (or the repeated tightening of the same connector) to repeatable torques. The design of a prior cable-connector/ torque-wrench coupling tool provided for application of the torque-wrench jaws to a location laterally offset from the axis of rotation of the cable connector, making it necessary to correct the torque reading for the offset. Unlike the design of the prior tool, the design of the present tool provides for application of the torque-wrench jaws to a location on the axis of rotation, obviating correction of the torque reading for offset. The present tool (see figure) consists of a split collet containing a slot that provides clearance for inserting and bending the cable, a collet-locking sleeve, a collet-locking nut, and a torque-wrench adaptor that is press-fit onto the collet. Once the collet is positioned on the cable connector, the collet-locking nut is turned to force the collet-locking sleeve over the collet, compressing the collet through engagement of tapered surfaces on the outside of the collet and the inside of the locking sleeve. Because the collet is split and therefore somewhat flexible, this compression forces the collet inward to grip the connector securely. The torque wrench is then applied to the torque-wrench adaptor in the usual manner for torquing a nut or a bolt.

  10. Validity of Torque-Data Collection at Multiple Sites: A Framework for Collaboration on Clinical-Outcomes Research in Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher; Eltouhky, Moataz; Thomas, Abbey; Sutherlin, Mark; Hart, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Collecting torque data using a multimode dynamometer is common in sports-medicine research. The error in torque measurements across multiple sites and dynamometers has not been established. To assess the validity of 2 calibration protocols across 3 dynamometers and the error associated with torque measurement for each system. Observational study. 3 university laboratories at separate institutions. 2 Biodex System 3 dynamometers and 1 Biodex System 4 dynamometer. System calibration was completed using the manufacturer-recommended single-weight method and an experimental calibration method using a series of progressive weights. Both calibration methods were compared with a manually calculated theoretical torque across a range of applied weights. Relative error, absolute error, and percent error were calculated at each weight. Each outcome variable was compared between systems using 95% confidence intervals across low (0-65 Nm), moderate (66-110 Nm), and high (111-165 Nm) torque categorizations. Calibration coefficients were established for each system using both calibration protocols. However, within each system the calibration coefficients generated using the single-weight (System 4 = 2.42 [0.90], System 3a = 1.37 [1.11], System 3b = -0.96 [1.45]) and experimental calibration protocols (System 4 = 3.95 [1.08], System 3a = -0.79 [1.23], System 3b = 2.31 [1.66]) were similar and displayed acceptable mean relative error compared with calculated theoretical torque values. Overall, percent error was greatest for all 3 systems in low-torque conditions (System 4 = 11.66% [6.39], System 3a = 6.82% [11.98], System 3b = 4.35% [9.49]). The System 4 significantly overestimated torque across all 3 weight increments, and the System 3b overestimated torque over the moderate-torque increment. Conversion of raw voltage to torque values using the single-calibration-weight method is valid and comparable to a more complex multiweight calibration process; however, it is clear that

  11. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  12. Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

  13. The Influence of Internal and External Torques on Titan's Length-of-day Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoolst, T.; Karatekin, O.; Rambaux, N.

    2008-12-01

    Cassini radar observations show that Titan's spin is slightly faster than synchronous spin. Angular momentum exchange between Titan and its atmosphere is the most likely cause of the observed non-synchronous rotation. We study the effect of Saturn's gravitational torque and torques between Titan's internal layers on the length-of-day (LOD) variations driven by the atmosphere. Those torques depend on the equatorial flattening of Titan resulting from static tides raised by Saturn. We calculate Titan's flattening under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and show that the gravitational forcing by Saturn, due to misalignment of the long axis of Titan with the line joining the mass centers of Titan and Saturn, reduces the LOD variations with respect to those for a spherical Titan by an order of magnitude. Internal gravitational and pressure coupling between the ice shell and the interior beneath a putative ocean tends to diminish any differential rotation between shell and interior and reduces further the LOD variations by a few times. For the current estimate of the atmospheric torque, we obtain LOD variations of a hydrostatic Titan that are more than 50 times smaller than the observations indicate when a subsurface ocean exists and more than 100 times smaller when Titan has no ocean. Moreover, Saturn's torque causes the rotation to be slower than synchronous in contrast to the Cassini observations. Those large differences with the observations suggest that non-hydrostatic effects in Titan are important. In particular, we show that the amplitude and phase of the calculated rotation variations would be similar to the observed values if non-hydrostatic effects strongly reduce the equatorial flattening of the ice shell above an internal ocean. Alternatively, the calculated LOD variations could be increased if the atmospheric torque is larger than predicted or if fast viscous relaxation of the ice shell could reduce the gravitational coupling, but it remains to be

  14. Enceladus plume density from Cassini spacecraft attitude control data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Burk, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    The plumes of Enceladus are of interest both as a geophysical phenomenon, and as an astrobiological opportunity for sampling internal material. Here we report measurements of the total mass density (gas plus dust, a combination not reported before except in the engineering literature) deduced from telemetry of Cassini's Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACS), as the spacecraft's thrusters or reaction wheels worked to maintain the desired attitude in the presence of drag torques during close flybys. The drag torque shows good agreement with the water vapor density measured by other instruments during the E5 encounter, but indicates a rather higher mass density on other passes (E3, E14), possibly indicating variations in gas composition and/or gas:dust ratio. The spacecraft appears to have intercepted about 0.2 g of material, on flyby E21 in October 2015 indicating a peak mass density of ∼5.5 × 10-11 kg m-3, the highest of all the flybys measured (E3, E5, E7, E9, E14, E21).

  15. Torque Limits for Fasteners in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yi

    2002-01-01

    The two major classes of laminate joints are bonded and bolted. Often the two classes are combined as bonded-bolted joints. Several characteristics of fiber reinforced composite materials render them more susceptible to joint problems than conventional metals. These characteristics include weakness in in-plane shear, transverse tension/compression, interlaminar shear, and bearing strength relative to the strength and stiffness in the fiber direction. Studies on bolted joints of composite materials have been focused on joining assembly subject to in-plane loads. Modes of failure under these loading conditions are net-tension failure, cleavage tension failure, shear-out failure, bearing failure, etc. Although the studies of torque load can be found in literature, they mainly discussed the effect of the torque load on in-plane strength. Existing methods for calculating torque limit for a mechanical fastener do not consider connecting members. The concern that a composite member could be crushed by a preload inspired the initiation of this study. The purpose is to develop a fundamental knowledge base on how to determine a torque limit when a composite member is taken into account. Two simplified analytical models were used: a stress failure analysis model based on maximum stress criterion, and a strain failure analysis model based on maximum strain criterion.

  16. Driving magnetization dynamics with interfacial spin-orbit torques (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Axel F.; Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Jungfleisch, Matthias Benjamin; Jiang, Wanjun; Hsu, Bo; Xiao, Jiao; Pearson, John E.; Fradin, Frank Y.; Liu, Yaohua; Ketterson, John B.; Yang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Bulk spin Hall effects are well know to provide spin orbit torques, which can be used to drive magnetization dynamics [1]. But one of the reoccurring questions is to what extend spin orbit torques may also originate at the interface between materials with strong spin orbit coupling and the ferromagnets. Using spin torque driven ferromagnetic resonance we show for two systems, where interfacial torques dominate, that they can be large enough to be practically useful. First, we show spin transfer torque driven magnetization dynamics based on Rashba-Edelstein effects at the Bi/Ag interface [2]. Second, we will show that combining permalloy with monolayer MoS2 gives rise to sizable spin-orbit torques. Given the monolayer nature of MoS2 it is clear that bilk spin Hall effects are negligible and therefore the spin transfer torques are completely interfacial in nature. Interestingly the spin orbit torques with MoS2 show a distinct dependence on the orientation of the magnetization in the permalloy, and become strongly enhanced, when the magnetization is pointing perpendicular to the interfacial plane. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Science and Engineering Division. [1] A. Hoffmann, IEEE Trans. Mag. 49, 5172 (2013). [2] W. Zhang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17C727 (2015). [3] M. B. Jungfleisch et al., arXiv:1508.01410.

  17. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  18. In-line rotating torque sensor with on-board amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A rotating torque sensor apparatus and method for measuring small torques comprising a shaft, a platform having a circuit board and a first moment arm attached to the shaft, a rotatable wheel coaxial with the shaft and having a second moment arm spaced apart from the first moment arm with a load cell therebetween for generating an electric signal as the torque is applied to the shaft and transferred through the moment arms to the load cell. The electrical signal is conducted from the load cell to the circuit board for filtering and amplification before being extracted from the torque assembly through a slip ring.

  19. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  20. Adaptive torque estimation of robot joint with harmonic drive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhiguo; Li, Yuankai; Liu, Guangjun

    2017-11-01

    Robot joint torque estimation using input and output position measurements is a promising technique, but the result may be affected by the load variation of the joint. In this paper, a torque estimation method with adaptive robustness and optimality adjustment according to load variation is proposed for robot joint with harmonic drive transmission. Based on a harmonic drive model and a redundant adaptive robust Kalman filter (RARKF), the proposed approach can adapt torque estimation filtering optimality and robustness to the load variation by self-tuning the filtering gain and self-switching the filtering mode between optimal and robust. The redundant factor of RARKF is designed as a function of the motor current for tolerating the modeling error and load-dependent filtering mode switching. The proposed joint torque estimation method has been experimentally studied in comparison with a commercial torque sensor and two representative filtering methods. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed torque estimation technique.

  1. Effect of capping layer on spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chi; Siu, Zhuo Bin; Tan, Seng Ghee; Yang, Hyunsoo; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2018-04-01

    In order to enhance the magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), considerable experimental works have been devoted to studying the thickness dependence of the different layers in multilayers consisting of heavy metal (HM), ferromagnet (FM), and capping layers. Here, we present a theoretical model based on the spin-drift-diffusion formalism to investigate the effect of the capping layer properties such as its thickness on the SOT observed in experiments. It is found that the spin Hall-induced SOT can be significantly enhanced by incorporating a capping layer with an opposite spin Hall angle to that of the HM layer. The spin Hall torque can be maximized by tuning the capping layer thickness. However, in the absence of the spin Hall effect (SHE) in the capping layer, the torque decreases monotonically with the capping layer thickness. Conversely, the spin Hall torque is found to decrease monotonically with the FM layer thickness, irrespective of the presence or absence of the SHE in the capping layer. All these trends are in correspondence with experimental observations. Finally, our model suggests that capping layers with a long spin diffusion length and high resistivity would also enhance the spin Hall torque.

  2. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  3. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  4. Estimation of muscle torque in various combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pędzich, Wioletta; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare muscle torque of elite combat groups. Twelve taekwondo WTF athletes, twelve taekwondo ITF athletes and nine boxers participated in the study. Measurements of muscle torques were done under static conditions on a special stand which belonged to the Department of Biomechanics. The sum of muscle torque of lower right and left extremities of relative values was significantly higher for taekwondo WTF athletes than for boxers (16%, p < 0.001 for right and 10%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and taekwondo ITF (10%, p < 0.05 for right and 8% for left extremities). Taekwondo ITF athletes attained significantly higher absolute muscle torque values than boxers for elbow flexors (20%, p < 0.05 for right and 11% for left extremities) and extensors (14% for right and 18%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and shoulder flexors (10% for right and 12%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and extensors (11% for right and 1% for left extremities). Taekwondo WTF and taekwondo ITF athletes obtained significantly different relative values of muscle torque of the hip flexors (16%, p < 0.05) and extensors (11%, p < 0.05) of the right extremities.

  5. Torque scaling in small-gap Taylor-Couette flow with smooth or grooved wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bihai; Ji, Zengqi; Lou, Zhengkun; Qian, Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The torque in the Taylor-Couette flow for radius ratios η ≥0.97 , with smooth or grooved wall static outer cylinders, is studied experimentally, with the Reynolds number of the inner cylinder reaching up to Rei=2 ×105 , corresponding to the Taylor number up to Ta =5 ×1010 . The grooves are perpendicular to the mean flow, and similar to the structure of a submersible motor stator. It is found that the dimensionless torque G , at a given Rei and η , is significantly greater for grooved cases than smooth cases. We compare our experimental torques for the smooth cases to the fit proposed by Wendt [F. Wendt, Ing.-Arch. 4, 577 (1993), 10.1007/BF02084936] and the fit proposed by Bilgen and Boulos [E. Bilgen and R. Boulos, J Fluids Eng. 95, 122 (1973), 10.1115/1.3446944], which shows both fits are outside their range for small gaps. Furthermore, an additional dimensionless torque (angular velocity flux) N uω in the smooth cases exhibits an effective scaling of N uω˜T a0.39 in the ultimate regime, which occurs at a lower Taylor number, Ta ≈3.5 ×107 , than the well-explored η =0.714 case (at Ta ≈3 ×108 ). The same effective scaling exponent, 0.39, is also evident in the grooved cases, but for η =0.97 and 0.985, there is a peak before this exponent appears.

  6. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  7. Isometric hip-rotator torque production at varying degrees of hip flexion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sam; Hoffman, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Hip torque production is associated with certain knee injuries. The hip rotators change function depending on hip angle. To compare hip-rotator torque production between 3 angles of hip flexion, limbs, and sexes. Descriptive. University sports medicine research laboratory. 15 men and 15 women, 19-39 y. Three 6-s maximal isometric contractions of the hip external and internal rotators at 10 degrees, 40 degrees, and 90 degrees of hip flexion on both legs. Average torque normalized to body mass. Internal-rotation torque was greatest at 90 degrees of hip flexion, followed by 40 degrees of hip flexion and finally 10 degrees of hip flexion. External-rotation torque was not different based on hip flexion. The nondominant leg's external rotators were stronger than the dominant leg's, but the reverse was true for internal rotators. Finally, the men had more overall rotator torque. Hip-rotation torque production varies between flexion angle, leg, and sex. Clinicians treating lower extremity problems need to be aware of these differences.

  8. Electrode position markedly affects knee torque in tetanic, stimulated contractions.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Taian M; Potenza, Paolo; Gastaldi, Laura; Botter, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how much the distance between stimulation electrodes affects the knee extension torque in tetanic, electrically elicited contractions. Current pulses of progressively larger amplitude, from 0 mA to maximally tolerated intensities, were delivered at 20 pps to the vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of ten, healthy male subjects. Four inter-electrode distances were tested: 32.5% (L1), 45.0% (L2), 57.5% (L3) and 70% (L4) of the distance between the patella apex and the anterior superior iliac spine. The maximal knee extension torque and the current leading to the maximal torque were measured and compared between electrode configurations. The maximal current tolerated by each participant ranged from 60 to 100 mA and did not depend on the inter-electrode distance. The maximal knee extension torque elicited did not differ between L3 and L4 (P = 0.15) but, for both conditions, knee torque was significantly greater than for L1 and L2 (P < 0.024). On average, the extension torque elicited for L3 and L4 was two to three times greater than that obtained for L1 and L2. The current leading to maximal torque was not as sensitive to inter-electrode distance. Except for L1 current intensity did not change with electrode configuration (P > 0.16). Key results presented here revealed that for a given stimulation intensity, knee extension torque increased dramatically with the distance between electrodes. The distance between electrodes seems therefore to critically affect knee torque, with potential implication for optimising exercise protocols based on electrical stimulation.

  9. Towards measuring quantum electrodynamic torque with a levitated nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhujing; Bang, Jaehoon; Ahn, Jonghoon; Hoang, Thai M.; Li, Tongcang

    2017-04-01

    According to quantum electrodynamics, quantum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields give rise to a zero-point energy that never vanishes, even in the absence of electromagnetic sources. The interaction energy will not only lead to the well-known Casimir force but will also contribute to the Casimir torque for anisotropic materials. We propose to use an optically levitated nanorod in vacuum and a birefringent substrate to experimentally investigate the QED torque. We have previously observed the libration of an optically levitated non-spherical nanoparticle in vacuum and found it to be an ultrasensitive torque sensor. A nanorod with a long axis of 300nm and a diameter of 60nm levitated in vacuum at 10 (- 8) torr will have a remarkable torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10 (- 28) Nm/ √Hz, which will be sufficient to detect the Casimir torque. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1555035-PHY.

  10. Gyrokinetic Simulations with External Resonant Magnetic Perturbations: Island Torque and Nonambipolar Transport with Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Static external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the δf gyrokinetic code GYRO. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr and the corresponding plasma torque (density) R[jrBθ/c], induced by islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends previous GYRO simulations for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [1,2]. The focus is on full torus radial slice electrostatic simulations of induced q=m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius. The island torque scales with the radial electric field Er the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as wErI^1/2. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration to the small diamagnetic co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er which can be called the residual stress [2] from an externally induced island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations of a core radial slice demonstrate island unlocking and the RMP screening. 6pt[1] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007). [2] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042504 (2011).

  11. Spin-torque driven magnetization switching in ferromagnetic nanopillar with pinned layer biasing configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Sabareesan, P., E-mail: sendtosabari@gmail.com; Bharathi, B. Divya

    2016-05-06

    Magnetization switching driven by spin transfer torque in a ferromagnetic nanopillar by biasing the angular polarizer with different orientation has been studied. The free layer dynamics includes the spin torque from the oscillating free layer with magneto crystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy, which is governed by the Landau-Lifshitsz-Gilbert-Slonczweski (LLGS) equation and solving it numerically by using embedded Runge Kutta fourth order method. Results of numerical simulation shows that there is a drastic reduction of switching time in the free layer by the orientation of angular polarizer of the nano pillar device. We fixed the angular polarizer as 0°, 30°, 60°,more » 90° and the corresponding switching time is 6.53 ns, 4.36 ns, 2.25 ns and 1.21 ns respectively for an applied current density of 5 × 10{sup 11} Am{sup −2}.« less

  12. Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).

  13. Experimental analysis of insertion torques and forces of threaded and press-fit acetabular cups by means of ex vivo and in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Danny; Rathay, Andreas; Teufel, Stephanie; Ellenrieder, Martin; Zietz, Carmen; Sander, Manuela; Bader, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    In THA a sufficient primary implant stability is the precondition for successful secondary stability. Industrial foams of different densities have been used for primary stability investigations. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the insertion behaviour of threaded and press-fit cups in vivo and ex vivo using bone substitutes with various densities. Two threaded (Bicon Plus®, Trident® TC) and one press-fit cup (Trident PSL®) were inserted by orthopaedic surgeons (S1, S2) into 10, 20 and 31 pcf blocks, using modified surgical instruments allowing measurements of the insertion forces and torques. Furthermore, the insertion behaviour of two cups were analysed intraoperatively. Torques for the threaded cups increased while bone substitute density increased. Maximum insertion torques were observed for S2 with 102 Nm for the Bicon Plus® in 20 pcf blocks and 77 Nm for the Trident® TC in 31 pcf blocks, which compares to the in vivo measurement (85 Nm). The average insertion forces for the press-fit cup varied from 5.2 to 6.8 kN (S1) and 7.2-11.5 kN (S2) ex vivo. Intraoperatively an average insertion force of 8.0 kN was determined. Implantation behaviour was influenced by acetabular cup design, bone substitute and experience of the surgeon. No specific density of bone substitute could be favoured for ex vivo investigations on the implantation behaviour of acetabular cups. The use synthetic bone blocks of high density (31 pcf) led to problems regarding cup orientation and seating. Therefore, bone substitutes used should be critically scrutinized in terms of the comparability to the in vivo situation.

  14. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Bourauel, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond® Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch. These brackets were bonded on identical maxillary acrylic resin models with levelled and aligned teeth and each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Ten specimens of 0.017 × 0.025 inch and ten 0.019 × 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires (ORMCO) were evaluated in the low- and high-torque 0.018 inch and 0.022 inch brackets, respectively. The wires were ligated with elastomerics into the brackets and each measurement was repeated once after religation. Two-way analysis of variance and t-test were conducted to compare the generated moments between wires at low- and high-torque brackets separately. The maximum moment generated by the 0.017 × 0.025 inch stainless steel archwire in the 0.018 inch brackets at +15 degrees ranged from 14.33 and 12.95 Nmm for the high- and low-torque brackets, respectively. The measured torque in the 0.022 inch brackets with the 0.019 × 0.025 inch stainless steel archwire was 9.32 and 6.48 Nmm, respectively. The recorded differences of maximum moments between the high- and low-torque series were statistically significant. High-torque brackets produced higher moments compared with low-torque brackets. Additionally, in both high- and low-torque configurations, the thicker 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.022 inch slot system generated lower moments in comparison with the 0.017 × 0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.018 inch slot system.

  16. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; P<0.001). MMG peak-to-peak (MMG-PTP) and stimulation intensity were less well related (R(2)=0.63 at 30°; R(2)=0.67 at 60°; and R(2)=0.45 at 90° knee angles), although were still significantly associated (P≤0.006). Test-retest interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the dependent variables ranged from 0.82 to 0.97 for NMES-evoked torque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings

  17. Technical Errors May Affect Accuracy of Torque Limiter in Locking Plate Osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savin, David D; Lee, Simon; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Pastor, Andrew; Garapati, Rajeev; Goldberg, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    In locking plate osteosynthesis, proper surgical technique is crucial in reducing potential pitfalls, and use of a torque limiter makes it possible to control insertion torque. We conducted a study of the ways in which different techniques can alter the accuracy of torque limiters. We tested 22 torque limiters (1.5 Nm) for accuracy using hand and power tools under different rotational scenarios: hand power at low and high velocity and drill power at low and high velocity. We recorded the maximum torque reached after each torque-limiting event. Use of torque limiters under hand power at low velocity and high velocity resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.49 (0.15) Nm and 3.73 (0.79) Nm. Use under drill power at controlled low velocity and at high velocity also resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.47 (0.14) Nm and 5.37 (0.90) Nm. Maximum single measurement obtained was 9.0 Nm using drill power at high velocity. Locking screw insertion with improper technique may result in higher than expected torque and subsequent complications. For torque limiters, the most reliable technique involves hand power at slow velocity or drill power with careful control of insertion speed until 1 torque-limiting event occurs.

  18. Slip-additive migration, surface morphology, and performance on injection moulded high-density polyethylene closures.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Nabeen; Shanks, Robert; Gengenbach, Thomas; Gill, Harsharn; Chalmers, David; Adhikari, Benu; Pardo Martinez, Isaac

    2017-11-01

    The amount and distribution of slip agents, erucamide, and behenamide, on the surface of high-density polyethene, is determined by integral characteristics of slip agent structure and polymer morphology. A suite of surface analysis techniques was applied to correlate physicochemical properties with slip-additive migration behaviour and their surface morphology. The migration, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the slip additives, crystallinity and orientation of polyethene spherulites and interaction between slip additives and high-density polyethene influence the surface characteristics. The high-density polyethene closures were produced with erucamide and behenamide separately and stored until they produced required torque. Surface composition was determined employing spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The distribution of additives was observed under optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. The surface energy, crystallinity and application torque were measured using contact angle, differential scanning calorimeter and a torque force tester respectively. Each slip additive produced a characteristic amide peak at 1645cm -1 in infrared spectroscopy and peaks of oxygen and nitrogen in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting their presence on the surface. The erucamide produced placoid scale-like structures and behenamide formed denticulate structures. The surface erucamide and behenamide responsible for reducing the torque was found to be 15.7µg/cm 2 and 1.7µg/cm 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, Aurelien; Waintal, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Current-driven spin torques in metallic spin valves composed of antiferromagnets are theoretically studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function method implemented on a tight-binding model. We focus our attention on G-type and L-type antiferromagnets in both clean and disordered regimes. In such structures, spin torques can either rotate the magnetic order parameter coherently (coherent torque) or compete with the internal antiferromagnetic exchange (exchange torque). We show that, depending on the symmetry of the spin valve, the coherent and exchange torques can either be in the plane, ∝n×(q×n) or out of the plane ∝n×q, where q and n are the directions of the order parameter of the polarizer and the free antiferromagnetic layers, respectively. Although disorder conserves the symmetry of the torques, it strongly reduces the torque magnitude, pointing out the need for momentum conservation to ensure strong spin torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves.

  20. Electronic measurement of variable torques in precision work technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehr, M.

    1978-01-01

    Approaches for the determination of torques on the basis of length measurements are discussed. Attention is given to torque determinations in which the deformation of a shaft is measured, an electric measurement of the torsion angle, and an approach proposed by Buschmann (1970). Methods for a torque determination conducted with the aid of force measurements make use of piezoelectric approaches. The components used by these methods include a quartz crystal and a charge amplifier.

  1. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  2. A quantum molecular similarity analysis of changes in molecular electron density caused by basis set flotation and electric field application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sílvia; Duran, Miquel

    1997-08-01

    Quantum molecular similarity (QMS) techniques are used to assess the response of the electron density of various small molecules to application of a static, uniform electric field. Likewise, QMS is used to analyze the changes in electron density generated by the process of floating a basis set. The results obtained show an interrelation between the floating process, the optimum geometry, and the presence of an external field. Cases involving the Le Chatelier principle are discussed, and an insight on the changes of bond critical point properties, self-similarity values and density differences is performed.

  3. First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenova, Maria; Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that an all-antiferromagnetic tunnel junction with current perpendicular to the plane geometry can be used as an efficient spintronic device with potential high-frequency operation. By using state-of-the-art density functional theory combined with quantum transport, we show that the Néel vector of the electrodes can be manipulated by spin-transfer torque. This is staggered over the two different magnetic sublattices and can generate dynamics and switching. At the same time the different magnetization states of the junction can be read by standard tunneling magnetoresistance. Calculations are performed for CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions with different surface terminations between the antiferromagnetic CuMnAs electrodes and the insulating GaP spacer. We find that the torque remains staggered regardless of the termination, while the magnetoresistance depends on the microscopic details of the interface.

  4. Displaying Force and Torque of A Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Primus, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    Display combines bar charts, vector diagrams, and numerical values to inform operator of forces and torques exerted by end effector of manipulator. On voice or keyboard command, eight-channel strip-chart recorder traces force and torque components and claw position of raw measurements from eight strain gage sensors in end effector. Especially helpful when operator's view of end effector is obscured.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT V, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--TORQUE CONVERTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF TORQUE CONVERTERS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FLUID COUPLINGS (LOCATION AND PURPOSE), (2) PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION, (3) TORQUE CONVERRS, (4) TORQMATIC CONVERTER, (5) THREE STAGE, THREE ELEMENT TORQUE CONVERTER, AND (6)…

  6. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  7. Evaluation Method for Fieldlike-Torque Efficiency by Modulation of the Resonance Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Dongseuk; Chun, Byong Sun; Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2018-05-01

    The spin Hall effect has attracted a lot of interest in spintronics because it offers the possibility of a faster switching route with an electric current than with a spin-transfer-torque device. Recently, fieldlike spin-orbit torque has been shown to play an important role in the magnetization switching mechanism. However, there is no simple method for observing the fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency. We suggest a method for measuring fieldlike spin-orbit torque using a linear change in the resonance field in spectra of direct-current (dc)-tuned spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency can be obtained in both a macrospin simulation and in experiments by simply subtracting the Oersted field from the shifted amount of resonance field. This method analyzes the effect of fieldlike torque using dc in a normal metal; therefore, only the dc resistivity and the dimensions of each layer are considered in estimating the fieldlike spin-torque efficiency. The evaluation of fieldlike-torque efficiency of a newly emerging material by modulation of the resonance field provides a shortcut in the development of an alternative magnetization switching device.

  8. Hex ball torque test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, B. A.; Foster, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed on four flight-type hex ball universal joints in order to characterize and determine the actual load-carrying capability of this device. The universal joint is a part of manual actuation rods for scientific instruments within the Hubble Space Telescope. It was found that the hex ball will bind slightly during the initial load application. This binding did not affect the function of the universal joint, and the units would wear-in after a few additional loading cycles. The torsional yield load was approximately 50 ft-lb, and was consistent among the four test specimens. Also, the torque required to cause complete failure exceeded 80 ft-lb. It is concluded that the hex ball universal joint is suitable for its intended applications.

  9. Increase of economy of torque flow pump with high specific speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusak, A. G.; Krishtop, I. V.; German, V. F.; Baga, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    Torque flow pumps are widely spread types of energy machines, which are used in majority of modern branches of industry for pumping of dirty media. The main task of researchers of torque flow pumps is increase of such pumps effectiveness for higher feed. Hydraulic losses for torque flow pumps are caused by working process of such pumps and are inevitable. Decrease of losses can be obtained by means of optimization of hydraulic flow part geometry. Modern approach to design of pump outlet introduces new constructive solutions which can increase economy of torque flow pumps. The aim of this research is increase of economy of torque flow pumps by means of application of spatial outlet and investigation of its geometry on pump characteristics. Analytical and numerical methods of liquid flow research for hydraulic flow part of torque flow pump were used in this paper. Moreover, influence of hydraulic flow part geometry of different designs of “Turo” type torque flow pumps outlets on pump characteristics was investigated. Numerical research enabled to study process of energy transfer of torque flow pump and evaluate influence of geometrical dimensions of spatial spiral outlet on its characteristics. Besides numerical research confirmed introduced regularity of peripheral velocity distribution in outlet. Velocity moment distribution in outlet was obtained during implementation of numerical research. Implemented bench tests of torque flow pump prototypes enabled to obtain real characteristics of pump and confirm effectiveness of spatial geometry of outlet application for such pump.

  10. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    SciTech Connect

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; King, Robert D.; Sanza, Peter C.

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation.

  11. Comparison of design and torque measurements of various manual wrenches.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Petermöller, Simone; Scheer, Martin; Happe, Arndt; Faber, Franz-Josef; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate torque application and determination of the applied torque during surgical and prosthetic treatment is important to reduce complications. A study was performed to determine and compare the accuracy of manual wrenches, which are available in different designs with a large range of preset torques. Thirteen different wrench systems with a variety of preset torques ranging from 10 to 75 Ncm were evaluated. Three different designs were available, with a spring-in-coil or toggle design as an active mechanism or a beam as a passive mechanism, to select the preset torque. To provide a clinically relevant analysis, a total of 1,170 torque measurements in the range of 10 to 45 Ncm were made in vitro using an electronic torque measurement device. The absolute deviations in Ncm and percent deviations across all wrenches were small, with a mean of -0.24 ± 2.15 Ncm and -0.84% ± 11.72% as a shortfall relative to the preset value. The greatest overage was 8.2 Ncm (82.5%), and the greatest shortfall was 8.47 Ncm (46%). However, extreme values were rare, with 95th-percentile values of -1.5% (lower value) and -0.16% (upper value). A comparison with respect to wrench design revealed significantly higher deviations for coil and toggle-style wrenches than for beam wrenches. Beam wrenches were associated with a lower risk of rare extreme values thanks to their passive mechanism of achieving the selected preset torque, which minimizes the risk of harming screw connections.

  12. Quantifying the Precision of Single-Molecule Torque and Twist Measurements Using Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    van Oene, Maarten M; Ha, Seungkyu; Jager, Tessa; Lee, Mina; Pedaci, Francesco; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2018-04-24

    Single-molecule manipulation techniques have provided unprecedented insights into the structure, function, interactions, and mechanical properties of biological macromolecules. Recently, the single-molecule toolbox has been expanded by techniques that enable measurements of rotation and torque, such as the optical torque wrench (OTW) and several different implementations of magnetic (torque) tweezers. Although systematic analyses of the position and force precision of single-molecule techniques have attracted considerable attention, their angle and torque precision have been treated in much less detail. Here, we propose Allan deviation as a tool to systematically quantitate angle and torque precision in single-molecule measurements. We apply the Allan variance method to experimental data from our implementations of (electro)magnetic torque tweezers and an OTW and find that both approaches can achieve a torque precision better than 1 pN · nm. The OTW, capable of measuring torque on (sub)millisecond timescales, provides the best torque precision for measurement times ≲10 s, after which drift becomes a limiting factor. For longer measurement times, magnetic torque tweezers with their superior stability provide the best torque precision. Use of the Allan deviation enables critical assessments of the torque precision as a function of measurement time across different measurement modalities and provides a tool to optimize measurement protocols for a given instrument and application. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computing the motor torque of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Das, Debasish; Lauga, Eric

    2018-06-13

    The rotary motor of bacteria is a natural nano-technological marvel that enables cell locomotion by powering the rotation of semi-rigid helical flagellar filaments in fluid environments. It is well known that the motor operates essentially at constant torque in counter-clockwise direction but past work have reported a large range of values of this torque. Focusing on Escherichia coli cells that are swimming and cells that are stuck on a glass surface for which all geometrical and environmental parameters are known (N. C. Darnton et al., J. Bacteriol., 2007, 189, 1756-1764), we use two validated numerical methods to compute the value of the motor torque consistent with experiments. Specifically, we use (and compare) a numerical method based on the boundary integral representation of Stokes flow and also develop a hybrid method combining boundary element and slender body theory to model the cell body and flagellar filament, respectively. Using measured rotation speed of the motor, our computations predict a value of the motor torque in the range 440 pN nm to 829 pN nm, depending critically on the distance between the flagellar filaments and the nearby surface.

  14. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A space suit's mobility is critical to an astronaut's ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. Mobility can be broken down into two parts: range of motion (ROM) and torque. These two measurements describe how the suit moves and how much force it takes to move. Two methods were chosen to define mobility requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). One method focuses on range of motion and the second method centers on joint torque. A joint torque test was conducted to determine a baseline for current advanced space suit joint torques. This test utilized the following space suits: Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), I-Suit, D-Suit, Enhanced Mobility (EM)- ACES, and Mark III (MK-III). Data was collected data from 16 different joint movements of each suit. The results were then reviewed and CSSE joint torque requirement values were selected. The focus of this paper is to discuss trends observed during data analysis.

  15. Evaluation of a high-torque backlash-free roller actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Anderson, William

    1986-01-01

    The results are presented of a test program that evaluated the stiffness, accuracy, torque ripple, frictional losses, and torque holding capability of a 16:1 ratio, 430 N-m (320 ft-lb) planetary roller drive for a potential space vehicle actuator application. The drive's planet roller supporting structure and bearings were found to be the largest contributors to overall drive compliance, accounting for more than half of the total. In comparison, the traction roller contacts themselves contributed only 9 percent of the drive's compliance based on an experimentally verified stiffness model. The drive exhibited no backlash although 8 arc sec of hysteresis deflection were recorded due to microcreep within the contact under torque load. Because of these load-dependent displacements, some form of feedback control would be required for arc second positioning applications. Torque ripple tests showed the drive to be extremely smooth, actually providing some damping of input torsional oscillations. The drive also demonstrated the ability to hold static torque with drifts of 7 arc sec or less over a 24 hr period at 35 percent of full load.

  16. Local nature of impurity induced spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Sergey; Kalitsov, Alan; Chshiev, Mairbec; Mryasov, Oleg

    Spin-orbit torques are of a great interest due to their potential applications for spin electronics. Generally, it originates from strong spin orbit coupling of heavy 4d/5d elements and its mechanism is usually attributed either to the Spin Hall effect or Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We have developed a quantum-mechanical approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and tight binding Hamiltonian model to study spin-orbit torques and extended our theory for the case of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling induced by impurities. For the sake of simplicity, we consider a magnetic material on a two dimensional lattice with a single non-magnetic impurity. However, our model can be easily extended for three dimensional layered heterostructures. Based on our calculations, we present the detailed analysis of the origin of local spin-orbit torques and persistent charge currents around the impurity, that give rise to spin-orbit torques even in equilibrium and explain the existence of anisotropy.

  17. Investigation of torque generated by Test Blanket Module mock-up in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, A.; Tala, T.; Lanctot, M.; Degrassie, J. S.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N.; Solomon, W. M.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments at DIII-D have investigated the scaling of Test Blanket Module (TBM) torque with plasma pressure and collisionality by performing dimensionless parameter scans. In each configuration, neutral beam torque modulation and TBM torque modulation were sequentially applied to allow experimental characterization of the TBM generated torque and the underlying transport. Calculations of the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque with PENT code of these plasmas find that TBM torque is strongly edge localized while the tentative experimental analysis indicates a more radially broad TBM torque profile. Both the experimental and PENT results will be elaborated and experimental TBM torque scaling with pressure and collisionality presented. Experimental validation of existing plasma response and NTV torque models is an important step toward understanding the impact of magnetic field ripple on plasma rotation, and for predicting the required compensation fields. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. A comparison of screw insertion torque and pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Ricci, William M; Tornetta, Paul; Petteys, Timothy; Gerlach, Darin; Cartner, Jacob; Walker, Zakiyyah; Russell, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    Pullout strength of screws is a parameter used to evaluate plate screw fixation strength. However, screw fixation strength may be more closely related to its ability to generate sufficient insertion because stable nonlocked plate-screw fracture fixation requires sufficient compression between plate and bone such that no motion occurs between the plate and bone under physiological loads. Compression is generated by tightening of screws. In osteoporotic cancellous bone, sufficient screw insertion torque may not be generated before screw stripping. The effect of screw thread pitch on generation of maximum insertion torque (MIT) and pullout strength (POS) was investigated in an osteoporotic cancellous bone model and the relationship between MIT and POS was analyzed. Stainless steel screws with constant major (5.0 mm) and minor (2.7 mm) diameters but with varying thread pitches (1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, and 1.75 mm) were tested for MIT and POS in a validated osteoporotic surrogate for cancellous bone (density of 160 kg/m(3) [10 lbs/ft(3)]). MIT was measured with a torque-measuring hex driver for screws inserted through a one-third tubular plate. POS was measured after insertion of screws to a depth of 20 mm based on the Standard Specification and Test Methods for Metallic Medical Bone Screws (ASTM F 543-07). Five screws were tested for each failure mode and screw design. The relationship between MIT and compressive force between the plate and bone surrogate was evaluated using pressure-sensitive film. There was a significant difference in mean MIT based on screw pitch (P < 0.0001), whereas POS did not show statistically significant differences among the different screw pitches (P = 0.052). Small screw pitches (1.0 mm and 1.2 mm) had lower MIT and were distinguished from large pitches (1.5 mm, 1.6 mm, and the 1.75 mm) with higher MIT. For POS, only the 1-mm and 1.6-mm pitch screws were found to be different from each other. Linear regression analysis of MIT revealed a moderate

  19. DSMC Simulations of Disturbance Torque to ISS During Airlock Depressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    disturbance torque. Figure 1 shows surface pressure contours on the ISS and a plane of number density contours for a particular case.

  20. Torque Generation of Enterococcus hirae V-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Hara, Mayu; Rahman, Suhaila; Yamato, Ichiro; Muneyuki, Eiro; Noji, Hiroyuki; Murata, Takeshi; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    V-ATPase (VoV1) converts the chemical free energy of ATP into an ion-motive force across the cell membrane via mechanical rotation. This energy conversion requires proper interactions between the rotor and stator in VoV1 for tight coupling among chemical reaction, torque generation, and ion transport. We developed an Escherichia coli expression system for Enterococcus hirae VoV1 (EhVoV1) and established a single-molecule rotation assay to measure the torque generated. Recombinant and native EhVoV1 exhibited almost identical dependence of ATP hydrolysis activity on sodium ion and ATP concentrations, indicating their functional equivalence. In a single-molecule rotation assay with a low load probe at high ATP concentration, EhVoV1 only showed the “clear” state without apparent backward steps, whereas EhV1 showed two states, “clear” and “unclear.” Furthermore, EhVoV1 showed slower rotation than EhV1 without the three distinct pauses separated by 120° that were observed in EhV1. When using a large probe, EhVoV1 showed faster rotation than EhV1, and the torque of EhVoV1 estimated from the continuous rotation was nearly double that of EhV1. On the other hand, stepping torque of EhV1 in the clear state was comparable with that of EhVoV1. These results indicate that rotor-stator interactions of the Vo moiety and/or sodium ion transport limit the rotation driven by the V1 moiety, and the rotor-stator interactions in EhVoV1 are stabilized by two peripheral stalks to generate a larger torque than that of isolated EhV1. However, the torque value was substantially lower than that of other rotary ATPases, implying the low energy conversion efficiency of EhVoV1. PMID:25258315

  1. Control of power, torque, and instability drive using in-shot variable neutral beam energy in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Pace, D. C.; Collins, C. S.; Crowley, B.; ...

    2016-09-28

    A first-ever demonstration of controlling power and torque injection through time evolution of neutral beam energy has been achieved in recent experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. Pre-programmed waveforms for the neutral beam energy produce power and torque inputs that can be separately and continuously controlled. Previously, these inputs were tailored using on/off modulation of neutral beams resulting in large perturbations (e.g. power swings of over 1 MW). The new method includes, importantly for experiments, the ability to maintain a fixed injected power while varying the torque. In another case, different beam energy waveforms (in the same plasma conditions) produce significantmore » changes in the observed spectrum of beam ion-driven instabilities. Measurements of beam ion loss show that one energy waveform results in the complete avoidance of coherent losses due to Alfvénic instabilities. This new method of neutral beam operation is intended for further application in a variety of DIII-D experiments including those concerned with high-performance steady state scenarios, fast particle effects, and transport in the low torque regime. As a result, developing this capability would provide similar benefits and improved plasma control for other magnetic confinement fusion facilities.« less

  2. Control of power, torque, and instability drive using in-shot variable neutral beam energy in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, D. C.; Collins, C. S.; Crowley, B.

    A first-ever demonstration of controlling power and torque injection through time evolution of neutral beam energy has been achieved in recent experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. Pre-programmed waveforms for the neutral beam energy produce power and torque inputs that can be separately and continuously controlled. Previously, these inputs were tailored using on/off modulation of neutral beams resulting in large perturbations (e.g. power swings of over 1 MW). The new method includes, importantly for experiments, the ability to maintain a fixed injected power while varying the torque. In another case, different beam energy waveforms (in the same plasma conditions) produce significantmore » changes in the observed spectrum of beam ion-driven instabilities. Measurements of beam ion loss show that one energy waveform results in the complete avoidance of coherent losses due to Alfvénic instabilities. This new method of neutral beam operation is intended for further application in a variety of DIII-D experiments including those concerned with high-performance steady state scenarios, fast particle effects, and transport in the low torque regime. As a result, developing this capability would provide similar benefits and improved plasma control for other magnetic confinement fusion facilities.« less

  3. Control of power, torque, and instability drive using in-shot variable neutral beam energy in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, D. C.; Collins, C. S.; Crowley, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Pawley, C.; Rauch, J.; Scoville, J. T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Zhu, Y. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-01-01

    A first-ever demonstration of controlling power and torque injection through time evolution of neutral beam energy has been achieved in recent experiments at the DIII-D tokamak (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614). Pre-programmed waveforms for the neutral beam energy produce power and torque inputs that can be separately and continuously controlled. Previously, these inputs were tailored using on/off modulation of neutral beams resulting in large perturbations (e.g. power swings of over 1 MW). The new method includes, importantly for experiments, the ability to maintain a fixed injected power while varying the torque. In another case, different beam energy waveforms (in the same plasma conditions) produce significant changes in the observed spectrum of beam ion-driven instabilities. Measurements of beam ion loss show that one energy waveform results in the complete avoidance of coherent losses due to Alfvénic instabilities. This new method of neutral beam operation is intended for further application in a variety of DIII-D experiments including those concerned with high-performance steady state scenarios, fast particle effects, and transport in the low torque regime. Developing this capability would provide similar benefits and improved plasma control for other magnetic confinement fusion facilities.

  4. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    SciTech Connect

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

  5. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOEpatents

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.; Haefner, K.B.

    1992-11-24

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

  6. Preparation Torque Limit for Composites Joined with Mechanical Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Frank P.; Yi, Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Current design guidelines for determining torque ranges for composites are based on tests and analysis from isotropic materials. Properties of composites are not taken into account. No design criteria based upon a systematic analytical and test analyses is available. This paper is to study the maximum torque load a composite component could carry prior to any failure. Specifically, the torque-tension tests are conducted. NDT techniques including acoustic emission, thermography and photomicroscopy are also utilized to characterize the damage modes.

  7. Muscle activation and the isokinetic torque-velocity relationship of the human triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Harridge, S D; White, M J

    1993-01-01

    The influence of muscle activation and the time allowed for torque generation on the angle-specific torque-velocity relationship of the triceps surae was studied during plantar flexion using supramaximal electrical stimulation and a release technique on six male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4) years]. Torque-velocity data were obtained under different levels of constant muscle activation by varying the stimulus frequency and the time allowed for isometric torque generation prior to release and isokinetic shortening. To eliminate the effects of the frequency response on absolute torque the isokinetic data were normalized to the maximum isometric torque values at 0.44 rad. There were no significant differences in the normalized torques generated at any angular velocity using stimulus frequencies of 20, 50 or 80 Hz. When the muscle was stimulated at 50 Hz the torques obtained after a 400 ms and 1 s pre-release isometric contraction did not differ significantly. However, with no pre-release contraction significantly less torque was generated at all angular velocities beyond 1.05 rad.s-1 when compared with either the 200, 400 ms or 1 s condition. With a 200 ms pre-release contraction significantly less torque was generated at angular velocities beyond 1.05 rad.s-1 when compared with the 400 ms or 1 s conditions. It would seem that the major factor governing the shape of the torque-velocity curve at a constant level of muscle activation is the time allowed for torque generation.

  8. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  9. Torque test measurement in segmental bone defects using porous calcium phosphate cement implants.

    PubMed

    Kroese-Deutman, Henriette C; Wolke, Joop G C; Spauwen, Paul H M; Jansen, John A

    2010-10-01

    This study was performed to assess the bone healing supporting characteristics of porous calcium phosphate (Ca-P) cement when implanted in a rabbit segmental defect model as well as to determine the reliability of torque testing as a method to verify bone healing. The middiaphyseal radius was chosen as the area to create bilaterally increasing defect sizes (5, 10, and 15 mm), which were either filled with porous Ca-P cement or left open as a control. After 12 weeks of implantation, torque test measurements as well as histological and radiographic evaluation were performed. In two of the open 15 mm control defects, bone bridging was visible at the radiographic and histological evaluation. Bone was observed to be present in all porous Ca-P cement implants (5, 10, and 15 mm defects) after 12 weeks. No significant differences in torque measurements were observed between the 5 and 10 mm filled and open control defects using a t-test. In addition, the mechanical strength of all operated specimens was similar compared with nonoperated bone samples. The torsion data for the 15 mm open defect appeared to be lower compared with the filled 15 mm defect, but no significant difference could be proven. Within the limitation of the study design, porous Ca-P cement implants demonstrated osteoconductive properties and confirmed to be a suitable scaffold material in a weight-bearing situation. Further, the used torque testing method was found to be unreliable for testing the mechanical properties of the healed bone defect.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of friction torque from radial ball bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut; Dumitru, Nicolae; Dumitru, Ilie

    2017-10-01

    In this paper it is presented a numerical simulation and an experimental study of total friction torque from radial ball bearings. For this purpose it is conceived a virtual CAD model of the experimental test bench for bearing friction torque measurement. The virtual model it is used for numerical simulation in Adams software, that allows dynamic study of multi-body systems and in particularly with facility Adams Machinery of dynamic behavior of machine parts. It is manufactured an experimental prototype of the test bench for radial ball bearings friction torque measurement. In order to measure the friction torque of the tested bearings it is used an equal resistance elastic beam element, with strain gauge transducer to measure bending deformations. The actuation electric motor of the bench has the shaft mounted on two bearings and the motor housing is fixed to the free side of the elastic beam, which is bended by a force proportional with the total friction torque. The beam elastic element with strain gauge transducer is calibrated in order to measure the force occurred. Experimental determination of the friction torque is made for several progressive radial loads. It is established the correlation from the friction torque and bearing radial load. The bench allows testing of several types and dimensions of radial bearings, in order to establish the bearing durability and of total friction torque.

  11. Atypical Brain Torque in Boys With Developmental Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Jeffrey Ryan; Zadina, Janet N.; Corey, David M.; Cohen, Jeremy D.; Lemen, Lisa C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2017-01-01

    The counterclockwise brain torque, defined as a larger right prefrontal and left parietal-occipital lobe, is a consistent brain asymmetry. Reduced or reversed lobar asymmetries are markers of atypical cerebral laterality and have been found in adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that atypical brain torque would be more common in children who stutter. MRI-based morphology measures were completed in boys who stutter (n=14) and controls (n=14), ages 8–13. The controls had the expected brain torque configurations whereas the boys who stutter were atypical. These results support the hypothesis that developmental stuttering is associated with atypical prefrontal and parietal-occipital lobe asymmetries. PMID:22799762

  12. Steam sterilization effect on the accuracy of friction-style mechanical torque limiting devices.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Seyed Jalil; Fayyaz, Ali; Mahshid, Minoo; Saboury, Aboulfazl; Ansari, Ghassem

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of steam sterilization on the accuracy (within 10%) of friction-style mechanical torque limiting devices (F-S MTLDs) to achieve their target torque values. Fifteen new F-S MTLDs were selected from Astra Tech (25 Ncm, Hader SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), BioHorizons (30 Ncm, Dynatorq ITL, Irvine, California, USA), Dr. Idhe (15-60 Ncm, Dr. Idhe Dental, Eching/Munich, Germany). Every peak torque measurement was tested ten times before steam sterilization using Tohnichi torque gauge (6Tohnichi-BTG (-S), Japan). Steam sterilization was performed using a 100 cycle autoclave. Preparation steps were carried out for the devices before each autoclave sterilization cycle. Peak torque measurements were repeated after every sterilization cycle. Mean difference between the measured and the targeted torque values were evaluated before and after aging. Repeated-measures of ANOVA were used to compare the differences of accuracy between subjects. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used for pairwise comparison. Autoclaving resulted in an increase in the error values (the difference between peak torque and target torque values) in all the three groups studied (P < 0.05), with only Astra Tech devices showing >10% (maximum 12%) difference from their torque values in 5% of the measurements. Steam sterilization effect differs between target torque and measured peak values with an increase trend. The peak torque values showed a significant decrease for BioHorizons, while a significant increase was noted for Astra Tech and no significant change in Dr. Idhe group after sterilization. Within the limitation of this study the torque output of each individual device deviated in varying degrees from target torque values. However, the majority of the new frictional-style devices tested in this study, delivered fairly consistent torque output within 10% of their preset target values after sterilization. Astra Tech devices were the only one showing more

  13. Self-consistent perturbed equilibrium with neoclassical toroidal torque in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Logan, Nikolas C.

    2017-03-01

    Toroidal torque is one of the most important consequences of non-axisymmetric fields in tokamaks. The well-known neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) is due to the second-order toroidal force from anisotropic pressure tensor in the presence of these asymmetries. This work shows that the first-order toroidal force originating from the same anisotropic pressure tensor, despite having no flux surface average, can significantly modify the local perturbed force balance and thus must be included in perturbed equilibrium self-consistent with NTV. The force operator with an anisotropic pressure tensor is not self-adjoint when the NTV torque is finite and thus is solved directly formore » each component. This approach yields a modified, non-self-adjoint Euler-Lagrange equation that can be solved using a variety of common drift-kinetic models in generalized tokamak geometry. The resulting energy and torque integral provides a unique way to construct a torque response matrix, which contains all the information of self-consistent NTV torque profiles obtainable by applying non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma. This torque response matrix can then be used to systematically optimize non-axisymmetric field distributions for desired NTV profiles. Published by AIP Publishing.« less

  14. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  15. Two-Component Noncollinear Time-Dependent Spin Density Functional Theory for Excited State Calculations.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Franco; Sun, Shichao; Goings, Joshua J; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-06-13

    We present a linear response formalism for the description of the electronic excitations of a noncollinear reference defined via Kohn-Sham spin density functional methods. A set of auxiliary variables, defined using the density and noncollinear magnetization density vector, allows the generalization of spin density functional kernels commonly used in collinear DFT to noncollinear cases, including local density, GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals. Working equations and derivations of functional second derivatives with respect to the noncollinear density, required in the linear response noncollinear TDDFT formalism, are presented in this work. This formalism takes all components of the spin magnetization into account independent of the type of reference state (open or closed shell). As a result, the method introduced here is able to afford a nonzero local xc torque on the spin magnetization while still satisfying the zero-torque theorem globally. The formalism is applied to a few test cases using the variational exact-two-component reference including spin-orbit coupling to illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  16. Fast Low-Current Spin-Orbit-Torque Switching of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions through Atomic Modifications of the Free-Layer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shengjie; Ou, Yongxi; Aradhya, S. V.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Future applications of spin-orbit torque will require new mechanisms to improve the efficiency of switching nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), while also controlling the magnetic dynamics to achieve fast nanosecond-scale performance with low-write-error rates. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to simultaneously enhance the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy and suppress interfacial spin-memory loss by introducing subatomic and monatomic layers of Hf at the top and bottom interfaces of the ferromagnetic free layer of an in-plane magnetized three-terminal MTJ device. When combined with a β -W spin Hall channel that generates spin-orbit torque, the cumulative effect is a switching current density of 5.4 ×106 A /cm2 .

  17. Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Markwardt, Craig B.; Hurley, Kevin; vanderKlis, Michiel

    2002-01-01

    We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor of approximately 4, which persist for several months. Using long-baseline phase-connected timing solutions as well as the overall frequency histories, we construct torque noise power spectra for each SGR (Soft Gamma Repeater). The power spectrum of each source is very red (power-law slope is approximately -3.5). The torque noise power levels are consistent with some accreting systems on timescales of approximately 1 yr, yet the full power spectrum is much steeper in frequency than any known accreting source. To the best of our knowledge, torque noise power spectra with a comparably steep frequency dependence have been seen only in young, glitching radio pulsars (e.g., Vela). The observed changes in spin-down rate do not correlate with burst activity; therefore, the physical mechanisms behind each phenomenon are also likely unrelated. Within the context of the magnetar model, seismic activity can not account for both the bursts and the long-term torque changes unless the seismically active regions are decoupled from one another.

  18. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlocal Gilbert damping tensor within the torque-torque correlation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonig, Danny; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Eriksson, Olle; Pereiro, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching, which depends strongly on the damping in the magnetization dynamics. It was recently measured that damping depends on the magnetic texture and, consequently, is a nonlocal quantity. The damping enters the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation as the phenomenological Gilbert damping parameter α , which does not, in a straightforward formulation, account for nonlocality. Efforts were spent recently to obtain Gilbert damping from first principles for magnons of wave vector q . However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report about real-space nonlocal Gilbert damping αi j. Here, a torque-torque correlation model based on a tight-binding approach is applied to the bulk elemental itinerant magnets and it predicts significant off-site Gilbert damping contributions, which could be also negative. Supported by atomistic magnetization dynamics simulations, we reveal the importance of the nonlocal Gilbert damping in atomistic magnetization dynamics. This study gives a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the magnetic moments and dissipation processes in real magnetic materials. Ways of manipulating nonlocal damping are explored, either by temperature, materials doping, or strain.

  20. Magnetic moment of inertia within the torque-torque correlation model.

    PubMed

    Thonig, Danny; Eriksson, Olle; Pereiro, Manuel

    2017-04-19

    An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention. We present and elaborate here on a theoretical model for calculating the magnetic moment of inertia based on the torque-torque correlation model. Particularly, the method has been applied to bulk itinerant magnets and we show that numerical values are comparable with recent experimental measurements. The theoretical analysis shows that even though the moment of inertia and damping are produced by the spin-orbit coupling, and the expression for them have common features, they are caused by very different electronic structure mechanisms. We propose ways to utilise this in order to tune the inertia experimentally, and to find materials with significant inertia dynamics.

  1. Minimization of torque ripple in ferrite-assisted synchronous reluctance motors by using asymmetric stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meimei; Liu, Guohai; Zhao, Wenxiang; Aamir, Nazir

    2018-05-01

    Torque ripple is one of the important issues for ferrite assisted synchronous reluctance motors (FASRMs). In this paper, an asymmetrical stator is proposed for the FASRM to reduce its torque ripple. In the proposed FASRM, an asymmetrical stator is designed by appropriately choosing the angle of the slot-opening shift. Meanwhile, its analytical torque expressions are derived. The results show that the proposed FASRM has an effective reduction in the cogging torque, reluctance torque ripple and total torque ripple. Moreover, it is easy to implement while the average torque is not sacrificed.

  2. Spin torque and Nernst effects in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya ferromagnets

    DOE PAGES

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Zyuzin, Vladimir

    2016-04-11

    Here, we predict that a temperature gradient can induce a magnon-mediated intrinsic torque in systems with a nontrivial magnon Berry curvature. With the help of a microscopic linear response theory of nonequilibrium magnon-mediated torques and spin currents we identify the interband and intraband components that manifest in ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and magnetic textures. To illustrate and assess the importance of such effects, we apply the linear response theory to the magnon-mediated spin Nernst and torque responses in a kagome lattice ferromagnet.

  3. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

  4. MUSCLE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, AND TORQUE VARIABILITY: EFFECTS OF AGE AND MOBILITY STATUS

    PubMed Central

    KENT-BRAUN, JANE A.; CALLAHAN, DAMIEN M.; FAY, JESSICA L.; FOULIS, STEPHEN A.; BUONACCORSI, JOHN P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P < 0.001). Although fatigue did not differ between groups (P = 0.53), torque variability differed by group (P = 0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P = 0.010). Conclusions These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. PMID:23674266

  5. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a... (a)(6) of this section with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or...

  6. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 91....306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a force... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used...

  7. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  8. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  9. Instantaneous flywheel torque of IC engine grey-box identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milašinović, A.; Knežević, D.; Milovanović, Z.; Škundrić, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical model developed for the identification of excitation torque acting on the IC engine flywheel is presented. The excitation torque gained through internal combustion of the fuel in the IC engine is transmitted from the flywheel to the transmission. The torque is not constant but variable and is a function of the crank angle. The verification of the mathematical model was done on a 4-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine for which the in-cylinder pressure was measured in one cylinder and the instantaneous angular speed of the crankshaft at its free end. The research was conducted on a hydraulic engine brake. Inertial forces of all rotational parts, from flywheel to the turbine wheel of the engine brake, are acting on the flywheel due to the nonuniform motion of the flywheel. It is known from the theory of turbomachinery that the torque on the hydraulic brake is a quadratic function of angular speed. Due to that and the variable angular speed of the turbine wheel of the engine brake, the torque during one engine cycle is also variable. The motivation for this research was the idea (intention) to determine the instantaneous torque acting on the flywheel as a function of the crank angle with a mathematical model without any measuring and based on this to determine the quality of work of specific cylinders of the multi-cylinder engine. The crankshaft was considered elastic and also its torsional vibrations were taken into account.

  10. Mechanics of torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor.

    PubMed

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Nirody, Jasmine A; Berry, Richard M; Oster, George

    2015-08-11

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is responsible for driving bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis, fundamental processes in pathogenesis and biofilm formation. In the BFM, torque is generated at the interface between transmembrane proteins (stators) and a rotor. It is well established that the passage of ions down a transmembrane gradient through the stator complex provides the energy for torque generation. However, the physics involved in this energy conversion remain poorly understood. Here we propose a mechanically specific model for torque generation in the BFM. In particular, we identify roles for two fundamental forces involved in torque generation: electrostatic and steric. We propose that electrostatic forces serve to position the stator, whereas steric forces comprise the actual "power stroke." Specifically, we propose that ion-induced conformational changes about a proline "hinge" residue in a stator α-helix are directly responsible for generating the power stroke. Our model predictions fit well with recent experiments on a single-stator motor. The proposed model provides a mechanical explanation for several fundamental properties of the flagellar motor, including torque-speed and speed-ion motive force relationships, backstepping, variation in step sizes, and the effects of key mutations in the stator.

  11. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  12. Evaluation of a high-torque backlash-free roller actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a test program that evaluated the stiffness, accuracy, torque ripple, frictional losses, and torque holding capability of a 16:1 ratio, 430 N-m (320 ft-lb) planetary roller drive for a potential space vehicle actuator application. The drive's planet roller supporting structure and bearings were found to be the largest contributors to overall drive compliance, accounting for more than half the total. In comparison, the traction roller contacts themselves contributed only 9 percent of the drive's compliance based on an experimentally verified stiffnesss model. Torque ripple tests showed the drive to be extremely smooth, actually providing some damping of input torsional oscillations. The drive also demonstrated the ability to hold static torque with drifts of 7 arc sec or less over a 24-hour period at 35 percent of full load.

  13. Resonance measurement of nonlocal spin torque in a three-terminal magnetic device.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lin; Wang, Chen; Cui, Yong-Tao; Liu, Luqiao; Swander, A; Sun, J Z; Buhrman, R A; Ralph, D C

    2012-04-06

    A pure spin current generated within a nonlocal spin valve can exert a spin-transfer torque on a nanomagnet. This nonlocal torque enables new design schemes for magnetic memory devices that do not require the application of large voltages across tunnel barriers that can suffer electrical breakdown. Here we report a quantitative measurement of this nonlocal spin torque using spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance. Our measurement agrees well with the prediction of an effective circuit model for spin transport. Based on this model, we suggest strategies for optimizing the strength of nonlocal torque. © 2012 American Physical Society

  14. Cogging Torque Minimization in Transverse Flux Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz

    2017-02-16

    This paper presents the design considerations in cogging torque minimization in two types of transverse flux machines. The machines have a double stator-single rotor configuration with flux concentrating ferrite magnets. One of the machines has pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. Another machine has quasi-U-shaped stator cores and a ring winding. The flux in the stator back iron is transverse in both machines. Different methods of cogging torque minimization are investigated. Key methods of cogging torque minimization are identified and used as design variables for optimization using a design of experiments (DOE) based on the Taguchi method.more » A three-level DOE is performed to reach an optimum solution with minimum simulations. Finite element analysis is used to study the different effects. Two prototypes are being fabricated for experimental verification.« less

  15. Intended and Achieved Torque of Implant Abutment's Screw using Manual Wrenches in Simulated Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hanan N

    2016-11-01

    To measure the difference between the intended torque and the achieved torque by the operator using the spring-style mechanical torque-limiting device (MTLD). Inexperienced and experienced clinicians used one spring-type MTLD to torque two abutment screws of each anterior and posterior implants, which were attached to two digital torque meters through a jaw model. The jaw model was part of a preclinical bench manikin attached to a dental chair. The intended torque value was 35 N cm (recommended by manufacturer) and the technique of torquing was observed for all the participants (instantaneous and repeated). The mean torque value was calculated for each subject for the anterior and posterior implants independently; t-test was used to compare between the intended and achieved torque values and to compare between the experienced and inexperienced clinicians (p ≤ 0.05). Thirty-seven clinicians participated, with an overall mean torque value of 34.30 N cm. The mean torque value of the achieved torque (34.30 ± 4.13 N cm) was statistically significantly less than the intended torque (p = 0.041). The male clinicians produced more statistically significantly accurate torque value (34.54 ± 3.78 N cm) than the female clinicians (p = 0.034), and the experienced clinicians produced more accurate torque values (34.9 ± 5.13 N cm) than the inexperienced clinicians (p = 0.048). Within the limitation of this study, the use of MTLDs did not always produce consistent torque values and the technique by which the operators use the MTLD might affect the torque value.

  16. Quantifying anti-gravity torques for the design of a powered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ragonesi, Daniel; Agrawal, Sunil K; Sample, Whitney; Rahman, Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Designing an upper extremity exoskeleton for people with arm weakness requires knowledge of the joint torques due to gravity and joint stiffness, as well as, active residual force capabilities of users. The objective of this research paper is to describe the characteristics of the upper limb of children with upper limb impairment. This paper describes the experimental measurements of the torque on the upper limb due to gravity and joint stiffness of three groups of subjects: able-bodied adults, able-bodied children, and children with neuromuscular disabilities. The experiment involves moving the arm to various positions in the sagittal plane and measuring the resultant force at the forearm. This force is then converted to torques at the elbow and shoulder. These data are compared to a two-link lumped mass model based on anthropomorphic data. Results show that the torques based on anthropometry deviate from experimentally measured torques as the arm goes through the range. Subjects with disabilities also maximally pushed and pulled against the force sensor to measure maximum strength as a function of arm orientation. For all subjects, the maximum voluntary applied torque at the shoulder and elbow in the sagittal plane was found to be lower than gravity torques throughout the disabled subjects' range of motion. This experiment informs designers of upper limb orthoses on the contribution of passive human joint torques due to gravity and joint stiffness and the strength capability of targeted users.

  17. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used...

  18. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used...

  19. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used...

  20. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used...

  1. Design and Control of a Closed-Loop Brushless Torque Activator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD-A270 760 Technical Report 1244 Design and Control of a Closed-Loop Brushless Torque Activator Michael Dean Levi MIT Artificial Intelligence... Brushless N00014-86-K-0685 Torque Actuator 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Dean Levin 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) B. PERFORMING...200 words) This’report explores the design and control issues associated with a brushless actuator capable of achieving extremely high torque

  2. Spin-orbit torques in high-resistivity-W/CoFeB/MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaro; Zhang, Chaoliang; Okada, Atsushi; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic heterostructures consisting of high-resistivity (238 ± 5 µΩ cm)-W/CoFeB/MgO are prepared by sputtering and their spin-orbit torques are evaluated as a function of W thickness through an extended harmonic measurement. W thickness dependence of the spin-orbit torque with the Slonczewski-like symmetry is well described by the drift-diffusion model with an efficiency parameter, the so-called effective spin Hall angle, of -0.62 ± 0.03. In contrast, the field-like spin-orbit torque is one order of magnitude smaller than the Slonczewski-like torque and shows no appreciable dependence on the W thickness, suggesting a different origin from the Slonczewski-like torque. The results indicate that high-resistivity W is promising for low-current and reliable spin-orbit torque-controlled devices.

  3. Steep, Transient Density Gradients in the Martian Ionosphere Similar to the Ionopause at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Firdevs; Gurnett, Donald; Frahm, Rudy; Winningham, D. L.; Morgan, David; Howes, Gregory

    Using Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft, the electron density can be measured by two methods: from the excitation of local plasma oscillations and from remote sounding. A study of the local electron density versus time for 1664 orbits revealed that in 132 orbits very sharp gradients in the electron density occurred that are similar to the ionopause boundary commonly observed at Venus. In 40 of these cases, remote sounding data have also confirmed identical locations of steep ionopause-like density gradients. Measurements from the Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) Electron Spectrometer (ELS) and Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) instruments (also on Mars Express) verify that these sharp decreases in the electron density occur somewhere between the end of the region where ionospheric photoelectrons are dominant and the magnetosheath. Combined studies of the two experiments reveal that the steep density gradients define a boundary where the magnetic fields change from open to closed. This study shows that, although the individual cases are from a wide range of altitudes, the average altitude of the boundary as a function of solar zenith angle is almost constant. The average altitude is approximately 500 km up to solar zenith angles of 60o, after which it shows a slight increase. The average thickness of the boundary is about 22 km according to remote sounding measurements. The altitude of the steep gradients shows an increase at locations with strong crustal magnetic fields.

  4. Spin-Orbit Torques in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roschewsky, Niklas; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Recently spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnets received a lot of attention due to intrinsic high frequency dynamics as well as robustness against perturbations from external magnetic fields. Here, we report on spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching in ferrimagnetic Gdx (Fe90Co10)100-x films on both sides of the magnetic compensation point. In addition to current driven switching experiments we performed harmonic Hall measurements of the effective SOT fields. We find that both the Slonczewski torque as well as the field-like torque diverge at the magnetization compensation point. However, the effective spin Hall angle ξ = (2 | e | / ℏ) MStFM (Heff / | jHM |) is found to be roughly constant across the investigated composition range. This provides important insight into the the angular momentum transfer process in ferrimagnets. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231 within the NEMM program (KC2204).

  5. Peak Torque and Rate of Torque Development Influence on Repeated Maximal Exercise Performance: Contractile and Neural Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Baptiste; Rouffet, David M.; Saboul, Damien; Rota, Samuel; Clémençon, Michel; Hautier, Christophe A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid force production is critical to improve performance and prevent injuries. However, changes in rate of force/torque development caused by the repetition of maximal contractions have received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (Tpeak) on the overall performance (i.e. mean torque, Tmean) decrease during repeated maximal contractions and to investigate the contribution of contractile and neural mechanisms to the alteration of the various mechanical variables. Eleven well-trained men performed 20 sets of 6-s isokinetic maximal knee extensions at 240°·s-1, beginning every 30 seconds. RTD, Tpeak and Tmean as well as the Rate of EMG Rise (RER), peak EMG (EMGpeak) and mean EMG (EMGmean) of the vastus lateralis were monitored for each contraction. A wavelet transform was also performed on raw EMG signal for instant mean frequency (ifmean) calculation. A neuromuscular testing procedure was carried out before and immediately after the fatiguing protocol including evoked RTD (eRTD) and maximal evoked torque (eTpeak) induced by high frequency doublet (100 Hz). Tmean decrease was correlated to RTD and Tpeak decrease (R²=0.62; p<0.001; respectively β=0.62 and β=0.19). RER, eRTD and initial ifmean (0-225 ms) decreased after 20 sets (respectively -21.1±14.1, -25±13%, and ~20%). RTD decrease was correlated to RER decrease (R²=0.36; p<0.05). The eTpeak decreased significantly after 20 sets (24±5%; p<0.05) contrary to EMGpeak (-3.2±19.5 %; p=0.71). Our results show that reductions of RTD explained part of the alterations of the overall performance during repeated moderate velocity maximal exercise. The reductions of RTD were associated to an impairment of the ability of the central nervous system to maximally activate the muscle in the first milliseconds of the contraction. PMID:25901576

  6. Peak torque and rate of torque development influence on repeated maximal exercise performance: contractile and neural contributions.

    PubMed

    Morel, Baptiste; Rouffet, David M; Saboul, Damien; Rota, Samuel; Clémençon, Michel; Hautier, Christophe A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid force production is critical to improve performance and prevent injuries. However, changes in rate of force/torque development caused by the repetition of maximal contractions have received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (T(peak)) on the overall performance (i.e. mean torque, T(mean)) decrease during repeated maximal contractions and to investigate the contribution of contractile and neural mechanisms to the alteration of the various mechanical variables. Eleven well-trained men performed 20 sets of 6-s isokinetic maximal knee extensions at 240° · s(-1), beginning every 30 seconds. RTD, T(peak) and T(mean) as well as the Rate of EMG Rise (RER), peak EMG (EMG(peak)) and mean EMG (EMG(mean)) of the vastus lateralis were monitored for each contraction. A wavelet transform was also performed on raw EMG signal for instant mean frequency (if(mean)) calculation. A neuromuscular testing procedure was carried out before and immediately after the fatiguing protocol including evoked RTD (eRTD) and maximal evoked torque (eT(peak)) induced by high frequency doublet (100 Hz). T(mean) decrease was correlated to RTD and T(peak) decrease (R(²) = 0.62; p<0.001; respectively β=0.62 and β=0.19). RER, eRTD and initial if(mean) (0-225 ms) decreased after 20 sets (respectively -21.1 ± 14.1, -25 ± 13%, and ~20%). RTD decrease was correlated to RER decrease (R(²) = 0.36; p<0.05). The eT(peak) decreased significantly after 20 sets (24 ± 5%; p<0.05) contrary to EMG(peak) (-3.2 ± 19.5 %; p=0.71). Our results show that reductions of RTD explained part of the alterations of the overall performance during repeated moderate velocity maximal exercise. The reductions of RTD were associated to an impairment of the ability of the central nervous system to maximally activate the muscle in the first milliseconds of the contraction.

  7. Torques on a nearly rigid body in a relativistic gravitational field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporali, A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of post-Newtonian potentials on the rotation of a nearly rigid body is shown to consist of a precession and a torque. The frequency of the precession can be exactly represented by means of suitable differential operators. The relativistic torques in the quadrupole approximation depend on the instantaneous orientation of the principal axes of one body with respect to the position like the classical torque and velocity of the other. For a relatively low mass body, such as a gyroscope, these velocity-dependent torques have no observable consequences.

  8. Advanced torque converters for robotics and space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of the evaluation of a novel torque converter concept. Features of the concept include: (1) automatic and rapid adjustment of effective gear ratio in response to changes in external torque (2) maintenance of output torque at zero output velocity without loading the input power source and (3) isolation of input power source from load. Two working models of the concept were fabricated and tested, and a theoretical analysis was performed to determine the limits of performance. It was found that the devices are apparently suited to certain types of tool driver applications, such as screwdrivers, nut drivers and valve actuators. However, quantiative information was insufficient to draw final conclusion as to robotic applications.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of macro and micro designed screw-type implants: an insertion torque and removal torque study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Jimbo, Ryo; Thomsen, Christian; Carlsson, Lennart; Wennerberg, Ann

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the combined effect of macro and pitch shortened threads on primary and secondary stability during healing, but before dynamic loading. Two sets of turned implants with different macro geometry were prepared. The test group possessed pitch shortened threads in between the large threads and the control group did not have thread alterations. The two implant groups were placed in both femur and tibiae of 10 lop-eared rabbits, and at the time of implant insertion, insertion torques were recorded. After 4 weeks, all implants were subjected to removal torque tests. The insertion torque values for the control and test groups for the tibia were 15.7 and 20.6 Ncm, respectively, and for the femur, 11.8, and 12.8 Ncm respectively. The removal torque values for the control and test groups in the tibia were 7.9 and 9.1 Ncm, respectively, and for the femur, 7.9 and 7.7 Ncm respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the control and test groups. Under limited dynamic load, the addition of pitch shortened threads did not significantly improve either the primary or the secondary stability of the implants in bone. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Quantifying anti-gravity torques in the design of a powered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ragonesi, Daniel; Agrawal, Sunil; Sample, Whitney; Rahman, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Designing an upper extremity exoskeleton for people with arm weakness requires knowledge of the passive and active residual force capabilities of users. This paper experimentally measures the passive gravitational torques of 3 groups of subjects: able-bodied adults, able bodied children, and children with neurological disabilities. The experiment involves moving the arm to various positions in the sagittal plane and measuring the gravitational force at the wrist. This force is then converted to static gravitational torques at the elbow and shoulder. Data are compared between look-up table data based on anthropometry and empirical data. Results show that the look-up torques deviate from experimentally measured torques as the arm reaches up and down. This experiment informs designers of Upper Limb orthoses on the contribution of passive human joint torques.

  11. Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Yang-Sub

    2015-02-01

    This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid. In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.

  12. Direct mechanical torque sensor for model wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyung Suk; Meneveau, Charles

    2010-10-01

    A torque sensor is developed to measure the mechanical power extracted by model wind turbines. The torque is measured by mounting the model generator (a small dc motor) through ball bearings to the hub and by preventing its rotation by the deflection of a strain-gauge-instrumented plate. By multiplying the measured torque and rotor angular velocity, a direct measurement of the fluid mechanical power extracted from the flow is obtained. Such a measurement is more advantageous compared to measuring the electrical power generated by the model generator (dc motor), since the electrical power is largely affected by internal frictional, electric and magnetic losses. Calibration experiments are performed, and during testing, the torque sensor is mounted on a model wind turbine in a 3 rows × 3 columns array of wind turbines in a wind tunnel experiment. The resulting electrical and mechanical powers are quantified and compared over a range of applied loads, for three different incoming wind velocities. Also, the power coefficients are obtained as a function of the tip speed ratio. Significant differences between the electrical and mechanical powers are observed, which highlights the importance of using the direct mechanical power measurement for fluid dynamically meaningful results. A direct calibration with the measured current is also explored. The new torque sensor is expected to contribute to more accurate model wind tunnel tests which should provide added flexibility in model studies of the power that can be harvested from wind turbines and wind-turbine farms.

  13. Knudsen torque: A rotational mechanism driven by thermal force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing

    2014-09-01

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro- and nano-objects immersed in a gas with a nonuniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Our study has found that a torque can be induced if the configuration of the system is asymmetric. In addition, both the magnitude and the direction of the torque depend highly on the system configuration, indicating the possibility of manipulating the rotational motion via geometrical design. Based on this feature, two types of rotational micromotor that are of practical importance, namely pendulum motor and unidirectional motor, are designed. The magnitude of the torque at Kn =0.5 can reach to around 2nN×μm for a rectangular microbeam with a length of 100μm.

  14. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Maxwell, Don E; Beer, David

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introducedmore » new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.« less

  15. Torque fluctuations caused by upstream mean flow and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. D.; Hancock, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    A series of studies are in progress investigating the effects of turbine-array-wake interactions for a range of atmospheric boundary layer states by means of the EnFlo meteorological wind tunnel. The small, three-blade model wind turbines drive 4-quadrant motor-generators. Only a single turbine in neutral flow is considered here. The motor-generator current can be measured with adequate sensitivity by means of a current sensor allowing the mean and fluctuating torque to be inferred. Spectra of torque fluctuations and streamwise velocity fluctuations ahead of the rotor, between 0.1 and 2 diameters, show that only the large-scale turbulent motions contribute significantly to the torque fluctuations. Time-lagged cross-correlation between upstream velocity and torque fluctuations are largest over the inner part of the blade. They also show the turbulence to be frozen in behaviour over the 2 diameters upstream of the turbine.

  16. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males.

    PubMed

    Foxworth, Judy L; Millar, Audrey L; Long, Benjamin L; Way, Michael; Vellucci, Matthew W; Vogler, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    Descriptive, laboratory study. To compare the 3-D hip torques during a golf swing between young and senior healthy male amateur golfers. The secondary purpose was to compare the 3-D hip joint torques between the trail leg and lead leg. The generation of hip torques from the hip musculature is an important aspect of the golf swing. Golf is a very popular activity, and estimates of hip torques during the golf swing have not been reported. Twenty healthy male golfers were divided into a young group (mean ± SD age, 25.1 ± 3.1 years) and a senior group (age, 56.9 ± 4.7 years). All subjects completed 10 golf swings using their personal driver. A motion capture system and force plates were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data. Inverse dynamic analyses were used to calculate 3-D hip joint torques of the trail and lead limbs. Two-way analyses of covariance (group by leg), with club-head velocity as a covariate, were used to compare peak hip torques between groups and limbs. Trail-limb hip external rotator torque was significantly greater in the younger group compared to the senior group, and greater in the trail leg versus the lead leg. When adjusting for club-head velocity, young and senior healthy male amateur golfers generated comparable hip torques during a golf swing, with the exception of the trail-limb hip external rotator torque. The largest hip torque found was the trail-limb hip extensor torque.

  17. Torque loss of different abutment sizes before and after cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Moris, Izabela Cristina; Faria, Adriana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3.8- and 4.8-mm abutments submitted to simulations of masticatory cycles to examine whether abutment diameter and cemented vs screw-retained crowns affect torque loss of the abutments and crowns. Forty implant/abutment sets were divided into the following groups (n = 10 in each group): (1) G4.8S included 4.8-mm abutment with screw-retained crown; (2) G4.8C included 4.8-mm abutment with cemented crown; (3) G3.8S included 3.8-mm abutment with screw-retained crown; and (4) G3.8C included 3.8-mm abutment with cemented crown. All abutments were tightened with torque values of 20 Ncm, and 10 Ncm for screw-retained crowns. Torque loss was measured before and after cycling loading (300,000 cycles). Torque loss of screw-retained crowns significantly increased after cycling in abutments of groups G3.8S (P ≤ .05) and G4.8S (P = .001). No difference was noted between the abutments before cycling (P = .735), but G3.8S abutments presented greater torque loss than the other groups after cycling (P = .008). Significant differences were noted in the abutment torque loss before and after cycling loading only for the G3.8C group (P ≤ .05). The abutment diameter affects torque loss of screw-retained crowns and leads to failure during the test; mechanical cycling increases torque loss of abutment screw and screw-retained crowns.

  18. Self-similar space-time evolution of an initial density discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekaa, V. L.; Pécseli, H. L.; Trulsen, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    The space-time evolution of an initial step-like plasma density variation is studied. We give particular attention to formulate the problem in a way that opens for the possibility of realizing the conditions experimentally. After a short transient time interval of the order of the electron plasma period, the solution is self-similar as illustrated by a video where the space-time evolution is reduced to be a function of the ratio x/t. Solutions of this form are usually found for problems without characteristic length and time scales, in our case the quasi-neutral limit. By introducing ion collisions with neutrals into the numerical analysis, we introduce a length scale, the collisional mean free path. We study the breakdown of the self-similarity of the solution as the mean free path is made shorter than the system length. Analytical results are presented for charge exchange collisions, demonstrating a short time collisionless evolution with an ensuing long time diffusive relaxation of the initial perturbation. For large times, we find a diffusion equation as the limiting analytical form for a charge-exchange collisional plasma, with a diffusion coefficient defined as the square of the ion sound speed divided by the (constant) ion collision frequency. The ion-neutral collision frequency acts as a parameter that allows a collisionless result to be obtained in one limit, while the solution of a diffusion equation is recovered in the opposite limit of large collision frequencies.

  19. A torque, tension and stress corrosion evaluation of high strength A286 bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The problems associated with overtorque applied to the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) Igniter Adapter high strength 200 KSI (1379 Mpa) A286 CRES bolts and the threaded holes of the 7075-T73 aluminum alloy BSM cases are addressed. The evaluation included torque, tensile, and stress corrosion tests incorporating the A286 CRES bolts and the 7075-T73 aluminum alloy BSM cases. The tensile test data includes ultimate tensile load (UTL), Johnson's 2/3 yield load (J2/3YL), proportional limit load (PLL), and total bolt stretch. Torque tension data includes torque, torque induced load, and positive and negative break-away torque. Stress corrosion test data reflect the overtorque and the resulting torque induced loads sustained by the A286 CRES bolts torqued into a 7075-T73 aluminum alloy forged dome with threaded holes. After 60 days of salt fog exposure, the positive and the negative break-away torques, the subsequent mechanical property tensile test results, and the BSM dome threaded hole axial tensile pullout loads are reported.

  20. The 2001 April Burst Activation of SGR 1900-14: Pulse Properties and Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, P. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Goegues, E.; Finger, M. H.; Feroci, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Swank, J. H.; Hurley, K.; Heise, J.; Smith D.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations of SGR 1900+14 made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and BeppoSAXduring the 2001 April burst activation of the source. Using these data, we measure the spin-down torque on the star and confirm earlier findings that the torque and burst activity are not directly correlated. We compare the X-ray pulse profile to the gamma-ray profile during the April 18 intermediate flare and show that (1) their shapes are similar and (1) the gamma-ray profile aligns closely in phase with the X-ray pulsations. The good phase alignment of the gamma-ray and X-ray profiles suggests that there was no rapid spin-down following this flare of the magnitude inferred for the August 27 giant flare. We discuss how these observations further constrain magnetic field reconfiguration models for the large flares of SGRs.

  1. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  2. Acceleration and torque feedback for robotic control - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclnroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Gross motion control of robotic manipulators typically requires significant on-line computations to compensate for nonlinear dynamics due to gravity, Coriolis, centripetal, and friction nonlinearities. One controller proposed by Luo and Saridis avoids these computations by feeding back joint acceleration and torque. This study implements the controller on a Puma 600 robotic manipulator. Joint acceleration measurement is obtained by measuring linear accelerations of each joint, and deriving a computationally efficient transformation from the linear measurements to the angular accelerations. Torque feedback is obtained by using the previous torque sent to the joints. The implementation has stability problems on the Puma 600 due to the extremely high gains inherent in the feedback structure. Since these high gains excite frequency modes in the Puma 600, the algorithm is modified to decrease the gain inherent in the feedback structure. The resulting compensator is stable and insensitive to high frequency unmodeled dynamics. Moreover, a second compensator is proposed which uses acceleration and torque feedback, but still allows nonlinear terms to be fed forward. Thus, by feeding the increment in the easily calculated gravity terms forward, improved responses are obtained. Both proposed compensators are implemented, and the real time results are compared to those obtained with the computed torque algorithm.

  3. Nonambipolar Transport and Torque in Perturbed Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Wang, Z. R.; Berkery, J. W.; Kim, K.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-10-01

    A new Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code has been developed to calculate the neoclassical toroidal torque from radial current composed of both passing and trapped particles in perturbed equilibria. This presentation outlines the physics approach used in the development of the PENT code, with emphasis on the effects of retaining general aspect-ratio geometric effects. First, nonambipolar transport coefficients and corresponding neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque in perturbed equilibria are re-derived from the first order gyro-drift-kinetic equation in the ``combined-NTV'' PENT formalism. The equivalence of NTV torque and change in potential energy due to kinetic effects [J-K. Park, Phys. Plas., 2011] is then used to showcase computational challenges shared between PENT and stability codes MISK and MARS-K. Extensive comparisons to a reduced model, which makes numerous large aspect ratio approximations, are used throughout to emphasize geometry dependent physics such as pitch angle resonances. These applications make extensive use of the PENT code's native interfacing with the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC), and the combination of these codes is a key step towards an iterative solver for self-consistent perturbed equilibrium torque. Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Fellowship administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education under contract #DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  4. Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie

    2006-01-01

    The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.

  5. The overuse of the implant motor: effect on the output torque in overloading condition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du-Hyeong; Cho, Sung-Am; Lee, Cheong-Hee; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2015-06-01

    The overloading of the motor affects its performance. The output torque of the implant motor under overloading condition has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and the tendency of the output torque when an implant motor is consecutively used. Three implant motors were evaluated: SurgicXT/X-SG20L (NSK), INTRAsurg300/CL3-09 (KaVo), and XIP10/CRB26LX (Saeshin). The output torque was measured using an electronic torque gauge fixed with jigs. For the 40 and 50 Ncm torque settings, 300 measurements were taken at 30 rpm. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the torque values within each group and between the groups. As repeating measures, the output torque values decreased gradually compared with the baseline. In within-group analysis, the different torque value from the first measurement appeared earliest in NSK motor, followed in order by Saeshin and KaVo motors. NSK motor showed a different torque decrease between 40 and 50 Ncm settings (p < .05). Intergroup analysis revealed Saeshin motor to have the least deviation from the baseline, followed by KaVo motor. NSK motor had the most inconsistent torque at the 6, 8, 9, and 10 repeat counts (p < .05). The actual torque decreases when the surgical motor is continuously used. The NSK motor showed more significant decreases in torque than KaVo and Saeshin motors in overloading condition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.

  7. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  8. RFID Torque Sensing Tag System for Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an RFID-based torque sensor that can be used to quickly monitor off the shelf fasteners including fasteners that are used in expensive satellites or other uses where fastener failure can be very costly. In one embodiment, an antenna, RFID ring and spring comprise a sensor tag that can be interrogated with an interrogation signal produced by an interrogator device. When sufficient torque is applied to the fastener, an RFID circuit is connected, and produces a radio frequency (RF) signal that can be read by the interrogator. In one embodiment, the RFID circuit does not transmit when the spring member is not compressed, thereby indicating insufficient tensioning of the fastener. The present invention offers the ability to remotely, quickly, and inexpensively verify that any number of fasteners are torqued properly upon initial installation. Where applicable, the present invention allows low cost monitoring over the life of the fastener.

  9. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  10. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...

  11. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...

  12. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...

  13. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...

  14. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Control Surface and System Loads § 23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...

  15. How orthodontic records can influence torque choice decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Kuppens, Enya; Buyl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of records can influence intra- and inter-rated agreement on torque choices made to treat a group of patients with various malocclusions. Methods: Forty-eight patients were presented to five orthodontic specialists in three different occasions. During the first session, the participants were shown only the models and intraoral photos of the patients; extraoral photos were added during the second session, and cephalometric X-rays were further supplemented during the third session. Mean weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to measure agreement. Results: The inter-observer agreement was low with the mean coefficients measured:κ1 = 0.34 (SD ± 0.09), κ2 = 0.57 (SD ± 0.12), and κ3 = 0.54 (SD ± 0.28) for the three attempts, respectively. The mean kappa coefficients for the intra-rater agreement were also low ranging from 0.18 to 0.66 and the mean coefficients were 0.27 (SD ± 0.11) between first and second, and 0.53 (SD ± 0.11) between second and third attempt, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that the addition of extraoral photographs, and subsequently cephalograms to plaster models and intraoral photos, does affect intra-, and inter-rater agreement on torque selection. It seems that the addition of extraoral photos plays a more important role in torque selection decisions than lateral cephalograms. Different clinicians do not have a uniform opinion on the size of torque required to treat cases. Further research is required to define rules on torque choices. PMID:26409048

  16. Measuring Micro-Friction Torque in MEMS Gas Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xudong; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement of micro-friction torque in MEMS gas bearings, which has been a challenging research topic for years, is realized by a system designed in this paper. In the system, a high accuracy micro-force sensor and an electronically-driven table are designed, fabricated and utilized. With appropriate installation of the sensor and bearings on the table, the engine rotor can be driven to rotate with the sensor using a silicon lever beam. One end of the beam is fixed to the shaft of the gas bearing, while the other end is free and in contact with the sensor probe tip. When the sensor begins to rotate with the table, the beam is pushed by the sensor probe to rotate in the same direction. For the beam, the friction torque from the gas bearing is balanced by the torque induced by pushing force from the sensor probe. Thus, the friction torque can be calculated as a product of the pushing force measured by the sensor and the lever arm, which is defined as the distance from the sensor probe tip to the centerline of the bearing. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this system, with a sensitivity of 1.285 mV/μN·m in a range of 0 to 11.76 μN·m when the lever arm is 20 mm long. The measuring range can be modified by varying the length of the lever arm. Thus, this system has wide potential applications in measuring the micro-friction torque of gas bearings in rotating MEMS machines. PMID:27213377

  17. Compensation of an attitude disturbance torque caused by magnetic substances in LEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Wang, Jihe; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    This research considers an attitude disturbance torque caused by ferromagnetic substances in a LEO satellite. In most LEO satellite missions, a gravity gradient torque, solar pressure torque, aerodynamic torque, and magnetic dipole moment torque are considered for their attitude control systems, however, the effect of the ferromagnetic substances causing a disturbance torque in the geomagnetic field is not considered in previous satellite missions. The ferromagnetic substances such as iron cores of MTQs and a magnetic hysteresis damper for a passive attitude control system are used in various small satellites. These substances cause a disturbance torque which is almost the same magnitude of the dipole magnetic disturbance and the dominant disturbance in the worst cases. This research proposes a method to estimate and compensate for the effect of the ferromagnetic substances using an extended Kalman filter. From simulation results, the research concludes that the proposed method is useful and attractive for precise attitude control for LEO satellite missions.

  18. Six component robotic force-torque sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grahn, Allen R.; Hutchings, Brad L.; Johnston, David R.; Parsons, David C.; Wyatt, Roland F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a two-phase contract studying the feasibility of a miniaturized six component force-torque sensor and development of a working laboratory system were described. The principle of operation is based upon using ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging to determine the position of ultrasonic reflectors attached to a metal or ceramic cover plate. Because of the small size of the sensor, this technology may have application in robotics, to sense forces and torques at the finger tip of a robotic end effector. Descriptions are included of laboratory experiments evaluating materials and techniques for sensor fabrication and of the development of support electronics for data acquisition, computer interface, and operator display.

  19. Estimates of the dissipative heat and axial torque generated by ocean tides on icy satellites in the outer solar system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, R.

    2012-09-01

    The tidal flow response generated in a satellite ocean depends strongly on the ocean configuration parameters as these parameters control the form and frequencies of the ocean's natural modes of oscillation; if there is a near match between the form and frequency of one of these natural modes and that of one of the available tidal forcing constituents, the ocean can be resonantly excited, producing a strong tidal response. The fundamental elements of the response are described by the tidal flow and surface fluctuations. Derivative elements of the response include the associated dissipative heat, stress, and forces/torques. The dissipative heat has received much previous attention as it may be important in explaining the heat budget on several of the satellites in the Outer Solar System. While these estimates will be reviewed and compared with the tidal dissipation estimates compiled in Hussman et al. (2010), the primary goal in this presentation is to extend the analysis to consider the tidally generated axial torque on the satellites and the potential consquences for rotation. Interestingly, even a synchronously rotating satellite will, if a global fluid layer is included, experience a complex set of opportunities for torques in both the prograde and retrograde sense. The amplitude and sense of the torque sensitively depends on the ocean parameters controlling the tidal response. This sensitivity, combined with expected feedbacks whereby the tides affect the orbital parameters, suggests that the evolution of the satellite system will experience phases of both prograde and retrograde tidal torques during its evolution. A related point is that parameters of the ocean might be inferred from inferences or observations of torque or rotational deviations. In the panels to the right we show the nondimensional tidal torques associated with obliquity (top) and eccentricity (bottom). The parameters described in the labeling are the fluid density ρ, surface gravity g, ocean

  20. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  1. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  2. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  3. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  4. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  5. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  6. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  7. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  8. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. On structural transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium, and the phase diagram of DNA and RNA duplexes under torque and tension.

    PubMed

    Wereszczynski, Jeff; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2006-10-31

    A precise understanding of the flexibility of double stranded nucleic acids and the nature of their deformed conformations induced by external forces is important for a wide range of biological processes including transcriptional regulation, supercoil and catenane removal, and site-specific recombination. We present, at atomic resolution, a simulation of the dynamics involved in the transitions from B-DNA and A-RNA to Pauling (P) forms and to denatured states driven by application of external torque and tension. We then calculate the free energy profile along a B- to P-transition coordinate and from it, compute a reversible pathway, i.e., an isotherm of tension and torque pairs required to maintain P-DNA in equilibrium. The reversible isotherm maps correctly onto a phase diagram derived from single molecule experiments, and yields values of elongation, twist, and twist-stretch coupling in agreement with measured values. We also show that configurational entropy compensates significantly for the large electrostatic energy increase due to closer-packed P backbones. A similar set of simulations applied to RNA are used to predict a novel structure, P-RNA, with its associated free energy, equilibrium tension, torque and structural parameters, and to assign the location, on the phase-diagram, of a putative force-torque-dependent RNA "triple point."

  11. Spin-orbit torque-induced switching in ferrimagnetic alloys: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Soong-Geun; Rojas-Sánchez, Juan-Carlos; Pham, Thai Ha; Vallobra, Pierre; Malinowski, Gregory; Lacour, Daniel; Fache, Thibaud; Cyrille, Marie-Claire; Kim, Dae-Yun; Choe, Sug-Bong; Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stéphane; Gaudin, Gilles; Boulle, Olivier

    2018-02-01

    We investigate spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching in rare-earth-transition metal ferrimagnetic alloys using W/CoTb bilayers. The switching current is found to vary continuously with the alloy concentration, and no reduction in the switching current is observed at the magnetic compensation point despite a very large SOT efficiency. A model based on coupled Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations shows that the switching current density scales with the effective perpendicular anisotropy which does not exhibit strong reduction at the magnetic compensation, explaining the behavior of the switching current density. This model also suggests that conventional SOT effective field measurements do not allow one to conclude whether the spins are transferred to one sublattice or just simply to the net magnetization. The effective spin Hall angle measurement shows an enhancement of the spin Hall angle with the Tb concentration which suggests an additional SOT contribution from the rare earth Tb atoms.

  12. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55%, 42%, and 80% for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231% (x), 191% (y), and 77% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3% (x), 4% (y), and 5% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68% and 69%, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1%) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the zonal. The x-component exhibits

  13. Atmospheric Torques on the Solid Earth and Oceans Based on the GEOS-1 General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio

    1999-01-01

    The GEOS-1 general circulation model has been used to compute atmospheric torques on the oceans and solid Earth for the period 1980-1995. The time series for the various torque components have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform techniques. It was determined that the wind stress torque over land is more powerful than the wind stress torque over water by 55\\%, 42\\%, and 80\\t for the x, y, and z components respectively. This is mainly the result of power in the high frequency range. The pressure torques due to polar flattening, equatorial ellipticity, marine geoid, and continental orography were computed. The orographic or "mountain torque" components are more powerful than their wind stress counterparts (land plus ocean) by 231\\% (x), 191\\% (y), and 77\\% (z). The marine pressure torques due to geoidal undulations are much smaller than the orographic ones, as expected. They are only 3\\% (x), 4\\% (y), and 5\\% (z) of the corresponding mountain torques. The geoidal pressure torques are approximately equal in magnitude to those produced by the equatorial ellipticity of the Earth. The pressure torque due to polar flattening makes the largest contributions to the atmospheric'torque budget. It has no zonal component, only equatorial ones. Most of the power of the latter, between 68\\% and 69 %, is found in modes with periods under 15 days. The single most powerful mode has a period of 361 days. The gravitational torque ranks second in power only to the polar flattening pressure torque. Unlike the former, it does produce a zonal component, albeit much smaller (1\\ ) than the equatorial ones. The gravitational and pressure torques have opposite signs, therefore, the gravitational torque nullifies 42\\% of the total pressure torque. Zonally, however, the gravitational torque amounts to only 6\\% of the total pressure torque. The power budget for the total atmospheric torque yields 7595 and 7120 Hadleys for the equatorial components and 966 Hadleys for the

  14. Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Joanna; Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (−0.69, −0.81, −0.71 and −0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo. PMID:23487284

  15. Somatotype variables related to muscle torque and power in judoists.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Joanna; Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.

  16. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  17. On the monoaxial stabilization of a rigid body under vanishing restoring torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A. Yu.; Aleksandrova, E. B.; Tikhonov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of monoaxial stabilization of a rigid body is studied. It is assumed that a linear time-invariant dissipative torque and a time-varying restoring torque vanishing as time increases act on the body. Both the case of linear restoring torque and that of essentially nonlinear one are considered. With the aid of the decomposition method, conditions are obtained under which we can guarantee the asymptotic stability of an equilibrium position of the body despite the vanishing of the restoring torque. A numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  18. Alignment of Irregular Grains by Mechanical Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study the alignment of irregular dust grains by mechanical torques due to the drift of grains through the ambient gas. We first calculate mechanical alignment torques (MATs) resulting from specular reflection of gas atoms for seven irregular shapes: one shape of mirror symmetry, three highly irregular shapes (HIS), and three weakly irregular shapes (WIS). We find that the grain with mirror symmetry experiences negligible MATs due to its mirror-symmetry geometry. Three HIS can produce strong MATs, which exhibit some generic properties as radiative torques (RATs), while three WIS produce less efficient MATs. We then study grain alignment by MATs for the different angles between the drift velocity and the ambient magnetic field, for paramagnetic and superparamagnetic grains assuming efficient internal relaxation. We find that for HIS grains, MATs can align subsonically drifting grains in the same way as RATs, with low-J and high-J attractors. For supersonic drift, MATs can align grains with low-J and high-J attractors, analogous to RAT alignment by anisotropic radiation. We also show that the joint action of MATs and magnetic torques in grains with iron inclusions can lead to perfect MAT alignment. Our results point out the potential importance of MAT alignment for HIS grains predicted by the analytical model of Lazarian & Hoang, although more theoretical and observational studies are required due to uncertainty in the shape of interstellar grains. We outline astrophysical environments where MAT alignment is potentially important.

  19. Concentric ring flywheel with hooked ring carbon fiber separator/torque coupler

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel with expandable separators, which function as torque couplers, between the rings to take up the gap formed between adjacent rings due to differential expansion between different radius rings during rotation of the flywheel. The expandable separators or torque couplers include a hook-like section at an upper end which is positioned over an inner ring and a shelf-like or flange section at a lower end onto which the next adjacent outer ring is positioned. As the concentric rings are rotated the gap formed by the differential expansion there between is partially taken up by the expandable separators or torque couplers to maintain torque and centering attachment of the concentric rings.

  20. Concentric ring flywheel with hooked ring carbon fiber separator/torque coupler

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-07-20

    A concentric ring flywheel with expandable separators, which function as torque couplers, between the rings to take up the gap formed between adjacent rings due to differential expansion between different radius rings during rotation of the flywheel. The expandable separators or torque couplers include a hook-like section at an upper end which is positioned over an inner ring and a shelf-like or flange section at a lower end onto which the next adjacent outer ring is positioned. As the concentric rings are rotated the gap formed by the differential expansion there between is partially taken up by the expandable separators or torque couplers to maintain torque and centering attachment of the concentric rings. 2 figs.

  1. Examination of the torque required to passively palmar abduct the thumb CMC joint in a pediatric population with hemiplegia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Ahmad, Mona Qureshi; Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Correia, Annette

    2015-12-16

    Many activities of daily living involve precision grasping and bimanual manipulation, such as putting toothpaste on a toothbrush or feeding oneself. However, children afflicted by stroke, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury may have lost or never had the ability to actively and accurately control the thumb. To translate insights from adult rehabilitation robotics to innovative therapies for hand rehabilitation in pediatric care, specifically for thumb deformities, an understanding of the torque needed to abduct the thumb to assist grasping tasks is required. Participants (n=16, 10 female, 13.2±3.1 years) had an upper extremity evaluation and measures were made of their passive range of motion, anthropometrics, and torques to abduct the thumb for both their affected and non-affected sides. Torque measures were made using a custom wrist orthosis that was adjusted for each participant. The torque to achieve maximum abduction was 1.47±0.61inlb for the non-affected side and 1.51±0.68inlb for the affected side, with a maximum recorded value of 4.87inlb. The overall maximum applied torque was observed during adduction and was 5.10inlb. We saw variation in the applied torque, which could have been due to the applied torques by the Occupational Therapist or the participant actively assisting or resisting the motion rather than remaining passive. We expect similar muscle and participant variation to exist with an assistive device. Thus, the data presented here can be used to inform the specifications for the development of an assistive thumb orthosis for children with "thumb-in-palm" deformity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical and neuromuscular variables strongly predict maximum knee extension torque in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Trezise, J; Collier, N; Blazevich, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relative influence of anatomical and neuromuscular variables on maximal isometric and concentric knee extensor torque and provided a comparative dataset for healthy young males. Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and fascicle length (l f) and angle (θ f) from the four quadriceps components; agonist (EMG:M) and antagonist muscle activity, and percent voluntary activation (%VA); patellar tendon moment arm distance (MA) and maximal voluntary isometric and concentric (60° s(-1)) torques, were measured in 56 men. Linear regression models predicting maximum torque were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc), and Pearson's correlation coefficients assessed relationships between variables. The best-fit models explained up to 72 % of the variance in maximal voluntary knee extension torque. The combination of 'CSA + θ f + EMG:M + %VA' best predicted maximum isometric torque (R (2) = 72 %, AICc weight = 0.38) and 'CSA + θ f + MA' (R (2) = 65 %, AICc weight = 0.21) best predicted maximum concentric torque. Proximal quadriceps CSA was included in all models rather than the traditionally used mid-muscle CSA. Fascicle angle appeared consistently in all models despite its weak correlation with maximum torque in isolation, emphasising the importance of examining interactions among variables. While muscle activity was important for torque prediction in both contraction modes, MA only strongly influenced maximal concentric torque. These models identify the main sources of inter-individual differences strongly influencing maximal knee extension torque production in healthy men. The comparative dataset allows the identification of potential variables to target (i.e. weaknesses) in individuals.

  3. Micro-leakage at the implant-abutment interface with different tightening torques in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva-Neto, João Paulo da; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago de Almeida Prado Naves; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio de Arruda; Penatti, Mario Paulo Amante; Neves, Flávio Domingues das

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the microleakage at the implant/abutment interface of external hexagon (eH) implants and abutments with different amounts of bacteria and tightening torques. A bacterial suspension was prepared to inoculate the implants. The first phase of this study used nine EH implants and abutments that were divided into three groups with different amounts of bacterial suspension (n=3): V0.5: 0.5 µL; V1.0: 1.0 µL e V1.5: 1.5 µL, and tightened to the manufacturer's recommended torque. The second phase of this experiment used 27 assemblies that were similar to those used in the first phase. These samples were inoculated with 0.5 µL of bacterial suspension and divided into three groups (n=9). T10: 10 Ncm; T20: 20 Ncm and T32: 32 Ncm. The samples were evaluated according to the turbidity of the broth every 24 hours for 14 days, and the bacteria viability was tested after that period. The statistical evaluation was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis testing (p<.05). During the first phase, groups V1.0 and V1.5 was presented with bacterial contamination in all samples after 24 h. During the second phase, two samples from group T10 and one from T20 presented positive results for bacterial contamination. Different amounts of bacterial solution led to overflow and contamination during the first 24 h of the experiment. The tightening torques did not statistically affect the microleakage in the assemblies. However, the group that was tightened to 32 Ncm torque did not show any bacterial contamination. After 14 days of experimentation, the bacteria were proven to remain viable inside the implant internal cavity.

  4. Micro-leakage at the implant-abutment interface with different tightening torques in vitro

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA-NETO, João Paulo; PRUDENTE, Marcel Santana; CARNEIRO, Thiago de Almeida Prado Naves; NÓBILO, Mauro Antônio de Arruda; PENATTI, Mario Paulo Amante; NEVES, Flávio Domingues das

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the microleakage at the implant/abutment interface of external hexagon (EH) implants and abutments with different amounts of bacteria and tightening torques. Material and Methods A bacterial suspension was prepared to inoculate the implants. The first phase of this study used nine EH implants and abutments that were divided into three groups with different amounts of bacterial suspension (n=3): V0.5: 0.5 µL; V1.0: 1.0 µL e V1.5: 1.5 µL, and tightened to the manufacturer's recommended torque. The second phase of this experiment used 27 assemblies that were similar to those used in the first phase. These samples were inoculated with 0.5 µL of bacterial suspension and divided into three groups (n=9). T10: 10 Ncm; T20: 20 Ncm and T32: 32 Ncm. The samples were evaluated according to the turbidity of the broth every 24 hours for 14 days, and the bacteria viability was tested after that period. The statistical evaluation was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis testing (p<.05). Results During the first phase, groups V1.0 and V1.5 was presented with bacterial contamination in all samples after 24 h. During the second phase, two samples from group T10 and one from T20 presented positive results for bacterial contamination. Different amounts of bacterial solution led to overflow and contamination during the first 24 h of the experiment. The tightening torques did not statistically affect the microleakage in the assemblies. However, the group that was tightened to 32 Ncm torque did not show any bacterial contamination. Conclusion After 14 days of experimentation, the bacteria were proven to remain viable inside the implant internal cavity. PMID:23138747

  5. Computations of Torque-Balanced Coaxial Rotor Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Chan, William M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Interactional aerodynamics has been studied for counter-rotating coaxial rotors in hover. The effects of torque balancing on the performance of coaxial-rotor systems have been investigated. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. Computational results for an experimental model are compared to available data. The results for a coaxial quadcopter vehicle with and without torque balancing are discussed. Understanding interactions in coaxial-rotor flows would help improve the design of next-generation autonomous drones.

  6. Relationship between locking-bolt torque and load pre-tension in the Ilizarov frame.

    PubMed

    Osei, N A; Bradley, B M; Culpan, P; Mitchell, J B; Barry, M; Tanner, K E

    2006-10-01

    The wire-bolt interface in an Ilizarov frame has been mechanically tested. The optimal torque to be applied to the frame locking-bolts during physiological loading has been defined. The set-up configuration was as is used clinically except a copper tube was used to simulate bone. The force-displacement curves of the Ilizarov wires are not altered by locking-bolt torque. The force in the bone model at which pre-tension is lost increases as the locking-bolts are tightened to 14 Nm torque, but decreases if torque exceeds 14 Nm. Thus, 14 Nm is the optimal locking-bolt torque in frame. The relationship between pre-tension versus load for different locking-bolt torques arises because at low and high clamping torques poor wire holding and plastic deformation respectively occur. Wire damage was seen under light and electron microscopy. Clinically, over or under-tightening locking-bolts will cause loss of pre-tension, reduction in frame stiffness and excessive movement at the fracture site, which may be associated with delayed union.

  7. Speed And Power Control Of An Engine By Modulation Of The Load Torque

    DOEpatents

    Ziph, Benjamin; Strodtman, Scott; Rose, Thomas K

    1999-01-26

    A system and method of speed and power control for an engine in which speed and power of the engine is controlled by modulation of the load torque. The load torque is manipulated in order to cause engine speed, and hence power to be changed. To accomplish such control, the load torque undergoes a temporary excursion in the opposite direction of the desired speed and power change. The engine and the driven equipment will accelerate or decelerate accordingly as the load torque is decreased or increased, relative to the essentially fixed or constant engine torque. As the engine accelerates or decelerates, its power increases or decreases in proportion.

  8. Electromagnetic tweezers with independent force and torque control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang; Lionberger, Troy A.; Wiener, Diane M.; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic tweezers are powerful tools to manipulate and study the mechanical properties of biological molecules and living cells. In this paper we present a novel, bona fide electromagnetic tweezer (EMT) setup that allows independent control of the force and torque applied via micrometer-sized magnetic beads to a molecule under study. We implemented this EMT by combining a single solenoid that generates force (f-EMT) with a set of four solenoids arranged into a symmetric quadrupole to generate torque (τ-EMT). To demonstrate the capability of the tweezers, we attached optically asymmetric Janus beads to single, tethered DNA molecules. We show that tension in the piconewton force range can be applied to single DNA molecules and the molecule can simultaneously be twisted with torques in the piconewton-nanometer range. Furthermore, the EMT allows the two components to be independently controlled. At various force levels applied to the Janus bead, the trap torsional stiffness can be continuously changed simply by varying the current magnitude applied to the τ-EMT. The flexible and independent control of force and torque by the EMT makes it an ideal tool for a range of measurements where tensional and torsional properties need to be studied simultaneously on a molecular or cellular level.

  9. Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Markwardt, Craig B.; Hurley, Kevin; vanderKlis, Michiel; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor of approximately 4, which persist for several months. Using long baseline phase-connected timing solutions as well as the overall frequency histories, we construct torque noise power spectra for each SGR. The power spectrum of each source is very red (power-law slope approximately -3.5). These power spectra are consistent in normalization with some accreting systems, yet much steeper in slope than any known accreting source. To the best of our knowledge, torque noise power spectra with a comparably steep frequency dependence have only been seen in young, glitching radio pulsars (e.g. Vela). The observed changes in spin-down rate do not correlate with burst activity, therefore, the physical mechanisms behind each phenomenon are also likely unrelated. Within the context of the magnetar model, seismic activity cannot account for both the bursts and the long-term torque changes unless the seismically active regions are decoupled from one another.

  10. Ultrasonic resonant piezoelectric actuator with intrinsic torque measurement.

    PubMed

    Pott, Peter P; Matich, Sebastian; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2012-11-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators are widely used in small-scale actuation systems, in which a closed-loop position control is usually utilized. To save an additional torque sensor, the intrinsic measurement capabilities of the piezoelectric material can be employed. To prove feasibility, a motor setup with clearly separated actuation for the friction and driving forces is chosen. The motor concept is based on resonant ultrasonic vibrations. To assess the effects of the direct piezoelectric effect, a capacitance bridge-type circuit has been selected. Signal processing is done by a measurement card with an integrated field-programmable gate array. The motor is used to drive a winch, and different torques are applied by means of weights to be lifted. Assessing the bridge voltage, a good proportionality to the applied torque of 1.47 mV/mN·m is shown. A hysteresis of 1% has been determined. The chosen motor concept is useful for intrinsic torque measurement. However, it provides drawbacks in terms of limited mechanical performance, wear, and thermal losses because of the soft piezoelectric material. Future work will comprise the application of the method to commercially available piezoelectric actuators as well as the implementation of the measurement circuit in an embedded system.

  11. Evaluation of fracture torque resistance of orthodontic mini-implants.

    PubMed

    Dalla Rosa, Fernando; Burmann, Paola Fp; Ruschel, Henrique C; Vargas, Ivana A; Kramer, Paulo F

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to assess the fracture torque resistance of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Five commercially available brands of mini-implants were used (SIN®, CONEXÃO®, NEODENT®, MORELLI®, andFORESTADENT®). Ten mini-implants of each diameter of each brand were tested, for a total 100 specimens. The mini-implants were subject to a static torsion test as described in ASTMstandard F543. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Tukey multiple comparisons procedure was used to assess results. Overall, mean fracture strength ranged from 15.7 to 70.4 N·cm. Mini-implants with larger diameter exhibited higher peak torque values at fracture and higher yield strength, regardless of brand. In addition, significant differences across brands were observed when implants were stratified by diameter. In conclusion, larger mini-implant diameter is associated with increased fracture torque resistance. Additional information on peak torque values at fracture of different commercial brands of mini-implants may increase the success rate of this orthodontic anchorage modality. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  12. Estimation and Modeling of Enceladus Plume Jet Density Using Reaction Wheel Control Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Pilinski, Emily B.; Macala, Glenn A.; Feldman, Antonette

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 by a Titan 4B launch vehicle. After an interplanetary cruise of almost seven years, it arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. In 2005, Cassini completed three flybys of Enceladus, a small, icy satellite of Saturn. Observations made during these flybys confirmed the existence of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. Five additional low-altitude flybys of Enceladus were successfully executed in 2008-9 to better characterize these watery plumes. The first of these flybys was the 50-km Enceladus-3 (E3) flyby executed on March 12, 2008. During the E3 flyby, the spacecraft attitude was controlled by a set of three reaction wheels. During the flyby, multiple plume jets imparted disturbance torque on the spacecraft resulting in small but visible attitude control errors. Using the known and unique transfer function between the disturbance torque and the attitude control error, the collected attitude control error telemetry could be used to estimate the disturbance torque. The effectiveness of this methodology is confirmed using the E3 telemetry data. Given good estimates of spacecraft's projected area, center of pressure location, and spacecraft velocity, the time history of the Enceladus plume density is reconstructed accordingly. The 1-sigma uncertainty of the estimated density is 7.7%. Next, we modeled the density due to each plume jet as a function of both the radial and angular distances of the spacecraft from the plume source. We also conjecture that the total plume density experienced by the spacecraft is the sum of the component plume densities. By comparing the time history of the reconstructed E3 plume density with that predicted by the plume model, values of the plume model parameters are determined. Results obtained are compared with those determined by other Cassini science instruments.

  13. Estimation and Modeling of Enceladus Plume Jet Density Using Reaction Wheel Control Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Pilinski, Emily B.; Macala, Glenn A.; Feldman, Antonette

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 by a Titan 4B launch vehicle. After an interplanetary cruise of almost seven years, it arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. In 2005, Cassini completed three flybys of Enceladus, a small, icy satellite of Saturn. Observations made during these flybys confirmed the existence of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. Five additional low-altitude flybys of Enceladus were successfully executed in 2008-9 to better characterize these watery plumes. The first of these flybys was the 50-km Enceladus-3 (E3) flyby executed on March 12, 2008. During the E3 flyby, the spacecraft attitude was controlled by a set of three reaction wheels. During the flyby, multiple plume jets imparted disturbance torque on the spacecraft resulting in small but visible attitude control errors. Using the known and unique transfer function between the disturbance torque and the attitude control error, the collected attitude control error telemetry could be used to estimate the disturbance torque. The effectiveness of this methodology is confirmed using the E3 telemetry data. Given good estimates of spacecraft's projected area, center of pressure location, and spacecraft velocity, the time history of the Enceladus plume density is reconstructed accordingly. The 1 sigma uncertainty of the estimated density is 7.7%. Next, we modeled the density due to each plume jet as a function of both the radial and angular distances of the spacecraft from the plume source. We also conjecture that the total plume density experienced by the spacecraft is the sum of the component plume densities. By comparing the time history of the reconstructed E3 plume density with that predicted by the plume model, values of the plume model parameters are determined. Results obtained are compared with those determined by other Cassini science instruments.

  14. The effect of the use of a counter-torque device on the abutment-implant complex.

    PubMed

    Lang, L A; May, K B; Wang, R F

    1999-04-01

    Little is known about the condition of the abutment-screw joint before loading, after the development of the preload. This study examined the tightening force transmitted to the implant with and without the use of a counter-torque device during the tightening of the abutment screw. Forty Brânemark implants and 10 CeraOne, Estheticone, Procera, and AurAdapt abutments formed the experimental populations. Samples in each group were further divided into 2 groups, 1 group was tightened with a torque controller without the use of a counter-torque device, whereas the other used the counter-torque device. Samples were positioned in a special holder within the grips of a Tohnichi BTG-6 torque gauge for measuring transmitted forces. There were significant differences (P =. 0001) in the tightening forces transmitted to the implant with and without the use of a counter-torque device when tightening the abutment screws. An average of 91% of the recommended preload tightening torque was transmitted to the implant-bone interface in the absence of a counter-torque device. In all abutment systems, less than 10% of the recommended preload tightening torque was transmitted to the implant when the counter-torque device was used.

  15. Effect of Different Torque Settings on Crack Formation in Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Dane, Asım; Capar, Ismail Davut; Arslan, Hakan; Akçay, Merve; Uysal, Banu

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root canal dentin using the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) at low- and high-torque settings. Sixty-nine mandibular premolar teeth that had been extracted for different reasons were selected. The teeth were divided into 3 groups: an unprepared control group, a low-torque settings group (SX = 3, S1 = 2, S2 = 1, F1 = 1.5, F2 = 2, F3 = 2, F4 = 2 N/cm), and a high-torque settings group (SX = 4, S1 = 4, S2 = 1.5, F1 = 2, F2 = 3, F3 = 3, F4 = 3 N/cm). After a root canal procedure, all the teeth were horizontally sectioned at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex. Then, under a stereomicroscope, all the slices were examined to determine the presence of cracks. A chi-square test was used for data analysis. The significance level was set at P = .05. There were no cracks in the unprepared control group. Vertical root fractures were not observed in any of the groups. There were significantly fewer cracks (17.4% of the sections) in the low-torque group than in the high-torque group (29.4% of the sections) (P < .05). In this in vitro study, the instrumentation of root canals with the ProTaper Universal instrument caused more crack formation in root canal dentin at high-torque than at low-torque settings. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of Electrically-Evoked Knee Torque from Mechanomyography Using Support Vector Regression.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Olatunji, Sunday Olusanya; Davis, Glen M

    2016-07-19

    The difficulty of real-time muscle force or joint torque estimation during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in physical therapy and exercise science has motivated recent research interest in torque estimation from other muscle characteristics. This study investigated the accuracy of a computational intelligence technique for estimating NMES-evoked knee extension torque based on the Mechanomyographic signals (MMG) of contracting muscles that were recorded from eight healthy males. Simulation of the knee torque was modelled via Support Vector Regression (SVR) due to its good generalization ability in related fields. Inputs to the proposed model were MMG amplitude characteristics, the level of electrical stimulation or contraction intensity, and knee angle. Gaussian kernel function, as well as its optimal parameters were identified with the best performance measure and were applied as the SVR kernel function to build an effective knee torque estimation model. To train and test the model, the data were partitioned into training (70%) and testing (30%) subsets, respectively. The SVR estimation accuracy, based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between the actual and the estimated torque values was up to 94% and 89% during the training and testing cases, with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 9.48 and 12.95, respectively. The knee torque estimations obtained using SVR modelling agreed well with the experimental data from an isokinetic dynamometer. These findings support the realization of a closed-loop NMES system for functional tasks using MMG as the feedback signal source and an SVR algorithm for joint torque estimation.

  17. Quantification of pronator quadratus contribution to isometric pronation torque of the forearm.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Mark O; Schwab, Timothy D; Travlos, Andrew; Oxland, Thomas R; Goetz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The contribution of the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle in generation of pronation torque has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate pronation torque in healthy volunteers before and after temporary paralysis of the PQ with lidocaine, under electromyographic guidance. A custom apparatus was designed to allow isometric testing of pronation torque at 5 positions of rotation: 90 degrees of supination, 45 degrees of supination, neutral, 45 degrees of pronation, and 80 degrees of pronation. After validation of the apparatus, 17 (9 male, 8 female) right-hand-dominant volunteers were recruited. They were tested at all 5 positions in random order and then had their PQ muscles paralyzed with lidocaine. Repeat testing was performed in the same random order 30 minutes after injection. Three unblinded subjects underwent testing after injection of saline instead of lidocaine to determine effect of fluid volume alone on PQ function. The validation trial demonstrated reproducibility of the testing apparatus. After paralysis of PQ with lidocaine, pronation torque decreased by an average 21% (range, 16.7% to 23.2%) at all positions compared with preinjection testing. All were statistically significant except at 80 degrees of pronation. The subjects who underwent injection of saline showed no evidence of decrease in pronation torque. This study demonstrated a significant decrease in pronation torque with controlled elimination of PQ function. Open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures damages the PQ and may result in a pronation torque deficit. Pronation torque measurement may help in postoperative outcome analysis of surgical procedures using the volar approach to the distal radius.

  18. Thermomagnetic torques in polyatomic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Wood, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The application of the Scott effect to the dynamics of galactic and stellar rotation is investigated. Efforts were also made to improve the sensitivity and stability of torque measurements and understand the microscopic mechanism that causes the Scott effect.

  19. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  20. Changes in pennation with joint angle and muscle torque: in vivo measurements in human brachialis muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, R D; Gandevia, S C

    1995-01-01

    1. Estimates of pennation in human muscles are usually obtained from cadavers. In this study, pennation of human brachialis was measured in vivo using sonography. Effects of static and dynamic changes in elbow angle and torque were investigated. 2. Pennation was measured in eight subjects using an 80 mm, 5 MHz, linear-array ultrasound transducer to generate sagittal images of the brachialis during maximal and submaximal isometric contractions at various elbow angles. It was shown that estimates of pennation were reproducible, representative of measurements made throughout the belly of the muscle and not distorted by compression of the muscle with the transducer or rotation of the muscle out of the plane of the transducer. 3. Mean resting pennation was 9.0 +/- 2.0 deg (S.D., range 6.5-12.9 deg). When the muscle was relaxed there was no effect of elbow angle on pennation. However, during a maximal isometric contraction (MVC), with the elbow flexed to 90 deg, pennation increased non-linearly with elbow torque to between 22 and 30 deg (mean 24.7 +/- 2.4 deg). The effect of increasing torque was small when the elbow was fully extended. The relationship between elbow angle, elbow torque and brachialis pennation suggests that the relaxed brachialis muscle is slack over much of its physiological range of lengths. 4. There was no hysteresis in the relationship between torque and pennation during slow isometric contractions (0.2 MVC s-1), and the relationship between elbow angle and pennation was similar during slow shortening and lengthening contractions. 5. Two consequences follow from these findings. Firstly, intramuscular mechanics are complex and simple planar models of muscles underestimate the increases in pennation which occur during muscle contraction. Second, spindle afferents from relaxed muscles may not encode joint angle over the full range of movement. Images Figure 2 PMID:7602542

  1. Manual Torque Data Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, Mark Osroe; Martinez, Matthew Ronald; Varela, Jeanette Judith

    At the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX, Production Technicians (PTs) build and disassemble nuclear weapon systems. The weapons are held in an integrated work stand for stability and to increase the safety environment for the workers and for the materials being processed. There are many occasions in which a knob must be turned to tighten an assembly part. This can help to secure or manipulate pieces of the system. As there are so many knobs to turn, the instructions given to the PTs are to twist the knob to a hand-tight setting, without the aid of a torque wrench. Theremore » are inherent risks in this procedure as the knobs can be tightened too loosely such that the apparatus falls apart or too tightly such that the force can crush or pinch components in the system that contain energetic materials. We want to study these operations at Pantex. Our goal is to collect torque data to assess the safety and reliability of humantooling interfaces.« less

  2. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (p<0.001) and 0.789 (p<0.001), respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults. PMID:29471310

  3. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (p<0.001) and 0.789 (p<0.001), respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  4. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO 6O 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Hervé; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo 6O 17 . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations.

  5. Child–adult differences in the kinetics of torque development

    PubMed Central

    DOTAN, RAFFY; MITCHELL, CAMERON; COHEN, ROTEM; GABRIEL, DAVID; KLENTROU, PANAGIOTA; FALK, BAREKET

    2013-01-01

    Children have lower size-normalised maximal voluntary force, speed, and power than adults. It has been hypothesised that these and other age-related performance differences are due to lesser type-II motor-unit utilisation in children. This should be manifested as slower force kinetics in explosive muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of child–adult force-kinetics differences and whether the latter could support that hypothesis. Untrained boys (n = 20) and men (n = 20) (10.1 ± 1.3 and 22.9 ± 4.4 years, respectively), performed maximal, explosive, isometric elbow flexions and knee extensions on a Biodex dynamometer. Peak torque (MVC), times to 10–100% MVC, and other kinetics parameters were determined. The boys’ body-mass-normalised knee extension MVC, peak rate of torque development, and %MVC at 100 ms were 26, 17 and 23% lower compared with the men and their times to 30% and 80% MVC were 24 and 48% longer, respectively. Elbow flexion kinetics showed similar or greater differences. The findings illuminate boys’ inherent disadvantage in tasks requiring speed or explosive force. It is demonstrated that the extent of the boys–men kinetics disparity cannot be explained by muscle-composition and/or musculo-tendinous-stiffness differences. We suggest therefore that the findings indirectly support children’s lower utilisation of type-II motor units. PMID:23320937

  6. Advances in the analysis and design of constant-torque springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, John R.; Yura, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve the design procedure of constant-torque springs used in aerospace applications, several new analysis techniques have been developed. These techniques make it possible to accurately construct a torque-rotation curve for any general constant-torque spring configuration. These new techniques allow for friction in the system to be included in the analysis, an area of analysis that has heretofore been unexplored. The new analysis techniques also include solutions for the deflected shape of the spring as well as solutions for drum and roller support reaction forces. A design procedure incorporating these new capabilities is presented.

  7. Mechanics of Re-Torquing in Bolted Flange Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Ali P.; Drilling Brian; Weichman, Kyle; Kammerer, Catherine; Baldwin, Frank

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the phenomenon of time-dependent loosening of flange connections is a strong consequence of the viscous nature of the compression seal material. Characterizing the coupled interaction between gasket creep and elastic bolt stiffness has been useful in predicting conditions that facilitate leakage. Prior advances on this sub-class of bolted joints has lead to the development of (1) constitutive models for elastomerics, (2) initial tightening strategies, (3) etc. The effect of re-torque, which is a major consideration for typical bolted flange seals used on the Space Shuttle fleet, has not been fully characterized, however. The current study presents a systematic approach to characterizing bolted joint behavior as the consequence of sequentially applied torques. Based on exprimenta1 and numerical results, the optimal re-torquing parameters have been identified that allow for the negligible load loss after pre-load application

  8. Intramuscular Pressure of Tibialis Anterior Reflects Ankle Torque but Does Not Follow Joint Angle-Torque Relationship.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Davies, Brenda L; Chopra, Swati; Coleman-Wood, Krista; Litchy, William J; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) is the hydrostatic fluid pressure that is directly related to muscle force production. Electromechanical delay (EMD) provides a link between mechanical and electrophysiological quantities and IMP has potential to detect local electromechanical changes. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of IMP with the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) activity at different ankle positions. We hypothesized that (1) the TA IMP and the surface EMG (sEMG) and fine-wire EMG (fwEMG) correlate to ankle joint torque, (2) the isometric force of TA increases at increased muscle lengths, which were imposed by a change in ankle angle and IMP follows the length-tension relationship characteristics, and (3) the electromechanical delay (EMD) is greater than the EMD of IMP during isometric contractions. Fourteen healthy adults [7 female; mean ( SD ) age = 26.9 (4.2) years old with 25.9 (5.5) kg/m 2 body mass index] performed (i) three isometric dorsiflexion (DF) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and (ii) three isometric DF ramp contractions from 0 to 80% MVC at rate of 15% MVC/second at DF, Neutral, and plantarflexion (PF) positions. Ankle torque, IMP, TA fwEMG, and TA sEMG were measured simultaneously. The IMP, fwEMG, and sEMG were significantly correlated to the ankle torque during ramp contractions at each ankle position tested. This suggests that IMP captures in vivo mechanical properties of active muscles. The ankle torque changed significantly at different ankle positions however, the IMP did not reflect the change. This is explained with the opposing effects of higher compartmental pressure at DF in contrast to the increased force at PF position. Additionally, the onset of IMP activity is found to be significantly earlier than the onset of force which indicates that IMP can be designed to detect muscular changes in the course of neuromuscular diseases impairing electromechanical transmission.

  9. Mechanical Rectification of Oscillatory Motion for High Torque Microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Liang; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2004-03-01

    High-torque and scalable rotational micromotors were designed, microfabricated using a 3 mask LPCVD polysilicon process, and characterized. Oscillatory motions generated by comb-drive actuators were rectified by a rotor with fins. The actuator periodically deforms the fins generating forces with tangential and normal components in the rotor. Tangential forces generate rotation. In comparison to the electrostatic side-drive micromotor (torque pN-m), the measured torques for these micromotors were much larger and reached 4.5 µN-m at 200Vpp applied to the comb-drive at 1 KHz. Both the comb-drive and the finned rotor are second-order resonant structures that, when coupled, result in interesting dynamic that manifests itself as different excitation (forward, reverse, stepping, and chaotic) modes of the rotor.

  10. A structurally decoupled mechanism for measuring wrist torque in three degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lizhi; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Dingguo

    2015-10-01

    The wrist joint is a critical part of the human body for movement. Measuring the torque of the wrist with three degrees of freedom (DOFs) is important in some fields, including rehabilitation, biomechanics, ergonomics, and human-machine interfacing. However, the particular structure of the wrist joint makes it difficult to measure the torque in all three directions simultaneously. This work develops a structurally decoupled instrument for measuring and improving the measurement accuracy of 3-DOF wrist torque during isometric contraction. Three single-axis torque sensors were embedded in a customized mechanical structure. The dimensions and components of the instrument were designed based on requirement of manufacturability. A prototype of the instrument was machined, assembled, integrated, and tested. The results show that the structurally decoupled mechanism is feasible for acquiring wrist torque data in three directions either independently or simultaneously. As a case study, we use the device to measure wrist torques concurrently with electromyography signal acquisition in preparation for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control of prostheses.

  11. A structurally decoupled mechanism for measuring wrist torque in three degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lizhi; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Dingguo

    2015-10-01

    The wrist joint is a critical part of the human body for movement. Measuring the torque of the wrist with three degrees of freedom (DOFs) is important in some fields, including rehabilitation, biomechanics, ergonomics, and human-machine interfacing. However, the particular structure of the wrist joint makes it difficult to measure the torque in all three directions simultaneously. This work develops a structurally decoupled instrument for measuring and improving the measurement accuracy of 3-DOF wrist torque during isometric contraction. Three single-axis torque sensors were embedded in a customized mechanical structure. The dimensions and components of the instrument were designed based on requirement of manufacturability. A prototype of the instrument was machined, assembled, integrated, and tested. The results show that the structurally decoupled mechanism is feasible for acquiring wrist torque data in three directions either independently or simultaneously. As a case study, we use the device to measure wrist torques concurrently with electromyography signal acquisition in preparation for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control of prostheses.

  12. Inertial torque during reaching directly impacts grip-force adaptation to weightless objects.

    PubMed

    Giard, T; Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2015-11-01

    A hallmark of movement control expressed by healthy humans is the ability to gradually improve motor performance through learning. In the context of object manipulation, previous work has shown that the presence of a torque load has a direct impact on grip-force control, characterized by a significantly slower grip-force adjustment across lifting movements. The origin of this slower adaptation rate remains unclear. On the one hand, information about tangential constraints during stationary holding may be difficult to extract in the presence of a torque. On the other hand, inertial torque experienced during movement may also potentially disrupt the grip-force adjustments, as the dynamical constraints clearly differ from the situation when no torque load is present. To address the influence of inertial torque loads, we instructed healthy adults to perform visually guided reaching movements in weightlessness while holding an unbalanced object relative to the grip axis. Weightlessness offered the possibility to remove gravitational constraints and isolate the effect of movement-related feedback on grip force adjustments. Grip-force adaptation rates were compared with a control group who manipulated a balanced object without any torque load and also in weightlessness. Our results clearly show that grip-force adaptation in the presence of a torque load is significantly slower, which suggests that the presence of torque loads experienced during movement may alter our internal estimates of how much force is required to hold an unbalanced object stable. This observation may explain why grasping objects around the expected location of the center of mass is such an important component of planning and control of manipulation tasks.

  13. Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque.

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-03-01

    Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.

  14. Engineering spin-orbit torque in Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Chih-Huang, E-mail: chlai@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    To address thermal stability issues for spintronic devices with a reduced size, we investigate spin-orbit torque in Co/Pt multilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Note that the spin-orbit torque arises from the global imbalance of the spin currents from the top and bottom interfaces for each Co layer. By inserting Ta or Cu layers to strengthen the top-down asymmetry, the spin-orbit torque efficiency can be greatly modified without compromised perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Above all, the efficiency builds up as the number of layers increases, realizing robust thermal stability and high spin-orbit-torque efficiency simultaneously in the multilayers structure.

  15. Current induced domain wall dynamics in the presence of spin orbit torques

    SciTech Connect

    Boulle, O., E-mail: Olivier.boulle@cea.fr; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Jué, E.

    2014-05-07

    Current induced domain wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized nanostripes in the presence of spin orbit torques is studied. We show using micromagnetic simulations that the direction of the current induced DW motion and the associated DW velocity depend on the relative values of the field like torque (FLT) and the Slonczewski like torques (SLT). The results are well explained by a collective coordinate model which is used to draw a phase diagram of the DW dynamics as a function of the FLT and the SLT. We show that a large increase in the DW velocity can be reached bymore » a proper tuning of both torques.« less

  16. Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Hsu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py) grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  17. Development of a Spoke Type Torque Sensor Using Painting Carbon Nanotube Strain Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Yong; Park, Se Hoon; Choi, Baek Gyu; Kang, In Hyuk; Park, Sang Wook; Shin, Jeong Woo; Kim, Jin Ho; Baek, Woon Kyung; Lim, Kwon Taek; Kim, Young-Ju; Song, Jae-Bok; Kang, Inpil

    2018-03-01

    This study reports a hub-spoke type joint torque sensor involving strain gauges made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). We developed the novel joint torque sensor for robots by means of MWCNT/epoxy strain sensors (0.8 wt%, gauge factor 2) to overcome the limits of conventional foil strain gauges. Solution mixing process was hired to fabricate a liquid strain sensor that can easily be installed on any complicated surfaces. We painted the MWCNT/epoxy mixing liquid on the hub-spoke type joint torque sensor to form the piezoresistive strain gauges. The painted sensor converted its strain into torque by mean of the installed hub-spoke structure after signal processing. We acquired sufficient torque voltage responses from the painted MWCNT/epoxy strain sensor.

  18. Skinfold thickness affects the isometric knee extension torque evoked by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Flávia V A; Vieira, Amilton; Carregaro, Rodrigo L; Bottaro, Martim; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Durigan, João L Q

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT) on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm) vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm) SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01) while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01). A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017). A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53). These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness) affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies.

  19. Torque Transmission Device at Zero Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    In a few critical applications, mechanical transmission of power by rotation at low speed is required without leakage at an interface. Herein we examine a device that enables torque to be transmitted across a sealed environmental barrier. The barrier represents the restraint membrane through which the torque is transmitted. The power is transferred through elastic deformation of a circular tube into an elliptical cross-section. Rotation of the principle axis of the ellipse at one end results in a commensurate rotation of an elliptical cross section at the other end of the tube. This transfer requires no rigid body rotation of the tube allowing a membrane to seal one end from the other. Both computational and experimental models of the device are presented.

  20. Emergence of Chiral Phases in Active Torque Dipole Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialho, Ana; Tjhung, Elsen; Cates, Michael; Marenduzzo, Davide

    The common description of active particles as active force dipoles fails to take into account that active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries, generating active chiral processes and torque dipoles. Examples of such systems include cytoskeleton filaments which interact with motor proteins and beating cilia and flagella. In particular, the generation of active torques by the actomyosin cytoskeleton has been linked to the break of chiral symmetry at a cellular level. This phenomenon could constitute the primary determinant for the break of left-right symmetry in many living organisms, e.g. the position of the human heart within the human body. In order to account for the effects of chirality, we consider active torque dipoles which generate a chiral active stress. We characterize quasi-1D and 2D systems of torque dipoles, using a combination of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations (Lattice Boltzmann). Our results show that activity drives a spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, leading to the self-assembly of a chiral phase, in the absence of any thermodynamic interactions favoring cholesteric ordering. At high values of activity, we also observe labyrinthine patterns where the activity-induced chiral ordering is highly frustrated.

  1. Mechanics of torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor

    PubMed Central

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K.; Nirody, Jasmine A.; Berry, Richard M.; Oster, George

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is responsible for driving bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis, fundamental processes in pathogenesis and biofilm formation. In the BFM, torque is generated at the interface between transmembrane proteins (stators) and a rotor. It is well established that the passage of ions down a transmembrane gradient through the stator complex provides the energy for torque generation. However, the physics involved in this energy conversion remain poorly understood. Here we propose a mechanically specific model for torque generation in the BFM. In particular, we identify roles for two fundamental forces involved in torque generation: electrostatic and steric. We propose that electrostatic forces serve to position the stator, whereas steric forces comprise the actual “power stroke.” Specifically, we propose that ion-induced conformational changes about a proline “hinge” residue in a stator α-helix are directly responsible for generating the power stroke. Our model predictions fit well with recent experiments on a single-stator motor. The proposed model provides a mechanical explanation for several fundamental properties of the flagellar motor, including torque–speed and speed–ion motive force relationships, backstepping, variation in step sizes, and the effects of key mutations in the stator. PMID:26216959

  2. Knee extension torque variability after exercise in ACL reconstructed knees.

    PubMed

    Goetschius, John; Kuenze, Christopher M; Hart, Joseph M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare knee extension torque variability in patients with ACL reconstructed knees before and after exercise. Thirty two patients with an ACL reconstructed knee (ACL-R group) and 32 healthy controls (control group) completed measures of maximal isometric knee extension torque (90° flexion) at baseline and following a 30-min exercise protocol (post-exercise). Exercise included 30-min of repeated cycles of inclined treadmill walking and hopping tasks. Dependent variables were the coefficient of variation (CV) and raw-change in CV (ΔCV): CV = (torque standard deviation/torque mean x 100), ΔCV = (post-exercise - baseline). There was a group-by-time interaction (p = 0.03) on CV. The ACL-R group demonstrated greater CV than the control group at baseline (ACL-R = 1.07 ± 0.55, control = 0.79 ± 0.42, p = 0.03) and post-exercise (ACL-R = 1.60 ± 0.91, control = 0.94 ± 0.41, p = 0.001). ΔCV was greater (p = 0.03) in the ACL-R group (0.52 ± 0.82) than control group (0.15 ± 0.46). CV significantly increased from baseline to post-exercise (p = 0.001) in the ACL-R group, while the control group did not (p = 0.06). The ACL-R group demonstrated greater knee extension torque variability than the control group. Exercise increased torque variability more in the ACL-R group than control group. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Orion - Super Koropon(Registered Trademark) Torque/Tension Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Edgar G.; McLeod, Christopher; Peil, John

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this testing was to obtain torque tension data for the use of Super Koropon Primer Base which was proposed for use on the Orion project. This compound is a corrosion inhibitor/sealer used on threaded fasteners and inserts as specified per NASA/JSC PRC-4004, Sealing of Joints and Faying Surfaces. Some secondary objectives of this testing, were to identify the effect on torque coefficient of several variables. This document contains the outcome of the testing.

  4. Hereditary determinants of manual torque.

    PubMed

    Matheny, A P

    1979-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of twin children and siblings, 155 girls and 134 boys (aged 4 to 9 yr.), on a torque test confirmed that during this age period manually produced circling patterns change from clockwise to counterclockwise orientation. A genetic influence is suggested.

  5. Torque Tension Testing of Fasteners used for NASA Flight Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Edgar G.; Posey, Alan J.; Dube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of various lubricants and other compounds on fastener torque-tension relationships is evaluated. Testing was performed using a unique test apparatus developed by Posey at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. A description of the test methodology, including associated data collection and analysis will be presented. Test results for 300 series CRES and A286 heat resistant fasteners, torqued into various types of inserts will be presented. The primary objective of this testing was to obtain torque-tension data for use on NASA flight projects.

  6. Emergence of Huge Negative Spin-Transfer Torque in Atomically Thin Co layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Soong-Geun; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Joo-Sung; Park, Yong-Keun; Park, Min-Ho; Moon, Joon; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2017-04-01

    Current-induced domain wall motion has drawn great attention in recent decades as the key operational principle of emerging magnetic memory devices. As the major driving force of the motion, the spin-orbit torque on chiral domain walls has been proposed and is currently extensively studied. However, we demonstrate here that there exists another driving force, which is larger than the spin-orbit torque in atomically thin Co films. Moreover, the direction of the present force is found to be the opposite of the prediction of the standard spin-transfer torque, resulting in the domain wall motion along the current direction. The symmetry of the force and its peculiar dependence on the domain wall structure suggest that the present force is, most likely, attributed to considerable enhancement of a negative nonadiabatic spin-transfer torque in ultranarrow domain walls. Careful measurements of the giant magnetoresistance manifest a negative spin polarization in the atomically thin Co films which might be responsible for the negative spin-transfer torque.

  7. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Material and Methods Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). Results In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conclusions Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words:Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation. PMID:28149476

  8. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words: Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation.

  9. Finite element analysis of slot wall deformation in stainless steel and titanium orthodontic brackets during simulated palatal root torque.

    PubMed

    Magesh, Varadaraju; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan; Kingsly Jeba Singh, Devadhas

    2018-04-01

    Torque applied on anterior teeth is vital for root positioning and stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detailed slot wall deformation in stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) edgewise brackets during palatal root torque using finite element analysis. A finite element model was developed from a maxillary central incisor SS bracket (0.022 in). The generated torque values from an SS rectangular archwire (0.019 × 0.025 in) while twisting from 5° to 40° were obtained experimentally by a spine tester, and the calculated torque force was applied in the bracket slot. The deformations of the slot walls in both SS and Ti brackets were measured at various locations. There were gradual increases in the deformations of both bracket slot walls from the bottom to top locations. In the SS bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 9.28, 36.8, and 44.8 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. Similarly, in the Ti bracket slot for the 40° twist, the deformations were 39.2, 62.4, and 76.2 μm in the bottom, middle, and top slot wall locations, respectively. The elastic limits were reached at 28° for SS and at 37° for Ti. Both SS and Ti bracket slots underwent deformation during torque application. There are variations in the deformations at different locations in the slot walls and between the materials. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Torque vectoring for improving stability of small electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegożek, W.; Weigel-Milleret, K.

    2016-09-01

    The electric vehicles solutions based on the individually controlled electric motors propel a single wheel allow to improve the dynamic properties of the vehicle by varying the distribution of the driving torque. Most of the literature refer to the vehicles with a track typical for passenger cars. This paper examines whether the narrow vehicle (with a very small track) torque vectoring bring a noticeable change of the understeer characteristics and whether torque vectoring is possible to use in securing a narrow vehicle from roll over (roll mitigation). The paper contains road tests of the steering characteristics (steady state understeer characteristic quasi-static acceleration with a fixed steering wheel (SH = const) and on the constant radius track (R = const)) of the narrow vehicle. The vehicle understeer characteristic as a function of a power distribution is presented.

  11. Insulating nanomagnets driven by spin torque

    DOE PAGES

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Ding, Junjia; Zhang, Wei; ...

    2016-11-29

    Magnetic insulators, such as yttrium iron garnet (Y 3Fe 5O 12), are ideal materials for ultra-low power spintronics applications due to their low energy dissipation and efficient spin current generation and transmission. Recently, it has been realized that spin dynamics can be driven very effectively in micrometer-sized Y 3Fe 5O 12/Pt heterostructures by spin-Hall effects. We demonstrate here the excitation and detection of spin dynamics in Y 3Fe 5O 12/Pt nanowires by spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The nanowires defined via electron-beam lithography are fabricated by conventional room temperature sputtering deposition on Gd 3Ga 5O 12 substrates and lift-off. We observe field-likemore » and anti-damping-like torques acting on the magnetization precession, which are due to simultaneous excitation by Oersted fields and spin-Hall torques. The Y 3Fe 5O 12/Pt nanowires are thoroughly examined over a wide frequency and power range. We observe a large change in the resonance field at high microwave powers, which is attributed to a decreasing effective magnetization due to microwave absorption. By comparing different nanowire widths, the importance of geometrical confinements for magnetization dynamics becomes evident. In conclusion, our results are the first stepping stones toward the realization of integrated magnonic logic devices based on insulators, where nanomagnets play an essential role.« less

  12. Lumbar joint torque estimation based on simplified motion measurement using multiple inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Saori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Imamura, Yumeko; Kusaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We estimate lumbar torque based on motion measurement using only three inertial sensors. First, human motion is measured by a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope placed on the shank, thigh, and back. Next, the lumbar joint torque during the motion is estimated by kinematic musculoskeletal simulation. The conventional method for estimating joint torque uses full body motion data measured by an optical motion capture system. However, in this research, joint torque is estimated by using only three link angles of the body, thigh, and shank. The utility of our method was verified by experiments. We measured motion of bendung knee and waist simultaneously. As the result, we were able to estimate the lumbar joint torque from measured motion.

  13. Determination of torque-limits for human and cat lumbar spine specimens during displacement-controlled physiological motions.

    PubMed

    Ianuzzi, Allyson; Pickar, Joel G; Khalsa, Partap S

    2009-01-01

    Quadruped animal models have been validated and used as biomechanical models for the lumbar spine. The biomechanics of the cat lumbar spine has not been well characterized, even though it is a common model used in neuromechanical studies. Compare the physiological ranges of motion and determine torque-limits for cat and human lumbar spine specimens during physiological motions. Biomechanics study. Cat and human lumbar spine specimens. Intervertebral angle (IVA), joint moment, yield point, torque-limit, and correlation coefficients. Cat (L2-sacrum) and human (T12-sacrum) lumbar spine specimens were mechanically tested to failure during displacement-controlled extension (E), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). Single trials consisted of 10 cycles (10mm/s or 5 degrees /s) to a target displacement where the magnitude of the target displacement was increased for subsequent trials until failure occurred. Whole-lumbar stiffness, torque at yield point, and joint stiffness were determined. Scaling relationships were established using equations analogous to those that describe the load response of elliptically shaped beams. IVA magnitudes for cat and human lumbar spines were similar during physiological motions. Human whole-lumbar and joint stiffness magnitudes were significantly greater than those for cat spine specimens (p<.05). Torque-limits were also greater for humans compared with cats. Scaling relationships with high correlation (R(2) greater than 0.77) were established during later LB and AR. The current study defined "physiological ranges of movement" for human and cat lumbar spine specimens during displacement-controlled testing, and should be observed in future biomechanical studies conducted under displacement control.

  14. Analysis of the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position. Aim The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions. Methods Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized β-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated. Results For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” β-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” β-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” β-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted. Conclusions Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically

  15. Torque-Limiting Infinitely-Variable CAM Release Mechanism for a Rotatable Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanism for permitting convenient manual or servo-powered control of a boom assembly, which is rotatably positionable about yaw and pitch axes by means of releasably locking, yaw and pitch torque-limiting mechanisms, each of which may be locked, unlocked, and positioned by respective yaw and pitch levers. The boom may be longitudinally projected and withdrawn by rotating a boom extension/retraction crank. Torque limiting is provided by spring loaded clutch mechanisms, whereby positioning forces applied to the handles are effective to move the boom unless overcome by greater opposing forces, sufficient to overcome the torque applied by the torque limiting clutch mechanisms. In operation, a structure positionable by the invention (e.g., and end-effector or robot arm) may be rotatably moved about yaw and pitch axes by moving a selected one of the three levers.

  16. Electric motor designs for attenuating torque disturbance in sensitive space mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, David B.; Fink, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    When a motion control system introduces unwanted torque jitter and motion anomalies into sensitive space flight optical or positioning mechanisms, the pointing accuracy, positioning capability, or scanning resolution of the mission suffers. Special motion control technology must be employed to provide attenuation of the harmful torque disturbances. Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors with low torque disturbance characteristics have been successfully used on such notable missions as the Hubble Space Telescope when conventional approaches to motor design would not work. Motor designs for low disturbance mechanisms can include two and three phase sinusoidal BLDC motors, BLDC motors without iron teeth, and sometimes skewed or non-integral slot designs for motors commutated with Hall effect devices. The principal components of motor torque disturbance, successful BLDC motor designs for attenuating disturbances, and design trade-offs for optimum performance are examined.

  17. Final report on the torque key komparison CCM.T-K1.2 measurand torque: 0 N.m, 500 N.m, 1000 N.m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röske, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the CIPM subsequent bilateral comparison CCM.T-K1.2 was to link another participant, namely the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), in short NIMT, to the CCM.T-K1 torque key comparison. The measuring capabilities up to 1000 N.m of dead-weight torque standard machines with supported lever were investigated. The pilot laboratory was the same in both comparisons—it was the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany). The same two very stable torque transducers with well-known properties were used as travelling standards. The measurements at the participating laboratory were carried out between November 2007 and February 2008. According to the technical protocol, torque steps of 500 N.m and 1000 N.m had to be measured both in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. Corrections had to be applied to the results reported by the participants taking into account the use of different amplifiers, the creep (due to different loading times of the machines) and the environmental conditions in the laboratories (temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air). The results of the pilot laboratory in this bilateral comparison are in very good agreement with the same results obtained in the CCM.T-K1 comparison. For each of the transducers, the two torque steps and both senses of direction of the torque vector, the key comparison reference value of the CCM.T-K1 was taken, and the results of participant NIMT were calculated with respect to these values. The agreement between the results is very good. The smallest expanded (k = 2) relative uncertainty of the machine stated by the participant is 1 × 10-4. The results of the comparison support this uncertainty statement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according

  18. Measurements of Inertial Torques on Sedimenting Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamati, Rami; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Don; Voth, Greg

    2017-11-01

    Stokes flow solutions predict that ellipsoids sedimenting in quiescent fluid keep their initial orientation. However, preferential alignment in low Reynolds number sedimentation is easily observed. For example, sun dogs form from alignment of sedimenting ice crystals. The cause of this preferential alignment is a torque due to non-zero fluid inertia that aligns particles with a long axis in the horizontal direction. These torques are predicted analytically for slender fibers with low Reynolds number based on the fiber diameter (ReD) by Khayat and Cox (JFM 209:435, 1989). Despite increasingly widespread use of these expressions, we did not find experimental measurements of these inertial torques at parameters where the theory was valid, so we performed a set of sedimentation experiments using fore-aft symmetric cylinders and asymmetric cylinders with their center of mass offset from their center of drag. Measured rotation rates as a function of orientation using carefully prepared glass capillaries in silicon oil show good agreement with the theory. We quantify the effect of finite tank size and compare with other experiments in water where the low ReD condition is not met. Supported by Army Research Office Grant W911NF1510205.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of nickel nanorods and the mechanical torque in an elastic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopphoven, C.; Tschöpe, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel nanorods with average length L=340~nm and diameter D=20~nm were prepared by the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO)-template method, processed to a colloidal dispersion and embedded in a gelatine hydrogel matrix at low volume fraction φ ≤slant 10-4 . The large aspect ratio of these single-domain particles gives rise to a high magnetic shape anisotropy in combination with a significant anisotropic optical polarizability. The magnetic anisotropy enables exertion of a torque on nanorods without contact by applying a homogeneous magnetic field. In response, the nanorods rotate by an angle which is determined by the balance between the magnetic torque and the mechanical counter torque, caused by the elastic deformation of the surrounding matrix. This rotation was experimentally detected using optical transmission of linearly polarized light. We used the combination of magnetization and torque-driven rotation measurements to evaluate an adapted Stoner-Wohlfarth model of the orientation- and field-dependent magnetic torque on Ni nanorods in an elastic environment as base for optimization of torque-driven magnetic actuators.

  20. The Accuracy of New and Aged Mechanical Torque Devices Employed in Five Dental Implant Systems.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Karatasli, Burcin; Dinçer Kose, Onur; Kose, Taha Emre; Çene, Erhan; Aydın Aya, Serhan; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak

    2017-01-01

    Friction-style and spring-style torque wrenches are used to tighten implant abutments and prosthetic screws. The mechanical stability of these torque wrenches is crucial for the implant-abutment connection. The purposes of this study were to assess the performance of five brands (Straumann, Zimmer, Implant KA, Bredent, and Biohorizons) of wrench and to evaluate possible changes in applied torque values of aged wrenches. Five new and aged wrenches that had been used approximately 250 times in a 1-year period were tested. The torque applied by friction- and spring-style wrenches was measured with a specially designed strain gauge indicator. Descriptive statistics, the one-sample t -test, and the independent-samples t -test were used to analyze values obtained from all torque wrenches. The accuracy of new and aged torque devices of all brands except Bredent differed significantly from the target values, but the mean values for aged and new wrenches did not differ significantly from each other ( p > 0.05). Values for the spring- and friction-type torque wrenches deviated from the target values by 11.6% and 10.2%, respectively. The accuracy of aged torque wrenches is adequate for prosthetic screw tightening, but that of new torque wrenches is unsatisfactory and must be examined carefully before delivery.